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# A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

(uploader's note: if you wish to use the dictionary with
http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/)
For information on a specific unit, click on the first letter of its name:

ABC D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

How many micrograms (µg, ug or mcg) in a milligram (mg)?
1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, and 1000 milligrams = 1 gram.

How can I convert from international units (IU) to milligrams or micrograms?
Generally speaking, you can't. IU's measure the potency of a drug, not its mass or weight.

What countries besides the U.S. have not adopted the metric system?
Many U.S. teachers think the answer is "Liberia and Burma" (make that Myanmar). Let's
give Liberia and Myanmar a break! All countries have adopted the metric system,
including the U.S., and most countries (but not the U.S.) have taken steps to eliminate
most uses of traditional measurements. However, in nearly all countries people still use
traditional units sometimes, at least in colloquial expressions. Becoming metric is not a
one-time event that has either happened or not. It is a process that happens over time.
Every country is somewhere in this process of going metric, some much further along
than others.

Commentary and Explanation What's New

• Using the Dictionary • measuring the size of dice in
o Using Numbers and hun
Units • the French encablure, 120
o Roman and Arabic brasses
Numerals • a cent of land in southern
o Names of Large India
Numbers • the fibrin unit for nattokinase
o Symbols and • the Pfiff, a small unit for beer
Abbreviations • the French brasse, a nautical
• The International System unit like the fathom
(SI) • measuring erosion in Bubnoff
o SI Base units
(Fundamental) Units • the tithing, an old English
o SI Derived Units land area unit
o Metric Prefixes • stock tank barrels in the oil
o SI Units for Clinical industry
Data in Medicine • Enhanced Fujita scale for
• The English Customary tornado intensity
Systems
• The Metric System • photosynthetic radiation in
o CGS and MKS Units microeinsteins
o Spelling of Metric
Units
o The Metric System in
the United States
• ISO and IOC country codes

• Bibliography

Introduction

Americans probably use a greater variety of units of measurement than anyone else in the
world. Caught in a slow-moving transition from customary to metric units, we employ a
fascinating and sometimes frustrating mixture of units in talking about the same things.
We measure the length of a race in meters, but the length of the long jump event in feet
and inches. We speak of an engine's power in horsepower and its displacement in liters.
In the same dispatch, we describe a hurricane's wind speed in knots and its central
pressure in millibars.

Furthermore, our English customary units do not form a consistent system. Reflecting
their diverse roots in Celtic, Roman, Saxon, and Norse cultures, they are often confusing

and contradictory. There are two systems for land measurement (one based on the yard
and the other on the rod) and a third system for distances at sea. There are two systems
(avoirdupois and troy) for small weights and two more (based on the long and short tons)
for large weights. Americans use two systems for volumes (one for dry commodities and
one for liquids) and the British use a third (British Imperial Measure).

Meanwhile, only a few Americans know that the legal definitions of the English
customary units are actually based on metric units. The U. S. and British governments
have agreed that a yard equals exactly 0.9144 meter and an avoirdupois pound equals
exactly 0.453 592 37 kilograms. In this way, all the units of measurement Americans use
every day are based on the standards of the metric system. Since 1875, in fact, the United
States has subscribed to the International System of Weights and Measures, the official
version of the metric system.

This dictionary began as a collection of notes describing the relationship between various
English and metric units. It gradually grew until it finally became too large a word-
processing document; I couldn't find my way around in it any more. So I turned it into a
folder of html documents and added it to my Internet site. For many months, no one
looked at the site except me and my students. Then, gradually, the dictionary began to
attract users from around the world. Many users were kind enough to point out errors;
others suggested additions and improvements. Questions about units began to appear in
my email inbox. Sometimes I could answer the questions, sometimes not.

Today the dictionary has become a kind of interactive resource. It grows slowly and
posed by readers. You can participate in this process! Please let me know if you find any
errors on the site, or if you can't find what you wanted to know, or if you know of units
used in your field of study or in your part of the world that aren't included.

I hope you find the dictionary useful and informative.

Formalities

Written by:

Russ Rowlett, Director,
Center for Mathematics and Science Education
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2005 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
welcome to make links to this or any page of the dictionary. Please do not copy the

contents of any page of the dictionary to another site. The material at this site is
updated frequently as new information is added, so linking to the site rather than copying
it is in the best interests of everyone.

The information contained in the dictionary is as accurate as I can make it; please notify
me if you find any errors. Neither the author nor the University of North Carolina
assumes any liability for uses made of the information presented by this web site.
The dictionary is not designed to promote any system of measurement. Its only purpose is
to present information useful to anyone interested in the subject.

July 11, 2005

Using the Dictionary
This dictionary includes:

• all the units of the International System of Units (SI);
• many other units of the metric system used in everyday life or in science, either
currently or recently;
• various non-metric scientific units such as the astronomical unit, the electronvolt,
and the parsec;
• all the units of the English traditional systems I've encountered that can be defined
with reasonable precision;
• selected traditional units from cultures other than English; and
• certain measurement terms and notations which are not "units of measurement" in
a strict sense, but which are used much as if they were.

Each unit's definition includes conversion factors you can use to convert that unit into
other units measuring the same concept. In the case of the traditional units, remember that
in many cases the "precise" definition for an older unit (such as the league or the
hogshead) was not established until the nineteenth century. It's not wise to rely too much
on these definitions when reading older works. Also, many units which have precise
meanings now, such as the barrel and the gallon, formerly had a variety of special
meanings when applied to particular commodities; there isn't space in the dictionary for
all these meanings.

For many units, an abbreviation or symbol is given in parentheses, like this: gram (g).
Generally speaking, symbols do not appear as separate entries, except in those cases
where one could not guess from the symbol which page the unit appears on. So if all you
know is a symbol or abbreviation, it's necessary to scan the appropriate page and search
for the abbreviation. For example, for the unit abbreviated "Pa" look on the "P" page.)

It is often necessary to use scientific (powers of ten) notation, like this: 106. If that doesn't
show up on your screen as 10 raised to the 6th power, then similar problems will occur
throughout the dictionary.

In addition, there are several Greek letters used as symbols. Most Internet browsers will
now display the "micro" symbol µ (lower case Greek letter mu), because it belongs to the
international character set known as ISO Latin 1 and it is supported in both Windows and
Mac OS. The lower case pi and gamma and upper case omega are not available in ISO
Latin 1, so the dictionary represents them as English words in red.

The dictionary observes certain standard conventions on using numbers and units.

The dictionary contains a huge number of links intended to cross-reference between
units. If you find such a link that doesn't work, please let me know so I can fix it.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2004 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

January 6, 2000; latest update July 14, 2004.

Using Numbers and Units
In science, there are definite rules of syntax for using numbers and units. This dictionary

Large numbers: How many is a billion? In America, the word "billion" means the
number 1 000 000 000, or 109. In Britain, this number is (or was) traditionally called "one
milliard" or "one thousand million," and "billion" means the number 1 000 000 000 000
or 1012, which is what Americans call a "trillion." Most other European languages have
similar expressions, such as mil millones for 109 and billón for 1012 in Spanish.

The Dictionary uses the American definitions for large number names. Although the
General Conference on Weights and Measures endorsed the European names in 1948, the
American definitions seem to be gaining ground in Britain and perhaps elsewhere. See
Names for Large Numbers for more on this question.

There's always interest, especially among school children, in knowing the names of still
larger numbers: quadrillions, quintillions, etc. These names are listed in on the Names for
Large Numbers page.

Decimal Points and Numbers: In English-speaking countries, the decimal point
(decimal marker) is the period. In continental Europe and most other places, the decimal
marker is the comma. The Dictionary uses the period. Since the comma often means a
decimal point, the International System (SI) requires that large numbers, like the billions
above, be represented as groups of three digits separated by narrow spaces, not by
commas. The Dictionary observes this convention.

Scientific Notation: Many authorities, including the U.S. NIST (Guide for the Use of the
International System of Units, sec. 7.9), also recommend that in scientific notation (when
numbers are represented using powers of ten), the exponent of the 10 should be a
multiple of 3. For example, the distance from the Earth to the Sun should be stated as

approximately 149.6 x 106 km, not 1.496 x 108 km. This rule fits the structure of the
prefixes used for metric units. The Dictionary follows this rule for most numbers, but not
for stating the ratios between CGS and MKS units.

Symbols (Abbreviations): Following the rules of the International System, the
Dictionary uses no periods after abbreviations or symbols for units, and never uses an "s"
on an abbreviation or symbol to indicate a plural.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2004 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

February 14, 2000; last updated July 14, 2004.

Roman and "Arabic" Numerals
The use of Roman numerals has been mathematically obsolete for more than 1100 years.
Nonetheless, the Roman symbols for numbers continue to be used in a variety of ways,
most of them rather stereotyped: to mark the hours on clock faces, to number pages in the
prefaces of books, to express copyright dates, and to count items in a series (such as the
Super Bowls of U.S. professional football).

The form of Roman numeration used today was established during the Middle Ages in
Western Europe. It is derived from the systems actually used in Roman times, but with
certain improvements. The basic Roman numerals as used today are:

I=1 V=5 X = 10 L = 50 C = 100 D = 500 M = 1000

The symbols are repeated to form larger numbers, and when different symbols are
combined, the larger unit precedes the smaller. Thus VIII represents 8, CLXXX is 180,
and MMDCCXXV is 2725.

The Romans usually wrote IIII for 4 and XXXX for 40. The number 949 was
DCCCCXXXXVIIII. To shorten the length of such numbers a "subtraction rule" was
sometimes used in Roman times and was commonly used in medieval times. The

As we see. Later. the lower case letter "j" was sometimes used in place of "i". The author's name."subtraction rule" allows the use of six compound symbols in which a smaller unit precedes the larger: IV = 4 IX = 9 XL = 40 XC = 90 CD = 400 CM = 900 Using these symbols.. as in "xiij" for 13. Furthermore. who taught at Baghdad sometime between 800 and 850.. Roman numbers were often written in lower case. taking on different meaning (4. as in "Mcxl" for 1140. . such as 4. A common custom was to write "j" for the last in a series of one's.. Thus 10 000 became X with a bar over it and 100 000 became C with a bar over it. In late Roman and medieval times." is the root of the English word "algorithm". Actually.) depending on its location within the representation of the number. and they remained in general use for centuries after our modern number system became available. after D and M were adopted as the symbols for 500 and 1000. Sometimes cases were even mixed. not IC. 40. only the capital letters were used for number symbols. . Place value notation was used long ago in Babylonian cuneiform numerals. (Other "subtracted" symbols are not allowed. their use in certain applications continues even today. Latinized as "Algorismus. The modern system of numeration is based on place value. 949 is written more compactly as CMXLIX. etc. The modern numerals 1. In Roman times. 2. Al-jabr w'al muqabalah. which included all the techniques of arithmetic still taught in schools today. 3. This system allowed powers of ten larger than 1000 to be written by increasing the number of arcs: 10 000 was written (( I )) and 100 000 was written ((( I ))). with the same symbol. The key figure was the great Arab mathematician Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi.) The use of subtracted symbols was never mandatory. These "overbarred" symbols are almost never seen today. so IIII and IV can be used interchangeably for 4. but our modern decimal place value system was invented by Hindu mathematicians in India." Subsequently he wrote a longer and very influential work. 400. after lower case letters came into use. these arcs can only be approximated on this page by using parentheses. known in Europe as Algebra. He wrote a book on the Hindu number system known today only in a later Latin translation as De numero indorum. are sometimes called "Arabic" numerals in the West because they were introduced to Europeans by Arab scholars. D appeared as I ) and M as ( I ). the symbols D (500) and M (1000) were originally written using a vertical stroke with surrounding arcs. The Romans had no word for 1 000 000 and rarely considered numbers of that size or larger. a custom arose of writing a bar over a number to multiply that number by 1000. "On the Hindu numbers. Thus 99 must written XCIX. probably by the sixth century and perhaps even earlier. Thus "vi" means 6 and "cxxii" means 122. Roman numerals continued in use in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.

and Europeans will always regard the American system as an imposition. not a million million. The French physician and mathematician Nicolas Chuquet (1445-1488) apparently coined the words byllion and tryllion and used them to represent 1012 and 1018. is proposed for n = 3." The result of all this is widespread confusion.S. The French decided in 1948 to revert to the Chuquet ("European") system. while the original Chuquet nomenclature remained in use in Britain and Germany. some sites outside the U. tetrillion . respectively.S. particularly in Britain and to a lesser extent in other countries. (The traditional names thousand and million are retained for n = 1 and 2 and the special name gillion. In science. for n > 3. In 1974. Anyone who uses the words "billion" and "trillion" internationally should make clear which meaning of those words is intended." Although we describe the two systems today as American or European. a billion is 109 = 1 000 000 000 in the American system and 1012 = 1 000 000 000 000 in the European system. Such terms cannot be mistaken. the same name applies to the number 106n. However. On the Internet. For 109. Americans are not likely to adopt the European nomenclature. In a system traditional in many European countries. Thus 109 watts is a gigawatt and 1012 joules is a terajoule. The Times of London style guide now defines "billion" as "one thousand million. use the compound designation "milliard/billion" to designate the number 1 000 000 000. the government of Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced that henceforth "billion" would mean 109 and not 1012 in official British reports and statistics. both systems are actually of French origin. This usage became common in France and in America. However. leaving the U. This is primarily due to American finance. In particular. it is possible to imagine a solution: junk both Latin-based systems and move to a Greek-based system in which. it was also French mathematicians of the 1600's who used billion and trillion for 109 and 1012. In recent years.) Greek-based 3n American European n= 10 = SI prefix name name name (proposed) 3 109 billion milliard giga. because Americans insist that \$1 000 000 000 be called a billion dollars. American usage has eroded the European system. There is no real hope of resolving the controversy in favor of either system. as the chief standard bearer for what then became clearly an American system. thus establishing what we now think of as the "European" system. respectively. the Greek number n is used to generate a name for 103n. suggested by the SI prefix giga-. gillion 4 1012 trillion billion tera. the names of large numbers are usually avoided completely by using the appropriate SI prefixes. Europeans say "thousand million" or "milliard.applies to the number 103n+3.

5 1015 quadrillion billiard peta. pentillion 6 1018 quintillion trillion exa. the googol lies outside the regular naming systems. the number 10100 (1 followed by 100 zeroes). The googol equals 10 duotrigintillion in the American system. but one has to stop somewhere. Invented more for fun than for use. heptillion 8 1024 septillion quadrillion yotta. oktillion 9 1027 octillion quadrilliard ennillion 10 1030 nonillion quintillion dekillion 11 1033 decillion quintilliard hendekillion 12 1036 undecillion sextillion dodekillion 13 1039 duodecillion sextilliard trisdekillion 14 1042 tredecillion septillion tetradekillion 15 1045 quattuordecillion septilliard pentadekillion 16 1048 quindecillion octillion hexadekillion 17 1051 sexdecillion octilliard heptadekillion 18 1054 septendecillion nonillion oktadekillion 19 1057 octodecillion nonilliard enneadekillion 20 1060 novemdecillion decillion icosillion 21 1063 vigintillion decilliard icosihenillion 22 1066 unvigintillion undecillion icosidillion 23 1069 duovigintillion undecilliard icositrillion 24 1072 trevigintillion duodecillion icositetrillion 25 1075 quattuorvigintillion duodecilliard icosipentillion 26 1078 quinvigintillion tredecillion icosihexillion 27 1081 sexvigintillion tredecilliard icosiheptillion 28 1084 septenvigintillion quattuordecillion icosioktillion 29 1087 octovigintillion quattuordecilliard icosiennillion 30 1090 novemvigintillion quindecillion triacontillion 31 1093 trigintillion quindecilliard triacontahenillion 32 1096 untrigintillion sexdecillion triacontadillion 33 1099 duotrigintillion sexdecilliard triacontatrillion This process can be continued indefinitely. The name centillion (n = 100) has appeared in many dictionaries. A centillion is 10303 (1 followed by 303 zeroes) in the American system and a whopping 10600 (1 followed by 600 zeroes) in the European system. Finally. and 10 triacontatrillion in the proposed Greek-based system. there is the googol. . hexillion 7 1021 sextillion trilliard zetta. 10 sexdecilliard in the European system.

The googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeroes) is far larger than any of the numbers
discussed here.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2001 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

November 1, 2001

Using Abbreviations or Symbols
In the International System of Units (SI), the units do not have "abbreviations". They
have symbols. The unit symbols do not follow the grammatical rules for abbreviations,
because they follow the mathematical rules for symbols instead. These rules include the
following.

• A symbol is never followed by a period (unless, of course, it happens to fall at the
end of a sentence).
• The letter "s" is never added to a symbol to indicate a plural.
o In other words, 2 minutes is written 2 min, not 2 min. or 2 mins.
• Symbols are case-sensitive and must be written as they are defined.
o There is a tradition in the metric system that the first (or only) letter of an
unprefixed unit symbol is capitalized if (and only if) the unit's name
comes from a proper name. Thus W is the symbol for the watt and A is the
symbol for the ampere, because these units are named for scientists.
o It makes a big difference whether a symbol is capitalized or not, because
often the same letter represents different units: t stands for the tonne and T
for the tesla, for example.
o There is one loophole in the rule on capitalization: it's acceptable to use
the symbol L instead of l for the liter, since the letter l is so easily confused
with the number 1.
o The case of symbol prefixes is specified, upper and lower, and must not be
changed. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k-, so kW and not KW is the
symbol for the kilowatt.
• The superscripts 2 and 3 are always used for "square" and "cubic", respectively.
o Thus the square kilometer, for example, is written km2, not sq km.

• A raised dot (also called a middle dot or half-high dot) is recommended when
symbols are multiplied. It is permissible to use a space instead, but symbols
should not be placed next to one another with nothing between them.
o For example, A·h is the recommended symbol for the ampere hour. A h is
also permitted, but not Ah or amp hr.
• The slash (solidus) / is used for "per". Furthermore, only one slash is allowed per
symbol.
o This means the SI unit of acceleration is written m/s2 rather than m/s/s,
even though it is often spoken "meters per second per second". (Negative
exponents can also be used: m/s2 can be written m·s-2.)
• Symbols are separated from the numerical quantity they follow by a space.
o Thus 5 kilograms is written 5 kg, not 5kg.

In the English customary systems there are no "official" symbols or abbreviations. For
many English units a variety of abbreviations are used. Sometimes these abbreviations
duplicate metric symbols; for example, "A" is sometimes used in English for the acre
instead of the ampere. It would be better to use the symbol "ac" for the acre. In this
dictionary, the first symbol listed is either the official one or the one that should be
preferred in order to minimize confusion of units.

The policy of this dictionary is to define symbols for the traditional English units
and to apply the SI rules to their use. This is done for both consistency and clarity. It
avoids a number of outstanding problems caused by the traditional abbreviations for the
English units, especially the following.

• In the English systems, there is no general agreement as to whether abbreviations
for units are capitalized or not. When English-speaking writers extend this
informal practice to metric symbols, they sometimes create wild errors, such as
"10 ML" used for 10 milliliters when it actually means 10 megaliters. Even
standard dictionaries in English sometimes give the wrong case for metric
symbols! In this dictionary, the SI convention for capitalization is applied (with a
very few exceptions) to the symbols used for the English units: a letter is
capitalized only if it comes from a proper name. Thus we write Btu (not BTU) for
the British thermal unit.
• In English traditional unit abbreviations, the letter "p" is often used as an
abbreviation for "per", "sq" or "s" as an abbreviation for "square", and "cu" or "c"
as an abbreviation for "cubic". These are all bad ideas, despite their long usage,
and they lead to confusing abbreviations. Although it is traditional to write "psi"
for pounds per square inch, the symbol lb/in2 would be much clearer. (In fact, the
correct symbol should really be lbf/in2, since the pounds in question are pounds of
force, not pounds of mass!) A traditional abbreviation such as CFM (cubic feet per
minute) is often not understood by general readers; ft3/min has a much better
chance of being understood.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2004 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

July 14, 2004

The International System of Units (SI)
All systems of weights and measures, metric and non-metric, are linked through a
network of international agreements supporting the International System of Units. The
International System is called the SI, using the first two initials of its French name
Système International d'Unités. The key agreement is the Treaty of the Meter
(Convention du Mètre), signed in Paris on May 20, 1875. 48 nations have now signed this
treaty, including all the major industrialized countries. The United States is a charter
member of this metric club, having signed the original document back in 1875.

The SI is maintained by a small agency in Paris, the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures (BIPM, for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), and it is updated every
few years by an international conference, the General Conference on Weights and
Measures (CGPM, for Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures), attended by
representatives of all the industrial countries and international scientific and engineering
organizations. The 22nd CGPM met in October 2003; the next meeting will be in 2007.
As BIPM states on its web site, "The SI is not static but evolves to match the world's
increasingly demanding requirements for measurement."

At the heart of the SI is a short list of base units defined in an absolute way without
referring to any other units. The base units are consistent with the part of the metric
system called the MKS system. In all there are seven SI base units:

• the meter for distance,
• the kilogram for mass,
• the second for time,
• the ampere for electric current,
• the kelvin for temperature,
• the mole for amount of substance, and
• the candela for intensity of light.

Other SI units, called SI derived units, are defined algebraically in terms of these
fundamental units. For example, the SI unit of force, the newton, is defined to be the

force that accelerates a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per
second. This means the newton is equal to one kilogram meter per second squared, so the
algebraic relationship is N = kg·m·s-2. Currently there are 22 SI derived units. They
include:

• the newton for force and the pascal for pressure;
• the joule for energy and the watt for power;
• the degree Celsius for everyday measurement of temperature;
• units for measurement of electricity: the coulomb (charge), volt (potential), farad
(capacitance), ohm (resistance), and siemens (conductance);
• units for measurement of magnetism: the weber (flux), tesla (flux density), and
henry (inductance);
• the lumen for flux of light and the lux for illuminance;
• the hertz for frequency of regular events and the becquerel for rates of
• the gray and sievert for radiation dose; and
• the katal, a unit of catalytic activity used in biochemistry.

Future meetings of the CGPM may make additions to this list; the katal was added by the
21st CGPM in 1999.

In addition to the 29 base and derived units, the SI permits the use of certain additional
units, including:

• the traditional mathematical units for measuring angles (degree, arcminute, and
arcsecond);
• the traditional units of civil time (minute, hour, day, and year);
• two metric units commonly used in ordinary life: the liter for volume and the
tonne (metric ton) for large masses;
• the logarithmic units bel and neper (and their multiples, such as the decibel); and
• three non-metric scientific units whose values represent important physical
constants: the astronomical unit, the atomic mass unit or dalton, and the
electronvolt.

The SI currently accepts the use of certain other metric and non-metric units traditional in
various fields. These units are supposed to be "defined in relation to the SI in every
document in which they are used," and "their use is not encouraged." These barely-
tolerated units might well be prohibited by future meetings of the CGPM. They include:

• the nautical mile and knot, units traditionally used at sea and in meteorology;
• the are and hectare, common metric units of area;
• the bar, a pressure unit, and its commonly-used multiples such as the millibar in
meteorology and the kilobar in engineering;
• the angstrom and the barn, units used in physics and astronomy.

The SI does not allow use of any units other than those listed above and their multiples.
In particular, it does not allow use of any of the English traditional units (the horsepower,
for example), nor does it allow the use of any of the algebraically-derived units of the
former CGS system, such as the erg, gauss, poise, stokes, or gal. In addition, the SI does
not allow use of other traditional scientific and engineering units, such as the torr, curie,
calorie, or rem.

Certain scientific fields have defined units more or less compatible with the SI, but not
part of the SI. The use of the jansky in astronomy is a good example. There is always the
chance that future meetings of the CGPM could add these units to the SI, but for the
present they are not approved.

For multiples of approved units, the SI includes a list of prefixes. This list has been
extended several times, most recently by the 19th CGPM in 1991. Prefixes now range
from yotta- at 1024 (one septillion) to yocto- at 10-24 (one septillionth). There seems to be
some need for another extension, but this question was not addressed at the 1999 CGPM.
The SI does not allow these prefixes to be used for binary multiples, such as the use of
"kilobit" to mean 1024 bits instead of 1000. For binary multiples a new list of special
prefixes has been established by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

Each SI unit is represented by a symbol, not an abbreviation. The use of unit symbols is
regulated by precise rules. These symbols are the same in every language of the world.
However, the names of the units themselves vary in spelling according to national
conventions. Therefore, it is correct for Americans to write meter and Germans to write
Meter, and it is also correct for the British to write metre, Italians to write metro, and
Poles to write metr. See Spelling of Metric Units for additional comments.

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2004 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

Posted July 2000; last revised May 26, 2004.

Base Units of the International System (SI)
The General Conference on Weights and Measures has replaced all but one of the
definitions of its base (fundamental) units based on physical objects (such as standard

meter sticks or standard kilogram bars) with physical descriptions of the units based on
stable properties of the Universe.

For example, the second, the base unit of time, is now defined as that period of time in
which the waves of radiation emitted by cesium atoms, under specified conditions,
display exactly 9 192 631 770 cycles. The meter, the base unit of distance, is defined by
stating that the speed of light, a universal physical constant, is exactly 299 792 458
meters per second. These physical definitions allow scientists to reconstruct meter
standards or standard clocks anywhere in the world, or even on other planets, without
referring to a physical object kept in a vault somewhere.

In fact, the kilogram is the only base unit still defined by a physical object. The
International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) keeps the world's standard
kilogram in Paris, and all other weight standards, such as those of Britain and the United
States, are weighed against this standard kilogram.

This one physical standard is still used because scientists can weigh objects very
accurately. Weight standards in other countries can be adjusted to the Paris standard
kilogram with an accuracy of one part per hundred million. So far, no one has figured out
how to define the kilogram in any other way that can be reproduced with better accuracy
than this. The 21st General Conference on Weights and Measures, meeting in October
1999, passed a resolution calling on national standards laboratories to press forward with
research to "link the fundamental unit of mass to fundamental or atomic constants with a
view to a future redefinition of the kilogram." The 22nd General Conference, in 2003,
renewed this request. It is possible that the 24th General Conference, in 2007, will make a
change in the definition.

Following are the official definitions of the seven base units, as given by BIPM. The links
in the first column are to my (possibly) less obscure definitions.

meter (m) distance "The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum
during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second."
kilogram mass "The kilogram is equal to the mass of the international prototype
(kg) of the kilogram."
second (s) time "The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the
radiation corresponding to the transition between the two
hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom."
ampere electric "The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two
(A) current straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible
circular cross-section, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum,
would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10-7
newton per metre of length."
kelvin (K) temperature "The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic
temperature of the triple point of water."

mole amount of "The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains
(mol) substance as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram
of carbon 12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities
must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons,
other particles, or specified groups of such particles."
candela intensity of "The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a
(cd) light source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 ×
1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of

You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.unc.edu) with comments and
suggestions.

All material in this folder is copyright © 2002 by Russ Rowlett and the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by
individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved. You are
this folder to another site. The material at this site will be updated from time to time.

October 7, 2002

Derived Units of the International System (SI)
In addition to the seven base units, the General Conference on Weights and Measures has
approved 22 names for SI units defined as combinations of the base units. Within the SI,
these units are the named derived units.

Following are links to the definitions of these 22 units. The third column shows how each
unit is derived from the preceding units, and the fourth column gives the formal
equivalence of the unit in terms of the base units.

Derived Unit Measures Derivation Formal Definition
hertz (Hz) frequency /s s-1
newton (N) force kg·(m/s2) kg·m·s-2
pascal (Pa) pressure N/m2 kg·m-1·s-2
joule (J) energy or work N·m kg·m2·s-2
watt (W) power J/s kg·m2·s-3
coulomb (C) electric charge A·s A·s
volt (V) electric potential W/A kg·m2·s-3·A-1

You are . momentum is stated in kilogram meters per second (kg·m/s) or in newton seconds (N·s).farad (F) electric capacitance C/V kg-1·m-2·s4·A2 ohm (omega) electric resistance V/A kg·m2·s-3·A-2 siemens (S) electric conductance A/V kg-1·m-2·s3·A2 weber (Wb) magnetic flux V·s kg·m2·s-2·A-1 magnetic flux tesla (T) Wb/m2 kg·s-2·A-1 density henry (H) inductance Wb/A kg·m2·s-2·A-2 degree Celsius temperature K . A few SI derived units do have special names that have been defined but not approved.15 K (°C) radian (rad) plane angle m·m-1 steradian (sr) solid angle m2·m-2 lumen (lm) luminous flux cd·sr cd·sr lux (lx) illuminance lm/m2 m-2·cd·sr-1 becquerel (Bq) activity /s s-1 gray (Gy) absorbed dose J/kg m2·s-2 sievert (Sv) dose equivalent Gy·(multiplier) m2·s-2 katal (kat) catalytic activity mol/s mol·s-1 The term derived unit covers any algebraic combination of the base units. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by individual teachers in conducting their own classes. All other rights reserved.273. You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email. Here are some examples: Derived Unit Measures Derivation stere (st) volume m3 diopter (dpt) refractive power m-1 thermal ohm thermal resistance K/W poiseuille (Pl) dynamic viscosity Pa·s rayl sound impedance Pa·s/m acoustic ohm sound resistance Pa·s/m3 daraf electric elastance F-1 talbot luminous energy lm·s nit (nt) luminance cd/m2 molal chemical concentration mol/kg Return to the Dictionary Contents page. the SI derived unit of momentum (mass times velocity) has no special name. but it is only the 22 combinations listed above that have approved special names. All material in this folder is copyright © 2004 by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.unc. For example.edu) with comments and suggestions.

(T-) 1012 1 trillion giga. 2004 Metric Prefixes To help the SI units apply to a wide range of phenomena.(da-)** 10 1 ten deci.at 1024 (one septillion) to yocto.(E-) 1018 1 quintillion peta. but please do not copy the contents of any page in this folder to another site.(P-) 1015 1 quadrillion tera. with their numerical equivalents stated in the American system for naming large numbers: yotta.at 10-24 (one septillionth). The material at this site will be updated from time to time.(n-) 10-9 1 billionth pico.(M-) 106 1 million kilo.(k-) 103 1 thousand hecto.(f-) 10-15 1 quadrillionth atto.(G-) 109 1 billion mega. Here are the metric prefixes.(h-) 102 1 hundred deka.(µ-) 10-6 1 millionth nano.(Z-) 1021 1 sextillion exa.(Y-) 1024 1 septillion zetta.(m-) 10-3 1 thousandth micro. the 19th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1991 extended the list of metric prefixes so that it reaches from yotta.welcome to make links to this page.(y-) 10-24 1 septillionth .(d-) 10-1 1 tenth centi. Latest update July 14.(c-) 10-2 1 hundredth milli.(p-) 10-12 1 trillionth femto.(z-) 10-21 1 sextillionth yocto.(a-) 10-18 1 quintillionth zepto.

a custom arose of using the metric prefixes to specify powers of 2. The prefix myria. for example. as in the case of the milliampere.230 = 1 073 741 824 tebi.240 = 1 099 511 627 776 pebi. Ki. however.260 = 1 152 921 504 606 846 976 .for deca-.Pi. deci-. National variations in spelling of the prefixes are allowed by the SI. it is not correct.for kilo.Ei.Notes: I am often asked about prefixes for other multiples.S. 10-4. causing the combination to be hard to pronounce otherwise. In an effort to eliminate this confusion. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommends deka-. 105. or 10-5. however. so 1 million ergs is a megalerg (sounds odd. and 10-5. There is a widespread misconception that prefixes for positive powers of ten are all capitalized.and D. In Italian. To the best of my knowledge. Ti.220 = 1 048 576 gibi.are widely used in everyday life but are generally avoided in scientific work. This practice leads to considerable confusion. but it is now considered obsolete and it is not accepted in the SI. The symbols. **The SI Brochure spelling of this prefix is deca-. However. a kilobit is usually 210 = 1024 bits instead of 1000 bits. leading to the use of K. but better than "megerg"). Gi. the SI does allow use of these prefixes. The letter "l" is sometimes added to prefixes before the erg. no prefixes were ever accepted generally for 105.Mi.250 = 1 125 899 906 842 624 exbi.is spelled etto. such as 104. Thus 100 ares is a hectare and 1 million ohms is a megohm. but the U. For example.and kilo- is spelled chilo-. and centi.210 = 1 024 mebi. deka-. The last letter of a prefix is often omitted if the first letter of the unit name is a vowel. are the same in all languages. in 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission approved new prefixes for the powers of 2. The prefixes hecto-. These prefixes are as follows: kibi. hecto. Although this does seem like a useful idea. so dam (not dkm) is the symbol for the dekameter and km is the symbol for the Italian chilometro. Contrary to the belief of some scientists. the last letter of the prefix is not omitted if pronunciation is not a problem.(my-) was formerly used for 104. Binary prefixes In computing. 10-4.

During the Middle Ages there were many different pound standards in use. medieval English merchants often used a larger pound called the "mercantile" pound (libra mercatoria). and since the mile is 8 furlongs there are exactly 10 x 8 x 8 = 640 acres in a square mile. This is the pound unit still in common use in the U. so it weighed 7200 grains. Twenty pennies weighed an ounce. The use of these weight units naturally followed trade routes.old Saxon unit that is either historic or archaic. which is derived from jour. This unit seemed about the right size to merchants. this meant a field that could be plowed in a morning. But the acre was never visualized as a square. An acre is the area of a long and narrow Anglo-Saxon farm field. rather than 12 or 16. originated as a Roman unit and was used throughout the Roman Empire. Weight The basic traditional unit of weight. which was originally the weight of a single barleycorn. like the square yard. Even today gold and silver prices are quoted by the troy ounce in financial markets everywhere. quarters. The troy pound weighs 5760 grains. In traditional English law the various pound weights are related by stating all of them as multiples of the grain. the pound. Modeled on a common Italian pound unit of the late . This unit contained 15 troy ounces. Around 1300 the mercantile pound was replaced in English commerce by the 16-ounce avoirdupois pound. and Britain. The Roman pound was divided into 12 ounces. This works out. since the oxen had to be rested in the afternoon. the corresponding unit in German is called the morgen ("morning") or tagwerk ("day's work"). which provided the basis on which coins were minted and gold and silver were weighed. we get 10 acres in a square furlong. The oldest English weight system has been used since the time of the Saxon kings. and as a unit an acre was originally a field of a size that a farmer could plow in a single day. Since Roman coins were still in circulation in Saxon times. some of 12 ounces and some of 16. Since the troy pound was smaller than the commercial pound units used in most of Europe. and therefore a pennyweight is 480/20 = 24 grains. very awkwardly indeed. The troy system continued to be used by jewelers and also by druggists until the nineteenth century. meaning "day". It is based on the 12-ounce troy pound. and the ounces weigh 480 grains. perhaps because a 16- ounce pound is conveniently divided into halves. one furlong (40 rods) in length but only 4 rods (1 chain) wide. Thus barleycorns are at the origin of both weight and distance units in the English system. The word "acre" also meant "field". or eighths. but many European merchants preferred to use a larger pound of 16 ounces. The French word for the unit is journal. depending on your point of view. There are references to the acre at least as early as the year 732. but its division into 15 parts. the troy system was designed to model the Roman system directly. Most area units were eventually defined to be the area of a square having sides equal to some simple multiple of a distance unit. was very inconvenient. In practice. since merchants trading along a certain route had to be familiar with the units used at both ends of the trip. to be exactly 43 560 square feet .S. If we line up 10 of these 4 x 40 standard acres side by side.

it was very difficult to measure the capacity of a container accurately in cubic units. Americans. are rather close in weight to the British long ton. Larger volumes of liquids were carried in barrels.5 grains while the troy ounce is 5760/12 = 480 grains. as different commodities were carried in containers of slightly different sizes. Conversion between troy and avoirdupois units is so awkward. Furthermore. so the Americans were actually simplifying things by selecting just two of the many possible gallons. which. This custom led to a multiplicity of units. with wine units being different from beer and ale units or units for other liquids. which is equal to 112 avoirdupois pounds rather than 100. The definition of the ton as 20 hundredweight made the disagreement carry over to the size of the ton: the British "long" ton remained at 2240 pounds while the American "short" ton became exactly 2000 pounds. 8 stone of 14 pounds. Thus the gallon. These two were the gallons that had become most common in British commerce by around . The situation was still confused during the American colonial period. the basic English unit of volume. the avoirdupois pound weighs exactly 7000 grains. such as wheat or beer. hogsheads. they called it the cental. so the British hundredweight can be divided conveniently into 4 quarters of 28 pounds. there are 2 gallons in a peck and 4 pecks in a bushel. 112 is a multiple of 16.) Today. most international shipments are reckoned in metric tons. The avoirdupois ounce. For larger volumes of dry commodities. 1/16 pound. Until the eighteenth century. redefined the hundredweight to equal exactly 100 pounds. is divided further into 16 drams. originally a unit of wine measure. was defined to equal 20 hundredweight or 2240 pounds. or 16 cloves of 7 pounds each. During the nineteenth century. while the avoirdupois pound was used for everything else. which are further divided into 2 pints each.thirteenth century. Volume The names of the traditional volume units are the names of standard containers. Since at least 1400 a standard weight unit in Britain has been the hundredweight. was originally the volume of eight pounds of wheat. that they could carry. used only for precious metals and for pharmaceuticals. (The American hundredweight became so popular in commerce that British merchants decided they needed a name for it. There were very good reasons for the odd size of this "hundred": 112 pounds made the hundredweight equivalent for most purposes with competing units of other countries. Gallons are always divided into 4 quarts. especially the German zentner and the French quintal. Unfortunately. not very impressed with the history of the British units. so the standard containers were defined by specifying the weight of a particular substance. an unfortunate disagreement arose between British and Americans concerning the larger weight units. or other containers whose size in gallons tended to vary with the commodity. no one wanted to do it. the two English ounce units don't agree: the avoirdupois ounce is 7000/16 = 437. The ton. The troy system quickly became highly specialized. coincidentally.

engineering.3356 x 10-10 coulomb franklin (Fr) electric charge (C) 0. In 1954. degree Kelvin. ampere.98692 x 10-12 square darcy permeability meter (m2) electric dipole 3.33564 x 10-30 debye (D) moment coulomb meter (C·m) dyne (dyn) force 10-5 newton (N) magnetic dipole 0. the Tenth General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) adopted the meter. Following is a table of CGS units with their SI equivalents.1868 joule (J) 0. they are being replaced gradually by the SI units selected from the MKS system. Although some of the CGS units remain in use for a variety of purposes. and other practical areas. CGS unit measuring SI equivalent barye (ba) pressure 0. second. During the 20th century. By 1950 there was some discomfort among users of metric units.) In effect.001 ampere square emu moment meter (A·m2) erg work. The CGS electromagnetic and electrostatic units are not included in this table. a choice needed to be made.1 pascal (Pa) biot (Bi) electric current 10 amperes (A) calorie (cal) heat energy 4. energy 10-7 joule (J) 3.795 775 ampere- gilbert (Gi) magnetomotive force turns (A) kayser (K) wave number 100 per meter (m-1) . these decisions gave the central core of the MKS system preference over the CGS system. In other words. Note that in some cases there is more than one name for the same unit. except for those which have special names. kilogram. and candela as the basic units for all international weights and measures. because the need to translate between CGS and MKS units went against the metric ideal of a universal measuring system. (The "degree Kelvin" became the kelvin in 1967. and in 1960 the Eleventh General Conference adopted the name International System of Units (SI) for this collection of units. metric units based on the meter and kilogram--the MKS units--were used more and more in commercial transactions.Weights and Measures (BIPM).01 meter per second galileo (Gal) acceleration squared (m·s-2) gauss (G) magnetic flux density 10-4 tesla (T) 0.

but please do not copy the contents of any page in this folder to another site.256 637 x 10-7 weber unit pole magnetic flux (Wb) Return to the Dictionary Contents page. The material at this site will be updated from time to time. 2003 Spelling of Metric Units Controversies arise sometimes over the spelling of metric units. You are welcome to make links to this page. In the case of the U. All other rights reserved.unc. October 26.S. 3183.edu) with comments and suggestions. In many cases. Permission is granted for personal use and for use by individual teachers in conducting their own classes. and Britain.099 candelas per lambert (Lb) luminance square meter (cd·m-2) 41. these controversies grow out of a misunderstanding as to just what is international in the International System of Units (SI). All material in this folder is copyright © 2000 by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. You are welcome to email the author (rowlett@email.1 pascal second poise (P) dynamic viscosity (Pa·s) 104 candelas per stilb (sb) luminance square meter (cd·m-2) 10-4 square meters per stokes (St) kinematic viscosity second (m2·s-1) 1.84 kilojoules per langley heat transmission square meter (kJ·m-2) line (li) magnetic flux 10-8 weber (Wb) maxwell (Mx) magnetic flux 10-8 weber (Wb) magnetic field 79.577 472 ampere- oersted (Oe) strength turns per meter (A·m-1) phot (ph) illumination 104 lux (lx) 0. . The fact is that the spellings of SI units vary from one language to another. spellings differ even within a language: Americans write meter and liter while the British write metre and litre.

Spanish) No doubt this list could be extended quite a bit. 1000 feet a furlong. the fundamental SI unit of length has numerous spellings. Constitution gives Congress the power to "fix the standard of weights and measures" for the nation. . Consequently. etc. Slovak. Russian. represent the same name spelled in different languages. the foot (it was slightly shorter than the traditional foot) into 10 inches. 1999 The Metric System in the United States Article I. goes much farther than that. and each line into 10 points. Dutch. Within the International System. however. Even if we disregard accent markings. and there were 10 000 feet in a mile (making the Jeffersonian mile about twice as long as the traditional mile). (This is very similar to the metric system. took up the question of weights and measures. and Swedish) • metr (Czech. The First Congress. The words meter. which he proposed to call a bushel (it was about 3/4 the size of a traditional bushel). French) • metri (Finnish) • metro (Basque. Australian. Norwegian. but they cannot call it a verst. The point is. Portuguese. Danish. his system was burdened with a long list of names. meeting in 1789. 10 feet equalled a decade. The Italians call the same unit the chilometro. he divided his basic distance unit. and had the metric system been available at that time it might have been adopted. His basic volume unit was the cubic foot. The basic weight unit was the ounce. and the symbols of the units. For larger distances. metre. 100 feet was a rood. there is no "official" spelling of the SI units. defined so that a bushel of water weighed 1000 ounces. Polish. Italian. What the SI does provide includes the names. Its biggest shortcoming is that Jefferson didn't hit on the idea of using prefixes to create names for multiples of units. Ukrainian) • metras (Lithuanian) • metre (British. German. the definitions. Russians are welcome to call 1000 meters a kilometr. metr. Hungarian. For example. Each inch was divided into 10 lines. in which a liter of water weighs 1000 grams). because that would be a different name. June 4. Section 8 of the U. they must use km. who was then serving as the first Secretary of State. submitted a report proposing a decimal-based system with a mixture of familiar and unfamiliar names for the units.The variation in spelling. including: • meter (American English. What actually happened is that Thomas Jefferson. S. Canadian and New Zealand English. Jefferson's system actually resembles the metric system in many ways. but they cannot make its symbol chm.

2-. Vehicle codes are from the Transport Division of the UN Economic Commission for Europe. these codes are actually provided by the United Nations Statistical Division. ISO 2- alpha codes are from the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency. I have omitted several vehicle codes which appear to be obsolete because they refer to previous names of the territory rather than the present name. Canada.S. The calling code "1" is assigned to the entire North American Numbering Plan Area. Some additional 3-alpha and numerical codes are taken from the CIA Factbook Appendix D (Country Data Codes). The International Telecommunications Union assigns 1-. IOC codes are from the IOC's National Olympic Committees pages. In the following table. the British Commonwealth nations of the Caribbean. Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use. which also provided the numerical codes. Internet codes are from IANA's Root-Zone Whois Index. and its possessions. Also. All other countries and territories have their own 2-digit or 3-digit code. code "7" is assigned to a large calling area including the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. the codes shown are from the United Nations. .Three-digit numerical codes for countries are also specified by ISO 3166. Within this region the "1" is followed by a NANPA 3-digit area code. Bermuda. which includes the U. English country names and code elements. or 3-digit country calling codes for international telephone calls. and the Dominican Republic. ISO 3-alpha codes are not posted to the Internet by ISO.

al AL ALB 008 355 ALDERNEY GBA ALGERIA (El Djazaïr) DZ DZA .ao ANG 024 244 ANGUILLA AI AIA .ai 660 1-264 ANTARCTICA AQ ATA .af AFG AFG 004 93 ÅLAND ISLANDS AX ALA .aw ARU 533 297 ASCENSION ISLAND .at A AUT 040 43 AZERBAIJAN AZ AZE .aq 010 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA AG ATG .as ASA 016 1-684 ANDORRA AD AND .ar RA ARG 032 54 ARMENIA AM ARM .ad AND AND 020 376 ANGOLA AO AGO .ag ANT 028 1-268 ARGENTINA AR ARG .am AM ARM 051 7 ARUBA AW ABW .au AUS AUS 036 61 AUSTRIA AT AUT .dz DZ ALG 012 213 AMERICAN SAMOA AS ASM .az AZ AZE 031 994 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling .ac 247 AUSTRALIA AU AUS . ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling AFGHANISTAN AF AFG .ax 248 ALBANIA AL ALB .

bv 074 BRAZIL BR BRA .bj DY BEN 204 229 BERMUDA BM BMU .bz BH BIZ 084 501 BENIN BJ BEN .BAHAMAS BS BHS .bd BD BAN 050 880 BARBADOS BB BRB .ba BIH BIH 070 387 BOTSWANA BW BWA .bt BHU 064 975 BOLIVIA BO BOL .bo BOL BOL 068 591 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BA BIH .be B BEL 056 32 BELIZE BZ BLZ .bf BF BUR 854 226 BURUNDI BI BDI .bw BW BOT 072 267 BOUVET ISLAND BV BVT .cm CAM CMR 120 237 .io 086 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BN BRN .bh BRN BRN 048 973 BANGLADESH BD BGD .by BY BLR 112 375 BELGIUM BE BEL .bs BS BAH 044 1-242 BAHRAIN BH BHR .kh K CAM 116 855 CAMEROON CM CMR .bn BRU BRU 096 673 BULGARIA BG BGR .bg BG BUL 100 359 BURKINA FASO BF BFA .bb BDS BAR 052 1-246 BELARUS BY BLR .bi RU BDI 108 257 CAMBODIA KH KHM .br BR BRA 076 55 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY IO IOT .bm BER 060 1-441 BHUTAN BT BTN .

cd ZRE COD 180 243 OF THE (formerly Zaire) COOK ISLANDS CK COK .cc 166 COLOMBIA CO COL .cg RCB CGO 178 242 CONGO.cr CR CRI 188 506 CÔTE D'IVOIRE (Ivory Coast) CI CIV .cf RCA CAF 140 236 CHAD (Tchad) TD TCD . REPUBLIC OF CG COG .ca CDN CAN 124 1 CAPE VERDE CV CPV .cl RCH CHI 152 56 CHINA CN CHN .hr HR CRO 191 385 CUBA CU CUB .cx 162 COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS CC CCK .td TCH CHA 148 235 CHANNEL ISLANDS 830 CHILE CL CHL .ck COK 184 682 COSTA RICA CR CRI .cn CHN 156 86 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling CHRISTMAS ISLAND CX CXR .cz CZ CZE 203 420 .cv CPV 132 238 CAYMAN ISLANDS KY CYM .co CO COL 170 57 COMOROS KM COM .cu CU CUB 192 53 CYPRUS CY CYP .CANADA CA CAN .km COM 174 269 CONGO.cy CY CYP 196 357 CZECH REPUBLIC CZ CZE .ky CAY 136 1-345 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CF CAF .ci CI CIV 384 225 CROATIA (Hrvatska) HR HRV . THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC CD COD .

ee EST EST 233 372 ETHIOPIA ET ETH .DENMARK DK DNK .dj DJI 262 253 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alphaInternet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling DOMINICA DM DMA .fk 238 500 FIJI FJ FJI .do DOM DOM 214 1-809 ECUADOR EC ECU .er ERI 232 291 ESTONIA EE EST .ec EC ECU 218 593 EGYPT EG EGY .et ETH ETH 231 251 EUROPEAN UNION .dm WD DMA 212 1-767 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC DO DOM .gf 254 594 FRENCH POLYNESIA PF PYF .eu FAEROE ISLANDS FO FRO .dk DK DEN 208 45 DJIBOUTI DJ DJI .eg ET EGY 818 20 EL SALVADOR SV SLV .tf 260 .sv ES ESA 222 503 EQUATORIAL GUINEA GQ GNQ .fr F FRA 250 33 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling FRENCH GUIANA GF GUF .fo FR 234 298 FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS) FK FLK .fj FJI FIJ 242 679 FINLAND FI FIN .gq GEQ 226 240 ERITREA ER ERI .pf 258 689 FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES TF ATF .fi FIN FIN 246 358 FRANCE FR FRA .

gu GUM 316 1-671 GUATEMALA GT GTM .gt GCA GUA 320 502 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling GUERNSEY GG GGY .gh GH GHA 288 233 GIBRALTAR GI GIB .ge GE GEO 268 GERMANY (Deutschland) DE DEU . THE GM GMB .gd WG GRN 308 1-473 GUADELOUPE GP GLP .gp 312 590 GUAM GU GUM .hk HKG 344 852 .gl 304 299 GRENADA GD GRD .gi GBZ 292 350 GREAT BRITAIN GB GBR .gg GBG GUINEA GN GIN .ht RH HAI 332 509 HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD HM HMD .gy GUY GUY 328 592 HAITI HT HTI .gm WAG GAM 270 220 GEORGIA GE GEO .hn HON 340 504 HONG KONG (Special Administrative Region HK HKG .uk GB GBR 826 44 GREECE GR GRC .gw GBS 624 245 GUYANA GY GUY .hm 334 ISLANDS HONDURAS HN HND .gr GR GRE 300 30 GREENLAND GL GRL .ga G GAB 266 241 GAMBIA.gn RG GUI 324 224 GUINEA-BISSAU GW GNB .de D GER 276 49 GHANA GH GHA .GABON GA GAB .

of China) HUNGARY HU HUN .ke EAK KEN 404 254 KIRIBATI KI KIR .je GBJ JORDAN (Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) JO JOR .kw KWT KUW 414 965 .is IS ISL 352 354 INDIA IN IND .ki KIR 296 686 KOREA (Democratic Peoples Republic of KP PRK .kp PRK 408 850 [North] Korea) KOREA (Republic of [South] Korea) KR KOR .it I ITA 380 39 JAMAICA JM JAM .kz KZ KAZ 398 7 KENYA KE KEN .il IL ISR 376 972 ITALY IT ITA .iq IRQ IRQ 368 964 IRELAND IE IRL .jp J JPN 392 81 JERSEY JE JEY .ir IR IRI 364 98 IRAQ IQ IRQ .jo HKJ JOR 400 962 KAZAKHSTAN KZ KAZ .jm JA JAM 388 1-876 JAPAN JP JPN .kr ROK KOR 410 82 KUWAIT KW KWT .id RI INA 360 62 IRAN (Islamic Republic of Iran) IR IRN .hu H HUN 348 36 ICELAND IS ISL .in IND IND 356 91 INDONESIA ID IDN .im GBM 833 ISRAEL IL ISR .ie IRL IRL 372 353 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling ISLE OF MAN IM IMN .

lb RL LIB 422 961 LESOTHO LS LSO .mv MDV 462 960 MALI ML MLI .lu L LUX 442 352 MACAO (Special Administrative Region of MO MAC .mk MK MKD 807 389 Macedonia) MADAGASCAR MG MDG .mo 446 853 China) MACEDONIA (Former Yugoslav Republic of MK MKD .li FL LIE 438 423 LITHUANIA LT LTU .mw MW MAW 454 265 MALAYSIA MY MYS .lv LV LAT 428 371 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling LEBANON LB LBN .mg RM MAD 450 261 MALAWI MW MWI .ml RMM MLI 466 223 MALTA MT MLT .ly LAR LBA 434 218 LIECHTENSTEIN (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) LI LIE .KYRGYZSTAN KG KGZ .ls LS LES 426 266 LIBERIA LR LBR .kg KS KGZ 417 996 LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC LA LAO .mt M MLT 470 356 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling .lt LT LTU 440 370 LUXEMBOURG LU LUX .lr LB LBR 430 231 LIBYA (Libyan Arab Jamahirya) LY LBY .my MAL MAS 458 60 MALDIVES MV MDV .la LAO LAO 418 856 LATVIA LV LVA .

