Reading and Writing Module 2
Pictures and People
Reading and Writing Module 2: Describing Pictures and People
Describing Pictures 1. Introduction 2. Sentences 3. Structures to describe pictures: there is/are 4. Structures to describe pictures: countable and uncountable nouns 5. Structures to describe pictures: quantifiers 6. Structures to describe pictures: prepositions 7. Using your imagination 8. Writing assignment 9. Checking your writing: subject/verb agreement Describing People 10. Describing People: Appearance 11. Describing People: Character 12. Describing People: Putting it Together 13. Check your Writing: Parts of Speech 22 31 38 42 2 3 5 7 10 14 17 19 20
Welcome to Reading and Writing Module 2: Describing Pictures and People. In this module, you will focus on:
- describing pictures, photographs and scenes - making mind maps - inferring - using your imagination - recognising subject/verb agreement mistakes - checking your own work - describing appearance and character - comparing people - identifying main ideas - ordering ideas - identifying irrelevant sentences - interviewing
- parts of a sentence - there is and there are - countable and uncountable nouns - quantifiers; some, any, much, many, a lot of - prepositions - parts of the body - state and manner adjectives - comparative adjectives - topic sentences - like as preposition - parts of speech
RW 2 - page 1
A. Look at the picture, and discuss in groups: - What can you see in the picture? - What is he doing? - Do you think he is happy? - How old do you think he is? - Where do you think he should be at his age and WHY? Think of a TITLE for this picture.
Look at the following sentences to describe this picture:
There is a boy in the picture. He has a gun. He is sitting. B. In groups, make more sentences
about this picture.
C. In your groups, think of ideas to
complete the chart.
What can you see in the picture?
What can you imagine about what you see in the picture?
RW 2 - page 2
D. Here is a description of this picture.
What is wrong with this description? List the mistakes.
There’s a boy in this picture. He is about 20 years old. He looks happy. He isn’t smiling. He has a small gun. He’s wearing a school uniform and a watch. There are some trees behind the boy. There’s an elephant beside the boy.
A. What is in a sentence?
Think of some things that you find in a sentence.
B. Some of the following lines are sentences, some are not. Tick the sentences.
If it is not a sentence, why not?
1. Law Meh worked in a hospital for six years. 2. My friend in Mae Sot. 3. Ma Ma studies English after dinner. 4. He’s tired. 5. Teaches mathematics to high school students in Shan State. 6. My father’s old blue motorcycle. 7. I walk. 8. There are two dogs. 9. A beautiful house beside the Salween River. 10. It’s raining.
Now read the information about sentences on page 4. In pairs, discuss your answers.
RW 2 - page 3
Parts of the Sentence
A sentence has a subject and a verb. He cooks.
subject v erb
It can have only a subject and a verb, but usually sentences have other words, too.
He sometimes cooks special cakes for us.
subject v erb
Subjects come before the verb. They often come at the beginning of a sentence.
Everybody likes eating his cakes.
subject v erb
Subjects can be one word, or many words.
My uncle, my sister and my friends like cake.
The first letter of the first word of a sentence is a capital letter.
We ate many cakes last night.
A sentence ends with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark.
Do you want some cake? I’d love some!
C. These sentences all have one mistake. Correct the mistake.
1. I think the boy’s name Maung Maung Soe. 2. he was born in a village near Pa-an, in Karen State. 3. Didn’t go to school. 4. His mother and sisters are very poor, and his father is dead 5. There a cinema in his village. 6. Likes Maung Maung Soe going to the cinema. 7. One night, some soldiers to the cinema. 8. Took Maung Maung Soe to the army headquarters.
D. Work in pairs. Write some sentences that have one mistake:
- no verb - wrong subject/verb order or or - no subject - wrong punctuation or
Give these sentences to another pair. Can they find and correct the mistake?
RW 2 - page 4
3. Structures to describe pictures: there is/are
A. Look around you, at your classroom. Are these sentences true or false?
1. There’s a teacher. 2. There are twelve students. 3. There’s a blackboard. 4. There are two whiteboards. 5. There are some pictures on the walls. 6. There’s some water in a bucket. 7. There are more male students than female students. 8. There’s a lot of money on the desk. 9. There are a lot of chickens outside. 10. There are many intelligent, hardworking students!
B. Fill in the gaps in the box with these grammar terms.
uncountable noun singular plural countable negative
There is +
There is/are _____________
There is a shop near my house. There is some sugar in the bag. There are students in the class. There isn’t a teashop nearby.
There is + __________________ There are + ________________ noun. In the _______________, use isn’t and aren’t with there. Use any with ________________ and _________________ nouns.
There aren’t any teashops nearby There isn’t any water in the river. There’s = There is
C.Make true sentences. Fill the gaps with there is/are/isn’t/aren’t.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
_____________ some food in the kitchen. _____________ any gold under the classroom. _____________ a lot of dust outside the window. _____________ a good football team in this school. _____________ any tigers near here. _____________ a piano in my house. _____________ some soldiers at the checkpoint.
D.Work in groups. Write three sentences about your house, using there is/are/isn’t/aren’t.
Write two true sentences, and one lie. Read your sentences to the group. Can they identify the lie?
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E.Look at this picture for one minute. Then close your book.
You have three minutes to write as many sentences as you can about this picture.
Questions with there is/are For questions, put there after is/are. Use any with plural and uncountable nouns. Is there a toilet nearby? Are there any shops in this village? Is there any water in the bucket?
