Flow In Circular Pipes

Objective
To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of
smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow
rate.
To correlate this in terms of the friction factor and
Reynolds number.
To compare results with available theories and
correlations.
To determine the influence of pipe fittings on pressure
drop
To show the relation between flow area, pressure drop
and loss as a function of flow rate for Venturi meter and
Orifice meter.
APPARATUS
Pipe Network
Rotameters
Manometers

Theoretical Discussion
Fluid flow in pipes is of considerable importance in process.
•Animals and Plants circulation systems.
•In our homes.
•City water.
•Irrigation system.
•Sewer water system
 Fluid could be a single phase: liquid or gases
Mixtures of gases, liquids and solids
 NonNewtonian fluids such as polymer melts, mayonnaise
 Newtonian fluids like in your experiment (water)
Theoretical Discussion
Laminar flow
To describe any of these flows, conservation of mass and
conservation of momentum equations are the most general forms
could be used to describe the dynamic system. Where the key
issue is the relation between flow rate and pressure drop.
If the flow fluid is:
a. Newtonian
b. Isothermal
c. Incompressible (dose not depend on the pressure)
d. Steady flow (independent on time).
e. Laminar flow (the velocity has only one single component)

Laminar flow
Navier-Stokes equations is govern the flow field (a set of equations
containing only velocity components and pressure) and can be solved
exactly to obtain the Hagen-Poiseuille relation
.
V
z
(r)

t
In
t

P
z
r+dr

r

Body force due to gravity
Flow
If the principle of conservation
of momentum is applied to a
fixed volume element through
which fluid is flowing and on
which forces are acting, then
the forces must be balanced
(Newton second law)
t
P
z+dz
P
z+dz
Laminar flow
Continue
Forces balance
+dF
z
r
= 2trt
zr
r
dz
÷dF
z
r +dr
= 2t(r + dr)t
zr
r+dr
dz
1…Shear forces
+ p
z
2trdr
÷ p
z+dz
2trdr
2….Pressure

µg2trdrdz
3…..Body force

Sum of forces
in the z - direction

¸

(
¸
(
=
Rate of change of momentum
in the z - direction

¸

(
¸
(
Laminar flow
Continue
Momentum is
Mass*velocity (m*v)
Momentum per unit volume is
µ*v
z
Rate of flow of momentum is
µ*v
z
*dQ
dQ=v
z
2πrdr
but
v
z
= constant at a fixed value of r

+µv
z
(v2trdr)
z
÷ µv
z
(v2trdr)
z +dz
= 0
Laminar flow
Laminar flow
Continue

2trt
zr
r
dz ÷2t(r + dr)t
zr
r +dr
dz+p
z
2trdr÷ p
z +dz
2trdr + µg2trdrdz = 0

t = µ
dv
z
dr

Q= 2tv
z
dr
0
R
}
=
tR
4

Ap
L

Ap = p
z=0
÷ p
z=L
+ µgL
Hagen-Poiseuille
Turbulent flow
When fluid flow at higher flowrates,
the streamlines are not steady and
straight and the flow is not laminar.
Generally, the flow field will vary in
both space and time with fluctuations
that comprise "turbulence
For this case almost all terms in the
Navier-Stokes equations are important
and there is no simple solution
AP = AP (D, µ, µ, L, U,)
u
z

ú
z

U
z
average
u
r

ú
r

U
r
average
p
P’
p

average
Time
Turbulent flow
All previous parameters involved three fundamental dimensions,
Mass, length, and time
From these parameters, three dimensionless groups can be build

AP
µU
2
= f (Re,
L
D
)

Re =
µUD
µ
=
inertia
Viscous forces
Friction Factor for Laminar
Turbulent flows
From forces balance and the definition of Friction Factor

AP × A
c
= t × S × L
A
c
S
= r
h
=
1
4
D
t =
AP
2L
R

f =
t
1/2µU
2
For Laminar flow
(Hagen - Poiseuill eq)

Q=
tr
4

AP
L
AP
L
=
8µU
R
2

f =
AP R
µU
2
L

f =
AP
L
R
µU
2
=

µUR
=
16
Re
For Turbulent Flow

f =
AP
L
D
2µU
2
= 0.079Re
÷0.25
A
c
: cross section area of the pip
S: Perimeter on which T acts (wetted
perimeter)
R
h
hydraulic radius
Surface Roughness
Additional dimensionless group c/D need
to be characterize
Thus more than one curve on friction factor-
Reynolds number plot
Fanning diagram or Moody diagram
Depending on the laminar region.
If, at the lowest Reynolds numbers, the laminar portion
corresponds to f =16/Re Fanning Chart
or f = 64/Re Moody chart
Friction Factor for Smooth, Transition,
and Rough Turbulent flow

