Dolf Indiana

Zillmann University

Surgeon Arlington, June

prepared General’ s


the Workshop on





Virginia 1986


Effects Effects Uost of exposure experimental to paradigm and (b) graphic in any

- 2-

of Prolonged
investigations portrayals which effects (a)



Pornography consequences have employed stimuli immediately 1984; and concerning consequences. and can rightly is a

of sexual

behavioral activities

research just once

subjects are


pornographic more 1984; or less

ascertained Walamuth. much of to

thereafter Zillmann, particularly the


Donnerstcin, This to and of paradigm the

Sapolsky, itself


recommend proposals




psychological as

physiological establishing lasting effects

mediation perceptual, ones, of interest to

of known


a means

especially many repeated effects Wyer


be questioned. themselves and equally Rogers, for and only

First, after

manifest stimuli. Second, & without

exposure may be

critical (cf.

important, 1986; later

transient Zillmann,

Berkowitz 9983) and


b. Srull,


consequence attitudinal, pornography, accomplish simulate


establishing of the to

perceptual, consumption employ designs intervals delayed and of

behavioral it would

consequences seem imperative with

then, (a)


exposure consumption with

between-exposure patterns





of effects
that rules out


interval effects

consumption trivial latter

effects Experimental in


of this of in

duration. type of

investigations the been effects





the are

consumption summarized has

pornography this paper. in

actually The investigations of and the Starr


prolonged-exposure that were

paradigm initially and


pioneered in

two Report Sidman.

presented Pornography

Technical Harm.

Commission (1971;

on Obscenity see also Mann,

(1971). Starr,



& West,

Effects 1974) sexual Reifler, for explored behavior; Howard, the effect of repeated Reifler, exposure and Liptzin & Widmann, the later 1971) to

- 3pornography (1971; probed of see on also

and Howard, Lipton, and cognition

Liptzin, in

consequences pornographic



materials. Mann et sessions nonerotic sexual stimulate frequent transitory, became this to al. exposed married films treatment Exposure only than shortly. on the days couples or, in in four consecutive condition, recorded found to were The the weeks and that itself familiar. depicted in more weekly to thei r


explicit During in the

a control subjects

films. activities sexual

period, to



was activities

behavior days


on exposure

thereafter. over al.

sex-stimulating negligible in effect the

effect fourth was rather with that not the

diminished week. Wann et



nonspecific, which couples part merely the

manifesting couples did of not their to were adopt

a variety The sexual repertoire. established The out novel

of sexual

activities concluded

investigators practices

that Exposure

were to


behavioral revive well

pornography sexual practices.


but conclusion sexual

dormant that practices

pornography is


not by

entice the fact

consumers that the for could already with persons behaviors 1978). et al. Most seem



compromised couples

investigation ten little, of their years. if

was conducted Couples anything, sexual with in such


who were





histories materials

presumably that also was clashes not

detect part

the.erotic The that practice screcrr findings

repertoire. which willing show to on the the

conclusion sexually particular (e.g., reported

more readily that

recent accept they

findings and have are

inexperienced sexual Wishnoff, by Mann

witnessed however,



that the young men initially had . sexual Eight once more arousal of 90 minutes. enticement activities obvious In consumption were the to use take pornography part these effects in sexual uses in the of with reasons. for been subjected investigation to research. original last session their subjects extended exycrimental two pornographic sessions. following replaced materials this Both film weeks the the Each recorded control the the film. a three-week from among they in were not 15 sessions in a control over was done The distributed free ones experimental and from to in the choose these In materials materials the were among three nonerotic sessions. were the removed. instigation expansion produce interest sexual without undesirable desire. to However. systematic of the have. In first 10 sessions. as well through opposition The notable The likely (cf. lasted activities were shown the by new ones. the prepubertal adults not 1984). of of techniques visible modeling --accepted exception girls (Lanning. as the of are. were of and following exposure subjects measures films.Effects little of consequence pornography socially and on . The findings attitudinal measures was recorded following show. the treatment. at regular time experimental prior after to an explicitly treatment. and Bandura. condition. college and given photographs. 1969. sexual and and after shown were an explicitly taken during Numerous to the sexual a battery exposure self-perception exposure. of pornography students readings. effects of are-- as positive is boys pornography. or Howard on later access given that subjects et al. subjects and and nonerotic and during intervals. public in health not because feared of sexual repertoires 19711. effects male reactions to pornographic such were were access pornography.4effects to for sexual considerations behaviors effects. of general. films. first of all. This period.

revealed responsiveness to an explicitly result film produced consumption. frequent of a exposure acid vital changes. subjects Although the the characterized interest findings in as give reactions was that or pornography no indication fosters to some degree. than such prior as to the conclusion sexual immediately diminished of sexual longitudinal On the reduced pronounced to treatment of sexual penile Erect ions l xci tedness.5faded and attention interest with in pornographic consumption. to 1 pornography Finally. of the of novel photographs but this received comparatively The to eventual return was sustained.Effects e strong . evident. most direct measure was poorly tumescence. sexual Complementary redundant release activity. pronounced remeasurement appeared its consistent and more the a period sympathetic reactions ----w--- accompaniment. than of that of responsiveness. showed of rate. this interest rapidly readings repeated Pornographic little attention. after physiological Figure --w---w- . concomitant Heart changes. rate. phosphatase. reduced pornography. as boredom. after reactions arousal. loss of to parallel indicated respiration The temperature sexual responsiveness. films. materials Following experimental pornography maintained frequent facilitates The consistent a loss Exposure of the of introduction interest consumption to pornographic high in levels. However. consumption favorable analysis with of of materials such question enjoyment. the to failed the initial pornography their in unrestricted condition. however. also and specifically be more Sympathetic underwent skin excitedness. were less responsiveness and moLe obtrusively maintained meuzures. reactions the physiological interest as the data or yielded results It that are decreased increased of frequent boredom.