F. Make questions using ‘there is/there are’. Example: elephants/in the jungle?
Are there any elephants in thejungle?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
dog /at your house? ants / in the kitchen? chalk / in the classroom? computers / at the school? money / in your bag? box / under the desk?
In pairs, ask and answer these questions.
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4. Structures to describe pictures: countable and uncountable nouns
A. Read the paragraph: There are some women and children beside a river. Three children are playing in the water. Another woman is washing some shirts. A girl is emptying some soap powder in the water. Her mother is angry! A small boy is sitting, playing in the sand. His older brother is washing himself, with soap. A woman is breast-feeding her baby.
Look at the picture and find all the things described in the paragraph.
B. Underline all the nouns in the paragraph.
Can you make single and plural forms of all these nouns?
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Countable / uncountable nouns Countable nouns are the names of objects that we can count. We can use numbers and a/an with countable nouns; they have plurals. a cat three cats a newspaper two newspapers Uncountable nouns are the names of things that we cannot count. We cannot use a/an or numbers with uncountable nouns; they have no plurals. water wool weather
(NOT a water; two waters) (NOT a wool; two wools) (NOT a weather; two weathers)
C. Classify these nouns into countable and uncountable.
advice bread vegetable grass information
c o u n ta b le
banana rubbish furniture meal work
wood examination colour bamboo knowledge
animal adult rice office number
u n c o u n ta b le
ba n a n a
D. Look at the underlined nouns. Are they countable or uncountable? 1. Do you play tennis? 2. I had to wait for ten minutes. 3. Just tell me one thing. 4. Love makes the world go around. 5. Good luck in your new job! 6. Motorbikes need petrol. 7. I’m taking a photo. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________
E. Write some sentences like those in exercise D.
Write sentences with countable nouns, some with uncountable nouns. Underline the noun. Give your sentences to another student. Can she/he answer correctly?
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E. Work in groups. Your teacher will give you five pictures.
Choose one of these pictures. Write six sentences to describe the picture. Your teacher will give you five different pictures. Other students will read their sentences. Can you identify any of the pictures?
There’s a woman counting her money outside a shop. She's got a book and some wool. There's a tree beside the shop.
We’ve got it!
F. Look at all the uncountable nouns you have learned in this lesson.
Can you put them into categories? Try this:
Materials we make things out of
Things you can pour
G. What do you have in your house? Write a list - you have three minutes.
How many things can you think of? Compare your lists with two or three other students, and make a group list. Make a mind map of a things you can find in a house.
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5. Structures to describe pictures: Quantifiers
A. Look at the picture, and read the paragraph: Last week, there was a lot of rice on this hill. Now, there isn’t any rice. There’s some smoke, and a lot of ash on the ground. Before, a lot of trees grew here. Now, there aren’t many trees, and there isn’t much fruit. These people are going to stay in another village. They have some relatives there. They don’t have any food now, and they don’t have much money. Luckily, they have a lot of relatives.
Circle all the nouns that come after the underlined words. Are they countable or uncountable?
B. Some of these nouns are in positive sentences, and some are in negative sentences.
Put the quantifiers (underlined words) and noun into the table.
a lot of rice
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C. Fill in the gaps in the box with these grammar terms.
uncountable noun postive sentences questions countable noun negative sentences
Quantifiers We use some in positive sentences and questions, with countable and uncountable nouns: I’ve got some pens Do you want some tea? There’s some food in the kitchen. We use any in _______________, with _________________________________: There aren’t any books. Is there any sugar? She hasn’t got any money. We use many in ________________________________, with _______________:* There are many children in this class. Do you need many new blankets? We don’t need many eggs. We use much in ________________________________, with _______________: There isn’t much water in the river. Have you got much time? We use a lot of in __________________________, with _____________________________: There are a lot of bananas on the tree. Children need a lot of love. They haven’t got a lot of pens. She doesn’t like a lot of beer. Is there a lot of salt in the food? Does he chew a lot of betel-nut?
* It is uncommon to use many in postive sentences.Usually, we use it in negative sentences and questions.
D. Write some or any in the gaps. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I’ve got _______ work this afternoon, so I’m going shopping in the morning. First, I’m going to the post office. I need ___________ stamps. I need to buy ________ food, but there aren’t __________ shops near the post office. I can buy a lot of things at the market, but today they don’t have _________ oil. I also need ________ petrol for my motorbike.There are _______ garages near the market. Then, it’s time for lunch. I’m a vegetarian, so I don’t eat _______ meat. There’s a vegetarian restaurant in town. I’m going to eat _______ bean curry. Do you have _______ work this afternoon? We can meet after dinner - have you got ________ money? We can go to the cinema.
RW 2 - page 11
E. Look at this picture.
Write three sentences with some, and three sentences with any. Swap sentences with a partner. Correct your partner’s sentences.
F. Play KeepTalking about this picture.
Students take turns to say a sentence with some or any. Each student must have a new, different sentence. If you can’t think of a sentence, or your sentence is incorrect, you are out of the game. The winner is the last student to think of a sentence.
G. General knowledge quiz. Are these sentences true or false?
Tick the correct column.
1. There are a lot of penguins in Antarctica. 2. There isn't much oil in Saudi Arabia. 3. Australia has got a lot of elephants. 4. There aren't many Burmese migrant workers in Thailand. 5. C anada has got a lot of trees. 6. Most people in Bangladesh have got a lot of money. 7. There aren't many people in C hina. 8. There isn't much water in the Sahara desert. 9. There aren't many tall buildings in the U.S. 10. Switzerland hasn't got much land. 11. India has a lot of different ethnic groups. 12. C ambodia doesn't grow much rice.
