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WELLESLEY COLLEGE LIBRARY PURCHASED FROM LIBRARY FUNDS

CHRISTIANITY AND MYTHOLOGY

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
WINNOWINGS FROM WORDSWORTH. WALT WHITMAN An Appreciation. THE PERVERSION OF SCOTLAND.
:

ESSAYS TOWARDS A CRITICAL METHOD. NEW ESSAYS TOWARDS A CRITICAL METHOD.

MONTAIGNE AND SHAKESPEARE.
Essays on cognate subjects.)
: :

(Second Edition, with additional

BUCKLE AND HIS CRITICS a Sociological Study. THE SAXON AND THE CELT a Sociological Study. MODERN HUMANISTS: Essays on Carlyle, Mill,
Ruskin and Spencer.

Emerson, Arnold,

THE THE

(Fourth Edition.) FALLACY OF SAVING a Study in Economics. EIGHT HOURS QUESTION: a Study in Economics.
:
:

(Second

Edition.)

THE DYNAMICS OF RELIGION
(By "M.

an Essay in English Culture-History.
(Second

W. Wiseman.")

A SHORT HISTORY OF FREETHOUGHT, Ancient and Modern.
Edition: 2 vols.)

PATRIOTISM AND EMPIRE. (Third Edition.) STUDIES IN RELIGIOUS FALLACY. AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH POLITICS. WRECKING THE EMPIRE. A SHORT HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY. PAGAN CHRISTS Studies in Comparative Hierology.
:

(Second Edition

in the press.)

CRITICISMS.

2 vols.

TENNYSON AND BROWNING AS TEACHERS. ESSAYS IN ETHICS. ESSAYS IN SOCIOLOGY. 2 vols. LETTERS ON REASONING. (Second Edition.) DID SHAKESPEARE WRITE "TITUS ANDRONICUS"? PIONEER HUMANISTS: Essays on Machiavelli, Bacon, Hobbes,
Shaftesbury. Mandeville, Gibbon, and

Spinoza,

Mary Wollstonecraft.

TRADE AND TARIFFS. COURSES OF STUDY. CHAMBERLAIN A STUDY. PAPERS FOR THE PEOPLE. CHARLES BRADLAUGH. By Mrs. Bradlaugh Bonner.
:

Part

II.

by J. M. R.

CHKISTIANITY AND

MYTHOLOGY

BY

JOHN M. ROBERTSON

SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND EXPANDED

[

ISSUED FOE, THE RATIONALIST PRESS ASSOCIATION, LIMITED ]

London

:

WATTS
17

& CO.,
E.C.

JOHNSON'S COURT, FLEET STREET,
1910

;

CONTENTS
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION Introduction

----._._
-

PAGE
xi

-

xv ii

Part

I.

THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY
Chap. I.— The Science and its History. The Problem § 1. The Scientific Beginnings § 2. The Relation to Christianity § 3.

-------

l

2
-

10

Chap. II.— Modern Systems. The Meteorological, Etymological, and Solar Schools § 1. The Movement of Anthropology Tylor § 2.
:

-

-

16 21

-

§ §

3. 4.

A priori
The

Evolutionism

:

Spencer
-

-

-

26
28

Biological Correction

§ 5.
§

6.

Fresh Constructions, Reversions, Omissions, Evasions Mr. Lang and Anthropology -

32
37

-

Chap. III.— The Separatist fallacy.
§

1.

§ § §

2.

3.

4.

The Theistic Presupposition The Metaphysic of Religion Some Academic Categories Mr. Grant Allen's Theorem

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

46 68 73 90

Chap. IV.
§

The Stand for the Bible.
Hebrew Mythology
-

1.

§
§
§

2.
3.

Christianity and " Degeneration

"-..'---

96
109 114 122 127

4. 5.

§

The Psychological Resistance to Evidence The Problem of Non-Miraculous Myth The Problem of Priority

-

-

-

-

-

Part

II.

CHEIST AND KEISHNA
The Problem of Priority.
of

Rationalism committed to no historical presupposition. Old date Missionaries. orthodox hypothesis. Theories of Giorgi. Hyde.

V

;

vi
Jones.

CONTENTS
Paulinus.

Maurice. Baldaeus. Volney. Kleuker.

Jones's

presuppositions.

Moor.

Creuzer.

...
-

PAGE
137

Polier.

§

2.

Age of Indian Documents. Ritter's criticism. Extravagance
inscriptions.

of

Indian chronology.

Origin of writing.

Miiller

and
-

Tiele.

Oldest Oral preserva-

tion of lore.
§

Brahman method

of

study

141

3.

The Special Documents.
Age of Vedas. Developments of Krishnaism. Its documentary bases.
Indian religion. Vogue Phases of Krishna
of
-

143

§

4.

The Krishna Legend.
or

Solar significance. Krishna the Black, Hiding, Night Sun. Black Deities in other systems. Krishna and Arjuna. Osiris and Typhon. Krishna originally a "demon." The vegetalspirit theory. Supersedes Indra. Contrary Christian view

Barth's synopsis.

NOTE ON THE BLACK
§

OSIRIS

......
its

145

149

5.

The Christian Argument.
Wheeler's History.
suppositions.

Thesis of

Atlienceum

critic.

His pre-

Professor Miiller's apologetics.

Superior candour of

continental scholarship.
tists.

Weber's attitude. Wheeler on question of imitation

General view of Sanskri-

152

§ 6.

The Central Disproof.
Antiquity of Kansa Myth.
admissions.

Bhandarkar on The main question settled

....
Patanjali.
Miiller
-

Weber's
157

§

7.

Antiquity of Krishnaism.

Further proofs.

Bhitari Pillar inscription.
-

Bayley's inscriptions.

Buddhal Weber §

Pillar Inscription.
-

Khandogya Upanishad.
-

and
-

159

8.

Invalid Evidence.

Lassen on the Hercules of Megasthenes. Criticism of Tiele. Wilson's position. Upheld by Weber and Senart. Bala Rama's characteristics. His close correspondence with the Hercules of Megasthenes. Rama Chandra

.....
;

1G1

§

9.

Weber's Theory.

His general attitude
tion of Christianity
§
;

;

Theory

of early

Greek influence and imitaConcrete details
-

Doctrine of Faith

164

10.

Pagan
1.

Parallels.
; ;

Criticism of Weber's positions The Kansa Myth Problem of Christian Origins Virgin and Child derived from Isis and Horus De Rossi on the Catacomb Madonnas Pre-Christian Child-carrying
; ; ;

Goddesses
dite;

;

Virgin Goddesses

;

Juno

;

Isis

;

Venus

;

Alitta

;

AphroTiele's

British
of

Museum nomenclature:
Weber
;

India and Egypt;

Virgin-Mother Goddess Buddha Virgin-born Krishnaite NameJerome's testimony giving Early Christian placing of Nativity on Epiphany Christmas
criticism

Universality

of

;

;

;

;

Dramatic ritual in early Christism. Virgin. Wilson's. Cognate terms. Ritual. The Magi. Connection of Kansa legend with legend of Cyrus. Dramatic ritual in -191 Krishnaism and Christism § 13. Maya and Mary. Anthony's Day Myth derived from Eitual Krishnaite and Roman Festivals The " Swinging " Festival . and others. Dramatic origin of the Eucharist and the The Liturgies. Antiquity of the Babe-Sun-God. Ion. The Mass. Day - 205 14. Bas-reliefs in the Catacombs. Christopher. CONTENTS Name-day in Hercules-worship NameBaptizing on Epiphany Abyssinian usage. The Christian legend. Horus. The Myth of St. . The Birth-Festival and the Puranas Weber's explanation accepted Purana legends not necessarily late Birthdays of Gods astrological Krishna and Star Eohini Krishna Nativity in July Significance of this Birthday of Horos in July Hindu Festivals a Pre-Christian Festival . . The Pastophoroi. Testimonies of Clarkson. The myths of Sargon. Cart. V irgins The Seven Brother Martyrs. and Zeus. . Indian and Christian Religious Drama. Images in Christism and Krishnaism. Mattu Pongal and St. The Symbolic Ass. The " Taxing " Journey. Weber and Senart on the Krishna of Dionysos." " The ToyBuddhist testimony. . Parallel legends. and Manger Myth preChristian in Egypt. General The name Christophoroi. . The Mythological River. The Cave motive. Dangers run by the Divine Child. The sacramental eating of baked images. The Seven Myth. The Coat of Many Colours. The text in Habakkuk. . . The Birth in a Cave. . St. Ox and Ass symbolic. . The Myth of the Seven Gates - 180 § 12. . The principle of Eating the God. Greek Mysteries. Virgin-Myth ritualized in Egypt. The Messianic Cyrus and Jesus. . vii PAGE day in Mazdeism . use of such images. . Myths concerning him. The Child Born on a Journey. Cows and Stable. Cow Myth in Mithraism. The Seven The Seven Priests Contact of Mithraism and Christism The Banquet of Seven Cox on the Seven Myth The Sleepers 1. Early Christian Religious Drama. The Stable and Manger. Joseph and the Ass. . Agni and Dionysos twice born. Horos born on Christmas Eve. Weber's View. Trollope. The Massacre of the Innocents. Evidence of St. . Christopher's The Krishna - Myth and § the Christian. Proclus. and Hatch. The Christian Mysteries secret. Moses. The Solar-Child Myth. Child. .. . 166 § 11. Ox and ass. Devaki and Vasudeva. The Manger-basket Hermes. Persistence of the Pagan Drama - 215 § 15. Agni the Babe God in the Veda. . The Child Speaking at Birth. The Cow-shed in the Krishna ritual and in Catacomb sculpture. The charge of Child-eating. Confucius miraculously born. Isis and the Virgin Cow. Child-carrying in Pagan Cults. The Seven Sleepers. . Palmer. 2.

Dionysos. Bhakti and Sraddhd . Spurious and Remote Myth Parallels. 3. Also in Legend of Buddha. 2 73 . and Christist Doctrine. . Anointing the God. A ni Cox s A *alysis Cult of Repetitions in Solar MythoKrishnaite Syncretism . Pagan Precedents. His error Vague Early Use of the Name Chrysostom's . Lassen's Argument. Dr. Theses positive and negative. opinion the Gita Telang's Suggestion Lorinser's Parallels Their Futility Pagan and New Testament Parallels Universal Theology and Ethics Brahman and Christian Pantheism. Hindu Translation Evidence "India"' No Early of Gospels. Christianity and Buddhism § 234 17. Alteration in Order of Months. . The . . The Week Myth. Christian Doctrine of Faith from Judaism Its Universality Muir. The "White Island. Oldfield's Corroboration. Judas and his Bag . . The Address to the Fig-tree. . Buddhist and Other Parallels . The Seventh Month. § Krishna on the Tree The Wilson on Gnostic borrowings Difficulty of the question - Epiphanius' Testimony. ." Weber's Thesis. Introduction of the Dogma. Doctrine of Immortality.vni CONTENTS PAGE and Martyrs = the Seasons and Pleiads. . tlie Krishna Myth. The Dragon. The Descent into Hell. 3. Feet-washing. Lormser on the Bhagavat Gita. . . Krishna's Descent. 3. Apollo' Balder and Arthur. Eight Egyptian Cosmic Powers. Devaki s Children Vedic Myth of the Eighth Child The Younger Brother. Senart and Barth take same ground. 270 Summary. Orpheus. Zamolxis. 2 44 § 19.0f M°° r Crucified. Possible Myth Connections." Frauds on Wilford. ' § 18. All the evidence against it . Osiris. . 2 Weber's Chronological Scheme Senart's Refutation Weber's Answer Its Insufficiency. 4. The Christian hypothesis found untenable and absurd. Adonis. Krishnaite 1 2. The "Two" rescued " Sons " in both Legends. Telang's Refutation. Thieves. of Weber's Misconception Wilson. . Semitic Usage. Transfiguration. from India.. and HigginS Was there an Asiatic Crucifixion Giorgi on the Crucifixion Myth in Tibet Indra - Two 22. Date 2 54 § 20. rislma and Bala Rama. 223 § 16.. Birthdav J Festival Dates . . S m°5 L5 The Three Ramas = One. Herakles Hermes. '. 2. Wilson's real as to . Its Obviously Solar Character. Christian Monotheism - 267 § 21. Tiele's Endorsement. Cerberus. The Seven Planetary Spirits. Myth a Andrade and ? ^ e e T. Raising the Widow's Son. . The Crucifixion Myth. Explanation of 1. Saturn. Telang and Tiele on the Indian Doctrine Position of Senart and Barth of . Mithra.

14.. § The The The The The The The Virgin Birth - - -292 - Mythic Maries § § § § 8. 1. § § § Joseph Annunciation Cave and Stable Birth Birthday Massacre of the Innocents Note on the Moses Myth The Boy Jesus in the Temple The Upbringing at Nazareth The Temptation The Water. : Myths of Doctrine. § § § § § 3. 4. 10. 20. 28. 27. and Logos The Preaching of John the Baptist Jesus as a Preacher of Universalism - 386 395 396 397 398 401 403 413 - 4.. 6. 29. ix peeamble § --------Myths of Action. 12.Wine Miracle The Scourging of the Money-Changers The Walking on the Water The Healing of Two Blind Men Other Myths of Healing and Resurrection The Feeding of the Five Thousand The Anointing The Riding on the Ass and Foal The Myth of the Twelve Apostles The Characteristics of Peter The Myth of Judas Iscariot The Lord's Supper The Transfiguration and the Agony Myth of ------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - . - § § § § § 2. The The The The The The The Crucifixion - - - - - - Cross-bearing by Simon of Cyrene - Mystic Cross Seamless Tunic Burial and Resurrection Banquet of Seven Ascension - - - - - - - - - 297 302 305 306 308 309 309 310 311 318 329 330 331 332 332 335 336 338 341 347 352 355 361 362 368 369 379 381 382 384 Second Division. 18. The Jesuine Discourses in GeneralJesus as Saviour. Mediator. 21. 5. 5. - THE GOSPEL MYTHS PAGE 277 First Division. 11. - - - - - § 24. Jesus as Messiah Jesus as Preparing the Kingdom of The Sermon on the Mount -----God - - - - Note on the Gospels and the Talmud - A . 3. 6. 17. 7. 22.CONTENTS Part III. 19. § 25. 9. § § § § § § § § § 13. 16. 23. § § § 26. § § 30. Preamble § 1. 15. 2.