MARSHALL ISLANDS MH MHL .md MD MDA 498 373 MONACO MC MCO .mr RIM MTN 478 222 MAURITIUS MU MUS .mn MGL MGL 496 976 MONTENEGRO ME MNE .mq 474 596 MAURITANIA MR MRT .yt 175 269 MEXICO MX MEX .np NEP NEP 524 977 NETHERLANDS NL NLD .mx MEX MEX 484 52 MICRONESIA (Federated States of FM FSM .mu MS MRI 480 230 MAYOTTE YT MYT .mz MOC MOZ 508 258 MYANMAR (formerly Burma) MM MMR .mm BUR MYA 104 95 NAMIBIA NA NAM .nr NAU NRU 520 674 NEPAL NP NPL .mc MC MON 492 377 MONGOLIA MN MNG .me MNE MNE 499 382 MONTSERRAT MS MSR .ma MA MAR 504 212 MOZAMBIQUE (Moçambique) MZ MOZ .nl NL NED 528 31 NETHERLANDS ANTILLES AN ANT .an NA AHO 530 599 NEW CALEDONIA NC NCL .na NAM NAM 516 264 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling NAURU NR NRU .mh MHL 584 692 MARTINIQUE MQ MTQ .fm FSM 583 691 Micronesia) MOLDOVA MD MDA .nc 540 687 .ms 500 1-664 MOROCCO MA MAR .

ni NIC NCA 558 505 NIGER NE NER .pt P POR 620 351 PUERTO RICO PR PRI .nu 570 683 NORFOLK ISLAND NF NFK .pn 612 POLAND PL POL .qa Q QAT 634 974 .om OMA 512 968 PAKISTAN PK PAK .pr PUR 630 1 QATAR QA QAT .NEW ZEALAND NZ NZL .nz NZ NZL 554 64 NICARAGUA NI NIC .pg PNG PNG 598 675 PARAGUAY PY PRY .pk PK PAK 586 92 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling PALAU PW PLW .pe PE PER 604 51 PHILIPPINES PH PHL .ph RP PHI 608 63 PITCAIRN PN PCN .ne RN NIG 562 227 NIGERIA NG NGA .nf 574 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS MP MNP .pw PLW 585 680 PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES PS PSE .mp 580 1-670 NORWAY NO NOR .py PY PAR 600 595 PERU PE PER .pl PL POL 616 48 PORTUGAL PT PRT .no N NOR 578 47 OMAN OM OMN .ps PLE 275 970 PANAMA PA PAN .ng WAN NGR 566 234 NIUE NU NIU .pa PA PAN 591 507 PAPUA NEW GUINEA PG PNG .

lc WL LCA 662 1-758 SAINT MARTIN (French portion) MF MAF .pm 666 508 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES VC VCT .sa SA KSA 682 966 SENEGAL SN SEN .ru RUS RUS 643 7 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling RWANDA RW RWA .RÉUNION RE REU .sc SY SEY 690 248 SIERRA LEONE SL SLE .bl 652 SAINT HELENA SH SHN .sg SGP SIN 702 65 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling .re 638 262 ROMANIA RO ROU .vc WV VIN 670 1-784 SAMOA (formerly Western Samoa) WS WSM .st STP 678 239 SAUDI ARABIA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) SA SAU .sn SN SEN 686 221 SERBIA (Republic of Serbia) RS SRB .sm RSM SMR 674 378 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE ST STP .mf 663 SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON PM SPM .kn SKN 659 1-869 SAINT LUCIA LC LCA .ro RO ROM 642 40 RUSSIAN FEDERATION RU RUS .ws WS SAM 882 685 SAN MARINO (Republic of) SM SMR .rw RWA RWA 646 250 SAINT BARTHÉLEMY BL BLM .sl WAL SLE 694 232 SINGAPORE SG SGP .sh 654 290 SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS KN KNA .rs SRB 688 381 SEYCHELLES SC SYC .

sr SME SUR 740 597 SVALBARD AND JAN MAYEN SJ SJM .gs 239 SANDWICH ISLANDS SOVIET UNION (Internet code still used) .sb SOL 90 677 SOMALIA SO SOM .se S SWE 752 46 SWITZERLAND (Confederation of Helvetia) CH CHE .lk CL SRI 144 94 SUDAN SD SDN .su SPAIN (España) ES ESP .tw TPE 158 886 TAJIKISTAN TJ TJK .tz TAN 834 255 THAILAND TH THA .tj TJ TJK 762 992 TANGANYIKA EAT TANZANIA TZ TZA .SLOVAKIA (Slovak Republic) SK SVK .es E ESP 724 34 SRI LANKA (formerly Ceylon) LK LKA .th T THA 764 66 .so SO SOM 706 252 SOUTH AFRICA (Zuid Afrika) ZA ZAF .sd SUD SUD 736 249 SURINAME SR SUR .ch CH SUI 756 41 SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC SY SYR .sk SK SVK 703 421 SLOVENIA SI SVN .sy SYR SYR 760 963 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling TAIWAN ("Chinese Taipei" for IOC) TW TWN .si SLO SLO 705 386 SOLOMON ISLANDS SB SLB .sz SD SWZ 748 268 SWEDEN SE SWE .sj 744 SWAZILAND SZ SWZ .za ZA RSA 710 27 SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH GS SGS .

uz UZ UZB 860 998 VANUATU VU VUT .tr TR TUR 792 90 TURKMENISTAN TM TKM .us USA USA 840 1 UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING UM UMI .tp TLS 626 670 TOGO TG TGO .ve YV VEN 862 58 .tv 798 688 UGANDA UG UGA .to TGA 776 676 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TT TTO .tn TN TUN 788 216 TURKEY TR TUR .tt TT TRI 780 1-868 TUNISIA TN TUN .tm TM TKM 795 993 TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS TC TCA .TIMOR-LESTE (formerly East Timor) TL TLS .vu VAN 548 678 VATICAN CITY (Holy See) VA VAT .va V VAT 336 379 VENEZUELA VE VEN .ug EAU UGA 800 256 UKRAINE UA UKR .tg TG TOG 768 228 TOKELAU TK TKL .uy ROU URU 858 598 UZBEKISTAN UZ UZB .tk 772 690 TONGA TO TON .ua UA UKR 804 380 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling UNITED ARAB EMIRATES AE ARE .tc 796 1-649 TUVALU TV TUV .um 581 ISLANDS URUGUAY UY URY .uk GBR 826 44 UNITED STATES US USA .ae UAE 784 971 UNITED KINGDOM (Great Britain) GB GBR .

yu WALLIS AND FUTUNA WF WLF .zm RNR ZAM 894 260 ZANZIBAR EAZ ZIMBABWE ZW ZWE .vg BVI IVB 92 1-284 VIRGIN ISLANDS.zw ZW ZIM 716 263 .vi ISV 850 1-340 YUGOSLAVIA (Internet code still used) .wf 876 681 WESTERN SAHARA (formerly Spanish EH ESH . U.S.ye YAR YEM 887 967 ISO ISO IANA UN IOC UN/ISO ITU Country Name 2-alpha 3-alpha Internet Vehicle Olympic numeric calling ZAMBIA (formerly Northern Rhodesia) ZM ZMB .eh 732 Sahara) YEMEN (Yemen Arab Republic) YE YEM . VI VIR . BRITISH VG VGB .vn VN VIE 704 84 VIRGIN ISLANDS.VIET NAM VN VNM .

Mesopotamia. concise discussion by J. easy to use conversions for most of the common units. Surveying Units and Terms. Before adopting the metric system. Interesting research on ancient Egyptian units and their relationship to other ancient measurement systems. An interesting site posted by Jack Proot on America Online. Posted by the Cornell University Law School. Measures from Antiquity and the Bible. French. which serves surveyors and geneologists struggling with old U. and Rome. Greece. deeds and land grants. Historic Units 15 USC Chapter 6. John Porter of the University of Saskatchewan. anyway). A good. Persia. A thorough discussion of traditional and metric units in typesetting and page layout. Includes information on Greek and Roman measurements. this page includes traditional units of land measurement in British. nearly all of which are also listed in this dictionary. Olle Järnefors provides this description of Swedish units and how they have changed over time.B. . Measures. Calvert of the University of Denver. by Markus Kuhn.Online Metric Converter from Science Made Simple. Seriously cool. featuring a collection of conversion modules which instantly convert between units of measurement. Old Swedish Units. Posted by Direct Line Software.S. Only a handful of these units are included in this work. a shareware program for units conversion. Metric Typographic Units.) Old Units of Length. and Spanish North America. or you can expand the menus to include less-familar units as well. A fancy commercial site. but it doesn't cover all the categories of units (yet. A nice feature is that you can work with only the common units. (Proot also has a page on Anglo-Saxon Weights and Measures. It is a service of Entisoft Units. MegaConverter. and Currency. Swedes used a decimalized version of their customary units from 1855 to 1889. this is the law concerning weights and measures in the United States. Foundation metrology. Site includes a huge listing of units with standard equivalents.com is a web-based conversion site which will perform almost any imaginable unit conversion. Discusses length measurement in Egypt. This useful site is posted by Prof. Handy. Convertit. Greek and Roman Weights.

S.S.S.K.S.S.) Explosivity Index scale • Sheet metal • Wind chill chart gauges (U.) TABLES Apgar Scoring Sign 0 points 1 point 2 points Activity A limp limbs flexed active movement (Muscle tone) Pulse P absent < 100 /min > 100 /min (heart rate) G Grimace absent grimace cough or sneeze (response to smell or foot (nose) slap) cry and withdrawal of . basic sizes) categories • Drought severity • Radiocarbon year (Australia) (U.) • Grit sizes • Shot pellet sizes • Wire gauge table (U.) intensity (U. U./U.) • Paper sheet sizes • Tennis racquet • Cotton bale (ISO) gauges weights • Paper sheet sizes • Torino impact • Danjon scale (traditional) hazard scale (lunar eclipse • Paper sheet sizes • Tropical cyclone brightness) (U.Index of Tables and Scales • Apgar scoring • Hat sizes • Shotgun gauges (newborns) • Mercalli scale • SI units for • Beaufort scales (earthquakes) medical data (wind velocity) • Nutritional daily • Solar flare • Bushel weights values (U.) conversion • Viscosity grades • Fujita scale • Saffir-Simpson (ISO) (tornados.) scale (hurricanes.S.S.S. • Volcanic • Glasgow coma U.

walking.5 m). Mounting sea (4 m) with Whole trees in motion. 32- 7 28-33 51-61 Near gale foam blown in streaks inconvenience in 38 downwind. foot (foot slap) Appearance body pink A blue pink all over (color) extremities blue Respiration irregular R absent good strong cry (breathing) weak crying The total Apgar score is the sum of the scores for the five signs.Fresh Moderate waves (1.6 m). Small wavelets (0.8 m). rustle. move. Gentle Large wavelets (0. 12. some Dust and small branches 4 11-16 20-29 18 breeze whitecaps. Smoke rises vertically. wind. blown off roofs). breeze appearance. trees. 25.Moderate Small waves (1 m). Smoke drifts and leaves 1 1-3 1-5 1-4 Light air Ripples only. dense 9 41-47 76-87 Strong gale may occur (shingles 54 foam. Light 2 4-6 6-11 5-7 Crests have a glassy Wind felt on face. sway. Flags extended. Twigs and small 8 34-40 62-74 Gale (5. Minor structural damage 47. Small trees begin to 5 17-21 30-39 24 breeze many whitecaps. umbrellas 31 breeze probably some spray. . 6 22-27 40-50 wires whistle. Difficult to walk against Moderately high waves 39.2 m).Strong Large waves (3 m). leaves 3 7-10 12-19 8-11 breeze crests begin to break. are difficult to control. move. Large branches move. 19. Beaufort Scales (Wind Speed) Speed Conditions Conditions Force Name knots km/h mi/h at Sea on Land 0 <1 <2 < 1 Calm Sea like a mirror. visibility affected. crests break into 46 branches blown off spindrift. High waves (7 m).

Greens (wet) . Eggplant 33 lbs. Potatoes 55 lbs. Peaches 50 lbs. Snap Beans 30 lbs. Pole Beans 28 lbs. Sweet Cucumbers 48 lbs. Shelled Corn 56 lbs. Potatoes 50 lbs. Field Peas 25 lbs. Muscadines 50 lbs. Okra 26 lbs. (in hull) Tomatoes 53 lbs. Mustard 18 lbs. (unshelled) Onions 57 lbs. Lima Beans Greens 30 lbs. 30 lbs. Turnips (without 54 lbs. (dry) English Peas Spinach 20 lbs. Greens (dry) Turnip 18 lbs. Weight Weight Commodity per Commodity per bushel bushel Apples 48 lbs. Sweet Corn (in ear) 70 lbs. tops) Turnip 16 lbs. (green) Cowpeas 60 lbs.

Redtop 14 Grass. shelled 56 Corn. White 60 Clover. Timothy 45 Lespedeza 40-50 Millet 50 Oats 32 Rape 60 Rye 56 Sorghum. ear 70 Cotton 32 Cowpeas 60 Flax 60 Grass. Alsike 60 Clover. Ladino 60 Clover. Crimson 60 Clover. Fescue (tall) 14 Grass. Brome 14 (smooth) Grass. Weight per bushel Commodity (lb) Alfalfa 60 Barley 48 Clover. forage 50 . Red 60 Clover Sweet 60 Corn. Orchard 14 Grass. Blue 14 Grass.

months pastures. reservoirs. voluntary water use restrictions . fire risk high. growth of crops or pastures. very bright rim. some water shortages developing or imminent.9 for 3 -1. Drought Severity Classification RANGES Category Description Possible Palmer CPC Soil USGS Percent Standardized Satellite Impacts Drought Moisture Weekly of Precipitation Vegetation Index Model Streamflow Normal Index (SPI) Health (Percentiles) (Percentiles) Precip Index D0 Abnormally Going into -1.7 short-term months dryness slowing planting.0 to 11-20 11-20 <70% -0.5 to 36-45 Dry drought: -1. streams.8 to 26-35 Drought damage to -2.L = 4 Very bright copper-red or orange eclipse.0 to 21-30 21-30 <75% -0.2 crops. Drought Severity Classification Source: U.S. Coming out of drought: some lingering water deficits. pastures or crops not fully recovered. National Drought Mitigation Center. or wells low. D1 Moderate Some -2. Umbral shadow has a bluish.9 for 3 -0. fire risk above average.

Indices used primarily during the snow season and in the West include the River Basin Snow Water Content. National Weather Service has revised the Fujita scale for estimating the strength of tornados.0 to 6-10 6-10 <65% -1. The new Enhanced F Scale estimates the strongest 3-second wind gust based on the degree of damage to one or more of 28 classes of trees or structures. months extreme fire danger.6 to 6-15 Drought crop/pasture -4.5 losses likely. months fire risk very high. Missouri. water restrictions imposed D3 Extreme Major -4. streams. water shortages common.0 to 3-5 3-5 <60% -1. and the Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI). EF Maximum 3-second Maximum 3-second Maximum 3-second Gust Number Gust (mi/h) Gust (km/h) (knots) .0 or less 1-5 Drought and less for 12 widespread months crop/pasture losses. mainly during the growing season. Crop Moisture Index (CMI). Full information on the new scale is available here from the NWS Storm Prediction Center in Kansas City.0 or 0-2 0-2 <65% -2. shortages of water in reservoirs. the U. creating water emergencies Additional indices used.9 for 6 -1. Enhanced Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale Effective February 1. and wells. 2007.S. requested D2 Severe Crop or -3. River Basin Average Precipitation.9 for 6 -1.9 losses. and Keetch Byram Drought Index (KBDI). include the USDA/NASS Topsoil Moisture. widespread water shortages or restrictions D4 Exceptional Exceptional -5.3 to 16-25 Drought pasture -3. exceptional fire risk.

not applied to face 2 points None 1 point Oriented 5 points Confused conversation. speech. but able to answer 4 points questions Verbal Response Inappropriate responses. patients with scores of 3-8 are usually said to be in a coma. words discernible 3 points Incomprehensible speech 2 points None 1 point . or shout 3 points Opens to pain. The total score is the sum of the scores in three categories. For adults the scores are as follows: Spontaneous--open with blinking at 4 points baseline Eye Opening Response Opens to verbal command.EF0 65-85 105-137 56-74 EF1 86-110 138-178 75-96 EF2 111-135 179-217 97-117 EF3 136-165 218-265 118-143 EF4 166-200 266-322 144-174 EF5 Over 200 Over 322 Over 174 Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale provides a score in the range 3-15.

especially on upper floors of buildings. 5 Appropriate words or phrases Smiles or coos appropriately 4 Inappropriate words Cries and consolable 3 Persistent cries and/or screams Persistent inappropriate crying &/or screaming 2 Grunts Grunts or is agitated or restless 1 No response No response Hat Sizes Source: Things OZ. decorticate 3 points posture Extensor (rigid) response. . Geological Survey pamphlet The Severity of an Earthquake (1986). decerebrate 2 points posture None 1 point For children under 5. AUS/UK 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 7 3/8 7 1/2 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 US 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 7 3/8 7 1/2 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 Metric 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Other S M ML L XL XXL Modified Mercalli Earthquake Intensity Scale This description of the Mercalli scale is from the U. the verbal response criteria are adjusted as follow SCORE 2 to 5 YRS 0 TO 23 Mos. Mercalli Effects magnitude observed I Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable conditions. II Felt only by a few persons at rest. Obeys commands for movement 6 points Purposeful movement to painful stimulus 5 points Withdraws from pain 4 points Motor Response Abnormal (spastic) flexion.S.

Difficult to stand. a few instances of fallen plaster. many awakened. Felt quite noticeably by persons indoors. if any masonry structures remain standing. Damage slight in specially designed structures. considerable damage in poorly built or badly designed structures. Lines of sight and level distorted. some heavy furniture moved or overturned. Damage slight. Rails bent. books off shelves. glassware broken.000 calories a day for adults and children over 4 only. Fall of chimneys. Damage great in poorly built VIII structures. with partial collapse. Delicately suspended objects may swing. Damage considerable in specially designed structures. Felt by all. outdoors by few during the day. walk unsteadily. Many do not recognize it as an earthquake. Buildings shifted off foundations. Standing motor cars III may rock slightly. many frightened and run outdoors. walls. IV Sensation like heavy truck striking building. especially on the upper floors of buildings. Objects thrown into the XII air. Vibration similar to the passing of a truck. Food and Drug Administration's page.. Unstable objects overturned. Rails XI bent greatly. some awakened. Heavy furniture moved. Dishes. windows. Standing motor cars rocked noticeably. Bridges destroyed.S. Some well built wooden structures destroyed. Some dishes and windows V broken. Pendulum clocks may stop. Damage great even IX in substantial buildings. columns. some chimneys broken. Daily Values Encourage Healthy Diet. Damage negligible in building of good design and construction. VI dishes.. well designed frame structures thrown out of plumb. Few. Daily Reference Values (DRVs) for energy-producing nutrients and Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) for vitamins and minerals. monuments. walls make cracking sound. USFDA Daily Values Data from the U. Furniture broken. most masonry and frame X structures destroyed with foundations. General panic. Duration estimated. Noticed by persons driving motor cars. The DRVs are based on 2. Felt by nearly everyone. Windows. . factory stacks. The daily values fall in two groups. Damage total. considerable in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse. doors disturbed. Felt indoors by many. slight to moderate in well-built ordinary VII structures. At night.

The RDIs are based on the National Academy of Sciences's 1998 Recommended Dietary
Allowances.

Daily Reference Values Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs)
Nutrient Amount
Food
DRV 5,000 International
Component vitamin A
Units (IU)
fat 65 grams (g) vitamin C 60 milligrams (mg)
saturated fatty acids 20 g thiamin 1.5 mg
300 milligrams riboflavin 1.7 mg
cholesterol
(mg)
niacin 20 mg
total carbohydrate 300 g calcium 1.0 gram (g)
fiber 25 g iron 18 mg
sodium 2,400 mg vitamin D 400 IU

potassium 3,500 mg vitamin E 30 IU
vitamin B6 2.0 mg
protein* 50 g
* DRV for protein does not apply to certain folic acid 0.4 mg
populations; Reference Daily Intake (RDI) vitamin B12 6 micrograms (mcg)
for protein has been established for these
groups: children 1 to 4 years: 16 g; infants phosphorus 1.0 g
under 1 year: 14 g; pregnant women: 60 g; iodine 150 mcg
nursing mothers: 65 g.
magnesium 400 mg
zinc 15 mg
copper 2 mg
biotin 0.3 mg
pantothenic
10 mg
acid

ISO Standard Paper Sizes
Data from Markus Kuhn, International Standard Paper Sizes. See this site for a complete
discussion of how the ISO 216 paper sizing system works. This system is used in most of

the world, replacing traditional paper sheet sizes such as the 8.5 by 11 inch size familiar
in the U.S. (See this link for information on the traditional paper sizes.)

In brief, international paper sizes are in three series, designated An, Bn, and Cn.
Increasing the number n by 1 halves the area of the sheet, so that, for example, an A5
sheet is an A4 sheet cut in half. The basic sheet A0 has an area of 1 square meter, so an
A4 sheet (the standard size for business letters) has an area of 1/16 square meter. The
ratio between the height and width of a sheet is always the square root of 2 (about 1.414).

The area of a Bn sheet is the area of the An sheet multiplied by the square root of 2, so a
B5 sheet, for example, is intermediate in size between an A4 and an A5 sheet. The Cn
size, intended mostly for envelopes, has an area equal to the fourth root of 2 (about
1.189) times the area of the An sheet, which means that an An sheet fits nicely, unfolded,
in a Cn envelope.

The dimensions of the sheets are computed from these formulas:

Format Width [m] Height [m]
An 2-1/4-n/2 21/4-n/2
Bn 2-n/2 21/2-n/2
Cn 2-1/8-n/2 23/8-n/2

With roundoff, the dimensions (in millimeters) are as follows:

A Series Formats B Series Formats C Series Formats
4A0 1682 × 2378 - - - -
2A0 1189 × 1682 - - - -
A0 841 × 1189 B0 1000 × 1414 C0 917 × 1297
A1 594 × 841 B1 707 × 1000 C1 648 × 917
A2 420 × 594 B2 500 × 707 C2 458 × 648
A3 297 × 420 B3 353 × 500 C3 324 × 458
A4 210 × 297 B4 250 × 353 C4 229 × 324
A5 148 × 210 B5 176 × 250 C5 162 × 229
A6 105 × 148 B6 125 × 176 C6 114 × 162
A7 74 × 105 B7 88 × 125 C7 81 × 114

A8 52 × 74 B8 62 × 88 C8 57 × 81
A9 37 × 52 B9 44 × 62 C9 40 × 57
A10 26 × 37 B10 31 × 44 C10 28 × 40

Note: To convert the dimensions to inches, divide by 25.4. Thus an A4 sheet measures
8.27 by 11.69 inches, making it a little taller and narrower than an 8.5 by 11 inch sheet.

These traditional paper sizes are mostly of British origin. They are quite obsolete in
Britain today, replaced by the modern ISO paper sizes. Some of them are still used, at
least informally, in the U.S.

This size information is based on Matt Roberts and Don Etherington, Bookbinding and
the conservation of books: a dictionary of descriptive terminology. This reference,
Stanford University. Some additional sizes are taken from the Brainy Encyclopedia web
site.

Dimensions (inches)
Executive 7.25 x 10.5
Quarto 8 x 10
Letter 8.5 x 11
Legal 8.5 x 14
Ledger (Tabloid) 11 x 17
Foolscap 13.5 x 17
Foolscap, oblong double 13.5 x 34
Pinched post 14.5 x 18.5
Crown (Post) 15 x 20
Post 15.25 x 19
Large post 16.5 x 21
Foolscap, double 17 x 27
Demy 17.5 x 22.5
Medium 18 x 23
Post, double 19 x 30.5
Royal 20 x 25
Crown, double 20 x 30
Large post, double 21 x 33

Imperial 22 x 30
Demy, double 22.5 x 35
Elephant 23 x 28
Medium, double 23 x 36
Royal, double 25 x 40
Atlas 26 x 34
Imperial, double 30 x 44
Crown, double quad 40 x 60

Basic Size for Paper
In the U.S. paper industry, measurements of paper density and weight are based on
traditional sheet sizes which vary with the type of paper. These standard sheet
specifications have persisted, even though in many cases sheets of those sizes are no
longer manufactured. Paper is described as, say, 24 pound weight if one ream (500
sheets) cut in the basic size would have a mass of 24 pounds.

The following basic size information is taken from Matt Roberts and Don Etherington,
Bookbinding and the conservation of books: a dictionary of descriptive terminology. This
by Stanford University.

Type of paper Size (in inches)
Bible 25 X 38
Blanks 22 X 38
Blotting 19 X 24
Bond 17 X 22
Book 25 X 38
Cover 20 X 26
Glassine 24 X 36
Gummed 25 X 38
Index 25 1/2 X 30 1/2
Ledger 17 X 22
Manifold 17 X 22
Manuscript 18 X 31
Mimeograph 17 X 22
Newsprint 24 X 36
Offset 25 X 38

Onionskin 17 X 22
Opaque 25 X 38
Poster 24 X 36
Tag 22 1/2 X 28 1/2
or 24 X 36
Text 25 X 38
Tissues 24 X 36
Vellum bristol 22 1/2 X 28 1/2
Writing 17 X 22

Source: This table was posted by the Memphis Archaeological and Geological Society.
However, the data comes from Archaeology's Dating Game, a sidebar in the article Who
Were the First Americans, by Sasha Nemecek, published by Scientific American in
September 2000.

Age in Radiocarbon years Age in Calendar years
9 600 11 000
10 200 12 000
11 000 13 000
12 000 14 000
12 700 15 000
13 300 16 000
14 200 17 000
15 000 18 000
15 900 19 000
16 800 20 000
17 600 21 000
18 500 22 000
19 300 23 000
20 000 24 000

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale

Data is from the Hurricane FAQ posted by the U.S. Atlantic Oceanographic and
Meteorological Laboratory in Miami, Florida.

Maximum sustained wind Minimum surface
Saffir-Simpson Storm surge
speed pressure
Category
mi/h m/s kt mb ft m
1 74-95 33-42 64-82 greater than 980 3-5 1.0-1.7
2 96-110 43-49 83-95 979-965 6-8 1.8-2.6
3 111-130 50-58 96-113 964-945 9-12 2.7-3.8
4 131-155 59-69 114-135 944-920 13-18 3.9-5.6
5 156+ 70+ 136+ less than 920 19+ 5.7+
Damage
Category Damage Level Description Example
Damage primarily to shrubbery, trees, foliage,
and unanchored homes. No real damage to
other structures. Some damage to poorly Hurricane
1 MINIMAL
constructed signs. Low-lying coastal roads Earl (1998)
inundated, minor pier damage, some small craft
in exposed anchorage torn from moorings.
Considerable damage to shrubbery and tree
foliage; some trees blown down. Major damage
to exposed mobile homes. Extensive damage to
poorly constructed signs. Some damage to
roofing materials of buildings; some window
and door damage. No major damage to Hurricane
2 MODERATE buildings. Coast roads and low-lying escape Georges
routes inland cut by rising water 2 to 4 hours (1998)
before arrival of hurricane center. Considerable
damage to piers. Marinas flooded. Small craft
in unprotected anchorages torn from moorings.
Evacuation of some shoreline residences and
low-lying areas required.
3 EXTENSIVE Foliage torn from trees; large trees blown Hurricane
down. Practically all poorly constructed signs Fran (1996)
blown down. Some damage to roofing
materials of buildings; some wind and door
damage. Some structural damage to small
buildings. Mobile homes destroyed. Serious
flooding at coast and many smaller structures
near coast destroyed; larger structures near
coast damaged by battering waves and floating
debris. Low-lying escape routes inland cut by
rising water 3 to 5 hours before hurricane

center arrives. Flat terrain 5 feet or less above
sea level flooded inland 8 miles or more.
Evacuation of low- lying residences within
several blocks of shoreline possibly required.
Shrubs and trees blown down; all signs down.
Extensive damage to roofing materials,
windows and doors. Complete failures of roofs
on many small residences. Complete
destruction of mobile homes. Flat terrain 10
feet of less above sea level flooded inland as
far as 6 miles. Major damage to lower floors of Hurricane
4 EXTREME structures near shore due to flooding and Andrew
battering by waves and floating debris. Low- (1992)
lying escape routes inland cut by rising water 3
to 5 hours before hurricane center arrives.
Major erosion of beaches. Massive evacuation
of all residences within 500 yards of shore
possibly required, and of single- story
residences within 2 miles of shore.
Shrubs and trees blown down; considerable
damage to roofs of buildings; all signs down.
Very severe and extensive damage to windows
and doors. Complete failure of roofs on many
residences and industrial buildings. Extensive
shattering of glass in windows and doors. Some
complete building failures. Small buildings
Hurricane
overturned or blown away. Complete
5 CATASTROPHIC Camille
destruction of mobile homes. Major damage to
(1969
lower floors of all structures less than 15 feet
above sea level within 500 yards of shore.
Low-lying escape routes inland cut by rising
water 3 to 5 hours before hurricane center
arrives. Massive evacuation of residential areas
on low ground within 5 to 10 miles of shore
possibly required.

Sheet Metal Thickness Gauges
Steel data from Caloritech, for heavier gauges also from Engineer's Edge. Aluminum data
from Festiva Tech.

Gauge Standard Steel Galvanized Steel Aluminum Thickness
(ga) Thickness (inches) Thickness (inches) (inches)

0090 0.1144 10 0.2043 5 0.0126 29 0.0403 19 0.0142 28 0.0785 0.0179 26 0.0336 0.0097 0.0201 25 0.0508 17 0.0134 0.2092 0.0100 31 0.0538 0.0067 37 0.0075 0.0209 0.0516 0.0396 0.0105 0.0113 30 0.0164 0.1019 11 0.0571 16 0.0217 0.0157 0.0269 0.0202 0.0635 0.0172 0.0641 15 0.1285 9 0.0080 33 0.0359 0.0142 0.0187 0.3 0.0239 0.1532 0.0575 0.1084 0.0247 0.0306 0.1620 7 0.1793 0.1443 8 0.0720 14 0.0456 0.0060 .0064 38 0.0179 0.0934 0.2391 0.0082 0.0598 0.0808 13 0.1644 0.1943 0.0366 0.0089 32 0.0299 0.0226 24 0.1345 0.1196 0.0418 0.0359 20 0.0159 27 0.0120 0.0071 34 0.0710 0.0285 22 0.0135 0.0276 0.0063 35 0.1495 0.0897 0.0056 36 0.2294 4 0.0149 0.1819 6 0.1046 0.0320 21 0.1382 0.0747 0.0329 0.2242 0.0453 18 0.1233 0.0673 0.0253 23 0.0907 12 0.0478 0.

92 10 19.83 0.8 0. ammunition makers' catalogs.56 0.57 0.30 0.41 0.29 0.085 9 2.Shot Pellet Diameters These are birdshot pellet diameters for lead and steel shot. a reader contributed the data for 24-.110 7-1/2 2.090 8-1/2 2.77 12 18.080 Shotgun Bore Diameters Most of this data was taken from the World Almanac and Book of Facts 1996.140 4 3. 28-.32 0.170 1 4.05 0.66 . and 32-gauge.5 0. Pellet diameter Pellet diameter Shot size (millimeters) (inches) BBB 4.03 0.69 16 16.190 BB 4. The data was posted by Chuck Adams based on U.100 8 2.6 0.160 2 3.79 0.73 14 17.120 6 2.S.06 0.150 3 3.3 0.81 0. Bore diameter Bore diameter Gauge (millimeters) (inches) 6 23.180 B 4.7 0.16 0.130 5 3.

0 U/L Aldolase units/L 1.0349 nmol/L Angiotensin I pg/mL 0.0 mmol/L Antidiuretic hormone pg/mL 0.923 pmol/L . multiply by the conversion factor.4 0. • to convert from the SI unit to the conventional unit.58 28 14.0 U/L Aldosterone ng/dL 0.0 0.0371 µmol/L Aminobutyric acid mg/dL 97 µmol/L Amitriptyline ng/mL 3.772 pmol/L Angiotensin II pg/mL 0.2 µmol/L Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) units/L 1.0 U/L Albumin g/dL 10 g/L Alcohol dehydrogenase units/L 1.7 0.0277 nmol/L Alkaline phosphatase units/L 1. Source: JAMA Author Instructions.526 SI Units for Clinical Data The following table provides factors for converting conventional units to SI units for selected clinical data.615 24 14.0 U/L Androstenedione ng/dL 0.172 mmol/L Acid phosphatase units/L 1.55 32 13.0 U/L Aluminum ng/mL 0.098 mmol/L Acetone mg/dL 0.957 pmol/L Anion gap mEq/L 1.587 µmol/L Amylase units/L 1.62 µmol/L Acetoacetic acid mg/dL 0. Conversion: • to convert from the conventional unit to the SI unit.6 0.61 nmol/L Ammonia (as NH3) µg/dL 0. 20 15. Component Conventional Conversion SI Unit Unit Factor Acetaminophen µg/mL 6. divide by the conversion factor.0 U/L Alanine mg/dL 112.

0 mm Hg Bromide mg/dL 0.0167 mL/s Cyanide mg/L 23.0 pH units Pao2 mm Hg 1.333 nmol/L C1 esterase inhibitor mg/dL 10 mg/L C3 complement mg/dL 0.25 mmol/L mEq/L 0.0 mm Hg pH pH units 1.7 µmol/L Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) units/L 1.24 µmol/L Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ng/mL 3.4 µmol/L Creatinine clearance mL/min 0.50 mmol/L Carbon dioxide mEq/L 1.0 U/L Creatinine mg/dL 88.22 pmol/L Cortisol µg/dL 27.125 mmol/L C-peptide ng/mL 0.4 µmol/L Asparagine mg/dL 75.59 nmol/L Cotinine ng/mL 5.157 µmoI/L Coproporphyrins (urine) µg/24 hr 1.0 mmol/L Cholesterol mg/dL 0.01 Proportion of hemoglobin hemoglobin saturation saturation Carotene µg/dL 0.01 g/L Arginine mg/dL 57.05 µmol/L Copper µg/dL 0.0 U/L Bicarbonate mEq/L 1.01 g/L Apolipoprotein B mg/dL 0.0186 µmol/L Ceruloplasmin mg/dL 10 mg/L Chloride mEq/L 1.184 µmol/L Apolipoprotein A mg/dL 0.Antithrombin III mg/dL 10 mg/L alpha1-Antitrypsin mg/dL 0.1 µmol/L Blood gases (arterial) Paco2 mm Hg 1.01 g/L C4 complement mg/dL 0.527 nmol/d Corticotropin (ACTH) pg/mL 0.68 nmol/L Creatine mg/dL 76.47 nmol/L .01 g/L Calcitonin pg/mL 1.0259 mmol/L Citrate mg/dL 52.26 µmol/L Creatine kinase (CK) units/L 1.0 mmoI/L Carboxyhemoglobin % of 0.0 mmol/L Bilirubin mg/dL 17.0 ng/L Calcium mg/dL 0.

217 mmol/L Ethylene glycol mg/L 16.0 Hemoglobin (whole blood) g/dL 10.281 nmol/L Epinephrine pg/mL 5.0 U/L Glycated hemoglobin (glycosylated % of total 0.3 µmol/L Haptoglobin mg/dL 0.512 µmol/L Digoxin ng/mL 1.Desipramine ng/mL 3.0 g/L Mass concentration 0.0 IU/L Hydroxybutyric acid mg/dL 96.42 µmol/L gamma -Glutamyltransferase (GGT) units/L 1.0555 mmol/L Glutamine mg/dL 68.0 ng/L Glucose mg/dL 0.247 pmol/L alpha -Fetoprotein ng/mL 1.6 µmol/L Folate ng/mL 2.397 µmol/L Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) mlU/mL 1.11 µmol/L Ferritin ng/mL 2.46 pmol/L Erythrocyte sedimentation rate mm/h 1.506 µmol/L Glucagon pg/mL 1.3 µmol/L Immunoglobulin A (IgA) mg/dL 0.59 µmol/L Glycine mg/dL 133.0 µg/L Fibrinogen mg/dL 0.6206 mmol/L High-density lipoprotein cholesterol mg/dL 0.01 g/L Immunoglobulin D (IgD) mg/dL 10 mg/L Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mg/dL 10 mg/L .75 nmol/L Diazepam µg/mL 3.671 pmol/L Estriol ng/mL 3.5 µmol/L Galactose mg/dL 55.0 IU/L Fructose mg/dL 55.01 Proportion of total hemoglobin A1.0259 mmol/L (HDL-C) Histidine mg/dL 64.10 µmol/L Hematocrit % 0.45 µmol/L Homocysteine (total) mg/L 7.467 nmol/L Estrone ng/dL 37 pmoI/L Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) mg/dL 0. A1C) hemoglobin hemoglobin Glycerol (free) mg/dL 108.266 nmol/L Follicle-stimulating hormone mIU/mL 1.0 mm/h Estradiol pg/mL 3.01 Proportion of 1.05 µmol/L Hydroxyproline mg/dL 76.0294 µmol/L Fluoride µg/mL 52.

96 µmoI/L Phosphorus mg/dL 0.0571 nmol/L Nicotine mg/L 6.0 isoenzymes (LD1-LD5) Lead µg/dL 0.54 µmol/L Phenytoin µg/mL 3.179 µmol/L lsoleucine mg/dL 76.2 nmol/L Methanol mg/L 0.0357 µmol/L Lithium mEq/L 1.0 ng/L Phenobarbital mg/L 4. total µg/dL 0. total µg/dL 0. nonprotein mg/dL 0.67 µmol/L Osmolality mOsm/kg 1.50 mmol/L Manganese ng/mL 18.164 µmol/L Nitrogen.01 Proportion of 1.0 mmol/L Low-density lipoprotein mg/dL 0.0259 mmol/L cholesterol (LDL-C) Luteinizing hormone (LH.01 g/L Lipoprotein (a) mg/dL 0.237 µmol/L Lipase units/L 1.945 pmol/L Iron.714 mmol/L Norepinephrine pg/mL 0.01 g/L Insulin µIU/mL 6.171 nmol/L Oxalate mg/L 11.Immunoglobulin G (IgG) mg/dL 0.0483 µmol/L Leucine mg/dL 76.31 µmol/L Phenylalanine mg/dL 60.0 U/L Lipids (total) mg/dL 0.323 mmol/L . leutropin) IU/L 1.24 µmol/L lsopropanol mg/L 0.0312 mmol/L Methemoglobin % of total 0.5 µmol/L Magnesium mg/dL 0.111 mmol/L Lactate dehydrogenase units/L 1 U/L Lactate dehydrogenase % 0.00591 nmol/L Ornithine mg/dL 75.01 g/L Immunoglobulin M (IgM) mg/dL 0.0 lU/L Lysine mg/dL 68.02 µmol/L Myoglobin µg/L 0.0 mmoI/kg Osteocalcin µg/L 0.411 mmol/L mEq/L 0.0166 mmol/L Lactate (lactic acid) mg/dL 0.1 µmol/L Parathyroid hormone pg/mL 1.179 µmol/L Iron binding capacity.01 Proportion of total hemoglobin hemoglobin Methionine mg/dL 67.

97 µmol/d Progesterone ng/mL 3.0347 nmol/L Theophylline µg/mL 5.95 µmol/L Thyroglobulin ng/mL 1.91 µmol/L Testosterone ng/dL 0.478 pmol Proline mg/dL 86.0 Salicylate mg/L 0.0 x 109/L Potassium mEq/L 1.08 µmol/L 6 Red blood cell count x 10 /µL 1.01 Proportion of 1.0 g/L Prothrombin g/L 13.0 µg/L Protein.0 x 1012/L Renin pg/mL 0.18 nmol/L Prolactin µg/L 43.131 nmol/L (coagulation factor) factor II) Somatostatin pg/mL 0.87 nmol/L Transferrin mg/dL 0.0 mIU/L hormone. PT) s 1.12 µmoI/d Pregnanetriol (urine) mg/24 h 2.0 mmol/L Somatomedin-C (insulinlike growth ng/mL 0.01777 µmol/L Pyruvate mg/dL 113.0 µg/L Thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating mIU/L 1.6 µmoI/L Quinidine µg/mL 3.01 Proportion of 1.00724 mmol/L Serine mg/dL 95. TSH) Thyroxine.00568 µmol/L Sodium mEq/L 1.01 g/L Triglycerides mg/dL 0. erythrocyte µg/dL 0.611 pmol/L Taurine mg/dL 79.0 IU/L 3 Platelets (thrombocytes) x 10 /µL 1. total g/dL 10.0 s Protoporphyrin. total (T4) µg/dL 12.2 µmol/L Threonine mg/dL 83.Plasminogen mg/dL 0. free (T4) ng/dL 12.113 µmol/L % 0.0 Plasminogen activator inhibitor mIU/mL 1.0 mmoI/L Pregnanediol (urine) mg/24h 3.0237 pmol/L Reticulocyte count % of RBCs 0.889 µmol/L Prothrombin time (protime.2 µmol/L Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) ng/mL 0.87 pmol/L Thyroxine.0113 mmol/L Triiodothyronine .55 µmol/L Thiocyanate mg/L 17.86 µmol/L Prostate-specific antigen ng/mL 1.

48 µmol/L Valine mg/dL 85.496 nmol/L Vitamin E mg/dL 23. Flare Class Maximum X-Ray Flux Maximum X-Ray Flux .046 nmol/L Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) pg/mL 0.01 Proportion of 1. The approximate flux is indicated by a letter A.2 or X14.0154 pmol/L Resin uptake % 0.) Numbers after the letter.19 µmol/L Urea nitrogen mg/dL 0.738 pmol/L Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) mg/dL 56.0 count (number fraction) Zinc µg/dL 0. M. and Xtreme.01 Proportion of 1.8 nanometer) produced by the flare.78 µmol/L Vitamin D 1.5 µmol/L Vasoactive intestinal pg/mL 1. and X stand for Common. measure the flux more precisely according to the scheme shown in the table below. or X .22 µmoI/L Vitamin K ng/mL 2. Medium.0 Total (T3) ng/dL 0. as in C6.0 µg/L Tryptophan mg/dL 48. (The letters C. C.22 nmol/L Warfarin µg/mL 3. while newer ones use data from spacecraft. Older systems are based on the appearance of the flare through ground-based telescopes. The most commonly used classification at present measures the maximum flux of X-rays (of wavelength 0.0 x 109/L White blood cell differential % 0. B.0349 µmoI/L Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) ng/mL 4. with A being the weakest flares and X the strongest.153 µmoI/L Solar Flare Intensity Several systems are in use for measuring the intensity of solar flares. Free (T3) pg/dL 0.1 to 0.0 µg/L Troponin T (cardiac) ng/mL 1.247 µmol/L 3 White blood cell count x 10 /µL 1.357 mmol/L Uric acid mg/dL 59.0154 nmol/L Troponin I (cardiac) ng/mL 1. M.0 ng/L polypeptide Vitamin A (retinol) µg/dL 0.6 pmol/L 25-Hydroxyvitamin D ng/mL 2.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D pg/mL 2.97 µmol/L Tyrosine mg/dL 55.

22-1. and European gauge numbers measuring the thickness of tennis racket strings.30 17 7. but for X scales the value of n can be as large as needed.0 and 9.41 16 8.S.2 x 10-5 W/m2.5 0.41-1. Source: "Racquet and String Terms" from Tennis-Warehouse. Tennis Racquet Gauges This table compares the U. watts per square meter ergs per square centimeter per second (W/m2) (erg/cm2·s) An n x 10-8 n x 10-5 Bn n x 10-7 n x 10-4 Cn n x 10-6 n x 10-3 Mn n x 10-5 n x 10-2 Xn n x 10-4 n x 10-1 Examples: M4. C. U.50-1.90 Torino Impact Hazard Scale The following revised description of the Torino Scale was posted on the NASA Near Earth Objects Program web site. Binzel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. for alerting me to this revision.com.16 19 4 0.49 15L 9 1.16-1.34 16L 8 1.06-1.9.5 1.06 20 3. Gauge European Gauge Millimeters 14 11 1.2 = 4.24 18 7 1. X16 =16 x 10-4 W/m2 = 1. the inventor of the scale. Thanks to Prof.26-1. . B. For A.5 1.80-0.65 15 9.90-1.S. and M flares the value of n is between 1.6 x 10-3 W/m2.33-1. Richard P.5 1.

THE TORINO IMPACT HAZARD SCALE Assessing Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Predictions In The 21st Century .

