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Objective

To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of

smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow

rate.

To correlate this in terms of the friction factor and

Reynolds number.

To compare results with available theories and

correlations.

To determine the influence of pipe fittings on pressure

drop

To show the relation between flow area, pressure drop

and loss as a function of flow rate for Venturi meter and

Orifice meter.

APPARATUS

Pipe Network

Rotameters

Manometers

Theoretical Discussion

Fluid flow in pipes is of considerable importance in process.

•Animals and Plants circulation systems.

•In our homes.

•City water.

•Irrigation system.

•Sewer water system

Fluid could be a single phase: liquid or gases

Mixtures of gases, liquids and solids

NonNewtonian fluids such as polymer melts, mayonnaise

Newtonian fluids like in your experiment (water)

Theoretical Discussion

Laminar flow

To describe any of these flows, conservation of mass and

conservation of momentum equations are the most general forms

could be used to describe the dynamic system. Where the key

issue is the relation between flow rate and pressure drop.

If the flow fluid is:

a. Newtonian

b. Isothermal

c. Incompressible (dose not depend on the pressure)

d. Steady flow (independent on time).

e. Laminar flow (the velocity has only one single component)

Laminar flow

Navier-Stokes equations is govern the flow field (a set of equations

containing only velocity components and pressure) and can be solved

exactly to obtain the Hagen-Poiseuille relation

.

V

z

(r)

t

In

t

P

z

r+dr

r

Body force due to gravity

Flow

If the principle of conservation

of momentum is applied to a

fixed volume element through

which fluid is flowing and on

which forces are acting, then

the forces must be balanced

(Newton second law)

t

P

z+dz

P

z+dz

Laminar flow

Continue

Forces balance

+dF

z

r

= 2trt

zr

r

dz

÷dF

z

r +dr

= 2t(r + dr)t

zr

r+dr

dz

1…Shear forces

+ p

z

2trdr

÷ p

z+dz

2trdr

2….Pressure

µg2trdrdz

3…..Body force

Sum of forces

in the z - direction

¸

(

¸

(

=

Rate of change of momentum

in the z - direction

¸

(

¸

(

Laminar flow

Continue

Momentum is

Mass*velocity (m*v)

Momentum per unit volume is

µ*v

z

Rate of flow of momentum is

µ*v

z

*dQ

dQ=v

z

2πrdr

but

v

z

= constant at a fixed value of r

+µv

z

(v2trdr)

z

÷ µv

z

(v2trdr)

z +dz

= 0

Laminar flow

Laminar flow

Continue

2trt

zr

r

dz ÷2t(r + dr)t

zr

r +dr

dz+p

z

2trdr÷ p

z +dz

2trdr + µg2trdrdz = 0

t = µ

dv

z

dr

Q= 2tv

z

dr

0

R

}

=

tR

4

8µ

Ap

L

Ap = p

z=0

÷ p

z=L

+ µgL

Hagen-Poiseuille

Turbulent flow

When fluid flow at higher flowrates,

the streamlines are not steady and

straight and the flow is not laminar.

Generally, the flow field will vary in

both space and time with fluctuations

that comprise "turbulence

For this case almost all terms in the

Navier-Stokes equations are important

and there is no simple solution

AP = AP (D, µ, µ, L, U,)

u

z

ú

z

U

z

average

u

r

ú

r

U

r

average

p

P’

p

average

Time

Turbulent flow

All previous parameters involved three fundamental dimensions,

Mass, length, and time

From these parameters, three dimensionless groups can be build

AP

µU

2

= f (Re,

L

D

)

Re =

µUD

µ

=

inertia

Viscous forces

Friction Factor for Laminar

Turbulent flows

From forces balance and the definition of Friction Factor

AP × A

c

= t × S × L

A

c

S

= r

h

=

1

4

D

t =

AP

2L

R

f =

t

1/2µU

2

For Laminar flow

(Hagen - Poiseuill eq)

Q=

tr

4

8µ

AP

L

AP

L

=

8µU

R

2

f =

AP R

µU

2

L

f =

AP

L

R

µU

2

=

8µ

µUR

=

16

Re

For Turbulent Flow

f =

AP

L

D

2µU

2

= 0.079Re

÷0.25

A

c

: cross section area of the pip

S: Perimeter on which T acts (wetted

perimeter)

R

h

hydraulic radius

Surface Roughness

Additional dimensionless group c/D need

to be characterize

Thus more than one curve on friction factor-

Reynolds number plot

Fanning diagram or Moody diagram

Depending on the laminar region.