RW 2 - page 12
H. Read the paragraph. Fill the gaps with words from the box.
things cigarettes food people whisky money whisky friends
I haven’t eaten much __________ today. I haven’t got much __________ to spend but I need to buy many _________. I have a headache. I don’t remember how much __________ we drank last night. I think a lot of __________. I think I smoked a lot of __________ too, I have a sore throat now. I feel very lonely. Many of my __________live far away from me. Not many __________ want to be friends with me. Why?
I. Think about your home town or village.
Make true sentences using there is/are and some/any/much/many/a lot of. e.g. teachers There aren’t many teachers in our village.
There are some teachers in our village. 1. doctors 2. traditional healers 3. poor people 4. rich people 5. different ethnic groups 6. different religions 7. problems 8. pollution
- We have a lot of exercise books and pencils. - There aren’t many interesting books in the library. - There are some great teachers!
J. Think about your school. What is there? What isn’t there?
Do you have enough resources? Write a class list of things your school has, and things your school needs.
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K. Play Usage Xs and Os.
Divide into two teams. Write the grid on the board. One team is Xs, one team is Os. Take turns to choose a square. You can win a square by writing a correct sentence using the word in the square. If you win a square, you write an X or O in it. If your sentence is wrong you don’t get the square, and the other team has a turn. Once your X or O is in the square, the other team can’t use it. The aim of the game is to claim three squares in a row. If you get three squares in a row, either across, up/down or diagonal, you win the game.
muc h a l ot of many a l ot of many any some any muc h
6. Structures to describe pictures: Prepositions
A. Describe the picture using some of these words: at the top at the bottom at the back in the front in the centre on the right on the left 1. There are some shelves ____________________ . 2. There is a computer ____________________ . 3. There are some chairs ____________________ . 4. There is a wooden table _________________ . 5. There is a wooden table __________________ . 6. There are some drawers __________________ , and some more drawers _____________. 7. There is some paper _________________ .
RW 2 - page 14
B. Read the description of this photo. Can you identify the people?
Here is a picture of our teacher training at Mae La Oon. That’s Charmy Paul at the front, next to me. Ku Mo is sitting on the left, and Mel is sitting on the right. Eh Mwee is standing at the centre, between Henry on his left and Jehn on his right. Nay Htoo is at the back, next to Thaw Reh on his right. The young guy at the top of the photo is Eh Gay.
C. True or false?
1. The writer is in front of Jehn. 2. Eh Mwee is standing behind Charmy Paul. 3. Henry is next to Ku Mo, on her right. 4. Jehn is between Thaw Reh and Eh Mwee. 5. Mel is on the right of the writer. 6. Nay Htoo is to the left of Thaw Reh and Eh Gay. 7. Eh Gay is at the bottom of the picture. 8. There are three women and eight men in this picture.
RW 2 - page 15
D. Work in groups. You have two minutes to write a list of prepositions.
Which group has the most prepositions? Make a class list on the board. Which of these are prepositions of location?
in under beside...
E. Listen to your teacher. Draw the picture your teacher describes.
F. Pair Dictation.
Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you a picture. You have five minutes. Write as much as you can about the picture. Read your sentences to your partner. Your partner listens, and writes what you say. Check your partner’s writing.
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7. Using your imagination
A. Look again at the picture on page 15.
What questions could you ask to get more information about this picture? What... Why... Where... When... Who... How many questions could you ask about this picture? Make a class list. Do you know the answers to any of these questions? Some answers are under the photo.
B. Work in groups. Here are some answers. What questions are they answering? 1. They’re doing a teacher training. 2. By car and boat. 3. In April, 2004 4. Burma, England and New Zealand 5. In Mae La Oon. 6. Two weeks. 7. Teach at different schools on the border. 8. They’re teachers. 9. Yes, there are. 10. No, there isn’t.
C. Work in two teams.
The teacher will put a picture on the board. The member of each team comes up to the board. The teacher asks a question. The student who writes a good answer gets a point for their team. The winner is the first team to write the answer on the board.
RW 2 - page 17
D. Work in groups. Look at the picture on page 6.
Write as many wh- questions as you can about this picture. Look at the list on page 19 for some more ideas.
W h e re
E. Find a partner from another group. Ask your partner the questions.
Answer your partner’s questions.
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8. Writing Assignment
A. Choose a picture you would like to describe.
Look at these questions. Answer them for your picture. - Who is in the picture and what do they look like?
- What are they doing? - What are they feeling? - Where are they? - What family do they have? - What are they thinking?
What does the picture tell us about the situation?
B. What words do you need to describe this picture? Put them in this table:
n ou ns verb s adjectives prep osition s
C. What information can you get from the picture? Put it in this table:
What you can see in the picture What you can imagine about w hat you see
D. Write a description of the picture (150-200 words.)
RW 2 - page 19
9. Checking Your Writing: Subject/verb agreement
A. What does subject/verb agreement mean?
Can you think of an example of correct subject/verb agreement? Can you think of an example of bad subject/verb agreement?
B. Fill in the gaps in the box with these grammar terms.
Subject/verb agreement Nouns and pronouns are the subjects of __________. If a subject is singular, the verb must be __________. If a subject is __________, the verb must be plural. She is six years old.
subject v erb
There are two dogs under the tree.
v erb subject
If the subject is __________, the verb must be __________.
Sugar tastes sweet.
subject v erb
C. Read these sentences, and circle the subjects. Are they singular, plural or uncountable?
Some of these sentences have mistakes. If the sentence is correct, tick it. If the sentence has a mistake, correct it.