A close encounter posing a serious. Current calculations show the chance of Normal (Green Zone) 1 collision is extremely unlikely with no cause for public attention or public concern. Current calculations give a 1% or greater chance of collision capable of regional devastation. which may become routine with expanded searches. The likelihood of a collision is zero. new 4 telescopic observations will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. new (Yellow Zone) 3 telescopic observations will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. of an object making a somewhat close but not highly unusual pass near the Earth. A close encounter. New telescopic observations very likely will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. there is no cause for public attention or public concern as an actual collision is very unlikely. meriting attention by astronomers. A routine discovery in which a pass near the Earth is predicted that poses no unusual level of danger. meriting attention by astronomers. Also applies to small objects such as No Hazard (White Zone) 0 meteors and bodies that burn up in the atmosphere as well as infrequent meteorite falls that rarely cause damage. or is so low as to be effectively zero. A close encounter. Critical attention by . A discovery. Current calculations give a 1% or greater chance of collision capable of localized Meriting Attention by Astronomers destruction. Attention by public and by public officials is merited if the encounter is less than a decade away. Most likely. New telescopic observations very likely will lead to re-assignment to Level 0. but still uncertain threat of regional devastation. Attention by public and by public officials is merited if the encounter is less than a decade away. While meriting attention by 2 astronomers. Most likely.

Viscosity Grade Ranges ISO Viscosity (centistokes at 40 °C) Grade Numbers Minimum Maximum . Small craft may break moorings. Orson) km/h ISO Viscosity Grades Data from the web site of C&C Oil Company. Heavy damage to some crops.170 km/h failure. Tracy) 225 . Tropical Cyclone Severity Typical effects Categories Winds (indicative only) Strongest gust Negligable house damage. Strongest gust Category 5 More than 280 Extremely dangerous with widespread destruction. Category 3 Strongest gust Some roof and structural damage. trees Strongest gust Category 2 and caravans. Significant damage to signs. trees Category 1 less than 125 and caravans. 170 . provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Dangerous airborne (eg. Many Category 4 Strongest gust caravans destroyed and blown away. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in Miami.225 km/h destroyed. (eg.Australian Tropical Cyclone Categories Data. Damage to some crops. Florida. km/h Minor house damage. Craft may drag moorings. is from the Hurricane FAQ posted by the U.S.280 km/h debris. Winifred) Significant roofing loss and structural damage. Widespread power failure. Risk of power 125 . Some caravans (eg. Power failure likely.

8 35.6 68 61. Plume VEI Description Volume Classification How often Example Height non- 0 < 100 m 1000s m3 Hawaiian daily Kilauea explosive 100-1000 1 gentle 10 000s m3 Haw/Strombolian daily Stromboli m 1 000 000s 2 explosive 1-5 km Strom/Vulcanian weekly Galeras. Lubricants of a given ASTM or BSI grade are slightly more viscous than lubricants of the corresponding ISO grade. while those of the ASTM and BSI are measured at 100 °F (37.2 74.14 5.0 15 13. an educational site at the University of North Dakota.06 7 6.4 50. 1992 m3 .5 16.8 24.42 3 2. The viscosities for the ISO grades are measured at 40 °C.5 22 19.12 7. Source: Volcano World.48 10 9.00 11.88 3.8 ° C).98 2.2 32 28.52 5 4.8 100 90.2 46 41. 2 1.0 110 150 135 165 220 198 242 320 288 352 460 414 506 680 612 748 1000 900 1100 1500 1350 1650 Note: The viscosity grade numbers of the ISO are the same as those of the ASTM and BSI. Volcanic Explosivity Index This scale is designed to express the severity of volcanic eruptions.

1985 m3 100 000 10s of Galunggung. 1000s of 7 > 25 km 100s km3 Ultra-Plinian Tambora. 1815 colossal years mega. National Weather Service office for Minneapolis and St. 4 cataclysmic 10-25 km Vulc/Plinian 000s m3 years 1982 100s of 5 paroxysmal > 25 km 1 km3 Plinian St.S. 1883 years super. Minnesota. 10 000 000s 3 severe 3-15 km Vulcanian yearly Ruiz. Paul. . 10 000s of Yellowstone. 1981 years 100s of 6 colossal > 25 km 10s km3 Plin/Ultra-Plinian Krakatau. 2 8 > 25 km 1 000s km3 Ultra-Plinian colossal years Ma Wind Chill Temperature Index This chart of the revised (August 2001) wind chill temperature index was posted by the U. Helens.

454" .0570" 16 .3065" .2893" 2 .0719" 14 .0808" 13 .109" .160" .340" .148" .2070" . --- 6/0 .232" .4600" 3/0 .4096" 2/0 .400" .348" .040" .0720" .G.116" .1920" .2294" 4 .0452" 18 .048" .035" .2437" .2043" 5 .095" .0540" .500" --.1350" .1442" 8 .4900" .165" .0915" .) or Gauge Moen Standard or Stubs Brown & (S.134" .2625" .083" .0475" .128" .G.464" --.042" .1620" 7 .212" .0348" .049" .1018" 11 .1819" 6 .300" .0358" 20 .2830" .1284" 9 .4615" .080" .065" .) or Number Moen or Stubs Standard Brown & .1620" .3249" 1 .0625" .0403" 19 .072" .144" .3938" .176" .500" .W.5800" 5/0 .432" .104" .120" . British American Washburn & Imperial Birmingham (A.0800" . .1205" .372" .276" .192" .0319" British American Gauge Washburn & Birmingham Imperial (A.252" .2253" .238" .259" .380" .284" .1144" 10 .058" .180" .3310" .092" .324" .3648" 1/0 .3625" .425" .2576" 3 .4305" .0640" 15 .072" .5165" 4/0 .220" .American and British Wire Gauges Data originally posted by Enginering Zones.036" .1770" .203" .1055" .W.G.1483" .0508" 17 .0410" .056" .300" .0907" 12 .) Sharpe 7/0 .W.064" .

0039" 39 .0126" 29 .0084" .00280" 42 . .) Sharpe 21 .0132" .0089" 32 .0118" .0052" .0164" .0148" .0141" 28 .0201" 25 .0058" .028" .00176" 46 .022" . .00157" 47 .0044" --. . .00099" .032" .024" .W.0052" --.0124" .0286" .0068" --.0020" --.0140" . .0095" .008" . .0253" 23 . .0085" .028" .0040" --.00198" 45 .0050" 37 .020" .00249" 43 .0090" .0048" --.0056" 36 . .0070" 34 .0076" .0079" 33 .0036" --.0317" .0104" .0060" --.0063" 35 . .0066" .0100" .0035" 40 .0048" . .004" .0204" .0075" .018" .0016" --.013" .007" .0092" . .0108" .0050" . .0258" . .012" .032" .0159" 27 .0112" 30 .0230" .00111" 50 . .016" .0284" 22 .0028" -.0162" .0032" --.010" .020" .018" .0044" 38 .00222" 44 .0181" .0225" 24 .G.022" .0044" .009" .0100" 31 .0136" .0010" -.0046" .0080" .005" . (S.0024" --.0031" 41 .0179" 26 .0150" .0128" .025" .0062" .0116" .014" .0173" .0070" .00124" 49 .0055" .00140" 48 .0012" -.0060" .

a or A shortened version of am or AM in a statement of time (see below). as in A4 for a standard business-letter sheet. Although these units are defined naturally as part of the CGS system. They have been replaced almost completely by the corresponding SI units. scientists use the a symbol in papers and textbooks. A* see "angstrom star" below. absorbance unit (AU) a logarithmic unit used to measure optical density.How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement Table of Contents © Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill About the Dictionary Using the Dictionary A a an international symbol for year.0 AU corresponds to a reduction in transmittance by a factor of 10.1 microwatt Magnetic flux: 1 abweber = 10-8 weber = 1 maxwell. Following are the SI equivalents for each of the "ab" units: Electric current: 1 abampere = 10 amperes Electric charge: 1 abcoulomb = 10 coulombs Capacitance: 1 abfarad = 109 farads = 1 gigafarad Inductance: 1 abhenry = 10-9 henry = 1 nanohenry Resistance: 1 abohm = 10-9 ohm = 1 nanoohm Conductance: 1 abmho = 109 siemens Magnetic flux density: 1 abtesla = 10-4 tesla = 1 gauss Potential: 1 abvolt = 10-8 volt = 10 nanovolts Power: 1 abwatt = 10-7 watt = 0. followed by the size number. A a symbol for international standard paper sizes. ab- a prefix indicating that an electrical unit is part of the CGS absolute electromagnetic system. A table of sizes is provided. the absorbance of light transmitted through a partially absorbing substance. then the absorbance is defined to be -log10 T absorbance units. Although English-speaking countries continue to use the traditional symbol yr for most purposes. These units are also indicated by the notation emu (as in "volt emu"). "A" is also the SI symbol for the ampere (see below). taken from the Latin word annus. If the absorbance is 1. aas see "as" below. If T is the percentage of light transmitted. all of them except the abampere and abcoulomb are either much too large or much too small for most applications.0 AU then 10% of the light is transmitted. at . An increase in absorbance of 1. The symbol is often seen in combinations such as Ma (million years) or Ga (billion years).

or 1 N·s/m5. There are exactly 640 acres in a square mile. acoustic ohm any one of several units measuring sound resistance.0 AU only 1% of the light is transmitted. south German and Swiss juchart. the acoustic ohm is equal to the SI unit. In metric countries the unit corresponding to the acre is the hectare. the acoustic ohm equals 1 microbar second per cubic centimeter (µbar·s/cm3). often in combinations such as kaf (1000 acre feet) or maf (million acre feet. 1 pascal second per cubic meter (Pa·s/m3). See also rayl. 2. 1% abv = 1% v/v and 1% abw = 1% w/v.000 square meters (the area of a square 100 meters on each side). and by the end of the ninth century it was generally understood to be the area of a field one furlong (40 rods or 10 chains) long by 4 rods (or 1 chain) wide. 43 560 square feet or 4840 square yards. One acre foot is a volume one foot deep covering an area of one acre. and so on. ACI a symbol for the "anatomical Chinese inch" or t'sun [2]. generally equal to 9 months. Thus an acre is 10 square chains. which is the same as 1 dyn·s/cm5. acre foot (ac ft or af) a unit of volume used to measure the capacity of reservoirs. These units got their name by analogy with electric resistance. The CGS acoustic ohm equals 1015 MKS acoustic ohms. acre (ac or A) a unit of area used for measuring real estate in English-speaking countries. academic year a unit of time in U. abw symbols for alcohol by volume and alcohol by weight. which is 10. the acre is typical in being defined as a day's work but unusual in not being visualized as the area of a square.123 348 hectare meter). and Czech jitro. Austrian joch. the result is often stated in "acoustic ohms" no matter what units are used to measure pressure and time. which is measured in ohms. abv.404 687 3 hectare. Note that AU is also used in astronomy as a symbol for the astonomical unit (see below).482 cubic meters (0. "Acre. In the MKS system. gallons. One acre is equal to 0. The sound resistance across a surface in a given medium is defined to be the pressure of the sound wave at the surface divided by the volume velocity. The symbol af is widely used in reservoir management in the U. Thus an acre foot contains exactly 43 560 cubic feet. acre inch (ac in) . about 325 851. schools. this symbol should be Maf).4 U. 160 square rods.S. Unfortunately. It was in use in England at least as early as the eighth century." an Old English word meaning a field.S. In the CGS system. or about 1233.S. Similar units include the French journal." See under sccm. is derived from the Latin ager and Greek agros. acfm abbreviation for "actual cubic feet per minute. north German and Dutch morgen.. The acre was originally defined as the area that could be plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen. also meaning a field. Among traditional European land area units.

alpha TE an abbreviation for "alpha tocopherol equivalent. the ale gallon remained in use well into the nineteenth century but is obsolete today. where F is the air flow in the system in cubic feet per minute (CFM) and S is the suction pressure in inches of water column (in WC). The Spanish almude is comparable to the British gallon. The units are calibrated for each compound and the strength of the solutions is stated in allergy units per millimeter (AU/ml). One milligram alpha TE is equal to 1.38 centimeters (23. This definition makes the air watt equal to 0. liquid gallons. are computed from English units using the following formula established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): power in air watts equals 0. ale gallon a traditional unit of liquid volume in Britain and the U. Measurements of vacuum power.77 centimeters (24. equivalent to 1. The Danish alen.5 international units (IU). Vitamin E is actually a group of related chemical compounds called tocopherols. however.71 inches). air watt an engineering unit used to express the effective cleaning power of a vacuum cleaner or central vacuum system.S. This is about 13.38 inches). It is also called the beer and ale gallon. liquid gallon. it holds about 16.S. equal to 1/4 fanga (the Portuguese equivalent of the Spanish fanega).9983 watt. allergy unit (AU) a measure of the potency of the compounds used by physicians in skin testing for allergies. The air watt is practically the same as the ordinary watt. or very nearly F·S/8.8 liters or 12.117354·F·S.5 U. or potency. was equal to 62.222 U. also used in Norway.7 liters.625 liters.S. which is 3.S.2208 U.0165 British imperial gallon)." a measure of vitamin E used in nutrition. alqueire [1] a traditional unit of volume for dry goods in Portugal and Brazil.S. almude a traditional unit of volume in Spain and Portugal.41 U. it holds about 4.67 imperial gallons or 4. Standardized in the sixteenth century under Queen Elizabeth I.6212 liters) or about 1. light is estimated to be sec Z air masses. "sec" being the secant trigonometric function. aln or alen a traditional Scandinavian unit of distance very similar to the north German elle: roughly 2 feet or 60 centimeters. The Portuguese almude is much larger. alqueire [2] . of vitamin E in a food or food supplement is measured by the quantity (in milligrams) of alpha tocopherol (the most active of the forms of the vitamin) which would be equivalent to the compounds present in the food or supplement. the ale gallon was equal to 282 cubic inches (4. dry quarts.5.liquid gallon (1. The two countries used the name for units of quite different sizes. The Swedish aln was 2 fot or 59.017 imperial gallon or 1.. The activity.

its years correspond to ordinary solar years (see month [2]). AM [2] abbreviation for the Latin anno mundi. which counts years from the creation of the world as described in the Hebrew scriptures.615 moles per cubic meter (mol/m3). it was much smaller. the ideal gas law shows that the relative density is equal to P/RT. 9. Still used commonly to measure farmland in Brazil. and AM 5766 began at sunset of 4 October 2005 in the current (Gregorian) calendar." This abbreviation is traditionally used to designate years in the Jewish calendar. The amber was equal to about 4 bushels or roughly 140 liters. every other hour. since it may be taken to mean either noon or midnight (the most common usage today is that 12:00 am is midnight). AM or am [1] abbreviation for the Latin ante meridiem. H. which is equal to one kilomole per standard volume. "year of the world.01°C) and standard pressure (1 atmosphere). whose work included the study of gases under pressure. The amagat volume unit is about 22. Note: the ambiguous notation "12:00 am" should not be used. and 2. and a date converter is available.42 hectares (5. R = 8. a traditional unit of land area in Portugal and Brazil.044 615 mole per liter (mol/L). "before noon.980 acres) in São Paulo. used for both liquids and dry goods. The unit honors the Dutch physicist E. 4. or 0.84 hectares (11. the volume occupied by a gas at standard temperature (0. where the unit is obsolete.728 acres) in the northern part of the country.7225 hectares (6. amber an old English unit of volume.414 liters per mole (L/mol) or 0. Amagat (1841-1915).14 hectare (0. The first day of AM 1 is equivalent to 6 October 3761 BCE in the Julian calendar. where P is the pressure on the gas. the unit varies considerably from region to region.314 joules per mole per kelvin. In general." used after a time to indicate that the time is before 12:00 (noon). Minas Gerais. American run see run.022 414 m3/mol. The amagat density unit represents the corresponding relative density. again provided the measurement is made at standard temperature and pressure. or 44. Remy Landau has an extensive web site on the subject.68 hectares (23.920 acres) in Bahía. In Portugal.35 acre). alt h traditional abbreviation in pharmacy for alternis horis. T is the absolute temperature (in kelvins) and R is the universal gas constant. about 0. One alqueire equals 2. The notations "AM" and "PM" are used extensively in the United States.960 acres) in Río de Janeiro. Link: Wikipedia has a good description of the Jewish calendar and its history. ampere (A or amp) . and Goiás. where time is usually not stated on a 24- hour basis. The Jewish calendar is lunisolar. a unit of frequency sometimes used in medical prescriptions. amagat units used by physicists to express the relative volume and density of gases.

liquid gallons. One ampere turn equals 4pi/10 = 1. about 25. but A is its official symbol. There is a technique called spectroscopy for identifying chemical substances by the wave lengths of light . or 8. a unit of relative distance used in acupuncture.566 371 millioersteds) in CGS units. amphora a historic unit of volume. infinitely long and having negligible cross section. it is equal to the product of the current.54 British imperial gallons).) The other electrical units are all defined in terms of the ampere. (You're welcome to object that no one can make an infinitely long conductor. One ampere per meter is equal to pi/250 oersteds (12. This field-generating ability is called magnetomotive force. gallons or 5. But scientists can use the idealized definition to construct appropriate real-world equipment in their laboratories. equal to 0. if it's flowing in these conductors. These urns were tall. angstrom (Å or A) a metric unit of length. The ampere per meter is also the SI unit of "magnetization" in the sense of magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.2 micronewtons per meter of length. One ampere is the current which. ampere per meter (A/m) or ampere-turn per meter the SI unit of magnetic field strength.61 British imperial gallons).001 emu per cubic centimeter. An amphora is the volume of an urn or jar of the same name. with handles near the top on both sides (the word amphora comes from two Greek words meaning "on both sides" and "carry"). creates between them a force of 0. The unit is known informally as the amp. One ampere of current results from a potential distribution of one volt per ohm of resistance. One ampere hour is the charge accumulated by a steady flow of one ampere for one hour.25 U.256 637 gilberts (Gb). or from a power production rate of one watt per volt of potential. anchor another name for the anker (see below). the SI base unit of electric current. The Roman amphora was smaller. one ampere represents a current flow of one coulomb of charge per second. named for the French physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836). ampere turn (At) the MKS unit of "magnetomotive force.74 U. in amperes. and the number of turns of wire in the coil.5 liters (6. anatomical Chinese inch (ACI) a name in English for the t'sun [2]. Amphoras were the containers of choice for shipping wine and many other commodities in the ancient world.S. one of the pioneers in studying electricity. ampere hour (A·h or amp hr ) a commercial unit of electric charge often used to state the capacity of a battery. Place these conductors one meter apart in a perfect vacuum.1 nanometer or 10-10 meter. in this context 1 A/m = 0. nor a perfect vacuum.8 liters (10. This is equivalent to exactly 3600 coulombs. The official definition of the ampere goes like this: suppose we have two parallel conductors." Electric current passing through a coil of wire generates a magnetic field.S. For example. Archaeologists report that the Greek amphora held about 38. Angstroms are used most often to measure the wave length of light waves.

Although English speakers usually pronounce the word as if it were English. as if interest were compounded annually. The spectrum often includes bright bands corresponding to wave lengths at which the substance emits light. The pattern of bands identifies the substance in somewhat the same way a fingerprint identifies a person. .S. In England an anker usually held 10 wine (U. which they absorb (or emit. and in his honor the wave lengths of light waves are customarily stated in angstroms. the wavelengths are usually stated as multiples of a standard wavelength. One animal unit is the feed or grazing requirement of a mature cow weighing 1000 pounds (453. Mathematically. In Nepal. annual percentage rate (% APR) a unit used in the U. these rates can be stated however a financial institution wishes. the natural rate r of return on money is the "instantaneous" rate. the anna equals 20.1 nanometer). the anna is nearly twice that size: 31. Because it's easier to measure the ratio between two X-ray wavelengths than it is to measure the wavelengths themselves. The APR is the percentage growth rate a of the money over a period of one year. By federal regulation. Bearden in 1965 to provide a unit approximately equal to the angstrom (10-10 meter or 0. the feed required to sustain one animal unit of livestock for one month (780 pounds or 354 kg)." angstrom star (Å* or A*) a unit used to measure the wavelength of X-rays. The word anker is of Dutch origin. liquid) gallons (37. This is approximately 26 pounds (11. 342 square feet. Å* was defined by J.85 liters). The two rates are related by the formulas a = er . Later measurements have shown that in fact A* is equal to approximately 1. depending on the circumstances).86 square meters. where er is the natural exponential function and ln is the natural logarithmic function. but they must be stated also in % APR so that consumers can compare rates of different loans and investment opportunities.8 kg) of dry forage. anker or anchor a small wine barrel used in Britain and elsewhere in northern Europe.8 square meters.1 and r = ln (1 + a). animal unit (AU) a unit of feed consumption used in U. anna a unit of land area in South Asia.A. dairying and ranching. or dark bands if the substance is absorbing light. the Swedish pronunciation is closer to "ong-strerm.S. or 38 square yards.17 square yards or 16. the Scottish anker held 20 Scots pints (about 34 liters). Total feed requirements are often figured by the animal unit month (AUM). In Pakistan.59 kilograms). which separates the various wave lengths to form a colorful spectrum. angular mil see mil [2].000 0015 x 10-10 meter or 100. for stating interest rates and rates of return on investment. One of the pioneers of spectroscopy was the Swedish physicist Anders Jon Ångström (1814- 1874). The X unit and the angstrom star are the units used for this purpose.S. Light shining through or from the substance is passed through a prism.000 15 picometers. the rate that allows for compounding of interest continuously.

1. Possible scores therefore range from 0 to 10. it combines the ancient Greek stilbein. The SI defines s as the symbol for the time unit and recommends " as the symbol for the arcsecond." with the prefix apo-. ap. also called the minute of arc. each ounce being equal to 480 grains. 119. the American anesthetist Virginia Apgar (1909-1974). One are is approximately 1076.5990 square yards. The symbol as has become common in astronomy. skin color.242 grams or 13. ap. As a result. The apothecaries' units are the same as troy units. the are is a little large for measuring areas indoors and a little small for measuring areas outdoors. muscle tone. where very small angles are stated in milliarcseconds (mas). 1 oz ap = 1 troy ounce. equal to 373.02471 acre. In the apothecary system. equal to 60 arcseconds and to 1/60 degree." apothecary weights a version of the troy weight system formerly used by apothecaries (pharmacists). or 2 on five indicators of health (respiratory effort. There are 21 600 arcminutes in a circle. The troy pound. arm's-length ." used with a unit to indicate that the measurement is in the traditional apothecaries' system (see below). or 0.3910 square feet. the ounce is divided into 8 drams (60 grains) each containing 3 scruples (20 grains). for example. API gravity see degree API. is always divided into 12 ounces. to "glitter" or "shine. equal to the brightness produced by 1/pi candela per square meter or 10-4 lambert. One minute after birth (and at regular intervals thereafter through the first moments of life) newborns are rated 0. There is a parallel system of liquid volume measure in which the fluid ounce is divided into 8 fluid drams (or fluidrams) each containing 3 fluid scruples. "away from. as in "oz. and reflexive response to smell)." Being the area of a square 10 meters on each side. The name of the unit is pseudo-Greek for luminance. but it has been replaced everywhere in pharmacy by the use of metric units. Apgar score a numerical measure of the health of a newborn baby." indicates apothecaries' units. The word is pronounced the same as "air." arcminute (' or min) a unit of angular measure." or "dr. the are is not used as often as its multiple. the hectare (ha). The unit is named for its inventor. equal to 1/60 arcminute. The apothecary system continued in use into the early twentieth century. heart rate. also called the second of arc. The abbreviation "ap. arcsecond (" or as or sec or s) a unit of angular measure.ap an abbreviation for "apothecaries'. apostilb (asb) an MKS unit of luminance. API degree.165 72 avoirdupois ounces. One arcsecond is a very small angle indeed: there are 1 296 000 seconds in a circle. are (a) a unit of area equal to 100 square meters.

or one gas component of the atmosphere. or components of atmospheres. at symbol for the technical atmosphere. ASA 400 film is now marked ISO 400/27°. the number of milligrams of a precious metal in a sample of one assay ton is numerically equal to the number of troy ounces of that metal in one ton of raw ore. Note that AU is also used as the symbol for the absorbance unit (see above).ASA number for many years. One assay ton equals 29. Thus ASA 400 film registers an image twice as fast as ASA 200 film and four times as fast as ASA 100 film.6667 grams.495 978 706 91 x 108 kilometers or about 92 955 807 miles). The official symbol for the unit is ua. with an uncertainty of about 30 meters. The scale is arbitrary. the initials of the American Standards Association appeared on film packages in the United States as a measure of the speed of the photographic emulsion (the stuff on the film that "develops" to form the picture). but the important thing to know is that the speed at which the image registers on the film is proportional to the ASA number. The depth (in atmo-meters) is equal to the depth (in meters) the atmosphere. astronomical unit (ua or au or AU) a unit of distance used by astronomers to measure distances in the Solar System.1667 grams: just a little over an an ounce! The assay ton is actually a sample size. platinum. would have if it formed a uniform layer at standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atmosphere). adopted in 1996. because 27 is the DIN rating corresponding to ASA 400. is 149 597 870 691 meters (1. the assay ton is based on the long ton and thus equals 98/3 = 32. but the symbol au is common in English- speaking countries. The ASA number is now combined with the European DIN rating as a composite ISO rating. assay ton (AT) a specialized unit of mass used by minerologists in assaying (testing) ores for the presence of gold. Because these equations are the same regardless of the unit used for distance.686 99 x 1025 molecules of gas per square meter of planetary surface. For example. The astronomical unit is a convenient yardstick for measuring the distances between objects in the Solar System. The currently accepted value. Astronomers find it particularly convenient to use astronomical units in solving the equations of planetary motion. This unit is accepted for use with SI units. it is the length of the semimajor axis of the Earth's elliptical orbit. or other valuable metals. In Britain. atmosphere (atm or atmos) . atmo-meter (atmo-m) a unit used in atmospheric physics to compare the "depth" or total volume of atmospheres. which is the ordinary average of the Earth's minimum and maximum distances from the Sun).7 troy ounces in a short ton (2000 lb). Since there are 87500/3 = 29166. the predictions they generate will remain correct even if future astronomers determine a slightly different length for the distance between the Earth and Sun. One atmo-meter represents 2. uranium. One astronomical unit equals the "average" distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun (mathematically. silver.

" the smallest amount of time imaginable.0 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).(a-) a metric prefix denoting 10-18 (one quintillionth). the atomic mass unit is called the dalton (Da).) Careful experiments have measured the size of this unit. the synbol for the astronomical unit. equal to the number of electrons surrounding a neutral (uncharged) atom. in medicine. The root of the prefix is atten. 101. one electron volt equals 0. (Most elements are mixtures of atoms which have different masses because they contain different numbers of neutrons.1602 attojoule. approximately 29. a unit of pressure designed to equal the average pressure of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level. see mole. For example. The Greek word atomos means something "uncuttable. Not until 1913 was it known that the atomic number is actually a unit of measurement.494 028 MeV (see electron volt).6959 pounds of force per square inch (lbf/in2). atom a medieval unit of time. scientists discovered that each chemical element is composed of atoms. atto. the currently accepted value (1998) is 1. This was sometimes defined in a precise way equivalent to exactly 1/376 minute or about 160 milliseconds. These relative masses were determined by careful study of various reactions. 1 amu equals approximately 931. No one knew then just how small atoms and molecules really are.660 538 782 x 10-27 kilograms." thus indivisible. and all the other atoms should have masses which are whole-number multiples of this (then unknown) mass of the hydrogen atom. For a long time.325 kilopascals (kPa). In other pressure units. these varieties are called isotopes.) In addition. a symbol for allergy units. one atmosphere equals exactly 1013. 760.25 millibars (mb). the word for 18 in Danish and Norwegian. atomic mass unit (u or amu) the unit of mass used by chemists and physicists for measuring the masses of atoms and molecules. the outcome of chemical reactions could be predicted. or 14. (This number equals 1 divided by Avogadro's number. and also to the number of protons in the nucleus. known as carbon-12 atoms. and that each chemical compound is composed of molecules in which atoms are combined in a fixed way. AU or au in astronomy. In biochemistry. . atomic number The atomic number was originally defined (about 1865) simply as an index describing the position of an element in the periodic table. The general idea was that atoms of hydrogen.92 inches of mercury (in Hg). known to be the lightest element. should have a mass of 1 amu. but as long as the relative weights of the different atoms were known. Early in the nineteenth century. In medieval times the Latin form atomus was also used to mean "a twinkling of the eye. This is the standard atmosphere. In 1960 they agreed on the definition of the unified atomic mass unit as 1/12 the mass of the most common atoms of carbon. it equals 1. physicists and chemists disagreed on the details of this definition.0332 technical atmosphere.

The baht. barometer. now equal to exactly 15 grams or 1/40 catty (0.062 torr.7 kilograms) in Canada.2 pounds) by many suppliers.80 kg). ball a unit measuring the degree of ice coverage of polar seas. Balling a unit of density.5291 ounce). bale (bl) [1] a bundle of merchandise. The unit was invented by the Russian naval officer N. for an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure. meteorologists generally record atmospheric pressure in millibars (mb). balthazar a large wine bottle holding about 12 liters. N. one bale of cotton. Zhubov (1895-1960). A bank cubic meter represents the contents of a cubic meter of rock in place.013 25 bar. formerly equal to 500 pounds (226. baht a traditional weight unit in Thailand. One bar is just a bit less than the average pressure of the Earth's atmosphere. In practice. is now equal to 480 pounds (217. making a total of 13. a bale of hay is generally a huge round bundle left in the field until needed.503 78 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2).085 cubic meter). a unit of weight for cement. 100 kilopascals. usually pressed and bound in some way.19 kg) but now equal to 720 pounds (326. This custom is very old. and 87. when the weights and prices of loaves of bread were strictly regulated by royal proclamations called assizes. Traditionally a bag of portland cement weighs 94 pounds (42.6 kilograms) in the US. dating at least from the thirteenth century. or about 14. In agriculture. formerly equal to 750 pounds (340. 1. The word "bale" has been used in many ways to describe standard packages of various commodities. which is 1. In U.59 kg). The unit is pronounced bot.S. these bales can weigh up to 1500 pounds (700 kilograms). "weighty. The word comes from the Greek baros. originally the weight of a silver coin of the same name. One ball equals 10% coverage. The British used the Egyptian bale. . garden shops. bale (bl) [2] a commercial unit of weight for shipments of cotton. bar (b) a metric unit of atmospheric pressure. Other countries use a variety of cotton bale weights. before it is drilled and blasted. 750. For example. 16 times the volume of a regular bottle. and bakers could be jailed if they failed to provide fair weight at the listed prices. see degree Plato. In the United States. equal to 13." We see the same root in our word. is used to measure the weight of precious metals.72 kg). a bale of straw is typically 3 cubic feet (0. cement is now being sold also in metric-sized bags of 50 kilograms (110.019 72 kilograms of force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2). baker's dozen an informal unit of quantity. Bakers often toss in an extra item for each dozen bought. bank cubic meter (BCM) a traditional unit of volume in coal mining.5 pounds (39. However. equal to one million dynes per square centimeter. a bale of paper is traditionally equal to 10 reams.

05 million gallons. The energy is computed by multiplying the volume of gas in liters by the pressure in bars. Measurements on the Barcol scale are typically between 30 and 90. In English-speaking countries." or 10 barns. The weight of a barleycorn. bar abs. As a length unit. Barcol hardness (BH) a measure of hardness. the electrons are scattered as if the nucleus of the atom was a tiny solid object. The barges used on American rivers customarily carry about 25 000 barrels of oil (see barrel [2] below). The term "gauge" means that the pressure has been read from a gauge that actually measures the difference between the pressure of the fluid or gas and the pressure of the atmosphere. measuring a difference between two pressures. that is. barleycorn an old English unit of length equal to 1/3 inch or about 8. bar dif symbols indicating pressures measured in bars. bar liter a metric unit of energy used to measure the potential energy of gases under pressure. and Vickers hardness numbers. When atoms are bombarded with smaller particles such as electrons. The custom of using seeds as units of length or weight is very common in farming societies.S. This is equivalent to 1. one barn equals 100 fm2. One bar liter equals exactly 100 joules or about 73. 3 barleycorns were equal to the Saxon ynce (inch). The barn is used to express the apparent cross-sectional area of this scattering object. roughly 1400 register tons. one bar equals 29. is the original basis of all English weight systems including the older troy system and the later avoirdupois system. Brinell. physicists can say that such and such a nucleus is "as big as a barn. made with a Barcol Impressor. . barg symbol for bar gauge. in inches. where barley was a basic crop.53 inches of mercury (in Hg). later renamed the grain. barn (b) a slightly humorous unit of area used in nuclear physics. measuring the total pressure including the pressure of the atmosphere. neither of which is atmospheric pressure. or about 3975 cubic meters. energy industry. or whatever.5 millimeters. as 36 barleycorns. a common unit of pressure in engineering. There is no precise conversion between these readings and other hardness scales. barometric pressure is also expressed as the height. barleycorns played this traditional role. bar abs indicates bars absolute. of a column of mercury supported by the pressure of the atmosphere. The English foot was actually defined as 12 of these ynces. bar dif indicates bars differential. but the manufacturer provides a data bulletin with tables for approximate conversion to Rockwell.7562 foot pounds. In Anglo-Saxon England. One barn is equal to 10-28 square meters. In this unit. The proper SI unit to use for these measurements is the square femtometer (fm2). primarily for plastics and soft metals. Using this unit. This unit is not acceptable in the SI. barge an informal unit of volume used in the U.

who was a leader in research on the diffusion of gases. in common language the baud is often used to mean the same thing as 1 bit per second. or. The baud rate is the number of times per second the signal carrying the communication varies in strength or frequency. It's a very small unit. often capitalized. Pronounced "bar- ee. 1 barrer = 10-10 cm2·s-1·cmHg-1. 1 microbar (µb).01% or 10-4. when the baud has been used to represent digital data transmission. divided by the area and by the pressure difference across the material. 0 °C and 1 atmosphere). 1 barye is equal to 0. Prior to the introduction of the basis point. barrique a large French wine barrel holding 225 liters (about 59. The unit. in SI units. However. The basis weight is the weight in pounds of one ream (500 sheets) of a basic size sheet. the barrer is the permeability represented by a flow rate of 10-10 cubic centimeters per second (volume at standard temperature and pressure. In the days of the telegraph. these fluctuations were measured clumsily in 64ths of a percent. the best way to represent data transmission rates is directly in bits per second (b/s or bps). basis point (bp) a unit of proportion equal to 0. barye (ba) the CGS unit of pressure. see pound weight.5 x 10-6 pound per square inch.44 U. honors the New Zealand chemist Richard M. per square centimeter of area and centimeter of mercury difference in pressure. For those of us who are not communications engineers. See PNU. gallons). The baud is named for the French . That is. Barrer (1910-1996). the signal increased at the start of a pulse and decreased at the end. basis weight a unit used in the paper industry to express the weight (really. The basis point is used in finance to measure small fluctuations in interest rates and the rates of return on investments. or about 14.5005 x 10-18 m2·s-1·Pa-1. a CGS unit of gas permeability for membranes. faster modems use signals having 4 possible states (corresponding to 2 bits per second) or 16 possible states (corresponding to 4 bits per second). avoiding the use of the baud altogether. and similar thin materials. If the signal has only two states (on or off) then the baud rate is the same as the transmission rate in bits per second. 7. Since this was the case in early (slow) modems. a measure of the potency of the compounds used by doctors in allergy skin tests. the thickness) of paper. times 1 centimeter of thickness. barys. In recent years.1 pascal (Pa)." the barye derives from the Greek word for weight. Permeability is defined to be the gas flow rate multiplied by the thickness of the material. the definition has varied according to the technique used. so the baud rate was 2 times the number of dots that could be transmitted per second. equal to 1 dyne per square centimeter. contact lenses. For details.S. To measure this quantity. baud (Bd) a unit used in engineering for measuring the rate of data transmission over telegraph or telephone lines. BAU abbreviation for bioequivalent allergy unit.

BC.S. the year 1 CE (or 1 AD) was preceded by 1 BCE (or 1 BC). One billion (109) cubic microns per square inch is the same as one cubic millimeter per square inch (mm3/in2) or one microliter per square inch (µL/in2).S. or 6:00 pm U. each metric hour into 100 metric minutes (or beats). bcm [1] a symbol for "billion cubic microns per square inch. thus midnight U." respectively. These are standard designations for years before the beginning of the common or Christian era (see CE). BB a common shot pellet size in the U.. BB shot has a diameter of 0. bcm [2] abbreviation for "bank cubic meter" (see above). In their proposal. In this process.beat. See the table of shot pellet sizes. Baumé a measure of relative density. there is no year designated 0 in the common system for numbering years. is an idea dating back at least to the French Revolution of the 1790's. M. 1 bcm is equal to 1. beat a unit of time equal to 0. and each metric minute into 100 metric seconds (sometimes called blinks).572 mm). a unit used in the energy industry to measure the rate at which oil is pumped from a well.180 inch (4. the day is divided into 10 metric hours." a unit used in flexographic printing. see degree Baumé. the inventor of the first teleprinter.4 seconds. Oddly. The time at n beats is recorded as @n. In 1998 the Swatch Corporation repackaged metric time in a very attractive way as Internet time. Baudot (1845-1903).091 petajoules (PJ). Eastern Standard Time is @250. Beaufort scale . B/D symbol for barrels of oil per day (see barrel [2] above). the diameter of BB shot is used informally sometimes as a distance unit. Eastern Standard Time of the previous day). BCE abbreviations for "before Christ" and "before common era. bead sizes see aught.001 day or 86. The lack of a year 0 means that the number of years elapsing between the year n BCE and the year m CE (or n BC and m AD) is n + m .S. The appropriate SI unit for this volume per area measure is the micrometer or micron (µm).1. The unit measures the total volume of these cells per unit area of the roller. Bcfe a symbol used in the natural gas industry for 1 billion cubic feet of gas equivalent (cfe).5500 µm. telegraph engineer J.beat. time is counted in beats from midnight Central European Standard (winter) time (2300 Universal Time of the previous day. a roller engraved with a large number of tiny cells is used to transfer ink to the printing plate. "Metric time. E." meaning decimalized time. This is really an energy unit equal to about 1. In most metric time proposals.

states. bi. For something that happens twice per time unit. bi- a common English prefix meaning 2. so it should be avoided. India) the bigha was standardized under British colonial rule at 1600 square yards (0.S. abbreviation for the Latin phrase bis in die. See horsepower. biennium a unit of time equal to two years. In central India bighas were standardized at 3025 square yards or 5/8 acre (0. a bimonthly magazine is published once every two months. twice a day. This is how it's supposed to work: in adverbs of frequency.677 hectare (1.i. BeV a symbol sometimes used in the U.means "every two.d. The brake horsepower of an engine is the effective power output. In statements of frequency. In Nepal the bigha equals about 0.and semi- have become confused and it isn't always clear what a word like "bimonthly" means. Many U.67 acres). a unit of frequency traditionally used by doctors in writing medical prescriptions. biannually a confusing expression of frequency. use semi-. in India it is generally less than an acre (0.2529 hectare). billennia a new word meaning "billions of years. This distance is now called a picometer (pm). and the U. The word is used both for twice a year and for once every two years. Benz (1844-1929). The bigha varies in size from region to another. In Bengal (both in Bangladesh and in West Bengal.S. bhp abbreviation for brake horsepower.S.3306 acre). The unit would honor Karl F. bigha a traditional unit of land area in South Asia.237 miles per hour." billennia is appearing informally in science writing in phrases such as "countless billennia" or "the billennia of .1338 hectare or 0. The bigha was divided into 20 katthas. equal to 1 meter per second or about 2. defined as 10-12 meter or 10-6 micron. elect legislators every two years and adopt budgets for this two-year period. this is often interpreted as being 1/3 acre. House of Representatives is elected biennially (every two years). the German engineer generally regarded as the inventor of the automobile. Twice a year is semiannually and once every two years is biennially. for one billion (109) electronvolts." BID or b. The correct symbol is GeV. called a biennium. including North Carolina. and each kattha contained 20 dhurs.4 hectare)." Thus a biweekly payroll is paid once every two weeks.benz (Bz) a proposed metric unit of speed. bi. bicron (µµ) an obsolete metric unit of distance. sometimes measured as the resistance the engine provides to a brake attached to the output shaft. The name is a reference to the double prefix in "micromicron.

and its storage capacity is log2 26 = 4. In information and communications theory." "yes" or "no. now known also as the shannon. billion (bn or B) a number equal to 1000 million in the U. which is one quadrillion in American terminology or 1000 billion in traditional British terminology. which has long been a name for 1000 million. especially in Britain. The name is coined to parallel milliard." billet a single stick of firewood. Americans also use B. bit per second (b/s or bps) . In fact. in the words of a committee spokesperson. each binary digit is a single bit. Each bit records one of the two possible answers to a single question: "0" or "1. if a storage location stores one letter." The word billennium was coined for another purpose. bit (b) [1] the basic unit of the amount of data. bimester a rarely-seen unit of time equal to 2 months.S. The symbol bn is often used for billion. because if the message is a bit string and all strings are equally likely to be received. then it has 26 possible states. evolutionary time. but one million million in traditional British usage. "to describe the positive spirit of the millennium. bimillennium a unit of time equal to 2000 years. See Names for Large Numbers for a discussion of the billion problem. For example." When data is represented as binary (base-2) numbers.016 meters). the word "bit" was coined by the American statistician and computer scientist John Tukey (b. biot (Bi) another name for the abampere. bind an old English unit of quantity for eels. one of the founders of the theory of electromagnetism. then its information content is -log2 p shannons. bips informal name for the bit per second (see below). a unit of electric current equal to 10 amperes. which is an ongoing and enduring movement. 1915) in 1946 as an acronym for binary digit. equal to 250. equal to the base-2 logarithm of the number of possible states of the storage device or location. then the information content is equal the number of bits. however.7004 bits. it is a registered trademark of the Billennium® Organizing Committee and is used. Somewhat more generally. if a message has probability p of being received." "on" or "off. This unit is often called the bit. bit (b) [2] a unit of information content. This unit honors the French mathematician and physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862). the bit is used as a logarithmic unit of data storage capacity. billiard a unit of quantity equal to 1015. Traditional English billets had a length of 40 inches (1.

61 mg/dL or 0. blink a unit of time equal to 10-5 day or exactly 0. or BF) . In the other direction. board foot (bd ft.10%. fbm. blondel another name for an apostilb.10% w/v. block [3] an informal unit of area equal to one square block [1]. in most metric time proposals. each 0. 0.S.10% w/v is equivalent to 100 milligrams of alcohol per deciliter (100 milliliters) of blood.01% w/v is equal to about 2. (In New York and some other cities. streets running on one direction are closer together than streets running perpendicular. The length of a block varies from about 1/20 mile (80 meters) in New York to about 1/16 mile (100 meters) in many midwestern cities to about 1/10 mile (160 meters) in cities of the South and West. In a few states.864 second. A block is the average distance between street intersections in the rectangular street grids common in most American cities. people often speak of "short blocks" or "long blocks. bn a common symbol for billion. A typical block has an area of roughly 2-5 acres or 1-2 hectares. Proposed in 1942. this is a measurement of "weight by volume" (w/v). This unit is also called the metric second. 1 millimole per liter is equal to 4. The blood alcohol level is usually stated as a percentage.1055% w/v or 1. 0. block [1] an informal unit of distance popular in the U. See also baud (above). the day is divided into 10 hours.055 g/L. determining whether a person is considered legally impaired or intoxicated. The symbol bps is often pronounced "bips. Internationally.") block [2] a "unit" used in describing the distance between two locations in a city by the number of intersections encountered between those locations. blood alcohol level (BAL) a legal measurement of alcohol concentration in the bloodstream. In most U. and each minute into 100 seconds or blinks. blood alcohol levels are often stated in millimoles per liter (mmol/L)." Modem transmission rates are often stated in kilobits per second (Kbps or kb/s) or megabits per second (Mbps of Mb/s). or milligrams of alcohol per milligram of blood). states. such as 0.00461% w/v. in this usage "12 blocks" means the traveler will cross 12 street intersections before reaching the destination. a slightly higher concentration than 0. each hour into 100 minutes (called beats in "Internet time": see "beat" above). the measurement is the percentage mass concentration (w/w. billion (109). An actual eye blink takes less than half as much time as this unit.10% w/w is the same alcohol concentration as 0. In these cities. a common unit of data transmission rate in computer science. which is the same as 1 gram per liter (g/L).169 mmol/L. this unit honors the French physicist André Blondel (1863-1938) for his pioneering work in photometry. generally the U.S.S.

book sizes see -mo.667 square yards (97. a box of citrus fruit contains 1." a unit of time used in anthropology.S. geology. Thus a bolt of cotton is 116.623 pounds).524 meters) wide.9072 metric ton). and a bottle of champagne was 2/3 quart (1/6 gallon or 630.067 meters) wide and wool bolts are usually 60 inches (1. bottle (btl) a unit of volume. a common bottle size was 2/3 Imperial quart (1/6 gallon or 757. box a unit of volume. This was roughly 15 acres or 6 hectares.91 milliliters)." also used historically for the candlepower and currently for the candela. bore the bore of a gun is the inside diameter of its barrel. Today wine is customarily sold in bottles containing 750 milliliters (about 25. meaning the same as gauge [1] for shotguns and the same as caliber [1] for other guns. and paleontology.566 m2) and a bolt of wool is 166. so years "BP" are really years before 1950. The bone-dry ton (bdt) is similar but based on a weight of 2000 pounds (0. In the British Empire. the year 1950 CE (or AD) represents the present.383 liters). a unit known as the reputed quart. For example.6 bushels (56. also see the much more complete information posted by Stanford University. indicating that the bovate was an area that could be farmed with the help of one ox. this unit varies according to the nature of the contents. fluid ounces or 26.S.1 milliliters). Like actual bottles. an ox. One bone-dry unit is a volume of wood chips (or whatever) that would weigh 2400 pounds (1..667 square yards (139.3963 British Imperial fluid ounces). In the U.S. As a result. the width varies according to the fabric.. a bottle of milk was 1 quart (1/4 gallon or 946.95 milliliters. BP unit . the Russian boutylka contains 768. usually informal but standardized in certain industries. The bone-dry metric ton (bdmt) is based on a weight of one tonne (2204. See also quart [2]. Other countries have traditional units of about this size. French authors should use the SI symbol cd and not "bg" when they use this term to mean the candela. Cotton bolts are traditionally 42 inches (1. bougie (bg or cd) French word for "candle. By international convention.0886 metric ton) if all the moisture content were removed. BP abbreviation for "years before present. a bottle of whiskey was 1 fifth (1/5 gallon or 757.3605 U. bone-dry unit (bdu) a unit used in the forest products industry to measure bulk products such as wood chips.68 milliliters). bovate an old English unit of land area equal to 1/8 hide. The word comes from the Latin bovis.36 milliliters).355 m2). For a long time in the U. "bore" is sometimes used as a unit.

a unit used in Britain to measure the potency of a vitamin or drug. The same symbol is used in medicine for heart rates and also for respiration rates (breaths per minute).68 feet or 68. its expected biological effects. who may speak of a brace of partridges or a brace of shotguns. The Portuguese braça is similar. comparable to the English fathom. using the pied de roi as the standard for the pied this is about 1. slightly shorter than the Spanish braza (next entry). The name of the unit is related to bras (arm) and brassée (armful). and a braccio is the length of a man's arm. The Argentine braza is 1. In many cases. recalling the traditional definition of the fathom as a man's armspan.75 inches). the toise.395 English feet).556 feet or 66. it literally means "one for each arm. braza a traditional unit of distance in Spain and Latin America. See horsepower. below. Note that the French have another fathom-size unit.67 inches). Like the brasse.67 meters (5.20 meters (7. For each substance to which this unit applies. braça see braza. The brasse was commonly used at sea and the toise on land. Other quantities of the substance can then be expressed in terms of this standard unit. a unit of production used in the petroleum industry. the braccio has become an informal metric unit of exactly 70 centimeters (about 27.6 inches). or about 1. brasse a traditional unit of distance in France.624 meters or 5. BP units are equivalent to "Ph Eur" units for those substances covered by both sets of standards. Since the British Pharmacopoeia includes the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. equal to 6 pieds (about 1. bpd abbreviation for barrels per day. 1 bpm is equal to 1/60 hertz. that is.73 meters (5. but it equals 10 palmos or about 2. the British Pharmacopoeia Commission has determined the biological effect associated with a dose of 1 BP unit.48 feet or 65. brace another name for a pair. Derived from the Latin word bracchia for both arms." brake horsepower (bhp) the effective power output of an engine. the braza is comparable to the English fathom.16 inches). the common unit of tempo in music. The word is used mostly by hunters. In modern times. Technically. In Spain it equals 2 varas.22 feet or 86. braccio a traditional Italian unit of distance.949 meters or 6. about 27 or 28 inches (68-71 centimeters). and under the Texas definition of the vara the braza would be 1. sometimes measured as the resistance the engine provides to a brake attached to the output shaft. . 8 palmos. In Latin America the braza tends to be larger. the BP unit is equal to the international unit (IU).693 meters (5.56 inches). The brasse is equal to 5 pieds (French feet). The word means "arm".328 English feet. bpm abbreviation for beats per minute.