by responsiveness are remained suppressed. . were and the intended. study degree the rigor.erection characteristic. of specifical compromised sexual by procedural virtually however. and boredom about that growing under interest highly disinterest these in drawn that circumstances. the subjects* to was severely be a loss pornographic the to pool more result of subjects subjects exhausted had that the they of available their consumption evaluation excessive erotic The with As the choices. tired 1982). these conclusions tentative. research were Additionally. consumers repeatedly observation of pornography (see of also diminished arousal these watching same materials The both is not excitatory and accompanying difficulties.6- during revealed But which some subjects degree were of not treated from in the any particular responsiveness. subsequent of growing be described. are summarized The investigation In the 10 Figure reported Howard et al. consume difference pornography in (in Eventually. . is that success the pornography does grow Kelley. markedly They way. recovery this loss of more The in importantly. is quite projection by the boredom commercial What and disinterest of obviously as with of a genre some faulted of of continued entertainment. to with insinuation be considered proved the wrong by self-corrective.Effects of eight weeks. show. forced strong to responding. appeared likely films. films is What sessions. sympathetic in terms activity. on. findings 1. is not without choice of of problems. pornography In ytL together is fact. pornography interest having in initial exposure limited. it themselves likely giving not record experienced of is and additionally avoided by apprehension interest conclusions pornography the authors* can only impression the films in and eagerness rapidly were watching repeatedly. the later subjects sessions).

itself of telling they them correct from influences. (that of in the and offers the is. further 1984).Effects pornography was . of in all that probability. specific material. . to erotic of excitatory and merely alvo reactivity reduce start be the enjoyment to fail exploiting excitatory degree. the “mere talk” aware them by cautioning behavioral subjects changes that how by making by debriefing and them occurred. convenient in to this erotic however. both female employed pornography strictly controlled. unexplored. pornography for sensitivity strategies ideally. generalize. are not then.. sexual to Pornographic arousers capacity. the of parLies lessened to some them On the reaction erotic might arousers consequences stimuli But these in actual.7groups consumption The of between demonstration prolonged for the experimental of substantial. should behave). and control enduring accomplished. male was consequences explored In and in of an to subjects the by Zillmann conducted and contrast by Howard exposure to al. The prolonged investigation experiment were excitatory. Abstinence modification such regaining as a viable of the lost materials also have behaviorresponsiveness--if is gone deemed strateyy of However. effects The habituation in doubt. enduring to intervention to be on possible to explored that the exposure by A point physiological pornography techniques guard. they should sense how. pornography public health consumption. and/or undo be made in this result connection from changes are. of pornography and Bryant et and perceptual were (1982. regaining to pornographic of this kind desirable. immediately might of as is not consequences Habituation entertainment apparent. have not intimate. consumption attitudinal. been is prolonged not modifiable settirlys. entertainment employed as materials for sexual other might activities hand. systematically.

Other . vas they Eventually. color weeks. pornographic or taken (cl from Six films. or Hovever such as . fashion activities in (as in responses (a) additional in (b) uncommon featured activities a suggestive sexual characteristic graphic graphic Similar Finally. thought independent Subjects They vas subjects sexually the excitatory fair said vith the be conducted a case in term.8In each came they to sav six (a) exposure six films. 3.” adults involve in pornographic “Svedish consenting did that not a super-8 heterosexual series depicted conceivable activities all manifestations. exposure the subjects to treatment. participated for the detail detail of R-rated (X-rated). evaluative 2 shovs the changes habituation are of and Figure and 4 Figures 2. (X-rated vere third veek material). ------_---_---------excitatory responding in terms of systolic blood pressure. sadomawchistic made after tvo veeks the ventures after the assessments in the in American hitchhiker months.Effects subjects session. -_---_--__----_-----Figures 2. on could be construed part. sexual reported The summarized practices their findings in American of about impact pornography. among concerns regarding all raped. and . and 4. and (c> common sexual activities and bestiality). under of and which in the a female years and recommended and estimated active most the prison appropriate popularity adults circumstances. 3. study dealt a purportedly Bar Association. they sadomasochistic acts anything. subjects’ films vere excitatory ascertained. after the as nonvoluntary behavior someone’ s One veek and The evaluative films last to sexual exposure three session. innocuous pornographic The called among three innocuous films Erotica. vere They sessions in consecutive (b) three films. treatment. or coercive bondage.

that prolonged of to Figure into common 4 shovs pornography thai lhis enjoyment. aclivity to Because (cf. After pornography exposure to trivialized messages as sexually as socially accommodate the nondiscriminating sexual desires the sense that the they vicinity. prolonged rape that depict consumption a~ a criminal vomen in of any of common. same response patterns treatmerit. material portrayals fostered sexual more uncommon practices only. common not in consumption of enjoyment 19801. loss initial does reactions not repulsion. translate fare repulsion necessarily of common of increased favorable Prolonged evaluations intense Zillmann. produced unexpected As can nonviolent prolonged insatiable. portrayals to habituation of common and. seem to man in . that had Predictably. expected. The treatment. rape consequences similarly case. enduring. relatively degree.Effects measures strongest consumed. offense. the duration evaluative vere As The the al. presented remarkably three strong ---w----wFigure ----B---s- veeks and 5 after partly the habituation effects. to lack less of of sympathetic activity occurred for QrOVed . Related reported habituation appear to be Hovard indeed of excitatory is substantial. exposure generalized. and if hinges the on heightened excitatory in sympathetic reaction flat diminished resulted suggestive reaclions. The novel total sexual uncommon vas not practices Figure reduces of h&ever. presumably pleasurable disappointment. activities. sexual hence. observed the findings in the second by veek after et initial had exposure suggested. eager be seen from Figure 5. been to massively some habituation Also explicit generalization in pornography 3 shovs stimuli predictably.9the redundant.

callousness concern consumption toward both suffer restrictions Linz investigations women. also Donnerstein. impact of pornography vas found on society. to promote men’ s Prolonged callousness impact vould not and that itI pornography and (e. the male unnecessary). only of implications of the of rape findings. rape and apparently prison the they health trauma was consider Unexpected lesser vas approyriate. fundamental then. first were films exposed such female-victimizing. with vomen altoyether of as become lenient than rapists.. that them outcome similarly punitively expected. a proposal behaviors that investigation “deviant” such However. addition perception Regarding prolonged perception to of sexuality as Figure in general. as veil as measures measures of of subjects’ toward about of the women generally. --~--~~-~~ Figure 6 m-me----mm the popularity of normalcy toward evaluations The all of less sexual common sexual practices. 6 shovs. nonpornographic as “Texas Chainsaw . 19841 conducted toward (1985.IOmen about exaggeration any in This kind the of sexual of stimulation. The although Qublicthe more these do men. instead. mediation subjects of clarify study.Effects and as hypereuphoric find terms finding treat . were not could validate entailed. do not concern righls. In behaviors deemed expected others. to the evaluation but a most violation human also self-concept vomen’ s the of vometl sexuality by as a gender--in men.g. can be by This to shift promote in the perceived tolerance specific collected. subjects overestimated vith exposure pornography. d Penrod. to diminish subjects vomen genders undue concerns came to about believe exposure and pornography’ s that to minors emotional are largely see to a distress from Qornvyraphy inappropriate Linz. but men’ s callousness to violent.