. Gnostic and Cryptic Parables The Late Ethical Parables in Luke The Discourses of the Fourth Gospel ... 12.. 8... Neumann § : § 2.. Carpenter Schweitzer .. 5.CONTENTS 7. .. 11. The Lord's Prayer The Beatitudes The Woman Taken in Adultery 10. _.. 4. ----- - - - Epilogue - - - - - PAGE 415 421 423 425 426 428 433 Appendix The Neo-Unitarian Position 1.. 9. Schmiedel Pfleiderer § § § 3..-. ------- 439 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 439 441 447 451 456 Index - - - - - - - - - 461 .-....

that. Well. its most prominent theological critics are industrious in misrepresenting its positions. or at least Semitism? It would but it doubtless be Quixotic to demand of a professional theologian that he should read a book through before condemning it . I have made shift to improve and expand it at the many points that had obtruded themselves for fuller consideration in the course of And there is my general reading. to which he expressly referred. Professor A. reviewing the book Revue de I'histoire des religions. as large. Why make such journeys when. in order to indicate the possible it source of legendary elements in the canonical narrative. one could seek without going past Palestine. wrote (p. latterly as formerly. I have seen no reason to give up any of its main contentions. That would involve the making of another. Wo have sought simply to sketch the impressions which he leaves upon us.— PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION OTHER years. For instance. 276) : in the from us that wo should follow tho English author book to the other. Its main thesis is that the Christian writings cannot be a main source of the Krishna myth a very different proposition. Professor Keville had shaped his criticism in entire ignorance of the thesis even of the second part. however. this is very far-fetched (bien loin et bien It will not be exacted of his from one end forci). It is in particular the mythology and the legend of Krishna that he loves to present as one of the principal sources of the evangelical myth or myths. entitled — Gospel Myths. avocations have made difficult the due revision of this book in the light of the manifold hierological discussion of the past ten Since. the further reason for removing the " out-of-print " bar under which the book has lately lain." he would have been deterred from his egregious . in 1902. So far from representing the Krishna legend as one of the principal sources of the gospel myths. it suggests such a possibility or probability only in the case of one or two subsidiary details. and the growing interest in the central problem is expressed by the demand for a new edition. Keville. seems difficult so to differentiate the moral standards of the theologian and the layman as to entitle sures without reading it him to frame his cen- at all. " The If Professor Keville had even glanced at the third part. In this respect neo-Unitarians and Trinitarians seem to be at one.

D.. to " propose to confine " himself to " some of of my arguments. we may well ask why all borrowings from it should be so incredible. He would doubtless remain convinced that the proposed derivations from nearer sources were fallacious but he could scarcely have retained his preliminary belief that the unread treatise declared the main source to be India. and that Christianity has itself borrowed from the impure cult of Krishna. the indicated as a possible source of Christian . But if such a world-wide religion as Christianity has been so arrant a borrower. the cult of Krishna in the story of Balder in Scandinavia may have been borrowed to prove the originality of every other from Christian sources. author of a primer on Religion : its Origin and Forms..D." alleged case Any layman will of course see that every must be considered on its merits and it is the dispassionate critical handling of the two cases named by him that has . he would have found not a and only one or two qualified suggestions. of derivation of minor details from Krishnaism.— PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION Had he xii gone through it. . . that they seem willing to and of While scholars India or of repute much form of religion. by the Rev. single positive assertion. Canon J. and many ancient cults to have assimilated others (4) that the probability of a deluge-myth among the Mexicans being derived from missionary teaching is conceded and (5) that the argument contains this express avowal "as Christism borrowed myths of all kinds from Paganism. he would have been aware (l) that in this volume the Voluspa Saga is expressly admitted to have been coloured by If Krishna story is at one or two subsidiary points (3) that Buddhism is declared to have borrowed freely from Krishnaism. In point of fact. have suggested that. and other works of an ostensibly scientific cast. the rationalist angrily asserts that this is impossible. 151-2) : Their antagonism to Christianity apologise for is seen in this. a manual on Comparative Theology. but to be unable to follow their arguments. : developed systems. MacCulloch. (2) that. Canon MacCulloch had not been himself so angry as not only to feel that all his antagonists must be so.g. and thereupon proceeds to speak of me asa" school. e. A. . in one section. A layman who is puzzled by the standards of critical morality revealed in such a performance as that of Professor Reville may perhaps find a gleam of elucidation in another deliverance. myth only ." which he gives this among other details of description (pp. Canon MacCulloch does me " the honour. so it may pass on myths to less Christian influences . as aforesaid. Religion [sic] and the Historic Christ " in the collection entitled Religion and the Modern World (lectures delivered before the Glasgow University Society of St. Ninian). 1909. he framed his indictment upon a wrong guess. In a lecture on " Comparative allegation.

with their theological consciousness of special enlightenment. reveals Expanding experience in various fields of discussion more fully to some of us the difficulty of putting any all innovating theory of wide scope at to rely at times difficulty. Carpenter. Carpenter. A little of that useful endowment might seem sufficient to make him realize that human nature can be claimed by all of us. has not always been overcome in the following pages. for instance. Dr. from a historical and variously heterodox point of view. disturbed by neologism. The professional theologian reproduces phenomena of the state of war : he cannot refrain from inventing charges against his opponent. Dr. As regards scholarship. in arousing conservative resistance. threateningly reminds us that " human nature " will not endure more than a certain amount of such disturbance though at other times his normal benevolence prompts him to credit with " mother wit " some of those who presume to impugn his creed.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION reduced Canon MacCulloch Professor morals. it forcibly without seeming more on emphasis than on reasoning. undertakes to decide difficult historical problems by telling heretics like myself that they do not its . I hope to have at least escaped the snare of misrepresentation. culture history is but a record of inadequacy in the absence of scientific " mother wit. In the Appendix in which I have dealt with the arguments of of the leading writers who maintain. great for the dialectic powers of distinguished exponents of conservative views in these matters. the contrary position to my own. . Sanday and Dr. Frazer. it seems to be at times too even Dr. like he transcends ordinary standards of literary It would thus appear that odium theologicum can operate to-day very the psychic much as of old. again. Reville. When who has had some experience can offer nothing better than a headlong petitio principii as ground for rejecting a theory that applies his own theoretic principles where he is not disposed to apply them. But I am not so presumptuous as to suppose that in the handling of this far-reaching controversy I have escaped fallacy or reached some finality. And this may well be. undertaking to dispose of unsettling doctrines by the oracular modes of the profession. and that in that field at least there can be no monopoly and no precedence. On the other hand. it is not surprising to find Dr. Sanday. xiii to a state of mind in which." Everyone of the thousand abandoned fortresses of theology had been walled by libraries of learning. Hence a somewhat obvious futility in undertakings to ban new theorists by blank imputations of incompetence.

that the is prepos- and that prepossessions about religions. and the accompanying inability to argue without ascription of primary incapacity to the opponent. For a century and a half he could not accept Copernicanism. is no argument for the truth of the new theory. same furious confidence superiority they pronounce the but if anything can reasonably be held to demonstrate radical incompetence for the ascertaining of scientific truth. individuals in point of delicacy . I trust. Frazer at a pinch resorts same simple procedure. the old resistance was renewed in the case of geology and when that science. Carpenter's faculty for weighing evidence than he will take Dr. it is precisely right . The open-minded reader. and lack the historical sense. Their worthless judgments are always held and delivered with the When and with the same sense of intellectual same verdicts of incapacity against each innovator in turn. by the exchange of such assurances. xiv PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION the moaning of evidence. would no more take as decisive my estimate of Dr. has been at its inception denounced as stupid standing hindrance to the right use of the historical sense session . In every age the average man under which class I include the average expert is structurally unable to accept radically innovating — — ideas. and gifts. deities. had been at length established. in turn. Gruppe's book of 1908. Their incapacity. or of Nature. and revered personages are in the nature of things apt to be nearly absolute. this confidence in prejudice.. Die mythologiscJie be still on his mere habit of any one of his historical least diffidence enough to . For my own part I have at on the look-out for fuller or better elucidations of a number of the problems here handled. the mob of average minds raged in the old fashion against Darwin. will surely be slow to rely certitude against a serious challenge to convictions. Copernicanism and the Newtonian system had been generally assimilated. After reading a good deal of history am disposed to admit that the " historical sense " can vary greatly in . save for the already convinced. He who realizes the dissolution that has taken place within a hundred years of many beliefs held by tenure alike of intuition and of supposed historical proof. Carpenter's bare dictum against me. suggest that every To open-minded readers in general I will only new reading of the past. know to the I that he possesses the required Dr. I am tempted to add to the first part of the present volume some account of the developments of mythological research as set forth in Professor 0. To that end. whether of man . and accuracy and I am as sensible of psychic shortcomings on the part of my critics as they can be of mine but I do not see that anything is settled. which may as easily be wrong as . obviously.

of course. such as the meritorious Martin Bruckner. professor my under a similar drawback in England. of Carlsruhe. but aimed simply at bringing sufficiently served mythology to bear is that this purpose on surviving as well as without undertaking manual of mythothe methods of on dead religion and . on the notable alike works of the late Pastor Kalthoff. was sold out in little more than a month and its theme was discussed in hundreds of meetings. following has irre- sistibly forced the question of of Jesus upon the attention scholars and laymen in is Germany. to follow the mythological research of the time. Jena. the problem theological world. for some readers. The inclusion of matter within the scope of mythology is still the pressing problem and it is probably overloaded already. xv but refrain on the ground that the following treatise never professed to be a science. consisting of ten thousand copies. Whatever may little be the outcome. Ghristusmythe (1st ed. problem are undertaken in the treatise entitled Pagan Christs. now definitely present to the German Other treatises. entitled Is Jesus a Historical Personality ? I find Professor D. over a paper by Professor Dr. of Dr. 1910. This unexampled ferment results proximately from the publication of the remarkable book by Dr. which followed the present book. Pfarrer von Soden disposing of my unworthy self as " an Englishman (not the celebrated one) who has no auspices of the great name among us. innumerable journals. remind the reader that further developments of the up all living . 1910). Der sterbende und auferstehende Gottheiland in den orientalischen Beligionen und ihr Verhdltnis zum book . I may. the historicity of 3rd ed. 1909 . however." I may be permitted is to offer the rev. The important thing is that the The discussion under notice has aroused the mind of Germany. Arthur Drews. There also. Drews entitled Die condolences on the fact that he . which. and a multitude of pamphlets. in the noteworthy discussion on the problem "Did Jesus Live?" held under the German Society of Monists {Monistenbund) at Berlin on January 31st and February 1st. Thus.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION Literatur aus den Jahren 1898-1905 logical . and of which a new and expanded edition is now in preparation. Meantime I have pleasure in calling attention to certain works which tell of much new and vigorous activity over these problems in the great intellectual workshop of Germany. and to express the hope that both of us may nevertheless continue to hold up our heads. first edition of the report. conservative theologians resort to the argumentum ad hominem in its more elementary forms. with discussions of mythological issues which stand apart. H.

and is at vital points strengthened by. present Ghristenthum in the " Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher" series it judicially and the pamphlet of Arthur . and that of the important treatise of Dr. orthodoxy has small prospect of peaceful possession before it. is considerably further removed from the traditional belief than from . W. 1910). friend In preparing the present edition I am deeply indebted to my Mr. ." so to speak. 1908). 1910. D. and C. sets forth the relation of the new theorem to the critical movement of the past century.xvi PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION (Tiibingen. Smith on Der Vorchristliche Jesus I can but express me is in thesis of its which first systematically set forth the case for the The fact that Professor Schmiedel thought that treatise worthy of a preface from him may suffice to countervail the dialectic which would dismiss it as an idle hypothesis. (Giessen. Percy Vaughan for carefully reading the proofs and revising the index. followed by my satisfaction that the line of argument fundamental agreement with. 1906).D. Here also. Whatever may be the fate of the theorem propounded in this book and in Pagan Christs. July. Albert Schweitzer entitled The Quest of the Historical Jesus : A Critical Study of its Progress from Beimarus to Wrede. that of Professor Drews. this negation thereof. Black) Professor F. Burkitt. however cavalierly. and the light comes "not through eastern windows only. B. The work of Dr. title. has contributed a preface. Bohtlingk." Ignored by most theologians. however. to the English translation of which (1910 A.. " it moves. Zur Aufhellung der Christusmythologie (Frankfurt am Main. the problem is faced by some. C. In England we do not move so fast.

arising in memory of a teacher with twelve disciples.INTRODUCTION The ago. Soon after. the first rigorous attempts to identify the first Jesuists. mythology even surmised that. And none of the three aspects equated with the primary Jesus of Paul. led gradually to . " another Jesus whom we have not preached. a sociological foundation was in a measure it was plain that the ground had not yet been cleared of . an interposed Jesus the Nazarite. continued as a study. inquiry. broadly figured by "the" Gospel To that end I Jesus . while the practical purpose was to exhibit " The Eise of Christianity. But the first independent explorations. though at that stage I and known frequency alike of . Thus the original . reached. led to a series Nazareth " turned out to be a compound of an already composite Gospel Jesus." And the Twelve Apostles were demonstrably of fresh exposures of myth. Bradlaugh. theorem represented a still imperfect appreciation of the scope and dominion of the principle of Myth and it fitly chanced that the sociological inquiry was arrested for a time as a literary task. in view of the Messiahs and Jesuses in Jewry. While. therefore. Sociologically Considered. at the request of the late Mr. three treatises making up this volume stand for a process of It set out inquiry which began to take written form nearly twenty-five years with a certain : scientific principle and a certain historical purpose the principle being that Christian Origins should be studied with constant precaution against the that all myths of action the biography of common assumption and doctrine must be mere accretions round a great teacher. I undertook the research concerning "Christ and Krishna" by scientifically way of solving and objectively a simpler general problem in mythology and hierology and about the same time the undertaking of an independent research into Mithraism further enabled me to see the Christian problem in a fuller scientific light. an actual Such a succession of Jesuses might be the historical solution. and a superimposed Jesus born at Nazareth. " Jesus of mythical." was pre- pared to assume a primitive cult. in Paul's words. Each in turn was. never discontinued as a subject of thought.