The breve is equal to 2 semibreves. Brinell hardness is about 0. The breakfast cup corresponds to the cup used by American cooks. breakfast cup a unit of liquid volume. For readings up to about HB 500. or about 284 milliliters. In addition. The unit is named for the British physicist David Brewster (1781-1868). A material exhibits birefringence if it has different indices of refraction along different axes. A luminance of 1 lambert is defined to have a brilliance of 100 brils. The brewster. the word comes from the Latin brevis. or 88%. where L is the luminance in lamberts. 4 minims. The Brinell hardness is the amount of force applied to the ball divided by the area of the indentation the ball makes in the material. without units. especially of paper.86 centimeters). In the Brinell test (generally used for metals of uniform hardness). equal to the time length of 2 whole notes.20 U. of the light falling on the paper. exhibit birefringence if they are subjected to compression or stress in one direction. Many crystals exhibit birefringence. The fraction of light reflected by a surface is called its albedo.96 times the Vickers hardness. Although this is the longest interval in musical notation. breve the standard unit of relative time in music.breadth another name for a span (9 inches or 22. and its brightness is the albedo expressed as a percentage. Thus "88 bright" paper reflects 0. This unit is traditionally used to measure the dimensions of flags. used in food recipes in Britain. brief. Brinell in 1900. One brewster is defined to equal 10-12 square meters per newton (m2/N) or 10-13 square centimeters per dyne (cm2/dyn). 8 crotchets. certain substances. 17. The ball is of a specified diameter. This is equivalent to 10 Imperial fluid ounces. including many plastics. bril a unit used to express the "brilliance" or subjective brightness of a source of light. This unit is also called a tumblerful. Mathematically. the brilliance in brils equals (log L)/log 2 + 100. a hard object such as a steel ball is pressed into the material being tested. A. or reflectivity. Brinell hardness (HB or BHN) a measure of the hardness of a metal introduced by J. or 16 quavers. usually 1 centimeter. who discovered stress-induced birefringence in 1816. brightness a unit describing surface brightness. which measures this effect. British horsepower (Bhp) .88. except that it is based on British Imperial units. cup. Thus it equals 1/2 Imperial pint. brewster (B) a unit used in optics to measure stress-induced birefringence. The scale used is logarithmic: an increase of 1 bril means doubling the luminance (and thus the actual amount of light energy) emitted by the source.S. 1. bright. has dimensions reciprocal to those of stress. The result is measured in kilograms of force per square millimeter but should be stated as an empirical reading.339 cubic inches.

Using the current definition of the calorie (the IT calorie). generally in the range . the traditional horsepower. 1870). First proposed in 1968.182 liters based on the British Imperial gallon.169 foot pounds. provided the reading is taken at a specified temperature.S. bunder a traditional Dutch unit of land area. fruit syrups. maple syrup.55 times the sugar concentration in brix of the unfermented juice.293 071 watt hour. British shipping ton see shipping ton. However. citrus fruit industry. generally informal. brix a unit of proportion. In winemaking. especially in Britain. In defining the Btu. as opposed to the metric horsepower. which is equal to about 735. juice concentrate is generally required to contain at least 42 brix of soluble solids (sugars and acids).S.055 056 kilojoules or 0. thus there have been several definitions over the years. the unit varied with locality. or one millimeter per thousand years. In the U. and similar solutions. or 0. Thus one brix equals 1%. a bucket is often understood to be 4 gallons. it is necessary to specify the temperature of the water. In America the British thermal unit is sometimes called the heat unit.7 watts.996 (small) calories.293 071 watt. 1 Btuh equals 0. One Bubnoff unit is equal to the removal of one micrometer per year (µm/a). The unit is named for the Austrian scientist Adolf Brix (d. liquid gallons (about 18. the alcohol concentration in the finished wine is estimated to be 0. British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) a unit of heat energy defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Historically.. In Britain. one Btu equals approximately 778. Bubnoff unit (B) a unit used in geology to measure erosion rates. a Russian-born geologist who taught in Germany. equal to percent. one Btu is equal to about 251.251 996 of the (kilo-)calories counted by dieters. many commodities (both wet and dry) are sold in plastic buckets holding 5 U. Also called degree Brix (°Bx). who invented a hydrometer that reads directly the percentage of sugar in the juice. or one meter per million years (m/Ma).5 watts. used in measuring the concentration of sugar and other soluble solids in unfermented grape juice.S. the unit is named for Serge von Bubnoff (1888-1957). equal to about 745.S. Since the adoption of the metric system in the Netherlands in 1809 the bunder has been considered equal to the hectare (2. Btuh a non-standard symbol used in the U. or 18.471 acres). a unit of power.927 liters). Note that the symbol bhp is also used for brake horsepower. heating and airconditioning industry for British thermal units per hour. In the U. The symbol BThU has also been used. bucket a unit of volume. 1. The proper symbol is Btu/h.

the theory of relativity predicts a variety of strange physical effects. A table of sizes is provided. C [2] a symbol for international standard paper sizes. One of the fundamental principles of physics is that light always travels at the same velocity in a vacuum. In Spain and Peru the caballeria is equal to 60 fanegas.6 hectares (194. mariner's cable was 120 fathoms long. In other words. In Cuba. Using the Dictionary C c a symbol for the velocity (or "speed") of light. CCA abbreviations for "cranking amps" and "cold cranking amps.17 ft). This is equal to 720 feet.4 meters. defined the cable to equal exactly 0.3 meters. The traditional U.1 nautical (Admiralty) mile.4 hectares (186. followed by the size number. speeds are customarily expressed as fractions of the speed of light. while "cold cranking amps" measure the current supplied at 0 °F (-17. C [3] a unit of relative current for batteries. the caballeria was equal to 200 cuerdas (see below) which is about 78." respectively.1185 nautical mile. "Cranking amps" measure the current supplied by the battery when starting the vehicle at a temperature of 32 °F (0 °C). as in Cwt (hundredweight) or CCF (100 cubic feet).5 acres). Another fundamental principle is that no object can travel faster than light. In calculations involving relativity. CA. For a particular battery.S. which is roughly 45 hectares (110 acres).S. caballeria a traditional unit of land area in Spanish speaking countries. The C series of sizes is used primarily for envelopes. which is roughly 40 hectares (100 acres). The British Admiralty. but in the Dominican Republic it is a larger unit equal to 1200 tareas or about 75. the caballeria is a smaller unit equal to 33. a 1C current will completely charge or discharge the battery in one hour. as in C4.0 acres). which is 608 feet or about 185.8 °C). In Puerto Rico. In Central America it equals 60 manzanas. such as 0. These units are often seen on motor vehicle batteries in the U. or about 219. exactly 299 792 458 meters per second or about 670 617 300 miles per hour. in 1830.162 acres or 13. caballo de vapor (cv) Spanish name for the metric horsepower. sometimes used as a unit of quantity or as a prefix meaning 100. At velocities that are large fractions of the speed of light. cable a unit of distance formerly used at sea.95 c. a current of 1C is a current in amperes numerically equal to the rated capacity of the battery in ampere hours. C [1] the Roman numeral 100. or 0. Some navies are now using a metric cable equal to exactly 200 meters (about 656. .420 hectares. The amps involved are ordinary amperes of electric current.

caña. respectively. canne traditional units of distance in Spain. The frequency of 540 THz corresponds to a wave length of approximately 555. but "fathom" is the proper choice. 3.1858 joules.163 watt hours. the kilocalorie equals 1000 small calories. The caña varied in size. The unit is sometimes translated "rod" in English. heat. The name of the unit comes from the Latin calor. and southern France. (These conversions assume the IT calorie is in use. In order to produce 1 candela of single-frequency light of wavelength l. the ones we gain by eating. defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).) These are the "calories" that joggers are trying to get rid of.9683 Btu.5 feet). or 1. Values of V(l). it is also called the kilogram calorie or large calorie. a lamp would have to radiate 1/(683V(l)) watts per steradian. Since this is 1000 times as much water as mentioned in the definition of the small calorie.3988 milliwatts over a complete sphere centered at the light source. 4. The large calorie. Another choice produces the thermochemical calorie.1868 kilojoules.184 joules. Later this definition was replaced with a definition in terms of the light produced by the filament of an incandescent light bulb. or rather kilocalorie.003 968 32 British thermal units (Btu). it represented the intensity of an actual candle. This definition has also been discarded. canna. This unit is properly called the kilocalorie. normal human eyes are more sensitive to the green light of this wavelength than to any other. see previous entry. which makes it the Mediterranean version of the fathom. exactly 1. equal to exactly 4. where V(l) is the relative sensitivity of the eye at wavelength l. Originally." The unit has a long and complicated history. but it was most often defined as 8 palmos. The use of the same term "calorie" for two different-size units is endlessly confusing. but we seem to be stuck with it. and the candela is now defined to be the luminous intensity of a light source producing single-frequency light at a frequency of 540 terahertz (THz) with a power of 1/683 watt per steradian. It is often (but certainly not always!) distinguished from the small calorie by capitalizing its name and symbol. a quantity called the 15° calorie.1868 joules. or about 0. defined by an international conference in 1956 to equal exactly 4. assumed to be burning whale tallow at a specified rate in grains per hour. are . equal to roughly 2 meters (6. More common today is the international steam table calorie. Candela is the Latin word for "candle. Italy.163 milliwatt hours.17 nanometers (nm). or IT calorie for short. raising the temperature of water through this range requires 4. or 18. Still later a standard was adopted that defined the candela as the intensity of 1/600 000 square meter of a "black body" (a perfect radiator of energy) at the temperature of freezing platinum (2042 K) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. In Italy a measuring stick is still called a canna metrica. Calorie (kcal or Cal) a common name for the MKS unit of heat energy. is the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. candela (cd) the SI base unit for measuring the intensity of light.

The word comes from the Latin capsa. is traditionally twelve 750-milliliter bottles. cb- abbreviation for "cubic. that is. A castellated nut is a locknut having a raised rim with a number of equally spaced slots. but certain sizes are customary. .191 liters). National Weather Service. with the pas being equal to 3. varying with the item and over time. cm3 should be used in its place.5 pieds (French feet). by 1/6 turn.8 bushel (28. usually 6. The name is an English tranliteration of a Tamil word for the unit. a traditional Chinese unit.98 liters). The catty varied a little from market to market. and it is still equal to that weight in Malaysia.54 hectare). or "tightness". a chest. for example. This symbol is obsolete and should not be used. used in mechanical engineering." seen in combinations such as cbm (cubic meter) or cbft (cubic foot). a standard carton is equal to 1/2 box or 0. carton a small container. A case of wine. an old English unit of land area. A somewhat different scale of categories is used for tropical cyclones by the Australian Bureau of Meterology. category the ranking of a hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. generally informal. the catty was identified with the jin. In Newfoundland. In China. side.S. The proper symbol for cubic meters is m3. equal to the capacity of a small cart. the catty is used now as a metric unit equal to exactly 600 grams (1. cc [1] an alternate symbol for the cubic centimeter (cm3). castellation a unit of angle measure equal to 1/6 turn or 60°. Typically it was equal to about 4/3 pound avoirdupois (604. A cotter pin fits into one of the slots and into a hole bored in the bolt. The name comes from a Latin word meaning "plowland. cart a unit of volume. equal to about 4/3 acre (0. To turn the nut one castellation is to turn it from one slot to the next. a cart of salt traditionally equalled 6 tubs or 108 Imperial gallons (490." case a conventional unit of sales for many items. catty a weight unit of the colonial period in East and Southeast Asia. citrus fruit industry. In Thailand. cawny or cawney a traditional unit of land area in southern India. The cubic centimeter is the same volume as the milliliter (mL or ml). not cbm.S. In the U.79 grams).3228 pounds). Foreigners are not allowed to own more than 1 carreau of urban land or 5 carreaux of rural land in Haiti. originating as the kati in Malaya. used by the U. carucate another name for the hide. The size of a carton is usually not standardized. holding the nut in place with a precise degree of torque.

034 therm). who died. In astronomy. however. The symbol stands for "centum call second. See centimeter of water (below) or millimeter of water. According to the Biblical account. The word "degree" is often omitted in informal statements of temperature. CCF an abbreviation for 100 cubic feet. Years of the common era are supposed to be counted from the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. One CCs could represent a single call 100 seconds long. CCs a unit of telecommunications traffic equal to 100 call-seconds.59 IT calories (see above). in general. or 1. The unit is also called the centigrade heat unit. cent [1] an old English unit of quantity. the year-numbering system was not established until more than 500 years later. approximately 453.8 Btu. usually equal to 100 but sometimes 120 (the great or long hundred) or some other figure of similar size. Jesus was born several years before the death of Herod the Great." This abbreviation is a non-religious designation used in place of the traditional AD for years of the common or Christian era. or 10 calls each 10 seconds long.05 gallons (U.7 liters. seen in pressure measurements. The Latin number 100. for this purpose one CCF equals about 748. and there is evidence that he picked this particular date to simplify the calculation of the date of Easter. etc.) or about 2831. it simplifies calculations to define the year 0 CE = 1 BC and to apply negative numbers to earlier years. . CE [2] French abbreviation for colonne d'eau. It is based on calculations of the priest and scholar Dionysius Exiguus placing Jesus's birth in the Roman year 753 AUC. In the conventional use of the common era system. founder of the Christian religion. in 750 AUC (4 BC)." CE [1] abbreviation for "common era. we now know. ccm an incorrect symbol for the cubic centimeter (cm3). 1 Chu is equal to exactly 1.8991 kilojoules. Local water and sewer utilities often sell water in CCF units. is also used in English works for this quantity.cc or cc [2] a symbol for the centesimal second (see below). for this purpose the CCF is really a unit of energy roughly equivalent to the therm (1 CCF of natural gas provides about 1. Celsius see degree Celsius. Dionysius knew he had incomplete information. Thus the calculation of the common era is off by 6 or 7 years at least. Utilities sometimes sell natural gas in CCF units." Celsius heat unit (Chu) a unit of heat energy equal to the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1°C at standard atmospheric pressure. However. and. -n CE is the year more commonly called n + 1 BC. water column. Thus Herod died in -3 CE. centum. as in "we expect a high of about 23 Celsius today. there is no year 0 and the year prior to 1 CE is designated 1 BCE (or 1 BC).S.

3125) inch. cubic feet per minute. also called Gunter's chain because it was introduced by the English mathematician Edmund Gunter (1581-1626) in 1620. in eighths of an inch. See also shackle and shot [2] for anchor chain lengths. are also seen. the second and third digits specify the width of the rollers in 80ths of an inch. Adding one oxygen atom to cetane produces cetyl alcohol. chain (ch) a unit of distance formerly used by surveyors. . cfs traditional abbreviations for cubic feet per hour." a count of the number of active bacterial cells in preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus and other "friendly" organisms of the digestive system. The words "cetyl" and "cetane" are both derived from the Latin word cetus for a whale.S. This is really an energy unit. CFU abbreviation for "colony forming units. chain number a size designation for roller chains. In the metric world. in fact. and Bcfe for 1 billion cfe.. The traditional British surveyor's chain. American surveyors sometimes used a longer chain of 100 feet. the 16 carbons being arranged in a long chain.) In Texas. or 1.091 megajoule (MJ). such as Cf/h. the distance between pins. and cubic feet per second.5) inch and a roller width of 25/80 (= 0.1168 meters). The first digit specifies the pitch. Multiples of this unit are formed using non-metric prefixes: Mcfe for 1000 (not 1 million) cfe. is 4 rods long: that's equal to exactly 1/80 mile. cfh.3169 liters per second (L/s). used in the natural gas industry. cf a common symbol for the cubic foot.556 ft) was used in surveying Spanish land grants. The chain was divided into 100 links. cfm. 22 yards. 1 cfe is equal to about 1034 British thermal units (Btu). or 66 feet (20. Symbols with a slash. 0. respectively. 1/10 furlong. such as the drive chains of bicycles or motorcycles.617 ft). MMcfe for 1 million cfe. Gunter's chain has the useful property that an acre is exactly 10 square chains. surveyors often use a chain of 20 meters (65. Gunter's chain is also used in the U. (However. It is the percentage by volume of cetane which must be added to methylnaphthalene to give the mixture the same resistance to knocking as the diesel fuel sample being tested. These chains are traditionally designated by a three-digit number. Counts as high as one billion CFU per gram are not uncommon.01034 therm. cfe a symbol for cubic foot of gas equivalent. a waxy compound found in whale oil.3169 liters per minute (L/min) and 1 cfs = 28. Cetane is the name of a hydrocarbon compound whose molecules contain 16 carbon atoms and 34 hydrogen atoms. the vara chain of 2 varas (55. it is an important unit in the Public Lands Survey System. 1 cfm = 28. known as the engineer's chain or Ramsden's chain. plays in conventional automobile engine technology. The traditional length of a cricket pitch is 1 chain. Thus a 425 chain has a pitch of 4/8 (= 0.

the term is used to mean the English horsepower. The word charka means a cup or glass. In English-speaking countries. however.(1000). chip in New Zealand. Charrière.chalder or chaldron (chd) a traditional British unit of volume or weight used for dry commodities such as coal or lime. 4. however. which originally meant a large kettle.S. In Canadian French.52 kilograms). cheval vapeur (cv or ch) French name for the metric horsepower. another name for a punnet. As a volume measure.159 U. Pronounced "killiad. ch'ih a unit of distance used in China during the colonial period. but it has nearly disppeared from use today.0 milliliters.1 inches. or 288 British Imperial gallons. There is. chiliad [1] a unit of quantity equal to 1000. a newer coding system designed to include all the characters used in all the world's languages. . chiliad [2] another name for a millennium (1000 years). chilioi. As a measure for coal. charka a traditional Russian unit of volume containing about 123.814 centimeters. There are 6. champagne quart see quart [2]. The words "chalder. assigns 16 bits or 2 bytes to each character code. chilo an informal Italian name for a kilogram. the chalder equals 1/8 keel or 53 hundredweight (5936 pounds or 2692. the chaldron is equal to 36 bushels. the scale is usually called the French gauge and the unit is simply called "French. Unicode. 35. There are 1800 ch'ih in a li.3091 cubic meters. a traditional Chinese weight unit. which is also the origin of the metric prefix kilo-. character (char) a unit of information used in computer science and telecommunications. The gauge number is the diameter of the tube in units of 1/3 millimeter. chilo- Italian spelling of the metric prefix kilo." "chaldron. The ch'ih equals 10 t'sun.25 charki in a boutylka (bottle) and 10 in a schtoff." and "cauldron" are English spellings of the same old French word. chin one of several spellings in English for the jin. this system. The word comes from the Greek numeral 1000. this is equivalent to 46. Charrière gauge (Ch) a unit of distance used for measuring the diameters of small tubes such as catheters. fluid ounces or 4.329 imperial fluid ounces." Charrière was a nineteenth century French instrument manufacturer. fiber optic bundles." the chiliad was once fairly common in learned writing. or 14.237 cubic feet or 1. etc. One character is usually equal to 8 bits or one byte.

equal to 12 Didot points. CID a symbol for cubic inch of displacement. The choppin is equivalent to about 52. Dover.S. A circle of diameter d has an area of pi·d2/4.067 07 square centimeters. The word is sometimes spelled joi in English. circular mil (cmil) informal units of area. cinq. cicero (cc) a unit of distance used by typesetters and printers in continental Europe.choi a name used in Thailand and Laos for the viss.1 cubic inches. The word survives today as the name for a 5-spot showing in dice. these measurements are now made in liters. circle (cir) the traditional unit of angle measure. CI or ci a traditional symbol for the cubic inch. but by the 18th century it was more or less standardized as 23.50 British imperial pints. circular inch. Clark degree see degree [4]. and the circular mil is equal to approximately 0. or 854 milliliters. formerly used in the U. chopine a traditional French unit of volume. the original Cinque Ports were Sandwich.707 square micrometers. or for a 5-card in card games. but the word survives (especially in Canada) as a French name for the English pint units. In English history. clausius . 1. in stating the engine displacements of motor vehicles. city block see block.52 millimeters. pronounced "sink" and derived from the French number 5. The chopine is obsolete in France today.80 U. The cicero corresponds to the British and American pica.7 milliliters).1780 inch or 4. Presumably. 1.475 cubic pouces (465. civil year a year as measured by the conventional (Gregorian) calendar. A circular inch is the area of a circle one inch [1] in diameter.S.785 398 square inches or 5. Hythe. divided into 2 pi radians or 360 degrees. cinque an old English word for the number 5. this unit got its name because type of this size was used in printing the works of classical authors such as the Roman statesman and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE). This is approximately 0. so the circular inch is equal to approximately 0. See year [2]. Romney and Hastings. and a circular mil is the area of a circle one mil [1] in diameter. The unit varied regionally. liquid pints. choppin a traditional Scottish unit of volume equal to 2 mutchkins or 1/2 Scots pint. equal to 365 days in most years but 366 days in a leap year.785 398 square mils or 506.

clove an old English unit of weight. cmil symbol for the circular mil (see above).1°C). clothier's yard an alternate name for the ell. but the "clothyard arrows" used with longbows in late medieval times were closer in length to the 37-inch Scottish ell.155 m2K/W or 1.S. clothyard. city block see block.550 togs. into or out of the battery. This unit became popular during the Vietnam War. but in the past the clove varied from 6.333 microwatts.S. a unit of entropy. coffee measure a flat-bottomed scoop or spoon used to measure coffee in U. military slang for the kilometer (about 0. This is equivalent to 0. Put another way. that's 7 pounds (3.S. as a fraction of the battery's rated capacity. One clausius is equal to 1 kilocalorie per kelvin (kcal/K) or 4. but it was invented by U. who introduced and named the concept of entropy in 1850. homes. A clove is usually considered equal to 1/2 stone or 1/16 hundredweight.143 meters). The coffee measure holds 2 U. The unit honors the German physicist Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888).25 to 8 pounds.1 CmA is a current flow of 200 milliamperes." CmA a unit of relative electric current used especially in connection with nickel metal hydride (NiMH) storage batteries. The English ell is 45 inches (1.621 mile).57 milliliters). The symbol designates the current flow per hour.9144 kilometer). then 0. a current of 0. Entropy is a measure of the extent to which heat or energy in a physical system is not available for performing work.1 CmA would completely charge or discharge the battery in 10 hours.01 lusec or 1. The rate of a person's heat loss is measured in watts per square meter of skin area per kelvin of temperature difference across the clothing. Also spelled klick or klik. One clo is equal to 0. Occasionally it was used as a non- metric unit equal to 1000 yards (0. clusec a unit of power used to express the performance or leakage of vacuum pumps. in square meter kelvins per watt (m2K/W). Note that this is not a centimil.S. clo a unit of thermal insulation used for clothing. click U. One clusec represents a flow of 10 milliliters per second at a pressure of one micrometer (or micron) of mercury.1868 kilojoules per kelvin (kJ/K). One clo is intended to represent the insulation required to keep a resting person warm in an indoor room at 70 °F (21. if the rated capacity of the battery is 2 ampere hours or 2000 milliampere hours.175 kilograms) by the modern definition of the stone. In other words. It is computed in units of energy per kelvin. tablespoons (about 29. troops in Germany during the 1950s. coffeespoon . The name of the unit is an acronym for "centi-lusec. the value of insulation is measured by the reciprocal of this rate.

green. Flourescent lighting can be produced with a broad range of color temperatures including everything between these two values. For most of us not directly concerned with dyes. Hue. and green in the color. Incandescent light bulbs are "cool" with a color temperature of about 2800 K. The measurement is expressed in kelvins (K). The test procedure. Saturation is the purity of the color. Computer monitors use the RGB system. food recipes. Frequently each variable is specified by one byte and therefore takes values in the range 0 to 255. equal to 1/8 artaba or (in recent centuries) about 8. higher temperatures more blue. that is. and B=255. with higher numbers representing a higher degree of fidelity of color. developed by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). The scale is from 0 to 100. many graphics design programs use the HSV color system. is described on a circular scale. The RGB settings for the Carolina blue background of this page are R=153. but now computers require precise methods for describing the colors to be displayed or printed. Once again. (A blackbody is also a perfectly efficient radiator of energy." a theoretical object that absorbs all radiation falling on it. produced by the light source to the spectrum of a "black body. collothun an ancient Persian unit of liquid volume. the subject was academic until recently. If all three are 0. or inks. its specrum depending only on its temperature.). saturation. color temperature (CCT) a measure of the overall "color" of a light source. The pure color has saturation 255. the color becomes grayer. which specifies colors with three variables measuring the intensity of the three primary colors red. and purple before returning to red at 255.S. green. until at saturation 0 the color is replaced by a neutral gray of the same intensity as the . or mix of colors (wavelengths of length). involves comparison of eight test colors under both natural lighting and the artificial source being tested. the resulting color is black. "CCT" stands for "correlated color temperature. G=204. which is what we call "color" in ordinary language.5 milliliters. reflecting the fact that the human eye has three types of color sensor. and blue needed to create a particular color. while daylight at noon is much "hotter" (bluer) at about 6000 K. Lower temperatures indicate more red and yellow light. blue." color units several systems have been devised to measure colors. 1/12 fluid ounce. if all three are 255 the resulting color is white. the colors those object display in natural daylight out of doors. a unit of volume formerly used in U.25 liters. which describes colors using three variables called hue. The measurement is obtained by comparing the spectrum. the extent to which it is not watered down with gray. As saturation is reduced. all three variables are assigned values from 0 to 255. Hue values begin with red at 0 and run through yellow. blue. and value. paints. Since it is difficult to estimate the relative amounts of red. These methods typically use three variables. A coffeespoon is 1/2 teaspoon. or about 2. color rendering index (CRI) a scale used in engineering to measure the ability of an artificial lighting system to show the "true" colors of objects.

Pyrometric cones are cone-shaped objects designed to soften and bend after absorbing a specific amount of heat. colpa. states. the color becomes less bright. congius a historic unit of liquid volume. As value is increased the color becomes brighter. In the nineteenth century.S.S. See also: Lovibond color units (used for beer and honey). becoming black at value 0. This varied according to the quality of the land.546 09 liters). or collop a traditional Irish unit. The width of a column varies.S. original color. cone. Buyer beware! It is legal to sell land by the commercial acre in many U. The unit was invented by commercial realtors to express the approximate portion of an acre of subdivided land that remains to be sold in the retail market after portions are set aside (dedicated) for necessary streets and other utilities. is 2-1/16 inch." column inch (col in) a unit of relative area used in journalism. 0. which is 0. a standard size in the U.0625 square inches or about 13. the congius was used in British medicine and pharmacology as a name for the British Imperial gallon (4. real estate. cone number a measure of temperature used by potters. and value 192 in the HSV system. The Roman congius was equal to about 3. when the cone bends all the way over the proper amount of heat has been delivered to the pottery being fired.826 45 ordinary acre (0. The colpa was originally a unit of livestock equal to one cow or horse or to 6 sheep. Although cones bend within narrow temperature ranges there is not a simple relationship between cone number and temperature. Technical tables are posted on the Internet by the Orton Ceramic Foundation. at 127. but it was roughly equal to the Irish acre (0. One cong equals 1000 square meters. "Collop" is an English version of the Irish word "colpa.2 liters (3. equal to exactly 36 000 square feet or about 0. Potters place these cones in the kiln and observe them through peepholes. although most consumers are not aware of the smaller size of the unit. or 1196. saturation 240.1 hectare. it was divided into 6 sextarii (sixths) which corresponded closely to modern pints.4 U. commercial acre a unit of area used in U.334 45 hectare). The value (or intensity) of the color is its brightness. cooling degree day (CDD) see degree day. cong a metric unit of area used in Vietnam. colp. Later it was used as a unit of pastureland equal to the pasturage supporting one colpa of livestock. coomb or coom .S. The pure or most natural form of the color has value in the middle of the scale.00 square yards. A column inch is an area one column wide and one inch deep. At this width a column inch is 2.31 square centimeters.8 British Imperial quarts).24177 acres. This page's background has hue 140. In the opposite direction. quarts or 2.6555 hectare).

5 fluid ounce per second. generally. for the cubit (see below). count (ct) [3] an informal unit of volume in bartending. a carton marked "oranges 24 ct" contains exactly 24 oranges. Thus "50 count" shrimp weigh an average of 1/50 pound each.5 fluid ounce (14. A 100 count fabric has 39. covado.1)-times-great-grandparent. one thousand two.. The coulomb is named for a French physicist. second cousins are persons sharing a common great-grandparent. respectively.241 506 x 1018 e.1)-times-great- grandparent of one cousin and an (n + r . The Portuguese covado is equal to 3 palmos (66 centimeters." First cousins are persons sharing a common grandparent. like most languages. The number of degrees of consanguinity between n-th cousins r times removed is 2n + r + 2. for n-th cousins r times removed. "one thousand one. count (ct) [2] a traditional unit measuring the texture of a fabric. This unit is used in commerce to specify that the quantity stated represents a reliable count. . The "removed" phrase is used when the number of generations in the descent from the common ancestor is not the same for both cousins: "r times removed" means the difference in the number of generations is r. cover a traditional Welsh unit of area.2698 hectare). Bartenders usually fit bottles with pourers designed to restrict the flow to 0. a typical designation is "second cousins. covido Portuguese and Arabic names." while pouring. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806). They can then measure a quantity of liquid by counting. is a whole-number multiple of the charge e on a single electron.12 inches). there are n + 1 generations in the descent from a common ancestor for one cousin. once removed. and one coulomb represents a charge of approximately 6. . Thus. and just about as accurate. count (ct) [4] a measure of size used in the U. cousins English. has a procedure for stating the precise relationship between persons of common descent. while the Arabic covido is about 48 centimeters or 19 inches. This is much faster than using a measuring glass. the grandparent of one cousin is also an r-times-great-grandparent of the other cousin. n-th cousins are persons sharing a common (n . and n + r + 1 generations for the other. the common ancestor is an (n .S. standardized in the British system to be exactly 2/3 acre (about 0. equal to the number of threads per inch. equal to 0.. and.8 milliliters). The word is an Anglicized version of the Welsh name cyfair for the unit. This means n-th cousins have n + 1 generations in each of their descents from the common ancestor. or 20.) For n-th cousins r times removed. for shrimp and similar items described by the number of items per pound.37 threads per centimeter. count (ct) [1] a unit of quantity equal to 1. For example. for n > 1. who was the first to measure accurately the forces exerted between electric charges.1)-times-great-grandparent of the other cousin. (In the case of first cousins r times removed.

which is the ability of an electric potential to charge a capacitor. .333 pounds. This unit was the Greek predecessor of the Roman digit (see below). devised by the French astronomer André Louis Danjon (1890-1967). The SI accepts the dalton as an alternate name for the unified atomic mass unit and specifies Da as its proper symbol. The results are approximate at best. A table of the official daily values for each nutrient is provided. and 24 in a pechys (cubit). the Greek foot. Food and Drug Administration establishes recommended daily amounts of various nutrients. daN symbol for the decanewton or dekanewton (see below under dekanewton). who requires a diet of 2000 Calories per day. expressed as a percentage of the daily value (%DV).231 pounds). The name of the unit is "farad" spelled backwards. There were 16 daktylos in the pous. which is exactly 50 kilograms (110. about 19 millimeters or 0. a common metric unit of mass. daily value (DV) a unit of nutrition used in the United States. see entry below). these measurements are typically in kilodaltons (kDa). It seems necessary to have such a unit. since "kilo-amu" would be such a clumsy name. During the European colonial era the unit was equal to 100 catties or 133.S. The daraf is equal to one volt of potential per coulomb of charge (V/C). dalton (Da or D) an alternate name for the unified atomic mass unit (u or amu). because the elastance.75 inch. a common metric unit of force. and other factors. sex. male or female. the darkness) of lunar eclipses. In modern China the dan is equal to 100 jin. see entry below). daktylos an ancient Greek unit of distance equal to a finger width. Danjon scale a scale measuring the brightness (or rather. The U. dal or daL symbol for the dekaliter (10 liters. The unit honors the English chemist John Dalton (1766-1844). a metric unit of distance. see entry below). a common metric unit of volume. symbol for the dekagram (10 grams. Food packages generally carry nutritional lables specifying the amount of each nutrient contained in a standard serving. A table is provided. since nutritional needs vary with age. The dan is the Chinese equivalent of the European quintal or hundredweight. The dalton is often used in microbiology and biochemistry to state the masses of large organic molecules. dam symbol for the dekameter (10 meters. dan a traditional Chinese weight unit. who proposed the atomic theory of matter in 1803. previously spelled tan in many English works. These so-called daily values are based on a hypothetical person. both "good" ones like vitamins and "bad" ones like fat and sodium. daraf a unit of electrical elastance.

which is roughly 0. Darcy (1803-1858).6 milliliter.9875 nautical miles. in traditional U. since the difference in natural logarithms is dimensionless. square meters are used. must be used as the separators in the representation (if separators are used at all. YYYYMMDD is also acceptable).8 meters.S. The international standard covers numeric representations only.02 fluid ounce or 0. Permeability is the extent to which a solid allows the flow of a fluid. roughly 1/8 teaspoon or a little less. data mile a unit of distance used in radar technology. military radar equipment is often calibrated in data miles. if the pressure difference between the two sides of the solid is one atmosphere. dash (ds) an informal unit of volume used in food and drink recipes. then the rate of evolution is (ln b . notation. Originally the dash was usually a liquid measure. since there is no SI unit of permeability. MM is the month (01 through 12) and DD the day number. (Technically.S. U. To avoid confusion in international communications. small but indefinite in amount.137 statute (ordinary) miles or 0. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted in 1986 an international standard (ISO 8601) for representation of dates and times. date dates of the year are described in many ways in different languages. This unit is not recognized as part of the SI. Kitchen supply stores in the U. It turns out that permeability has the same units as area. darwin a logarithmic unit measuring the rate of evolution in characteristics of organisms. 2001. using words. where YYYY is the year number. H. in darafs.S. not slashes. having a viscosity of one centipoise. Hyphens. this is equivalent to about 1. the English biologist who founded the theory of evolution. is 1 divided by the capacitance in farads. The unit is named for a French scientist.98692 x 10-12 square meter. More recently it has been used as both a liquid and dry measure. The unit is named for Charles Darwin (1809-1882). darcy a CGS unit of permeability. it doesn't prohibit traditional statements of the date. Thus 2001-04-05 is the representation for the date called April 5. in whatever the local style is. for example) changes from a to b in y million years. One darcy is equal to about 0. Thus "April 5. and other countries have begun selling sets of "minispoons" in which the dash spoon is designed to hold exactly 1/8 teaspoon. The ISO 8601 format for dates is YYYY-MM- DD. the darwin is a specialized name for the inverse megayear Ma-1). This flow depends on the properties of the solid and also on the dynamic viscosity of the fluid and the difference in pressure driving the flow. who did pioneering work in the study of permeability. 2001" remains perfectly . The data mile equals exactly 6000 ft or 1828.ln a)/y darwins. One darcy is the permeability of a solid through which one cubic centimeter of fluid. will flow in one second through a section one centimeter thick and one square centimeter in cross section. If the measurement of a characteristic (such as length.

exactly like the decibel except that before the measurement is made sounds of high and low frequencies. dB FS abbreviation for "decibels full scale. A digital measurement has a maximum value M depending on the number of bits used. The same formulas link dB m to milliwatts. the actual measurement a is compared to a fixed reference level r and the "decibel" value is defined to be 10 log10(a/r). The letters A and C refer to two filtering methods. which the reckoning reverts to "winter" or "standard" time has 25 hours. In each case. which is equivalent to a power of 1 picowatt (1 pW). Many units of this kind have been used and only a few of the more common ones are mentioned in the next entries. An increase of 10 dB m or 10 dB W represents a 10-fold increase in power. Since 1 watt = 1000 milliwatts. have been filtered out. meaning that the noise is 50 "decibels below carrier" or 10-5 times the carrier signal strength. dB A. For example. These units measure power in decibels above the reference level of 1 milliwatt in the case of dB m and 1 watt in the case of dB W. heard poorly or not at all by the human ear. which is the desired signal. The usual reference level is -90 dB m. Since p cannot exceed M. but the Audio Engineering Society recommends that a space be used (as in "dB A"). especially in measuring noise levels. Often the two symbols are not separated (as in "dBA"). dB spl . the dB FS value displayed is 20·log10(p/M) dB FS." a unit of power as measured by a digital device. dB m. Similar adjustments may occur if a locality switches from one time zone to a different zone.corresponds to a factor of 10. For example. If the actual power measurement is p. dB C units of sound intensity. dB - a symbol indicating that a measurement is made using a logarithmic scale similar to that of the decibel (see below) in that a difference of 10 dB." a unit measuring noise levels in telecommunications. dB rn a symbol for "decibels above reference noise. a power of p dB W equals 10(p/10) watts. In each case the dB symbol is followed by a second symbol identifying the specific measurement. an antenna rated 20 dB i transmits a signal in the desired direction 102 = 100 times stronger than an isotropic antenna. 0 dB W = 30 dB m. dB c a unit of signal strength used in electronics. A typical statement might be that a certain noise level is -50 dB c. The signals are measured relative to the strength of the carrier signal. dB W logarithmic units of power used in electronics. this reading is always negative. The reference level is the strength of the signal that would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna: one radiating equally in all directions. 50 dB rn equals -40 dB m. A power of n watts equals 10 log n dB W. dB i a unit measuring the gain of an antenna. conversely.

Since this is much too large for molecules. hail possible (Level 6. dB V a logarithmic unit of power. the voltage which generates a power of 1 milliwatt across a circuit having an impedance of 600 ohms. fuel. The scale is logarithmic. a logarithmic unit of sound intensity as computed from the sound pressure level. dB u a logarithmic unit of power.Heavy rain (Level 5. The deadweight tonnage of a ship is the difference between its weight when completely empty and its weight when fully loaded. and passengers. dB Z a unit of radar reflectivity used in meteorology. 30-38 dBZ) . The reference level is a pressure of 20 micropascals.775 volts. the debye is defined as an electric dipole moment of 10-18 statcoulomb centimeter or 3. >57 dBZ) . who was famous for his research on polar molecules. large hail possible The colorful "radar images" shown on television are actually plots of these levels. deca. Thus the appropriate unit of dipole moment in the SI would be the coulomb meter (C·m). For display purposes. more and more often it is being taken to equal the metric ton (exactly 1000 kilograms. Debye (1884-1966).775) dB u. The unit honors the Dutch physicist P. The unit measures the amount of energy returned to a weather radar site as a function of the amount transmitted. 18-30 dBZ) . or 2204. The reference level is 0. dB W see dB m above.Very heavy rain.623 pounds). dB Z values are grouped as follows: (Level 1.Moderate to heavy rain (Level 4. deadweight ton (dwt) a traditional unit of weight or mass used in the shipping industry.Light to moderate rain (Level 3. a difference of 10 dB Z indicating a 10-fold increase in energy returned.047 kilograms).(da-) . A charged molecule can be regarded as a tiny bar with opposite charges at the ends.Very heavy rain and hail. supplies. similar to dB m but computed from voltage measurements. The deadweight ton is traditionally equal to the British ("long") ton of 2240 pounds (1016. Such a bar is called a dipole. crew. If sound waves exert a pressure of P pascals.W. However. 38-44 dBZ) . A voltage of V volts corresponds to a power of 20·log10(V) dB V. and its dipole moment is the amount of the charge multiplied by half the length of the bar.J. A voltage of V volts corresponds to a power of 20·log10(V/0. This includes the weight of everything portable carried by the ship: the cargo. the sound intensity is 100 + 20·log10(P/2) dB spl. debye (D) a CGS unit of electric dipole moment used in chemistry and physics. 44-50 dBZ) . similar to dB m but computed from voltage measurements.33564 x 10-30 coulomb meter. The reference level is 1 volt.Light precipitation (Level 2. 50-57 dBZ) .

decile a statistical unit equal to 10 percentiles. or 1. 0 decibels.(above). in fact the louder sound is about ten times as intense as the fainter one.450 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi). our perception is not linear.1 bar or 10 kilopascals. and for sound power 0 decibels sometimes equals 1 picowatt. in which a needle is pushed into the concrete under specified conditions.1 millimeter (10-4 meter) or about 3. if one sound is 1 bel (10 decibels) "louder" than another. an old English unit of volume. sound is measured on logarithmic scales. Informally. a traditional English unit. One decibar equals 75. depending on exactly which aspect of sound is being measured. this corresponds approximately to the faintest sound that can be detected by a person who has good hearing.9370 inches. Although this unit is allowed by some standards agencies. The unit is used in civil engineering for stating the results of penetration tests of asphalt concrete. or 1/10 of a ranked sample. this means the louder sound is 10 times louder than the fainter one. The decimeter is very close to the hand. 3.10237 cubic inches. The deciliter is similar in size to the gill. and a thunderclap may have an intensity of 120 decibels. The decibar is often used to measure the pressure of seawater. A deciliter contains 6. decibel (dB) a customary logarithmic measure most commonly used (in various ways) for measuring sound. For sound intensity (the power of the sound waves per unit of area) 0 decibels is equal 1 picowatt per square meter.is not permitted in the SI.S. the use of compound prefixes such as decimilli. Furthermore. A difference of 20 decibels corresponds to an increase of 10 x 10 or 100 times in intensity. fluid ounces. The beginning of the scale. The human ear is capable of detecting an enormous range of sound intensities. For this reason. decimillimeter (dmm) a metric unit of distance equal to 0. A quiet room has a normal sound intensity of around 40 decibels. deciliter (dl or dL) a common metric unit of volume equal to 0. In all cases. For sound pressure (the pressure exerted by the sound waves) 0 decibels equals 20 micropascals (µPa) RMS. The word is pronounced with a soft "c": des-ile. Experiment shows that when humans perceive one sound to be twice as loud as another. decipascal second (dPa·s) .519 British fluid ounces. a metric unit of pressure equal to 0. See percentile.1 liter or 100 cubic centimeters. See also dB.937 mils. one decibel equals about 0.5432 grains. ten thousand times louder than the faintest perceptible sound. decimeter (dm) a fairly common metric unit of distance equal to 10 centimeters or 3. or 3. decigram (dg) a metric unit of mass equal to 100 milligrams or about 1. can be set in different ways.38140 U. because an increase of 1 decibar in pressure corresponds closely to an increase of 1 meter in depth.006 torr. a trillion times louder than the faintest sound.115 129 neper and d decibels equal d(ln 10)/20 nepers.

or 111.7 miles at the Equator to 69. and the French metric quintal.12 kilometers. The Clark degree is defined as 1 part of calcium carbonate per 70 000 parts of water. decitex (dtex) a common metric unit of yarn density equal to 0.S.S. This unit is becoming common in international trade.4 miles at the poles. this unit was introduced by the Greek geometer Hipparchus of Nicaea (ca.4623 pounds). Fanger in 1988.17 miles at the Equator (shrinking to nothing at the poles!). the unmodified unit "degree" generally means the degree Fahrenheit. 180-ca. In the U.O. the German doppelzentner (see below). or 0. properly . equal to 60 nautical miles. named for the scientist who devised the first reliable test for water hardness. especially calcium carbonate. in other countries. Because the Earth is not exactly spherical.1 mg/L.1 tex. One olf is defined as the indoor odor intensity produced by one "standard person". and one decipol is the perceived odor intensity level in a space having an odor source of strength one olf and ventilation at the rate of 10 liters/second with unpolluted air. or about 0. So far as we know. another popular measure of hardness). hardness is measured in Clark degrees. decitonne (dt or dtn) a metric unit of mass or weight equal to 100 kilograms (approximately 220. approximately 69. degree (° or deg) [4] a unit measuring the hardness of water.. several uses of "degree" for water hardness became well established. This unit was previously called the drex. This concentration can be expressed clearly in parts per million (ppm) or in milligrams per liter (mg/L). degree (° or deg) [1] the standard unit of angle measure. degree (° or deg) [3] any of the various units of temperature (see below). This distance is the average length of one degree of latitude (that is. Measurements are recorded by human observers using protocols laid out by Fanger and his colleagues. it means the degree Celsius.017 453 293 radian. 60 minutes.05 statute miles. a degree of latitude actually varies from about 68. and Britain. This rather clumsy SI unit is occasionally used because of its equivalence with the poise. 17. The French. who developed the first trigonometric tables.9 denier (see below). or 1 grain per gallon (gpg. degree (° or deg) [2] a unit of distance sometimes used at sea. this is about 14. 125 BC). it is the same as the Russian centner. the average distance between two lines of latitude 1° degree apart). a unit of dynamic viscosity equal to 0. Water is called "hard" if it contains a high concentration of mineral salts. 3600 seconds. In the U. decipol an empirical unit of indoor odor intensity introduced by the Danish environmental scientist P. equal to 1/360 circle.1 pascal second (Pa·s) or 1 poise. But starting in the mid-19th century.1 milligram per meter.3 parts per million (ppm). One degree of longitude is about 69. 0. an older unit not allowed in the SI.

especially specific gravity and viscosity. When railroad tracks follow an arc of a circle.8 ppm. degree (deg) [9] (degree of consanguinity) a unit measuring consanguinity: the extent to which two persons are related to one another by common descent ("by blood. degree (° or deg) [5] various scientific quantities. counting up from X to A and then back down from A to Y. For example. present in a mixture. the number of degrees of consanguinity between X and Y is the number of descents. because we have learned that persons separated by n degrees of consanguinity share about 1/2n-1 of their genes if they have two common ancestors or 1/2n if they have only one common ancestor. This unit is also called the degree Gay-Lussac (° GL) after the French chemist Joseph-Louis Gay- Lussac (1778-1850). and so on. The degree scales of Baumé (see below) and Beck. This calculation is backed by modern science. especially older ones. siblings (brother and sister) are separated by 2 degrees. used a degree equal to exactly 10 ppm. and the determining factor is often the number of degrees of consanguinity between the two persons. Some of this data can be found in scientific and engineering handbooks. degree (°) [8] the DIN speed rating for film. thus parent and child are separated by 1 degree. If persons X and Y are not linked by direct descent but do share a common ancestor A. In . In winemaking. a 13° wine is 13% alcohol by volume (13% v/v). aunt and nephew by 3 degrees. and many others. and the scales of Engler and MacMichael are common in the measurement of viscosity. Thus x2y4z3 is a term of degree 9. while the German degree was equivalent to 17. the usual definition is that the number of degrees of consanguinity between X and Y is the total number of descents. If the expression has more than one variable. degree (°) [10] a measure of curvature of railroad tracks or highways. Essentially all cultures. degree (° or deg) [6] the percentage of alcohol. If X is an ancestor of Y. Often these degree scales can't be converted in a simple way to the quantities being measured. have been measured in "degrees" based on the readings of particular instruments. have been used in measuring specific gravity. grandparent and grandchild by 2 degrees. used primarily in the U. societies. See also cousins. by volume. decimal as always. and first cousins by 4 degrees." as the usual saying is). then the degree is the highest total exponent of the individual terms. the angle of curvature is the angle (measured at the center of the circle) spanned by a chord of a standard length. degree (deg) [7] a unit used in mathematics to describe algebraic expressions. see DIN below. The degree of an expression having a single variable is the highest exponent (or power) to which that variable appears. where in each term the exponents of the different variables are added. one needs the conversion formula or table for the particular instrument.S. and nations have prohibited marriage between closely related individuals. for example.