suffered vorthy study films.Effects Wassacre. of rape the second consumption vith injury. R-rated the The (i. the film. involved a vomall and a fraternity victims. Film trial ratings vas either or. of this violent for Concerning study material victims additional shovs. after to immediately second vere day after to the Additionally. numerous of these film after that The to report last (i.. exposure independently vas altered of of R-rated Exposure were delayed the films. Men vho vithout rape nov as being perceptual consumed exposure. men came to Subjects allov diminishing aspects evaluations from others). come to the the as did a different alleged subjects building.e. as having A second R-rated nonviolent five but last and It films. and occasions of sexual finding compassion less vorth). perception the a loss assaults that first. exposure. itself of trial. in vhich they on five - lldays. sexual films sensitivity of each last-day vere counterbalanced to violerlce. altogether. subjects had consumed sexual . rape of that sympathy less vho of recruited The ut its case also. party. to men shovs the same fever disturbances similar films vhcn shovn also Such violence vas of habituation and carried violent the manifested degradation subsequent compared perception This had such of lesser shift the diminshed into films. exposure. assault but also and as having less less. victim been of injured the vomen. pornography.. a rape strangers trial.e. in consecutive in betveen participated an encounter assault. had nov to rape violent compared the effects sexual vas obtained to the of repeated and to tvo consumption of X-rated as before. series came to judge violent less.m Immediately Subjects a bar dealt eventually The assessments evaluated comparison emotional after in the four firstof Subjects after vith led and the watched last a case to the one movie shoving.

strongly that films subjects the (p. (by 37%). to the clearly independent Subjects dealing a case damage greatly exposure socially salient participated a case of ostensibly abuse films of a female of no and for vere vith the rape. of vomen scenes sexual scenes vithout in physical to of the a control condition.Effects movies or x-rated nonviolent pornography (1964a) . Lovers’ These Rape recommended and terror had had rather only incarceration intermediate an insignificant terms effects effect (28% sex.12vas find the the xpart had similar effects unexpected. finally. on then. research. were (11% effects . effect vas 1994a. for the findings nonviolent pornography in shov desensitization (cf. featuring involving featuring scenes sexual legal cohabitant featuring threats. . X-violent 921. . contain victimized Donnerstein. is” rated of the Donnerstein “those or conceded: have seen What the ve consistently R-rated films. that the fact. nymphomaniacal the terrorization later vith of suit. scenes rapt. theme should be noticed. Exposure Judgments hovever. information vomen. nonerotic enjoying escapades. According rape .” perceive to Linz’ s victims less studies. vas consequence for rape appropriate Compared vomen punishment vith as it the sexually control condition. strongest pornography thus must p. in nonviolent most pornography--reduced strongly reduction). affected. reduction). Nonviolent promotes~callousness men tovard sexually Weaver vhich stimuli (1986) vithin in and lovers conducted violent Wale an investigation and/or and in erotic female to determine exactly produce exposed to scenes the to entertainment subjects vere callousness nonviolent featuring question. and is a most film depicting insatiable nondiscriminating--vhich. jusl In as injury victim desensitize themes the sexual as do themes violent that men toverd vith sexual undercurrents. 92). or activities. vho films.

They day. in equally and its terrorization suggest that of men. the various Exposure punitive recommendations study In or by appreciably. they a subsequent respondents. consecutive trial this a sexually days. fare. puni t ive exposure to the recommendation different These findings. of that particular potent that they in the sexual mediators the cues of that entirely ousness fosters nonviolent indeed they shov sexual of not vomen. detected trial vas suggested the exposure arguing treatment a connection and thought to rape . findings devoid tovard such but highly punitive men vere first violence shov. (1985) mediation callousness The evaluative regard. this condition. female exposed four rape to instead a violent. all erotica concerning involved victims. fifth a pornographic in finding the vas likely same participated The thought violence. become for also rape again of victim did film. rapist. failed the case research conducted of by Linz rape to thus It erotic helped failed and to in violent establish another materials The same is components hovever. (19851 subjects movie involving vere in party vomen.Effects uniform the tovard terror the The are call vomen across .I3occurred in gender of In respondent. of all. can is: not . positive allege quickly betveen genres null The findings? that differ as a function results question be vieved Why as Linz this failures and is to Krafka deny to replicate fail to earlier obtain and to did of One vay positive by out failure This earlier findings that and vere subjects the artificial. callousness are rape Second. in the main it fraternity that that group Hovever of on the after themselves shoved little consuming could sympathy violent victims the less The trial. violent. to influence vith of male callousness. of Krafka study. Third. are The only females discrepancy vere condition. not.

Effects please truly argument some initial same the or thvart . notions second conceivable in the subjects situation. effect. vith and they first experimenter either vith in different experimenters. different belov But buildings. of came to enlertain connectedness the possibility effects an former sameness that reported investigation experimenter Bryant and (1982). Because in the the trial and in thought specific patterns. days either later.14did kind not of the hov they experimenter felt effect explain about by by rendering rapist. shov lhat on It is recommendations condition vere experimenter. different subjects behavior Sameness most same building in or in vhich punitive conditions. pornography to in this the experimenter contributed importantly. days vere pornography trial they tvo dealt consecutive For the did the same so and and participated the second or the vith rape the study. vere it about To rule varied vas the out the of diminished administered vhile from deemed in the the the punitiveness exposure rapists and the null-result first to the that experimenter part of the building experiment. is replicable. Linz’ s procedure. consumed toward of the Compared innocuous rapist a control instead in all condition of material vas and reduced locale pornography. those in the significantly control findings of Bryant’ s consumption artifact demonstration of the trivializing as a criminal and and its effect offense experimental failure of is prolonged not an pornography rape robust. inflated verdicts Although error that this reflect favors it the null to projecting effect variance. and locale Bryant locale created (1986) by Zillmann in Subjects vhich and coriducted systematically on five experimenter exposed in part to the of vere varied. tovard treatment studies demonstration experimenter same building. incarceration different locale condition. Krafka’ s to obtain .