Percy Gardner entitled Exploratio Evangelica (1899). Consider." portions of which were also published serially. which came into my hands only when the bulk of this volume was in type. than and Mr. But the faculties which had been employed in the construction of myth were still at work. and in parts rewritten. a treatise in many respects wise and stimulating. the whole drift of the present work is a gainsaying of such divisions as the one thus sought to be drawn." Such language seems to me to confute itself: in any case. Bradlaugh's journal and was reprinted (1889) with is now again a good deal expanded. Gardner speaks 2 again of " the vague and childish character of the true myth. from the grossest to the slightest. by w ay of finally clearing the mythological ground for sociology "proper. P. and when inadequate or illusory hypotheses find acceptance in our own time. in detail. And they found their natural field in the adaptation of history to national and ethical 1 purpose. . Dr." The study on " Christ and Krishna. for instance. ." I submit that there are all degrees of vagueness and childishness in myth. I cannot better prepare a reader to catch my point of view than by indicating it critically as against the diverging doctrine of the work of Dr. Work cited. As I regard it. untested." As regards the theoretic problem. T scientific is sunderance. is recast and greatly enlarged. when all is said. 2 Id. admirable as much of knowledge. what seems to me the right method of dealing with certain problems glanced at in the opening treatise and on the other hand to lead organically into the general problem of Christian mythology." which first appeared their shown to be in the hands work is. even in the pre-Christian lore of Greece. simply a false hypothesis (whether framed in bad faith or in good faith) which once found easy credence.xviii INTKODUCTION Mythology as a more catholic of its I a conception of science. Gardner's treatise relies unduly on the old. 149. metaphysical conception of mythology. A myth commonly so-called. That view has yet been cultivators. It seeks on one hand to illustrate. and that though there may be grading there can be no serially in additions and corrections. the proposition that " probably at that time [early Christian age] in all the Levant the true mythmaking age luas over. we see exemplified at once the play of the myth-making faculty and that of the it normal credulity on which i lives. Dr. or a it more scientific classification of certain have now tried to set forth critically historically in the opening treatise on " The Progress of Mythology. p. the survey of " The Gospel Myths. 108. Finally.

and it recognize variation. 328-9. True. so to speak. and that which followed. Gardner's distinction between the " true " mythmaking age B. difference while giving a general assent. between their mental processes and those which avail secure the currency of any is fallacious belief in politics or in science.INTRODUCTION xix Over a generation ago Adalbert Kuhn. stipulated that there is a great between the ancient classic or Vedic and the modern even the modern savage myth. more purposive. 1874. we see mythopoiesis at work among the educated followers of Madame Blavatsky and to of Mrs. a conits scious fiction on the part of 1 framer but the credulity of Letture sopra la mitologia vedica. modern science makes impossible the old easy mythopoiesis among people scientifically instructed. and affirmed that the mythopoetic Professor Angelo de Gubernatis. provided we . faculty simply varies and evolves. Ueber Entwichelungstufen der Mythenbildtmg. There was probably more scientific thinking in the Greek. A quite primitive its first myth may have been . Eddy. than others and a myths are less fortuitous. to say nothing of the survival of belief in Christian myths. denied that there had been any one "true" or sole mythical period. the rural population of Greece to-day is mentally nearer the myth-making and the stage than was the educated part of the Athens of Pericles . but even in the "educated" world of to-day. Catholic peasantry of southern Europe has been pretty much at the same standpoint down till the other day.C. one of the pioneers of modern mythology in Germany. admit that the differentiation is mainly in terms of knowledge. and 1 — — to exclude Dr. question might fairly be raised as to whether there is not here a true psychological distinction. And there is only a tint of psychic difference. in respect of the ancient comBut this is to bination of ignorance with abundance of language. . Any "explanation" which for " but an a priori formula to account an uncomprehended and unanalyzed process of phenomena is a Some true myth " in so far as it finds utterance and acceptance. pp. Nay. My answer is that we can never demon. strate the entire absence of purpose: it is always a question of degree makes little scientific difference in our elucidation whether we impute more or less of ignorant good faith. or of the rise of the Mormon cult in the civilized United States. in the concluding lecture of his course at Florence on Vedic Mythology.speaking world in the period from Thales to Aristotle than in the greater part of it during the period between Augustus and the nineteenth century. in his lecture at Berlin.

Gardner. that. we restricted ourselves to false hypotheses good faith. framed in absolute the psychological process even of myths commonly so-called. Its abolition very early 1 among the Hebrews was and a sign of of a mark of their unique religious consciousness. and has so fallen back on Hegelian formulas At philosophical myths where real solutions were quite feasible. p. what is to be gained by the concurrent use of both procedures. prepossessed by old conceptions of myth. . 105. conceiving myth thus comprehensively." The old explanation was a myth the other is only myth on a different plane of instruction. and that nature abhors a vacuum." Work cited. Even as the movement of the sun and planets was not scientifically accounted for by supposing them to be tenanted by Gods or guiding spirits. on the view here taken. but also by of analysis of the texts. at least as regards phraseology. for instance. The effect of this change of theoretic standpoint must needs be error as to a "very early" disappearance the — human . it INTRODUCTION in exactly the same way as others framed in however. so far as they are accepted. 1 may The Gospel Myths. on logy. for lack of analysis of the texts. made very much in the old way. I submit. Myth means in the gospels. has often made little account of concrete mythothat is. students of mythology have often taken myth for criticism of the history we must come But the later criticism of the — — of As illustrating my idea biography. the same time. writes that " the Phoenician kinsmen of the Jews retained down to quite late times the terrible custom of human sacrifice. though with far higher intellectual faculties. It obscures our comprehension of Even if. are myths. And such explanations." This proposition —to say nothing of the serious historic sacrifice among Hebrews I should describe as the quasi-explanation of an uncomprehended process in terms of the phenomena themselves as in the propositions that opium has a dormitive virtue. so the evolution of a community and its culture is not accounted for by crediting the community with "unique consciousness" and "lofty destiny. is to be detected not merely by means of the data of comparative mythology. documents. the old conception of myth remains a stumbling-block to be got rid of. As Baur argued long ago. Dr. . by I I will merely say have sought to track and elucidate it lines of evidence not usually made to co-operate.xx acceptors assimilated better faith. considerable. I " point to the subsections of Part III. their lofty destiny. from to criticism of the documents.

— . In fine. who And that state of mind is simply uncritical credulity. : me . and (b) the Myth of first undertakes to trace an myth by various methods of comparative of the The mythology. It seems in every way more profitable to put the case afresh from my own standpoint. and constantly frames his solutions in terms of the more problematical rather than in terms of the less. with to no effectual end. we say. with a theorist who did not believe that the first Christian Nazarenes were so called in the sense of Nazarites. they frequently convey a melancholy impression of a great expenditure of intellectual power In comparing Bruno Bauer. makes a myth first " truly " so framed it. in particular by colligating clues in art and in literature the second undertakes to trace a relatively purposive myth by analysis of the texts which gradually construct it. what . may have originated in a deliberate fiction by a priest who gave what he knew to be a false explanation of a picture or sculpture the second may have originated in good faith. having read a good deal with little decisive gain. is not the state of mind of the man but the state of mind of those who adopted it. in the latter case." The first myth. leaving part of the problem of the motives. Gardner's conception of " the true myth. for instance. But the bulk of the work of Bruno Bauer was practically thrown away by reason of his false Hegelian or quasi-Hegelian method for he is more Hegelian than Strauss. is ostensibly fortuitous. in its Christian aspect. INTRODUCTION dealing with (a) the xxi Myth the Upbringing at ostensibly Nazareth. one cannot but be struck by the greater originality and acuteness of the free-lance. 11 safe " modern practitioners like Bernhard Weiss. for a wider historical inquiry. The first myth. the second ostensibly purposive. strike in their circumstances Not that they were not meritorious on the contrary. on the lines of my own chosen approach. But neither assumption is susceptible of proof. fortuitous Temptation. Every phenomenon in the text is by him accounted for through an a priori abstraction of the constructive consciousness as finally fallacious. leaving the less problematical line of demonstration unoccupied. which and to do is the result or sequel of a survey of previous methods this without even criticizing a whole series of such methods which . And here we have cases which test the old theory of myth Baur's and Dr. department is so immense that I have not sought to compass even the bulk of it. Much of it is a mere prolongation of dispute over the more problematical.. on It may be that in some process of textual criticism in the treatise " The Gospel Myths " I have unknowingly put forward theses The German literature in that already advanced by other critics.

than that of the previous critics known of to me who have reached similar anti-traditional results. as I should prefer to put it. No stronger brain than Baur has dealt with historical theology in Germany since his day either through their own choice of other careers or the : official selection of other candidates. so far as it goes. exposed with perfect precision. from Milman onwards. the stronger German brains have mostly wrought in other fields. Cheyne who in our time has done original and at the same time valid and important service in that field. defence represents. The late Dr. it is in " positive. If the capable men are there. whose error of method he Common prudence. though the sale of his works shows The corporate their wide acceptability even within its limits. matter of the logical evolution of discovery. any advantage as against the ecclesiastical I have suggested that that to look for. more obedient to scientific canons. as in a disinterested science. The truth could make the transition certainly not Comte is that none of us so promptly as he supposed himself to have done at best we grow less and less metaphysical (or. therefore. more and more " positive. acting as psychological and it theoretically needs sociological . but of the social selection of types of teacher. myth in place of theological. physical" tendency. Edwin Hatch. that we get community. C. . The negation is right the affirmation is wrong.xxii INTRODUCTION so of the early Christian must . and much a metaphysical . So. appears to have been in a measure positively ostracized in his profession. however unconsciously. less a priori. Broadly speaking. in the Church of England. less This appears even in the apriorist). such work as Bruno Bauer's. It substitutes anthropological basis. of that of Strauss." more inductive. the organization of an economic interest that the ostensible course of criticism is not a That this will give it defence would be too much . they are mostly gagged or obstructed. Baur." weighty performance of F. answers to Comte's conception of the normal rise of mode of thought as the first departure from a theothough Bauer thought that he and Weisse and Wilke and others had reached the true " positive " standpoint. the one Churchman save Dr. dictates the admission that the method of the following treatises " metais likely to suffer in some degree from survivals of the logical this — — . to the problems of Christian Origins. in terms of the concrete phenomena an mytho- logy. a more " positive " thinker and investigator than Bruno Bauer. we see no continuous advance in the application of clerical ability. general more I claim only that. for a pseudo-philosophical presupposition.

writing as a layman. avows that he cannot hope " to escape the opposition and anger which have always greeted any attempt to apply to the Christian creed the principles which are applied freely to other forms of faith. None 1 the less. a rude awakening. those who realize the precariousness of modern gains in the battle against the tyranny of the past must continue the it campaign. p." I may well count on a worse if more cursory reception for a book which in places represents him as unwarrantably conservative of tradition.INTKODUCTION interest xxiii and organization avail to override unorganized liberalism. 118. Percy Gardner. When then Dr. Unfortunately the open-minded laity are in large part satisfied to think that traditionalism is discredited. . Such treatises properly appeal to serious and open-minded laymen. there as elsewhere. so doing what they can to save the optimists from. 1 Work cited. and so take up an attitude of indifference to works which any longer join issue with it. may be.

.

THE SCIENCE AND § 1. . " when the igneous and aqueous hypotheses were united. mainly consists conception of relations.— PAET I. a rapid advance took place in Biology progress came through "the ". as Mr. — — called is seen in recent discussions to be only a collection of certain lore. to belong to no science whatever." on a ground which he declares to be outside both and Nevertheless. 1 First Principles. fusion of the doctrine of types with the doctrine of adaptations 1 and in Psychology. In Geology. on the ground that mythology so. Spencer points out. THERE are stages in the history of every science when its progress can be seen to consist in applying to its subject-matter a wider Scientific progress. in such resorts to larger syntheses. denied that there . 1 22. similarly. p. Spencer proceeds to turn the generalization to the " account of his theorem of a " Eeconciliation " between " Eeligion " Science. proposition as above illustrated is just and there is an obvious presumption that it will hold good of any science in particular. THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY Chapter I. ITS HISTOEY The 'Problem. ". By some the title may be positively withheld. It is proposed in the present inquiry to try whether the renewed application of the principle may not give light and leading in the science if we can agree so to call it of mythology. But inasmuch as there has been progress in course of centuries towards scientific agreement on certain classifications of the phenomena and as this progress can . to which are applied conflicting theories and it is not to be is enough of conflict and confusion to give colour to such an account of the matter. is true that Mr. the general that is. indeed. an evolutionary conception partly It harmonized the doctrines of the Lockian and Kantian schools.