If, at the lowest Reynolds numbers, the laminar portion

corresponds to f =16/Re Fanning Chart

or f = 64/Re Moody chart

Friction Factor for Smooth, Transition,

and Rough Turbulent flow

1

f

= 4.0 * log Re* f

| |

÷0.4

Smooth pipe, Re>3000

1

f

= 4.0 * log

D

c

+ 2.28

Rough pipe, [ (D/c)/(Re√ƒ) <0.01]

1

f

= 4.0*log

D

c

+ 2.28÷ 4.0* log 4.67

D/c

Re f

+1

¸

(

¸

(

Transition function

for both smooth and

rough pipe

f =

AP

L

D

2µU

2

f = 0.079Re

÷0.25

Moody Diagram

0.010

0.100

1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08

Re

F

r

a

c

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.001

0.0008

0.0004

0.0002

0.0001

0.00005

0

laminar f low

c/D

Fanning Diagram

f =16/Re

1

f

= 4.0 * log

D

c

+ 2.28

1

f

= 4.0*log

D

c

+ 2.28÷ 4.0* log 4.67

D/c

Re f

+1

¸

(

¸

(

Flow in a Packed pipe

The equations for empty pipe flow do not work with out considerable

modification

Ergun Equation

f ÷

APD

p

c

3

LµU

o

2

(1÷c)

=

150(1÷c)µ

U

o

D

p

µ

+1.75

Reynolds number for a packed bed flow as

Re =

U

o

D

p

µ

(1÷c )µ

D

p

is the particle diameter,

c is the volume fraction that is not occupied by particles

This equation contains the interesting behavior that the

pressure drop varies as the first power of U

o

for small Re

and as U

o

2

for higher Re.

Flow

D

p

A

Energy Loss in Valves

E

v

= K

U

2

2

h

v

=

Ap

µ

= K

v

U

2

2g

= 2 f

L

eq

D

U

2

g

Function of valve type and valve position

The complex flow path through valves can

result in high head loss (of course, one of

the purposes of a valve is to create head

loss when it is not fully open)

E

v

are the loss in terms of velocity heads

Friction Loss Factors for valves

Valve K L

eq

/D

Gate valve, wide open 0.15 7

Gate valve, 3/4 open 0.85 40

Gate valve, 1/2 open 4.4 200

Gate valve, 1/4 open 20 900

Globe valve, wide open 7.5 350

Energy Loss due to Gradual

Expansion

E

E

= K

E

U

1

÷U

2

( )

2

2

E

E

= K

E

U

2

2

2

| ÷1 ( )

2

| =

A

2

A

1

angle (u)

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0 20 40 60 80

K

E

u

A

2

A

1

Sudden Contraction

(Orifice Flowmeter)

Orifice flowmeters are used to determine a

liquid or gas flowrate by measuring the

differential pressure P1-P2 across the orifice

plate

Q= C

d

A

2

2( p

1

÷ p

2

)

µ(1÷|

2

)

¸

(

¸

(

(

1/ 2

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

10

2

10

5

10

6

10

7

Re

C

d

Reynolds number based on orifice diameter Re

d

P

1

P

2

d D

Flow

10

3

10

4

Venturi Flowmeter

The classical Venturi tube (also known as the Herschel Venturi

tube) is used to determine flowrate through a pipe. Differential

pressure is the pressure difference between the pressure

measured at D and at d

D

d

Flow

Boundary layer buildup in a pipe

Pipe

Entrance

v v v

Because of the share force near the pipe wall, a boundary layer

forms on the inside surface and occupies a large portion of the

flow area as the distance downstream from the pipe entrance

increase. At some value of this distance the boundary layer fills the

flow area. The velocity profile becomes independent of the axis in

the direction of flow, and the flow is said to be fully developed.

Pipe Flow Head Loss

(constant density fluid flows)

Pipe flow head loss is

proportional to the length of the pipe

proportional to the square of the velocity

(high Reynolds number)

Proportional inversely with the diameter

of the pipe

increasing with surface roughness

independent of pressure

Total losses in the pipe system is

obtained by summing individual head

losses of roughness, fittings, valves ..itc

Pipe Flow Summary

The statement of conservation of mass, momentum and energy becomes

the Bernoulli equation for steady state constant density of flows.