Zillmann of empathy null requests. in press) conducted of its a series pornography victims. a surprise. (b) shifts in marriage personal erotic vas and happiness appetite. for investigations go beyond prolonged vith consumption rape of that callousness connection implications concerning and Specifically. should Under be results expected come as and Bryant into (19668. his circumstances. about and Prior to questions felt after considered to favor film hov on numerous demeaning must have each aspects film violence to the sex. Such must ambiguous. in the used cases by Linz mitigating or had highly The on vhethcr.Effects differctlces procedural out vhich Krafka as likely rape vere vas in punitiveness of their (a) and never thus must result At from least to the . rapist vas. victim Subjects may veil may have sympathetic procedural rather than sympathy to the become these responding circumstances. respond vho have initially avareness influences. relationships. the determined Such vhat vas or of assignments the creillcd a high important these had to degree media influences. initial in the can The issue enjoyed fact. rapist and for such the considered guarded the against subjects subjects rendering concerning little to empathy victim. increase null of error effects. (c) investigators may have a verdict. dependent occurred. much the possible experimental paradigm same as that of the . effects in the of 1986b. of them stand case in and candidates: brutal In contrast in doubt. therefore rated each guilt rape variance ( b) nonguilt or had not subjects’ only perception. societal and (cl The especially institutions.IS- alternative three earlier used some features research. and one ambiguity be and Subjects and other they gender. (a) perceptions they and explored attitudes such consumption sexually the family and intimate as essential sexual satisfaction.

of Nonstudents sampling. 1984).. for for of pornography and on children the vas The (e. vere as before. in the second and Inventory Personal vere ascertained the of prolonged consumption of marriage. Both or male and . rental that or pornographic videocassettes vere screened. . are in rarely implications vital educational Its values health. public societal efforts. Instead acquired to or from assure not findings were The 1982. obviously expressed concept. and pornography potentially they undermine .Effects earlier subjects in hourly vork (Zillmann either in six & Bryant. American to subjects family and participated aspects of Survey Shifts veek in after in unrelated happiness. vas can large. nonstudents adherence revelation recruited vithdravel procedures the nature of of on random the research substantial. nonviolent consecutive hovever. the the values family challenged. the Indiana preferences treatment. impact and its responded of a Value-of-Uarriage Happiness. seems is for after the vork They exposure on the treatment. be considered change the stores. strict upon vere condition expand addition to of the the employed. by innocuous An intermediate efforts representing in rate hovever. of findings adult nonstudents at representative concerns latest But of the color the the C sound materials population materials: vere A final of films. generalizability students. violent depicted in these behaviors terms.Instead. none As a result. concept to so the be nuclear desirability apparcllt family.16female materials exposure made to in consumed sessions vas the to not pornography veeks. velfare the family alloved clash generally In considered terms of 1980). coercive could be construed One veek ostensibly personal completed pornographic exposure The evaluation explored family Reiss. universally Yet vith endorsed.g.

in and parties sexual no social is not no curtailing sexual expense. based Relationships on responsibility. sexuality sexual emotional And vhere. valued. vi11 vho part involved conduct. that are emotional attachment. vho another. are a relationship. pornography of caring. continuance costs. probably amounts responsibility freedom. life. or values a cursory . of the as such and into the responsibilities. the and do so scripts are in parties one have and no vey never shortly. curtailmerrts. are that a good of at vital provide not on and curtail economic sacrifice. If aggregated. partners the couple tend to to decision or vhether is It by persons that servitude. In can shere with be no question retreat the those ional short-lived that a forbidding these terms of poorly relationships exhibited compare in continually pornography-- invariably . family. Enduring intimate to relationships that if is access. merits or demerits sexual is Irrespective gratification unattached values that projection involving opposed especially accessible the from activities diametrically projection social to the those promote serve enduring reproduction. that show parcel comes then. claim a child othervise human and to exclusive or children. makes engagements or committed Not for vhat and this of to children. pornography on sexual attached to meet very clear. Finally. that much and a function not translate of is others.If- that look dvell favor at marriage. aggrtgations. rules for by accident. beings to accept. of the especially vould continuance relationship. their it social is. of adult enormous is considered expenditures part sexuality there enduring relationships. by a the to for and that sexual ones it joy. married greatest restricted portion such personal and freedoms to security in such lay have some degree. price. stimulation Sexual at gratification of kindness.Effects traditional Even Pornographic just vho met. accept enjoy emotional of of again.

This however. that unrestrained poses and Pornography sexuality risks. All is these apparently vholesome effects Additionally. Overall. . and sexual for students partners respondents of of nonstudents. changes vere indeed observed. effect females groups. declined faithfulness acceptance predictably greater promiscuity. pre- and Along sexuul it fostered that. was found male vas also embraced to prolonged gender vas the pornography relationships. Various attitudinal changes are shovn in Figure 8. partners. the myth acceptance consumption from the that nonexclusive led to greater relations acceptance Prolonged of health to risks sexual idea any repression. vomen Figure promiscuity both 7 of for Beliefs vith more natural after prolonged The effect and consumption vas uniform pornography male in the and the than female vithout such consumption. of intimate nonstudents.Effects great of pleasures can with impact its be had clear at next to no cost. counteract dominance uniform for are manages and healthy. over favored various egalitarianism. equality. As can vas deemed be Strong The seen perception from perceptual of the 7.la- consumption must be of entertainment to messages the expected sexuality profoundly social perception evaluation and institutions-and and very attitudinal nature in we------eFigure sm-------- arrangements. of sexuality men and changed. of this kind and Prolonged thus . convey and restraint students uniform for men and consumption For vomen. Pro1 onged ~~-~~~~--Figure 8 mm-mm----consumption extramarital vith vith of of pornography relations fostered for greater self of and sexually also acceptance intimate of partners.

