This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
AP Biology Lab #1: Diffusion and Osmosis
Purpose: In this lab, we will be conducting an experiment where we will observe the acts of passive transport: diffusion and osmosis. The experiment will show how molecules in a solution are able to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. With this, it will also show us how hypertonic and hypotonic solutions exist, as well as how cells try to get back into an isotonic state. In doing so, this lab will allow us to learn why and how diffusion and osmosis happens in all living things. We will be testing the movement of solutes from their area of high concentration to the area of lower concentration that surrounds them. Hypothesis: Exercise A) I believe molecules of starch and glucose will enter the water in the beaker. Exercise B) I believe osmosis will occur and try to make each solution isotonic. Exercise C) I believe the water potential of the potato will be negative. Exercise D) I believe there is no hypothesis to give. Exercise E) I believe the salt will cause the cell to become hypertonic. Procedure: Exercise A) 1) Obtain a dialysis tubing that has been submerged in water. Tie off an end to form a bag. 2) Test the solution for a presence of glucose. 3) Place a starch solution into the bag. 4) Fill a beaker 2/3 full of water and add a solution to the water. Record the color change of the solution and amount of glucose present. 5) Immerse the bag into the beaker of solution. 6) Wait 30 minutes or until a distinct color change has taken place in both the bag and solution. 7) Test the liquid remaining in the beaker for any presence of glucose. Exercise B) 1) Obtain 6 strips of presoaked dialysis tubing. 2) Tie a knot in one end of each piece of tubing to form 6 bags. Fill them each up with different solutions. 3) Rinse and record weight of each bag. 4) Place each bag into a beaker to find the molarity of the solution in the dialysis bags. 5) Now fill each beaker with 2/3 of water or enough to completely submerge the bag. 6) After 30 minutes, remove bags from water and determine their mass. Exercise C) 1) Slice a potato into 4 discs without skin. 2) Pour assigned solution into a beaker. 3) Measure and record the mass of the 4 discs. 4) Put all 4 discs into the designated solution and let sit overnight. 5) Remove discs. Measure and record their total mass. 6) Calculate percentage change from initial to final and graph data.
7 grams 25. Observe and describe what happened to the cell.47% 21.5 grams 22.4 grams 23.4 grams 26.7 grams 26.25% 9.0 grams 23.1 Presence of Glucose in Water Through Dialysis Bag Initial Contents Solution Color Presence of Glucose Initial Final Initial Final 15% Glucose & 1% Murky Clear Dark Olive Yes Yes Starch Green H2O & IKI Dark OrangeAutumn No Yes bottom.20% 8.1 grams 21. Data: Exercise A) Table 1.83% 11.8 M Sucrose 1.0 M Distilled Water 0.2 M Sucrose 0.0 M Sucrose Percent Change in Mass of Dialysis Bags –Group Data Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Difference Percent Change in Mass 21.3 grams 2.6 M Sucrose 0.91% .40% 11.7 grams 2.0 grams 0.9 grams 2.5 grams 24. Sketch and describe the onion cell.2 Contents in Dialysis Bag 0.8 grams 4. Exercise E) 1) Prepare a wet mount slide of an epidermis of an onion.3 grams 21. 3) Remove the cover slip and flood the onion cell with water. Observe and record what you see.2 grams 23. Clear Orange Yellow-top Bag Beaker Exercise B) Table 1.9 grams 1. 2) Add a few drops of a salt solution across the slide.3 grams 0.1 grams -0.Exercise D) 1) Complete the questions on the calculations of water potential from experiment.4 M Sucrose 0.
686% 12.6 M Sucrose 0.11% 8.27% 60.80% Class Average 1.3 Content in Dialysis Bag 0.05 % .193% 14.26% 2.91% 18.29% 34.0% 5.7% 9.30% 11.0% 8.80% 8.0% 123.6% 85.7% 5.70% 17.0% 5.0% 16.75% 3.20% 18.9% 101.9% 12.0% 2.00% 2.0% 13.579% 10.8 M Sucrose 1.48% 6.80% 9.99% 20.40% Percent Change in Mass of Dialysis Bags–Class Data Group Group Group Group Group Group Total 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.10% 22.2 M Sucrose 0.63 % 11.1% 16.30% 10.6% 7.30% 14.1% 2.20% 8.896% 8.0 M Sucrose Group 1 0.74% 20.756% 4.60% 1.47% 4.Table 1.01% 17.25% 12.4 M Sucrose 0.519% 17.0% 11.6% 11.0 M Distilled Water 0.83% 10.8% 9.89% 4.35% 16.