1. I has two sons and a daughter. 2. My children and I often go to the river to catch fish. 3. We have a small boat. The boat usually stay at a small village on the Salween river. 4. There are about 200 people in the village. The villagers are mostly fishers. 5. There are a big shop that sells petrol in the village. My cousin’s family owns the shop. 6. Petrol is expensive! It cost 25 baht per litre. 7. The Salween river is dangerous. The water flows very quickly. 8. There are a lot of accidents. Many people drown every year in the Salween river. 9. Luckily, my children is all good swimmers. 10. There’s a lot of information about river dangers. 11. Many older people in the village knows the river very well.
RW 2 - page 20
D. Work in pairs. Partner A, read A aloud to your partner.
Partner B, read B aloud to your partner. Don’t look at your partner’s text! When you hear a mistake in s/v agreement, say ‘stop’, and explain the mistake. When your partner says stop, underline the mistake, and write s/v next to it. Partner A (Partner B don’t look)
Our office are very crowded. The teachers keeps all the school supplies in the office. There’s also a library. We’ve got a computer, but it’s broken at the moment. It are on the left of the picture. We keep it under a plastic sheet. At the back of the picture you can see some shelves. There’s some paper on the shelves. We need a lot of paper to print copies of class materials for the students. There are two cupboards on the left and right of the shelves. We store information about our students in these cupboads. You can’t see the library - it’s opposite the shelf on the other side of the room. There is about 500 books in the teachers’ library. The school also has a students library up the hill. Every teacher has a desk in the office. Teachers put their personal books and teaching notes on their desks. There isn’t many space in our office!
Partner B (Partner A don’t look)
Our office are very crowded. The teachers keep all the school supplies in the office. There’s also a library. We has got a computer, but it’s broken at the moment. It’s on the left of the picture. We keeps it under a plastic sheet. At the back of the picture you can see some shelves. There’s some paper on the shelves. We need a lot of paper to print copies of class materials for the students. There is two cupboards on the left and right of the shelves. We store information about our students in these cupboards. You can’t see the library - it’s opposite the shelf on the other side of the room. There are about 500 books in the teachers’ library. The school also have a students library up the hill. Every teacher has a desk in the office. Teachers puts their personal books and teaching notes on their desks. There isn’t much space in our office!
E. Look around you, at the classroom and outside the classroom.
Write as much as you can in 5 minutes about what is around you. Give your writing to another student. Read your partner’s writing. Circle all the s/v agreement mistakes, and write s/v. Give the writing back to your partner. Correct your own writing.
F. Look at the writing assignment you did on page 19.
Go through the writing and check for s/v agreement mistakes. Circle them. Now re-write your assignment, and give it to your teacher together with the picture.
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10. Describing People: Appearance
A. Parts of the face EXERCISE Use the words in the box to label the diagram. How many of the words do you know? Try to guess the rest. Check answers with your partner.
eye chin nose forehead eyelashes lips eyebrow cheek jaw
B. Describing faces EXERCISE Look at the pictures.
1. Who has long eyelashes? 2. Who has a pointy chin? 3. Who is bald? 4. Who has a wide nose? 5. Who is short? 6. Who has a big mouth? 7. Who has a round face? 8. Who has curly hair?
RW 2 - page 22
C. Adjectives and nouns
Which of the adjectives go with the nouns in the circles? Find one adjective for every ‘spike’. You will need to use some adjectives twice.
long straight nose
D. Matching pictures
Your teacher will give you a sheet of paper with lots of people on it. Work with a partner. A: Choose one person (don’t tell your partner which one). B: Ask yes /no questions to find the person A has chosen. Then change roles.
There are two ways to make a sentence to describe somebody: a) subject + has + adj + noun b) subject + to be + adj She has big eyes. Her eyes are big.
E. Grammar Check
Complete the sentences. Check the grammar box - should you use structure a) or b)?
eg. ______ ______ very white teeth. (a woman) or _____ teeth _______ very white. (a woman) She has very white teeth. Her teeth are very white.
i. ____ ____ a wide forehead. (a woman) ii. ____ nose ___ big. (a woman)
iii. _____ _____ long, straight hair. (a man) iv. ____ lips ____ thin. (a man)
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F. Describe a person
Choose one of the pictures below. Write 5 sentences to describe the person. Use the grammar box and the noun-adjective phrases to help you.
G. The perfect face
Are any of the people in these pictures beautiful? handsome? What makes somebody beautiful or handsome? Work in groups. Describe the perfect face.
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H. Complete the description
Look at the picture. Which words from the box describe the man? Use correct words from the box to complete the description of the man. forehead / chin big / small round / long bushy / thin straight / hooked beard / moustache skinny / overweight young / middle-aged
This man is a bullfighter from Mexico. He is a little overweight . His face is
1)____________, and he has a thick, black 2)______________. His eyes are quite 3)______________, with bags underneath them, and his eyebrows are 4)______________. He’s raising his eyebrows so his 5)____________is wrinkled.
His nose is
6)____________. He’s starting to go bald so I think he is 7)___________.
RW 2 - page 25
I. Comparing people
a. Look at the 2 children in the picture.
Who is more beautiful? Who is older? Look at the grammar box for help making comparative forms.
b. Work in pairs. Use one of the adjectives below to make questions: “Who is…?” or “Who has…?” and the comparative form.
thick/eyebrows curly/hair big dark/hair ...
also use your own ideas.
Answer your partner’s questions. eg.
Who is older? The boy on the left is older. Who is more beautiful?