myth and tradition. under the ostensible reign of Naturalism. the bane of the science has been the more or less complete isolation of it in thought from all the other forms. must occur in terms of the general conditions of traditionary error and such error in general must be conceived in terms of men's . . is a form of traditionary error and while the definition of mythology turns upon the recognition of the special form. though latterly retarded more than others by the persistence of pre-scientific assumptions. Spencer. myth and early morals. in the last half century. of scientific progress. 1833. 1 Paris. 2 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY be shown to consist in successive extensions of the relations under which they are contemplated. Myth. as sketched in the Introduction a l' etude de la mythologie of Emeric-David. broadly speaking. whereas in past times there was an overpowering tendency to handle it from the point of we compare 1 . after ages in which men looked at myth from a point of view that made almost invisible the psychological continuity between myth-makers' mental processes and their own. The best analogy for our purpose is perhaps not any of those cited from Mr. there is reason to conclude that mythology is a science like another. we must admit a considerable progress though if we should chronicle as he did the backward treatises as well as the others we could make a rather chequered narrative. it seems clear. myth and supernaturalist biography.. myth and allegory. is now nearly though not quite as generally employed in this as in the other sciences. often broached but not accepted before our time. efforts at explanation or classification of stages of things in general. at Yet in our own time. . If past scientific experience can yield us any guidance. . where Newton's great hypothesis was by way of seeing planetary motions as cases of motion in general. we find accomplished students of the science still much occupied in setting up walls of utter division between the mythopoeic and all other mental processes between the different aspects of between myth early classification between the aspects of myth and " religion. Gains there have certainly been. The definite gain is that the naturalist method. myth and legend. § 2. it would seem that such a tendency is frustrative successive thought. When its results with those of the previous ten or even four centuries. . The Scientific Beginnings. but rather the case of Astronomy. Any form of traditionary error." religion and magic.

taking note only of the rather one-sided view of the anthropological principle presented later by De Brosses and his disciple Benjamin Constant. while on the other the school of Evemeros framed a set of false "naturalistic" explanations. §7. save in that it oddly omits all mention of Fontenelle. of logical science. vi-xx. barely glimpsed In rationalistic antiquity. to note the manner of the progression.) this key is applied very much on the lines of the modern solar theory.*??* pp. whose essay Be Vorigine des fables. del i° Knauistico. 2. He might have extended the list to a hundred but it is duly representative. 1 This was of . But that step of science. Lang points out. ue ^. The mythologists sank the fabulous personalities of the Gods in symbols the skeptics sank them in actual human personages. A substantially scientific beginning was made by the late school which reduced the symbolism of the older schools to a recognition of the large part played by sun and moon in most In the hands of Macrobius (4th c. rectified the or wilfully ignores forth in the however. all previous treatises the one which could best have enlarged and French historian's own method. Esame critico Introd. as Mr. the learned academician makes out a list of between seventy and eighty scholarly writers on mythology down to Benjamin Constant. . It may be helpful at this point. twelfth. substantially anticipated the modern anthropological and evolutionary point of view. How effectively that belief has retarded this science in particular may be partly gathered from Emeric-David's historical sketch. being equally devoid of the requisite historical knowledge. and Father Cara. the principle of evolution was and on the one hand the professed mythologists . Gladstone.THE SCIENCE AND view of that belief in " revelation " ITS HISTOEY 3 which so seriously vitiated the study of Greek mythology in the hands of Mr. like systems. aimed at multiplying symbolical or allegorical meanings rather than tracing development. Decharme. 1686. then.. applicata alia mitologia e alia scienza clelle reUgione. and in part by Karl Ottfried Miiller in his earlier Prolegomena. as very fairly set main by Emeric-David.iZ Prato 1884? ^ . Beginning with Albric in the eighth century. 8 nd ""^' *** ?le present sketch is of course only a bird's1 Mythologie. may advance and reaction in the history of mythobe thus summarily and formally stated. S pS^Ttt wS^STteO^^iSS ^ 2 S 4 -^ es his Histoire des Oracles. Maimonides in the and Boccaccio in the fourteenth. the last eminent practitioner on the old basis. Einleitung. and he either overlooks it. with results which are still in large part valid. 2 The movements 1. \ AV lt ^ > . eye siitrma MniZ.

Bochart. and Vico. though opposed still by critical scholars such as Selden. and did but accumulate data. in the sixteenth century. Bacon. was lost under Christianity and the resurgence of barbarism. pagan Other earlier and later theologians.— THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY 4 nearly every other. failing to realize the character of their own. but the theological method and premisses overrode scientific views. with principle that the much wider deities knowledge. New attempts were in large part a priori. 4. 3. and without method. Mceurs des sauvages ameriquaius.g. Basnage. as Leibnitz. when not disposing of Pagan Gods as demons. though in the field of hierology the Jesuit Lafitau clearly saw the connection between ancient and savage religious customs. and by assuming further that the early life of antiquity was truly set forth only in the Bible. 1724. 8. i. as Huet. . applied it fancifully. Skeptics like Bayle derided all explanations alike. slightly. who made symbolism his general principle of interpretation. as sun and moon. The scholars of the Renaissance recognized the principle of Nature-symbolism. 5. as set forth by Macrobius but when. Vossius. 6. 1685) was far in advance of the powers of assimilation of the time. and of Biblical narra- The sound theorem of personalized forces was reiterated by Vico and others. But others. Such an application of comparative method as was made by Spencer of Cambridge (De Legibus Hebrceorum. 180. it had no general guiding principle. confused all by the theological presupposition (adopted from the ancient atheists) that the pagan deities were deified men. had no thought save to ridicule the old mythologies. who saw myth origins in perversions both of historical fact tives.. applied the old were personalized nature-forces. and that of savage origins was thrown out by Fontenelle. even comparing Psalm 186 with the Death-song of a 1 North American Indian at the stake. . and some went back to Evemerism e. and wrongly staked all on purposive allegorizing. that of the Abbe Banier. Other rationalists failed to apply the clue of evolution from savagery. and ridiculed the hope of reaching any better. and Mosheim. 1 Lafitau. Selden and others. The Christian Fathers. 7. Gods were perversions of and that all pagan theologies were perversions of an earlier monotheism. scholarship began to classify the details of the pagan systems. went further astray on the theory that pagan Biblical personages .

Les Buines (1791). did not improve on Heyne's unduly to the belief that primeval man allegorized reflectively. 11. leaning Heyne primitive mode of thinking could give rise to similar myths in 1 Preller (Griech. altered. it . Eecognizing that the same as he later positions. while teaching that their myths came to be literally believed by posterity. But this classification. . whether or not profiting by 10. did not account for the obscurer primitive elements of myth. 1794. 1860. thai. He radically however. In 1 England and movement of the eighteenth century also led to the recognition of myths in the Old Testament. In the same period. 1760) was as noteworthy as that of Fontenelle. and always knew that what they said had not really happened. later insisted on by Mr. i. 20) finds a predilection to particular points of view in the different nations— the Italians arguing for allegory." lacking deistic Germany the — — 11 the morality and delicacy of a later age. though necessarily unscientific at some points for lack of anthropological data. 2 Bde. the great astronomical and symbolical system of Dupuis (chief work. whence it 2 reached the post-Homeric Greek rationalists. 1828-9. A distinct advance in breadth of view was made by Butt3 mann. 2 Mythologische Brie)'e. and poeticized. but more brilliant work proceeds on an earlier This was eloquently done also in the slighter of Volney. did Creuzer.THE SCIENCE AND 9. in assuming that the early myth-makers only provisionally albeit " necessarily " personified natural forces." and that in later periods early erred. But even the the time were not in general ready for and the Christians the other hand. and. ed. who purified Heyne's doctrine as to the essential primitiveness or aboriginality of typical myth. On the other hand. might have deists of of served as a starting-point for new science. 1795). is only loosely true for any period and it no longer holds good in any degree. he erred in ascribing to the Homeric bards a concep- myths as pure symbol this conception having originated with the theosophic priests of Asia and Egypt. and the Germans standing for an original monotheism. which research by Dupuis. recognizing that myth is " the infant language of the race. and making too much of the otherwise valid theory of deified ancestors. Spencer. 3 Treatises between 1794 and 1828 collected in MytJwlogus. much On Apocalypse. the French for Evemerism and other pragmatic principles. and freshly laid the foundations of Comparative Mythology. as Preller implicitly admits. ITS HISTOEY clcs 5 The Naturalism of De Brosses (JDu culte fetiches. an application of the theses and methods of Macrobius to the gospels and to the course less so. opposing tion of these . Heyne Fontenelle developed a view that was in large part scientific. Voss. the Dutch for perversion of the Bible. though it rightly carried the mythological principle into the surviving religions. myths were embellished. My .

Similarly Arnold Huge. lxv. system. — as that of the derivation and that of verbal misconception. As it was. He also noted the fact fallaciously stressed by Mr. d. however. pronounced that "Sonst. The anthropological method had been indicated by Heyne. ist Dupuis' Werk eine grosse freie That. De Vorigine de tous les Concerning that. whom he does not mention. besonders der Griechen. proceeding on similar fundamental lines. while rightly recognizing that assumption of a personification was a fundamental law false founded on the religion. but on this side he made no use of it. Creuzer. theoretisch und praktisch auf den Boden der wiedergeborenen Menschheit tritt. Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Volker. and symbolical only. 12. . Welcker. nevertheless on the other hand. Hermann. is principle. comlittle prehensive collocation. Alongside of these later German writers. he . after pointing out its errors of p. he thus made too of the special local significance of many^myths. of early thought. His own interpretative Jupiter (1832). further set forth in his treatise that laid down with caution but applied without any by Bacon that myths are symbolical attempts to explain Nature and to make his treatise broadly scientific it needed that he should have recognized how the principle of so-called fetichism. and still later by Max Miiller. he rightly admitted that with all its limitations " it still constitutes the most luminous treatise that has 2 been written on mythology". — partly rectified the bias towards a single astronomical point of view which narrows the great treatise of Dupuis. 1810-12. likewise con- some myths from — — ceived myth too much in terms of the constructive allegorizing of priesthoods. h. or the actual primitive personalizing of nature-forces. G. die himmelweit ttber die Makeleien und Ohrenbeichten der deutschen und neufranzosischen Mantel. und im Wesentlichen dankbar anzuerkennen und festzuhalten ist. Erneric-David does not innovate in any effective fashion.und Rechnungstrager hinausgeht. a theory later carried to excess by F. 1st die ausschliessliche Riicksicht auf die astronomischen Gotter einseitig so ist sie darum nicht minder eine wesentliche und gerade hinsichtlich der christlichen Priesterspeculation eine sehr interessante Seite der 1 ." "pure monotheistic primitive obscure personified forces quite spon- and so stressed the idea of reflective allegory as to his own doctrine that primeval man taneously. 2 Introduction cited. Lang in our own day that the primitive mind made no such distinction between spirits and bodies as is made in later theology. wenn wir diesen Mangel ergtinzen. and his own contribution may be cultes.6 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY he called for a different nations independently of intercourse. 1 Naturally. 4 Bde. of Yet he introduced real clues ritual. preceded and conditioned the systems which the writer handled as purposively symbolical. overlooking the spontaneous and relatively fantastic beginnings of savagery. whose system he admitted to be " true at bottom".

by scrutiny of all the sources thing too seldom thought of before his day —he arrived — at the clear demonstration that " Callisto is nothing else than the Goddess and her sacred animal combined in one idea. 24. p. under the title Introduction to a Scientific System of Mythology. ihr Entstehen unci Vergeben." The fusing of so many different animals with the cult of the Sun-God raises difficulties. There is some ground for doubt. Good samples 2 of his services as a first-hand investigator are his statement of the grounds for holding that the complete bear. Orpheus. 2 3 4 Introduction. Eng. as to whether all the animal associations of Greek Gods are to be explained on the same principle—that the animal is the original God. and Mr. is Sache" (Reden iiber Religion. 1 Translated in English in 1844. 58. pp. A. S. merely referring to Dupuis in an Appendix. an die Gebildeten unter ihren Verehrern. Id. pp. 16-17. the application of the pagan keys to the Christian religion. . Cp." that a bear-Goddess. Lang. that the animal 3 The subsequent ascertainment was sacred to Arcadian Artemis. or be seen that the old two or three. by J. Lang.P. was anciently worshipped at Berne. At the same time." Cp. 1869.. he brought to bear on all Greek matters an exact and critical knowledge such as had hardly ever before been vigilantly applied to mythology and though he did not escape the bane of all he did not a little pioneers indefiniteness and self-contradiction much to clear up the scientific most intellectual . on his principle of not criticising living writers. Whether this came it is of policy or of non-acquaintance we cannot well divine in but did much to be regretted that vital he thus failed to come touch with the most problem of his study. Artio. 81). and the human form a later development. Eeinach. he of the ground so far as he did go. his analysis of the myth of Prometheus and Epimetheus is late. 1909. So Eeinach. p. in his reprint of his essay in The Origins of Religion (R. tr. But none the less had Muller brought to the study of Greek mythology a learning.* of which Emeric-David makes no mention. and myth of the transformation of Callisto into a strict In the latter case. von Arnold Huge. essay on Apollo and the Mouse.. however. 2te Aufl. — — to reduce previous confusions. 119-120. p. writes that it " is to be taken under all reserve. he made no attempt to carry on the great practical service of Dupuis and his school. and a method which give a really In the school of Dupuis he shows scientific character to his work. 22.a . One and most alert German scholars of that great period. The same thing falls to be said in some degree of the earlier Prolegomena of Karl Ottfried Muller (1828) . but confines himself to the Greek. Custom and Myth. in the original legend. 1908). Leitch. for this reason only. letting symbolical interpretation of nature was at once a simpler and a more complicated matter than Dupuis had supposed. no interest. ed." and that Callisto became a bear. a genius. On the other hand. THE SCIENCE AND new keys to Dupuis's ITS HISTORY it 7 said to have consisted in adding several wards to Dupuis's key.

