7/24/2011

GATE‐2007

Forging
By  S K Mondal

In open‐die forging, a disc of diameter 200 mm and height 60 mm is compressed without any barreling effect. The final diameter of the disc is 400 mm. The true strain is 1.986 1.686 (a) 1 986 (b) 1 686 (c) 1.386 (d) 0.602 Ans. (c)

GATE‐1994
Match 4 correct pairs between List I and List II for the questions List I gives a number of processes and List II gives a number of products List I List II (a) Investment casting ( ) I t t ti 1. Turbine rotors T bi t (b) Die casting 2. Turbine blades (c) Centrifugal casting 3. Connecting rods (d) Drop forging 4. Galvanized iron pipe (e) Extrusion 5. Cast iron pipes (f) Shell moulding 6. Carburettor body Ans. (a) ‐ 2, (b) ‐ 6, (c) ‐ 5, (d) – 3

GATE‐1998
List I (A) Aluminium brake shoe (1) (B) Plastic water bottle (2) (C) Stainless steel cups (3) (D) Soft drink can (aluminium) (4) (5) (6) Ans. (A) ‐3, (B) ‐2, (C) ‐1, (D) – 5 List II Deep drawing Blow moulding Sand casting Centrifugal casting Impact extrusion Upset forging

IES‐2008
Which one of the following is correct? Malleability is the property by which a metal or alloy can be plastically deformed by applying (a) Tensile stress (b) Bending stress (c) Shear stress (d) Compressive stress Ans. (d)

IES – 2006
Assertion (A): Forging dies are provided with taper or draft angles on vertical surfaces. Reason (R): It facilitates complete filling of die cavity and favourable grain flow. (a) Both ( ) B th A and R are i di id ll t d individually true and R i th d is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

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IES – 2005
Consider the following statements: Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which results in a decrease in strength and toughness. Forged components can be provided with thin sections, without reducing the strength. ti ith t d i th t th Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) Only 1 (b) Only 2 (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (b)

IES – 1996
Which one of the following is an advantage of forging? (a) Good surface finish (b) Low tooling cost (c) Close tolerance (d) Improved physical property Ans. (d)

IES – 1993
Which one of the following manufacturing processes requires the provision of ‘gutters’? (a) Closed die forging (b) Centrifugal casting (c) Investment casting (d) Impact extrusion Ans. (a)

IES – 1997
Assertion (A): In drop forging besides the provision for flash, provision is also to be made in the forging die for additional space called gutter. Reason (R): The gutter helps to restrict the outward flow of metal thereby helping to fill thin ribs and bases in the upper die. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true [Ans. (c)]

IES – 2004
Match List I (Different systems) with List II (Associated terminology) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Riveted J Joints 1. Nipping pp g B. Welded joints 2. Angular movement C. Leaf springs 3. Fullering D. Knuckle joints 4. Fusion A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 1 2 3 4 (c) 1 4 3 2 (d) 3 4 1 2 Ans. (d)

IES – 2003
A forging method for reducing the diameter of a bar and in the process making it longer is termed as (a) Fullering (b) Punching (c) Upsetting (d) Extruding Ans. (a)

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IES – 2002
Consider the following steps involved in hammer forging a connecting rod from bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Fullering 5. Edging Which of the following is the correct sequence of operations? (a) 1, 4, 3, 2 and 5 (b) 4, 5, 1, 3 and 2 (c) 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 (d) 5, 1, 4, 2 and 3 [Ans. (b)]

IES – 1999
Consider the following operations involved in forging a hexagonal bolt from a round bar stock, whose diameter is equal to the bolt diameter: 1. Flattening 2. Upsetting 3. S Swaging 4. Cambering i C b i The correct sequence of these operations is (a) 1, 2, 3, 4 (b) 2, 3, 4, 1 (c) 2, 1, 3, 4 (d) 3, 2, 1, 4 Ans. (a)

IES – 2003
Consider the following steps in forging a connecting rod from the bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Edging Select the correct sequence of these operations using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1‐2‐3‐4 (b) 2‐3‐4‐1 (c) 3‐4‐1‐2 (d) 4‐1‐3‐2 Ans. (d)

IES – 2005
The process of removing the burrs or flash from a forged component in drop forging is called: (a) Swaging (b) Perforating (c) Trimming (d) Fettling Ans. (c)

IES 2011
Which of the following processes belong to forging operation ? 1. Fullering 2. Swaging 3. Welding (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (b) 1, 2 and 3 only [Ans. (a)]