He is more beautiful. Who is …
When we compare, we use ‘-er’ , ‘-ier’ or ‘more’: ‘-er’ is for short words: cheap - cheaper thin - thinner ‘-ier’ is for words ending in -y: lucky - luckier easy - easier ‘more’ is for longer words: serious - more serious expensive - more expensive
RW 2 - page 26
J. Reading: David Beckham
a. Do you know any of these words? What do they mean?
Put the words in alphabetical order. Look them up in a dictionary and write the definition of each word. tournament hairstyle controversial influence popular tousled naturally
b. Who is this? What do you know about him? You will read an article about him.
Each of the words above will feature in the article. Try to guess the topic. Now read the article and see if you are right.
David Beckham was born on May 2, 1975, in London, UK. He has green eyes and his hair is naturally brown. He’s married to Victoria, a British singer, and they have two 3ons, Brooklyn, Romeo and Cruz. After many years of playing with Manchester United, he moved to Real Madrid in the summer of 2003. Beckham is almost as famous for his looks as for his football. His ever-changing hairstyle is often in the news, and people all over the world try to copy him. One of his most popular styles was the “soft mohican” he had at the 2002 World Cup. It was short at the sides, and blond and spiky on the top. David’s hairdresser went to Japan to give Becks a trim part way through the tournament. Young men in England, Japan, South East Asia and even Argentina copied this hairstyle. Soon after England was knocked out of the World Cup by Brazil, Beckham was in the English newspapers again. This time he had a new, tousled hairstyle and pink nail varnish. Some of Beckham’s styles have been controversial in the UK, where men rarely wear nail varnish. Becks caused a lot of debate in England when he wore a sarong. Even though many people disagree about Beckham’s clothes and hair, he has a huge influence on men’s fashion all over the world. He can change the way people think about their clothes.
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c. Main idea. What is the main idea of this story?
a) David Beckham is a famous footballer. b) Footballers’ fashion is very important. c) David Beckham is very influential in fashion.
d. Match the words with the definitions.
1. ever-changing (adj) 2. mohican (n) 3. blonde (adj) 4. trim (v) 5. knock... out (v) 6. hairdresser (n) 7. nail varnish (n) a) to cut someone’s hair a little, without making a big change b) someone whose job is to cut hair c) coloured paint for nails d) to lose a match and not participate any more e) yellow; we use it to describe hair colour f) something that is always changing g) a hairstyle, very short at the sides and spiky on top
e. Inference. Which of the following can you infer from the article? Tick the correct inferences.
__ 1 David Beckham is handsome. __ 2 Beckham has a happy family. __ 3 Footballers have to be fashionable. __ 4 Beckham’s clothes can be unusual.
f. What does David Beckham look like?
Use the information in the article and your own knowledge to describe him.
K. Speaking practice
Work in pairs. Practice describing people you know. Ask your partner questions, eg. What does your mother look like? Do you have a brother? What does he look like?
L. Getting ready to write
a. Now it’s your turn to write about somebody. Think of a person you know, and brainstorm
around their appearance. What does the person’s hair look like? What does his / her nose look like? Write down all the adjectives you can think of to describe the person.
RW 2 - page 28
b. Mind map. Here is a mind map.
Write the name of the person you will describe in the centre circle. Try to organise your ideas and adjectives in the map, for example put all the adjectives about hair together. You can draw more lines and circles on the mind map to use all of your information. face
M. Organisation: Ordering ideas
a. Look at this picture. Who is the man?
Where does he live? What does he do? Discuss with a partner.
b. Organisation is very important when
we write a paragraph about any topic. Look at these two paragraphs about the fisherman:
1. This is a picture of a fisherman from Chile. He has been fishing, and he is carrying a fishing net full of the day’s catch. His hair is grey. He is wearing black shorts and a Tshirt. He has a grey beard and moustache. He looks strong. There are many wrinkles around his eyes. Maybe his T-shirt is made out of fishing net. He is old. 2. This is a picture of a fisherman from Chile. This man is very old. His hair is grey, and he has a grey beard and moustache. There are many wrinkles around his eyes, but he looks strong. He has been fishing, and he is carrying a fishing net full of the day’s catch. He is wearing black shorts and a Tshirt. Maybe his T-shirt is made out of fishing net. Which paragraph is easier to understand? Why is it easy to understand? Look at your mind map in exercise a. How will you order your information? Number your circles in the order that you will write about them.
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N. Topic sentences
a. Topic sentences are very useful for organising paragraphs. They tell the reader what the
paragraph is about. What is the topic sentence for the paragraph on page 9?
b. Look at the sentences. Which one is a good topic sentence for a paragraph to describe
somebody? Why? Decide with your partner.
e.g. a) He is one of the most handsome boys in our class. b) Soe Reh is one of the most handsome boys in our class. b) is a better topic sentence, because it tells us who the paragraph will be about.
Look at these pairs of sentences. Which are better topic sentences?
1 a) My mother is a smart person. b) She is smart. 2 a) Jah Eh has grey eyes. b) Jah Eh has an interesting face. 3 a) That’s why I don’t like my brother. b) My brother is really messy. 4 a) Naw Mu Mu has a very strong face. b) Naw Mu Mu has a wide forehead, a square chin and a big, straight nose.
c. Think about the person you will write about. Write a good topic sentence for your paragraph.
O. On your own
Use your topic sentence, and your mind map, and write a paragraph.
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11. Describing People: Character
A. Describing character
a. In this section of the module, we will look at describing people’s character.
How many character adjectives do you know? In a small group (4 or 5 people), brainstorm words to describe a person for 5 minutes. Be careful! You will be given points, but only for character traits that are spelled correctly.