1
f
= 4.0 * log Re* f
| |
÷0.4
Smooth pipe, Re>3000

1
f
= 4.0 * log
D
c
+ 2.28
Rough pipe, [ (D/c)/(Re√ƒ) <0.01]

1
f
= 4.0*log
D
c
+ 2.28÷ 4.0* log 4.67
D/c
Re f
+1

¸

(
¸
(
Transition function
for both smooth and
rough pipe

f =
AP
L
D
2µU
2

f = 0.079Re
÷0.25
Moody Diagram
0.010
0.100
1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08
Re
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
0
laminar f low
c/D
Fanning Diagram
f =16/Re

1
f
= 4.0 * log
D
c
+ 2.28

1
f
= 4.0*log
D
c
+ 2.28÷ 4.0* log 4.67
D/c
Re f
+1

¸

(
¸
(
Flow in a Packed pipe
The equations for empty pipe flow do not work with out considerable
modification
Ergun Equation

f ÷
APD
p
c
3
LµU
o
2
(1÷c)
=
150(1÷c)µ
U
o
D
p
µ
+1.75
Reynolds number for a packed bed flow as

Re =
U
o
D
p
µ
(1÷c )µ
D
p
is the particle diameter,
c is the volume fraction that is not occupied by particles
This equation contains the interesting behavior that the
pressure drop varies as the first power of U
o
for small Re
and as U
o
2
for higher Re.
Flow
D
p

A
Energy Loss in Valves

E
v
= K
U
2
2
h
v
=
Ap
µ
= K
v
U
2
2g
= 2 f
L
eq
D
U
2
g
 Function of valve type and valve position
 The complex flow path through valves can
result in high head loss (of course, one of
the purposes of a valve is to create head
loss when it is not fully open)
 E
v
are the loss in terms of velocity heads
Friction Loss Factors for valves
Valve K L
eq
/D
Gate valve, wide open 0.15 7
Gate valve, 3/4 open 0.85 40
Gate valve, 1/2 open 4.4 200
Gate valve, 1/4 open 20 900
Globe valve, wide open 7.5 350
Energy Loss due to Gradual
Expansion

E
E
= K
E
U
1
÷U
2
( )
2
2

E
E
= K
E
U
2
2
2
| ÷1 ( )
2
| =
A
2
A
1
angle (u)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0 20 40 60 80
K
E

u
A
2

A
1

Sudden Contraction
(Orifice Flowmeter)
Orifice flowmeters are used to determine a
liquid or gas flowrate by measuring the
differential pressure P1-P2 across the orifice
plate

Q= C
d
A
2
2( p
1
÷ p
2
)
µ(1÷|
2
)

¸


(
¸
(
(
1/ 2
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
10
2
10
5
10
6
10
7

Re
C
d

Reynolds number based on orifice diameter Re
d

P
1
P
2

d D
Flow
10
3
10
4

Venturi Flowmeter
The classical Venturi tube (also known as the Herschel Venturi
tube) is used to determine flowrate through a pipe. Differential
pressure is the pressure difference between the pressure
measured at D and at d
D
d
Flow
Boundary layer buildup in a pipe
Pipe
Entrance
v v v
Because of the share force near the pipe wall, a boundary layer
forms on the inside surface and occupies a large portion of the
flow area as the distance downstream from the pipe entrance
increase. At some value of this distance the boundary layer fills the
flow area. The velocity profile becomes independent of the axis in
the direction of flow, and the flow is said to be fully developed.
Pipe Flow Head Loss
(constant density fluid flows)
 Pipe flow head loss is
 proportional to the length of the pipe
 proportional to the square of the velocity
(high Reynolds number)
 Proportional inversely with the diameter
of the pipe
 increasing with surface roughness
 independent of pressure
 Total losses in the pipe system is
obtained by summing individual head
losses of roughness, fittings, valves ..itc
Pipe Flow Summary
The statement of conservation of mass, momentum and energy becomes
the Bernoulli equation for steady state constant density of flows.
 Dimensional analysis gives the relation between flow rate and pressure
drop.
Laminar flow losses and velocity distributions can be derived based on
momentum and mass conservation to obtain exact solution named of
Hagen - Poisuille
Turbulent flow losses and velocity distributions require experimental
results.
Experiments give the relationship between the fraction factor and the
Reynolds number.
 Head loss becomes minor when fluid flows at high flow rate (fraction
factor is constant at high Reynolds numbers).