131." of petroleum. below this tempeature heating is needed and above it cooling is needed. the angle of curvature is the angle (measured at the center of the circle) spanned by an arc 100 ft long. Two scales are used. it's agreed that 65 °F (18. If S is the specific gravity of the petroleum at temperature 60 °F (15. as read on a type of hydrometer invented by the French chemist Antoine Baumé (1728-1804).3 .01 °C. or one might say the "lightness. for heavier liquids the formula is d = 144. degree Brix (°Bx) see brix.) In the SI system. degree API (°API) a unit invented by the American Petroleum Institute (API) to measure the specific gravity. The number of degree days recorded on a given date is equal to the . so that 0 °C was the boiling point of water and 100 °C the freezing point. degree day (deg da) a unit used in meteorology and engineering to measure the demand for heating or cooling. Lighter oils are more valuable.3 / S) . degree Balling see degree Plato. the U.3.. so the API scale gives them higher readings than heavier oils.S.144. degree centigrade (°C) an older name for the degree Celsius. In the United States.(144. while the boiling point is 100 °C.3 / S). on high speed lines they are less than 2° (making the radius greater than 2865 feet or 873 meters). rail lines curvatures are less than 6° (making the radius greater than 955 feet or 291 meters). degree Baumé (°B or °Bé) a unit of relative density. About 1850 scientists began calling the unit "degree Celsius" in honor of its (presumed) inventor. chain of 100 feet (30.5 degrees. The freezing point of water (at one atmosphere of pressure) was originally defined to be 0 °C. depending on whether the liquid is lighter than water or heavier than water. the chord used is the U. who used a similar scale. degree Celsius (°C) a metric unit of temperature. the API degree rating is equal to (141. kelvin. and the size of the degree is 1/273. For practical purposes this is equivalent to the original definition. For highways in the U. See also degree Fahrenheit. the Celsius scale is defined so that the temperature of the triple point of water (the temperature at which water can exist simultaneously in the gaseous. Thus the Celsius degree is 1/100 of the difference between these two temperatures.16 of the difference between this temperature and absolute zero (the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases). The Celsius scale is called "centigrade" because it has 100 (centi-) gradations between the freezing point and boiling point of water.56 °C). The Celsius temperature scale is named for the Swedish astronomer and physicist Anders Celsius (1701-1744)..S.S. liquid.5/S) . the relative density d in degrees Baumé is related to specific gravity S by the formula d = (144. For lighter liquids.S.48 meters). below.3 °C) is the critical outside temperature. a chord of 20 meters is sometimes used. In the metric world. (The scale actually used by Celsius was inverted. and solid states) is exactly 0. On most U.

Eventually the scale was precisely defined by these two temperatures. The unit was defined by the German physicist Daniel G. the freezing point of water (at normal sea level atmospheric pressure) turned out to be about 32 °F and the boiling point about 212 °F. has been posted by pdlab.2. but in converting between scales we have to be careful to adjust the zero points as well. Fahrenheit set 0° at the coldest temperature he could conveniently achieve using an ice and salt mixture. degree Fahrenheit (°F) a traditional unit of temperature still used customarily in the United States. Fahrenheit (1686-1736).65) - 1. degree Dornic (°D) a measure of the acidity of milk. degree EBC (°EBC) a unit used in Europe to measure the color of beer. for the exact conversion see below under degree Oeschle. or yellow) and 25 (a very dark brown). EBC degrees are related to the Lovibond degrees used in the U.com. EBC is an abbreviation for European Brewing Convention. Normal values are around 15. the unfermented liquor from which wine is made. temperatures on the absolute temperature scale are stated in kelvins. normal oral temperature for humans is between 98 °F and 99 °F. 1°F equals 5/9 °C. we must first subtract 32° and then multiply by 5/9. The scale is open-ended. cooling degree days (CDD) are recorded. to convert a temperature in °C to the Fahrenheit scale. degree KMW (°KMW) a unit used in Austria to measure the sugar content of must. To convert a temperature in °F to the Celsius scale.) On this scale. degree Lovibond (°L) a unit used in the U. KMW is an abbreviation for Klosterneuburger Mostwaage (Klosterneuburg Must Scale). In the International System. (see below) by the approximate formula °EBC = (°L * 2. A good description of the scale. with comments on other units in use. who also invented the mercury thermometer.S. to measure the color (really the darkness) of beer and honey. The total number of heating or cooling degree days recorded in any period of time measures rather accurately the demand during that time for fuel used in heating and cooling buildings. degree Kelvin (°K) an obsolete name for the kelvin. not in degrees Kelvin. degree MacMichael (°McM) . if it is below 65.01% lactic acid in the milk. In the other direction. difference between 65 and the mean temperature for that date (figured as the average of the highest and lowest temperatures). heating degree days (HDD) are recorded. (He was off a little there. If the mean temperature is above 65. degree Gay-Lussac (°GL) see degree [6] above. but most readings fall between 1 (a very light gold. we must first multiply by 9/5 and then add 32°. Each degree Dornic is equivalent to 0. One degree KMW is roughly equivalent to 1% sugar by weight or 5° Oe.S. and it is said he intended to set 96° as the temperature of the human body.

In Europe. 1 °Rankine represents the same temperature difference as 1 °Fahrenheit. 20 °Q milk has specific density 1. Therefore. but the interval between the freezing and boiling temperatures of water equals 80 °r instead of 100 °C. It is similar to the Celsius scale in having its zero point at the freezing temperature of water. degree Therner (°Th) a measure of the acidity of milk. degree Soxhlet-Henkel (°SH) a measure of the acidity of milk. degree Rankine (°R) a traditional unit of absolute temperature. so. A MacMichael viscometer is used to make the measurement.020. One degree Oechsle (or Öchsle) is roughly equivalent to 0. beer is often taxed either by the degree Plato or by the actual alcohol content. see above) is equivalent to 2.0225% lactic acid in the milk.001. Normal values are around 7. The unit is named for the British physicist and engineer William Rankine (1820-1872). degree Oechsle (°Oe) a unit used in Germany and Switzerland to measure the sugar content of must. This means the Rankine temperature is 459. Normal values are around 17. the unit standardizes the measurement to the sucrose equivalent. degree Réaumur (°r) a unit of temperature formerly used in continental Europe. or thickness.2% sugar by weight. that is. This unit is related legally to °KMW by the formula °Oe = °KMW * ([. The reading is made with a device called a saccharometer. Not all the sugar in a wort is sucrose. but the zero point of the scale is set at absolute zero. Each degree Soxhlet-Henkel is equivalent to 0. degree Quevenne (°Q) a unit measuring the density of milk. 1 degree Plato is legally equivalent to 0. for example.5 degrees Plato. 1 °Rankine is equal to exactly 5/9 kelvin.25 °C or 2. one degree Plato represents a sugar content equivalent to 1% sucrose by weight. There is no precise conversion between these quantities. 1 °Quevenne represents a difference in specific gravity of 0. of chocolate.4% alcohol. The degree Balling is a somewhat older unit equivalent (approximately) to the degree Plato. a unit used to measure the viscosity. but for tax purposes it is often assumed that 1% alcohol (1 degree [6].54). the unfermented liquour from which wine is made.67° plus the Fahrenheit temperature. especially of the wort. the unfermented liquour from which beer is made.022 * °KMW] + 4. 1 °r equals 1. Named for a German chemist. Each degree Therner is equivalent to 0. Typical values range from around 60 °McM (very thin chocolates suitable for pouring into molds) to around 190 °McM (very thick chocolates suitable for hand dipping or forming around a center). degree Twaddle (°Tw) . The Réaumur temperature scale is named for the French scientist René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683-1757).009% lactic acid in the milk.25 °F. degree Plato (°P) a unit measuring sugar content.

for deka.is also used in French and in other languages where "k" rarely occurs in the middle of a word.005 or 1/200. 1 million Btu.099 85 British pecks). since it is nearly equal to those units.is also used (see deca-. the dekagram is frequently used in European food recipes. and the Vietnamese cong. or 0.is incorrect. 1195. This unit is used in the energy industry as a synonym for the million-Btu (MM Btu). where one dekan equals 1/3 sign. 1. deca. The dekanewton is equal to 1 megadyne. Regardless of spelling.S.99 square yards. da. demal (D) .S. above). National Institute for Standards and Technology recommends deka-. (The symbol dk. The Latin spelling deca. the Greek stremma.247 105 acres. 1000 square meters or 0.) dekagram or decagram (dag) a common metric unit of mass. Various traditional units of land area have been identified with the dekare. In engineering. to 2. The dekaliter is equal to about 2. deka.91 square feet. dekare or decare a metric unit of area equal to 10 ares.135 10 U.8084 feet). to 1.019 716 kilograms of force (kgf) or kiloponds (kp). One dekagram is equal to 10 grams.S.01 kilogram. For milk. Although the U. or 0. taken directly from the Greek word for ten.1 hectare. that is. or about 1. a unit measuring the specific gravity of liquids denser than water. 1 °Twaddle represents a difference in specific gravity of 0. dekanewton or decanewton (daN) a fairly common metric unit of force equal to 10 newtons. dekan a unit of angle measure equal to 10° or 1/36 circle.is the official symbol.1) °Tw. The spelling deca. dekameter or decameter (dam) a common metric unit of distance equal to 10 meters (about 32. and to 72. The symbol dkg sometimes used for this unit is incorrect. dekaliter or decaliter (daL or dal) a metric unit of volume equal to 10 liters and comparable to the English peck. including the Middle Eastern dunum (see below). the Norwegian mål.352 739 66 ounce.3301 poundals. 0.248 09 pounds of force (lbf). 1 °Twaddle equals 5 °Quevenne (see above). deka. or 2. dekatherm or decatherm (DTH) a unit of energy equal to 10 therms. which the Greeks called dekans. but it is seen fairly often.(da-) a metric prefix meaning 10. The unit is still used occasionally in astrology.is seen frequently in American publications.199 69 British imperial gallons (1. so a liquid of specific gravity S is measured at 200(S . The ancient Egyptians divided the circle of the Zodiac into 36 divisions. the dekanewton is a convenient substitute for the kilogram of force or kilopond. The symbol dkL sometimes used for this unit is incorrect. pecks. liquid gallons. the dekare equals approximately 10 763.641 72 U.055 057 gigajoules (GJ). The symbol dkm sometimes used for this unit is incorrect. In English units.

equal to 1/20 kattha or 1/400 bigha. dicker a traditional unit of quantity equal to 10. The word digit is from the Latin word for a finger or toe.768 centimeters).043. such as "120-power eyepiece" or "7-power binoculars. and the ordinary space we live in has 3 dimensions.. dieb." dhur a traditional unit of land area in South Asia. the dhur equals about 16. the dhur varied in size from region to another. Like the bigha. The . Typically. digit a historic unit of distance equal to the width of a person's finger. digitus. But the notation is now being used after the exponent in expressions such as -. the digit was equal to 0. dialog unit (dlu) a unit of relative distance used in computer graphics. diameter (dia) a unit of magnification equivalent to power. in a distance of 8 feet. Actually there are two units: the horizontal dialog unit equals 1/4 the average width of the font being used. abbreviations for the Latin diebus alternis.75 inch or 19 millimeters with only the smallest variations. alt. After centuries of use. This is potentially useful to carpenters if they wish to place 5 studs.2 inches or 48. "Power" tends to be used in adjective phrases. making the dex identical to the bel. and the vertical dialog unit equals 1/8 the average height of the font.9 square meters or 20. the dicker has nearly disappeared from the English language. these two units will be the same. Traditionally. every third day.2 square yards. a space has as many dimensions as there are mutually perpendicular directions at each point in the space: thus a line has 1 dimensions. Originally. floor joists. see point [2].S. decem. Didot point a unit of distance used in typography. where the unit is still in use. every other day. there were 4 digits in a palm." diamond a mysterious marking on many tape measures in the U. such as. In Nepal. Thus 1 dex equals a factor of 10. This is often the case. The diamonds mark a distance unit equal to exactly 8/5 feet (19. dimension (dim) a mathematical unit measuring the number of independent directions in a set or space. The name "dex" is a contraction of "decimal exponent. dex was a convenient function defined by dex (x) = 10x. units of frequency sometimes used in medical prescriptions. tert.043 dex." "Diameters" often appear in declarative statements of magnification. especially by traders in furs and skins. meaning 10-. If the font's aspect ratio (the ratio of height to width) is 2:1. a plane has 2 dimensions. "the eyepiece lens magnifies 120 diameters. etc.. and diebus tertius.dex a logarithmic unit being used in astronomy. The word is an English version of the Latin word for ten. dieb. and 24 (sometimes 28) in a cubit. 16 in a foot. Used in all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East and Mediterranean. The unit is used particularly in the design of dialog boxes.

and higher dimensional spaces are frequently used in science and economics.B. The Dobson unit equals 10-5 atmo- meter.) The shorter the focal length. equals 1 divided by the focal length of the lens. but this falls to 100 Dobson units or less in the "ozone holes" over the Earth's poles. (Diverging lenses. In addition. DIN 27 film (ASA 400) is twice as fast as DIN 24. The lower case Greek letter delta is also used as a symbol for the diopter. diraa a traditional Egyptian unit of distance equal to about 58 centimeters (22. set standards for pipes and fittings based on DN ratings. A difference of 3 in the DIN rating corresponds to a doubling of the film speed. Outside the U. etc. theory of relativity is set in a "space-time" having 4 dimensions.S. diopter (dpt or D) a metric unit used in optics to measure the refractive power of a lens. and marked with ISO (the initials of the International Organization for Standardization).8 inches). and strength of each component. sometimes seen in combinations such as dkg for the dekagram or dkm for the dekameter. dog watch . the German standards agency. The unit is often spelled dioptre outside the United States. have a negative focal length. One Dobson unit represents the amount of atmospheric ozone that would form a uniform layer 0. composition. DN a symbol for "nominal diameter. in meters. Each converging lens has a focal length. dk- an incorrect symbol for the metric prefix deka. See also prism diopter. Nominal diameter is essentially the inside diameter of the piping in millimeters. Dobson. film was generally marked with a DIN speed rating such as DIN 24 (corresponding to ASA 200). The correct symbol is da-. The unit is named for the British physicist G. defined to be the distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the lens focuses light. The refractive power of the lens. with a degree symbol on the DIN number. fittings.01 millimeter (10 micrometers) thick at standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atmosphere or 1013. Industrial standards organizations. these standards specify in detail the size. in diopters." a size measure for piping. The ASA and DIN ratings are now combined. Under normal conditions. the atmosphere contains about 300 Dobson units of ozone. valves.(10). mathematicians have developed several methods for assigning fractional dimensions to certain complex sets. the greater the refractive power of the lens. Thus DIN 27 film is now marked ISO 400/27°. djerib see jerib.25 millibars). in 1920 he invented a spectrometer to measure ozone concentrations from the ground. that is. such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).M. Dobson unit (DU) a unit used in geophysics to measure the ozone in the atmosphere. which can be used to convert focused light to parallel rays.. DIN the initials of Deutsches Institut für Normung. so 1 diopter = 1 m-1.

has a length of 346. einstein. Einstein unit (E) a unit of light energy concentration sometimes used in physical chemistry. 1 EER is a number (the ratio between two measurements of power) equal to 0. effective dose (ED) a measure used in pharmacology to express the percentage of a population that receives the desired benefit from a dose of the substance being studied. Technically. and sun all lie very close to this line. However.602 178 x 10-21 coulomb meter (C·m). Then one einstein is equal to (3. 1 ecm = 1. moon. Typical values are in the range 8-12. a unit of telecommunications traffic density equal to 2 call minutes (120 call- seconds) per hour.119 627)/l joules per mole (J/mol). The measurement is usually given as a subscript. See also COP and energy factor (EF. the line of nodes rotates slowly.293 071. The ecm is the product of the charge e on an electron and a distance of 1 centimeter (cm)." eclipse year a unit of time used in astronomy in the prediction of eclipses. Suppose a beam of light (in vacuum) has frequency v (in hertz) and wavelength l (in meters). The measurement is traditionally stated in square feet. For example. ecm a unit of electric dipole moment used in physics. representing the area of the radiator surface. eighth means 1/8. below). or 1/30 erlang (see below). The plane of the moon's orbit around the earth and the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun intersect in a line called the line of nodes. EBHC stands for "equated busy- hour call.62 days. One einstein (or Einstein unit) is the energy per mole of photons carried by a beam of monochromatic light. a unit used in the design of hot water heating systems. Eclipses of the sun or moon can only occur at times when the earth. so comparable appearances of the sun on the line do not fall exactly a year apart. In SI units. in meteorology the eighth is the unit for measuring the proportion of the sky covered by clouds. EER an abbreviation for energy efficiency rating. but it is actually interpreted as a unit of power. The actual interval between these crossings. The unit is named for the physicist .with 1 EDR ft2 equal to 240 Btu per hour. the ED50 dose is the amount of the substance that benefits 50% of the test population.990 313 x 10- 10 )v or (0. measure of the efficiency of an air conditioner.S. of course. a U. EF a symbol for energy factor (see below) or for the enhanced Fujita scale for tornado intensity. See okta. The moment of an electric dipole is the product of an electric charge and the distance by which the charge is displaced from the center of charge. the eclipse year. The EER is computed as the cooling capacity of the unit (in Btu per hour) divided by the electric power consumed (in watts) at a temperature of 95 °F (35 °C) and under specified test conditions. EDR (sq ft) an abbreviation for Equivalent Direct Radiation.

to allow for any irregular cutting at the ends of the piece. and in Scotland the ell was equal to 37 Scots inches or 37. 45 inches. This reflects a practice of cloth merchants of holding the cloth at the shoulder with one hand and pulling the piece through with the opposite hand. This cloth ell was used with a similar length in France. which originally meant the elbow and is now the name of the bone on the outside of the forearm. the Russian sadzhen. The history of the unit is not clear. In the English system. An electron has a mass of about 9.2 English inches (94. or 0.25 yards (exactly 1. Albert Einstein (1879-1955). below. Some authorities believe the ell was originally a double forearm length. with ulna being used for both. 2 cubits or 36 inches. E = mc2. they may represent "arm's-length" units like the Italian braccio. only slightly longer than the yard. el the Dutch ell. a traditional unit of length equal to about 68-70 centimeters (roughly 27 inches). the same length as a yard.221 foot pounds per second). or 1. where it was called the aune.782 662 x 10-33 gram. equal to exactly 746 watts (550. (This Scottish length might also reflect an old practice of cloth merchants in giving an extra inch with each yard. electronvolt (eV) [1] a unit of work or energy used in physics.109 382 x 10-31 kilogram.79 x 106 m/sec. electric horsepower a unit of power. the currently accepted value (1998) is 160. One electronvolt is the work required to move an electron through a potential difference of one volt.510 9989 million electronvolts (MeV. electron (me) the mass of the electron. often used as a unit of mass in particle physics.143 meters). that is.109 382 x 10-28 gram. This is such a small unit that most particle masses are measured in MeV or GeV. The word comes from the Latin ulna. 9. Mass and energy are related by Einstein's famous equation. electronvolt (eV) [2] a unit of mass used in particle physics. The Dutch el and German elle are a little more than half the English ell. used in the electric industry. See the discussion of the ell. or 1. or about 1. This is slightly larger than the ordinary or mechanical horsepower of exactly 550 foot pounds per second. An energy of 1 electronvolt is therefore equivalent to a mass of about 1. one ell equals 20 nails. elle . The size of the electronvolt must be determined experimentally. This unit is accepted for use with SI units. The official spelling is electronvolt (one word) rather than electron volt. 299.) However.5 centimeters).602 176 462 x 10-12 erg. The constant c is the speed of light.073 544 x 10-9 atomic mass unit. and the Turkish pik. ell a traditional unit of length used primarily for measuring cloth. see next two entries).217 646 2 x 10-21 joule. the English cloth ell is definitely longer than the yard. it seems to be the distance from the shoulder to the fingers of the opposite hand. The ell and the yard do seem to be identified in some medieval documents. who explained how light carries energy in a famous 1905 paper.

energy factor (EF) a measure of the energy efficiency of an appliance. Although the German word Elle is often translated "yard" in English. em a printer's unit of relative distance.S. equal to 1/2 em. encablure a traditional French unit of distance corresponding to the English cable. For clothes dryers. In SI units. Engler degree a unit of kinematic viscosity given by readings on an Engler viscometer.256 637 mT) as a unit of magnetic polarization or excess magnetic induction.5 fuss. then one em is 12 points. One em is the height of the type size (in points) being used. but it was always shorter than the English ell or French aune.68 inches (77. enhanced Fujita scale (EF) . If 12 point type is being set. Most navies. which would be close to 24 inches or 60 centimeters. The reading is the time (in seconds) required for 200 milliliters of the liquid being tested to flow through the device. In the U. one emu/cm3 can be interpreted either as 4pi/10 milliteslas (1. about 2. In Vienna. a traditional unit of distance in German speaking countries. it is the number of pounds of clothes dried per kilowatt hour of power consumed.6 centistokes. For clothes washers.001 A·m2. then one en is 6 points. If 12 point type is being set.256 637 x 10-5 Oe). en a printer's unit of relative distance. and so on. this is not a very good equivalent. and so on. In the south. See point [2]. In SI units. or as 1000 amperes per meter as a unit of magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. A typical value in northern Germany was exactly 2 fuss (German feet).93 centimeters)." See ab-. the Department of Energy has defined energy factors for a variety of appliances. this is about 194. emu/cm3 or emu/cc a CGS unit of magnetization. including the French. The conversion of Engler degrees to absolute units requires an appropriate table. the elle was eventually standardized at 30. in French this metric unit is sometimes called the encablure nouvelle (new cable).88 meters or 639. engineer's chain see chain.37 English feet.. one emu equals 0. The elle varied considerably. The encablure was equal to 120 brasses or 600 pieds. but for liquids having a viscosity of 100 centistokes or more the Engler degree is roughly equal to 7. it is the capacity of the washer in cubic feet divided by the number of kilowatt hours of power input per washing cycle. For dishwashers. emu [2] a CGS unit of magnetic dipole moment equal to 4pi micro-oersteds (1. the elle was usually longer. emu [1] an abbreviation for "electromagnetic unit. the energy factor is the number of cycles per kilowatt hour of power input. now use a metric cable equal to exactly 200 meters.

All possible alignments of the sun and moon occur in this 19-year cycle. In an epoch system. erg . Eotvos unit (E) a unit used in geophysics to measure the change in the acceleration of gravity with horizontal distance. National Weather Service in 2007. the Eotvos unit equals 10-9 per second squared (s-2).4239 cubic feet. epoch [2] a unit of time equal to 19 years. Thus. This is equivalent to about 1. which are proteins produced by living cells to cause or facilitate necessary chemical reactions within the cell. used in the Bible. In this use. The name comes from a Greek word epoche meaning a stopping point or fixed point. a unit of time equal to 1 billion years. Other epoch conventions were used in the past. coined from the Greek word for nine. the International Astronomical Union agreed that epoch times should be fixed by requiring that epoch 2000. One enzyme unit is the quantity of enzyme needed to cause a reaction to process 1 micromole of substance per minute under specified conditions. an epoch is another name for a Metonic cycle.667 nanokatals (nkt). The ephah is believed to equal about 40.0 equals 12 hours Universal Time of the day 2000 January 1. enzyme unit (U or EU) a unit used by biochemists to measure the activity of enzymes. 1 Eq of a substance is effectively equal to one mole divided by the valence of the substance (the number of electrons the substance would engage in participating in the reaction). so tidal heights and other tidal phenomena are averaged over this period. The unit honors the Hungarian physicist Roland von Eötvös (1848-1919). ennea. One Eotvos unit equals 10-9 Gal per centimeter or 10-4 Gal per kilometer.S. one enzyme unit has a catalytic activity of 1/60 microkatal (µkt) or 16. compound.32 liters or 1. implemented by the U. Since one gram of hydrogen is very nearly equal to one mole and since hydrogen has one electron free to react with other substances. epoch [1] a measure of time used in astronomy.144 U. this is a large unit and measurements are more likely to be in milliequivalents (mEq or meq). One equivalent weight of an element. bushel. To set a starting point for the system. In 1984. equivalent or equivalent weight (Eq) a unit of relative amount of substance used in chemistry. ephah a ancient unit of volume for grains and dry commodities. the revised Fujita scale for estimating the strength of tornados. In proper SI terms. See also Julian epoch. In practice. eon alternate spelling for aeon. or ion is the weight in grams of that substance which would react with or replace one gram of hydrogen.5). used in predictions of the tides. a specific epoch time must be fixed as a particular clock time of a particular date. times are specified as years and fractions of years (such as epoch 1998.S. ennead a unit of quantity equal to 9.

5638 cubic meter). called containers. On the standard 12-tone scale. fibrin unit (FU) a unit of potency for nattokinase. Ultraviolet radiation of the standard wavelength 296. One FEU equals roughly 25 register tons (see ton [3]) or 72 cubic meters. fillette a half bottle of champagne (375 milliliters). finger [2] a name for the digit. a unit of distance equal to 3/4 inch (19.5 inches (11. the perfect fifth is very closely approximated as 7 half steps. which is the same as 1/5 gallon. especially for container ships.43 centimeters).4983. firkin (fir) [1] . and (usually) a little over 8 feet high. a unit of cargo capacity. This unit is used to express the purity of alloys of gold or other precious metals. The unit honors the Danish physician Niels Finsen (1860-1904). unit of liquid volume equal to 4/5 quart. FEU is an abbreviation for "forty-foot equivalent unit.S. 8 feet wide. Two notes differ by a fifth if the higher note has frequency exactly 3/2 times the frequency of the lower one. the finger survived as an informal measure. fifth [2] a unit used in music to describe the ratio in frequency between notes. finger [1] a traditional unit of distance equal to 2 nails or 4. from the tip to the joint where the finger is attached to the hand. After the 12- inch English foot became established. field box a unit of volume in the U. The fifth contains exactly 46. Finsen unit (FU) a unit formerly used in medicine to measure the intensity of the ultraviolet light used in various medical treatments.084 milliliters. an enzyme that reduces the viscosity of blood and reduces its tendency to clot.2 cubic inches. equal to 10 boxes or 16 bushels (0. fineness (fine) a unit of proportion equal to 1/1000. corresponding to a frequency ratio of 27/12 = 1. The finger- width was a common unit of measurement in Anglo-Saxon England. that can be transferred easily to trains or trucks. fifth [1] a traditional U. A statement that a gold bar is "999 fine" means that the bar contains at most 0.05 mm). The unit is defined in terms of a specific test of a preparation's ability to dissolve fibrin. The enzyme was discovered in natto. This unit represents the length of the middle finger. or about 757.S. a traditional cheese-like Japanese food made from a fermented soybean mash. This unit is an American version of the traditional bottle. the protein found in clots. These ships carry cargo in standard metal boxes.7 nanometers has intensity 1 Finsen unit if its energy density is 105 watts per square meter. who received the Nobel prize for medicine in 1903 for his research on the use of light in the treatment of various diseases. there is no standard equivalence to millograms." One FEU represents the cargo capacity of a standard container 40 feet long.1% other metals. See also per mill. citrus fruit industry.

so an f/8 setting requires a four times ((8/4)2) longer exposure than an f/4 setting. fpm a common abbreviation for foot per minute (ft/min). the perfect fourth is very closely approximated as 5 half steps. another name for the revenue ton. which may be reduced or "stopped down" for the exposure) expressed as a fraction of the focal length of the lens (the distance from the lens to the point where light is focused). freight ton originally a unit of volume equal to 40 cubic feet. Because of this connection with exposure times. corresponding to a frequency ratio of 25/12 = 1. An electrostatic charge of one franklin exerts a force of one dyne on an equal charge at a distance of one centimeter.68 kilograms). Thus "f/4" indicates that the aperture is 1/4 the focal length. and the version still being used in the nineteenth century was equal to 19. a frail could equal anywhere from 32 to 75 pounds (15-34 kilograms). one of the leaders of the American Revolution. More recently. a traditional unit of flow. who was also an early investigator of electricity. fiber optic bundles. have been equivalent to 2160 avoirdupois pounds.123 mils). which is often called the French scale. see ton [5]. for example "f/4" or "f4. the f ratio is often said to express the "speed" of a lens. In medieval England the fotmal was equal to 70 "mercantile" pounds. a traditional unit of flow (see above). The f ratio.5 hundredweight or 2184 pounds. frail a kind of basket. franklin (Fr) a CGS unit of electric charge equal to 3. Two notes differ by a fourth if the higher note has frequency exactly 4/3 times the frequency of the lower one. In cameras the f ratio is proportional to the square root of the exposure time. On the standard 12-tone scale. In the nineteenth century a frail of raisins was often taken to equal 50 pounds (22. fourth a unit used in music to describe the ratio in frequency between notes. sometimes used as a commercial unit of weight for fruit. which is equivalent to 72 avoirdupois pounds. The unit honors Benjamin Franklin (1706- 1790).3348." is the aperture of the lens (the effective diameter of the lens. French (Fg or Ch) a unit of distance used for measuring the diameters of small tubes such as catheters. fps a common abbreviation for foot per second (ft/s or ft/sec). a unit used in video processing. Depending on the item.3356 x 10-10 coulombs or 1 statcoulomb. One French is equal to 1/3 millimeter (about 13. The name and the symbol Ch refer to the Charrière gauge scale. or for frames per second. f ratio or f number or f stop (f/ or f) a measure of the light-gathering power of the lenses in cameras and telescopes. fotmal a traditional English unit of weight for lead. etc. frigorie .

fuder a traditional German unit of liquid volume. In the U. funt a traditional Russian unit of weight or mass corresponding the German pfund (which is pronounced "funt"). f stop see f ratio. so a 200-meter dash covers a distance very close to a furlong.11 hectoliters (478. from the Old English fuhrlang. gallons).42 U. The name was coined from the calorie by replacing the Latin calor.9028 pound avoirdupois or 409. One furlong is exactly 201. FTE abbreviation for "full time equivalent.S. In 2007. fsw symbol for "feet of seawater. Saxon farmers in England were measuring distance in rods and furlongs and areas in acres.S. such as a month (170 hours) or a year (2080 hours). the designations in the new scale are EF0 to EF5. Fujita scale (EF) an empirical scale for estimating the wind speed of a tornado from the damage it causes. the traditional fuder was equal to 18. furlong (fur) a traditional unit of distance." a conventional unit of pressure.9683 Btu per hour). 660 feet.5 grams. The funt is equal to about 0. A furlong equals 40 rods.52 U. National Weather Service began using a revised version called the EF (Enhanced Fujita) scale. means "the length of a furrow". the fuder (or foudre) is a metric unit equal to 30 hectoliters (792. A "fuder" is a cartload. 1 fsw = 0. the FTE is generally equal to 40 hours per week. equal to 1 (kilogram) Calorie per hour (4. The plural is funte..S.1868 kilojoules per hour. gallons). for heat. In the Mosel wine region of Germany. The scale. The symbol FTE is also used for the amount of work performed at this rate over a set period of time.3048 meter of seawater (msw). fuß or fuss ." a unit of the rate of work equivalent to that performed by a employee who holds a regular appointment. ranged from F0 to F5. The word "furlong". gallons). above. full step see step [2]. with frigor. The length of horse races is often stated in furlongs. which is exactly 10 chains. 220 yards. or 3. a unit of refrigeration formerly used in Europe. twice the size of the German unit. Long before the Norman Conquest in 1066. or 1/8 mile. In Austria. gallons). In most of the German states the traditional fuder held about 9 hectoliters (roughly 238 U.S.17 U.S. the U. In Belgium today. for cold. as developed by the American meteorologists Theodore Fujita and Allen Pearson.168 meters.S. or 264. it represents the distance a team of oxen could plow without needing a rest. making the fuder about the same size as the British tun or the French wine tonneau. a fuder is now a metric unit equal to 10 hectoliters (1 cubic meter.

galileo (Gal or gal) the CGS unit of acceleration. gallon (gal) [2] a historic British unit of dry volume still used implicitly in the U.. where the gallon is defined as the volume of 8 pounds of wheat.4% larger than the wine gallon. gallon of water weighs about 8. who proved that all objects at the Earth's surface experience the same gravitational acceleration. Grain gallons have tended to be larger than liquid gallons throughout the history of British units.404 884 liters. which originated in medieval times but was not standardized until 1707. who make careful measurements of local variations in the acceleration of gravity in order to draw conclusions about the geologic structures underlying an area. about 10-6 g. galactic year the unit of time in which the Solar System makes one revolution around the Milky Way galaxy. The U. gallon (gal) [1] a traditional unit of liquid volume. the symbol for this unit should be Gal rather than gal. The a stands for the Latin annus. gallon holds 4 liquid quarts or exactly 3. In the U.S.S. so a milligal is a very small acceleration. One Gal is approximately 0.621 liters). which held 282 cubic inches (4. or 4 dry quarts. Ga symbol for one billion (109) years.5 pounds of wheat. a U. To avoid confusion with the symbol for the gallon. This unit is the English corn or grain gallon. "gallon" contains about 7. American colonists were also familiar with the Elizabethan beer and ale gallon. The name of the unit honors the Italian astronomer and natural philosopher Galileo Galilei (1564- 1642). The earliest official definition of a dry gallon in Britain is a 1303 proclamation of Edward I. informal abbreviation in computer science for 230 = 1 073 741 824. One galileo is an acceleration of 1 centimeter per second per second (cm/s2). and to conform to the usual metric style.785 411 784 liters. standardized during the reign of Elizabeth I in the sixteenth century. during the reign of Queen Anne.001 019 7 g. The galactic year is estimated to be about 225 million ordinary years. This unit is used by geologists. Some scholars believe the wine gallon was originally designed to hold 8 troy pounds of wine. and the traditional corn gallon is in fact 16. A container in which grain has been heaped above the top will hold as much as 25% more grain. In the United States. the liquid gallon is legally defined as exactly 231 cubic inches. apparently because they were based on heaped rather than "struck" (leveled) containers. or 268.S. but if it were it would be equal to 1/2 peck. These variations are typically measured in milligals (mGal). the current U. year. S. the term "gallon" is not used in dry measure. derived from the Roman galeta.S.8025 cubic inches. or approximately 4.33 pounds. gage alternate spelling for gauge (see below). which originally meant a pailful. Gallons of various sizes have been used in Europe ever since Roman times. this is equal to the old English wine gallon. See also giga- [2]. The age of the Solar System is about 20 galactic years. .

officially renamed the oersted in 1930. an enzyme used as a digestive aid and for reduction of pain and inflammation.) Values range from about 25 gear inches for the low gears on mountain bikes to more than 100 gear inches for the highest gears on racing bikes.254 micrometer). system larger gauge numbers indicate thinner strings. The unit is named for the German mathematician and astronomer Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). a force of 0. gear inch a traditional unit for measuring the gears of bicycles. . one gauss equals 10-4 tesla. because different preparations of the enzyme differ in activity. gauss (G or Gs) [2] a former name for the CGS unit of magnetic field strength. In SI units. A table is provided. GDU a symbol for gelatin digesting unit. in high gears the pedals are harder to turn but don't have to be turned fast to achieve high speed. used for measuring dosage of bromelain. The gear value is computed in gear inches as the diameter of the drive wheel times the size of the front sprocket divided by the size of the rear sprocket. In low gears. A table of wire gauge equivalents is provided. gauss (G or Gs) [3] the CGS unit of magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.1 dyne per ampere of current per centimeter of conductor.416 millimeters) and each increase of 1 in the gauge number corresponds to a reduction of about 10% in the thickness. more commonly written emu/cm3 or emu/cc. One gauss represents a magnetic flux of one maxwell per square centimeter of cross-section perpendicular to the field. gauss (G or Gs) [1] the CGS unit of magnetic flux density. A field of one gauss exerts. For this purpose 1 gauge equals 0.8 millimeters.01 mil [1] or 10-5 inch (0. Larger gauge numbers represent thinner metal: 10 gauge represents a thickness of 0. There are two systems in use. In this use the gauss equals 1000 amperes per meter in SI units. thus a metric 8 gauge wire has diameter 0. in millimeters.5 MCU. This gives the same result. 1 GDU equals approximately 1. on a current- carrying conductor placed in the field. gauge (ga) [6] a traditional unit measuring the thickness of tennis racquet strings. gauge (ga) [4] a traditional unit measuring the thickness of sheet metal. This unit cannot be converted to a weight unit. A table is provided. all measurements being in inches. the pedals are easy to turn but have to be turned very fast to achieve any speed. (This is the same as the diameter of the drive wheel times the number of gear teeth on the front sprocket divided by the number of teeth on the rear sprocket.S. gauge (ga) [5] a traditional unit measuring the thickness of plastic film. Bromelain is also measured in milk clotting units (MCU). times the diameter of the wire. In the U.1345 inch (3. in the European system larger gauge numbers indicate thicker strings.

German legal meter (Glm) an obsolete unit of distance. the GeV can be regarded either as a unit of energy equal to 160. There is some research suggesting that the approximate length of the generation in the world today is about 28 years. This leaves a question. GeV the symbol for one billion (109) electronvolts. a former German colony. gibi.217 646 2 picojoules. This symbol is equivalent to the traditional symbol w/w. as in "gig. anthropologists the lower ones. g/g a symbol for "gram per gram". the standard acceleration of gravity (see above). however: should just the father. This prefix was coined from the Greek word gigas.) The prefix is a contraction of "gigabinary. generation (gen) an informal unit of time. or just the mother. Genealogists tend to use the higher figures. For a (different) German use of the term geographische meile. gigabecquerel (GBq) . Roughly speaking. is supposed to replace giga- for binary applications in computer science." The prefix is sometimes pronounced with a soft g. or both parents be included in the calculation? Various answers to this question. Thanks to Einstein's equation E = mc2 equating mass wth energy. means that the substance being measured comprises 2% of the mass of the mixture in which it is found. giga.782 662 x 10-24 gram or 1. especially as a unit of storage capacity.(G-) a metric prefix denoting 109 or one billion (in the American meaning of the word billion).02 g/g. from about 25 to 35 years. a concentration of 0. or as a unit of mass equal to 1. a unit of mass concentration. (This innovation does not appear to be sucessful. have led to a range of estimates for the length of a generation. a generation is the average length of time between the birth of a parent and the birth of the child. geographical mile another name for the nautical mile. longer than a meter by 13. see meile.073 544 atomic mass unit.5965 micrometers (less than 1 part in 70 000).gee an informal name for g. For example. This unit was used in surveying in Namibia. The Greeks pronounced the word with a hard g." and some dictionaries favor this choice. as in "giant. meaning giant. but the hard g pronunciation seems more common. plus a lack of consistent data. gee pound another name for a slug. or 2% g/g.184 meters)." gig an informal contraction of the gigabyte (GB) common in computer science. especially the Admiralty mile (6080 feet or 1853. adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1998.(Gi-) a binary prefix meaning 230 = 1 073 741 824. This prefix.

Seldom used. 3. this unit would be a good yardstick for the inner Solar System: the distance from the earth to the sun is about 149. gigatonne (Gt) a metric unit of mass or weight equal to one billion metric tons (tonnes) or about 2. 3. One gigajoule equals 947 817 Btu. or about 9.3 U. for example. See flops. (short) tons. or about 3. gigayear (Gyr) a unit of time equal to one billion years.7778 kilowatt hours. gigagram (Gg) an SI unit of mass equal to 109 grams. This unit is used in scientific contexts. gigaflops (Gflops) a unit of computing power equal to one billion (109) floating point operations per second.519 short tons) per square inch. such as the measurement of atmospheric emissions.2046 trillion pounds. a unit of radioactivity equal to one billion atomic disintegrations per second or 27. gigajoule (GJ) a metric unit of energy commonly used in the energy industry. gigaparsec (Gpc) a non-metric unit of distance equal to one billion parsecs. or 1 per nanosecond.713 acre feet or 35. Pressures in this range are common inside the earth and can be produced by various high-energy events. or 30. One gigapascal equals 10 kilobars or approximately 145 038 pounds (72.341 million horsepower. The international symbol Ga is also used. gigawatt (GW) a metric unit of power equal to one billion (109) watts or about 1. gigapascal (GPa) a metric unit of pressure. Cellular phones and microwave ovens operate with radio waves having frequencies in the gigahertz range.60 gigameters. This is equivalent to 810.856 78 x 1021 kilometers). One gigagram equals about 2.027 millicuries. gigawatt hour (GW·h) a metric unit of energy equal to one billion watt hours.48 therms.2 miles. gigameter (Gm) a metric unit of distance equal to one million kilometers or about 621 371. one million kilograms. gigahertz (GHz) a unit of frequency equal to 109 per second. the "a" being taken from the Latin word annus for a year. or 1 kilotonne (1000 metric tons). in discussing the amounts of carbon added to the atmosphere by human activities.412 billion Btu. This very large unit is used.315 million cubic feet.856 78 zettameters (30.2616 billion light years.2046 million pounds or 1102.S. gilbert (Gi) . 277.6 terajoules. gigaliter (GL or Gl) a metric unit of volume equal to 109 liters or one million cubic meters. The unit is used in astronomy.

S. a unit of mass concentration equal to 1 per mill (1 part per thousand). called "billion" in America but often called "milliard" in France and "thousand million" in Britain. or about 118. customary system. motor response. the standard time of longitude 0°. Its name comes a Latin word gillo for a small wine vessel. glass [2] another name for the U. Doctors in the U. In several states of Australia a glass of beer is usually 200 milliliters. the CGS unit of magnetomotive force. but it is 235 milliliters in Queensland and 285 milliliters in Western Australia. the gill equals 5 fluid ounces. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) a scale used in emergency medicine to assess the condition of trauma victims and other partially-conscious patients. 9. The gill is 1/4 pint. 4 fluid ounces.1% g/g or 0.3 milliliters.1 milliliters. making the glass a nautical unit of time equal to 1/2 hour.a trillion. one gill is equal to 1/2 cup.21875 cubic inches.6 milliliters). are fond of saying that everyone should drink 8 glasses of water a day. A table is provided. The unit is pronounced "jill". was fixed as the longitude of the . called the prime meridian. At sea. This meridian of longitude. g/kg a symbol for "gram per kilogram". then giga. glass [1] a unit of time measured by an hourglass or sandglass. The unit is named for the English physicist and physician William Gilbert (1540- 1603). 7. equal to 10/4pi = 0. 1 g/kg also equals 0.should mean a gillion! gin one of several spellings used in English for the jin. time was traditionally measured with half-hourglasses. gill (gi) a traditional unit of volume for liquids. the Chinese weight unit also called the catty. glass [3] an informal unit of volume used in Australian pubs. In this use the glass is another name for the bell. with a soft "g" sound. The scale range is 3-15.023 cubic inches.795 775 ampere-turns. In the U. GMT abbreviation for Greenwich Mean Time. who published his discoveries on magnetism in 1600. especially wine and other alcoholic beverages. cup (236. The score is obtained by observing the patient's eye-opening. gm an incorrect symbol for the gram (see below). equal to 25 fish.1% w/w. The reasoning here is that if mega.S. glean an old English unit of quantity for herrings. patients with Glasgow scores of 3-8 are usually said to be in a coma. S.means a million and tera. and response to commands. The correct symbol is g. or about 142. gillion an informal alternate name for the number 109. In the British Imperial system. and this is the amount they have in mind for a glass.

3 scruples in a dram. gram atomic weight older names for the atomic mass unit. This unit is widely used for measuring pearls. gram equivalent (gEq). a platinum-iridium bar carefully guarded by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris for more than a century.3 grams). gram molecule. gram (g) a unit of mass in the metric system. the shorter name now used in many contexts for this unit. there are 20 grains in a scruple. but to provide precise standards it was necessary to construct physical objects of specified mass. One gram is now defined to be 1/1000 of the mass of the standard kilogram.432 grains or 0. gram mole. below. One gram per square meter is equal to about 0. (The kilogram. is considered the base unit of mass in the SI. so it is sometimes called the pearl grain. grain per gallon (gr/gal or gpg) see gpg above. fabric. equal to about 15. Now that the carat has been standardized at 200 milligrams. The gram was originally defined to be the mass of one cubic centimeter of pure water. rather than the gram. See equivalent. because those units were based on the weight of the smaller wheat grain. gram equivalent mass (GEM). gram per square meter (g/m2 or gsm) a common metric unit of areal density. The symbol gsm is commonly used for this unit. a small weight identified in later Roman and Byzantine times with the Latin scripulum or scruple (the English scruple is equal to about 1. the jeweler's grain is exactly 50 milligrams. The abbreviations "gm" and (worse) "gr" should never be used. gram atom.7716 troy grain.035 273 966 ounce.115 milligrams. The name comes from the Greek gramma. or approximately 0. used for paper. and 8 drams in an ounce. grain (gr) [3] a traditional French unit of weight equal to 53. gram equivalent weight (GEW) various names for the mass in grams of a substance that would react with or replace one gram of hydrogen. and similar materials.029 4935 ounce per square yard. . grain (gr) [2] a unit of weight formerly used by jewelers in measuring diamonds and other precious stones. Originally the grain was defined in England as the weight of a barleycorn. Note: The only correct symbol for the gram is g. The original French spelling gramme is sometimes used. apothecaries.) The gram is a small mass. gram force see gram weight. gram molecular weight (gmol or gmole) older names for the mole. but g/m2 is the proper SI symbol. gram calorie the CGS unit of heat energy. see calorie. This made the English grain larger the corresponding grain units of France and other nations of the Continent. The jeweler's grain is exactly 1/4 carat.

. or 0. so the measure is defined by tables giving the average particle size in micrometers for each grit size. The symbol comes from the Latin word gutta for a drop.. The name was first used in June 1679 by the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) as a unit equal to 0. and (2) as another name for the register ton. Gunter's chain the traditional surveyor's chain equal to 4 rods. growler a container of beer designed for carryout.001 foot a point rather than a gry. g/t symbol for grams per tonne (metric ton). it is better to use "long ton" for use (1) and "gross register ton" for use (2). silver. for example. (Thomas Jefferson. Long forgotten. In the U.S.89 liters). gry a proposed unit of distance in the English traditional system. ground an informal unit of land area in India. gros a traditional French weight unit equal to 3 deniers (about 3. but the gry had some limited use in the nineteenth century as a unit equal to 0. This commercial unit has been in use since at least the 1400's. The word "gry" is from the ancient Greek. in stating the concentration of gold.211 667 millimeter).824 grams).001 g/kg or 1 part per million by mass. gutenberg .S. Originally. 0. gt. or 144. see chain.01 inch. the gry was revived in another decimal measurement scheme in Britain. a growler generally holds 1/2 gallon (about 1. a unit of proportion equal to 0. A table of grit sizes is provided. gross ton (GT) the name "gross ton" is used in at least two ways: (1) as another name for the British Imperial or long ton of 2240 pounds (see ton [1]). This unit is used. especially southern India.) In 1813. the metric unit of density for paper and for fabric.1 line in a decimalized distance system. Paper density measured in this unit is often called grammage." gsm a common but non-standard symbol for grams per square meter (g/m2). or other minerals in ores. gross (gro or gr) a unit of quantity equal to a dozen dozen. later proposed a similar system in the U.001 foot. equal to roughly 200-220 square meters or 2150-2400 square feet. but he called 0. in describing the entire interior volume of a ship as opposed to the cargo-carrying capacity.1 line or 1/120 inch (0. To avoid confusion. All these ideas failed. who was very familiar with Locke's writings. gtt traditional pharmicist's abbreviations for a drop. a unit of volume equal to 100 cubic feet (see ton [3]). be screened in this way. gt was the singular (1 gt) and gtt the plural. circulating on the Internet. which asked for three English words ending in -gry. the gry recently came back into the limelight in connection with a puzzle. where it meant "a trifling amount.