Ottfried Muller is perhaps only at two points open to serious criticism. 18. cited Einleit." he is led by his passion for classical antiquity to put an 2 unreasonably flat contradiction. in the light even of previous explanation. that systematic symbolism and allegory were the main and primary sources of myth arguing with Schelling that mythi were at the outset essentially spontaneous and unartificial. and thus seems to set his face against the fundamental truth that all religion begins in savagery.8 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY His deficiency on the a memorable vindication of Muller's insight. p. 20. and. by Strauss. both earlier and later." and leaves us asking. 256. while disregarding the immorality of others. Schelling § 8. It is not incumbent on the historical investigation of mythology to ascertain the foundations on which it rests. when dealing with the substantially sound thesis of Heyne. and in which it is difficult for us to enter. Of the principle of totemism. 61. if it is anything. which traces many animal worships to a motive independent of any selection of "powerful" types. nature. The difficulty becomes acute when. 1 : — — 1 Cited by Muller. first. it could be no worship at all. thing. that mythology. Ueber 4 My then. to Artemis as a when he observes that Nature-Goddess "the most powerful creatures in This is unduly vague. 2 Muller." he insists that." On which one at once answers." and that " poverty and necessity are its parents. whether the bear was not after all associated with the Goddess because of the verbal resemblance between the names arhtos (bear) and Artemis. must be of itself a part of the history of the human mind. . Leben Jesu. whether the bear is not traceable further. had said the same P. 1793. p." 4 He " Here we have to deal with a mode of contemplating the goes on world which is quite foreign to our notions. or whether the latter name is not a mere development from the former. and that it must in . Muller had not learned to take account. 3 P. in the light of later anthropology. as distinguished from mere mykhography. concrete side appears in the same connection. if a certain worship were " allegorical in the strict sense. implicit in Dupuis and explicit in Creuzer (though Creuzer also implied the contrary). were sacred. This must be left to the highest of all historical sciences one whose internal relations are scarcely yet dreamt of the history of the human mind. He rightly controverted the view. making a needless verbal strife over the term " allegory. such as the bear. which he holds to be very early. As regards general principles. At the same time. 3 Thus he inconsistently lays stress on the conscious moral purpose of the myth of Zeus and Lycaon. that "the my thus [in its early forms] was the infant language of the race.

pp. however. As against these minor confusions. Where he differs from the scientific man (though not from the religious) is in his power of passing from the half. But indeed he is thus reasoning on psychological grounds all through his treatise and we are entitled to say that the deliverance above cited is in plain contradiction of his practice. 272. in every field of the science of history. 2 Id. 2 " my thus and allegory are ideas lying [necessarily] far apart". as well as of his later and really sound decision. p. 3 While he avoided Id. the attribution of " allegory " to myths in general. as does Grote after him. do but point to the confessed imperfection of the "history of the a consideration which verbally. it is clearly late. . as Miiller puts it. goes on to specify such a foundation when he speaks of a" certain necessity of intuition " as underlying the formation of mythi. f" That is the most serious contradiction in the book and we can but say on the other hand that the reasoner enables us to correct His frequent protests (echoed by Grote) against errs. ascend on .— THE SCIENCE AND some sort settle its bases as it ITS . be sure that some of the writers he antagonized were using the word " allegory "in a sense of which the practical fitness is tacitly admitted by his repeated use of the phrase " strictly 4 3 allegorical. the ladder of facts to a knoivledge of internal being and life . HISTORY 9 goes along and. we must place to the credit of Ottfried Miiller a general lucidity and a catholicity of method that make him 1 still a valuable instructor. 18. that Miiller himself. second par. In any case. 4 History of Greece. dispute. secondly. or at least is often in a manner allegorizing when he makes his story to explain the facts of nature. 273. that an allegorical explanation frequently holds good of parts even of early myths which is really a surrender of the essentials in the . that " mythology is still an historical science like every other. 58. human mind" made him more circumspect What is allegory ? and while we can agree that early Greeks certainly did not allegorize as did Spenser and Bunyan. I think." All the while he admitted. and we may. all him when he should have We are left asking. p. For can we call a mere compilation of facts history ? and must we not. Id. in the next breath. given in comment on Creuzer. — not historically or psychologically true that. and that the Prometheus story in its complete form is we are none the less forced to surmise that something of the nature of allegory may enter even into early myths that at times even the myth-making savage in a dim way necessarily distinguishes at the outset between his myth and his other credences.allegoric conception to the literalist.

g. and likely in the future to yield results of the first importance when applied to living as it has 6 been to dead problems. Cited by Miiller. and on the other hand to connect mythology with the surviving religions. But thereby hangs. that in many cases " the whole my thus sprang from the worship. a tale to the effect that the course of true mythology does not run smooth. however. 2 P. 6 It must always be kept in mind that the worship which has given rise to a given mythus has itself arisen out of a previous mythus. Frazer. 19. as we shall see. — our summary 13. Thus far. The Relation to Christianity. on a different plane of conception. end of oh. end. The most helpful 3 of his many luminous thoughts is perhaps his formulation of the 4 principle. and previously in his Orcliomenos (1820). Le Message de Skirnir et les Bits de 4 3 Grimnir. G. the extravagances of the symbolists. 5 History. 1. 3." Without laying down the anthropological method. without rejecting anything of that kind. 206.— 10 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY . then. studies (the former looking § 3. p. Each. and compare Bergmann. implicitly to be gathered from Creuzer. gave sound general guidance. § 1. after Dupuis the first systematic application of mythological science to the Christian system. alike failed on the one hand to explain the barbarous and primeval element in mythology. Pp. and Miiller in particular established some rules of great importance. proceeding on earlier and laying down general principles for myth interpretation narrowly to documentary evidences and the latter putting stress on general symbolic values). J. See below. p. and wait for the develop2 ment of individual cases. p. ch. merely hold back. especially by his keen attention to the geography of Greek myth and while disclaiming all-round interpretation he helps us to many solutions. 1871. and not the worship from the my thus " a principle accepted from him by 5 Grote and by a number of later students. 135. that of the Dog-Star. we may round explained . p. of progress : Karl Ottfried Miiller and Emeric-David. iii. The application of the science to living problems is the weakest point in its present development. 18 : cp. . 175. he sensibly recognized and many symbols and while he objected to allegoric systems he gave the sound advice: "Let us therefore. several generations the mythical principle For had been : partially applied by German scholars to matters of current belief the stimulus of the English deistical school having borne fruit more continuously among 1 E. 270. So close on the publication of Ottfried Miiller's Prolegomena as not to be fundamentally affected by it. including Professor Eobertson Smith and Dr. he prepares us for it. came Strauss's epochmarking Leben Jesu (1835). 171. from the introduction to the Symbolik.

The Old Testament narratives. strenuously if imperfectly. The latter work of the highest noteworthy as already laying down the principle that it is importance to compare the myths of different races. Einleitung. 2 5 " 6 The England Das 1802. but for similarity of experience and a given culture-stage. . The progress. by the reaction against the French Revolution. Id. as early as 1802 there was published by G. iv. who had connected the 3 Much if Samson myth with that of Hercules as early as 1773. 1 Strauss has shown how vacillating Hebraische Mythologie. i. 8 Id. pp. priest-ridden kingdom of the leopards" was Alexander Humboldt's label for in the early part of the century. . were at an absolute standstill. A generation later. and thus he personifies tions Bauer still follows the early mythic episodes to exaggerations or misconceptions of actual events. 4 Pref to 2nd edition. 17. but so fast did criticism go that L. whereas Keightley in producing the first edition of his Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy (1831) could say that "in selecting mythology" he "took possession of a field 4 which [in England] lay totally unoccupied. THE SCIENCE AND but . as was the case in England and France. following on Heyne and Reimarus. ITS HISTORY 11 them than elsewhere. ii. the Old and Bauer a treatise on the Hebrew Mythology of is New Testaments. " rationalism " of the latter part of the not most of the German eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth century is thus vitiated by the fixed determination to reduce mythic narratives to In Paulus the method approaches misinterpretations of real events. to nearly every depart- ment of traditional knowledge. While English theology and philosophy. way of thought among men of It also affirms in so 2 many words that "the savage animizes lives all things (denht sich alles belebt). and he makes little advance on Semler." the Germans had a whole library of treatises compared with which even his much improved second edition was but a respectable and prejudiced manual. under ecclesiastical auspices. 1838. were first dealt with . burlesque. 81. § 6. German thought was apply- what But in his interpretarationalist method of reducing ing rational tests." can act. Vorrede. Deistical in spirit the movement remained it had all the easier a course and the line of thought entered on by the school of Eichhorn. v. thereby to learn how parallels 1 may stand not for identity of matter. of course. 8-11. So far had free scholarship travelled at a time when the 5 teachers of the insular and stipendiary Church of England were " infidelity" was no longer associated with scholarly declaring that names. for only all. 6 of course. Leben Jesu. Hence a discredit of the school and even of the name. was halting and uncertain at best.. was not even blocked.

it was not a decisive force. even for theoretical purposes. they were always trying to limit their concession. 1799 an anonymous writer on " Revelation and . his Cp. The Myth of Judas Iscariot. " the author knows to be entirely independent of his 1 critical researches. On the side of philosophy. Part III. Div. another. above all those bound up with the very central doctrine of theanthropic sacrifice and eucharist and interests of faith. then admitting myth to a certain extent. but it ignored the connecting clue of the numerous It showed the incredibility and the irreconcilable confusions of the resurrection story but it did not bring forward the mythic parallels. trying later to draw a line between the Old Testament and the as regards only the infancy of Jesus New. " The inner kernel of the Christian faith. and between this and the more limited treatment of details by intermediate writers the world was partly prepared for Strauss's own massive critical machine. as when he decides the historic reality of John the Baptist to be certain. And yet. he strikes a scientific reader dumb by his naive assurance that his long investigation of the life of Christ need have no effect on Christian doctrine. and i. § 21. though manipulated by Matthew in one way and by Luke in ancient ritual cults of a Divine Child.12 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY how and inconsistent were most of the innovators in their advance. all that he should and would do. had an ideal existence in the Jewish mind long prior to his birth". It dealt with the salient item of the Virgin-birth in the light of general mythology. again. —always this by reason of a too exclusive attention to Judaic sources." he writes in his preface. and next to admit myth compromising in the Yet so early as Mythology " had substantially set forth Strauss's own thesis. At many points Strauss is Evemeristic even in condemning Evemerism. striving to myth to early times. seeking for each limit the field of myth a historical basis. On the side of mythological science it was defective in that it overlooked many of the Pagan mythelements in the Christian cult. it did not properly apply the decisive documentary test that lay to hand in the Pauline epistles. 1 Dealing with the obviously mythical story of the betrayal by Judas. though the formidable character and effect of that is the theme of an abundant literature. in the author's Studies in Beligious Fallacy. or of simple peace and quietness. attempting first to explain miracles as natural events. . As regards the process of mythic accretion. Christ's supernatural birth. he never realizes the central preposterousness of the narrative. that "the whole life of Jesus. see below. and treats it as history. . and the story of the Sermon on the Mount to be in the main genuine.

instead of carrying out the demonstration and following directions.supernatural narratives had been broadly demonstrated. specialist criticism. pp.. He might a good deal more relevantly have given the advice to Strauss. but 1 E. The dogmatic import (Gehalt) of the Life of Jesus will be shown by a dissertation at the end of the work to be uninjured. and at the beginning and end assured everybody that it all made no difference to religion. Julius Miiller Strauss. and that those must be frivolous who thought otherwise. 1845. that after up to its conclusions in all back on the textual analysis of the documents. has fallen it roughly this. If the " rational " critic felt as Strauss did after fifteen hundred pages of . Only the certainty of this can give calmness and weight to our criticism. though Colenso's avowed purpose was to put an end to deception. and distinguish it from the naturalistic criticism of previous centuries." There are different conceptions of what constitutes frivolity and it would have been pleasant to have Voltaire's estimate of the seriousness of a scholar and theologian who produced an enormously laborious treatise of fifteen hundred pages to disprove every supernatural occurrence connected with the life of Jesus. — destructive argument. in Voices of the Church against . whose work he not very ingenuously exalted in comparison. Only in Hegelian Germany could such supernatural flimsiness of theory have been conceived as solid philosophy and even in Germany. which aimed at upsetting the religious truth along with the historical fact. was small call for the priest to alter his And what has happened in regard to the is mythology of both the Judaic and the Christian systems the mythical character of the quasi. . in the generation of Hegel. far. thereby furthering the " endless " progress towards the dissolution of the forms in the consciousness of the community and this in a work in the vernacular. leaving the question of truth and reason as much as possible in the background. Later work on Hebrew mythology there has been. 176-7.THE SCIENCE AND miracles. however far their reality as historical facts may be put in doubt. Arnold gravely if not bitterly complained that Colenso ought to have written in Latin. It was not unnatural that such a teaching should leave the practice of Christendom very much where it found it. stories to the people with due attention to the spiritual application. On the Theory of Myths. remain eternal truths. to keep on telling the mythical advice to the clergy. ITS HISTOEY 13 his resurrection and ascension.g. Mr. and so necessarily came to conduct itself frivolously. there course. there was a good deal 1 of serious if not frivolous comment on Strauss's final Kantian This was.

