I. Learning Objectives
A. The student will comprehend the basic operation of a simple pulse radar system. B. The student will know the following terms: pulse width, pulse repetition frequency, carrier frequency, peak power, average power, and duty cycle. C. The student will know the block diagram of a simple pulse radar system and will comprehend the major components of that system.

D. The student will comprehend the basic operation of a simple continuous wave radar system. E. The student will comprehend the concept of doppler frequency shift. F. The student will know the block diagram of a simple continuous wave radar system and will comprehend the major components of that system, including amplifiers, power amplifiers, oscillators, and waveguides.

G. The student will comprehend the use of filters in a continuous wave radar system. H. The student will know the fundamental means of imparting information to radio waves and will comprehend the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of the various means. I. The student will comprehend the function and characteristics of radar/radio antennas and beam formation.

The student will comprehend the basic principles of operation of pulse doppler radar and MTI systems. L. The student will comprehend the factors that affect radar performance. K. .J. The student will comprehend frequency modulated CW as a means of range determination.

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Two Basic Radar Types   Pulse Transmission Continuous Wave .

Pulse Transmission .

•Max Range: AveragePow er PeakPower  PW PRT  PW *PRF As PW PRF min Rh max Rh .Range vs. Power/PW/PRF •Minimum Range: If still transmitting when return received RETURN NOT SEEN.

Effects of varying PRF (1) Maximum range  (2) Accuracy   3. 2. Relation to pulse repetition time (PRT)  c. Maximum signal power of any pulse  b. Affects maximum range of radar . Pulses per second  b. Peak power  a. Pulse repetition frequency (PRF)  a.

 Average power a. Ratio PW (time transmitting) to PRT (time of entire cycle. time transmitting plus rest time)  b. Relationship of average power to PW and PRT  5. 4. .  Duty cycle a. Discuss the determination of range with a pulse radar. Also equal to ratio of average power to peak power  C. Total power transmitted per unit of time  b.

Determining Range With Pulse Radar Range  c = 3 x 108 m/sec t is time to receive return c*t 2 divide by 2 because pulse traveled to object and back .

PW can determine the radar’s minimum detection range. PW can determine the radar’s maximum detection range. .Pulse Transmission     Pulse Width (PW)  Length or duration of a given pulse Pulse Repetition Time (PRT=1/PRF)  PRT is time from beginning of one pulse to the beginning of the next  PRF is frequency at which consecutive pulses are transmitted. PRF can determine the radar’s maximum detection range.

 5.  6. D.  7.  3.  2. Synchronizer Transmitter Antenna Duplexer Receiver Display unit Power supply .  1. Describe the components of a pulse radar system.  4.

Pulse Radar Block Diagram Transmitter Synchronizer RF ATR Duplexer Power Supply Echo TR (Switching Unit) Antenna Display Video Receiver Antenna Bearing or Elevation .

Continuous Wave Radar  Employs continual RADAR transmission transmit and receive antennas on the “DOPPLER SHIFT”  Separate  Relies .

Doppler Frequency Shifts Motion Away: Echo Frequency Decreases Motion Towards: Echo Frequency Increases .

Continuous Wave Radar Components Transmitter CW RF Oscillator Antenna OUT Discriminator AMP Mixer IN Antenna Indicator .

Pulse Vs. usually Alt. Continuous Wave Pulse Echo Single Antenna  Gives Range. Info  High SNR  More Difficult to Jam But Easily Deceived  Amp can be tuned to look for expected frequencies . as well  Susceptible To Jamming  Physical Range Determined By PW and PRF.  Continuous Wave  Requires 2 Antennae  Range or Alt.

RADAR Wave Modulation  Amplitude Modulation – Vary the amplitude of the carrier sine wave  Frequency Modulation – Vary the frequency of the carrier sine wave  Pulse-Amplitude Modulation – Vary the amplitude of the pulses  Pulse-Frequency Modulation – Vary the Frequency at which the pulses occur .

Modulation .

Narrow for Track .Antennae  Two Basic Purposes: RF Energy Beam Forming and Focus  Radiates  Provides  Must Be 1/2 of the Wave Length for the maximum wave length employed  Wide Beam pattern for Search.

Accuracy Beamwidth vs Accuracy Ship A Ship B .Beamwidth Vs.

Azimuth Angular Measurement Azimuth Angular Measurement Relative Bearing = Angle from ship’s heading. True Bearing = Ship’s Heading + Relative Bearing N Ship’s Heading Angle Target Angle .

Determining Altitude Determining Altitude nt R Sla e ang Altitude Angle of Elevation Altitude = slant range x sin0 elevation .