26. 11 959. 21. or 45. that is.S. One hectare meter equals exactly 10 000 cubic meters or about 8.237 cubic inches. tons) per square foot.S.38 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi) or 208 855 pounds (104.65 if the relative humidity is 65%). hectare (ha) the customary metric unit of land area. or 3. A group of seven is sometimes called a hebdomad. hectare meter (ha·m) a unit of volume used to measure the capacity of reservoirs. The formula used is HI = -42.417 U. hectometer (hm) .5274 ounces. meteorologists compute the index from the temperature T (in °F) and the relative humidity H (as a fraction. weekly. It was coined from the Greek hebdomos. One hectare is a square hectometer. This is not the same as the Celsius heat unit (Chu).S. or 1 dekanewton per square millimeter (daN/mm2).122874 T2H + 8.43 U. that is. heat index (HI or HX) a measure of the combined effect of heat and humidity on the human body.5315 cubic feet.1 square feet. hectobar (hbar) a fairly common metric unit of pressure equal to 100 bars. heat unit an alternate name.025 cubic inches. Reservoir capacities are often stated in millions of hectare meters (Mha·m or MHM).9 square yards.379 + 2. 0. In practice. hectogram (hg) a common metric unit of mass. especially India. The hectoliter equals 100 liters. liquid gallons. where it provides a metric unit comparable to the traditional English acre foot.333127 H . hect. 1. equal to the volume of water one meter deep covering one hectare. 1. or 44. the area of a square 100 meters on each side: exactly 10 000 square meters or approximately 107 639. a word related to the French hebdomadaire. 2688. heating degree day (HDD) see degree day..036 liters. for the British thermal unit (Btu). hectoliter (hL or hl) a common metric unit of volume. the heaped bushel was frequently interpreted as 1.475541 TH . which is equal to exactly 5 pecks.00683783 T2 - 548. H = 0.1717 H2 + 0. equal to 100 grams or about 3. coined by Americans.1 cubic meter. a volume of 2748.5556 cubic feet. The unit is used mostly in British Commonwealth countries.1071 acre feet.0. seventh. coined from the Greek word hekaton for one hundred.22.5282 TH2 . 10 megapascals (MPa). This is approximately 1450.04901523 T + 1014.(h-) a metric prefix denoting 100. hebdo- an obsolete metric prefix denoting ten million (107).or hecto. U.049 liters.0199 T2H2.471 054 acres.999 British imperial gallons. equal to 100 ares. or 2.25 bushels.5904 cubic feet.

hemina a Roman unit of liquid volume. equal to 2 cuts or 1/6 hank (see above). but it is not an SI unit.48 square degrees. inductances in practical circuits are measured in millihenrys (mH) or microhenrys (µH).1 kilopascal (kPa). the Hefner lamp. This unit isn't used much in everyday life in metric countries. One Hefner candle is equivalent to approximately 0.152 meters). The Jews inherited this unit from the Babylonians. the natural SI unit for air pressure is the kilopascal. hectopascal (hPa) a metric unit of pressure equal to 100 pascals or 0.084 feet. it is the current which changes. on the other hand.6 milliliters (0. The henry is a large unit. used almost entirely in measurements of air pressure. equal to 1/8 quaver. it was widely used throughout the ancient Middle East. Halakim are used in formulas establishing the instant of new moon.S. measured in webers per second. Although the induced voltage depends only on the rate at which the magnetic flux changes.561 U. equal to 1/2 sextarius or about 265. The millibar has been used to measure air pressure for many years. 1/18 minute or 10/3 seconds.902 candela (cd). The plural is halakim. A coil with an inductance of one henry requires a flux of one weber for each ampere of induced current. The hectopascal. A changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a loop of wire (or in a coil of many loops) located in the field. von Hefner-Altenack (1845-1904). or 109. the unit is often called a part of an hour. 2pi steradians. henry (H) the SI unit of electric inductance. which marks the start of the month in the Jewish calendar. The unit is named for F. which burned isopentyl acetate to provide light of intensity 1 HK. heer a traditional measure of length for linen and woolen yarn. one of several scientists who discovered independently how . a metric unit of distance equal to 100 meters. pint or 0. is identical to the millibar (mb). who invented a laboratory light standard.467 British Imperial pint). hemidemisemiquaver the shortest named unit of relative time in music. 1/64 whole note or 1/128 breve. or about 20 626. then the induced field will generate a potential difference within the coil: if the inductance is one henry a current change of one ampere per second generates a potential difference of one volt. Although meteorologists in various countries use the hectopascal as a kind of alias for the millibar. 328. hemisphere a traditional unit of solid angle equal to 1/2 sphere. The unit is named for the American physicist Joseph Henry (1797-1878). If. This is equivalent to 80 yards (73. but it appears in various scientific contexts. the amount of the current depends also on the physical properties of the coil. In English. helek (hl) a traditional Hebrew unit of time equal to 1/1080 hour.361 yards. Hefner candle (HC) or Hefnerkerze (HK) a former unit for measuring the intensity of light.

The unit honors the American astronomer . thirds. house in astrology. The custom of dividing the daylight into 12 hours goes back at least as far as the Babylonians. equal to 60 minutes. who demonstrated the first CT scanner in 1972. These values are arranged on a scale from -1024 HU to +3071 HU. or fourths. equal to 109 light years. The hubble is a gigantic unit.). hour (h or hr) [3] a unit of sidereal time in astronomy. 63. Originally an hour was 1/12 of the time between sunrise and sunset. each sign of the Zodiac is called a house. or 11. In practice. hubble a unit of distance sometimes used in astronomy. For this invention he received the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979. gallons. who liked to divide units by 12 because groups of 12 are easily divided into halves.77 liters.S. thus the house can be considered a unit of angle measure equal to 1/12 circle or 30°. hour (h or hr) [2] a unit of angular measure used in astronomy. traditionally known as the First Point of Aries. The unit is named for the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield. The word comes from an ancient Greek word hora which originally meant a season. and hence a "defined" period of time. just as it is on the surface of the earth. The hu contains about 51. Only after the invention of mechanical clocks.389 British imperial gallons. Longitude is replaced by right ascension. Latitude is measured in degrees from the equator to the poles. equal to 1/24 circle or 15°.8785 sextillion miles (U. so summer hours were longer than winter hours.S. see sidereal day.4605 yottameters. Tissue and bone then produce attenuations in the positive range. did hours became equal intervals marked by clocks.4605 x 1021 kilometers (9. when people wanted to express times at night. around 1300. thus establishing the word as marking subdivisions of the day. measured in hours from the longitude. 5. if you please). it was natural to divide the night into 12 hours as well.Hounsfield unit (HU) a unit used in medical imaging (CT or MRI scanning) to describe the amount of x-ray attenuation of each "voxel" (volume element) in the three-dimensional image. especially a religious season. and therefore have 212 = 4096 possible values. Objects are located in the sky by latitude and "right ascension". making 24 hours in the day. hu a traditional Chinese unit of liquid volume. hour (h or hr) [1] a traditional unit of time. most astronomers use the megaparsec for measuring such stupendous distances. or 306. or 1/24 day. The reading in Hounsfield units is also called the CT number. Later. In the Christian church hora came to mean one of the services held at seven specific times during the day. at which the Sun crosses the equator on its northward journey in the spring.240 x 1012 astronomical units.595 megaparsecs. or 3600 seconds. calibrated so that -1024 HU is the attentuation produced by air and 0 HU is the attenuation produced by water. The voxels are normally represented as 12-bit binary numbers. This is 9.676 U. 13.

This is roughly 12 000 acres. The British hundredweight was divided into 4 quarters [1] of 28 pounds. 5000 hectares. 8 stone of 14 pounds." hyl an obsolete MKS unit of mass. depending on the item. For fish. hundred [2] an old English unit of area equal to 100 hides (see above). the hyl is equivalent to 9. where the currency was decimalized and there wasn't so much need to align the unit with the quintal and zentner.S.806 65 kilograms. The name of the unit comes from an ancient Greek word for matter. hue a numerical measure of color.806 65 newtons. the hundred was a subdivision of a county with an area of about 100 square miles or 260 square kilometers. the British version is often called the long hundredweight and the American is called the short hundredweight or cental.63 centimeters. One hyl is the mass that is accelerated at one meter per second per second by one kilogram of force (kgf). or 18. who discovered the expansion of the Universe later explained by the Big Bang theory. hundred [1] a unit of quantity.8023 kilograms) rather than 100 pounds. The hundred is approximately the area of a village with its associated fields. the word also means "thumb. As is true of the inch unit in many languages. where. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953). many of the early settlements in Virginia were called hundreds." the unit seems to be used almost entirely for measuring the size of dice. This definition apparently dates from about the middle of the 1300's. In the United States. hundredweight (Cwt or cwt) a traditional unit of weight equal to 1/20 ton. The C in the symbol is of course the Roman numeral 100. In colonial South Australia. hun a unit of length in Thailand. this unit is larger than 100 pounds avoirdupois. The hundredweight is the English version of a commercial unit used throughout Europe and known in other countries as the quintal or the zentner. Pronounced "hoon. or 16 cloves of 7 pounds each. did not always mean an even 100. The U. see color units. hüvelyk the Hungarian inch unit. In commercial use in old England the term "hundred". equal to 1/12 láb or about 2. so to fit the European market the hundredweight was defined in England as 112 pounds avoirdupois (about 50. .3592 kilograms). This use carried over to the American colonies. or cent (C). To distinguish the two hundredweight units. the hundredweight came to equal exactly 100 pounds (about 45. for example. hundredweight seems to have been invented by merchants around 1840. so the name "hundred" came to mean a minor division of a shire or county.75 square miles. In general. equal to 1/8 inch or 3. the exact number in a hundred varied with the species. Since 1 kgf = 9. sometimes it meant 120 (the "great hundred") or some other number.175 millimeters.

For each substance to which this unit applies.inch of water gauge (in wg or "wg) another common name for the inch of water column. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)." Other reactivity measures include the dollar and the milli-k. Examples: 1 IU represents 45. the effect) of many vitamins and drugs. inch pound (in·lbf or in lb) a traditional unit of work or energy.71828 in one hour. the Italian-American physicist who built the first nuclear reactor. about 0. abbreviation for the Latin in die. Consumers most often see IU's on the . there is an international agreement specifying the biological effect expected with a dose of 1 IU. and the results are usually similar. fast-moving neutrons break apart atoms of uranium or plutonium. The ratio R between the number of neutrons created and the number consumed in each cycle of fission must be very close to 1 in order for the reaction to be controlled. international foot the current foot unit of the English-speaking countries. but not identical. in d. pressure and the air pressure at the time of the reading. to readings made with the older Shore "A" durometer. equal to exactly 30.0709 x 10-4 Btu. international nautical mile the nautical mile as currently defined by international agreement.11549 feet. Measurements are made using an IRHD durometer. equal to 1/12 foot pound.6 microgram of a standard preparation of penicillin. inhour (ih or inhr) a unit used in nuclear engineering to describe the "reactivity" of a nuclear reactor. See survey foot for additional information. The reactivity is the difference k = R . a unit of frequency used in medical prescriptions. a reactivity of t inhours will cause the number of neutrons to increase by a factor of e in 1/t hours. among other standards agencies. introduced this unit in 1947.1 between this ratio and 1. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The exact size of the unit varies according to the design of the reactor.5 micrograms of a standard preparation of insulin or 0. its name is an acronym for "inverse hours. Other quantities of the substance are then expressed as multiples of this standard.112 985 joule or 1. equal to exactly 1852 meters or 6076. international unit (IU) a unit used to measure the activity (that is. have published IRHD test procedures.48 centimeters. international rubber hardness degree (IRHD) a unit used to measure the hardness of rubber and similar materials (technically known as elastomers). The word "gauge" (or "gage") after a pressure reading indicates that the pressure stated is actually the difference between the absolute. daily. the fission of these atoms releases additional neutrons which keep the reaction going. One inhour is the reactivity which will cause the number of neutrons to increase by a factor of e = 2. or total. This long name is sometimes used to distinguish the current nautical mile from older units. In a reactor.

the jersey foot is equal to 11 English inches or 0.1023 pounds) and divided into 10 liang. In this usage. jiffy [1] a unit of time used in computer engineering. more or less. Like the catty.79 grams. it was divided into 16 liang. the time required for light to travel a distance of one centimeter." that is. jersey foot a traditional unit of distance in Jersey. This is a very brief interval indeed. During the European colonial era the jin was identified with the catty. In modern China. but its origin is not known.3564 picoseconds. one jerk equals 0. a Malay unit widely used in various forms throughout East and Southeast Asia. of the computer's system clock. usually 1/50 second elsewhere. this was often equal to one period of the alternating current powering the computer: 1/60 second in the U. A jiffy is the length of one cycle. 1 ft/sec3. as 0. 180 by 90 centimeters or 1." The spellings chin and gin also have been used for the jin. the jin was then equal to 1 1/3 pounds or 604. that is. jiffy [2] a unit of time used in chemistry and physics.S.03108g /sec. jeroboam a large wine bottle holding about 3 liters. however. 4 times the volume of a regular bottle.) fluid ounces or 44. The jersey foot is divided into 12 jersey inches. one of the Channel Islands. Traditionally. the jin is a metric unit equal to exactly 500 grams (1. jigger a unit of volume for liquor. joch . about 33. vehicle. The term has also been used as a unit of rate of change in acceleration equal to a change in acceleration of one foot per second per second in one second. jo an informal unit of area used in Japan to measure the size of rooms in houses and apartments. The word jiffy. identical to the Austrian joch (see below).09 jersey inches to an English foot.9167 English foot. A jeroboam is sometimes called a double magnum. This definition of the jiffy was proposed by the American physical chemist Gilbert N. or tick. Lewis (1875-1946). with its ordinary meaning of an instant or very brief time. or "metric jin.3048 m/s3 or about 0. equal to a "light centimeter.94 square yards).S. comparable to the English pound. In the past. usually considered equal to 1. jin a traditional unit of weight in China. jitro a traditional unit of land area in the Czech Republic. More recently the jiffy has become standardized.360 milliliters. The kilogram itself is usually called the gongjin.62 square meters (1. who was one of the first to apply principles of quantum physics in chemistry. making 13. Also called the pied-perche. appeared in English during the eighteenth century. and Canada. One jo is the area of a traditional tatami mat.5 (U.01 second (10 milliseconds).

Joch is also the word for a yoke in German. w is the frequency bandwidth. The juchart varied considerably from place to place." In modern equipment. a unit formerly used in measuring water quality. in Croatia it is the jutro. that is. who demonstrated the equivalence of mechanical and thermal energy in a famous experiment in 1843. the NTU. In a 1959 paper. The plural is joche.75-1. or approximately 0. but often it was about 4000 square meters. one joule is the kinetic energy of a mass of two kilograms moving at a velocity of 1 m/s. in the range of 109 to 1012 Jones. where A is the area of the detector. The joule is named for the British physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889). the unit is usually pronounced "jool" or "jew'l". since kinetic energy is one half the mass times the square of the velocity. The turbidity of water was measured by lighting a candle under a tall glass tube and filling the tube with the water sample until a observer looking down the tube could no longer see the candle flame through the water. defined to be the work done by a force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one meter in the direction in which the force is applied. Although Joule pronounced his name "jowl".3-0. one joule equals about 9.45 hectare (0. This comes to 0. the ability of an electronic device to detect radiant energy such as light waves or infrared radiation. a traditional unit of area in German speaking countries. very close to the size of the English acre. joule (J) the SI unit of work or energy. juchart or juchert a traditional unit of land area in southern Germany and German-speaking Switzerland. Clark Jones defined the "specific detectivity" of a device to be D* = [square root (Aw)]/N. journal a traditional unit of land area in France. so this unit represents an area that could be plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen. 0. The unit varied from one region to another. JTU abbreviation for Jackson turbidity unit. Jones a unit of detectivity. One joch is the area of a square 40 klafters (about 83 yards) on a side. Like the Austrian joch and the French journal (see above). detectivities are often quite large.777 778 x 10-4 watt hour.1 acres). In what is now the Czech Republic this unit was known as the jitro. Turbidity is usually measured now in a different unit. using an instrument called a nephelometer. or 2. In Bavaria. The height of the water column determines the turbidity in Jackson turbidity units. especially in Austria.238 846 (small) calories. customarily called the "Jones. generally in the range 0. This is the same as 107 ergs in the CGS system. using a table constructed for this purpose. the juchart .422 acres. In other energy units. the juchart represents an area that could be plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen.5755 hectare or about 1. The juchart (see below) was a very similar unit used in Switzerland and southern Germany. and N is the power of the noise generated by the device. equal to the area that could be plowed in a day (jour is the French word for day). R. Equivalently. The quantity D* is measured in the complex unit cm·Hz1/2/W.478 170 x 10-4 Btu.737 562 foot-pound in the traditional English system.

It happens that 4713 BC is the last year in which all three cycles started simultaneously. Specifically.25 days. liquid quarts or 1. and means a fixed or standard instant of time. or. Other times are stated with reference to this fixed time using years and fractions of years.25 days. See Julian day. Other times are specified with reference to this time using a year of length 365. that is.25 days after J2000. This means that J2001. Julian epoch (J) a measure of time used in astronomy. See also modified Julian day. In 1849 the British astronomer John Herschel introduced the Julian day as a means of providing an exact date for astronomical events independent of all calendars. Julian year the average length of the year in the Julian calendar. the product of the 28-year cycle of the Julian calendar (after which the days of the week recur on the same dates). for example. In Switzerland. and exact times of observations are expressed using decimal fractions of the Julian day. defining it to be 7980 years. the 19-year Metonic cycle (after which the phases of the Moon recur on the same dates). The word epoch comes from Greek.S. if you please. The French scholar Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) introduced the Julian period in 1582 (the same year the Gregorian calendar was proclaimed). about 2500 square meters. exactly 2 914 695 days. In 1984. and the juchart are ultimately derived from a Roman unit. This instant is designated J2000. above. a unit of volume equal to about 1.70 liters.0. estimated to be about 1. Julian period a unit of time equal to exactly 7980 years in the Julian calendar. The first moment of the year 2004 CE. jug an informal name for the Scots pint. Julian day (JD) a continuous count of days beginning with January 1.8896 acre).5.899 .8420 acre). was standardized early in the nineteenth century at 3407. the average length of the year in the Julian calendar. the juchart was generally understood to equal 3600 square meters (0. The joch. now being used in astronomy to express the masses of new planets being discovered in orbit around various stars. the jugerum. See year [2]. Jupiter a unit of mass. The unit is also called the tagwerk ("day's work"). after the introduction of the metric system in the mid nineteenth century. Universal Time.899 x 1024 metric tons. which is start of what is called the Julian period. The Julian day begins at noon Universal Time. was JD 2 453 005. the jug of Stirling is the actual vessel (on display at the Stirling Museum) which was the legal standard for Scottish volume measurements prior to the introduction of the British Imperial units.27 square meters (0. is 18 hours Universal Time of 2001 January 1 (exactly 365. 1.0. 4713 BC (-4712 CE). It's equal to the mass of the planet Jupiter. and the 15-year indiction cycle (a unit of civil time in ancient Rome). which was smaller.80 U. astronomers agreed to fix the standard epoch at 12 hours Universal Time of 2000 January 1 (JD 2 451 545. the journal.0).0). equal to exactly 365.

kilobit per second (kbps. Gi-. kb/s) a unit of data transmission rate equal to 1000 bits per second. the new prefix kibi.often means 210 = 1024 instead of 1000. Thus 1024 bytes of storage is officially a kibibyte. kilo.(k-) [1] a metric prefix meaning 1000. or.kibi. Based on the current British barrel. which is about 2. kiloampere (kA) a unit of electric current equal to 1000 amperes. adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1998. not a kilobyte. Older kilderkins were generally in the range of 16-18 gallons. equal to 1024 bits or 128 bytes. kilobar (kbar or kb) a metric unit of pressure. etc. kilobecquerel (kBq) a unit of radioactivity equal to 1000 atomic disintegrations per second or 27. computer professionals generally dislike this unit (they say it sounds like a cat food) so the ambiguity in the size of a kilobyte persists. used particularly in industrial applications and in geology for measuring high pressures. silver. in some cases. the prefix kilo. The prefix is a contraction of "kilobinary. However. kilderkin an old British unit of volume equal to 1/2 barrel or 2 firkins. was supposed to replace kilo. also used as a unit of relative distance equal to the length of a strand of DNA containing 1000 base pairs. kilobyte (kB) . 100 megapascals.(Ki-) should replace kilo.for 210. was chosen for uniformity with the other binary prefixes (Mi-. By a 1998 resolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission. the Greek word for a thousand. kilo a common informal name for a kilogram. this doesn't seem to be happening. it is a bar of gold. or about 14 503 pounds per square inch. The kilobar equals 1000 bars. The symbol kb/s is preferable to kbps for this unit.(Ki-) a binary prefix meaning 210 = 1024. rather than ki-. However. This prefix. or platinum weighing 1 kilogram.) kilobase (kb) a unit of genetic information equal to the information carried by 1000 pairs of the base units in the double-helix of DNA. this would be 18 (imperial) gallons.9 cubic feet or 78 liters. (Note: in the investment world a kilobar is not a unit. The word comes from a Dutch word for a small cask. The larger unit is now supposed to be called a kibibit. kilobit (kbit or kb) a unit of information equal to 1000 bits.).(k-) [2] in measuring the memory of a computer. kilo.for binary applications in computer science.027 nanocuries (nCi)." The symbol Ki-. The prefix is a modification of chilioi.

that is. including the U. See dalton. The strength of industrial magnets and solenoids is often expressed in kilogauss. As a unit of computer storage. 37 trillion atomic disintegrations per second. equal to 1000 electronvolts.8 meters. this is approximately the mass of a liter of water. In other words. kilocycle (kc) 1000 cycles. France. kilogram (kg) [1] the base unit of mass in the SI and MKS versions of the metric system. One kilogram of force equals 9. kilogram calorie (kcal or kgcal) the "large calorie" or "food calorie" used in nutrition. or about 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). kilocalorie (kcal) an ambiguous metric unit of energy.1868 kilojoules) and the Calorie (the large or kilogram calorie equal to 4.S. the kilobyte is usually equal to 1024 bytes.204 622 6 pounds. The kilogram is defined as the mass of the standard kilogram. kilogauss (kGs) a metric unit of magnetic flux density equal to 1000 gauss or 0. kilofoot (kft) a traditional unit of distance equal to 1000 feet or exactly 304.1868 megajoules). One kilogram equals exactly 1000 grams. kilodalton (kDa) a unit of mass equal to 1000 atomic mass units.204 622 6 pounds of force in the . The correct name for this unit is kilocalorie. although this should now be called a kibibyte. a platinum-iridium bar in the custody of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) near Paris. kiloelectronvolt (keV) a unit of work or energy used in physics. see below under kilogram of force. although this unit is being replaced gradually by the tesla. equal to 1000 ordinary ("gram") calories." kilocurie (kCi) a unit of radioactivity equal to 1000 curies or 37 terabecquerels (TBq). a term sometimes used as an informal name for the kilohertz. Copies of this bar are kept by the standards agencies of all the major industrial nations. a unit of information equal to 1000 bytes. however. The term kilocalorie properly means 1000 calories.806 65 newtons. which is the same as 1 Calorie. "kilocalorie" is the correct name for the unit known in nutrition simply as the "calorie. kilogram force (kgf) a unit of force equal to the gravitational force on a mass of one kilogram. or 2.1 tesla. kilocycle per second (kc/s) an older name for the kilohertz. By design. The ambiguity arises because there are two "calories" in common use. identified in this dictionary as the calorie (the small or gram calorie equal to 4. The strength of the powerful radiation sources used in cancer therapy are customarily stated in kilocuries. This odd combination of a metric prefix and an English unit is used in telecommunications to describe cable lengths and transmission distances. kilogram (kg) [2] a unit of force.

947 817 Btu.99 British Imperial gallons. This prefix has been replaced by giga. 0. kilomega. One kilometer equals exactly 1000 meters. This unit is also called the kilopond. or 737. equal to 1000 lines [2] or 10 microwebers. kilogram molecular weight (kgmol or kgmole) various older names for a unit of the amount of a chemical compound. In other energy units. AM radio stations have signal frequencies measured in kilohertz. comparable to the British thermal unit (Btu). Similarly. kilogram meter (kgf·m or kg·m) [2] a metric unit of torque equal to 9. kilogram weight (kgf) a kilogram force (see above). The correct name for this unit is the kilomole (kmol).562 foot-pounds in the traditional English system. kilometer (km) a common metric unit of length or distance. kilogram (force) per square centimeter (kgf/cm2 or kg/cm2 or kgsc) a common metric unit of pressure equal to 98. bushels.6133 yards. or 3280.(kM-) an obsolete metric prefix denoting 109 (1 U. 1.S.S.277 778 watt hour. kiloliter (kl or kL) a metric unit of volume.307 95 yd3. gallons. kilojoule (kJ) a common metric unit of work or energy. .806 65 joules (J).497 U. about 0. Using this unit revives the old confusion between mass and weight. Storage on floppy disks is traditionally stated in multiples of this unit. kiloline a metric unit of magnetic flux. so it is really a very bad idea. One kilogram mole of a compound is the number of kilograms of the compound equal to the molecular weight of a molecule of that compound measured in atomic mass units. In fact. kilogram meter (kgf·m or kg·m) [1] a metric unit of work or energy equal to 9. However.0665 kilopascals (see below) or about 14. 264.17 U. or with a binary understanding it should be 220 = 1 048 576 bytes. the kilojoule is also equivalent to 0.(G-). The kiloliter is identical to the cubic meter: it equals about 35. 1093. one of the worst features of traditional measurement systems. kilohertz (kHz) a common unit of frequency equal to 1000 per second or 1 per millisecond. kilokibibyte a unit of computer memory equal to exactly 1 024 000 bytes. 219. 7. kilogram mole.3147 ft3. billion). traditional English system. This is the work done by one kilogram of force (see below) acting through a distance of one meter.049 British imperial bushels. which has usually been called a "megabyte. or 6. one kilojoule equals approximately 0.8399 feet." But a megabyte should be 1 000 000 bytes. one kilogram force per square meter is equal to 9.2234 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi). kilogram molecule.806 65 pascals. and this unit doesn't fit either convention.806 65 newton meters (N·m).621 371 19 mile. kilograms of force have been used rather frequently in engineering and physics.S.238 846 kilocalories. Oddly.

The simplified spelling kilohm is approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 10 millibars(mb). The only correct symbol for this unit is km/h. One day is equal to 86. it is a force that will accelerate a mass of 1 metric ton at the rate of 1 meter per second per second. . kilomole (kmol) a unit of amount of substance equal to 1000 moles.085 678 x 1016 kilometers. One kilopascal equals 1000 pascals (Pa). kilopond (kp) another name for the kilogram of force (kgf) (see above). 1 km/h is equal to 5/18 meter per second. 10 grays. kilohm or kiloohm a unit of electric resistance equal to 1000 ohms.911 344 42 feet per second. kilonewton (kN) a common metric unit of force. kilosecond (ks or ksec) a unit of time equal to 1000 seconds (16 minutes 40 seconds). kilo-oersted (kOe) a CGS unit of magnetic field strength equivalent in MKS units to 79 577. kilorad (krad) a common unit of radiation dose equal to 1000 rads.015 inches of water column (in WC). kilometer per hour (km/h) a common metric unit of speed or velocity.631 light years. Both are acceptable.2953 inches of mercury (in Hg). 224.145 038 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi). The Solar System is located about 8 kiloparsecs from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. The kilomole was formerly called the kilogram mole.809 pounds of force or 7233. or 0.972 kilograms of force. there are no official pronunciations for SI units. even the distances to the farthest galaxies are usually measured in kilometers. The unit.502 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).01 poundals. or about 0. the kiloparsec equals 1000 parsecs. Although it is never used in ordinary life.472 ampere-turns per meter. 3. 4. 3261.621 371 19 miles per hour or 0. the kilosecond has many uses in science. or about 19. 0. used for stating the field strengths of industrial magnets. higher multiples of the meter are rarely used. One kilonewton equals 101. 20.3346 foot of head (ft hd). The unit is sometimes pronounced with the accent on the first syllable and sometimes on the second. the kilonewton equals 1000 newtons.8855 pounds per square foot. is almost always spelled with the hyphen. One kilomole of a compound is the number of kilograms of the compound equal to the molecular weight of a molecule of that compound in atomic mass units. variations such as kmph or kph should not be used. 7. kiloparsec (kpc) a unit of distance used in astronomy.18 quadrillion miles. or 10 joules of energy per kilogram of mass.4 kiloseconds. 0. kilopascal (kPa) a common metric unit of pressure.

used as a unit of energy or torque. kiloton (kton) [2] a unit of explosive energy equal to the energy released by exploding 1000 U. To reduce this confusion. sometimes used by engineers to express the amount of weight borne by a structure. kilowatt (kW) a common metric unit of power.985 newton meters (N·m).S. 112. One kip equals 1000 pounds (453. In this usage one kip is equal to 83. or 737.kiloton (kt or kton) [1] an ambiguous unit of mass.341 022 horsepower.846 (kilogram) Calories. kilovolt (kV) a common unit of electric potential equal to 1000 volts.75% smaller than the Chinese catty. kilowatt hour (kW·h or kw hr) the commercial unit of electric energy. 1000 British tons (1 016 047 kilograms). or about 2. about 1. equal to 1000 volt amperes. The Japanese identified this unit with a traditional unit equal to about 1. or 1 gigagram). for torque.985 joules (J).S.S. a common weight unit of the Far East. kiloyard (kyd) a traditional unit of distance equal to 1000 yards (exactly 914. kilovolt ampere (kV·A) a common unit of load in power engineering.141 Btu.655 million foot pounds. British.333 foot pounds (lbf·ft). the kilowatt hour is equivalent to exactly 3. a kiloyear is the same as a millennium. the metric unit should be written kilotonne. This is about 4. tons (907 185 kilograms). Electric distribution lines operate at potentials of anywhere from several to several hundred kilovolts.562 foot-pounds per second.4482 kilonewtons. 859. kip [3] . or about 3412. climatology. The name of the unit is an abbreviation of "kilopound." kip [2] a symbol for 1000 inch pounds. this is about 0. tons (2 million pounds) of TNT.6 megajoules of energy. kiloyear (kyr) a unit of time equal to 1000 years. kip [1] an informal unit of force. equivalent to 1000 watts. or.323 pounds or almost exactly 600 grams. This unit is used in the U.. and related sciences. Since the watt is 1 joule/sec and there are 3600 seconds in an hour. 112. and Commonwealth navies in describing ship distances and target ranges. Of course. ambiguous because it may refer to 1000 U.4 meters). or 1000 metric tons (1 million kilograms. commonly used in archaeology. One kilowatt hour represents the amount of energy delivered at a rate of 1000 watts over a period of one hour.18 terajoules (4. paleontology. kin the Japanese version of the catty.59 kilograms) of force or about 4.18 x 1012 joules) or 4 billion Btu.

for kilometers per hour. or 0. comparable to the English cord.921 cord in northern Germany. kn is the best choice as a symbol for the knot. The Austrian klafter is equal to 1. The result is measured in kilograms of force per square millimeter but should be stated as an empirical measurement. comparable to the English fathom.22 feet). knot (kn or kt) [1] a unit of velocity equal to one nautical mile per hour. kmph a common but incorrect symbol for kilometers per hour. that is. koku . In Switzerland the klafter was brought into the metric system at exactly 1. The Knoop test is similar to the Vickers test in that a diamond penetrator is used to indent the sample being tested. equal to about 4/3 British imperial gallon or 7. Knots are customarily used to express speeds at sea. without units. klick.41 steres (cubic meters) or 0.5143 meters per second. 3. especially Norway. but there was less agreement on its width. A klafter of wood was generally 1 klafter tall and 1 klafter long.5 klafter. A common width was 3 fuss or 0. exactly 1. klik see click. The word comes from the former method of measuring a ship's speed. klafter [2] a traditional German unit of volume for stacked firewood.9055 feet). which involved use of a knotted cord called the log line. but it uses a rhombohedral diamond rather than a pyramidal diamond point. the length of the logs. This unit is also called the faden.8965 meters (6. The correct symbol is km/h.34 steres or 0. including the speed of the ship as well as the speeds of the wind and of the current. It is similar to the Rockwell test in that the hardness measure is the depth of the penetration rather than its area. knot [2] an informal unit of distance equal to the nautical mile. klafter [1] a traditional unit of distance in German-speaking countries. köddi a traditional Arabic unit of volume.58 liters. It was sometimes used as a unit of quantity. km/t a symbol for "kilometer per time. Knoop hardness (HK or KHN) a measure of the hardness of a metal introduced by Knoop in 1939." used on road signs in Scandinavia.852 kilometers per hour. making the volume about 3.1508 miles per hour.941 cord by the Viennese definition. an old English word for a bundle of hides.8 meters (5. Since kt is the established symbol for the kilotonne. usually equal to 50. One knot equals about 1.

as it does in English.183 099 candelas per square meter. however. As a unit it represents the area that could be cultivated by a single farmer. making it the Serbian equivalent of the Austrian joch and Croatian jutro. this is equivalent to 177.56 hectare (1.777 acres). A geometric calculation shows that a surface area having an intensity of one candela per square meter emits a total light flux of pi lumens per square meter. measuring the intensity of the light emitted (or reflected) in all directions per unit of area of the surface. There has never been agreement on the symbol for the lambert. lakh or lac a traditional unit of quantity in India. presumably referring to surveyors' use of chains in measuring land.00. In Serbia.099 candelas per square meter and 1 millilambert equals 3.7193 hectare (1. one lambert equals 104/pi = 3183. lanac a traditional unit of land area in countries of the former Yugoslavia. equal to 105 or 100 000. In India the lakh is used commonly instead of the million and commas are used to isolate the number of lakh. One lambert is the luminance of a surface that emits or reflects one lumen per square centimeter. or 0. Using the Texas standard for the vara (33 1/3 inches). Luminance is the luminous intensity of a surface. as a result. The lambda has been used in chemistry in measuring very small samples. In Croatia. The word labor means work in Spanish. lambda [2] a unit of relative distance used in the design of integrated circuits in microelectronics. who showed that the illuminance of a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light source.38 acres). the lanac is equal to about 0. Usage varies. The "feature size" of a design is the width of its smallest element.04 legua. lambert (La or Lb or L) a CGS unit of luminance. La is a good choice because it is unlikely to be confused with any other unit symbol. The lambert is a large unit.685 hectares. lai see rai. the number 5 300 000 is called 53 lakh and written "53. These circuits are usually designed to be "scalable." so that the same design can be repeated on ever-smaller chips as technology improves. The labor is equal to the area of a square 1000 varas on a side. for example. a traditional unit of area in Latin American countries.000". and one lambda equals one half the feature size. See also crore. somewhat like the old English hide.136 acres or 71. The lambert honors the German physicist Johann Lambert (1728-1777). and practical measurements tend to be in millilamberts (mLa). lambda [1] a metric unit of volume equal to the cubic millimeter (mm3) or microliter (µL). The word "lanac" means "chain". the lanac is a larger unit equal to 0. The symbol is the lower case Greek letter lambda. Lambdas of a few tenths of a micrometer (micron) are common. land mile .

Similarly.4221 miles or 3898 meters).464 mW/lm at the wavelength l = 555 nanometers (nm). light watt a unit measuring the relative power output of a light source. where l is the wavelength of the light and V(l) is the relative power in watts per lumen (W/lm) required to produce a constant brightness sensation in the eye at wavelength l. of course.4-2. this distance is exactly 299 792 458 meters (about 186 282.256 millimeters . ligne a traditional unit of distance in French speaking countries.902 billion kilometers or 16. A variety of lieue units were used for land measurement in France. At sea. The "year" used for this calculation is usually the Julian year of exactly 365. equal to 1/12 pouce (French inch) and corresponding closely to the English line [1]. light year (ly) a unit of distance used in astronomy. the legal unit was the lieue de poste. light second a unit of distance equal to the distance light travels in a vacuum in one second. this unit was gradually replaced by the internationally recognized 3 nautical miles (5556 meters or 3. When the source delivers light over a range of frequencies (as a light bulb does). See also candela and talbot.095 billion miles). Calculating the power delivered in the form of visible light is rather complicated. the lieue was often taken to equal 1/25 degree [2] or 2. lieue the French league. but generally these units were around 2. markets over the centuries. it is necessary to compute 683 times the integral of V(l) multiplied by the fraction of energy delivered at wavelength l.9747 seconds is used. the power in light watts equals 683V(l). a light minute is 60 light seconds (about 17 987 547 kilometers or 11 176 944 miles) and a light day is 1440 light minutes (about 25.460 730 473 trillion kilometers.7619 miles). One light year is approximately 5.4855 miles). the wavelength to which the eye is most sensitive. Since light travels at 299 792 458 meters per second. One light year is the distance that light travels in one year through a vacuum (and.460 730 473 x 1015 meters. In the 18th century. using the Julian year one light year equals 9. generally in the range from 1.880 trillion miles. a much larger unit. The Swiss ligne is used throughout the world by watchmakers. and the Portuguese libra equals 16 onças. Values of V(l) are defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The Spanish and Portuguese units are larger.011 to 1. In metric France the lieue is now considered to equal exactly 4 kilometers (2. most of the Universe is close to being a vacuum). See league (above). In accordance with the official definition of the meter. defined to equal 2000 toises or 2 milles (2. The maximum value of V(l) is 1/683 W/lm = 1. it equals about 2.452 miles). The Spanish libra equals 16 onzas. For a monochromatic (single frequency) light source such as a laser.4 nautical miles (4445 meters or 2.4 miles). The word "libra" is sometimes used now for the kilogram.5 statute miles in length. or 9.016 English pound (very close to 460 grams).25 days or 31 557 600 seconds. sometimes the mean tropical year of 31 556 925.

a unit equal to exactly 100 J/m2. (Skin is sensitive to reddening by radiation in only a narrow band of wavelengths around 300 nanometers. equal to exactly 40 cubic feet. MCU a symbol for milk clotting unit.5067 square millimeter commonly used in stating wire gauges. is intended to replace mega.091 gigajoules (GJ). This prefix. 1 MCU equals approximately 2/3 GDU.(M-) [1] . but that term now means a metric ton of freight in most international usage. truck. In tanning. This unit cannot be converted to a weight unit.) The prefix is a contraction of "megabinary. respectively. or approximately 1. This symbol is being replaced by the less-confusing symbol kcmil. (The way out of this dilemma is simple: measure volume in cubic meters and weight in metric tons. a symbol used in the natural gas industry for 1000 (not one million) cubic feet of gas equivalent (cfe). This is really an energy unit equal to about 1. roughly 620.for binary applications in computer science. a unit of area equal to about 0.) The MED obviously varies from one person to another. Entries for those units appear below. measurement ton (MTON or MT) a unit of volume used for measuring the cargo of a ship. persons with dark skin have MED's in the range of 1000 J/m2." used in computer science. mcL common but undesirable symbols for the microgram and microliter. some shippers are now using "measurement ton" to mean a metric ton of freight. the confusion seems impossible to dispel.55 milliwatts per square meter of skin surface. Doctors and tanning salon operators typically use a value of 200 joules per square meter (J/m2)." the smallest amount of ultraviolet radiation that produces observable reddening (erythema) of the skin. mcg. Regulatory agencies are moving to use of the standard erythemal dose (SED). This unit was traditionally called a freight ton (see ton [5]).1326 cubic meters. because different preparations of the enzyme differ in activity. mega.) mebi.(Mi-) a binary prefix meaning 220 = 1 048 576. or other freight carrier. meg informal contraction of "megabyte. an enzyme used as a digestive aid and for reduction of pain and inflammation. Bromelain is also measured in gelatin digesting units (GDU). adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1998. train. The mease equals the number of herring in a basket. MCM a symbol for 1000 circular mils." MED a common symbol for "minimum erythemal dose. which represents the MED of a highly sensitive individual. (This replacement does not seem to be happening. a dose rate of one MED per hour is equivalent to 55. However. used for measuring dosage of bromelain. mease a unit of quantity formerly used by fishermen.

As if that weren't confusing enough. See dalton. This uncertainty is a major reason for the recent decision of the International Electrotechnical Commission to establish new binary prefixes for computer science. megabecquerel (MBq) a unit of radioactivity equal to one million atomic disintegrations per second or 27. the 1. megas. also used as a unit of relative distance equal to the length of a strand of DNA containing 1 million base pairs. Large masses are almost always .(Mi-) is supposed to replace mega. or Mb) a unit of volume used in the energy industry. one megabase corresponds approximately to a gene separation of one centimorgan. MMb. megadalton (MDa) a unit of mass equal to one million atomic mass units.027 microcuries.is often used before a vowel. a term sometimes used as an informal name for the megahertz.often means 220 = 1 048 576 instead of an even one million. megaflops (Mflops) a unit of computing power equal to one million floating point operations per second. megacycle per second (Mc/s) an older name for the megahertz. S. gallons. mega. This means the megagram is identical to the tonne (metric ton). the new prefix mebi. Mbo. The prefix is derived from the Greek word for large. which is about 158. In humans. but sometimes it means 220 = 1 048 576 bytes. megabarrel (Mbbl. 100 gigapascals (GPa) or about 14. the prefix mega.(M-) [2] in measuring the storage capacity of a computer. megabyte (MB) this unit of information is very common in the computer world. a metric prefix meaning 106.503 million pounds per square inch. but it is poorly defined. or one million. megagram (Mg) an SI unit of mass equal to one million grams or 1000 kg.44 megabytes stored on "high density" floppy disks are actually megabytes of 1 024 000 bytes each. Often it means 1 000 000 bytes. Such intense pressures are found inside the earth or in various advanced scientific experiments. One megabarrel equals 42 million U. By a 1998 resolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission. equal to one million barrels of oil. meaning "very large. megabase (Mb) a unit of genetic information equal to the information carried by 1 million pairs of the base units in the double-helix of DNA. The megabar equals one million bars." as in megabucks or megadose.) The prefix is also common in ordinary language. See flops.987 megaliters (ML). megabar (Mbar) a metric unit of pressure.for 220. megacycle (Mc) 1 million cycles. as in megohm for one million ohms. (The form meg.

stated in tonnes in commercial applications. the higher the resistivity. megaline a metric unit of magnetic flux. The "l" was added to "mega-erg" to make the unit pronounceable.8170 Btu. In the case of water. The main engines of the U.72 feet. equal to one million lines [2] or 0. used for pure water and for other substances having relatively high resistivity. space shuttle have a maximum thrust of about 2. This unit is used in astrophysics. Although this appears to be an appropriate unit for longer distances on the earth.. megaliter (Ml or ML) a metric unit of volume equal to 1000 cubic meters. The resistivity of a conductor in megaohm centimeters is defined to be its resistance (in megaohms) multiplied by its cross- . or 0.073 756 foot pound).S.S.277 778 kilowatt hours. megaohm (megohm) a common unit of electric resistance equal to one million ohms. This unit is used in plasma physics and fusion research.1 joule (0. gallons or 0. megalithic yard a unit of distance equal to about 83 centimeters or 2.371 miles.01 weber.623 pounds. The megajoule equals one million joules. 238. The spelling megohm is also used. the unit was probably measured by the length of a workman's arm. but megagrams are often used in scientific contexts. Thom claimed this unit was used in the construction of many megalithic monuments. Commonly used in reservoir and water system management outside the U. megahertz (MHz) a common unit of frequency equal to one million per second. Frequencies of radio waves are commonly stated in megahertz. If so.810 713 acre foot. megalerg a CGS unit of energy equal to 106 ergs or 0.846 (kilogram) Calories. including Stonehenge. One megagram equals about 2204. which is approximately 737 562 foot pounds. temperatures in megakelvins are found in the interiors of stars or in highly excited plasmas. meganewton (MN) a metric unit of force equal to one million newtons. defined in 1951 by the Scottish engineer Alexander Thom (1894-1985). the megameter is seldom used. The reciprocal megakelvin (MK-1) is used in colorimetry. megakelvin (MK) a unit of temperature equal to one million kelvins. One meganewton equals about 101 972 kilograms of force or 224 809 pounds of force. the megaliter equals 264 172 U.28 meganewtons. megameter (Mm) a metric unit of distance equal to 1000 kilometers or about 621. megajoule (MJ) a common metric unit of work or energy. megampere (MA) a unit of electric current equal to one million amperes.S. megaohm (megohm) centimeter a unit of resistivity. resistivity is a measure of purity: the higher the purity. 947.

5 pounds (10. Although it is considered obsolete.817 Btu per second. One megawatt is equal to one million watts. tons) per square foot.18 petajoules).S.6 gigajoules (GJ). about 81. One megawatt day equals exactly 24 megawatt hours. The megapond also equals 9806.412 million Btu. megaton (Mton or Mt) a unit of energy used for measuring the energy of an explosion. especially in Germany. megatonne (Mt) a metric unit of mass or weight equal to one million metric tons (tonnes).89 million Btu. megayear (Myr or Ma) a unit of time equal to one million years. or about 2.65 newtons. sectional area (in square centimeters) divided by its length (in centimeters). 3. especially electrical energy. megawatt hour (MW·h) a metric unit of energy. or "dots").857 x 1018 kilometers (30. a rectangular image 1000 pixels by 1000 pixels is comprised of one megapixel. 86. or roughly 4 trillion Btu. or 2204. megawatt day (MW·d or MWD) a unit of energy used in the nuclear power and nuclear weapons industries. the megapond is still used sometimes by engineers in Europe.038 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi) or 20 885. one teragram (Tg). One megaohm centimeter equals 10 000 ohm meters. especially a nuclear explosion. or about 2. One megapascal equals 10 bars or approximately 145. megapond (Mp) a metric unit of force equal to 1000 kilograms of force (kgf). the megaparsec is used by astronomers studying the most distant quasars and galaxies. megapixel a unit used to describe the size or resolution of an image or of a digital camera.02 horsepower.857 zettameters). or 947.18 x 1015 joules (4.655 billion foot pounds. MP) a common metric unit of pressure or stress equal to one million pascals or one newton per square millimeter.16 billion kilowatt hours. megawatt (MW) a common metric unit of power.2046 billion pounds. about 1341. Supposed to be the amount of energy released by the explosion of one million (short) tons of TNT. megohm . One megawatt hour equals exactly 3. For example.2616 million light years or 30.7 billion foot pounds. or about 63. The symbol MP is used fairly commonly in engineering.443 U. 1. One megapixel is one million pixels (picture elements. about 3. but it is not correct: use MPa.4 gigajoules (GJ). megapascal (MPa. megaparsec (Mpc) the longest distance unit in common use. One megaparsec equals one million parsecs. the megaton is defined to equal 4.6226 pounds of force in the traditional English system.

at a sound level 40 decibels above the faintest sound a listener can hear. originally defined by Stevens. holding about 18 liters. tones separated by equal intervals (frequency ratios). and tones perceived as being equally spaced in pitch are separated by an equal number of mels. and Newmann in 1937. A pure tone of frequency 1000 hertz. "part. Although tones of higher frequency are perceived as being higher in pitch. The scale is named for the Italian geologist Giuseppe Mercalli (1850-1914). such as octaves. This is equivalent to about 1. -merous an ending meaning "-parted. melchior a huge bottle of champagne. it is not possible to give a straightforward conversion between hertz and mels. Mercalli intensity scale an empirical scale for rating the effects of an earthquake. Typically the meile was equal to 4000 klafters (fathoms) or 24 000 fuß (German feet).0286 avoirdupois pounds or 466. Because perceptions of pitch depend on a number of factors other than frequency.5 meters. Our perception of musical pitch is complex. a common unit of electric resistance equal to one million ohms. frequently used by botanists. For tones lower than 1000 hertz the perceived pitch is a little higher than the frequency in hertz. the Scandinavian version of this unit. The geographische meile was designed to equal 1/15 degree [2] or 4/3 league. In Austria this came to 7586 meters (4. who devised the first version in 1902. a 10-kilohertz tone is perceived at around 3000 mels. 4. as opposed to its strength (see magnitude [2] above). and Canada was developed by Charles F. the mercantile pound contained 15 troy ounces [2] or 7200 grains." mesh . Volkmann. the meile is much longer than the mile units of western Europe. will not be perceived as being equally spaced in pitch.S. Mercalli estimates are stated as Roman numerals (I-XII) to avoid confusion with magnitude estimates on the Richter scale." The suffix. See also mil [4].6061 miles." added to a number to create an adjective.714 miles).6805 miles or 7532. mel a unit of perceived musical pitch. Thus "8- merous" means "having 8 parts. For tones above 1000 hertz the perceived pitch in mels is lower than the frequency in hertz. or 7412. Used from about 1100 to 1300. This simplified spelling of megaohm is approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). in northern Germany it was 4.55 grams.7 meters). A version of the meile called the geographische meile was defined to equal exactly 4 (Admiralty) nautical miles (24 320 feet. mercantile pound (lb merc) a historic English unit of weight. the modified version used in the U. is defined to have a pitch of 1000 mels. meile A traditional distance unit in German speaking countries. is derived from the Greek meros. Richter in 1956. the mercantile pound (libra mercatoria) was the commercial predecessor of the avoirdupois pound [1].