So with the mythology of the New Testament and the ritual In that regard also we now hear little of the element of myth. the Deuteronomist or the Eedactor. pref. the Jerusalem Davidian. p. that this process of restriction turns upon one of selection in the personalities of the men concerned. 1st ed.14 not. the business is for them too factitious. It would seem impossible that after Strauss and Baur and Eenan and Colenso the stronger and more original minds could deliberately take up theology as of old and as a matter of fact no minds of similar energy have appeared in the Churches since that generation completed their work. The powerful minds of the new generation do not take up orthodox theology at Biblicists it . too unreal. . 1 This judgment ceases to hold good since the publication of Hugo Winckler's Geschichte Israels (1900). thus failing to counteract the arrest of the study. xv. So we get a generation of specialists devoutly bent on 2 settling whether a given passage be by P or P by the Yahwist or the Elohist. . textual analysis is to leave much of the human significance of the phenomena unnoticed. It thus appears that when the higher criticism has done its work. or the other. 2 See Canon Driver's Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament. men engaged in the analysis tell us that the scribes and interpolators 2 dealt with really had supernatural qualifications after all. and even that. their lore being One surmises at least kept free of any specific acknowledgment. On the professional 1 seems to have had no practical effect. For Baur we have Harnack for Bishop Colenso Bishop Barry the Bishop Creightons meddling with none of these things. all . too essentially frivolous. to a considerable extent unconvincing. THE PEOGKESS OF MYTHOLOGY on the part is of professed theologians . the higher common-sense will have to take up the dropped clues of mythology and conduct us to a scientific sociologico-historical view of religious development. — . or the Saulist or the Samuel. Of course this is the only species of rational criticism that can be pursued in theological chairs even in Germany so that even if a professor recognizes the need for a moral and intellectual criticism of the Judaic literature. as before. he must be fain to confine himself to documentary analysis and platitudes. as we shall see. . very well worth clearing up. But the dyer's hand seems to be subdued to what it works in. but a good deal of the composition of the usages of the Churches.Saulist an interesting field of inquiry. but forming a singular basis on which to re-establish the practice of taking that mosaic of forgery and legend as the supreme guide to human conduct. . Even in our own day. The textual analysis is a great gain but to end with .

special to Christianity. as there were some brewers but added that "for a perfectly safe subject he might take the conversion of the Jews. sound culture. when arranging with a brother cleric to take his place. plus the classics. and Folk-lore. ITS HISTOEY 15 gospels and men supposed to know the results of that analysis are found treating as great spiritual truths. savagery." Mythology is kept perfectly safe. warned him against speaking on capital and labour. . and the heathen Sun-God. The principle seems to be that of the legendary preacher who. the Tree. as the congregation included some large employers. the Earth-Mother.THE SCIENCE AND . the Storm-Cloud. data and doctrines which appertain to the systems and credences of buried Paganism. and made to figure as an academic science. including the results of mythological science. . or on temperance. The undertaking to frame a psychological presentment of the "real Jesus" is still seriously pursued. fairies. spiritually remote from modern faith and ritual. to Sanskrit. The men capable of realizing the seriousness of the fact either remain outside the Church or follow Strauss's counsel inside. are often almost entirely ignorant of any bearings of Comparative Mythology on the gospels. Mythological science has been prudently restricted to other fields. by being kept to the themes of the Dawn. . wherewith to materialize the silent spectre of the Thus Evemerism is still the order of the day as regards the Christian mythus and people who are supposed to possess a epistles. even though they may have learned to disbelieve in miracles. totems. albeit the documentary Pauline analysis does not leave even a skeleton for the accepted historical figure.

Kuhn. it has not been idle or altogether ill-employed. with whatever laxities of logic and psychology. with hardly any avowed recognition of its bearing on current creeds. and with more or less of scientific bias. H. The Original Form of the Legend of Prometheus. making the way Steinthal. however. Colenso. The Meteorological. in tracing out the Comparative Method. and Kenan were successively disturbing the peace of the Church without much resort to the mass of mythological lore. Unfortunately the schools are thus far much at issue among themselves. wind. 1883. with Goldziher. however. To Kuhn. 363-5. who had collaborated with him in collecting the Norddeutsche Sagen (1848). the presentment of mythological science so-called. Etymological. Indoger. our those of its Even as the textual analysis of the Jewish and Christian sacred books lays a solid foundation for the mythologist of the future. MODERN SYSTEMS § 1. was an acute or rather ingenious theorist along particular lines of myth-phenomena. science has thus faltered and turned back on paths which come the straightest and the nearest to living interests. 16 . Meyer. 1 tr. x . E. i. by reason mainly of their differing ways of restricting the application of the Comparative Method. his tendency being to reduce all myths to those of the phenomena of storm-cloud. so the modern schools of mythology." in which poets and priests had not yet given the Gods personalitiesAbout the same period in England Max Miiller founded a separate "Aryan" school. have been who will not submit to any While Strauss.Chapter II. . and lightning. who in Germany began the new investigation on the basis of the Vedas. . 1. Mythen. new and professed mythologists were beginning anew. Eng. standing mainly on the solar principle as against the storm-system of Kuhn and inasmuch as this was but a setting easier for successors restriction of their field. pp. and Solar Schools. WHILE. rain. did real service to the science by his analyses and explanations of nature-myths in his Ursprung der Mythologie (i860) though he also sowed the seed of much separatist fallacy by predicating a " pre-religious " period "older than the Gods. belongs the honour of inaugurating the new Comparative Mythology in and his terms of the affiliation of Greek God-names to Sanskrit brother-in-law Schwartz.

p. 8 Essay on Comparative Mythology. nor religion." 3 he was putting a true conception which transcends the limitary principle of " disease of language. he elaborated the theory of Creuzer and Welcker as to verbal confusions. trace back the footsteps of man to insist that " as far we see that the divine gift of first a sound and sober intellect belonged to him from the very and the idea of a humanity emerging slowly from the depths an animal brutality can never be maintained again. Cp. the scientific advance was not great.J ¥ i ! . Miiller thought fit we can . ancien * world. 3rd ed. Had Miiller merely claimed some cases a myth arose as it were at second-hand by the misunderstanding of a name. nor ethics. 11. t v. indeed." At the same time he declared that " mythology is only a dialect." and that. At the very outset of his as work in 1856. the embodiment of genders in all names having the effect of setting up the habit of thinking of natural objects as — — a "disease of like the pearl in animate and sexual. the disease once developed the oyster or the wart on the skin it remained fixed in the languages derived from the given stem.' o e . have escaped the spell of that ancient sibyl. there was retrogression. end. ?. an ancient form of language. Proceeding further mainly on the supposed primordiality of Sanskrit. p. On one side.. : ^ ^ C . But mythology is neither philosophy. he might have made out a reasonable that in case enough . 8 tiS" 2 » l0 in 0xford 88a 856 p 5 C P. like his namesake Ottfried. repudiated Heyne's formula. tionary " ab ingenii humani substituting the anti-evolu- sapientia et a ' dictionis - abundantia " WorkshTlZ *iR«n^f l° e. The disease consisted in the primitive tendency to make proper names out of names for phenomena. followed in 1871 by The Descent of Man. nor history. 240. And when he wrote that "nothing is excluded from mythological expression. for certain racial and geographical and other myths can best be so explained. is in truth a disease of tB*„ ~ language.chi*> 8 f ro™ a German %(: passage ends with V. " ab ingenii humani imbecillitate et a dictionis egestate ". of putting it 2 that myths in general originated in language." 1 Three years later was published The Origin of Species. But Miiller's conception of mythology was now fully shaped.l< h the phrase "such unhallowed imputa'\ ireprmt the adjective becomes " gratuitous. neither history nor religion. tit Jt ^ hicb a * be ba of the ! lancuaS?» Lectures on the Science of Language. and preoccupied with the philological problems set up by any comparison of Sanskrit and Greek God-names. It is surprising that such a theory should ever be formulated without the theorist's seeing that the problem is shifted further back at once by the bare fact that the genders were attached to the words to begin with." Yet in the previous sentence he had. neither morals nor philosophy.— MODEEN SYSTEMS of 17 one myth-type in place of another.

to show that his doctrine was not what straightforward opponents represented it to be have not only brought upon him some criticisms of much asperity. in his Indogermanische Mythen. p. At times he has seemed to concede that the philological After describing comparative mythology as position is too narrow. conscious of having held them. holding to the gandharva-kentauros equation against his master. Lang is always . Next to his metaphysic and his psychology. But Muller never lost the confidence with which he solved his early problems. to put too names that most weakens his Most candid mythologists will admit that they are apt : much faith in their own explanatory theories that they can hardly help coming at times to conclusions on a very incomplete induction. Erinnys and saranyu. but have plunged the subject in extreme confusion. 4 Id. 22. he was at Hence his attempts. Daphne and Ahana have been rejected as unsound by Mannhardt and others. under stress of times ready to resume them. attempts to subsume Schleiermacher's philosophy of religion into his mythology been more fortunate the philosophy and the psychology are alike inexpert and not a little of his philological mythology In particular." he protested that he had " never said that the whole of mythology can be explained " as " disease of language. ed. 484. . the equations between gandharva and kentauros (Kuhn). Id. 86. to Science of Religion. Pure philology was after all Muller's specialty and he will probably stand on that when he has fallen on other issues." claiming only that " some parts of mythology 2 are " soluble by means of linguistic tests. have in 1 many cases lost the contagion. p. — reminding us. Mannhardt. it is his confidence of concrete . " an integral part of comparative philology. p. as first cited. 1882. 3 Natural Religion. 1 11 . while his readers. . . so many words that it is a pity that Comparative Mythology has 4 Nor have his got into any hands save those of Sanskrit scholars. Thus the false principle overrides the true the sound conceptions passed on by Muller himself have received development only at other hands and for lack of correlation in thinking he has repeatedly assailed his own positions though. 1889. 18 as if THE PKOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY it were sapientia to confuse the : meanings of words. 252.g. And this criticism applies 2 Introd." Yet he seems later to 3 and he says in oscillate between the extreme view and the broader.— . on the other hand. is unsatisfying in detail. myth-interpretation in terms of authority. certain etymologies which Muller represented as scientifically certain e. H. In all probability this reaction has in turn gone too far and latterly we find E.. apart from all other issues. pp. 24. as Mr. controversy. Meyer.

That excellent scholar's Mythology of the Aryan Nations (1st ed. express this convic3 tion. 326. . 4 Published in the Revue Germanique. 1868. which needed no such backing." For this " necessity " Sir George could quote Miiller. Sir George Cox. ed. These facts supplied reason for a recasting of the mythological " scheme. and Tylor's Researches into the Early History of Mankind. Religion. and that though "the course of the day and the year" covers a great deal of the matter. like himself. p. the most vivid eloquent work in mythological science. they were conscious beings also ? His very words would. Baudry. Miiller overbalanced theory of " disease of — — : : apropos of the principle of Polyonymy cite (or multiplying of the natural elements). 1." In his second edition he admitted that since he wrote fresh proof had been given of the " influence of Semitic theology on the theology and religion of the Greeks ". who in his essay De V interpretation mythologique 1 See Schirren's Die Wander'sagen der Neuseelcinder und der Mauimythos. 21. or at from a family of germs. Sir George Cox quite needlessly grafted language " on his on his part had classed his disciple as belonging to another school than his own the Analogical as distinct from the 2 and Sir George might profitably have made the Etymological same discrimination. 1882. was constructed on assumption that the " Aryan " heredity was decisively made once for all on the old lines and that the whole mythology of . by way of recognizing that there is more than " one story in hand. 492." he went on to include the latter. Miiller's some other principles Further. pp. Anthropological as well as mythological research. For his own part he had rightly represented the primitive " savage " as necessarily personifying the things and could he help forces of nature to him they " were all living beings thinking that. usual candour he proceeded to names With the trenchant comment for his of M. exposition. had been showing not merely Semitic influences on Greeks. the Eev. 2 Natural 3 Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 1870). 1856. but instead of noting that such a proposition dismissed a fortiori the theorem of " disease of language. and the out the races covered by the least name is a development from one germ. 1865. following on the lines marked out by Fontenelle and De Brosses.MODEKN SYSTEMS 19 in some degree to the brilliant performance of his most powerful English disciple. Fev. and (2) a singular parallelism in the 1 mythology of races not known to have had any intercommunication. 484. p. but such an admission does not scientifically rectify the theoretic error embodied in his original thesis. by an inevitable necessity. but (l) an interplay of many other influences. found in the " Vedic and Homeric poets. there are also at work.

There is certainly " no antagonism " if only Muller's erroneous formula be dropped. — ." a 20 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY As Baudry countered Miiller before the " Hottentotic " school did. there was no " disease of language " in the case of secondary myths arising out of polyonymy. . nor the sun launching arrows on his enemies. instead of undergoing that euthanasia. In other countries the linguistic misconception had a hampering effect even on good scholarly research. Breal. . though his language made him call it a person and his descendants consequently regarded it as a person when they were able to describe it as inanimate. So many myths are inconsistent with themselves so many are but fumbling explanations . which are found in the primitive poetry of all the Aryan From language. which creates them spontaneously withpeoples ? If this out man's taking care {sans que Vlnomme y prenne garde). In the circumstances it was natural that there should arise an anthropological reaction against the Sanskritist and " Aryan school. with its theory of family germs and inherited disease of language its forcing of a philological frame upon a psychological and its assumption that we can trace nearly every myth science with certainty to a definite natural origin. the early man knew the sun to be inanimate so. as in the case of the work of M. Hercule et Cacus etude de mythologie comparee (1863). early man never really personified anything but his more highly evolved posterity did. but simply failure of or loss of knowledge. p. is still made to cover far more ground than Baudry's pretends to touch. Here we have Heyne's old conception of a species of allegorizing which was inevitable and yet not believed in theorem more puzzling than the phenomena it explains. : . merely because he had seemed to do In other words. . 1 Work cited. nor the storm for a for a divine warrior monster vomiting flames." be true. It is there laid down that " Never was the human race in its infancy. . such as may happen in the case of a symbolic sculpture as well as of an epithet. and Baudry's substituted but as it happens Muller's. however vivacious and poetic may have been the first sallies of its imagination. capable of taking the rain which watered the earth for the milk of the celestial cows. 8. Sir George's solution was that " after all there is no real antagonism " between the two memory accounts of the matter real —a resorted to by Miiller on his mode own of reconciliation rather too often account. pointed out. nor the roll of the thunder for the Whence came all these noise of the aegis shaken by Jupiter images.