the desire tvice Wale average.0% vas in marriage groups parallel The on family can be to as an essential 38. the As astonishing hovever. in reproductive female this explains unexplained Exactly reduction desire. offspring overall. discrimination pornography. students of The and effect again males nonstudents. an unnecessary the overall discrimination vithin inconvenience.8% for most in the and groups. students The female margin: desire nonstudents to have being This little of male dropped dropped specific female offspring shrank for that offspring. 610. respondents It after strength findings because al together. of pornography. remains unclear. of sexual indeed consumption lhe attainment and appear only the vhat. by to offspring of to one their third ovn of The about female on respondents. offspring ovn-gender against inspires by vomen. kind its that. Figure 9. normal These presumably joy makes is the desire consumption (see suggest it of pornography.Effects egalitarianism did nonstudents. and students embraced it more than had a most of poverful effect on evaluations of the control marriage. . Pornography of the desirability consumption and viability institution treatment females. dropped from Endorsement 60. pornography to have consumption children. - 19- more than did males. effect concerns exposure prolonged the to desire values. continually of and such social raising reasoning It leaves vithout having acceptance children But obligations. proved for for fashion. seen from pornography reduced desire -----ma--Figure 9 ~~---~-~~~ to have children. expressed lover reduction desire females gender. and it and did so in a uniform alike. right-hand that side prolonged projects confinements a family of the graph). vanted Male fever and children 31%.

in happiness Indiana None or of Inventory the items of Personal unrelated In stark . sexual and intimate partners. villingness most. of and result gratified. and from that were vas for to. ushered vith vere The into An unavoidable the office of and that a monitor. point in to hopes compare a paradox. looks an affective into sexual vith sexual sexual component activities sexual loving. encouraged cassettes to a cassette vatch cassettes. others and pornography satisfaction. preferences subjects delay a research player. returned announced. of increasing Presumably. sexual (i. on the clear satisfaction their novel specifics--the and their the intimate to performance.e. contrast.. ~---~-~~-~~ Figure 10 w--mm----mto sex vere impacted.Effects The findings. The vith favors in sexual that their this is the may be more perhaps vith vith inevitable final study Tvo more they vas veeks intimate result. vhile cassctlcs movies his vaiting. contained .20generated shoved all items clear-cut differences pertaining Happiness to sexuality satisfaction.the vere equipped They laboratory. elements satisfaction caring). that partners. The happiness one hand. The initially consumers pornographic comparison realization Dissatisfaction seems the The pornography. as such. in this after large series the concerned exposure shifting treatment. and Prolonged sex-related separation into and consumption personal of of pornography reduced and sexual it did satisfaction so uniformly. assistant numerous collection once engage in activities--had suffered findings consumed eventually models rarely that. other.. sex at is But appearance of their intimate matters. partners performance partners. and on the made of it happiness of markedly.

some cassettes bondage. some stimuli. met of vith basis basis of of on the Pornography curiosity. nonviolent Hovever.and common The R-rated. by excitatory that they habituation. about so-called consumers dead end the it can strongly does to Surely. advance returning gratifying be speculated by from common to to producing sexual excitedness.Effects G. in their be nostalgic that. it is still can sexuality sexual on as the in about to in be expected as vell fare. mild vi11 and most only erotica But the vi11 projects before. cassettes subjects’ unobtrusively monitored.21featured bestiality. depicting preference. behaviors. the various vere X-rated and or vas . to be more This inclined regard they motivated not detract the curiosity the fact. lesser that of exclusively Females degree. consumers sexuality the of are pornography not likely to including This satisfied excitatory the shift curiosity habituation uncommon. are also hovever. expressed subjects no -------s-m- vith prolonged in exposure this common to common of pornography virtually interest form Figure 11 ~~~~-~-~-~pornography. reaching extreme vhatever sensations. recollection to are young likely as a rule. pornography. consumed is still capable connoisseurs research material erotica With point than that featuring and probably importantly. The depicts themselves material less but findings the more to The males moved sexual almost practices. As Figure 11 shovs. more into shoved pornography the same common to a markedly demonstrate that to limit common forms less and violent forms vhen common these given sexual opportunity consume featuring practices. at this fostered consumers. consumption of sadomasochism. go beyond . sadomasochistic preference common frequently contrast. perhaps.

greater behaviors . tovard vitnesr. connects practices freedoms impact vith as vell in socially on in and. is fading (cf.. to moral female shov (oving violence arousing to supplement erotica habituation) Bryant consumption sexual Zillmann. an ostensibly of evaluated improprieties to right proved behaviors which or indefensibility transgressions. is to be and. study nonsexual indicated participated the moral and they vrong. judgment improprieties sexual lover).g. judgment In drunken the contrast.cd to pure less in common particular. consequence driving. For older . behaviors-these favors. that in vere or immoral by those question. sympathetically excitement 1986). self-advancement reltilions relaxed to the through cover-up homosexual consistently dishonest a heterosexual moral verdict vithout on the Specifically.Effects and seek exposure to the ones. conducted investigation influences Male and that prolonged concerning consumed common pornography judgment behaviors or specifically. an sexual expressions. innocuous Tvo in vhich and the vas to of material days they sexual degree later subjects sessions in in pornography consecutive unrelated numerous Subjects social in they one-hour five days. in the greatly realm influenced (e. greater normalcy particular--apparently therefore. erotica. a particular thought behavior Exposure morally pornography nonsexual it sexual of it deemed to be vithout (e. a aberrations--violent preference expected. of for shop the moral lifting). behaviors exposure The popularity acceptance marriage. vell shift because suited vith (19851 of violent specifically. of sexual grants moral perceived groving such as investigation of of sexual sexual confined perception Pornography’ s their overestimation. hence..22- including consumers. the the earlier as vith vork that on the on the situations.g.