See quintal for a more complete description.689 days. metric quintal a unit of mass equal to 1 decitonne. but it is the metal. This is approximately 735.994 194 miles or 5249.499 watts or 0.) Many lunar calendars. the recurrence isn't always exact as to the day of the month. the zentner.0462 pounds).5 kilometers (approximately 0.932 057 statute mile or 4921. metric pound an informal name for a mass of 500 grams (0. In the United States. Thanks to Einstein's equation E = mc2 equating mass wth energy.34 feet). Thus the unit is really a unit of mass equal to 10 kilograms (22. This unit is also known by its German name.782 662 x 10-27 .217 646 2 femtojoules. The metric mile is equal to 1500 meters or 1. the MeV can be regarded either as a unit of energy equal to 160. In U. metric grain a unit of mass sometimes used by jewelers. The proper symbol for the unit is simply t. the metric ton unit is defined to be one metric ton of ore containing 1% metal.26 feet). not the ore. equal to exactly 200 milligrams. in Spanish as caballo de vapor. and in German as Pferdestärke. is equal to 6939. metric horsepower a unit of power. just 125 minutes longer.5 kilogram or 1. metric ton unit (mtu) a unit of mass used in mining to measure the mass of the valuable metal in an ore. MeV the symbol for one million electronvolts. the phases of the Moon repeat almost exactly after 19 years. or (in English) the centner. defined to be the power required to raise a mass of 75 kilograms at a velocity of 1 meter per second. The cycle is named for the ancient Greek astronomer Meton. As a result. Customarily. or as a unit of mass equal to 1. metric ton (t or MT) an alternate name for the tonne. metric hundredweight an informal unit of mass equal to 50 kilograms or approximately 110. metric mile an informal unit of distance used mostly in athletics.231 pounds. high school competition the term is sometimes used for a race of 1600 meters (0. that is being measured. who first used it for predictions around 433 BC.462 pounds. metric slug see TME. close to the traditional British hundredweight of 112 pounds. This unit is often used for pearls and is sometimes called the pearl grain.1023 pound). equal to 50 milligrams or 1/4 carat. metric carat the current internationally-recognized carat. such as the Chinese and Jewish calendars. share this 19-year cycle.986 32 horsepower. 100 kilograms or about 220.S. (Since 19 years can contain either 3 or 4 leap days. The unit is known in French as cheval vapeur. the Department of Commerce recommends that the tonne be called the metric ton to distinguish it clearly from the traditional American ton.

01 grams per liter (g/L).(µ.708 microradians (µrad). 1 Mgd equals approximately 3.43 cubic meters per day. MFD. or 3785. mgon symbol for the milligon (milligrad).785 43 megaliters per day. Obviously.0009°.24 seconds of arc. "mho" is "ohm" spelt backwards.or mc. 10-5 right angle. or could be withdrawn. an equally obsolete name for the millimole (mmol). 0. Surveying equipment is often marked in "mgons. mg/dl symbol for milligram per deciliter. This is 1. In case you didn't notice already. or mcF if µ is not available. 1 mg/dl equals 0. a unit of angle measure equal to 0. or 15. meaning small.1 millimeter. mic an informal name for the microgram. which is defined to be the reciprocal of the ohm. The correct symbol is µF." mho an older name for the siemens. In print the prefix is sometimes abbreviated mc. medicine to measure the concentration of cholesterol and other substances in the blood. gram or 0. The prefix comes from the Greek prefix mikro-. micro. the name comes from the Disney cartoon character Mickey Mouse.or u-) a metric prefix meaning 10-6 (one millionth). 3. 1 mg/kg is equivalent to 10-6 g/g or 1 part per million based on the patient's body weight.956 951 times the mass of the electron (me). Internationally. a unit used in reservoir management to express the rate at which water is withdrawn. a unit used in medicine to measure dosage rates. Mgd an abbreviation for millions of gallons per day (Mgal/d). mg-eq an obsolete symbol for "milligram equivalent". mg-at an obsolete symbol for "milligram atom". the SI unit for data of this type is millimoles per liter (mmol/L).or u. an equally obsolete name for the milliequivalent (mEq). mg/kg symbol for milligram per kilogram. see the table of SI Units for Clinical Data for conversions of many common measurements. This depends on the equipment. mfd common but incorrect symbols for the microfarad (see below). for drinking or for some other purpose. or 133 681 cubic feet per day." mickey a unit used in computer science in programming mice and similar input devices. . Typical values are in the range 1/200 to 1/300 inch or roughly 0. One mickey is the length of the smallest detectable movement of the mouse.001 073 544 atomic mass unit.001 gon.S. a unit used in U. pronounced "mike.when the Greek letter mu (µ) is not available.

milliampere (mA) a common unit of electric current equal to 0. This is equal to about 6394. military pace another name for a step. millennium a traditional unit of time equal to 1000 years. The prefix was coined from the Latin number mille. The same definitions are generally used by marching bands. or 0.297 statute miles or 2087. milliampere hour (mA·h) a common unit of electric charge.4 feet.001. millenary a unit of quantity equal to 1000. equal to exactly 1852 meters. The unit is also called the circular mil-foot.S.(m-) a metric prefix meaning 0. centimeters. mill [1] an informal unit of quantity or of proportion. However.001 ampere. mille [2] in French-speaking Canada. equal to 5000 pies (Spanish feet) or 8 estadios.211 statute mile. the English statute mile of 5280 feet (1609. sometimes used in English in very learned or literary contexts.001 (one thousandth). When Congress established the U. The plural is millennia or sometimes millenniums.3 meters). mille [3] the Latin word for 1000.001. one thousand.2 centimeters) for ordinary "quick time" marching and 36 inches (91. milha the traditional Portuguese mile. it has come to represent a one thousandth part as a proportion. In modern France. the mille sometimes means the nautical mile (mille marin).44 centimeters) for double time marching. equal to 1000 toises. 4567 feet. it provided for 10 mills to the cent and 100 cents to the dollar. equal to 0. 1. thus the mill was an amount of money equal to \$0. S. one of the "longest miles" of all at 2282. used (for example) in stating the capacity of batteries for cell phones and other electronic equipment. monetary system in 1791. In the U. Many towns in the United States set their property tax rates in mills. This is about 1392 meters.75 yards (1. for example. the military pace is defined to be exactly 30 inches (76.865 statute mile. mille [1] the traditional French mile. Although the mill is unfamiliar now as a monetary unit. the unit is used primarily in statements of resistivity in ohms per mil-foot or of density in pounds per mil-foot. milli. milla the traditional Spanish mile. or 1949 meters. mill [2] slang for one million. One milliampere hour is .344 meters). Army.

millidegree (mdeg) [1] a unit of angle measure equal to 0. 0. which is what Americans call a billion.001 arcsecond.848 137 nanoradians. milliard [1] a unit of quantity equal to 109.001 bar.001 candela. the charge accumulated by a current of 1 milliampere in 1 hour. millifarad (mF) a common unit of electric capacitance equal to 0.277 77 microdegrees. The unit should really be called the milligalileo.0295 inches (0. milliequivalent (mEq or meq) a unit of relative amount of substance commonly used in chemistry. One milliarcsecond is equal to 0. many meteorologists resist this change and continue to use millibars. See Using Numbers and Units for more on the "billion" controversy. this is equal to exactly 3. 1000 dynes/cm2. or 10-5 meters per second per second. 0. millidegree (mdeg) [2] a unit of temperature equal to 0. usually meaning 0. One mEq equals 0. milligal (mGal or mgal) a unit of acceleration used in geology to measure subtle changes in gravitational acceleration. milliarcsecond (mas) a unit of angular measure commonly used in astronomy. The intensity of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) used in electronics are stated in millicandelas. or 4.001 °C.1 microtesla.6 coulombs (C). This name.014 504 lb/in2. One millicurie represents radioactivity at the rate of 37 million atomic disintegrations per second. that is. One milligal equals 10 micrometers per second per second.001°. or about 0. millicandela (mcd) a unit of light intensity equal to 0. millibar (mb) a common metric unit of atmospheric pressure. and some weather agencies have replaced the millibar with the hectopascal in an effort to conform with the SI. A millibar is the same thing as a hectopascal (hPa). about 0.001° or exactly 36 arcseconds. equal to 0. milliard [2] a unit of volume used by engineers to describe a large quantity of water.001 equivalent weight. However. obsolete now.7501 millimeters) of mercury. millicurie (mCi) a common unit of radioactivity. which is 1 billion (109) cubic meters or about 810 767 acre feet. or 100 nanoteslas. millier a former name for the tonne or metric ton. was used in Britain to avoid confusion with the British long ton. 100 pascals. 37 megabequerels. The magnetic fields generated by power lines and electronic equipment are often measured in milligauss. In fact. One milliard equals one cubic kilometer. .001 gauss. milligauss (mG) a unit of magnetic flux density equal to 0. the appropriate SI unit for atmospheric pressure is the kilopascal (10 millibars).001 farad.

001 gram or 1000 micrograms (µg or mcg). with solids being measured in cubic centimeters.55 foot-pound per second or 0. the SI unit for data of this type is millimoles per liter (mmol/L).274 x 10-6 ounce. millihg an informal name (pronounced "millig") for the millimeter of mercury (see below). millijoule (mJ) a common metric unit of work or energy equal to 0.001 joule or 104 ergs. This unit is commonly used to state the power of small electric motors. minims (see below).001 degree Celsius (°C). The natural illumination at night is measured in millilux.001 liter. milliliter (ml or mL) a very common metric unit of volume. In particular. millilambert (mLb) a common metric unit of illumination equal to 0. The milliliter is used almost entirely for measuring the volumes of liquids. see inhour. exactly one cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc).1 rad. One milli-k is a reactivity of 0. milligram per deciliter (mg/dl or mg/dL) a conventional unit in medicine for measuring concentrations of cholesterol and many other substances in the blood.001 henry. the exposures cause by X-ray equipment are typically in the milligray range. millihorsepower (mhp) a unit of power equal to 0. milli-k a unit used in nuclear engineering to describe the "reactivity" of a nuclear reactor. millimass unit (mu or mmu) . millilux (mlx) a metric unit of illumination equal to 0.7457 watt.001 lambert or 10 lux (lx). or approximately 0.231 U. many practical radiation measurements are made in milligrays. Because the gray itself is such a large unit. or 1 millijoule of energy per kilogram of matter. This unit was introduced in the Canadian nuclear power industry. Internationally.milligram (mg) a very common metric unit of mass equal to 0.001 lux.1%.015432 grain or 35. One milliliter equals 0.001 kelvin or 0.S. One milligram equals approximately 0. For a discussion of reactivity.001 gray. milligray (mGy) a common unit of radiation dose equal to 0.001 or 0.061 023 7 cubic inch or 16. 0. This unit is used mostly by scientists investigating substances cooled very close to absolute zero. the origin of the name is that k is a common symbol for reactivity. millikelvin (mK) a unit of temperature equal to 0. see the table of SI Units for Clinical Data for conversions of many common measurements. millihenry (mH) a common metric unit of electric inductance equal to 0.

This was the original definition of the minute as a unit of time. this is about 17 Imperial pints or 10 liters (roughly 2. see sidereal day. minute (' or m) [3] a unit of angular measure used in astronomy.) mips a unit of computing power equal to one million instructions per second. This unit is often called the arcminute to distinguish it from the minute of time. both males and females can be included in a minyan. The modern definition of 1/60 hour did not appear until the invention of mechanical clocks made it practical to measure such small intervals of time. used mostly in Britain. The Romans lacked our flexible terminology for fractions.S. For smaller fractions. they followed Babylonian and Greek practice in visualizing quantities as being divided into 60 parts. There are 21 600 arcminutes in a circle. an informal unit of volume for beer and other alcoholic beverages. An "instruction" is a single program command to the computer's central processor. or 6 minutes in modern terminology. a 60th part was divided into 60 smaller parts. The SI defines min as the symbol for the time unit (see above) and recommends ' as the symbol for the arcminute. This unit was divided into 4 moments (see below)." the minuta secunda is our "second. as they call it) in time units by dividing the equator into 24 hours instead of 360 degrees. without use of arcminutes and arcseconds. the number of males aged 13 or over required for a Jewish worship service." and the prima leads to the traditional symbol ' being called a "prime. A minipin is 1/2 of a polypin.64 U. In a particular computer. Astronomers measure celestial longitude (or "right ascension". gallons). The minuta prima has come down to us as "minute. minute [4] a unit of time equal to 1/60 day or 24 minutes in the modern sense." minute (min or ' or m) [1] a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or to 1/60 hour. The symbol moa ("minute of angle") is often used in target shooting. so they could express fractions consistently in 60ths. A 60th part was called a pars minuta prima ("first small part") of the whole. minyan a traditional Hebrew unit of quantity equal to 10. The SI specifies min as the symbol for the time unit and ' as the symbol for the arcminute (see below). (In many modern congregations. minute (min or m or ') [5] a unit of sidereal time in astronomy. minute (' or m or moa) [2] or minute of arc a unit of angular measure equal to 60 arcseconds or to 1/60 degree. minute (') [0] a historic unit of proportion equal to 1/60. a unit of time equal to 1/10 hour. each called a pars minuta secunda ("second small part"). minutum in medieval times. there is a definite relationship between the rate at which . This makes 1 minute of celestial longitude or right ascension equal to 15 arcminutes. The international standard ISO 31 requires that angles be stated in degrees and decimal fractions of the degree.

Since the single letter M is now used commonly for one million. standardized under British rule as 1/2 yard (18 inches. measured in megahertz (MHz). MM actually means 2000. m/m an abbreviation for "by mass. This unit is an African version of the cubit.) mM a common symbol in chemistry for millimolar.806 65 newton meters (N·m) or 7.233 01 pound feet. symbols do not take the terminal -s in the plural. M being the Roman numeral 1000. and the "clock speed" of the processor. However. "Mlb" is correct. in two syllables. in mips." used in chemistry and pharmacology to describe the concentration of a substance in a mixture or solution. 2% m/m means that the mass of the substance is 2% of the total mass of the solution or mixture. mkono a traditional unit of distance in East Africa. it is pronounced my-red. The SI does not allow the use of this symbol." used in the oil and gas industry to indicate the length of a bored well as measured from the large bushing at the top of the shaft. mired a name used in colorimetry for the reciprocal megakelvin (MK-1). see megabarrel above. However. The abbreviation is meant to indicate one thousand thousand. seen in a few traditional units such as those listed below. MMb. MIU symbol for one million international units. mkp a common symbol for the meter kilopond. a metric unit of torque equal to 9. this relationship varies considerably between computers. Since the drilling is usually not exactly vertical. MMbo symbols for one million barrels of oil. The symbol mTVD is often used for true vertical depth. MJD see modified Julian day (below). Although "Mlbs" is seen frequently. this measurement will be larger than the actual depth of the bottom of the well. The word is an acronym for "micro-reciprocal degree". in Roman numeration. instructions are processed. (Also note that the "l" is not capitalized in the symbol for the pound. Mlbs common symbols for one million pounds. millimoles per liter. such as various forms of interferon. so it is usually not meaningful to compare the mips rates of dissimilar machines. the use of the double MM is confusing and strongly discouraged. that is. MM an abbreviation for one million. or 45. not one million. MMBF or MMBM .72 centimeters). are commonly stated in this unit. Dosages of certain drugs. mKB symbol for "meters from the Kelly bushing. Mlb.

in fact. MMscfd symbol for one million standard cubic feet per day.3 pascals. MMM actually means 3000. . After the cut is made. 1 moa is very nearly equal to a target size of 1 inch at 100 yards. By coincidence. above). from Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books.6 °C) and pressure (1 atmosphere). the resulting pages were described as quarto (4to). This unit is also called the dekatherm.091 terajoules (TJ). posted by Stanford University." Each leaf. "Standard" means that the measurement is adjusted to standard temperature (60 °F or 15. MMMcfe is used for one billion cubic feet of gas equivalent: 1. large sheets are printed. seen in a few traditional units such as those mentioned above. the sheet has been divided into a certain number of "leaves. folded at the spine of the book. or 12 leaves. a unit used widely in the energy industry. moa an acronym for "minute of angle. Link: book sizes.9089 centimeters at 100 meters. symbols sometimes used in U. When sheets were cut to form 4. octavo (8vo) or duodecimo (12mo). in Roman numeration. In metric units. forestry for one million board feet. 8.316 85 megaliters). This unit is commonly used in target shooting to express the angular size of targets or the spacing between marks on a reticle (the grid of lines seen in the eyepiece of a rifle).85 m3. Similarly. mmHg symbol for the millimeter of mercury (see above). MMcfe a symbol used in the natural gas industry for one million cubic feet of gas equivalent (cfe).4720 inches at 1000 yards. respectively. Roberts and Don Etherington. and then cut to manufacture the book. 1 moa = 1.047 20 inches at 100 yards or 10. comprises two pages front and back. 1 moa = 2. or 28. MMM an abbreviation for one billion (109). not one billion. "BM" stands for "board measure.091 petajoules (PJ). a unit of pressure equal to 133. -mo a "unit" traditionally used in printing to describe the page size of a book or other publication. One MMBF represents a volume of 83 333 cubic feet or 2360 cubic meters. for the arcminute (see minute [2]. the customary unit for measuring the production and flow of natural gas." that is. the suffix -mo from duodecimo was made into a suffix that can be attached to any number to indicate the number of leaves per sheet. MMMcf is used for one billion cubic feet. folded. However. Later. In traditional printing. Similarly. M being the Roman numeral 1000." MMBtu a traditional symbol for one million Btu (about 1. by Matt T. The abbreviation is meant to indicate one thousand thousand thousand. thus 16mo indicates 16 leaves per sheet.S.055 057 gigajoules (GJ)). This is really an energy unit equal to about 1. MMcf a symbol for one million cubic feet (28 316.

5. for example. but still substantial. a count of days beginning at noon Universal Time January 1. 29. often appear to be units of measurement. space engineers introduced the modified Julian date. from the French moitié. This unit is essentially the same as the TEU. moiety another name for a half.S. It's easy to get them confused.25 cubic meters). molar (M) these notations. Astronomers have long used the Julian day. gypsum 2. topaz 8. fluorite 4.314 joules per mole per kelvin. apatite 5. A cotton module is 8 ft by 8 ft by 20 ft. molar volume a unit used by chemists and physicists to measure the volumes of gases. These units are not approved by the General Conference on Weights and Measures. The molar volume is the volume one mole of gas occupies at standard temperature (273.530 59 days. The term "molal" describes the concentration of a solution in moles per kilogram of solvent (mol/kg). is crucial in the regulation of the Jewish lunisolar calendar. 4713 BC. quartz 7. Also. A solution described as 1. the volume of a standard 20 ft container. and talc 1. This unit. If. or 1280 cubic feet (about 36. the old astronomical custom of beginning a day at noon is awkward for converting Julian dates to the ordinary calendar. one attempts to scratch the mineral with standard minerals assigned hardness numbers as follows: diamond 10. machinery is used to compact it into bundles called modules for transportation to the gin. calcite 3. To ease these problems.325 kilopascals). The behavior of gases under ordinary conditions (not at very high pressures or very low temperatures) is governed by the Ideal Gas Law.0 µmol/L. Their use is declining. where n is the number of moles of gas present and the gas constant R equals 8. the mineral is scratched by quartz but not by orthoclase. and others. traditionally used by chemists to describe the concentration of chemical solutions. while "molar" describes a concentration in moles per liter (mol/L).modified Julian day (MJD) a count of days used by astronomers. This law says that the volume V of a gas is related to its temperature T and pressure P by the formula PV = nRT. The result is a count of days beginning at 0 hours (midnight) Universal Time on 17 November 1858. more than 2. orthoclase 6.0 µM has a concentration of 1. space agencies. module a unit of volume for raw cotton in the U. To apply the scale. or 101. or 0 °C) and standard pressure (1 atmosphere. When cotton is harvested. One problem with this is that the numbers are large. introduced by the German geologist Friedrich Mohs (1773-1839) in 1812. as a means of specifying a date independent of all calendars.4 million. equal to the Julian date minus 2 400 000. for current dates.16 kelvins. Thus (for example) 0 hours 1 January 2005 is MJD 53371. The molar volume is . corundum 9.0. molad Hebrew name for the lunar (synodic) month (see month [1] below). then its hardness is between 6 and 7. molal (m). Mohs hardness scale a 1-10 scale for estimating the hardness of a mineral.

equal to 22.414 liters or 0.7915 cubic foot. (Occasionally the term "molar
volume" is used for the volume occupied by a mole of a substance which is not a
gas; in such cases the molar volume will be different for each substance.)
mole (mol)
the SI base unit of the amount of a substance (as distinct from its mass or weight).
Moles measure the actual number of atoms or molecules in an object. An alternate
name is gram molecular weight, because one mole of a chemical compound is
the same number of grams as the molecular weight of a molecule of that
compound measured in atomic mass units. The official definition, adopted as part
of the SI system in 1971, is that one mole of a substance contains just as many
elementary entities (atoms, molecules, ions, or other kinds of particles) as there
are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (carbon-12 is the most common atomic form
of carbon, consisting of atoms having 6 protons and 6 neutrons). The actual
number of "elementary entities" in a mole is called Avogadro's number after the
Italian chemist and physicist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856). Careful
measurement determines Avogadro's number to be approximately 602.214 179 x
1021. In the American system of naming big numbers, that's 602 sextillion 214
moment
a medieval unit of time equal to 1/40 hour or 1.5 minutes. This meaning has come
down to us only as "a brief interval of time." The moment was divided into 12
ounces [4] of 7.5 seconds each.
momme [1]
a traditional Japanese weight unit corresponding to the Chinese mace (see above).
Jewelers continue to use the momme to measure the weight of cultured pearls; for
this purpose it equals exactly 3.75 grams (about 0.132 ounce) or 18.75 carats. The
unit is commonly pronounced "mommy" in English.
momme [2]
a traditional unit used to measure the "weight" (density per unit area) of silk. The
measure is the weight in momme [1] of a standard strip of silk 25 yards long by
1.49 inches wide, an area of 1341 square inches or about 0.8652 square meter.
This makes the silk momme equal to about 3.62 grams per square yard or 4.33
grams per square meter.
MON
abbreviation for motor octane number. See octane.
mondo point
another name for a millimeter, when used to measure shoe and boot sizes. Ski
boots, for example, are sized in mondo points.
month (mo or mon) [1]
a unit of time marked by the revolution of the Moon around the Earth. In many
traditional societies the appearance of the first tiny crescent moon after the New
Moon signaled the start of the month. This start of the month, based on the first
appearance of the Moon, is still proclaimed from mosques in Islamic countries.
Thus the lunar month is defined as the average interval between two successive
moments of New Moon. Astronomers call this period the synodic month. Its
length is 29.530 59 days.

month (mo or mon) [2]
a civil unit of time equal to approximately 1/12 year, but varying from 28 to 31
days. The Sun and the Moon are our traditional time keepers, but they are badly
out of step with each other. A solar year equals approximately 12.368 lunar
months. The large fraction in this number makes it difficult to design a calendar
with a whole number of months in each year. There are at least three solutions to
the problem:

[i] Use leap months. In the traditional Chinese and Jewish calendars most years
have 12 months, but some have a 13th month. In these luni-solar calendars the
length of the year varies from 354 to 384 days.

[ii] Define 12 synodic lunar months to be a year and don't worry about the length
of the year. This is the solution of the Islamic calendar. Since the Islamic year has
only 354 or 355 days, its length does not match the cycle of the seasons.

[iii] Observe the solar year and let the months be 12 arbitrary periods; don't worry
about the Moon. This is the solution adopted by the Romans, who established the
civil calendar we use today. In this calendar, all months have 30 or 31 days except
the second month, February. February has 28 days in ordinary years and 29 in

moog
a proposed unit in synthetic music, equal to one volt per octave. The unit would
honor Robert Moog (1934-2005), the inventor of the Moog synthesizer .
morgan (M)
a unit of genetic separation used in genetics and biotechnology. If two locations
on a chromosome have probability p of being separated during recombination in a
single generation, then the distance between those locations is p morgan. In
practice, measurements are made in centimorgans, each centimorgan representing
a 1% probability. The unit honors the American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan
(1866-1945), who received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1933 for his
pioneering work in studying the genetics of the fruit fly Drosophila.
morgen
a traditional unit of land area in Northern Europe. "Morgen" means "morning,"
and most likely the unit arose as the area a yoke of oxen could plow in one
morning. The Dutch morgen, also used in Dutch colonies including old New
York, equals about 2.10 acres or 0.850 hectare. In South Africa, this unit was
defined to equal 10 246 square yards, which is 2.1169 acres or 0.8567 hectare. In
Scandinavia and northern Germany, the morgen is a smaller unit equal to about
0.63 acre or 0.25 hectare (2500 square meters). The Prussian morgen,
standardized at 2553.22 square meters, was in common use during the nineteenth
century. In Austria and southern Germany, the morgen was often the same as a
joch, typically defined to be 0.5755 hectare or about 1.422 acres.
mouse unit (MU or U)

an unofficial unit of toxicity used in pharmacology. A mouse unit is the dose of a
toxin that kills 50% of mice (that is, it is the LD50 dose for mice). Typically the
mice are assumed to have a mass of 20 grams, the toxin is administered by
intraperitoneal injection, and mortality is measured over a standard period that
may vary according to the toxin. The size of the mouse unit (in milliliters or
international units) depends on the specific toxin.
MP, MPa
symbols for the megapascal, a unit of pressure or stress (see above). MPa is the
correct symbol; MP should not be used.
mppcf
abbreviation for million particles per cubic foot, a unit used to measure
concentration of dust particles, mostly in industrial settings. 1 mppcf is equivalent
to about 35.315 million particles per cubic meter. The symbol mp/f3 is sometimes
used for this unit.
mq
Italian abbreviation for the square meter (metro quadrato). Similarly, cmq is a
square centimeter and kmq is a square kilometer. These are non-standard
symbols; the correct symbol for the square meter is m2.
msl
abbreviation for mean sea level, often seen in measurements of altitude, as in m
(msl) for meters above mean sea level or ft msl for feet above mean sea level.
"Mean sea level" is defined to be the average height of the sea, for all stages of
the tide, as measured over a 19-year Metonic cycle (see above).
Mstb
a symbol commonly used in the oil industry for 1000 stock tank barrels.
msw
symbol for "meters of seawater," a conventional unit of pressure. The pressure
exerted by seawater varies slightly with temperature and salinity, but for practical
purposes the convention is that each meter imposes a pressure of 0.1 bar or 10
kilopascals (about 0.102 kilograms of force per square centimeter or 1.45 pounds
per square inch). Sometimes the convention is that each meter is equivalent to 0.1
atmosphere (0.1013 bar), which is practically the same thing. In English units, 1
msw = 3.28 feet of seawater (fsw). Underwater pressure gauges are frequently
calibrated in this unit.
Msym/s
a unit of radio transmission rate equal to 1 million symbols per second.
MT
a common U.S. abbreviation for the metric ton or tonne (1000 kilograms).
mtu
see metric ton unit, above.
mu or mou
meters or 800 square yards. However, the colonial customs authorities used a
larger mu equal to 8273.75 square feet, 919.3 square yards, or 768.65 square
meters. In modern China, the mu is often reckoned to be exactly 1/15 hectare,
which is 666.667 square meters or 797.327 square yards.

mud
a traditional Dutch unit of volume for grains and other dry commodities.
Originally varying from market to market, the unit was declared equal to the
hectoliter (about 3.5315 cubic feet or 2.838 U.S. bushels) when the metric system
was introduced in the Netherlands. With this definition it is still in use.
mug [1]
an informal contraction of "metric slug". See TME.
mug [2]
another name for a slinch.
mutchkin
a traditional Scottish unit of liquid volume. The mutchkin is about 15 British fluid
ounces, which is about 426 milliliters or almost exactly 0.9 U.S. pint.
mwe
abbreviation for meter of water equivalent, a unit used in nuclear physics to
describe the shielding around a reactor, accelerator, or detector. 1 mwe of any
material (such as rock, gravel, etc.) is a thickness of that material providing
shielding equivalent to one meter of water.
MWe, MWt
symbols used in the electric power industry to describe the size of generating
plants. MWe is the symbol for the actual output of a generating station in
megawatts of electricity; MWt is used for the heat energy, or thermal output,
required to operate the generators. Thermal output is typically about three times
the electric output.
Mya or mya
a common abbreviation (in English speaking countries) for "million years ago."
The form "Mya" is recommended, since the capital M, taken from the metric
prefix mega- (M-), is the appropriate symbol for a million.
myria- (my-)
a metric prefix meaning 10 000. This prefix was part of the original metric system
of 1795 and was used throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It
has been obsolete since 1935, when the CIPM adopted the prefix mega- for one
million and dropped myria-from the list of acceptable prefixes. The ancient Greek
word myrios means countless, without number. This was modified by later Greeks
to form a word myrioi meaning ten thousand. The word myriad, generally used
today to mean an indefinitely large number, originally meant the number 10 000.
myriagram (myg)
a metric unit of mass equal to 10 000 grams or 10 kilograms (about 22.046
pounds). Although it is considered obsolete now, the myriagram was a useful unit
comparable to the English quarter or Spanish arroba.
myriameter (mym)
an obsolete metric unit of distance equal to 10 000 meters or 10 kilometers (about
6.2137 miles).

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© Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill About the Dictionary
Using the Dictionary

N
N
a unit of refractive index sometimes used in atmospheric science. The index of
refraction of the atmosphere is only slightly greater than 1. The value of the index
in N units is the number of millionths by which the index exceeds one; that is, an
index of refraction n is equivalent to (n - 1) x 106 N units.
nail
an old English unit of length equal to 1/20 ell. Like the ell, the nail was used for
measuring cloth; traditionally, it represented the length of the last two joints
(including the fingernail) of the middle finger. The nail is equivalent to 1/16 yard,
1/4 span, 2.25 inches, or exactly 5.715 centimeters.
nano- (n-)
a metric prefix meaning 10-9, or one billionth. The prefix comes from the Greek
word nanos, dwarf.
nanoacre
a humorous unit of area on a computer chip, equal to one billionth of an acre or
nanobar (nb or nbar)
a CGS unit of pressure equal to 10-9 bar or 0.1 millipascal (mPa). The nanobar is
frequently used in meteorology to express the partial pressure of atmospheric
ozone.
nanocurie (nCi)
a common unit of radioactivity. The nanocurie equals 10-9 curie or 37 becquerels;
this corresponds to a radioactivity of 37 atomic disintegrations per second.
a common metric unit of electric capacitance equal to 10-9 farad. This unit was
nanogram (ng)
a metric unit of mass equal to 10-9 gram, or one millionth of a milligram.
nanogray (nGy)

occurs in the study of inhalation exposures.
nanoliter (nl or nL)
a metric unit of volume equal to 10-9 liter or 0.001 cubic millimeter.
nanometer (nm)
a metric unit of distance equal to 10-9 meter. Introduced in 1951, the nanometer
replaced the millimicron. One nanometer equals 0.001 micrometer or 10
angstroms.
nanomole
a unit of amount of substance equal to 10-9 mole. This unit is common in
biochemistry, since a mole of a large organic molecule can be quite a large
amount.
nanon
an informal name for the nanometer.
nanonewton (nN)
a metric unit of force equal to 10-9 newton (see below) or 0.1 millidyne.
Nanonewtons measure the force of solar radiation and the tiny forces exerted
within living cells.
533 milliarcsecond (mas). Such tiny angles are encountered in astronomy and in
geological measurements.
nanosecond (ns)
a unit of time equal to 10-9 second.
nanosievert (nSv)
a unit of radiation dose equal to 10-9 sievert or 0.1 microrem.
nanostrain (nstrain)
an engineering unit measuring strain. An object under strain is typically deformed
(extended or compressed), and the strain is measured by the amount of this
deformation relative to the same object in an undeformed state. One nanostrain is
the strain producing a deformation of one part per billion (10-9). Strains in
geological formations are often measured in this unit.
nanotesla (nT)
a unit of magnetic field strength equal to 10-9 tesla or 10-5 gauss. The unit is used
in geology to measure small changes in the Earth's magnetic field.
nat or natural unit
a unit of information content used in information and communications theory. The
nat is similar to the shannon but uses the natural logarithm (to the base e) instead
of the logarithm to the base 2. If the probability of receiving a particular message
is p, then the information content of the message is -loge p nats. For example, if a
message is a string of 5 letters or numerals, with all combinations being equally
likely, then a particular message has probability 1/365 and the information content
of a message is 5(loge 36) = 17.9176 nats. One nat equals log2 e = 1.442 695
shannons or log10 e = 0.434 294 hartleys.
nautical mile (nmi, naut mi, n mile, or NM)

a unit of distance used primarily at sea and in aviation. The nautical mile is
defined to be the average distance on the Earth's surface represented by one
minute of latitude. This may seem odd to landlubbers, but it makes good sense at
sea, where there are no mile markers but latitude can be measured. Because the
Earth is not a perfect sphere, it is not easy to measure the length of the nautical
mile in terms of the statute mile used on land. For many years the British set the
nautical mile at 6080 feet (1853.188 meters), exactly 800 feet longer than a statute
mile; this unit was called the Admiralty mile. Until 1954 the U.S. nautical mile
was equal to 6080.20 feet (1853.249 meters). In 1929 an international conference
in Monaco redefined the nautical mile to be exactly 1852 meters or 6076.115 49
feet, a distance known as the international nautical mile. The international
nautical mile equals about 1.1508 statute miles. There are usually 3 nautical miles
in a league. The unit is designed to equal 1/60 degree [2], although actual degrees
of latitude vary from about 59.7 to 60.3 nautical miles.
Ncm
a symbol for the newton centimeter, a metric unit of torque equal to 0.01 newton
meter (see below) or about 1.416 12 inch ounces (in·oz) in traditional English
units.
Ndm3
a symbol sometimes used for the normal liter (see below). Recall that a liter is
the same as a cubic decimeter (dm3).
a huge wine bottle holding about 15 liters, 20 times the volume of a regular bottle.
neck (nk)
an informal unit of distance used to measure the distance one horse leads another
at the finish of a race. The neck is usually interpreted to be 1/4 length or a little
less; this is roughly 2 feet or 0.6 meter.
neper (Np)
a unit expressing the ratio of two numbers as a natural logarithm; the ratio r
corresponds to (1/2) ln r nepers. Quantities differ by 1 neper if one is e2 =
7.389056 times the other. One neper is equal to about 8.685 890 decibels, and in
general n nepers equal 20n/(ln 10) decibels. The neper is accepted for use with SI
units, and it may become an SI unit in the future. The unit recognizes the Scottish
mathematician John Napier (1550-1617), the inventor of the logarithm (Napier
often spelled his name Jhone Neper, and he used the Latin form Ioanne Napero in
his writings).
nest
an old English unit of quantity equal to 3. This unit was often, but not always,
used for items that nest together, such as 3 bowls or 3 hampers.
net ton (NT)
the name "net ton" is used in at least two ways: (1) as another name for the U.S.
or short ton of 2000 pounds (see ton [1]), and (2) as another name for the register
ton, a unit of volume equal to 100 cubic feet (see ton [3]), in describing the cargo-
carrying capacity of a ship as opposed to the entire interior volume. To avoid
confusion, it is better to use "short ton" for use (1) and "net register ton" for use
(2).

nip an informal unit of liquid volume. One nile is a reactivity of 0.01 or 1%. then the reliability. but it is designed more toward preserving speech . the noggin is often taken to equal 1/4 pint. if its failure rate is 0. a nip is often taken to be 2 fluid ounces (about 59 milliliters). The name of the unit comes from the Latin niteo. see inhour." used in computer engineering. nit (nt) an MKS unit of luminance. a nip of spirits is considered to be 1/6 gill (about 22. is similar. noise criterion (NC).7 milliliters) or sometimes 1/3 pint (189. a component has "3 nines" of reliability if it operates correctly 99. For example. Yarn is described as a/b Nm if it is a-ply (has a individual strands) and there are b kilometers of yarn per kilogram.S. a unit of torque (see above). a symbol for the density of worsted yarns. noggin a traditional unit of liquid volume. In Britain. to shine." with no precise equivalent.4 milliliters). nine a measure of reliability. but it has been approved since 1947 by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) and is in wide use. The nit is not approved as part of the SI. The term "nip" often means "a small amount. Meteo France uses it in maritime weather forecasts. introduced by Beranek in 1957. or 10-4 stilb. The noise rating (NR) system was introduced by Kosten and van Os in 1962. This non-metric unit is still used officially in France. the NR rating is equal to the sound level in decibels at a frequency of 1000 hertz. This unit is sometimes called the meterlambert. or "availability. by analogy with the footlambert.9% of the time. a unit used in nuclear engineering to describe the "reactivity" of a nuclear reactor. equivalently. The noise criterion (NC) system. sometimes it is taken to be 1/2 pint. so a single-ply yarn is described as b Nm. equal to one candela per square meter. 4 fluid ounces or about 117. or.776 U. but the rating requires lower levels at the more objectionable higher frequencies. noeud French word for the knot (1.1%. with one millinile = 10- 5 . in nines. In U. Nm [2] abbrevation for normal metric. bartending. For a discussion of reactivity. describing a 2- ply yarn having 40 kilometers per kilogram. the a is often omitted. fluid ounce). a nip of beer is 1/4 pint (the same as a gill. Since this is a rather large amount.S. for example. Numerically. Like the gill. If the probability of correct operation is p. An example might be 2/40 Nw. If the yarn is single-ply. noise rating (NR) units used in enginering to measure the acceptability of sound levels in enclosed spaces. Thus each nine represents a reduction of 90% in the failure rate.852 km/h) the traditional unit of velocity at sea.95 milliliters or 0. is equal to -log10(1-p). used primarily in Ireland. The nile was invented in the British nuclear power industry. Nm or N·m [1] symbol for newton meter. reactivity is measured for practical purposes in milliniles.

normal liter (NL or Nl or Ndm3) a unit of mass for gases equal to the mass of 1 liter (0. A nook of land thus came to be 20 acres or about 8." noy a unit of perceived noisiness introduced by the American acoustics engineer K. The term standard cubic meter is also used. It was updated in 1971. often 0 °C (32 °F) or 20 °C (68 °F). normal cubic meter (Nm3) a unit of mass for gases equal to the mass of 1 cubic meter (35. equal to 1/2 breve.094 hectares.3147 ft3) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere and at a standard temperature. The normal concentration of an ion is effectively equal to the molar concentration divided by the valence (the number of free or missing electrons) of the ion. used in expressing the results of a horse race. An observer uses the unit to described the noise levels he or she experiences as multiples of a standard level. a virgate.035 3147 ft3) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere and at a standard temperature. normal (N) a term used in chemistry to describe a solution having a concentration of 1 gram equivalent per liter. requiring lower levels of both high and low frequencies." A jet aircraft takeoff is rated at about 110 noys. Kryter in 1959. The symbol Nm3. "Nox" is the Latin word for "night. these terms should always be defined wherever they occur. nook a traditional unit of land area in northern England. also called a whole note. The standard level. Originally the nook was 1/2 virgate. equal to roughly half the length of a horse's head. the unit's name is chosen so that its plural is pronounced "noise. is not permissible under the SI because that symbol means "newton cubic meter. communication. was about 30 acres in southern England but tended to be closer to 40 acres in the north. Air flow is often stated in normal liters per minute (Nl/min). though common. nose an informal unit of length. NTU . nonet a unit of quantity equal to 9. used mostly in music to describe an ensemble of 9 instruments. with different temperatures. often called a yardland in the north. Because industry practice varies.001 lux. often 0 °C (32 °F) or 20 °C (68 °F). sometimes both are used." See also sccm. nox a unit of (low) illumination equal to 0. D. As you have already guessed. note a unit of relative time in music. one noy. This unit was used in Germany during World War II to describe permitted levels of lighting during air raids. is defined to be the noisiness of a random noise signal within the frequency band from 910 to 1090 hertz at a sound pressure level of 40 decibels. and the updated system is called PNC (prefered noise criterion)." An acceptable SI symbol would be "m3 normal.

or pi/4 radians. with the 7 carbons in a chain).S. 2.. o'clock [2] an informal angular measure that works by describing an angle in terms of the face of a standard (12-hour) clock. obolus a historic unit of weight or mass. . There is a similar unit. used for rating diesel fuel. This phrase has been traced to the early 1400s at least. octant [1] a unit of angle measure equal to 1/8 circle. In modern Greece. it is fairly common in the works of Shakespeare. chemists call this a branched hydrocarbon. (In an iso-octane molecule there are only 5 carbons in the chain.1 gram). the 8 carbons being arranged in a long chain.O obol. The mixture is adjusted until it has the same anti-knocking characteristics as the gasoline being tested. cetane number. the number posted on the gas pump is the average of the RON and MON. In the U. o'clock [1] a contraction of the phrase "of the clock. in the more precise language of chemical nomenclature. or roughly half a gram (8 grains).4-trimethylpentane. In fact. octane number a measure used to express the ability of gasoline to reduce engine knocking. The obol is a very small weight that originated as the weight of a tiny Greek coin. Earlier. In Rome. In ancient Greece the obolos was equal to 1/6 drachma. Thus "10 o'clock" is "10 hours" in most of the world. it's even more complicated: there are two ways to do the test. The compound cars need to prevent knocking is not that octane but a different compound of 8 carbon atoms and 18 hydrogen atoms called iso-octane or. octad a unit of quantity equal to 8. The octane rating is the percentage of iso-octane required in the laboratory mixture to produce this equality of knocking behavior. a sample of the gasoline is compared to a laboratory mixture of iso-octane and another hydrocarbon called heptane (heptane has 7 carbons and 16 hydrogens. this average is called the pump octane number (PON). and the last carbon is hooked onto the #4 position. time was usually stated in hours and minutes. Beginning chemistry students learn that "octane" is the name of a hydrocarbon whose molecules contain 8 carbon atoms and 18 hydrogen atoms. the obolus was equal to 1/48 Roman ounce (uncia) or about 0. obolos. the obolos is an informal name for the decigram (0. 45°.2. The MON is typically 8 or 10 points lower than the RON for the same batch of fuel. producing two ratings called the research octane number (RON) and the motor octane number (MON). Each hour "o'clock" spans an angle of 30°.57 gram." used in English after a statement of time. Carbons 6 and 7 are attached to the sides of the chain at the #2 position. and this is still the case in most languages.) To determine the octane rating of gasoline. Gasoline is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons: compounds containing hydrogen and carbon. so "4 o'clock" means an angle of 120° measured clockwise from dead ahead or some other agreed-upon point of reference.

terminology). In sports. This is equivalent to about 17. Both ends of the scale are included.5086 British imperial pint. If an event has a-b (or a to b. octave a unit used in music to describe the ratio in frequency between notes. Two notes differ by one octave if the higher note has exactly twice the frequency of the lower one. Outside of music. Oechsle see degree Oechsle. This traditional use of the word "odd" is believed to come from the old English word ord for a spear point. in U.261 milliliters). octennium a unit of time equal to 8 years. hence something hazardous. In most contexts. used in British medicine and pharmacy during the nineteenth century. octuple. For example. odds a statement of the probabilities that an event will or will not happen. or about 5156. mi. so. refers to the traditional sequence of 8 notes in the musical scale (in English: do. the octave is also used to describe a group of 8 objects sequenced somewhat like musical notes. The name comes from the Latin numeral octo. pint. There are 4 octavillos in a cuartillo. . used primarily in telecommunications. Since octavillo means "eighth. The octavillo equals about 289 milliliters (a little more than a cup. Thus 4-1 odds on a horse in a horse race indicate that the probability of the horse's winning is 1/5. especially 8 identical items. ti. la. do). re.6 square degrees. derived from the Latin numeral 8 (octo).525 U. octarius an obsolete name for the British Imperial pint (34. octuplet a group of 8 items. octet [2] a unit of information equal to 8 bits. the word octuplet is also used for one member of the group. however. so 2 octaves include 15 notes (first do through third do) instead of 16. One octant is 1/8 sphere. The octarius was equal to 1/8 congius (gallon).octant [2] a unit of solid angle measure. The name. the odds quoted are often odds that a contestant will not win.678 cubic inches or approximately 568. 16 in an almude. then the probability is being divided into a + b parts. and 48 in a fanega.S. but the byte can sometimes vary in size while the octet is always exactly 8 bits. the probability is a/(a + b) that the event will happen and b/(a + b) that it will not happen. octavillo a traditional Spanish unit of dry volume." one would expect the octavillo to be 1/8 of some other unit. but this is not the case. or 0. in the Christian religious calendar an octave is a period of 8 days beginning with a feast day and ending with the day one week after the feast day. fa. or pi/2 steradians.64 cubic inches. this is the same as a byte.S. 0. or a:b) odds in its favor. octet [1] a unit of quantity equal to 8.

was generally equal to 1/6 fuder or roughly 150 liters (40 U. impedance measures the combined effect of resistance and reactance. a Danish physicist. ohm [1] the SI unit of electric resistance. and impedance. oersted (Oe) [2] another name for the gauss [1] as a unit of magnetic flux density. reactance. Before 1930 this unit was called the gauss [2]. ohm [2] a traditional German unit of liquid volume. ohm meter a unit of resistivity. gallons). This opposition is called reactance. who discovered electromagnetism in 1820. The ohm. The unit honors Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851). The amount of the current depends on the potential difference and also on the extent to which the conductor resists the flow of current. which is actually the same no matter what the size of the square is. In alternating current circuits. If a conductor connects two locations having different electric potentials.577 472 ampere-turns per meter. the current flow is also affected by reactive components. then its length and width are the same and its resistivity is numerically equal to the resistance of the square. but the oersted is equivalent in MKS units to 79. but it is conventional to state it in "ohms per square. There is no named MKS unit of field intensity. If the conductor is square in shape. The oersted is defined to be the field strength in a vacuum at a distance 1 centimeter from a unit magnetic pole. The resistivity of a conductor in ohm meters is defined to be its resistance (in ohms) multiplied by its cross-sectional area (in square meters) divided by its length (in meters)." One can consider the square to have sides equal to one unit. since "O" would be easily misinterpreted as a zero. A field of one oersted generates a magnetomotive force of 1 gilbert per centimeter of conductor. measuring the extent to which a substance offers resistance to passage of an electric current. All three quantities are measured in ohms. capacitors or inductors. reactance. that react to the change in the current over time. this property of opposition to current flow is called the resistance. spelled aume in English. no longer in use.oersted (Oe) [1] the CGS unit of magnetic field strength. the size of the unit being immaterial. ogdoad . then a current flows through the conductor. The unit honors the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854). One ohm is the resistance. The capital Greek letter omega is used as the symbol for the ohm. Therefore the resistivity could be stated in ohms. The resistivity of a very thin conductor is defined to be its resistance (in ohms) multiplied by its width and divided by its length. For direct current circuits. ohm per square a unit of resistivity for surface films and other materials whose thicknesses are considered to be negligible. or impedance that requires a potential difference of one volt per ampere of current.S.

if the . packages containing 4 items (for example) are often described as "4 pack" or "4pk. a good metric version of the pace is exactly 1." Palermo scale a scale used by astronomers to assess the risk of an impact on the earth by a comet or asteroid." The symbol pk is also used for the peck (see below). or 491. the distance between two successive falls of the same foot. The scale value is a logarithmic measure of the risk of impact compared to the average risk of an impact by objects of the same size or larger over the years until the date of the potential impact by the newly discovered object. this unit is also called the great pace or geometrical pace. the term "pace" is often used as an alternate name for the step. the Palermo scale value is PS = log10 (p/(0. where E is the projected energy of the impact in megatons of TNT. The Romans counted 1000 paces in a mile with each pace being a little over 58 inches (or about 148 centimeters). pack (pk) a commercial unit specifying the number of items per package. pace [1] a traditional unit of distance equal to the length of a person's "full" pace." Originally a pair was simply a group of similar objects.P P or p a common short form of PM or pm (see below). not necessarily two in number. The word is from the Latin paria.03TE-4/5)). Thus one pace equals two steps. a total of 7300 cigarettes. pair royal a unit of quantity equal to 3.4 centimeters). that is. If the object in question has probability p of impact at a time T years in the future. meaning "equals. In English speaking countries.4 kilograms. In retail trade. 30 pudi (see pud below). that is. Eventually this meaning was specialized to refer to a group of two. Four cards of the same rank form a "double pair royal. Obviously. A possible impact is considered to be of concern if the Palermo scale value exceeds -2. pace [2] in military use. packen a traditional Russian unit of weight equal to 1200 funte. pack year a unit of quantity for cigarettes used in medicine to measure a patient's smoking history. that is. 1083 pounds. used in cribbage to describe three cards of the same rank. the pace is usually defined to be exactly 5 feet (or 152. used in statements of time. This usage recalls the original meaning of "pair" as a group of equivalent objects. paardekracht (pk) the Dutch word for the metric horsepower. pair (pr) a unit of quantity equal to 2. One pack year is the equivalent of smoking one 20-cigarette pack per day for one year. number unspecified. see military pace.5 meters.

