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15

i.e. 1.29 + 8.14 =

2 72 + 4τxy

from which τxy = 3.17 N/mm2 . The shear force at P is equal to Q so that the shear stress at P is given by τxy = 3.17 = from which Q = 95 100 N = 95.1 kN. 3Q 2 × 150 × 300

**Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems
**

S.2.1

The stress system applied to the plate is shown in Fig. S.2.1. The origin, O, of the axes may be chosen at any point in the plate; let P be the point whose coordinates are (2, 3).

2p 4p

y

P (2,3)

4p 3p

3p O 4p 4p 2p

x

Fig. S.2.1

From Eqs (1.42) in which σz = 0 εx = − 2p 3.5p 3p −ν =− E E E 2p 3p 2.75p εy = +ν = E E E 3.5p x + f1 (y) E (i) (ii)

Hence, from Eqs (1.27) 3.5p ∂u =− ∂x E so that u = − (iii)

Also ∂v 2.28) and (vii). C = 0. ∂v/∂x = 0.52) and Eq. from Eqs (vii) and (viii). suppose ∂f2 (x) =C ∂x then f2 (x) = Cx + D in which C and D are constants. (1. v= 4p ∂u = =A ∂y G Eqs (vii) and (viii) now become u=− 3.16 Solutions Manual where f1 (y) is a function of y. From the last of Eqs (1. (viii). Therefore.5p x + Ay + B E (vii) (vi) (v) 4p ∂v ∂u ∂f2 (x) ∂f1 (y) = + = + G ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (from Eqs (iv) and (iii)) . Substituting for f1 (y) and f2 (x) in Eqs (iii) and (iv) gives u=− and 2.75p = ∂y E so that v = − 2. Hence. from Eqs (1.75p y + Cx + D (viii) E Since the origin of the axes is ﬁxed in space it follows that when x = y = 0.75p y + f2 (x) E (iv) in which f2 (x) is a function of x. Thus. when x = 0. Further. when y = 0. the direction of Ox is ﬁxed in space so that. u = v = 0. B = D = 0. Similarly.28) γxy = Suppose ∂f1 (y) =A ∂y then f1 ( y) = Ay + B in which A and B are constants.5p 4p x+ y E G (ix) 3. from Eq.

50). when y = ±d/2. Since φ = Ay3 + By3 x + Cyx ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 4 ∂4 φ =0 ∂y4 ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 2 ∂y2 (i) and the biharmonic equation (2. (iv) B= −4C 3d 2 (v) . from Eq.25p (from Eq. is deﬁned by the equations (Eqs (2.2 An Airy stress function.25 = 19. τxy = 0.75p y E From Eq. Thus. (xi)) (x) (xi) S. Further σx = σy = τxy ∂2 φ = 6Ay + 6Byx ∂y2 (ii) (iii) (iv) ∂2 φ =0 ∂x 2 ∂2 φ = −3By2 − C =− ∂x ∂y The distribution of shear stress in a rectangular section beam is parabolic and is zero at the upper and lower surfaces. 3) u= and 8. φ.8)): σx = ∂2 φ ∂y2 σy = ∂2 φ ∂x 2 τxy = − ∂2 φ ∂x ∂y and has a ﬁnal form which is determined by the boundary conditions relating to a particular problem.Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems 17 2. (ix) becomes p u = (−3. G = E/2(1 + ν) = E/2.5 and Eq.2. Hence.5x + 10y) E v= At the point (2.73◦ 23 23p E (from Eq. (1.9) is satisﬁed. (x)) E The point P therefore moves at an angle α to the x axis given by v= α = tan−1 8.

(ii) 6A + 6Bl = 0 whence A= Then. Therefore d/2 −d/2 τxy t dy = −P Substituting for τxy from Eq.e. (iv) d/2 −d/2 (−3By2 − C)t dy = −P which gives 2t Bd 3 Cd + 8 2 3P 2td −2P td 3 =P Substituting for B from Eq. (ii) σx = or 12P(l − x) y (ix) td 3 Equation (ix) is the direct stress distribution at any section of the beam given by simple bending theory. My σx = I 3 /12. (v) gives C= It now follows from Eqs (v) and (vi) that B= (vii) (vi) At the free end of the beam where x = l the bending moment is zero and thus σx = 0 for any value of y. (iv) is σx = τxy = 6P 2 3P y − td 3 2td 12Pl 12P y − 3 xy td 3 td 2Pl td 3 (viii) . where M = P(l − x) and I = td The shear stress distribution given by Eq.18 Solutions Manual The resultant shear force at any section of the beam is −P. from Eq. from Eq. i. Therefore.