Look at the pictures below. Choose an adjective from your list to describe each person.
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B. Team crossword
Make two teams. Your teacher will give you a half- finished crossword. Ask the other team for clues to complete your crossword.
Team A: What’s 1 down? Team A: Is it ‘jealous?’ Team A: How do you spell it? Team A: Thanks! Team B: It’s a bad feeling...it’s how you feel when
you want something another person has..
Team B: Yes! Team B: J-E-A-L-O-U-S Team B: What’s 3 across?
When they ask you, you can explain, mime, or give synonyms (words that mean the same) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). DON’T SAY THE WORD! (When the team has guessed the word correctly, you can help with spelling).
C. State and manner
a. ‘State’ adjectives describe someone’s personality. They are always true for that person. ‘Manner’ adjectives describe somebody’s mood. They are true now, but not always.
Sort the adjectives below into state and manner. bored happy generous honest annoyed serious shy easygoing confused clever stupid excited glad embarrassed
Add two more state and two more manner adjectives.
b. Describe yourself. Do any of the state adjectives describe you? Which ones? c. How do you feel at the moment? Think about it, and tell the class.
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D. Grammar Focus: Noun or adjective?
a. Look at the words in the box. With your partner, decide if the word is a noun or an adjective.
Write it in the correct column. Next to it, try to write the other word form. Use your dictionary to help you. modesty kindness greedy vain mad happiness honesty sad
Challenge! Can you make a rule to tell the difference between nouns and adjectives like these?
b. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets to complete these sentences.
eg. Modest people don’t like to talk about themselves too much. (modesty)
1. Choosing the right husband or wife is important for your future _______. (happiness) 2. My brother is always looking at himself in the mirror. He’s so _________. (vanity) 3. He has enough money; he only steals because of _______. (greed) 4.”Really, you can trust me, I’m always _____________.” (honesty) 5 I think my father’s gone _______, he’s wearing my mother’s longyi. (madness)
E. What’s most important?
a. Look at your class list of characteristics.
Choose the 3 most important characteristics for these people:
a) a teacher b) a medic c) a leader d) a parent
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b. Compare your answers in small groups. Explain your choices to your classmates.
Try to convince them that your list is the best. Remember to make sentences like this: Honesty is (more) important in a teacher because... It’s (more) important for a teacher to be honest because... or
c. Choose one job. Write 5 sentences about the important characteristics of someone with
this job. Remember to explain why these charcteristics are important.
F. Grammar focus: Like
a. Look at these questions:
1. What does Oo Meh look like? 2. What’s Oo Meh like?
Do they have the same meaning? What answer does the questioner expect? Match the questions with the answers a and b.
a. She’s very cheerful, always smiling and laughing with her friends. b. She’s quite tall, and she has very long, dark hair.
b. What do they look like? What are they like?
Your teacher will give you some cards. Look at the pictures and the information, and practice asking each other, “What does __________ look like?” and “What’s ___________like?” You should look at the picture to describe the person’s appearance, and imagine the person’s personality. Listen to each other’s answers - are they correct?
a. What are they like?
You will read a true story about the author’s grandmother and grandfather. Imagine what they will be like.
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The Land I Lost
by Huynh Quang Nhuong
My grandmother really loved her husband, but he was completely different from her. My grandfather was very shy, never laughed loudly, and always spoke very softly. Also, he was weaker than my grandmother. He said this was because he was a ‘scholar’. Soon after their wedding, my grandparents were in a restaurant when a man began to insult my grandfather. At first the man just said things like, “Hey! Wet chicken! This is no place for a weakling!” My grandfather wanted to leave, but my grandmother told him to sit down. She ignored the man and carried on eating. The man got up, moved over to my grandparent’s table, and grabbed my grandfather’s chopsticks. My grandmother quickly took the chopsticks from him and hit the man’s cheekbone with her elbow. The blow was so quick and powerful that he fell on the floor. Everyone in the restaurant surrounded my grandmother and asked her who had taught her karate. She said, “Who else? My husband!” After that, people thought that my grandfather knew karate very well but he didn’t use it because he was afraid of killing someone. Really, my grandmother had learned karate from my great-great uncle when she was a child. Anyway, after that day, my grandfather never had to worry again. Whenever he went downtown, people treated him well. And whenever anyone bumped into him on the street, they bowed to my grandfather respectfully.
b. In pairs or small groups, discuss these questions:
1. What’s the grandmother like? 2. What’s the grandfather like?
For questions 1 and 2 use the information from the whole story, not just the first paragraph.
3. Are they similar or different to your grandparents? 4. Describe the other man’s personality. Do you know anyone like this?
Why do you think the man behaved the way he did?
5. How did the grandmother react to the man? The grandfather?
What would you do in this situation?
c. Write your answer to two of these questions.
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G. Organisation: Irrelevant sentences
a. If a sentence is irrelevant, it doesn’t belong. Irrelevant sentences can make your writing
difficult to understand. Look at the short paragraphs below. One sentence in each paragraph is irrelevant. Cross it out. e.g. Between 1982 and 1987 British banks received over US$125 billion in debt-service payments from Latin America. This is equal to every Latin American person paying US$64 a year to the banks. During the same period, direct British aid to Latin America was under 13 cents per person per year. In addition, many tourists visited Latin America in the 1980’s. 1. For most of its’ history, China had an imperial political system. An emperor ruled the people. Emperors believed they had been given power by heaven (the gods). Now China is a republic with a communist government. These emperors were part of dynasties (a system of government where power is passed from one member of a family to the next). 2. My sister, Ma Myint, is the kindest person I know. My mother is nice, too. Ma Myint always helps me if I need money to buy clothes or something for school. She doesn’t say nasty things about other people, even if they do something wrong. She thinks we should forgive them. I really like to spend time with my sister because she is nice to everyone. 3. Peace-keeping is one of the ways in which the United Nations tries to maintain peace and security around the world. Member States of the UN provide troops who are sent to areas of the world where there is trouble. People are fighting in different places all over the world. Peace-keeping forces can be set up only when the countries who are fighting agree and when the Security Council supports the idea.
b. Look at the paragraph you wrote in 1.14. Are any sentences irrelevant? Do the sentences all relate to the topic?