One parsec divided by one astronomical unit (the length of the semimajor axis of the Earth's elliptical orbit) is the trigonometric function of the parallax called the cotangent.01 arcsecond. part per million (ppm) a unit of proportion equal to 10-6. This is the same as about 3. 1 pfu = 10-4 m-2sr-1s-1. is simply one divided by the parallax. also called per mill (see below).856 78 x 1012 kilometers)." the environment in which satellites and other spacecraft operate. Air pressure is also measured in hectopascals (hPa). are received by spacecraft.020 885 lbf/ft2 or 0. pascal (Pa) the SI unit of pressure. One pfu is a rate of one particle per square centimeter of detector area per steradian of solid angle scanned per second of time. from this relation we can compute that one parsec equals 206 264. part per thousand (ppth or ppt) a unit of proportion equal to 0.261 56 light years. with 1 kPa = 0.96% of a sphere. distance at which a star would appear to shift its position by one arcsecond during the time in which the Earth moves a distance of one astronomical unit (au) in the direction perpendicular to the direction to the star. part per billion (ppb) a unit of proportion equal to 10-9. hummingbirds can be attracted to feeders with a mixture of 1 part sugar dissolved in 4 parts water (equivalent to a solution of 1/5 sugar and 4/5 water. 30. a unit of time equal to exactly 10/3 seconds. The unit is named for Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). such as protons.001.000 145 pounds per square inch (0. an informal name for the helek. There are 1080 parts in an hour. particle flux unit (pfu) a unit used to measure the rate at which energetic particles.8 au. part [1] a unit used in informal statements of proportion or in prescriptions for mixtures. If the parallax is 0. Using this unit makes it easy to compute distances: the distance to a star. with 1 hPa = 1 millibar. in parsecs. by volume).007 50 mmHg). part per quadrillion (ppq) a unit of proportion equal to 10-15.856 78 petameters (30. For example.145 lbf/in2. The pascal is the standard pressure unit in the MKS metric system. (A steradian is about 7. part [2] a medieval unit of time equal to 1/15 hour or 4 minutes. The fraction of an ingredient present is the number of parts of that ingredient divided by the total number of parts present. but in traditional English terms a pascal is only 0. part [3] in calculations involving the Jewish calendar. in arcseconds. These flux rates are a major component of the "space weather. Thus pressure is more commonly measured in kilopascals (kPa). the distance is 100 parsecs. or 19 173 510 000 000 miles. part per trillion (ppt) a unit of proportion equal to 10-12.) In SI units. French philosopher ." Sounds impressive. equal to one newton per square meter or one "kilogram per meter per second per second.

. the pH of a solution is defined to be the negative logarithm of the concentration.S.S. pferdestärke (PS) German word for horsepower. The pH of a solution is a measure of the concentration of these hydrogen ions.76 U. which would be about 177 milliliters (5. Ph Eur unit a unit used in the European Union to measure the potency of a vitamin or drug. The symbol ps is used for horsepower in both the Japanese and German automotive industies. fluid ounces). and therefore more hydrogen ions. Traditionally it was equal to 1/2 Seidel. the Ph Eur unit is equal to the international unit (IU). A Pfiff (the German word means "whistle") is a small quantity of beer. the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines has determined the biological effect associated with a dose of 1 Ph Eur unit.0 means multiplying the ion concentration by a factor of 10. The properties of a liquid solution we call "acid" are caused by the presence of hydrogen ions (H+). Pfiff a traditional unit of liquid volume for beer in Austria. meaning the metric horsepower. There's no change in the plural. pH a logarithmic measure used to state the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution. ranging from something close to the English pound (454 grams) to the Viennese pfund at about 1. its expected biological effects. Other quantities of the substance can then be expressed in terms of this standard unit. For each substance to which this unit applies. the pfund was redefined as a metric unit equal to exactly 500 grams (about 1.102 31 pound). and the various German states adopted different standards. but in current use it is generally 200 milliliters (6. pfund (pfd) a traditional German weight unit corresponding to the English pound (see below). Lowering the pH by 1. while numbers above 7 indicate increasing alkalinity. In many cases.99 U. measured in moles per liter. Currently measurements are usually made directly in kilopascals (kPa). When Germany was unified in the late nineteenth century. fluid ounces). that is. Numbers below 7 indicate increasing acidity.2 pounds (560 grams). Soil moisture tension is the pressure that must be applied to the moisture in the soil to bring it to hydraulic equilibrium with an external pool of water. but in practice pH values usually fall in the range from 0 to 14. Technically. A neutral solution (neither acidic nor alkaline.0. like pure water) has a pH of 7. This unit is inverted in the sense that lower pH readings correspond to greater acidity. a unit formerly used in agricultural science to measure "soil suction" or soil moisture tension. This was measured in pF units as the logarithm of the pressure in centimeters of water. which is 2/3 of the metric Seidel in Austria. Mathematically the scale is open at both ends. Traditionally the pfund varied in size from market to market. The pfund is equal to 16 unze or 32 lot. pfu symbol for the particle flux unit (see above). The pH ("potential of Hydrogen") scale was invented in 1909 by the Danish chemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen (1868-1939).

The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) adopted the lower case Greek letter pi for this ratio in 1737. grit. phon a logarithmic measure of sound loudness closely related to the decibel. equal to one lumen per square centimeter or 10 000 lux. in the other direction. that is. Pi sometimes appears to be a unit of angle measure equal to pi radians or 180°. A measurement in phons will be similar to a measurement in decibels. or." phot (ph) the CGS unit of illuminance or illumination. a "pica" is a book of . more generally.141 592 653 589 793 238 462 643.5 mm. of any form of electromagnetic energy having a single wavelength. and so on. One pica equals 12 points.. measurements made using the ears of a human listener. Decibels are used for objective measurements. The circumference of a circle is equal to pi multiplied by the diameter.S. pi equals 3.25 mm. sound loudness is frequently measured in sones rather than phons: a sound of loudness s sones has loudness 10 log2 s + 40 phons. and each increase of 1 in the phi number corresponds to a decrease in grain size by a factor of 1/2. pi a very famous mathematical unit. or a bit less than 1/6 inch. they measure the actual pressure of the sound waves as recorded using a microphone. and polarization. In the Catholic Church. but not identical. Thus 1 phi unit is a grain size of 0. In the U. 4. so pi is equal to the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle. pica (pi or pc) a unit of length used by typographers and printers. It turns out that pi is an irrational number. that is. The origin of this word is not known. "Pica type" is type that sets six lines to the inch. -1 phi unit corresponds to a grain size of 2 mm and -2 phi units to a size of 4 mm. since the perceived loudness of a sound depends on the distribution of frequencies in the sound as well as the pressure of the sound waves. below. any circle. Phons are used for subjective measurements. pic see pik." photon [1] a quantum of light energy. photon [2] a former name for the unit of retinal illuminance now called the troland. and gravel. although he was not the first to use it. This is because mathematicians regard angle measurement as dimensionless (length divided by length) and therefore omit the unit "radians". In English the unit is pronounced "fon" rather than "phone. direction.phi unit a logarithmic unit used to measure grain sizes for sand. See also lambert. The 0 point of the scale is a grain size of 1 millimeter.22 mm. The name is usually pronounced to rhyme with "not" rather than "note. A sound has loudness p phons if it seems to the listener to be equal in loudness to the sound of a pure tone of frequency 1 kilohertz and strength p decibels. which means that its decimal expansion is nonterminating and nonrepeating. he popularized it through his many mathematical writings. To 25 significant digits. 2 phi units is 0.

small. in Texas. pied . The unit is pronounced "pike-ah. picoliter (pl or pL) a metric unit of volume equal to 10-12 liter or 1000 cubic micrometers. picul a unit of weight comparable to the European quintal. picocurie (pCi) a common unit of radioactivity. used to measure radioactivity occurring naturally in the environment. pronounced "peek-o" in English. Engineers at Eastman Kodak recently reported a technique for producing ink droplets as small as several picoliters. daily services.3 pounds or 60.37 inches. picosecond (ps) a unit of time equal to 10-12 second.23 pounds) in China. a picomole is larger than one might think. The pie used in Spain is about 27.28 pounds) in Thailand or 50 kilograms (110.5 milliliters).5 kilograms. This unit is common in biochemistry.(p-) a metric prefix denoting 10-12 (one trillionth). this corresponds to one atomic disintegration about every 27 seconds--a very low rate of activity. is coined from the Italian piccolo. picolo a unit of volume for champagne. so it is possible that pica type got its name from being used to print picas. One picocurie equals 10-12 curie or 0.89 centimeters or 11. The unit is pronounced "pickle. In recent years the picul has been used as a metric unit equal to 60 kilograms (132. widely used in East Asia during the colonial period.86 centimeters or 10.037 becquerel." pie the traditional foot of Spain. picomole (pmol) a unit of amount of substance equal to 10-12 mole. picogram (pg) a metric unit of mass equal to 10-12 gram or one millionth of a microgram. This unit. but in Spanish Latin America the pie is generally longer. equal to 1/4 bottle (187. The picul is equal to 100 catties. piece (pc) a unit of quantity. like count (ct) is used to indicate that a measurement represents an exact count of items. since a mole of a large organic molecule can be quite a large amount. This unit was formerly called the micromicrofarad (µµF)." pico. picofarad (pF) a common unit of electric capacitance equal to 10-12 farad. typically about 133.22 centimeters. The Argentine length is 28. 1/3 vara is 11 1/9 inches or 28. The pie equals 1/3 vara or 12 pulgadas (see below). equal to 1. picotesla (pT) a unit of magnetic field strength equal to 10-12 tesla or 10-8 gauss.97 inches. The prefix.

which is 0. pk usually a symbol for "pack. originally very similar in size to the English pipe (see next entry). a pip is 0. In Britain it's more complicated.pint (pt) [2] a traditional unit of volume in Scotland equal to 2 choppins or 4 mutchkins.7375 foot pound second (ft·lb·s). pixels are often used to measure the resolution (or sharpness) of images." In Dutch. their diameters are generally measured in micrometers (microns). The Scots pint varied with time and locality. 132.2 cubic inches or 1. liquid pints. As a hypothetical example. gallons. The British pipe was usually used as a wine measure. the pipe is a traditional unit of liquid volume generally equal to 2 hogsheads. Pixels do not have a fixed size.gallons.5 cubic meter." a unit used in printing. the originator of quantum theory. pint (pt) [3] a unit of volume used in South Australian pubs. In Queensland a pint glass typically holds 560 milliliters. the symbol for paardekracht (the metric horsepower). or roughly 3/4 imperial pint (15 fluid ounces). assuming the two images have the same physical size. but it was eventually standardized as the volume of the Stirling jug. a vessel holding about 104. pipe like the butt. The pipa has become a metric unit equal to exactly 500 liters. planck an MKS unit of "action" (energy expended over time) or of angular momentum. dollars.S.01. a 600 x 1000 pixel image has 4 times the pixel density and is thus 4 times sharper than a 300 x 500 pixel image. The unit honors the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947). pixel a picture element. very nearly an Imperial pint. pitch another name for "characters per inch. but in converting U.085 U. about 16.0001. dollars to Japanese yen a pip is 0.. A pint of beer is generally 425 milliliters in South Australia.844 cubic feet or 476.S. for example. this means a pipe equals 126 U. In the U.S.S.6 U. because traditional British hogsheads were of different sizes depending on what they contained. The planck is equal to 1 joule second (J·s) or about 0.S. pipa a traditional Portuguese unit of liquid volume. Although the pixel is not a unit of measurement itself.96 liters.996 British imperial gallons. but even different types of wine had different size pipes. This depends on the relative values of the two currency units: in converting euros to U. or 109. pip the smallest measured change in a currency conversion rate. Planck length .S. This unit is also called a tick [2]. This is almost exactly 3 Imperial pints or 3.708 liters.

so the plethron was approximately 100-105 English feet or 31-33 meters.351 x 10-43 second. in which case 1 plf = 14. 428-348 BCE). for example. and c is the speed of light. plf [1] symbol for pounds per linear foot (lbm/ft). This makes the Planck length about 4. -plet a suffix used to create units of quantity. Thus triplet. representing the scale at which time itself may become quantized (discrete) rather than continuous.051 x 10-35 meter. Often represented as the length of a cord. Planck time a unit of time equal to the time required for a photon moving at the speed of light to travel the distance of one Planck length. a common unit of load in engineering. The number n-plex is 10n. a unit of distance representing the scale at which gravity. The Platonic year is the length of time required for one complete precessional rotation: about 25 800 years. called precession. words having this ending are also used to mean one member of the group rather than the group as a whole. is a unit of 3. also defined a "googolplex" to be 1 followed by a googol of zeros. The plural is plethra. The earth's axis of rotation is not fixed in space. the unit was frequently used for measuring land areas. Platonic year a unit of time used in astronomy. This is the shortest distance that is meaningful in our understanding of the laws of physics. the attraction of the moon causes it to slowly trace out a circle in the sky. plf [2] a common abbreviation for "per linear foot. and perhaps space itself. h is Planck's constant.280 840 per meter (/m). becomes quantized (discrete) rather than continuous. Thus a googol is 100-plex. thus suggesting this generalization. 1 plf = 3. pli . The American mathematician Edward Kasner. However. The Greek foot was slightly longer than the English foot. who invented the googol in 1938.593 90 newtons per meter (N/m). See also dex and -minex. -plex a suffix used to create large numbers. It is sometimes called the great year." In this use. This is the shortest time that is meaningful in our understanding of the laws of physics. 1 plf = 1. The unit is named for the ancient Greek philosopher Plato (ca. The Planck length is defined to be the square root of Gh/c3. The Planck time is about 1. This motion. which is 1 followed by n zeros. changes the orientation of the sky as seen from the earth's surface: the poles appear to shift their locations and the sun's point of crossing the equator slowly rotates through the constellations of the Zodiac. for example. plethron an ancient Greek unit of distance equal to 100 Greek feet or 1/6 stadion.488 164 kilograms per meter (kg/m). where G is the universal gravitational constant. The symbol is also used sometimes for pounds of force per linear foot (lbf/ft).

measured in bars at a temperature of 20 °C (68 °F).5038 pounds per square inch in traditional English units. composition. (One bar equals 100 kilopascals or approximately 14. PNC ratings are typically 10-15% lower than raw measurements of the sound level in decibels. plotter unit a unit of distance used in typography equal to 1/40 millimeter or 25 micrometers. PNU abbreviation for protein nitrogen unit.) Industrial standards organizations. where time is usually not stated on a 24-hour basis. -ply an ending used to indicate the number of folds or layers in an object. The suffix comes from the Latin plicare. Buyer beware! There is no industry standard for this "unit." a measure used for rating piping. a common abbreviation for pounds per linear inch. which are measured by actual skin testing using reference preparations of standard potency. the unit is similar to the older noise criterion (NC). PN a symbol for "nominal pressure.01 microgram (µg) of phosphotungstic acid-precipitable protein nitrogen. PNC an abbreviation for preferred noise criterion. the potency measurements depend on the technique of measurement used. PMPO abbreviation for "peak music power output.1268 N/m. PM or pm abbreviation for the Latin post meridiem. "after noon. This. these standards specify in detail the size. set standards for pipes and fittings based on PN ratings. One PNU is defined as 0. etc. fittings. thus 4-ply means having 4 layers. although PNU's are still used. 1 pli = 175. a unit used in engineering to measure the level of background noise in rooms or other enclosed spaces. Nominal pressure is essentially the pressure rating of the piping system." which is often claimed by electronics manufacturers as a unit measuring the effective power output of amplifiers. stereo systems. etc. a measure of the potency of the compounds used by doctors in allergy skin tests. such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).857 97 kg/m. has become a fairly familiar term in digital graphics design. but a PNC rating requires lower levels of high and low frequencies than the corresponding NC rating. Introduced in 1971. For load. The notations "AM" and "PM" are used extensively in English speaking countries and especially in the United States. As a result. . Thus 4:30 pm is the same as 16:30." so it is impossible to determine just what it means. they are being replaced by bioequivalent allergy units (BAU). Unfortunately. and strength of each component. to fold. the smallest distance addressed by Hewlett Packard plotters. so results of one manufacturer are not comparable to those of another manufacturer. For pounds of force per linear inch. 1 pli = 17. valves. PNC ratings below 40 are generally required for residential or classroom spaces." used after a time to indicate that the time occurs after 12:00 noon.

This unit is used to express changes in an arbitrary score or index. one point represented the smallest element of type that could be handled. equal to 0. a unit sometimes called the big point (bp). The difference between two directions can be expressed as a certain number of these compass points. point (pt) [8] a measure of the specific gravity of a liquid. usually three. These ratios are computed to a fixed number of decimal places. or exactly 2 milligrams.S. the first five points from north towards east are labeled North. In continental Europe. of paper or card stock in the paper industry.6 inch). One point equals 25. Most sports "averages" are actually ratios of successful performances divided by attempted performances. Each point of the star represents a named direction. Thus the batting averages .00 in the index. a change of one point in the Dow Jones average or similar indices represents a change of 1. and a point represents a change of 1 in the last decimal place. Eventually.27 = 0. Compasses are read by suspending the compass needle over a compass card traditionally inscribed with a 32-point star. and Northeast. baseball's batting average is a good example.001 inch. point (pt) [3] a unit of proportion. North Northeast. called a Didot point after the French typographer Firmin Didot (1764-1836).314 and . In finance. point (pt) [7] another name for a mil [1]. the point was standardized in Britain and America as exactly 1/72.46 micrometers). typographers traditionally used a slightly larger point of 0..302 are said to differ by 12 points. One point equals 11°15' of arc or pi/16 radians. Points are used with this meaning to measure the thickness. often called a percentage point.014 83 inch (about 1/72 pouce. typically used in brewing and winemaking.25 millimeters (1/101.013 888 9 inch or 0. which is about 0. Specific gravity is the mass of a sample of the liquid divided by the mass of an equal volume of pure water. . or roughly 1/67 English inch).013 837 inch.point (pt) [1] a unit of angle measure equal to 1/32 of a circle. roughly 1/64 inch. In the U. It is a dimensionless (unit-less) number.377 mm.4 micrometers or microns. point (pt) [4] a unit of mass used for precious stones such as diamonds. or caliper. This usage is common in sports.352 777 8 millimeters).35 mm (351. One point equals 0. point (pt) [5] a unit of quantity equal to 1. 0.01 or 1%.01 carat. Northeast by North. for example. point (pt) [2] a unit of length used by typographers and printers. See also kyu. The German standards agency DIN has proposed that all these units be replaced by multiples of 0. Adobe software defines the point to be exactly 1/72 inch (0. a unit of distance equal to 0. North by East. such as the score in an athletic contest. When printing was done from hand-set metal type. point (pt) [6] a unit used to represent the smallest significant change in an arbitrary ratio.

pole [1] another name for a rod. P is the proper symbol for the unit. liquids have viscosities measured in centipoises and gases have viscosities measured in micropoises. several related properties) of liquids and gases: due to friction between molecules. Dynamic viscosity is measured by stating the force needed to move a standard area of one layer of the liquid or gas with respect to another layer.5 liters) or. In practice. Fanger in 1988.048 is described as 48 point. The poiseuille has been proposed. Each "point" represents an increase of 0.001 above 1. See previous entry for more detail. For example.1 pascal second (Pa·s). polegada the Portuguese "inch" unit. or Po) a CGS unit of dynamic viscosity. poise (P. gallons). point [9] a medieval unit of time equal to 1/5 hour. The poise is also equivalent to 14.2-20. A polypin of beer comes in a plastic container. The unit is named for the French physician Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille (1799-1869). Viscosity is a frictional property (actually. nearly all measurements are made in decipols. it is the name of the polythene plastic . or 12 minutes. If a force of one dyne is needed to move one square centimeter of the liquid or gas relative to a second layer one centimeter away at a speed of one centimeter per second.5038 x 10-6 reyn. Ps. in SI units. poiseuille (Pl) an MKS unit of dynamic viscosity equal to 1 pascal second or 10 poise or 1000 centipoise (cP). exactly 20 liters (5. polypin an informal unit of volume for beer and other alcoholic beverages. or 1.777 centimeters. pole [2] see unit magnetic pole. the liquid or gas resists flowing to a greater or lesser extent." sometimes used to mean the inch in botanical descriptions. in the metric version.093 inches.O. one poise equals 0. then the viscosity is one poise. but not accepted.S. pollex (poll) the Latin word for "thumb. it holds 32-36 Imperial pints (18. but Ps and Po are also used. The word polypin is actually a registered trademark of Biovision GmbH. One olf is defined as the air pollution produced by one "standard person". and one decipol is the perceived air pollution level in a space having a pollution source of strength one olf and ventilation with unpolluted air at the rate of 1 liter/second. pol an empirical unit of indoor air pollution introduced by the Danish environmental scientist P. used mostly in Britain. The SI recognizes no named unit for dynamic viscosity. Generally speaking. equal to 1/12 pé.28 U. typically a little larger than 1. as an SI derived unit. the two layers being parallel and separated by a standard distance filled with the same liquid or gas. The point was divided into 8 moments. 2. often inside a rectangular cardboard box. a liquid of specific gravity 1.

In the Netherlands.5 liters for dry quantities.315 traditional horsepower). This is sometimes called a Gurley unit after the name of a test procedure. and Western Australia. South Australia.4516 seconds per meter column of air (s/m).. pony [3] a small keg of beer. In Belgium.6 milliliters. a pony keg holds 1/4 barrel or 7.) fluid ounce or about 29. pond (p) [2] a metric unit of force. . See octane. This is equivalent to 980. pood see pud. The poncelet is defined to be the power required to raise a mass of 100 kilograms at a velocity of 1 meter per second. pond [1] the Dutch pound. It was replaced in French engineering by the metric horsepower (cheval vapeur). a pony of beer holds 140 milliliters (about 5 British fluid ounces). In Switzerland. the pot is interpreted as 1. formerly more common and still used for some purposes. historically about 494 grams (1. PON abbreviation for pump octane number. pony [2] a small glass for beer. Thus the porosity unit is square inch seconds per deciliter (s·in2/dl). but only 0. In the U.34 liters). porosity in the paper industry. hence anything smaller than normal--in this case. a smaller shot glass. the pot is now a metric unit equal to 1.002 204 622 6 pounds of force. "porosity" is generally measured by the time (in seconds) required for 100 cubic centimeters of air to pass through one square inch of the paper at a standard pressure difference. The traditional British pin of beer (see above) is exactly 36 pints.5 liters for liquids. In New South Wales. gallons (about 29. 1 s·in2/dl = 6. thus it is equal to 980.665 dynes or 0.S. used for the lining of the container. In SI units. Victoria. The word "pony" means a small horse. roughly comparable to the liter or to the English quart.75 U. A pond is the gravitational force on a mass of one gram. In the U. a pony generally holds exactly 1 (U.S. like the German pfund. poncelet (p) a unit of power formerly used in France but now obsolete. the pond has been reinterpreted now as a metric unit equal to exactly 500 grams (1. pot [1] a traditional unit of volume in many countries of Europe. weight.965 liters in Norway.967 liters in Denmark and to 0.1023 pounds).5 liters. pony [1] a small glass for liquor.665 watts or exactly 4/3 metric horsepower (1. The name of the unit is from the Latin pondus. The traditional pot is equal to 0.089 English pounds)..S. The kilopond was used more often than the pond. The unit was named for the French mathematician and engineer Jean-Victor Poncelet (1788-1867). This unit was also used in the former Dutch Indies (now Indonesia) and throughout Southeast Asia.S.

478 80 millibars (mb). exactly four times the area of an 8. power (x) [2] a measure of the focal power of a lens equal to 40 times the focal length.88 centimeters). say.48 g/m2 for text stock. See below for related notations such as "psig. unit measuring the weight or thickness of paper.5 inch by 11 inch sheet.880 pascals (Pa). 24 pound weight if one ream (500 sheets) cut in a standard size (called the base size or basis size) has a mass of 24 pounds. 2. a 2.7 centimeters.9475 millibars (mb). 2. so "8x40" indicates binoculars with a magnifying power of 8 and lenses of diameter 40 mm. 27.5 inch by 11 inch. the base size is 17 inches by 22 inches (43. This means a ream of 8. power (x) [1] a unit expressing the magnifying power of an optical system. 24-pound bond paper has a mass of 6 pounds.70 g/m2 for card stock. and varying amounts for the other types of paper. The pous was divided into 16 daktylos (digits). in computer technology. pound per square foot (lbf/ft2 or psf) a traditional unit of pressure. For bond paper.00 diopter lens in a pair of reading glasses is also described as 20 power. pous the ancient Greek foot. The power is defined to be the angular diameter of the image formed by the system divided by the angular diameter of the original object being observed. One pound mole of a chemical compound is the same number of pounds as the molecular weight of a molecule of that compound measured in atomic mass units.S. a unit of amount of substance.192 79 inch of water (in WC). A table of basic sizes is provided." . or 70.76 g/m2 for bond paper.7612 inches of water (in WC)." pound weight (lb wt or lb) a traditional U. in millimeters. or 0. For example.036 inches of mercury (in Hg). a unit of distance equal to about 30. a 16x CD-ROM drive spins a disk 16 times faster than a "standard" speed drive. 1 lb wt is equivalent to 3.894 75 kilopascals (kPa). For example. Paper is described as. In simple telescopes this is equal to the focal length of the primary objective (the big lens or mirror) divided by the focal length of the eyepiece lens.592 37 moles. The metric measure of paper weight is the areal density in grams per square meter (g/m2 or "gsm"). 0. pound per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi) a traditional unit of pressure. the power is customarily followed by the diameter of the objective lenses. The plural is podes. power (x) [3] a term indicating that a measurement is a multiple of some standard quantity. a little longer than the modern English foot. pp a traditional abbreviation for "pages. or 40 divided by the refractive power in diopters. 1 psi equals 144 pounds per square foot (psf). 6.5134 centimeters of water (cm H2O). 1 psf equals about 47. Thus the pound mole is equal to exactly 453.18 by 55. 68. There were 100 podes in a plethron and 600 in a stadion. For binoculars. 1.

of an image. In Britain proof ratings are no longer used. Thus "86 proof" means 43% alcohol. proof rating is equal to exactly twice the percentage of alcohol present. The additional amount is to allow for sheets that may be spoiled in shipment. This means that 86 proof Scotch. used in physiology and medicine to assess blood flow in the capillaries. That is. ppq.S. a measure of paper thickness. psia. psi. One prism diopter represents a deflection of 1 centimeter measured at a distance of 1 meter from the prism. An ordinary ream is 480 or 500 sheets. To avoid this confusion. 1 PRU equals 1 mmHg·min/mL = 133. measured by volume. or fineness. ps see pferdestärke above.ppb. ppi [2] abbreviation for pages per inch. was formerly 75 proof in Britain. the proof liquor is legally defined so to contain exactly 50% alcohol measured by volume. prism diopter (PD) a unit used in optics to measure the deflection of light by a prism. In the United States. but the former proof liquor contained 57. ppcm. A pixel is a single "picture element". the U. the deflection in prism diopters is equal to 100 times the tangent of the angle through which the path of the light is bent in passing through the prism. However. S. The unit is also called the perfect ream. ppi [1] abbreviations for pixels per centimeter and pixels per inch. "pptr" is an alternate abbreviation for part per trillion. PRU abbreviation for the peripheral resistance unit.27% alcohol by volume. printer's ream a unit of quantity for paper. a printer's ream is 516 sheets. pptr abbreviations for units of proportion: ppb = part per billion (10-9). almost exactly 8 GPa·s/m3). psid. Mathematically.3 Pa·min/mL (or. ppi [3] abbreviation for pores per inch. a measure of porosity for polyurethane foams and other industrial foam and filter products. As a result. in proper SI units.. psig . ppm. the abbreviation "ppt" is also used sometimes for part per thousand (10-3). proof (prf) a traditional unit of proportion used for measuring the strength of distilled liquors. so these units measure the resolution. and ppt = part per trillion (10-12). respectively. ppm = part per million (10-6). in the U. including medicinal solutions of alcohol as well as alcoholic beverages such as whiskey. called the proof liquor. ppq = part per quadrillion (10-15). respectively. A measurement in PRU's is equal to the blood pressure in millimeters of mercury divided by the flow rate in milliliters per minute. The proof rating of a liquor is the alcohol content of the liquid expressed as a percentage of the alcohol content of a standard mixture. ppt.

This unit also known traditionally as the seam. based on the U.336 meters. and point [2]. quartern [1] . presumably because this quantity of grain weighs roughly 1/4 ton. A quarter of grain is 8 bushels (about 282 liters. This is almost exactly 3 British Imperial quarts. or 402. A quarter is 15 minutes in American football. liquid quarts.6 U. "quarter" is also used informally to mean 1/4 ton. one quarter equals 28 pounds (12. or 500 pounds (226.8125° or pi/64 = 0.682 milliliters. quarter (qtr or Q) [3] a unit of angle measure equal to 1/4 circle. equal to 1/4 of a compass point (see point [1]). This unit is used in athletics and horse racing. in the United States. about 46. the quarter varies in length from 90 to 92 days depending on its starting date.41 liters. above.. See Q. a quarter equals 2°48'45" = 2. The quarter is widely used as a time unit in business and economics. In the U.3398 kilograms). quarter (qtr or Q) [4] a unit of angle measure. quart (qt) [3] a traditional unit of volume in Scotland equal to 2 Scots pints. 3. 2/3 fluid ounces.80 kilograms). quarter (qtr or Q) [6] an informal unit of distance equal to 1/4 mile. the English ell was often described as being equal to 5 quarters. 12 minutes in professional basketball. equal to 1/4 the total playing time of a competition. based on the British imperial bushel). quarter (qtr or Q or Qr) [1] a traditional unit of weight equal to 1/4 hundredweight.25 millimeter. quarter (qtr or Q) [10] a unit of distance equal to 1/4 yard or 9 inches (22. These measures have mostly disappeared in favor of the international wine bottle.S. or 3. one quarter equals 25 pounds (11. quarter (qtr or Q) [8] a unit of relative time used in sports. and it has continued to be used on occasion down to the present day. sometimes used at sea. This unit is identical to the span. The quarter with this definition was frequently used in cloth measurement in medieval England. another name for a quadrant.S. In particular.24 cubic inches. quarter (qtr or Q) [5] a traditional unit of volume used for measuring grain. In Britain. quarter (qtr or Q) [2] a civil unit of time equal to 3 months or 1/4 year.7006 kilograms). 2 furlongs. such as "quarter after 10" for 10:15.86 centimeters). In this use.S. Given the layout of the Gregorian calendar in civil use throughout the world (see year [2]). which contains exactly 750 milliliters. or 757. or 291 liters. This unit occurs in informal expressions of time.049 087 radian. quarter (Q) [9] a unit of distance equal to 0. quarter (qtr or Q) [7] an informal unit of time equal to 1/4 hour or 15 minutes. bushel.

a traditional unit of weight in France, Portugal, and Spain. Quintal is also the
generic name for a historic unit used in commerce throughout Europe and the
Arab world for more than 2000 years. The unit began as the Latin centenarius,
meaning "comprised of 100" because it was equal to 100 Roman pounds. The
centenarius passed into Arabic as the cantar or qintar and then returned to Europe
through Arab traders in the form quintal. The German zentner and English
hundredweight are familiar forms of this same unit in northern Europe. The
traditional French quintal equaled 100 livres (48.95 kilograms or 107.9 pounds),
but today the word "quintal" in France usually means a larger metric unit (see
next entry). The Spanish quintal is 100 libras (about 46 kilograms or 101 pounds).
The Portuguese quintal is larger; it is equal to 128 libras (about 129.5 pounds or
58.75 kilograms). "Kwintal" is the English pronunciation given in standard
English dictionaries, but "kintal" (closer to the Spanish pronunciation) and
"kantal" (closer to the French) are also used.
quintal (q) [2]
a common metric unit of mass equal to 100 kilograms or approximately 220.4623
pounds. Notice that the metric ton is roughly equal to its non-metric predecessors,
but the metric quintal is about twice the size of the traditional quintal.
quintet
a unit of quantity equal to 5.
quintile
a statistical unit equal to 20 percentiles, or 1/5 of a ranked sample.
quintuplet
a group of 5 items, especially 5 identical items; the word is also used for one
member of the group.
quinzaine, quinzena
see quincena above.
quire (qr)
a traditional unit of quantity used for counting sheets of paper. The word is from
Latin, meaning "by fours." A quire was originally comprised of 24 sheets cut from
four of the large sheets produced by the paper maker. In modern use a quire is
often reckoned as 25 sheets, so that a ream of 20 quires is now 500 sheets rather
Q unit
a unit of heat energy equal to one quintillion (1018) Btu, 1000 quads, or about
1.055 zettajoules (ZJ).

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© Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill About the Dictionary
Using the Dictionary

R
R
a commercial unit used to measure the effectiveness of thermal insulation. A
thermal insulator is a material, manufactured in sheets, that resists conducting
heat energy. Its thermal conductance is measured, in traditional units, in Btu's of
energy conducted times inches of thickness per hour of time per square foot of
area per Fahrenheit degree of temperature difference between the two sides of the
material. The R value of the insulator is defined to be 1 divided by the thermal
conductance per inch. This means R is an abbreviation for the complex unit
combination hr·ft2·°F/Btu. In SI units, an R value of 1 equals 0.17611 square
meter kelvins per watt (m2·K/W). In clothing insulation units this is about 1.136
clo or 1.7611 tog.
a metric unit measuring radiation dose. One rad is equal to a dose of 0.01 joule of
energy per kilogram of mass (J/kg), or 100 ergs of energy per gram of mass. The
SI unit of radiation dose is the gray (Gy); one rad equals 0.01 gray or 1 centigray.
the time required for a radar signal to travel a distance of one mile from the
and nautical miles are used: the radar statute mile is about 10.8 microseconds
a unit of angle measure widely used in mathematics and science. One radian is the
angle at the center of a circle that cuts off an arc of length equal to the radius.
Since the circumference equals 2 pi times the radius, one radian equals 1/(2 pi) of
the circle, or approximately 57.295 779°. Using radians to measure angles seems
unnatural at first. However, when angles are stated in radians the constant pi tends
to disappear from the equations, and this greatly simplifies calculation. For
example, the length of an arc is simply its radius multiplied by its angular
measure in radians, and the area of a sector of a circle is simply its angular

defined and named by James Thomson in 1873. Thomson was a mathematics
professor at Queen's College, Belfast, Northern Ireland, and the brother of the
famous physicist William Thomson, Lord Kelvin.
a common unit of angular velocity. One radian per second is equal to about
9.54930 rpm. This unit has been called a strob.
an older name for the becquerel.
radiocarbon year (14C yr, yr BP)
a unit used in stating the nominal ages of plant or animal remains dated by
radiocarbon testing. A very small proportion (roughly 1 part per trillion, or 10-12)
of the carbon in the ecosystem is radioactive carbon-14, which decays to nitrogen-
14 with a half life of about 5760 years. While a plant or animal is alive, the
fraction of radioactive carbon in its body remains equal to the fraction in the
atmosphere at that time. After a plant or animal dies, as the carbon-14 trapped in
its body slowly decays, the age of the tissue can be measured by the fraction of
radioactive carbon remaining. The age T of a sample, in radiocarbon years, is
computed from the formula T = -8033 ln (R/A), where R is the measured ratio of
carbon-14 to ordinary carbon-12 in the sample and A is a benchmark ratio
measured in the atmosphere in 1950. Results are often stated as years before
present (yr BP), with 1950 representing the "present." The results are inaccurate
for two reasons. One is that the formula assumes a half life of 5568 years, which
is now known to be too short. More importantly, the ratio of carbon-14 to ordinary
carbon-12 in the atmosphere varies slightly over time. Much research has been
done to determine the necessary corrections. As an example, a sample with a
nominal age of 12 000 radiocarbon years has an actual age of about 14 000 years.
A table is provided.
rai
a traditional unit of land area in Thailand. The rai is now considered to equal
exactly 1600 square meters, which is 0.16 hectare or approximately 0.3954 acre.
The rai is divided into 4 ngan. The unit is called the hai in northern Thailand and
the lai in Laos. The word means "field," that is, an upland field rather than a rice
Rankine
an absolute temperature scale; see degree Rankine.
ratel
see rotl (below).
rayl
one of two units of sound impedance. When sound waves pass through any
physical substance the pressure of the waves causes the particles of the substance
to move. The sound impedance is the ratio between the pressure and the particle
velocity it produces. The impedance is 1 rayl if unit pressure produces unit
velocity. In MKS units, this means 1 rayl equals 1 pascal-second per meter
(Pa·s/m), or (equivalently) 1 newton-second per cubic meter (N·s/m3).
Confusingly, the same name, rayl, is used for the corresponding CGS unit, 1
dyne-second per cubic centimeter (dyn·s/cm3). The CGS rayl equals 10 MKS

rayls. The units are named for Robert John Strutt, the fourth Lord Rayleigh (1875-
1947).
rayleigh (R)
a CGS unit of light intensity used in astronomy and physics to measure the
brightness of the night sky, auroras, etc. One rayleigh represents the light intensity
of one million photons of light emitted in all directions per square centimeter of
receiver per second, or, in SI units, 795.775 x 106 per square meter per steradian
(m-2·sr-1). A dark night sky has a light intensity of roughly 250 rayleighs. The unit
honors the English mathematician and physicist John William Strutt, the third
Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919).
ream (rm)
a traditional unit of quantity used for counting sheets of paper. The word is
thought to be derived from the Arabic rizmah, meaning a bundle. A ream is equal
to 20 quires, which would be 480 sheets with the traditional definition of a quire
as 24 sheets. In recent years, however, the ream has been redefined to equal 500
sheets. (Working backwards, this changes the definition of a quire from 24 to 25
sheets.) The new definition reflects the current practice of marketing many kinds
of paper in packages of 500 sheets. The older size of 480 sheets is now called a
short ream.
Réaumur
a temperature scale; see degree Réaumur.
rebah
an ancient Hebrew unit of weight or mass equal to 1/4 shekel. The word means
"quarter" in Hebrew.
rebar sizes
numerical size designations for steel reinforcing bars ("rebars") used to strengthen
concrete. The size number is the diameter of the rod in 8ths of an inch (1/8 inch =
3.175 millimeters); thus a rod 1 inch in diameter is a #8 rebar.
reciprocal megakelvin (MK-1)
a unit used in colorimetry and photography to measure the wavelength of light,
especially for selecting filters to adjust the "color temperature." Light waves of a
specific wavelength w meters can be assigned a temperature T using the theory of
blackbody radiation. A blackbody is an ideal object that absorbs all the radiation it
receives. If a blackbody is heated to temperature T, the radiation it gives off will
have maximum intensity at wavelength w, where w and T are related by Wien's
law, wT = 2.90 x 10-3 meter kelvins. The reciprocal of temperature, 1/T = w/(2.90
x 10-3) K-1, is thus a measure of wavelength. The wavelengths of visible light fall
in the range 400 nanometers (extreme violet) to 700 nanometers (extreme red),
corresponding to reciprocal temperatures in the range from roughly 130 MK-1 to
240 MK-1. The reciprocal megakelvin has also been called the mired.
recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
units used in the U.S. to measure the amounts of certain nutrients found in foods
or provided by supplements such as vitamin tablets. Each nutrient has its own
RDA unit. Link: Dietary Reference Intakes from the University of Texas.
redshift (z)

a unit of relative distance used in astronomy. The universe is expanding, so distant
galaxies are receding from the earth. The faster the speed of recession, the farther
the object. Just as sound from a receding train is lowered in pitch, light from
distant galaxies is shifted toward longer wavelengths, that is, toward the red end
of the spectrum. The redshift equals z if the wavelength of light is z + 1 times the
normal wavelength; thus a redshift of 0.40 means that the wavelength of the light
is 40% longer than normal. Using the Hubble space telescope, astronomers have
measured redshifts greater than 5.0.
Redwood second
an obsolete unit of kinematic viscosity given by readings on the Redwood
viscometers commonly used in Britain and elsewhere. The reading is the time, in
seconds, for 50 milliliters of a sample of a liquid to flow through the device. The
viscosity in centistokes is given roughly by the formula 0.260 t - (0.0188 / t ),
where t is the flow time in seconds.
register ton (RT)
a unit of cargo capacity equal to 100 cubic feet (about 2.832 cubic meters); see
ton [3]. The symbol RT seems to be in wide use for this unit, but it is also used
for the refrigeration ton (see ton [7]) and for the revenue ton (see below).
rehoboam
a large wine bottle holding about 4.5 liters, 6 times the volume of a regular bottle.
The "h" is silent in English pronunciation.
rem
a unit used for measuring the effective (or "equivalent") dose of radiation received
by a human or some other living organism. One rem is equal to 0.01 sievert (Sv)
or 10 millisieverts, which means it equals the actual dose received in rads (see
above), multiplied by a "quality factor" which is larger for more dangerous forms
of radiation. The rem is related to the rad in the same way that the sievert is
related to the gray. "Rem" is an acronym for "roentgen equivalent: man," meaning
that it measures the biological effects of ionizing radiation in humans. The unit
was introduced in 1944 by the physicist H.M. Parker of the Manhattan Project.
rep
an obsolete unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to the absorption of 93 ergs of
energy per gram. This is equivalent to 0.93 rad (see above) or 9.3 milligrays
(mGy). "Rep" is an acronym for "roentgen equivalent: physical." The definition
was made because a dose of 1 rep of beta rays was considered biologically
equivalent to a dose of 1 roentgen (see below) of X rays.
reputed quart
see quart [2].
res or RES
symbol for "resolution," a unit defined to be the number of dots or pixels per
millimeter in an image. The unit is often stated before the measurement. RES 1 is
equal to 25.4 dots per inch (dpi).
retinol equivalent (RE)
a unit of dosage for retinol (vitamin A) and for related substances such as beta
carotene. One RE is equivalent to 5 international units (IU), or 1.5 micrograms, of

retinol. U.S. nutritional authorities recommend that an adult diet provide 1000 RE
per day.
revenue ton or tonne (RT)
a unit used for billing in the shipping industry. The size of a shipment in revenue
tons is the number of metric tons or the number of cubic meters in the shipment,
whichever is larger.
revolution (r or rev)
a unit of angle measure equal to a full circle, 360°, or 2 pi radians.
revolution per minute (r/min or rpm)
a unit of angular velocity, used particularly for rotation rates in mechanics. One
r/min equals 0.104 720 radian per second. The tachometers on auto dashboards
are usually calibrated in units of 1000 r/min.
reyn
a unit of dynamic viscosity in the customary English system. See poise for a
description of dynamic viscosity. With force measured in pounds of force (lbf),
one reyn equals 1 lbf·s/in2, approximately 68.947 57 kilopoise, or 6.894 757
kilopascal second. The unit, pronounced "ren", was named for a British scientist,
Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912).
rhe
a unit of fluidity, the opposite of viscosity. The unit, pronounced "ree", was
introduced by the American chemist F.C. Bingham in 1928; he defined it as the
reciprocal of the centipoise. However, it came to be used instead as the reciprocal
of the poise itself, so the fluidity of a substance in rhes is 1 divided by its dynamic
viscosity in poise. In SI units, the rhe equals 10 per pascal-second (10 (Pa·s)-1).
The name of the unit comes from the Greek rhein, to flow.
Rhine foot or Rheinfuss
the foot unit, or fuss, traditionally used in western and northern Germany.
rhm
a unit used in physics to measure the strength of gamma rays, a form of high-
energy radiation emitted by some radioactive substances. A source of strength 1
rhm produces ionization at the rate of 1 roentgen per hour at a distance of 1 meter
from the source. The letters "rhm" stand for roentgen-hour-meter.
Rhode Island
the smallest state of the U.S., Rhode Island has long served as an informal unit of
area in statements such as "an iceberg 1.5 times the size of Rhode Island has
broken off from Antarctica." Rhode Island has a land area of about 1045 square
miles or 2706 square kilometers. Europeans might note that Luxembourg (2586
square kilometers) provides a comparable unit.
ri
a traditional Japanese unit of distance, sometimes called the Japanese league
because it is of similar length to the European league. The ri equals 2160 ken or
12 960 shaku (the shaku being the Japanese equivalent of the foot). This is about
3927 meters or 2.44 statute miles.
rice cup

a common name in English for the Japanese go, a unit of dry and liquid capacity
equal to about 180 milliliters or 3/4 of a U.S. cup. Japanese rice cookers usually
come with measuring cups having this capacity.
Richter scale
a logarithmic scale measuring earthquake intensity. See magnitude [2].
rick
a traditional unit of volume for firewood. A rick represents a stack of split
firewood 4 feet high and 8 feet long, the logs being of a standard length, usually
16 inches. This is equivalent to 1/3 cord or 1.208 steres. However, because the
size of a rick has been manipulated by vendors, it is illegal to sell firewood by the
rick in several U.S. states. A rick is sometimes called a face cord or tier. The
name of the unit comes from a old Norse word for a stack of wood.
ridge
a traditional Welsh unit of distance equal to 3 leaps or 20 feet 3 inches (6.1722
meters).
Riga last
a traditional British unit of volume used for measuring timber. The Riga last is
named for the Latvian capital, Riga, which was a major port for the shipment of
timber from Russian forests. A Riga last is 80 cubic feet (2.265 cubic meters) of
square-sawn timber or 65 cubic feet (1.841 cubic meters) of round timber. See
also last.
right angle
a common unit of angle measure equal to 1/4 circle, 90°, 100 grads, or pi/2
ring
a traditional English unit of quantity for boards and staves, which were shipped
encircled by metal rings. A ring equals 4 shocks, or 240 boards.
ring size
a measure of the inside diameter or inside circumference of a ring. A variety of
ring sizing systems are used in various countries. In the U.S., a ring of size n has
an inside circumference of 1.43 + 0.102·n inches, or about 36.3 + 2.60·n
millimeters. (There is some variation, because U.S. ring sizes have never been
standardized). In Britain, traditional ring sizes are stated as letters A, B, etc.; if we
replace the letters by numbers n (A = 1, B = 2, etc.), then a ring of British size n
has an inside circumference of 36.25 + 1.25·n millimeters, or about 1.43 +
0.049·n inches. A difference of 1 U.S.size thus corresponds rather closely to two
letters in the British system. In Japan, sizing is by the inside diameter in
increments of 1/3 millimeter; a ring of Japanese size n has an inside diameter of
(n + 38)/3 millimeters and an inside circumference of 39.8 + 1.047·n millimeters.
There is an international standard (ISO 8653) defining the ring size to be the
inside circumference in millimeters, minus 40. Rings are now sized by this
standard in most of Europe, so a ring of European size n has an inside
circumference of exactly 40 + n millimeters. (The British scale is aligned with the
European scale, with British size C corresponding to European size 0 and a
difference of four British letters corresponding to 5 European sizes.)
rms or RMS

the German physicist Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (1845-1923).714 square meters. rotl. royal foot . root mean square (rms) a notation used after various measurements to indicate that the root mean square method has been used to measure or compute an average value for the measurement. The roentgen is an old unit used for this purpose. 21 feet. one roentgen equals a charge release rate of 258 microcoulombs per kilogram of air. equal to about 508. One rood is approximately 1011. round the basic unit of time in boxing.7 square meters or 5475 square feet (0.05087 hectare or almost exactly 1/8 acre). Usually the quantity being measured varies in a periodic way. But in old England and Scotland the rood was often longer than a "modern" rod of 16. See octane. or 660 feet) long and one rod (16. about the size of many suburban lots.8 kilograms) were used.9-1. the French livre. The ropani is divided into 16 annas. used in several ways. Thus the rood is equal to 40 square rods (or perches).5 feet. In the rms method. which is 12. or arratel a traditional Arab unit of weight corresponding to the Roman libra. For many purposes this procedure gives the best measure of the "typical" or "effective" value of the quantity. gamma rays. such as Syria and Palestine. In Afrikaans-speaking South Africa. ropani a unit of land area in Nepal. or exactly 1/4 acre. in some areas of the Near East. Rood (or roede) is an old Dutch word meaning a rod or pole. the distance unit.7783 meters. but usually the rotl was about 0. rope another name for the rood [1].5-2. this is often done by measuring the electric charge released when air is ionized by the radiation. the varying quantity is first squared (S). The unit is named for one of the early investigators of radioactivity. ratel.396 English feet or 3. and then the square root (R) of this mean value is computed. rottle. equal to 3 minutes. the rood was a standardized measure equal to 12 Cape feet. RON abbreviation for research octane number. There was considerable variation in the unit from time to time and from place to place. or 10 890 square feet. rood [1] an old unit of distance. which equals 1210 square yards. or even 24 feet. So the rood is in some cases another name for a rod. or 0.5 to 6 pounds (2. and the English pound.5 feet) wide.15 pound (450-530 grams). rotel. larger rotls of 5. typical examples include the voltage of an alternating current or the intensity of a sound wave. A rood is the area of a narrow strip of land one furlong (40 rods. sometimes it was 20 feet. This unit has many spellings in European languages.101 171 4 hectare. That would be the area of a lot 22 yards wide and 55 yards deep. then a mean (M) or average of the squared values is obtained. However. rood [2] a traditional unit of area used to measure land.