IES – 2008
The balls of the ball bearings are manufactured from steel rods. The operations involved are: 1. Ground 2. Hot forged on hammers 3. Heat treated 4. Polished What is the correct sequence of the above operations from start? (a) 3‐2‐4‐1 (b) 3‐2‐1‐4 (c) 2‐3‐1‐4 (d) 2‐3‐4‐1 Ans. (None) Correct sequence is 2 – 1 – 3 ‐ 4

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IES – 2001
In the forging operation, fullering is done to    (a) Draw out the material  (b) Bend the material (c) Upset the material (d) Extruding the material Ans. (a)

Video

IES 2011
Consider the following statements : 1. Any metal will require some time to undergo complete plastic deformation particularly if deforming metal has to fill cavities and corners of small radii. 2. For larger work piece of metals that can retain toughness at forging temperature it is preferable to use forge press rather than forge hammer. (a) 1 and 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1 (b) 1 and 2 are correct and 1 is the reason for 2 (c) 1 and 2 are correct but unrelated (d) 1 only correct [Ans. (b)]

IES – 1998
The bending force required for V‐bending, U‐ bending and Edge‐bending will be in the ratio of (a) 1 : 2 : 0.5 (b) 2: 1 : 0.5 (c) 1: 2 : 1 (d) 1: 1 : 1 Ans. (a)

IES – 2005
Match List I (Type of Forging) with List II (Operation) and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List I List II A. Drop Forging 1. Metal is gripped in the dies and pressure is applied on the heated end i li d h h d d B. Press Forging 2. Squeezing action C. Upset Forging 3. Metal is placed between rollers and pushed D. Roll Forging 4. Repeated hammer blows [Ans. (c)] A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

IES – 2008
Match List‐I with List‐II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: List‐I (Forging Technique) List‐II (Process) A. Smith Forging 1. Material is only upset to get the desired shape B. Drop Forging 2. Carried out manually open dies C. Press Forging 3. Done in closed impression dies by hammers in blows D. Machine Forging 4. Done in closed impression dies by continuous squeezing force Code: A B C D (a) 2 3 4 1 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 4 1 2 3

Ans. (a)

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IES – 1998
Which one of the following processes is most commonly used for the forging of bolt heads of hexagonal shape? (a) Closed die drop forging (b) Open die upset forging O di tf i (c) Close die press forging (d) Open die progressive forging Ans. (b)

IES – 1994
In drop forging, forging is done by dropping (a) The work piece at high velocity (b) The hammer at high velocity. (c) The die with hammer at high velocity (d) a weight on hammer to produce the requisite impact. Ans. (c)

IES – 2009
Match List‐I with List‐II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List‐I List‐II (Article) (Processing Method) A. Disposable coffee cups 1. Rotomoulding B. Large water tanks g 2. Expandable bead moulding p g C. Plastic sheets 3. Thermoforming D. Cushion pads 4. Blow moulding 5. Calendaring Code: (a) A B C D (b) A B C D 3 5 1 2 4 5 1 2 (c) A B C D (d) A B C D 4 3 3 1 3 1 5 2 Ans. (d)

IAS – 2001
Match List I (Forging operations) with List II (Descriptions) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Flattening 1. Thickness is reduced continuously at different sections along length B. Drawing 2. Metal is displaced away from centre, reducing thickness in middle and increasing length C. Fullering 3. Rod is pulled through a die D. Wire drawing 4. Pressure a workpiece between two flat dies Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 4 1 2 3 (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 4 2 1 3 Ans. (b)

IAS – 2000
Drop forging is used to produce (a) Small components (b) Large components (c) Identical Components in large numbers (d) Medium‐size components Ans. (a)

IAS – 1998
The forging defect due to hindrance to smooth flow of metal in the component called 'Lap' occurs because (a) The corner radius provided is too large (b) Th corner radius provided i t small The di id d is too ll (c) Draft is not provided (d) The shrinkage allowance is inadequate Ans. (b)

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IAS‐1996
Compound die performs (a) Two or more operations at one station in one stroke (b) Two or more operations at different stations in one stroke (c) Only one operations and that too at one work station (d) Two operations at two different work stations in the same stroke Ans. (a)

IAS – 2002
Consider the following statements related to  forging: 1. Flash is excess material added to stock which flows  around parting line. 2. Fl h h l  i  filli   f thi   ib   d b Flash helps in filling of thin ribs and bosses in upper   i     die. 3. Amount of flash depends upon forging force. Which of the above statements are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 3 [Ans. (b)]

Assertion (A) : Hot tears occur during forging because of inclusions in the blank material Reason (R) : Bonding between the inclusions and the parent material is through physical and chemical bonding. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES 2011