• At x = 0. strength of materials. • At y = −h. τxy = S.9) ∇ 4φ = 0 so that the stress function satisﬁes the biharmonic equation. etc.e. w (15h2 x 2 y − 5x 2 y3 − 2h2 y3 + y5 ) 20h3 Also h −h σx dy = h w (−12h2 y + 20y3 )dy 20h3 −h w = [−6h2 y2 + 5y4 ]h −h 20h3 =0 i. (2.3 The stress function is φ= Then ∂2 φ w = (30h2 y − 10y3 ) = σy ∂x 2 20h3 w ∂2 φ = (−30x 2 y − 12h2 y + 20y3 ) = σx 2 ∂y 20h3 w ∂2 φ = (30h2 x − 30xy2 ) = −τxy ∂x ∂y 20h3 ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 4 ∂4 φ w = (120y) 4 ∂y 20h3 ∂4 φ w = (−60y) 2 ∂y2 ∂x 20h3 Substituting in Eq. σy = −w and τxy = 0 which are satisﬁed. no resultant force. σy = w and τxy = 0 which are satisﬁed.2. .Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems 19 or 6P 2 d 2 (x) y − td 3 4 Equation (x) is identical to that derived from simple bending theory and may be found in standard texts on stress analysis. The boundary conditions are as follows: • At y = h. σx = w/20h3 (−12h2 y + 20y3 ) = 0.

Also. σy .e. When x = l σx = and the total end load = d −d pl (−10y3 + 6d 2 y) 20d 3 σx 1 dy d −d = pl 20d 3 (−10y3 + 6d 2 y)dy = 0 Thus the stress function satisﬁes the boundary conditions for axial load in the x direction.4 The Airy stress function is φ= Then ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 4 ∂4 φ 3pxy =− 3 4 ∂y d ∂4 φ 3pxy = 2 ∂y2 ∂x 2d 3 p [5(x 3 − l 2 x)(y + d)2 (y − 2d) − 3yx(y2 − d 2 )2 ] 120d 3 Substituting these values in Eq.20 Solutions Manual Finally h −h σx y dy = h w (−12h2 y2 + 20y4 )dy 20h3 −h w = [−4h2 y3 + 4y5 ]h −h 20h3 =0 i.2. no resultant moment. the direct stress.8)) σx = ∂2 φ px = [5y(x 2 − l 2 ) − 10y3 + 6d 2 y] 2 ∂y 20d 3 When x = 0. σx . The direct stress.8)) σy = ∂2 φ px = 3 ( y3 − 3yd 2 − 2d 3 ) ∂x 2 4d .9) gives 0+2× 3pxy 3pxy − 3 =0 2d 3 d Therefore.9) is satisﬁed. (2. S. the biharmonic equation (2. is given by (see Eqs (2. σx = 0 for all values of y. is given by (see Eqs (2.

Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems 21 When x = 0. is given by (see Eqs (2. A similar situation arises on the plane x = l. although the resultant of the Airy stress function shear stress has the same magnitude as the equilibrating shear force it varies through the depth of the beam whereas the applied equilibrating shear stress is constant. τxy (x = 0)12dl = i.4 and taking moments about the plane x = l. τxy (x = 0) = pl2 6d 1 2 lpl l 2 3 and the shear force is pl 2 /6. S.2.5 The stress function is φ= w (−10c3 x 2 − 15c2 x 2 y + 2c2 y3 + 5x 2 y3 − y5 ) 40bc3 . P. Also at any section x where y = −d σy = and when y = +d σy = px 3 (d − 3d 3 − 2d 3 ) = −px 4d 3 px (−d 3 + 3d 3 − 2d 3 ) = 0 4d 3 Thus. σy = 0 for all values of y. The shear stress.e.8)) τxy = − When x = 0 τxy = − p [−5l 2 ( y2 − d 2 ) − 5y4 + 6y2 d 2 − d 4 ] 40d 3 p ∂2 φ =− [5(3x 2 − l 2 )( y2 − d 2 ) − 5y4 + 6y2 d 2 − d 4 ] ∂x ∂y 40d 3 so that. Thus. τxy = 0.2. The resultant shear force on the plane x = 0 is given by d −d τxy 1 dy = − p 40d 3 d −d [−5l 2 ( y2 − d 2 ) − 5y4 + 6y2 d 2 − d 4 ]dy = − pl2 6 From Fig. τxy . the stress function satisﬁes the boundary conditions for load in the y direction. when y = ±d.

