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Experimental measurement of boiling point elevation

Boiling point. Non-volatile solutes. Non-electrolyte solutes. Dilute solutions & ideal solutions. Why addition of non-volatile solute. increases boiling point. Boiling point elevation. Methods to find boiling point elevation.

Introduction And Some General Terms

What Is Boiling Point

The temperature at which vapour pressure of a liquid becomes equal to its external pressure is called boiling point.

What Is Boiling Point

As lower as the external pressure, less is the boiling point.

The solutes which doesnt evaporate at ordinary room temperature and have sufficient boiling point are called nonvolatile solutes. There may be either volatile or nonvolatile solute they must form an ideal solution which is the main clause of colligative properties.

Non-volatile solutes

Non-electrolyte Solute

The solute which doesnt dissociate when added in a solvent is called non-electrolyte solute.

Dissolving process in water


Orientation of water molecules around solute 2. Hydration of solute

Na+ 1. Overcome attractive forces in solid Cl-

Click here for Chime structure

When the forces of attraction between the molecules of different components are same as when they were in the pure state the solutions are said to be ideal. The volume of the solution must be equal to the individual volume of the components. It should have zero enthalpy change as their heat of solution.

Ideal Solutions

The solution which has the low concentration of solute is called dilute solution. It is one of the main conditions of boiling point elevation, that the solution must be dilute, ideal i.e. should have non-volatile and non-electrolytic components.

Dilute Solution

The addition of a non-volatile solute increases the boiling point because Non-volatile solute being bulky molecules bounce back the highly energetic molecule of the solvents. This decreases the vapour pressure. Hence increases the boiling point.

Why addition of non-volatile solute increases boiling point 1

V .P

B.P

Why addition of non-volatile solute increases boiling point

Why addition of non-volatile solute increases boiling point

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in boiling point of a liquid when a non-volatile, nonelectrolyte solute is added in it is called boiling point elevation.

Boiling Point Elevation

Elevation in boiling point can be determined, from which some methods are discussed here.
Landsbergers method. Cottrells method. Beckmanns thermometer.

Methods To Determine Boiling Point Elevation

Apparatus.
It consists of the following apparatus.
Boiling flask Delivery tube Graduated boiling tube Differential thermometer A hole to the middle of the boiling tube. Outer jacket Condenser

Landsbergers Method

Landsbergers Method

Working of apparatus.
Boiling flask: In the boiling flask pure solvent is boiled.

Delivery tube: The tube is used to transfer the vapours of pure solvent in landsburgers method.

Graduated boiling tube: It also contain small amount of pure solvent.

Landsbergers Method

Differential thermometer: It is the thermometer which reads change in temperature not the temperature.

Hole: This hole is in the middle of the boiling tube and is used to introduce a solvent in the boiling flask.

Outer jacket
This is connected to an end with a condenser to condense the outgoing vapours.

Landsbergers Method

Condenser: The condenser is used to condense the outgoing vapours.

Landsbergers Method

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Procedure of landsbergers method:-

Taking pure solvent in boiling flask. Known volume in the boiling tube. Start heating to boil in the boiling flask. Vapours reach in the boiling tube. They boils the known volume of solvent in the boiling tube.

Following this method is discribed step by step.

Landsbergers Method

6.
7. 8. 9.

Procedure of landsbergers method:Reading of the differential thermometer is noted. This is the boiling point of pure solvent. Now a weighed amount of the solute is introduced through HOLE. Vapours of pure solvent are continued to pass through to boil the solution.

Landsbergers Method

Procedure of landsbergers method:10. When solution boils temperature is recorded for the boiling point of the solution. 11. Volume of the solution is noted at this stage. 12. Knowing the density of the solvent its mass can be calculated.

Landsbergers Method

Procedure of landsbergers method:13. From the masses of solute and solvent boiling point elevation can be calculated by the formula Tb = 1000 w Kb/W m

Landsbergers Method

Cottrells method is superior than landsbergers method as it over comes the errors of superheating occuring during landsburgers method. superheating: The heating of the vapours of a solvent which increases its temperature from its boiling point is called superheating.

Cottrells Method

Cottrells Method

Apparatus: It consists of the following apparatus.


Wide glass tube Sensitive differential thermometer Side tube Water Condenser Inverted funnel with bifurcated stem

Cottrells Method

Working of apparatus: Wide glass tube


It consists of pure solvent and thermometer is stuck in it

Differential thermometer
It is used to read change in temperature

Side tube
It is connected with condenser to convey the vapours to the condenser

Cottrells Method

Working of apparatus
Water condenser
It condenses the vapours and return them to the tube

Inverted funnel
The funnel has the vapours when the solvent is heated which touches the thermometer.

Cottrells Method

1.

Procedure
The procedure is discribed step by step

Known amount of pure solvent is taken in the wide glass tube 2. Sensitive thermometer is placed at some distance from the solvent 3. The liquid is boiled and temperature is recorded

Cottrells Method

Weighed amount of solute is introduced in the tube 5. Know solution is heated and the temperature is recorded which is the boiling point of the solution 6. In this experiment the vapours are condensed and then returned to the tube by water condenser.
4.

Cottrells Method

This time volume is noted and from density mass can be calculaed 8. From the masses of solute and solvent the elevation in boiling point can be calculated 9. This is the expression which is used to calculate the elevation Tb = 1000 w Kb/W m
7.

Cottrells Method

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