IES – 2006 ‐ Conventional
A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50 mm is reduced to a thickness of 25 mm by open die forging. If the co‐efficient of friction between the job and die is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The average shear yield stress of lead can be taken as 4 N/mm2. [10 – Marks]

IES – 2007 Conventional
A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is forged at room temperature between two flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height 30 mm, using slab method of analysis. The yield strength of the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and the coefficient of friction is 0.05. Assume that volume is constant after deformation. There is no sticking. Also find mean die pressure. [20‐Marks]

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Analysis of Forging

( σx + dσx ) Bh − σx Bh − 2τxdx B = 0
dσx 2τx − =0 dx h

Fig. Open die forging

For Sliding Friction
τ x = μp dσx 2μp − =0 ..........eqn A dx h Assuming σx and p as principal stresses, and taking Tresca’s yield theory; we have for plan strain, or
σ1 − σ3 = σ0 = 2k σ x + p = σ0

←p being compressive

dσ x dp =− dx dx from eq n A dp 2μ =− dx p h int egrating

2μ x +C h Now at x = L, σx = 0, ( stress free suface ) ,so we have log e p = − p = σ0 or log e ( σ0 ) = − 2μ L +C h 2μ or C = log e σ0 + L h ⎛ p ⎞ 2μ log e ⎜ ⎟ = (L − x ) ⎝ σ0 ⎠ h or p = σ0e or
2 μ ( L − x ) /h

p p 2μ L − x /h = =e ( ) 2k σ0
2μ ( L − x ) /h

σx = σ0 − p = σ0 ⎡1 − e ⎣

⎤ ⎦

Distribution of p and σ i

pmax = σ0e ⎛ p ⎞ ⎜ 2k ⎟ ⎝ ⎠max

2 μL h

1 + 2μ ⎡

L h
2 μL h

⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ As h decreases, p will increase for the same value of μp is directly proportional to μ. Now total forging load

( σx )max = σ0 ⎢1 − e
L

pt = 2B ∫ pdx
0

Average pressure ( pa ) =

pt 1 = ∫ pdx 2BL L 0

L

2 μL ⎤ σ0 h ⎡ −1 + e h ⎥ ⎢ L 2μ ⎣ ⎦ 2μL is small then, As if h ⎤ pa pa h ⎡ 2μL 4μ2L2 = = + − 1⎥ 1+ σ0 2k 2μL ⎢ h 2h2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ μL ⎤ = ⎢1 + h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

pa =

Sticking Friction
When there is a condition of sticking friction, the work piece material does not slide along the die face and actually becomes a part of the die face and there is sub surface flow of metal. The frictional shear stress at the die interface cannot be more than the yield shear stress of the material. σ So, for sticking friction τ x = k = 0 (Tresca condition) 2 dσ x σ 0 or − =0 dx h dp σ0 − − =0 dx h σ or p = − 0 x + c h Now usually the sliding friction exists near the edges of the work piece (x = L), where the pressure is low, but at some distance nearer to the centre line, sticking fiction may exist. Let sticking occurs at x = xs, where. σ τs = μp = 0 2

σ0 = μσ0e2μ (L − xs )/h 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ h or x S = L − log e ⎜ ⎟ 2μ ⎝ 2μ ⎠ at x = x S ,p = pS now pS = − C = pS + σ0 .x S + C h

σ0 .x S h σ0 ( xS − x ) h

In the sticking region p = pS +

pS = σ0e2μ(L −xs )/h

Hot Forging
STICKING FRICTION IS HIGH and sticking regime extends over the whole interface, for this situation. σ τx = k = 0 2 now σx + p = −σo

or dσx = −dp −hdp − 2kdx = 0 ∴int regrating dp x = − +c 2k h Now at x = L, p = 2k = σ0 (Since σx = 0)
c=1+

L h

p L = 1 + (L − x ) 2k h L ⎛ p ⎞ = 1 + (at centre x = 0) or ⎜ ⎟ h ⎝ 2k ⎠max Average pressure will be L ⎞ ⎛ pa = 2k ⎜1 + 2h ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∴
Note: The value of co-efficient of friction at sticking condition; μ = 0.5 Tresca yield condition = 0.577 for Von-mises yield condition.