Tylor ranks himself among the adherents of Kuhn and Max Muller. Dr. preferring to stake everything on the sun. Primitive Culture. i. 5 Id. 299. . of the savage theory that the large animals whose skeletons are found underground must have been 3 burrowers. E. set forth by S. indeed. which colligate much of the anthropological science on which alone a sound mythology can be founded. and verbal myth to be the secondary formation. 141 sq. and pronouncing " material myth to be the 4 primary. though Muller had rejected Kuhn's interpretations in terms of cloud and storm and thunder. et Religions. and that the interpreters are putting more into many Aryan myths than their framers did. 3rd ed. The Movement of Anthropology : Tylor. Aryans " among all manner of savages." showing by many instances how the discovery of peculiar remains had given rise to fabulous interpretation. At the outset. already noted by Darwin. Tylor added to the keys already on the mythologist's bunch that of the " Myth of Observation. opposition of students who.MODERN SYSTEMS of ancient rituals of . 298. . But besides bringing into correlation many terms of folk-lore. proceed to show that what is represented as exquisite fancy among early Aryans is on all fours with the clumsy tales of Dyaks and Hottentots. p. he expressly recognized that " the doctrine of miracles became as it were a bridge along which mythology travelled from the lower into the higher . as to some of the conditions under which primitive invention is developed. Tylor's Researches into the Early History of Mankind (1865) and Primitive Culture (1871). Sir : George Cox finding myths there is the solid just like those of the " § 2. Dr. pp." Again. Tylor was usefully pointing towards the general truth that all myth is but a form of traditionary error and in his later work on Primitive Culture he further widened the conception. that such confidence is visibly excessive and there are always plenty of cool heads pleased to But there is more than mere conservatism arrayed shatter bubbles. 285. 306. iii (1908). 1 See Tylor. 1865. Reinach in his Cultes. guarding against Muller 's limitary view. By including such ideas under the concept of myth. 21 which the meaning had been lost so many have been touched up so many embody flights of imagination that so many are primitively are not mere transcripts from nature stupid. B. as in the case. 4 Primitive Culture. 2 significantly coupling their names. . 8 Compare the interesting case of the twisted Celtic swords. 3rd ed. Dr. Mythes. against the confident lore of Muller and the brilliant ingenuity of . i. * Researches into the Early History of Mankind. 5 while inconsistently separating mythology from religion. To such criticism a powerful lead was given by Dr. so many have been combined. 326.

Principles of myth formation belonging properly to the mental state of the savage. it is a fallacy to make them stand for three faculties or provinces of intellectual life." he supplied a very modes " In its course there have been of fact. . that the doctrine " will be considered elsewhere as affecting philosophy first chapter on Mythology (ch. in his summary instances. and that while we may conveniently names cover aspects of the primary phenomena." But here Animism we must recast the psychological concept and statement. So much seems to be felt by Dr. the fictions conversion of speculative theories and less substantial into pretended traditional events. and Eeligion yet another the two latter ranking as separate departments or processes of intellectual life. no analytic gain of clearness. the definition by name and place given to any floating imagination. in the of Animism viii).— 22 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY culture. one of the most conspicuous is this. to do with its bearing on one thing or process. Mythology another. Tylor to the science of mythology and of hierology. recognizing that Animism. a Id." 2 The main 11 logical or scientific flaw in the exposition is itself almost corrects Eeligion. the formation of legend by exaggeration and perversion metaphor by mistaken still realization of words. 416. is myth —the animating and admitted in the earlier announce- ment. the adaptation of mythic incident as moral example. and Eeligion are alike but aspects of the general primitive psychosis . suggestive list of its Finally. p. and the incessant crystallization of story into history. the stiffening of examined the processes of animating and personifying Nature. Such a conception is only one more of make any one the three unscientific severance of unity. 371. that so many of its approved historians demand from the study of mythology always 1 Id. the passage of myth into miracle-legend. to of " the proof of the force and obstinacy of the mythic faculty. were by its aid continued in strong action in the civilized world" 1 — : restricting his mediaeval Catholicism. yielding but rather obscuring the problem. though his indirect service is unlimited. Mythology. of course. and but here we have only is . To make further progress religion. p. mythology. Tylor when in his concluding chapter he remarks that " Among the reasons which retard the progress of religious history in the modern world. Such a position marks the limit to the direct service rendered by Dr. —the separation is Animism. and being merely acted on by the first." which is one that from all this of the study of separately handled as the basis of Natural involved in the very first Obviously Animism This of the processes above specified as constituting personifying of Nature.

Confusion of this kind begins in the common error of making 11 morality " or " morals " equate with " goodness. 55. Tylor Con2 Animism. 1871. The use of the word countenance an anti"comparatively" shows a half-consciousness " tradition of the essential error of the proposition. pp. 4 And though their " categorical imperative " can be powerful enough where 1 it comes into play. of religion as being " they really mean independent of " or " divorced from " morality. Schultze.MODEEN SYSTEMS weapons 1 23 to destroy their adversaries' structures. it is unmoral. or that a given religion embodies bad or one-sided morality. and whose religion and mythology are part of the 3 expression of their ethic. 447." By this deliverance Dr. the very existence of the rudest tribe would be impossible and indeed the moral standards of even savage races are to no small extent well-defined and praiseworthy. The of magic is a power of most savages is at best so imperfect at many points that one anthropologist roundly asserts that " morality in our sense " cannot exist among them. Ch. 3 Cp. vol. either that religious motives have corrupted morals. 360. ii. Where modern writers talk distinction may perhaps . as cited. xvii. " Savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion." or congeries of peoples or persons. ii. but never tools to Unfortunately the schematic fallacy trim and clear their own. that morality is absent from the life of the lower races. he writes that ." rather than the implications of the comment tends to stand as the author's authoritative teaching regrettably endorses a separatist view of primitive thought. animism is not immoral." as if there were not such a thing as bad or inferior morality. Not. it often takes no account 2 Id. 4 Schultze. The lower . . 46. 43-46. of propitiation where the principle no less than that reflecting standing hindrance to moral progress. The fallacy under notice reveals itself in That the spurious antithesis between "unmoral" and " immoral. rites themselves stand on and the tradition and public opinion Obviously the animistic beliefs and and public opinion ": in all cases alike subsist in virtue of being those of the same series whose ethic tells of their religion and mythology. as WithI have said. comparatively independent of the animistic beliefs and rites which exist around them. cluding his exposition of and in one other regard Dr. p. of character-types at times be serviceable in the discrimination but in the present connection it is untenable. p. Tylor has kept in evolutionary sociology. out a code of morals. And both of these explanations hold in the case of savage religion. But these ethical laws stand on their own ground of tradition and public opinion. Der Fetischismus.

This was the opportunity of He concedes. licence. of a low religion. 24 of THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY many things which in civilized ethics are reckoned primordial. 1 This means. The only justification offered for it is the familiar " Indeed. in view of the Second Epistle to the Christianity. Lawson. Dwelling on the bias of : eastern religion to hysteria. It results that a some points of and the prestige of religion tends to fix the low ethic. ." was difficult to bring the first converts to the implying that success was attained later. Lawson airms the contrary. not that their code is " independent of " morality. and that the massacre. : — : morality as a religious obligation. true that the tales of the Greek Gods countenanced sex . when immorality was morality " is freely imputed to their gods. and iniquitous tribal fanaticism Is Christianity then Christian doctrine of salvation is antinomian. 40. Christian. a P. a wholly new religion had to be found. but simply that it is extremely ill-developed. shares in the shaping correlative to it. P. that " it 3 new point of view. " limited to valid only If it it the sphere of the sexual relation and the proposition is which it holds good of the Christian religion. J. divorced from ethics ? Mr. Christian presuppositions and maintain confusion even among non-theological Thus Mr. many or most of those who adhere to it and this is the case with the religion of the savage no less than with the religion of the . Yet 47-55. in . effect. it would have been hard for the ancients to regard thesis this as On promote . 2 Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Beligio?i (1910) pronounces concerning ancient ethic that " seemingly religion and morality were to the Greek mind divorced. must be no less true that the tales of Yahweh countenanced murder. he goes on " If then morality was ever to be imposed and sanctioned by religion. fraud. a i See the details cited by Schultze. 40. on other historical issues. And their religion is A low ethic. In reality it is bringing to bear a higher as against a lower ethic and it in turn will be found at points to defy the higher ethical Somewhere. involving lawlessness." in the sense in is Here. it is coterminous with the ethic of tests. however.. to begin with." Corinthians. or rather had never been wedded. C. in his valuable work on Modem inquirers. new religion whose shapers are scrupulous upon conduct seems to be introducing a new correlation. Religion was concerned only with the intercourse of man and god the moral character of the man himself and his relations with his fellows were outside the religious sphere " a strange deliverance from a Greek scholar. pp.

the existence of evil. xii. p. 3. 1908. p. Cp. for individuals of and for of for the race. Compare Miss Harrison's own comment. fed by unpleasing things. is but a gradual transmutation of every other primordial animal tendencies." while that of do ut abeas " contains at least the recognition of one great mystery of life. " I give that thou may est give. on the unfairness of Sokrates in the Enthyphron. " but now (!) religion at least enjoins. in the name of mere science. By Mr." can be and historically has been. in late and early societies alike. introd. sex. . And even this solution is not rightly realized if to the recognition of the lowness of the moral level in so many religious minds. fying grades of 1 P. and late." 1 So that Whether Dr. pp. And why we should proceed to certificate as something higher the religion of fear. but their confluence on a low mental level. the observance of a moral code which includes the Eighth Comthe mandment The thesis has utterly collapsed. if " it cannot aliuays enforce. aspect of we do not join the remembrance that ethic. the rigid assertion that " the ritual embodied in the formulary do ut des is barren of spiritual — — content. 3 If this holds normal sympathy must have been "born of usage." 2 In the daily life men a conscious reciprocity which begins as do ut des. reciprocities of men. Why Eighth Commandment should be stressed in this connection it is hard to guess. even in professed evolutionists. A rigid ethicism is apt to exclude friendship in the animal world. in which beauty grows from a lowly root. 7. like human life. it should in theory. Lawson's own account. Thus there is reason to deprecate. be recognized in the case of the imagined reciprocities of men and Gods. 2nd ed. Love itself has all its roots parenthood. it falls to the rationalist. the matrix of a more loving and lovely sympathy.MODERN SYSTEMS 25 " The frailties in the next breath he freely admits that of the Greek character remain indeed such as they always were ": adding only the plea. 2 3 Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. means not separation between religion and morality. of do ut abeas. by Jane Ellen Harrison. Tylor conIn any case. when we are classithe religious belief. to end the confusion by pointing out that moral incoherence. 31. 3. early ! and morality remain eighteen hundred years of Christianity religion is " divorced " in Christian Greece after templated this deduction doubtful. the living sense of this truth. To lie or even to steal : is accounted morally venial and intellectually admirable. even in the admirable study of Greek religious evolution by Miss Harrison. the lacking commandment of the decalogue is still lacking in Greece " Honesty and truthfulness are not the national virtues.

Christian prepossessions must no longer be allowed to obscure the manifold yet simple process of psychic evolution. a mythologist as separatist as Dr. To suppose that people who maintained a form of human reciprocity with the Gods did not recognize the existence of evil is but to make one more illicit severance in the tissue of mental life. " I give that thou This in fact. Tylor himself on the question of religion and mythology is able to controvert him as regards his separation of religion and ethic. the earlier mayest remove hence. Tylor for once in a way diverged. Spencer decided to make all religious concepts pass through the single ivory gate of Dreams. Tylor pronounced "unmoral": so surely does one error of classification entail other and contrary errors. p. growth This is the very stage is of religion. reducing all forms of of his great due course of religious beliefs. from which Dr. Flinders Petrie's sketch of the type by whom "Evil is hated so really that the thought of it. the which Dr. either to sigh or to enjoy the moral sunshine but again we are dealing merely with variations of balance and temperament and when we recall how for ages the religion of fear has blotted out the sun and steeped man's earth in blood.26 THE PKOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY is. Coming in the undertaking to the problem of the evolution he does indeed necessarily posit unity in the psychological basis of credences. is instinctively avoided " {Personal Religion in Egypt before Christianity. As we shall see. Dr. The of religion justification offered for the new classification is surely fallacious. the ethical or "spiritual" discrimination under notice is apt to seem fantastic as conscious of the constant presence of evil to be more ethically sensitive than is . Herbert Spencer. 1909. having already well established the psychic unity of the thinking faculty or process from its lowest to its highest stages. Once more we turn for safe scientific footing to the scientific method. 1 Compare. Always the trouble is arbitrary classification and limitation. The fatality is peculiarly striking in the case of the greatest co-ordinating thinker of his time. § 3. of a stage anterior to hard to understand. set up by the deliverer. A priori Evolutionism : Spencer. or anticipation of it. 19). But with all the results of Comparative Mythology thus far before him. illusory opposition set up between two aspects of a coherent process and we seem to be delivered from one obstacle only to collide with another. however. a classification of human progress. To be asa" mystery " is perhaps he who turns his back on it when possible." and cruder form formal reciprocity. with all these sequelae of contradiction and incoherence. . . .

yet represented them as getting their myths by sheer Spencer rightly stipulated that all 2 "under the conditions in which they occur. No one. was clearly put by Fontenelle two hundred years ago. Thus mythology it stem. The word " rational. who esteemed his work. reveals a general propensity prior to that special development Thus again the science science of Hierology. or used the language of convention. insisting on a dream-origin for ghosts. § 52. indeed. But the dream." of course. is of on which he rests the whole case. those of the South Pacific— often have the air of mere remembered dreams and Spencer. 1876-82. as the result of a great thinker's determination to shape the doctrine of evolution in terms of his own specific thought. again. has given new coherence to the conception of the inter-play of subjective and objective consciousness in primitive thought. Many myths—e. of a single mode of error. are able out subordination of other men's discoveries.. He Where gift of Muller.g. where inductive research shows to where in particular the study of animal life. he Principles of Sociology. is On the constructive side. MODERN SYSTEMS 27 1 the God-idea to a beginning in the primitive idea of ghosts or souls. recognized the play of the ideas of ghost . was believed in by such reasoning faculties as savages possessed. has better established the principle of continuity in the process of intelligence. must not be held to imply that the beliefs were always reached by a process of reasoning. Mythology. Id. . piece Here. Tylor had fully and soul in ancestorworship. to the exclusion or Dr. . the primitive Welt-Anschauung is envisaged as all of a but the manifold of myth and worship is traced to the root . and the bearing of ancestor. beliefs are. and from him the principle was accepted by Comte. is poised on a single have had many and which Spencer was so . a sane and sober intellect" in the primitive lowest men. This. it should be noted. . who set up a false separatism where he does not.worship on other forms but he had also recognized as a primary fact the spontaneous personifiSpencer on cation by early man of objects and forces in Nature. his side escaped the false dichotomy between ethics and religion and he rightly brings myth and religion in organic connection yet his forcing of all myth-sources back to the one channel of ancestorworship and the conception of ghosts has given as large an opportunity to reaction as did any of the limitary errors of professed and specialists with anti-scientific leanmythologists before him ings. Spencer's service clear and great. which is the basis of the confronted by a principle of schism.. once recounted. should have dwelt on this possibility. of his fallacy to make capital for a fresh version of supernaturalism. in the act of insisting on the presence of the "divine verbal blundering. §§ 52-204. rational. specially pledged to take into account." Where other students had either waived the relation of the higher theology to the lower. i 2 .