 Made up of two or more simple half-wave antennas. Linear  Uses Concentrating Radar Energy Through Beam Formation Arrays the Principle of wave summation (constructive interference) in a special direction and wave cancellation (destructive interference) in other directions.  Quasi-optical  Uses reflectors and “lenses” to shape the beam. .

generally larger and used for longrange search applications .Wide search beam .Conical Scan used for fire control .Reflector Shape  Paraboloid .Usually CW and primarily for fire control  Parabolic Cylinder .can be CW or Pulse  Orange Peel Paraboliod .Pulse .

Wave Shaping -Quasi-Optical Systems Lenses Reflectors .

Wave Guides  Used as a medium for high energy shielding.  Uses A Magnetic Field to keep the energy centered in the wave guide.  Filled with an inert gas to prevent arcing due to high voltages within the waveguide. .

Radar Principles and Systems Part II .

Factors That Affect Radar Performance         Signal Reception Receiver Bandwidth Pulse Shape Power Relation Beam Width Pulse Repetition Frequency Antenna Gain Radar Cross Section of Target     Signal-to-noise ratio Receiver Sensitivity Pulse Compression Scan Rate Mechanical  Electronic    Carrier Frequency Antenna aperture .

the greater the effective range . • Only a fraction of that returns to the antenna.Signal Reception • Only a minute portion of the RF is reflected off the target. . • The weaker the signal that the receiver can process.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measured in dB!!!!!  Ability to recognize target in random noise. noise is greater that target’s return.   Noise is always present.  Threshold level used to remove excess noise.  .  At some range. Noise sets the absolute lower limit of the unit’s sensitivity.

 Frequency shifts occur from Doppler Effects.Receiver Bandwidth Is the frequency range the receiver can process.  Receiver must process many frequencies   Pulse are generated by summation of sine waves of various frequencies.  Reducing the bandwidth  Increases the signal-to-noise ratio(good)  Distorts the transmitted pulse(bad) .

 An important factor in determining the unit’s maximum range.  Milliwatts range.Receiver Sensitivity  Smallest return signal that is discernible against the noise background. .

Pulse Effects on Radar Performance  Pulse Shape  Pulse Width  Pulse Compression  Pulse Power .

Pulse Shape  Determines range accuracy and minimum and maximum range.  Ideally we want a pulse with vertical leading and trailing edges.  Very clear signal – easily discerned when listening for the echo. .

the better the range resolution.  The narrower the pulse.  Can also determine the maximum range of radar. .  Determines the minimum detection range.Pulse Width  Determines the range resolution.

.Pulse Compression  Increases frequency of the wave within the pulse.  Allows for good range resolution while packing enough power to provide a large maximum range.

 High peak power is desirable to achieve maximum ranges. .  Low power means smaller and more compact radar units and less power required to operate.Pulse Power  The “Ummph” to get the signal out a long way.

Pulse Repetition Frequency  Carrier Frequency  Radar Cross Section (What the radar can see(reflect))  Function of target size. angle and carrier frequency. material. shape. Determines radars maximum range(tactical factor). . Determines antenna size.Other Factors Affecting Performance     Scan Rate and Beam Width  Narrow beam require slower antenna rotation rate. beam directivity and target size.

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Summary of Factors and Compromises Summary of Factors and Compromises Factor Pulse Shape Desired Sharp a rise as possible Tall as possible Short as possible Why Better range accuracy More power /longer range Closer minimum range More accurate range Better range accuracy Better angular resolution Better detection probability Greater range Shorter minimum range Greater maximum range Greater angular accuracy Greater target resolution Detects smaller targets Smaller equipment Maximizes detection range Better signal-to-noise ratio Trade-off Required Require infinite bandwidth. Short Reduces maximum range Pulse Compression Uses technique More complex circuitry Power Beam Width Carrier Frequency More Narrow High Requires larger equipment & power Slow antenna rate. more complex Requires larger equipment/more power Reduces maximum range Pulse Width Pulse Repetition Freq. Detection time Reduces maximum range Receiver Sensitivity Receiver Bandwidth High Narrow More complex equipment Distorts pulse shape .

(search radars) Difficult to jam.Specific Types of Radar   Frequency Modulated CW Radar  Use for radar altimeters and missile guidance. Pulse Doppler   Moving Target Indicator (MTI) System   Frequency Agile Systems  . Signals compared with previous return to enhance moving targets. Carrier wave frequency within pulse is compared with a reference signal to detect moving targets.

Aegis  Essentially 360° Coverage  Phase shift and frequency shift allow the planar array to “steer” the beam.Specific Types of Radar  SAR / ISAR  Phased Array . .  Also allows for high / low power output depending on requirements.

Questions? .

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