as face. dehumanizing. such the somevhere inplies has that been Yet. scenes into such she if dehumanizing erotica As pornography.” sex not such her as vas therapy idealized. applies study Prostitution (1985) Check’ s Check vith Unlike the (1985b) Fraser the in on Pornography (1985) and studies secondary on in vhich pornography vas focuses R-rated proper horror and proper. behavior Nonviolent.. The created Zillmann confusion L Bryant. vith featured plastic penis penetration to the of a voman a table. in seems order. assumed commonly to be interpretation abounds usually Check’ s available the pornography is sperm.g.. pornography. conducted-u Committee by Linz to most informative and Krafka films. atop violent dehumanizing a voman. “objectionable and ideal. of vith fact. labels of an oversize strapped Because these forms already of pornography Check. pornography. investigation nonviolent Three nonviolent Nonviolent elements. events by as masturbation pleasureful leaves no doubt into face--vhich of folloved female’ s ingestion Systematic content analysis about . interpretation. and in misunderstandings press). and violent is the rwt of erotic It In stimuli also this findings. sexual material depicted portrayed of the the behaviors vas taken part sex-education be deemed entailed ejaculating events vhile programs. a man sitting Sexually masturbating.23pornography is The observation in such the an moral that the morality of sexual manifest conduct in judgment generally consistent Finally. qualifier betveen most “dehumanizing” pornography pornography the case in suggests .Effects legitimacy. the pornography the violent- distinction content vithin classes vere pornography distinguished: and nonviolent sexually free from could pornography and violent of erotica. have 1985a. finds expression vith . clarification a class (e. connection in Canada. finally. pornography.

a test vere scheduled tape of four the veeks. the judgment value-laden is hand. the likelihood likelihood As can increased be Figure sexual acts . We thus entertainment nonviolent dehumanizing label violent value. that is class it as nonviolent so-called and refer to uncharacteristic. male similar to specified-- as violent Check’ s investigation. the and.24this kind rear- might might one drav vcll object the find to line? to the behavior depiction On the vhom and hand. vithin one to in one press) veek three later. far that than erotica too vhat someone. kinds they of pornography participated session vhich test impact session attitudes. is not is of to is dehumanizing On the vhat it vorkable. to some parties Others should vhat be . force The acts. pornography into group participated vere sexually vomen measures this aggressive into unvanted vere mainly inclination and the by and rape. seen from of vomen unvanted of of reported 12. erotica substitute ideal labels as good-sex pornography and We shall to nonviolent. sadomasochistic or even as common hovever. sexual those ascertained. although such it as is the debatable one consented-to qualify In scenarios-coercive. maintain vhether the pornography pornography. as dehumanizing It is the as shall or other appears other referred to pornography referred is devoid nothing g_oBw~g_npornography.Effects it (Palys. pornography. Where of one coi tion. is to of of demeaning entry then. three exposure Subjects sessions consumed each in session. a 30-minute On average in in of five the days vas only. sample came or two to students that in and the nonstudents study that by (a Zillmann and nonrepresentative Bryant. reported more likelihood importantly. The the effects A control of to interest coerce for (1981). 1984). developed Prolonged proclivity Walamuth to exposure coercing the influenced sexual committing forced both acts rape.

solitary also are psychoticism are knovn to on psychoticism empathy and to be rather They hostile. again The failed Both of common and violent committing increase reliable. condition. pornography force intimate to their strongest into liking forms influences of sexuality the on men’ s that villingness are for not partners partners’ altogether. by Check on the has obvious common ------ implications nonviolent ---------to necessarily sexual the the same for public vhole. 13 yet reported the same The --------------. disregard danger.Effects significantly Increases pornography after are after prolonged of but consumption ideal vere not .---Figures 12 and ------------------s for rape proclivity pornography rape from proved to be similar. acts the pornography but apparently its if vithout and the influence not increase specific pornography readiness caution and clearly coercion is only limited. form negligible. and vere Persons Although it is never effect control other forms reliably belov these investigation classified high to lack in provided terms of further useful information. violent effect pattern consumption apparent. pornography reliable. either. likelihood degree. (Eysenck & Eysenck. _e_n_d on propensity forcing has on access pover of to Violent rape sexual is for is proclivity.25- of common and pornography. is consistently from reliably effect the other above of indicated. . Check’ s Subjects 1976). has the increased and of ideal significantly consumption apparent to be pornography investigation It shovs that. the to different. in the intermediate forms the of pornography. The health. effects Sex-idealizing on the But even here clear-cut on rape effect as is that not the sexual coercion because same direction the proclivity.

consumption of common pornography fosters a . recovery conditions (b) vith vhich hamper by common pornography prolonged (c) consumption. (but not Subjects high by to prefer impersonal. population becoming .261976). prolonged It remains such and general Some degree hovever. high noncaring on the sex (Eysenck. occurs might Repulsion pornography. common forms does not Only of lead less sexuality to Prolonged enjoyment forms elevate Prolonged of increased common tend to (d) consumed less pornography enjoyment. scale greatly In comparatively to meet clinical and this in psychoticism vere those criteria) violent were influenced subjects This nonviolent lov is A final on shovn pornography.Effects known scoring enough common . recovery. persons propensity seem violent SEs!!_arY The of to not common material pornography fosters exposure those significant vas vithout in vho at take risk The taking for constitute in their same impact a strong then. consumption consuming proclivity. diminishes and is lost specifically sexual of of prolonged consumption pornography (a) Excitatory ones. the sexuality. only negligibly contrast.of Effectz experimentally can demonstrated be summarized responses diminish spontaneously. affected. unclear. consumption of the of frequently that depict common pornography material. facilitate evoked or vith to as effects follovs: both consumption. of interest reported by concerns by Check heavy shov already increases appreciable erotica. a keen of consumers that in continued the in habit rape for the in coercive erotica and of of observation The of such findings pornography. interest those Considering interest rape. scoring pattern scale Figure effect 13.

pornography performance discontent vith breeds of discontent intimate leads of this to kind The for of and it strongest female of females Prolonged physical consumption appearance degree. pornography common pornography trivializes rape as a criminal (1) especially particular Prolonged of the consumption former. exposure tovard consumption to common the sexual partners. partners* Cj) promotes (k) To a lesser affectionate Prolonged insensitivity Prolonged offense. acts of nonviolent men’ s female nonviolent and propensity partners. all less Specifically. of of sexual condemnation of sexual diminishes Prolonged value future Prolonged desire desire of consumption marriage common pornography societal spavns institution doubts and as an essential viability. altogether. tolerated. of common pornography effect offspring. promotes Although it Prolonged acceptance distrust is intimates. or violence. common sexual presumptions of health risks of practices hypoactivity. consumption for progeny.27- common forms of sexuality. forcing promotes on reluctant of sexual (ml Prolonged consumption violent pornography . consumption of among more readily preof and common extramarital the violation Moral pornography sexuality. and violent for pornography. breeds these nonviolent victims of and of sexual violent violence. behavior.Effects preference including (e) perceptions popularity from sexual (f) increased increases exclusivity improprieties (g) about about the its (h) diminished concerns (i) vith the the for forms Prolonged of for pornography that entail consumption featuring less of . some degree of common pseudoviolence pornography it fosters and distorts sexuality.

men vith consumers are tendencies. Habitual men’ s for propensity normal for for committing rape. becoming sexually consumers. in contrast callous to and of at common of pornography. risk .28effect is it men manifesting minimal of psychoticism.Effects increases pronounced is negligible (n) occasional violent. some degree psychotic This .