Axi-symmetric forging
dσr 2τ − =0 dr h τ = μp = −μσZ (where p = −σZ ) dσr 2μσZ + =0 dr h Now using Von-Mises’s yield condition,

2σ2 = ( σ1 − σ2 ) + ( σ2 − σ3 ) + ( σ3 − σ1 ) 0
2 2 2 2

2

Taking σr , σθ and σz as principal stress,we ge t 2σ2 = ( σr − σz ) + ( σz − σθ ) + ( σθ − σr ) 0 and σθ = σr 2σ2 = 2 ( σr − σz ) 0 or dσr = −dp dp 2μr =− p h or log e p = − 2μr +C h At outer surface r = R, σr = 0, p = −σZ = σ0 2μr h
2 2

or σ0 = σr − σz = σr + p

∴ C = log e σ0 + ⎛ p log e ⎜ ⎝ σ0

⎞ 2μ (R − r ) ⎟= ⎠ h

or p = σ0 e h

(R −r )
R

Average pressure will be, pa =

∫ 2pπrdr
0

πR 2
2

⎤ σ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎡ 2μR 2μR h = 0⎜ − −1 ⎥ ⎟ ⎢e 2 ⎝ μR ⎠ ⎣ h ⎦ maximum pressure ( pmax ) = σ0 e
2 μR h

Sticking Friction
When sticking friction occurs over a portion of the disc, the problem can be analyzed on the same lines as for plane strain forging. Thus, sticking radius will be given as, ⎛ 1 ⎞ h RS = R − log e ⎜ ⎟ 2μ ⎝ 2μ ⎠

⎛ 1 ⎞ h log e ⎜ ⎟ 2μ ⎝ 3μ ⎠ Pressure at the sticking radius, p S = σ0e2μ (R −Rs )/h =R− σ0 ( RS − R ) h Pressure at the centre R = 0 σ pC = pS + 0 .R S h p = pS +
In the sticking region,

For Hot Forging
τ =k

dσ r 2 τ − =0 dr h dσr 2k − =0 dr h dσr = −dp 2k .r + c h r = R, σr = 0 and p = σ0 or p = − or c = σ0 + p = σ0 + σ0 .R h

σ0 (R − r ) h p R−r =1+ 2k h R⎞ ⎛ pmax = 2k ⎜1 + ⎟ h⎠ ⎝ R ⎞ ⎛ pa = 2k ⎜1 + 2h ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Example-1: A piece of lead 25 mm × 25 mm × 150 mm having a yield stress of 7N/mm2 is to be pressed between flat dies a size of approximately 6.25mm × 100 mm × 150 mm, μ = 0.25. Determine pressure distribution and the total forging load. Solution: Final Dimension h = 6.25mm, 2R = 100mm
⎛ 1 ⎞ h log e ⎜ ⎟ 2μ ⎝ 2μ ⎠

Sticking radius, R S = R −

6.25 1 ⎛ ⎞ = 41.34mm log e ⎜ 0.5 0.25 × 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ It is clear that on the major portion of piece, Sticking conditions exist, in the sliding portion p = σ0e2μ (L −x )/h ∴ 41.34 < x < 50 = 50 − = σ0e2μ (R −r )/h At r= R i.e. outer surface p = σ0 At r = Rs,
p = σ0 e
0.5×8.66× 1 6.25

= 2σ 0 σ0 ( RS − R ) h σ = 2σ0 + 0 ( 41.34 − R ) 6.25

In the sticking region, p = pS +

At the centre, R = 0 p = 2 σ0 + 0.16 σ0 × 41.34 = 8.61 σ0

∴Forging load per unit width =

1 ×100×7.61 σ0 2 =380.5 σ0

Total forging load = 380.5 σ0 × 150 = 380.5×7× 150 = 399.5 kN Example-2: A strip of lead with initial dimension 24 mm × 14 mm × 150 mm is forged between two flat dies to a final size 6 mm × 96 mm × 150 mm. If the co-efficient of friction μ = 0.25. Determine the maximum forging force. The average yield stress of lead in tension 7 N/mm2. Solution; Final dimensions: h = 6mm, 2R = 96mm Sticking radius, R S = R −

⎛ 1 ⎞ h log e ⎜ ⎟ 2μ ⎝ 2μ ⎠

6 ⎛ 1 ⎞ log e ⎜ ⎟ 2 × 0.25 ⎝ 2 × 0.5 ⎠ = 39.68mm It is clear that on the major portion of piece, sticking conditions exist. In the sliding portion p = σ0e2μ (L −x )/h = 48 − = σ0e2μ (R −r )/h At r = k i.e. outer surface p = σ0
pS = σ0e
2×0.5( 48 −39.68 ) /6

=2 σ0

σ0 ( RS − R ) R σ = 2σ0 + 0 × ( 39.68 − R ) 6 at R = 0 p = pS + pmax = 2σ0 + 6.61σ0 = 8.61σ0
Forging load per unit width =

1 × 96 × 7.61 σ0 2 =365.28 σ0

Total forging load = 365.28 σ0 × 150 = 383.5 kN

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