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H. Organisation: Expanding your ideas
a. Look at these two paragraphs about
the woman in the picture.
1. This is a woman from Peru. Her life has been very hard. She looks sad. She is kind.
2. This is a woman, named Beatriz, from Peru. She has many wrinkles because her life has been very hard. Her home was destroyed in a flood last year, with the rest of her village. Beatriz is poor, but she is kind to all the children in the area - she always gives them food if they are hungry.
Which paragraph do you like better? Why? Which paragraph tells you more about the woman? When you write your own paragraph, remember to explain your ideas. If you say that someone is shy, explain what they do to tell you they are shy. Extra details make your writing more interesting. Look at paragraph 2 again. Where does the writer give examples? Can you find any extra details?
b. Think about the person in 1.14. What is their personality like?
Brainstorm adjectives and ways to describe the person.
I. On your own
a. Mind map. Think of the person you described in 1.14. Think about her/his personality. Make a mind map to organise your ideas. Make sure that you can justify (give examples or reasons for) all the adjectives and things you want to say. Write a topic sentence for your paragraph. Now look back at your mind map. Are all of the ideas relevant? Number the circles in your mind map, and cross out any ideas that are irrelevant. b. Use your topic sentence and mind map, and write a second paragraph about someone you know.
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12. Describing People: Putting it Together
a. In this module, we have used 2 questions to ask about people. Can you remember them?
What are the different meanings of the questions? There is one more important question we can use to ask about people: What does she like? What does he like? Can you think of a possible answer to this question?
b. Matching questions and answers. Your teacher will give you either a question or an answer.
If you have a question, go around your class, asking it, until you find the right answer. Be careful: Do the question and answer use the same gender (he / she)? Do they really match? When you have found a match, sit down with your partner.
B. Personal ads
a. What is a personal ad?
How do people usually meet boyfriends and girlfriends? Is it easy to meet someone? Have you ever heard of a personal ad (advertisement)? In pairs, look at the advertisements below, and discuss.
PRETTY GOOD for 36. Lively nice guy seeks woman, good company. Box 1603
INTELLIGENT successful attractive woman, 34, WLTM male similar. Box 5702
MAE KHON KA: Educated male, 29, fit, funny, many interests, WLTM intelligent female 20-30, photo appreciated. Box 4502
ARIES male, Mae Sot area, 40ish, handsomish, seeks Sagittarian female. Box 5502
WHERE are the educated, sensitive, interesting men (25-35) who’d like to spend time with an energetic lady who wants to have fun? Box 1103
INTELLIGENT? SENSITIVE? Sense of humour? Mature? If you have these qualities, 2 pretty young women would like to hear from you. Photo ensures reply. Box 2107
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b. Check your understanding.
1. What does “WLTM” stand for? 2. What does “photo ensures reply” mean? 3. Is the advert with Box 1103 written by a man or a woman? 4. Write the box numbers:
eg. Which advert was written by an active man?
_____ _____ ___ _____ __________
a) Who is looking for a woman born in December? b) Who is looking for an educated man? c) Who wants to meet a woman in her 20s? d) Which advert did 2 people write?
e) Who wants to meet somebody with the same character traits as them? ___
C. Imagining people
a. Your teacher will give you a picture. With your partner, discuss the person in the picture.
Use your imagination! Talk about all of these questions:
1. Who is the person? What’s their name? 2. What’s their job? 3. How old are they? 4. What kind of house do they live in? 5. What are their interests? 6. Think of three things the person likes. 7. Think of three things the person dislikes. 8. Think of three adjectives to describe their personality.
You can make notes if you like, but you don’t have to write answers to the questions.
b. When you have finished talking about all of these questions, write a personal advert for the
person. Don’t forget the box number! When you have finished, your teacher will stick the pictures and the personal ads on the whiteboard and the walls of your class. Read the ads and try to match them with the pictures.
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a. What is happening in this picture? Who are they? Together with your class, make a story to explain this picture.
b. Work in pairs. You are the interviewer in this photograph. Together, brainstorm questions the interviewer might ask. c. Roleplay. Work in pairs.
A: You are the interviewer in the picture. Ask the questions you have written down. Remember to be polite, but try to get as much information about the men and their lives as possible. B: You are one of the men in the picture. Listen to the interviewer’s questions and try to answer them. It doesn’t matter if your answers are silly or serious, but you must answer as if you are one of the men in the photo.
d. Choose one of the following exercises:
1. Write a transcript of your interview.
2. Choose one of the characters in the interview. Write about their life and personality.
3. Choose one of the characters in the interview. Pretend you are that person, and write a journal entry about your day
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E. What have you learned in this module? Remember what you’ve learnt so far – what topics were covered in this module? REVIEW Put the things you have learnt into the following categories:
vocabulary grammar mechanics other
e.g. finding irrelevant
F. A-Z adjectives
Your teacher will write the letters A-Z on the board. Try to think of a describing people adjective that begins with each letter.