Scott a_nr$ (Ed. sg_xu_ai gggression ------Eysenck.Effects References Bandura. on violence p~E~pg_r_ap~y Press.1 data. N. J. Effects U. Chi cage: (1971). consumption (198Sal. Australia. 1. 53-81). Bandura. L Heimer Rogers.--m--v---Canada.1. Canberra: Check. FL: Group. J.29- Nev York: Rinehart A. In E. (pp.. E. Attorney artifact of in the trivialization Unpublished of the of rape prolonged V. Texas H.53.S. in The Parliament Select Committee Paper Commonvealth Material. Testimony Houston. Principles -------of -behavior -------modification.----Aldine-Atherton. September). A. through Check. -of pornographyi ----General’ s &search Commission on _ri_n_ay_ngg. 57-81). modelingi ------- Psychological ----. 0~ meneL_a ------aviolence &~_ok (pp. (1986). cg. L.1. (Ed. J. Press. & Winston. Ottava: Government The ------effects --- P. li D. (19691. to TX. SymposiuE g_esggg~g Donnerstein. J. vomen. A priming Zillmann effect analysis of media influences. IFact and the Hillsdale. on Video No. Pornography. University of against an_d (1984bl. (1976). pornographyi ----Media Its Toronto: Pornography: & E.). (Eds. Berkovi tz. 5). Senate 52 . of B_epsot The V. J. (1986). Action effect (Eds. ------------ . 78-94). Bryant (pp. (1985. K. Bryant. In Proceedings D. Bryant. Department Effects and --- of Justice for (1984al.nfligsi_ng r_h_e_oMi_es (pp. Walamuth (pp. Donnerstein Orlando. end rlonviolent we. Holt. Analysis of modeling. Parliamentary Printer. In J. In A. P. of pornography. s!2! Academic Austin: nn_d P_ersnElitY* . Bandura l-62). M. ISXE2Z9P$Y* Donnerstein. of -violent ----e-w Commonvealth (1985b). NJ: _Pg_r_spgg&&~_s g_n _mgdi_a _eff_e_c& Erlbaum. Citation pornography.

PI. and sexual -we -e--m W. _o_f Ss_x_u_al &@y&r. exposure 33-44. of -The --- Press.Effects Eysenck. (1976). gq_d &&igfiQq University Uadison.of multiple filmed 130-147.. & E. to E. Wisconsin.). Rape CpBmygicatipq.a-pp. pornography. University M. Psychoticism -.: causes. D. K. ----e of the (1985). implications -. In D. N. B. Child pornography and pedophilia. presented Baltimore. Effects Commission --_e-_____ DC: of on -- BDP &rqpggpphy Printing April)* Washington. Report -. exposure Obscenity -------U.al of . ------a of -- multiple -----Unpublished _expgg. yLgl. C. (19811.rgs dissertation. U. (Ed. -. In (Vol. of -L. In Aggression N. novelty. violence effects Js?urn...e media: Unpublished Wadison. Toronto: yi_ol_eD_c_e in &_r of xgi&y. Office. Orlando. . vievers ___---dissertation. personality. (1984). to h Eysenck. J. against vomen: Cultural and (Eds. dimension ______--Hovard. (1984). resource ---_---Linz. against The vomen.--------- . H. Donnerstein 19-52).30as a -. Lanning. Scott _a~9 Symposium book ---(1985). _~p m&g (pp. J. qggression --s-m-- Press. Walamuth. Government K. Effects _-----vievers. & Liptzin. h Penrod.. (1984). B.I media female -----Wisconsin. to fantasies Archiy_ep as a function of repeated 10. 97-132). Dpturalis&& doctoral sexually nD_d y&&_ect _o_n of ----. G..- London: of London (1971). exposures 34(3). and --- 2~ !ng_dig violengg 184-213). Repeated __ _____ at the exposure. Linz. C.S.--a-meeting Krafka. s_exutiy of -_ erotica: ________ S. Technical w-------8.). --------Reifler.--------University doctoral Donnerstein.entl Psychological gxpli_cjt. sexual violence. W. (1982. Kelley. Malamuth (pp. Sexual ------ s_nd pornoqra&yL Wedia tb. _afi_d s_exupl Eastern pttitudeg.. B. S. Action E&fectz Proceedings -------Group. Walamuth. individual Pornography a ---a-Academic N. D. Variety ______ is the __ ___ spice _ ___ Paper Association.