Images - Laminar/Turbulent Flows

Laser - induced florescence image of an
incompressible turbulent boundary layer
Simulation of turbulent flow coming out of a
tailpipe
Laminar flow (Blood Flow)
Laminar flow Turbulent flow
http://www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~cfd/gallery/lim-turb.html

APPARATUS
Pipe Network Rotameters Manometers

•Irrigation system. •Sewer water system  Fluid could be a single phase: liquid or gases Mixtures of gases. mayonnaise  Newtonian fluids like in your experiment (water) .Theoretical Discussion Fluid flow in pipes is of considerable importance in process. •City water. •In our homes. •Animals and Plants circulation systems. liquids and solids  NonNewtonian fluids such as polymer melts.

conservation of mass and conservation of momentum equations are the most general forms could be used to describe the dynamic system. e. Where the key issue is the relation between flow rate and pressure drop. If the flow fluid is: a. Isothermal c.Theoretical Discussion Laminar flow To describe any of these flows. Steady flow (independent on time). Incompressible (dose not depend on the pressure) d. Laminar flow (the velocity has only one single component) . Newtonian b.

then the forces must be balanced (Newton second law) Vz(r) Pz+dz  r+dr Body force due to gravity In  r Pz+dz .Laminar flow Navier-Stokes equations is govern the flow field (a set of equations containing only velocity components and pressure) and can be solved exactly to obtain the Hagen-Poiseuille relation . Pz Flow  If the principle of conservation of momentum is applied to a fixed volume element through which fluid is flowing and on which forces are acting.

.Pressure 3….Forces balance Laminar flow Continue  Sum of forces  Rate of change of momentum      in the z .direction   dFz r  2r zr r dz  dFz r  dr  2 (r  dr) zr r dr dz 1…Shear forces  p z 2rdr  p z dz 2 rdr 2….direction   in the z .Body force g2rdrdz .

Laminar flow Continue Momentum is Mass*velocity (m*v) Momentum per unit volume is *vz Rate of flow of momentum is *vz*dQ dQ=vz2πrdr but vz = constant at a fixed value of r  v z (v2rdr) z  v z (v2rdr) z dz  0 Laminar flow .

Laminar flow Continue 2 r zr r dz  2 (r  dr) zr r dr dz p z 2 rdr  p z dz 2rdr   g2rdrdz  0 dvz   dr Q p  pz 0  pz L  gL R 4 p 2vz dr  8 L  R 0 Hagen-Poiseuille .

Generally. U. . the flow field will vary in both space and time with fluctuations that comprise "turbulence For this case almost all terms in the Navier-Stokes equations are important and there is no simple solution P = P (D.Turbulent flow When fluid flow at higher flowrates. L.) P’ uz Uz average úz ur Ur average úr p p average Time . the streamlines are not steady and straight and the flow is not laminar. .

U D UD inertia Re    Viscous forces . Mass.Turbulent flow All previous parameters involved three fundamental dimensions. length. three dimensionless groups can be build P L ) 2  f (Re. and time From these parameters.

Friction Factor for Laminar Turbulent flows From forces balance and the definition of Friction Factor P  Ac    S  L Ac 1  rh  D S 4 P  R 2L Ac: cross section area of the pip S: Perimeter on which T acts (wetted perimeter) Rh hydraulic radius  f 2 1/2U P R f U 2 L For Laminar flow (Hagen .079Re0.25 2 L 2 U For Turbulent Flow .Poiseuill eq)  r 4 P Q 8 L P 8U  2 L R P R 8 16 f  2  L U UR Re P D f  0.

at the lowest Reynolds numbers.Surface Roughness Additional dimensionless group /D need to be characterize Thus more than one curve on friction factorReynolds number plot Fanning diagram or Moody diagram Depending on the laminar region. the laminar portion corresponds to f =16/Re Fanning Chart or f = 64/Re Moody chart . If.