.e.22 Solutions Manual Then w ∂2 φ = (12c2 y + 30x 2 y − 20y3 ) = σx ∂y2 40bc3 w ∂2 φ = (−20c3 − 30c2 y + 10y3 ) = σy ∂x 2 40bc3 w ∂2 φ = (−30c2 x + 30xy2 ) = −τxy ∂x ∂y 40bc3 ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 4 ∂4 φ w = (−120y) ∂y4 40bc3 ∂4 φ w = (60y) ∂x 2 ∂y2 40bc3 Substituting in Eq. the direct stress distribution at the end of the cantilever is self-equilibrating. no axial force at any section of the beam.e. (2. The axial force at any section is c c w σx dy = (12c2 y + 30x 2 y − 20y3 )dy 40bc3 −c −c w = [6c2 y2 + 15x 2 y2 − 5y4 ]c −c 40bc3 =0 i. y = +c w τxy = 0 σy = − b At y = −c σy = 0 At x = 0 σx = Then c −c τxy = 0 w (12c2 y − 20y3 ) 40bc3 σx dy = c w (12c2 y − 20y3 )dy 40bc3 −c w [6c2 y2 − 5y4 ]c = −c 40bc3 =0 i. On the boundary.9) ∇ 4φ = 0 so that the stress function satisﬁes the biharmonic equation.

e.6) and assuming body forces X = Y = 0 ∂2 τxy ∂2 σx =− 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x Hence 2 ∂2 σy ∂2 τxy ∂2 σx =− 2 − ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y2 ∂2 τxy ∂ 2 σy =− 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y .Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems 23 The bending moment at x = 0 is c −c σx y dy = c w (12c2 y2 − 20y4 )dy 40bc3 −c w [4c2 y3 − 4y5 ]c = 0 = −c 40bc3 i.52) become εx = 1 (σx − νσy ) + αT E 1 εy = (σy − νσx ) + αT E Also.2.21) 1 2(1 + ν) ∂2 τxy = E ∂x ∂y E or 2(1 + ν) ∂2 σy ∂ 2 σy ∂2 τxy ∂ 2 σx ∂ 2 σx + − ν 2 − ν 2 + Eα∇ 2 T = ∂x 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y2 ∂x (i) ∂ 2 σy ∂2 σx −ν 2 ∂x 2 ∂x +α 1 ∂2 T + 2 ∂x E ∂ 2 σy ∂2 σx −ν 2 ∂y2 ∂y +α ∂2 T ∂y2 2(1 + ν) τxy E From Eqs (1. the strain due to a temperature rise T in a bar of original length L0 and ﬁnal length L is given by ε= L0 (1 + αT ) − L0 L − L0 = = αT L0 L0 Thus for the isotropic sheet. the beam is a cantilever beam under a uniformly distributed load of w/unit area with a self-equilibrating stress application at x = 0.52) and (1. S.50) γxy = Substituting in Eq.6 From physics. (1. Eqs (1. from the last of Eqs (1.

7 The stress function is φ= Then ∂2 φ = 0 = σy ∂x 2 3Qxy ∂2 φ = − 3 = σx ∂y2 2a ∂2 φ 3Q 3Qy2 = − = −τxy ∂x ∂y 4a 4a3 Also ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 4 ∂4 φ =0 ∂y4 ∂4 φ =0 ∂x 2 ∂y2 3Qxy Qxy3 − 4a 4a3 so that Eq. .24 Solutions Manual and 2ν Substituting in Eq. the biharmonic equation.2. (2. (i) − Thus ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x 2 ∂y and since σx = ∂2 φ ∂y2 σy = ∂2 φ ∂x 2 (see Eqs (2.9).8)) + Eα∇ 2 T = 0 (σx + σy ) + Eα∇ 2 T = 0 ∂ 2 σy ∂ 2 σy ∂ 2 σx ∂ 2 σx − = + + Eα∇ 2 T ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂ 2 σy ∂2 τxy ∂ 2 σx = −ν 2 − ν 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂x ∂y or ∂2 φ ∂2 φ + 2 ∂y2 ∂x ∇ 2 (∇ 2 φ + EαT ) = 0 S. is satisﬁed.

BM = −Qa. Then. i.e.Solutions to Chapter 2 Problems 25 When x = a. σx = −3Qy/2a2 . a −a a −a a −a − y2 3Q 1− 2 4a a dy σx y dy 3Qay2 dy 2a3 .e. σx = 3Qy/2a2 . linear.e. when x = −a. when y=0 y = −a y = +a σx = 0 3Q σx = 2a σx = −3Q 2a Also.e. τxy = 0 and when y = 0. when y = ±a. SF = Q. i. The resultant bending moment at x = ±a is = = i. i. The resultant shear force at x = ±a is = i. τxy = −3Q/4a.e. linear and when y=0 y = −a y = +a The shear stress is given by (see above) τxy = − y2 3Q 1− 2 4a a . parabolic σx = 0 −3Q σx = 2a σx = 3Q 2a so that.

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