Dimensional analysis gives the relation between flow rate and pressure

drop.

Laminar flow losses and velocity distributions can be derived based on

momentum and mass conservation to obtain exact solution named of

Hagen - Poisuille

Turbulent flow losses and velocity distributions require experimental

results.

Experiments give the relationship between the fraction factor and the

Reynolds number.

Head loss becomes minor when fluid flows at high flow rate (fraction

factor is constant at high Reynolds numbers).

Images - Laminar/Turbulent Flows

Laser - induced florescence image of an

incompressible turbulent boundary layer

Simulation of turbulent flow coming out of a

tailpipe

Laminar flow (Blood Flow)

Laminar flow Turbulent flow

http://www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~cfd/gallery/lim-turb.html

APPARATUS

Pipe Network Rotameters Manometers

•Irrigation system. •Sewer water system Fluid could be a single phase: liquid or gases Mixtures of gases. mayonnaise Newtonian fluids like in your experiment (water) .Theoretical Discussion Fluid flow in pipes is of considerable importance in process. •City water. •In our homes. •Animals and Plants circulation systems. liquids and solids NonNewtonian fluids such as polymer melts.

conservation of mass and conservation of momentum equations are the most general forms could be used to describe the dynamic system. e. Where the key issue is the relation between flow rate and pressure drop. If the flow fluid is: a. Isothermal c.Theoretical Discussion Laminar flow To describe any of these flows. Steady flow (independent on time). Incompressible (dose not depend on the pressure) d. Laminar flow (the velocity has only one single component) . Newtonian b.

then the forces must be balanced (Newton second law) Vz(r) Pz+dz r+dr Body force due to gravity In r Pz+dz .Laminar flow Navier-Stokes equations is govern the flow field (a set of equations containing only velocity components and pressure) and can be solved exactly to obtain the Hagen-Poiseuille relation . Pz Flow If the principle of conservation of momentum is applied to a fixed volume element through which fluid is flowing and on which forces are acting.

.Pressure 3….Forces balance Laminar flow Continue Sum of forces Rate of change of momentum in the z .direction dFz r 2r zr r dz dFz r dr 2 (r dr) zr r dr dz 1…Shear forces p z 2rdr p z dz 2 rdr 2….direction in the z .Body force g2rdrdz .

Laminar flow Continue Momentum is Mass*velocity (m*v) Momentum per unit volume is *vz Rate of flow of momentum is *vz*dQ dQ=vz2πrdr but vz = constant at a fixed value of r v z (v2rdr) z v z (v2rdr) z dz 0 Laminar flow .

Laminar flow Continue 2 r zr r dz 2 (r dr) zr r dr dz p z 2 rdr p z dz 2rdr g2rdrdz 0 dvz dr Q p pz 0 pz L gL R 4 p 2vz dr 8 L R 0 Hagen-Poiseuille .

Generally. U. . the flow field will vary in both space and time with fluctuations that comprise "turbulence For this case almost all terms in the Navier-Stokes equations are important and there is no simple solution P = P (D.Turbulent flow When fluid flow at higher flowrates. L.) P’ uz Uz average úz ur Ur average úr p p average Time . the streamlines are not steady and straight and the flow is not laminar. .

U D UD inertia Re Viscous forces . Mass.Turbulent flow All previous parameters involved three fundamental dimensions. length. three dimensionless groups can be build P L ) 2 f (Re. and time From these parameters.

Friction Factor for Laminar Turbulent flows From forces balance and the definition of Friction Factor P Ac S L Ac 1 rh D S 4 P R 2L Ac: cross section area of the pip S: Perimeter on which T acts (wetted perimeter) Rh hydraulic radius f 2 1/2U P R f U 2 L For Laminar flow (Hagen .079Re0.25 2 L 2 U For Turbulent Flow .Poiseuill eq) r 4 P Q 8 L P 8U 2 L R P R 8 16 f 2 L U UR Re P D f 0.

at the lowest Reynolds numbers.Surface Roughness Additional dimensionless group /D need to be characterize Thus more than one curve on friction factorReynolds number plot Fanning diagram or Moody diagram Depending on the laminar region. the laminar portion corresponds to f =16/Re Fanning Chart or f = 64/Re Moody chart . If.