70% -15.3 grams 1.76% -12.4 Contents in Beaker Initial Mass Final Mass 8.5 grams 0.10% -13.87% -32.8 M Sucrose 6.98% 22.3 grams 4.5°C 21.Graph 1.29% -1.4 M Sucrose 6.0 M Sucrose 6.6 M Sucrose 6.0 M 6.3 grams 0.3 grams .5°C 21.5°C 21.5 grams 5.0 grams 5.33% -26.3 grams 0.5°C 21.5 grams Potato Core Results–Group Data Mass Percent Class Average Percent Difference Change in Change in Mass Mass 1.2 M Sucrose 6.5°C 0.23% -20.5 grams 1.0 grams 6.7 grams 26.1 Exercise C) Table 1.77% Temperature 21.5°C 21.16% 0.9 grams 5.8 grams 1.3 grams 0.3 grams 0.7 grams -4.3 Distilled Water grams 0.44% -11.24% -18.
0% -17.8 M Sucrose 1.77% Graph 1.40% Total 154.10% 13.Table 1.5% -26.2% -25.0% -25.2 .33% -26.0% -25.8% -26.0 M Distilled Water 0.0% 4.98% -4.44% -11.29% Group 2 28.6% -145.1% -21.76% -12.2% 2.9% Group 7 21.0% -31.5 Contents in Beaker 0.0% -27.0% 3.70% -15.4% -29.0% 23.0% -21.2% -21.87% -32.7% -26.23% -20.5% 17.7% -22.1% -15.10% -13.34% -23.4 M Sucrose 0.3% -183.9% -1.6 M Sucrose 0.0 M Sucrose Group 1 26.6% -15.70% 8.20% 1.0% Potato Core Results–Class Data Group Group 4 Group Group 3 5 6 17.6% -22.95% -7.0% -16.5% -25.5% -22.2 M Sucrose 0.24% -18.4% -17.37% Class Average 22.66% -92.16% -1.4% 20.74% -128.70% -17.
4M 0.8M 1.2M 0.6M 0.0M .Exercise D) Percent Change in Mass 20% 10% -3% -17% -25% -30% Sucrose Molarity Distilled Water 0.
Glucose molecules. we found there to be glucose.3 Analysis: Exercise A) 1) Glucose is leaving the bag and the IKI is entering the bag. 3) If the initial and final percent concentration of glucose and IKI for the bag and the beaker were given. 5) If the experiment started with glucose and IKI inside the bag with H2O and starch in the beaker. the IKI moved from the beaker to the bag. The glucose moved to make the solute concentration inside and outside the bag equal. This caused the change in the color of the bag. Starch molecules are too large to enter or exit through the holes of the dialysis tubing. 4) Water molecules. The glucose solution moved out of the bag. IKI molecules. they would show the differences and prove the movement of these substances to reach equilibrium. The change in the color of the bag proves IKI is entering the bag and after testing the beaker. The IKI moved into the bag to make the concentrations outside the bag equal to inside the bag.Graph 1. the glucose and IKI would move out of the bag to make the concentrations equal. and Membrane Pores. which proves that glucose was leaving the bag and entering the beaker of H2O and IKI. . 2) In the results.