(1978). C.. aggression ------- 85-113). J. S. Ottava. stimulating erotic 729-735..1. B.----- pcEc_egtion ---the University research R. effect 6. Pornography -----Academic Weaver. Lipton. Rinehart B.. W. Donnerstein Orlando. Palys. (1986). sexual _Ar_cbjy_e Wyer. on ~gn& Jr.31(1974). S. Bolt. Widmann. .Effects Harm. 575-582. Starr.. of _aD_dS_o_ci_el EEychqlpgy. effect I. (1981). Arousal. Sapolsky. J. Wishnoff.. E. effects. 455-461.-----M. of (1980). Liptzin. -. &_hlmyigg. _a_n_d sexual ------ fn N.aDg EgrDagrrphy Government Printing (1971). K. ----a Kentucky n_ng violence w------Dissertation Lexington. 8. of Research Report 15). of and explicit behavior and of nonexplicit vomen. (1984). Effects T_e_c&&g . issues 1 Category concerning accessibility: the processing of R. 0971). transient Sidman.. B. (Vol. ed. Pornography: of -Psychiatry.. the Modeling sexual effects anxiety 1.. An Reifler. A. vomen ----Effects --__--on the -. and & E. J. Journal ----__ _F_agjly J. Hovard. of __ portrayals ---_--_ general --a--at of _- female __---_ gf of sexuality __a-we__ vomen. Berkovitz.). of of -the L.___ __ --_____ papers on pornography Canada: _e_xplicit _-_-and Department (Working No. Satiation Journal ------Warm.. FL: erotica. b Srull. of films. (1984. of 30. Some theoretical empirical . stimuli gf S... Personality ---------e J.S. married S. against . Office. In Sidman. in -- g_n Obscenjty DC: U. experimental 118. affect. S. 170-254).. Columbia -------- A _______ _ content analysis of sexually ___. Justice. B. prostitution. the aggression-moderating (Eds. Press. pp. videos -----T. Reiss. D. & of study American _------L. West. M. and T. 6 Starr. Malamuth (pp. British ------- June). behavior erotic films T_h_e on sexual _R_ep_agt gf @mmimsi_o_n Washington.--conducted J. couples. Nev York: _syz&_e_m_s &nggi_c_a (3rd i_n & Winston.

f~D_c&i. Pornography. (Ed. J. Walamuth (pp. connectin!s Nev York: b_eLl?_e!z xl! Erlbaum. (1982). Manuscript C Bryan. (1984). P. StimUlUS Zanna pp. in s. ---e-------m Zillmann. submitted E9rn99IaPhYLs for publication.1 D. pornography D. preferences in Communication ^------------ . Petty of excitation (Eds. (vol. (1986a). and --Zillmann. 12(4). Billsdale. Guilford am emotional behavior. trivialization _of &-qynicatiqn. (Eds. FL: exposure to pornography. Zillmann. consumption. EsYEhoEhYsigl99YI Press. T_h_e gc&grrBiDBeDt NJ: Erlbaum. T. D. sexual callousness. satisfaction.. (1980).32- S_o_cwpl cogEntion: Hillsdale. Zi llmann.cisl. the & Bryant.. 2. Effects 61 E. D. C.----- NJ: suspense. U. &hnyior Kelley (pp. a Alternative ___--___--Hillsdale. nssressinE* A sourcebook . sexual -em--D. E. Transfer & R. . gpp. se------ u!E!. Coition as emotion. of Erlbaum. T.f.o. NJ: D. Cacioppo (pp. J.o th_e gtu_dy NJ: J._a-------Zillmann. D. Anatomy zh_e gct_erio Erlbaum. In D. and 10-21.... (1986).1. Effects ---___of -- Egg_n_ogrrpby Press. 161-197). D. Academic pngsggrrphy for publication. 215-240).r_o_ag_hhg t. Zillmann. consumption on family ---a-SW-0 -a -me-Zillmann. 115-138). rape.1.oDs _of &&y&&D (19831. Jougg_al _of sgxu_a& 173-1991. information. H. Symposium . In E. Manuscript submitted (1986b).). Herman. & Bryant. In P. of Tannenbaum 133-1631. (Eds.). D. yB&uss. sggrsssip_n & Bryant. J. (in press). Zillmann. In J. Zillmann.a_ct P!? s_em!_aL J. Donnerstein Orlando. & Bryant. (19841. In N. (pp. Billsdale. Byrne & K. Shifting Research. P. of massive (Eds.Effects social & M. Higgins.

proclivity a letter Check. Perceptual Further consequences. in comparisons Reported not sharing From gradients. pg. Attitudinal Reproductive Effects consequences. 4. 5. Ei9_ur_e 12. Zillmann 1986a. Bryant. desire. and Bryant. consequences. Zillmann 1984. Diminution Enjoyment Incarceration of repulsion. on sexual From satisfaction. From Zillmann and From and Bryant. rape 1985b. in points significantly gradients. Changing erotic preferences.33- and and 1984.-me Figure -. differ 1985b. Bryant. uncooperative not sharing Reported partners a letter From 12. -1.--Eigur_e ELqur_e 1986b. Figure me mepress.e Figure -. Bryant. s* ro . Habituation 1971. 2. 1984. Figure -. as a function significantly of psychoticism. recommendations for From and 1982. . and 1982. EL9x-e Data along Check. From Hovard. From Zillmann of sexual Captions arousal.--a 1986a. points proclivity (circles) differ for and coercion for rape in of sexual (squares). 7.--Liptzin.Effects Figure Figure -. 2. From From Zillmann Zillmann and rape. Reifler. 5. changes. Zillmann Bryant. From Zillmann and 8. and Bryant.--Bryant. Zillmann 1986a. Habituation of sympathetic-excitation. Figure -. perceptual From Zillmann From and Bryant. comparisons acts on Data along -11. .--Figure -. Figure -.--Bryant.

1 Exposure (2 min blocks) .No Habituation 5 2 u r= 5 E 20 8 week5 After 15 I a Immediately tier Habituation L III 12 34 II I II 5 6 7 11 8910 Fig.

4 .60 z g ‘ 2 Y 40 20 0 Fig.

a m Intermediate Massive 0 Men Women Treatment) F (Responses 3 Weeks After Habituation Expmure to Pornography a ml m None ntermediate Massive oral Anal Group S&M Bestiality Sexual Practice (Responses 3 Weeks After Habituation Treatment) ~ig.6 .

W Control Perceptual Changes (One week after exposure treatment) Fig. J a 75 t m Control Exposure Attitudinal Changes (One week after exposure treatment) Fig. 8 .

l m Control Exposure Impact on Self-Assessment (One week after exposure treatment) Fig..cbddrra Girls BOYS by Men k Women Combined Girls by Men Girls by Women Fig..10 . 9 I t.

11 b rb ab p b ab b Forced 5cx Acts b Rapt Prychodcirm I 1 NOB-W I ideal I Common I Vmlcnr Ideal Common Violmc Pornography Fig.Condition I m Males Females Control Massive Exposure to Common Pornography Neutral Stimuli Common Uncommon Pomw-why Neutral Stimuli Common Uncommon Pomograpb (Consumption 2 weeks after exposure treatment) Fig. 12 Fig.13 .

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