28 4.079Re0. [ (D/)/(Re√ƒ) <0.0 * log 2.4 f 0.67 1 f Re f .P D f L 2 U 2 Friction Factor for Smooth.0 * log Re* f Smooth pipe. Re>3000 f 0.0 * log 2.25 Rough pipe. Transition.28 f 1 D D/ 4. and Rough Turbulent flow 1 4.01] Transition function for both smooth and rough pipe 1 D 4.0 * log4.

008 0.001 0.0002 0.04 0.00E+05 1.010 1.006 0.002 laminar flow 0.004 0.0008 0.00E+03 1.00005 0.0001 0.01 0.Moody Diagram 0.00E+06 1.02 0.015 0.0004 0.100 0.03 0.00E+08 Re .05 0.00E+04 1.00E+07 Fraction factor /D 0 1.

Fanning Diagram 1 D D/ 4.0 * log 2.0 * log 2.67 1 f Re f 1 D 4.0 * log4.28 4.28 f f =16/Re .

75 2 LUo (1 ) U o Dp PDp 3 Dp Dp is the particle diameter. is the volume fraction that is not occupied by particles Reynolds number for a packed bed flow as This equation contains the interesting behavior that the pressure drop varies as the first power of Uo for small Re and as Uo2 for higher Re. Flow Uo Dp Re (1 ) .Flow in a Packed pipe The equations for empty pipe flow do not work with out considerable modification A Ergun Equation 150(1 ) f 1.

one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when it is not fully open) Ev are the loss in terms of velocity heads U2 Ev K 2 Leq U 2 p U2 hv Kv 2f 2g D g .Energy Loss in Valves Function of valve type and valve position The complex flow path through valves can result in high head loss (of course.

3/4 open Gate valve.5 7 40 200 900 350 Leq/D . wide open Gate valve.Friction Loss Factors for valves Valve Gate valve. 1/4 open Globe valve. wide open K 0.85 4.4 20 7. 1/2 open Gate valve.15 0.

1 0 KE E E KE U1 U2 2 2 2 U2 E E KE 12 2 A 2 A1 0 20 40 60 80 angle () .Energy Loss due to Gradual Expansion A2 A1 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.

7 0.6 102 103 104 105 106 107 Re Reynolds number based on orifice diameter Red .Sudden Contraction (Orifice Flowmeter) Orifice flowmeters are used to determine a liquid or gas flowrate by measuring the differential pressure P1-P2 across the orifice plate P1 P2 D d Flow 2( p1 p2 )1/ 2 Q Cd A2 2 (1 ) 1 0.65 0.95 0.9 0.75 0.85 Cd 0.8 0.

Venturi Flowmeter The classical Venturi tube (also known as the Herschel Venturi tube) is used to determine flowrate through a pipe. Differential pressure is the pressure difference between the pressure measured at D and at d D d Flow .

Pipe Entrance v v v . The velocity profile becomes independent of the axis in the direction of flow. At some value of this distance the boundary layer fills the flow area. a boundary layer forms on the inside surface and occupies a large portion of the flow area as the distance downstream from the pipe entrance increase.Boundary layer buildup in a pipe Because of the share force near the pipe wall. and the flow is said to be fully developed.

fittings.. valves .Pipe Flow Head Loss (constant density fluid flows) Pipe flow head loss is proportional to the length of the pipe proportional to the square of the velocity (high Reynolds number) Proportional inversely with the diameter of the pipe increasing with surface roughness independent of pressure Total losses in the pipe system is obtained by summing individual head losses of roughness.itc .

momentum and energy becomes the Bernoulli equation for steady state constant density of flows. Laminar flow losses and velocity distributions can be derived based on momentum and mass conservation to obtain exact solution named of Hagen . .Poisuille Turbulent flow losses and velocity distributions require experimental results. Head loss becomes minor when fluid flows at high flow rate (fraction factor is constant at high Reynolds numbers). Dimensional analysis gives the relation between flow rate and pressure drop. Experiments give the relationship between the fraction factor and the Reynolds number.Pipe Flow Summary The statement of conservation of mass.

html .uiowa.Laminar/Turbulent Flows Laser .induced florescence image of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer Laminar flow (Blood Flow) Simulation of turbulent flow coming out of a tailpipe Turbulent flow Laminar flow http://www.engineering.edu/~cfd/gallery/lim-turb.Images .

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