19 mole / liter)(0. when the bag contained a 0.changing the color of the solution within the beaker.19M Exercise D) Water Potential from Experimental Data: Group: -1(0.4M solution instead of distilled water.1675 bars Class: -1(0. 2) The solute concentration of the plant cell is hypertonic because the solute concentration is higher than the water concentration. 5) Water will diffuse out of the bag since the water potential is higher in the bag and water moves from areas of higher water potential to areas of lower water potential. The mass of the bags filled with distilled water and 0. 4) The water potential is greater in the dialysis bag. For example. the masses of the bags would have changed in different ways. 7) b: Molar Concentration of Solutes in the Zucchini: 0. the starch.10x100=10% change in mass 5) The sucrose solution in the beaker would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag. and 1.17M • Class: 0.9 grams.0M bags would have increased because water would have moved into the bag to equalize the concentrations. water entered the bag to make the concentrations inside and outside of the bag more equal. 3) The percent change in mass was calculated to show how much the mass increased due to the addition of water. which in turn. 0. however.0 grams 2. Exercise B) 1) The molarity of the sucrose in the bag determines the amount of water that either moves into or out of the bag. 3) The pressure potential of the system is equal to 0. The mass of the 0. 2) If each of the bags were placed into a 0. 2 / 20 = 0. could not move into the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the semi-permeable membrane of the dialysis tubing.0831 liter bar / mole °K)(295°K) = -4.10 .2M solution. 0.8M. changes the mass.6578 bars 1) The water potential of the potato core after dehydrating will decrease because the water within the potato would evaporate and therefore lower the water potential.35 mole / liter . a 4. 4) Initial Mass Final Mass Mass Percent Change in Mass Differences 20. As this happened. Because of this.6M. water will diffuse into the cell to reach dynamic equilibrium. The masses of the 0.17 mole / liter)(0.2 percent increase. Exercise C) 10: Molar Concentration of Sucrose: • Group: 0. the mass rose by 0.4M bag would have stayed the same because the concentrations are now equal.0 grams 18 – 20 = 2 . which was trying to equal the concentrations in both the bags and the cups.0831 liter bar / mole °K)(295°K) = -4.2M sucrose would have gone down because water would have left the bag.0 grams 18.
2) The cells shrunk (shriveled up) with no other changes. Exercise E) Procedure: 1) The cells look like normal plant cells.5801 bars b) Water Potential = 0 + -8. b) Distilled Water will have a higher water potential. 10) a) Distilled Water will have a higher concentration of water molecules.35 mole / liter)(0. .5801 = -8.5801 bars 9) Adding solute to a solution increases solute potential because the solute concentration increases. 3) The cells increased back to their normal size. Analysis of Results: 1) Plasmolysis is the lose of water and turgor pressure within a plant cell. c) The red blood cells would increase in size because water is moving from the area of higher water potential (the distilled water) to the area of lower water potential (the red blood cells) until equilibrium is reached.8) a) Solute Potential = -1(0.0831 liter bar / mole °K)(295°K) = -8. 2) The onion cells should plasmolyze because the area surrounding them had a lower water potential thus water should have moved out of the cells.
This means water left the bag and none entered it. but more osmosis than anything else. First. but nonetheless. I believe we had made a couple of mistakes. Since there was no hypothesis to state for Exercise D. Had we not have had these errors. I was right in my hypothesis for Exercise E. especially not a negative change. once with salt added to it. as we had to take the initial weight of the potatoes from another group. but as soon as water hit them. I was wrong for my hypothesis in Exercise A. I think this could only have had happened if the cup had a small drop of sucrose or any other substance before we poured water into it. indicating water diffused into the bag to try and make them isotonic with their surrounding environment. . After looking at our data and the class data. Starch molecules cannot diffuse out of the bag and into the water surrounding it because I learned that they were far too big to exit though the semi-permeable dialysis tubing. they grew right back up and became turgid once again. The onion sample. we had a negative percent change in mass when it was a dialysis bag of water submerged in a cup of water. Conclusion: In this lab. I believe we would have received some spot on results. I was right once again: the water potential for the potato was negative. My hypothesis for Exercise B was right on target. indicating water movement towards the potatoes was high. a human error. Our next and biggest mess-up was when we did not weigh our potatoes initial mass before we put them in their assigned solutions. showed how the cells became hypertonic and shriveled up. meaning there should have been no percent change in mass.3) Grasses that live on the sides of roads that have been salted in the winter tend to die because the water is drained from their cells as the water moves out of the grass cells and into the hypertonic NaCl area around it. This caused us mass confusion and also bad results. We witnessed how the bags got heavier after 30 minutes. both diffusion and osmosis. we observed passive transport. In Exercise C.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.