28  4.079Re0. [ (D/)/(Re√ƒ) <0.0 * log  2.4  f  0.67 1   f Re f   .P D f  L 2 U 2 Friction Factor for Smooth.0 * log Re* f Smooth pipe. Re>3000  f  0.0 * log  2.25  Rough pipe. Transition.28  f   1 D D/  4. and Rough Turbulent flow 1  4.01] Transition function for both smooth and rough pipe  1 D  4.0 * log4.

008 0.001 0.0002 0.04 0.00E+05 1.010 1.006 0.002 laminar flow 0.004 0.0008 0.00E+03 1.00005 0.0001 0.01 0.Moody Diagram 0.00E+06 1.02 0.015 0.0004 0.100 0.03 0.00E+08 Re .05 0.00E+04 1.00E+07 Fraction factor /D 0 1.

Fanning Diagram   1 D D/  4.0 * log  2.0 * log  2.67  1  f Re f   1 D  4.0 * log4.28  4.28  f   f =16/Re .

75 2 LUo (1  ) U o Dp  PDp 3 Dp Dp is the particle diameter.  is the volume fraction that is not occupied by particles Reynolds number for a packed bed flow as This equation contains the interesting behavior that the pressure drop varies as the first power of Uo for small Re and as Uo2 for higher Re. Flow Uo Dp Re  (1  ) .Flow in a Packed pipe The equations for empty pipe flow do not work with out considerable modification A Ergun Equation 150(1  ) f  1.

one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when it is not fully open)  Ev are the loss in terms of velocity heads U2 Ev  K 2 Leq U 2 p U2 hv   Kv 2f  2g D g .Energy Loss in Valves  Function of valve type and valve position  The complex flow path through valves can result in high head loss (of course.

3/4 open Gate valve.5 7 40 200 900 350 Leq/D . wide open Gate valve.Friction Loss Factors for valves Valve Gate valve. 1/4 open Globe valve. wide open K 0.85 4.4 20 7. 1/2 open Gate valve.15 0.

1 0 KE E E  KE U1  U2 2 2 2 U2 E E  KE  12 2 A  2 A1 0 20 40 60 80 angle () .Energy Loss due to Gradual Expansion A2  A1 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.

7 0.6 102 103 104 105 106 107 Re Reynolds number based on orifice diameter Red .Sudden Contraction (Orifice Flowmeter) Orifice flowmeters are used to determine a liquid or gas flowrate by measuring the differential pressure P1-P2 across the orifice plate P1 P2 D d Flow  2( p1  p2 )1/ 2  Q  Cd A2 2   (1   )    1 0.65 0.95 0.9 0.75 0.85 Cd 0.8 0.

Venturi Flowmeter The classical Venturi tube (also known as the Herschel Venturi tube) is used to determine flowrate through a pipe. Differential pressure is the pressure difference between the pressure measured at D and at d D d Flow .

Pipe Entrance v v v . The velocity profile becomes independent of the axis in the direction of flow. At some value of this distance the boundary layer fills the flow area. a boundary layer forms on the inside surface and occupies a large portion of the flow area as the distance downstream from the pipe entrance increase.Boundary layer buildup in a pipe Because of the share force near the pipe wall. and the flow is said to be fully developed.

fittings.. valves .Pipe Flow Head Loss (constant density fluid flows)  Pipe flow head loss is  proportional to the length of the pipe  proportional to the square of the velocity (high Reynolds number)  Proportional inversely with the diameter of the pipe  increasing with surface roughness  independent of pressure  Total losses in the pipe system is obtained by summing individual head losses of roughness.itc .

momentum and energy becomes the Bernoulli equation for steady state constant density of flows.  Laminar flow losses and velocity distributions can be derived based on momentum and mass conservation to obtain exact solution named of Hagen . .Poisuille  Turbulent flow losses and velocity distributions require experimental results.  Head loss becomes minor when fluid flows at high flow rate (fraction factor is constant at high Reynolds numbers).  Dimensional analysis gives the relation between flow rate and pressure drop.  Experiments give the relationship between the fraction factor and the Reynolds number.Pipe Flow Summary  The statement of conservation of mass.

html .uiowa.Laminar/Turbulent Flows Laser .induced florescence image of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer Laminar flow (Blood Flow) Simulation of turbulent flow coming out of a tailpipe Turbulent flow Laminar flow http://www.engineering.edu/~cfd/gallery/lim-turb.Images .

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