G. Final writing assignment
For your final writing assignment, you will write about one more person. It could be: - Someone you know - Someone famous who you know about - Someone from a picture If you choose a picture, you’ll have to imagine their name, job, age, character traits, etc...
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13. Checking your writing: Parts of speech
In Module 1 (Describing Pictures) you looked at subject / verb agreement: - Identifying mistakes in subject / verb agreement - Making an s/v mark beside these mistakes - Correcting these mistakes. In this module, we will look at parts of speech, and how to identify mistakes.
A. What do you know?
a. What are parts of speech? What parts of speech do you know? Think of some examples of each. b. Read this text about kiwis. In pairs, answer this question:
What is unusual about the kiwi?
The kiwi lives only in New Zealand. It is a very strange bird because it cannot fly. The kiwi is the same size as a chicken. It has no wings or tail. It does not have any feathers like other birds. It has grey hair on its body. Kiwis’ feet are very strong. Each foot has four toes. Its beak (mouth) is very long. A kiwi likes a lot of trees around it. It sleeps during the day because bright sunlight hurts its eyes. It can smell things with its nose. It is the only bird in the world that can smell things. The kiwi’s eggs are very big. There are only a few kiwis in New Zealand now. People never see them. The government says that people cannot kill kiwis. New Zealanders want their kiwis to live. There is a picture of a kiwi on New Zealand money. People from New Zealand are sometimes called kiwis.
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c. Put these words from the text into the three groups below.
kiwi long strange bright fly hurts cannot size smells want people wings big grey likes beak see things New
What is the name of each group? How did you decide which group each word belongs to?
d. Fill in the blanks without looking at the text.
The _____ lives only in New Zealand. It is a very strange _____ because it cannot fly. The kiwi is the same size as a _____. It has no _____ or tail. It does not have any _____ like other birds. It has gray hair on its _____. Kiwi’s feet are very strong. Each ____ has four toes. Its _____ is very long. A kiwi likes a lot of _____ around it. It sleeps during the _____ because bright sunlight hurts its eyes. It can smell things with its _____. It is the only bird in the _____ that can smell things. The kiwi’s _____ are very big. What kinds of words are omitted?
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B. Classify the parts of speech
a. Read the text. You have five minutes to write the nouns, verbs and adjectives from the text
into the correct columns.
The Polar Bear
The polar bear is a very big white bear. We call it the polar bear because it lives inside the Arctic Circle near the North Pole. There are no polar bears at the South Pole. The polar bear lives in the snow and ice. At the North Pole there is only snow, ice, and water. There is not any land. You cannot see the polar bear in the snow because its coat is yellow-white. It has a very warm coat because the weather is cold north of the Arctic Circle. This bear is three meters long and it weighs 450 kilos. It can stand up on its back legs because it has very wide feet. The polar bear can swim very well. It can swim 120 kilometers out into the water. It catches fish and sea animals for food. It goes into the sea when it is afraid. People like to kill the polar bear for its beautiful white coat. The governments of Canada, the United States, and Russia say that no one can kill polar bears now. They do not want all of these beautiful animals to die.
noun adjective verb
b. Read the text again and look for prepositions. Circle all the prepositions in the text.
How many did you find?
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c. What can you remember about the polar bear? Complete the mind-map.
Don’t look at the text!
what it eats
what it looks like polar bear
where it lives
d. Work in groups. Write as many sentences about the polar bear as you can in three minutes.
Look at your sentences and find the subject and the verb in each. What is the word order? What comes first? Now find all adjectives. Where is the adjective placed in the sentence? Adjectives
Adjectives can come after the verb ‘to be’:
The polar bear
or before the noun:
is difficult to see on the snow.
C. Identify the mistakes
a. Which part of speech is missing?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
The polar bear _____ a very big white bear. It lives in the _____ snow and ice. This bear has a very _____ coat. _____ often kill polar bears for their beautiful coats It weighs 450 _____. It can _____ up on its back legs.
How can you tell which part of speech is missing?
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b. Look at the sentences in a. Write some sentences with missing words.
Give these to another student to identify the missing parts of speech. Is s/he correct?
c. Some of these sentences have mistakes with incorrect parts of speech.
If the sentence is correct, tick it. If it has a mistake, circle it.
1. Before I begin my story, I would to tell you a little about myself. 2. I was born in the year 1632, in the crowded of York in England. 3. My father was German, but he came to live and work in England. 4. Soon after that, he my mother, who was English. 5. My father did well in his business, and I went to a good school. 6. He wanted me to get a good job and live a house, comfortable life. 7. But I didn’t want that, I wanted adventure and an exciting dangerous. 8. ‘I want to be a sailor and go to sea,’ I told my parents. 9. ‘Please don’t go,’ my said. 10. ‘Sailors have a difficult and dangerous life.’ 11. Because I loved him, and he was unhappy, I tried to forget about the sea.
d. What type of mistakes are they?
If there is a missing word, make a pointer sign I going to school. If it is the wrong part of speech, write a ww (wrong word):
I bicycle going to school.
e. Think about yourself - your appearance and character.
Write as much as you can in 5 minutes about yourself. Give your writing to another student. Read your partner’s writing. Circle all the incorrect parts of speech, and write ww. Write a pointer if there is a missing word. Give the writing back to your partner. Correct your mistakes.
f. Look at the writing assignment you did on page 19.
Go through the writing and check for incorrect parts of speech, and missing words. Now re-write your assignment, and give it to your teacher.
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