the sea. . The Biological Correction. § 64. yet he overrides their reasoning as he overrides If . though superficially like the rest. the sun. . who lay to Spencer's hand. 5 § 61. the trees and plants. The point 2 argues that . he decisively asks " a small clan of the Semitic race whether had given to it super- naturally a conception which. § 73. were all instances of more or less unexplained motion. Id. § 65. reached through his dreams. then. motion be a ground for Animism with animals. . For him." to turn his error to the who this though the correction of his fallacy had been and conclusively made by a student of his own school. Darwin's clue is given in his story of how his dog. but personalize them ? That problem had been put and the answer given by both Comte and Darwin. the rivers. the clouds." Hence he must have had a fresh basis for his known Animism and this came by way of his idea of ghost or soul. 2 id. Id. and had been indicated before him by other evolutionists. growled at it as he would 1 4 Id. many of the phenomena of Nature were thrust upon him without his having the knowledge needed to make such discrimination. and cannot be supposed to confound the animate and the inanimate " without cause. account of theirs — clearly § 4. of the animistic process has enabled partizans of that other see abnormality in Hebrew lore and who describe the myth-making process as " irrational. the winds. and stars. the crux. 3 Id. What should he do. at issue is fully indicated by Spencer himself when he sub-human animals distinguish between the animate and the inanimate. seeing an open parasol suddenly moved by the wind. though for them motion in objects is apt to connote life that the ability to class apart the animate and the 3 inanimate is inevitably developed by evolution. 5 But on the face of his own argument. the rain. and if the instinct be passed on to primitive man with the burden of effecting a closer discrimination among things. since failure would mean starvation and that accordingly primitive man must have 4 had a tolerably definite consciousness of the difference.28 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY first consistently traces one process of traditionary error from last. to tiate Where professed mythologists continue expressly to differenHebrew from all other ancient credences. moon. was And yet his limitary treatin substance absolutely unlike them ?"* ment order. § 202. Spencer has gone astray.

being unable to conceive separate properties. n. § 46. the savage is spontaneously led to ascribe personality. iii. in the an error to conceive the savage as theorizing about surrounding appearances that in point of fact the need for explanations of them does not occur to him. West African Studies. else He theorizes about the why should he ever reach animism at all. Bastian. and stars. Der Mensch in der Geschichte. ed. admitted fetichism in so far as fetichism consists in animizing inanimate things which are moved* Thus his statement that fetichism is shown by both induction and deduction to follow instead of preceding other superstitions for is already cancelled. pp. 145. which animizes the suddenly moved stone in his kennel. savage's part . 1860. Descent of Man." 4 One answers: Quite feels : so. unless they should become 2 Work cited. as its it is only on the its quasi-personality author admits. Strictly. to begin ghost-theory. 18-23. 2nd ed." And having begun to ascribe personality where there is motion without consciousness. ii. in so far as he speculates about them. Fetichism negates pantheism as does polytheism. In the text the word On the other hand. It is a self-contradiction to argue that the savage. to winds and waters. fetichism as we know it is a comparatively advanced spiritism. i. forces that affect or seem to affect him. And it would not avail for Spencer to reply that he had already avowed the tendency of the animal to associate life with motion. on which Signor Vignoli had carefully 2 experimented. 101-4) will not bear analysis. Cp. but the solution is simple. to trees and plants. pantheism (Miss Kingsley. in which objects are regarded as temporarily inhabited by special God-forces. probably does not animize the wind and the rain. ch. that he assumes " two entities. In stating the case as to the animal he had already . This is certainly borne out in a measure by much evidence as to lack of speculation on the Here Spencer has providently 5 it is . 1901. § 163. he might proceed to ascribe personality or consciousness where there point is no motion. though on this issue we may essential grant the ghost-theory to have a special footing. The savage makes no such detour with. moon. . Id. 1 3 J Principles of Sociology. but that this cannot lead to a fetichism which animizes the non-moving.. the thesis that fetichism amounts to is used in a more general sense. is But the that to sun. 1 29 is This clue systematically Science developed in the essay of Signor Tito Vignoli on (1882). with the ghost-iclea or without it ? The dog. and takes for granted : he sees or motion. proposition that set up another defence.MODERN SYSTEMS at a suddenly appearing strange animal. ch. Myth and where Spencer's theory is respectfully but firmly treated as a revival of Evemerism and where myth is shown to root in the animal tendency in question. however. is unable to imagine " a second invisible entity as causing him the actions of the visible entity.

a myth is a wrong hypothesis made to explain a phenomenon. The Spencer. " was originally based on the divine first Principle. Vignoli. That ghost ideas when formed should affect and develop prior animistic ideas is likely enough what must be negated is the proposition that they are the absolute or sole matrix of all mythology and superstition. gives the true form or standingground for mythological science. he tells us. Jevons. And with a fine unconsciousness Signor Vignoli supplies us later on with a sheaf of such hypotheses of his own. P. must by Spencer's early own admission involve the animizing of the sun by the savage. still adhered to altogether fanciful and anthropo- Cp. 30 violent. p. indeed. 3 Work cited. be it explicit or implicit. old fatality. four-square to all the facts. B. the light. Introd. the sun's motion otherwise and that is the gist of the dispute. is freshly illustrated with an almost of the startling force by Signor Vignoli. they will doubtless continue to obscure the science. that and it may be or the river. to whatever people and class they may belong. complemented by all the data of anthropology and mythology. 1 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY . pp. 3. sets. p." That is to say. independently of the survival of old superstitions. to the Hist. Jevons arrives (p. p. Christianity." 3 and that it is "in the first instance identical and 4 confounded with the scientific faculty. 19 and citations. to which one portion of the Semitic race had attained by intellectual evolution. Cp. and again.. and by the acumen of the great men who brought this idea to perfection ". " the Semitic people passed from the primitive ideas of of mythology to the conception while other races 1 the absolute and infinite Being. a process. Taking myth as a form of traditionary error. 4 Id. 57-67. Unfortunately the rectification has been ignored by those mythologists who are concerned to retain and until either the shadow or the substance of supernaturalism : . who has acquired no knowledge enabling him to explain . Dr. 33. 1896. and the darkness many savages could also go through life without doing so on 2 But the simple noting that the sun rises and their own account. Thus rectified. 2 . the naturalist position is restated in full. of Belig. the corrector psychology of His thesis includes the perfectly accurate propositions w that the mythical faculty still exists in all men. Spencer's teaching. we note that such error can arise in many ways and when we have noted all the ways we have barred supernaturalism once for all. 410) at a complete contradiction of it— for another purpose.. if followed by any speculative reflection whatever. citing his Dottrina razionale del Progresso. After stressing this truth for his immediate purpose. or a practice.

" is merely literary mythology and " the intelSignor lectual constitution of the race " is a psychological myth. a proud self-consciousness. the Babylonian mythology had not been recovered. 248). have been as much ManGods as Jesus and he has no suspicion that Samson and half-a3 dozen other figures in the Bible had been Man-Gods till they were Evemerized by the Yahwists. See J." But this view is completely negatived by the records of the worship of Samas or Samsu in the Babylonian system. the Eskimos. p. Eng. a constant aspiration after grand achievements. into the society of the Gods. 2 Id. But there is an element of new myth in Signor Vignoli's statement over and above these historic errors he pictures the " Semitic and Chinese races " as having " soon freed themselves from their mental bonds " in virtue of the fact that their " inner symbolism of All the mind" was "less tenacious. they were certainly not the Hebrews. 6 Cp. He even becomes so conventionally mythological as to rank among . p. and the Eijians lacked the l 6 endowment Goldziher indeed writes (Mythology among the Hebrews. Ideen zu einer allgemeine Mythologie der alten Welt. and was not an " absolute idea". and monotheistic doctrine was current in Egypt long before the Semites had any. Signor Vignoli accepts the myth with the Babylonian mythology before him. Goldziher. in fine. On the other hand. To generalize " the Semite " and " the Aryan " as doing this the idea and that is but to make new myths.Wagner. Signor Vignoli is so oblivious of the facts of comparative mythology as to consider it a specially " Aryan " tendency to desire 2 a Man-God. and the Kenan myth that " the Semites " lacked the faculty 4 for mythology and to these he has added fresh sociological and psychological and literary myths in the manner of Auguste Comte. 180. all of Semitic manufacture." As if the Assyrians. When Renan committed himself. p. : : : ." this is simply sociological myth the reduction of a vast and incoherent complex to an imaginary simplicity and unity of movement. Vignoli.MODERN SYSTEMS 1 : 31 morphic ideas of the Being. 1808. and productive. 3 Id. tr. 181. the Egyptians. Herakles is late in joining the Greek Gods because he is an imported hero. 4 The thesis is really much older than Eenan. if " Semites " had the idea as early as Egyptians. . p. that Samson never got so far as to be admitted. has taken over without scrutiny a group of current historical myths. the Chinese. the Hebrews. . intense. an energy of thought and action. Or. and a haughty contempt for all 6 other nations.J. Samson in the Bible has been Evemerized into a mortal. He has forgotten that Attis and Adonis and Herakles and Dionysos. Such a phrase as of Christianity arose in the midst of the Semitic people through him whose name it bears. pp. 250-7. 5 Id. like Herakles. including the current conception of the Gospel Jesus. 175." Here be old myths in point of fact the Jewish God ivas anthropomorphic. the "peculiar characteristics" of "our" [the "Aryan"] race.

recast in separate treatises. despite aberrations and while general principles are being obscured in the attempts to state them. indeed. 2nd ed. Decharme of the brilliant Zoological Mythology of the astronomical and other studies of of Signor de Gubernatis Mr. Jr. Eobert Brown. and - 1 1890. This holds good of J. F. it connects Mannhardt's and Smith's data with a vast mass of cognate lore. though it sets up a superficial classification in defining Mythos as a w onderful It story dealing with a God. that every systematic survey of contemporary lower races. edited by Dr. Omissions. 32 in question. 1900. and partly on those of the late Professor Eobertson Smith. despite the undue confidence of some of its interpretations (as that Joseph of is certainly the Eain. . § 5. Salomon Eeinach. which as usual were ignored in England till long after they were accepted elsewhere. and Eachel the Cloud) the theorem of the historical critics that Eachel and Leah and their handmaids may be myths of tribal groups and colonies and of a multitude of general surveys and monographs notably the admirable collection of papers by M. et T . expanded. . Cultes. further. Evasions. Fresh Constructions. in course of production. gains continue to be made. No more truly learned monograph has ever been written in 1 mythology than Dr. Happily. of Goldziher's Hebrew Mythology. . and practices of the safe to say... Proceeding partly on the memorable researches of Mannhardt. THE PEOGBESS OF MYTHOLOGY Evidently we must set the mythologist to catch the mythologist. rites. . Jacob the Night. . . and Sage as a story dealing with men.) —down to the monumental Ausfilhrliches Lexihon der griechischen und rbmischen Mythologie. new ed. Reversions. Lauer's posthumous System der griechischen Mythologie (1851). are most of the first-hand researches of the past generation into the beliefs. up and Of such a nature. . new researches are made from time to time with so much learning and judgment as to give solid help towards clearing re-establishing the general principles.. Mythes. Frazer's Golden Bough. now two vols. It is Mythology has served to clear up of general some details as well as to facilitate the recognition law by later students. . three vols. Eoscher. 3 torn. — Religions (1908. . Yet probably no survey is yet sufficiently comprehensive and even the most masterly researches are found at times to set up obstacles to the full comprehension of the total mythological process. holds good of the Griechische Gbtterlehre of Welcker of the admirably comprehensive Griechische Mythologie and Bomische Mythologie of the eminently sane and scholarly Mythologie de la of Preller Grece Antique of M.

who is at once the God and his victim also by a ram. who however was exhibited as rising from a lotos plant.God could be represented by a bull animal sacrifices being a link between the Vegetation. —seen deduc— should the Vegetation. as if that were excluded once for all by proving him to be a Vegetation-God. Dr. Mtiller (2te Aufl. Dr.Spirit and the human sacrifice which impersonated him. in particular the Sun-God. G. are Vegetation-Gods. as again was Dionysos. Mithra. He becomes for once vigorously polemical in his attack on the thesis that Osiris was a Sun-God.God be born at the winter solstice save as 3 Again. cvi. who. Dr. Frazer very having been identified with the Sun-God? scientifically explains how Dionysos the Vegetation. though the bush. Frazer shows. It probably stands for another process of syncretism. and was thereby named to the last. would 1 The recognition of this. as was the Babe-Sun-God Horos. certain old D . The answer is that he was both and that such a synthesis was inevitable.) sets down the latter to the jealousy of the Delphian priests. But there accrues in some degree the old drawback of undue limitation of Eightly intent on establishing a hitherto ill-developed theory." Yahweh does. A few unquestioned facts will put the case in a clear light. Yet they too are both born on December 25. 1867) as regards Mexican cults. 3 It is noteworthy that Apollo had two birthdays—at the winter solstice for the Delians. p. Yet again. Yahweh and Moloch were represented and worshipped as bulls. so far as the records go. Frazer has unduly ignored the conjunction and inductively to be normal between the concept of the Vegetation-God and that of others. and at the vernal equinox for Delphi. 2 Now.MODEEN SYSTEMS constructs a unitary theory with signal skill and subtlety. why tively to be inevitable . like Dionysos. the mere identification of different same animal. 33 In Dr. was primordially associated with the Sun. indeed. being clearly enough made in the Geschichte der amerikanischen Urreligionm of J. a whole province of mythology becomes newly of cases fall easily into line and henceforth multitudes in terms of a true insight into primitive psychology. Frazer's hands intelligible . § 12. Christ and Krishna. is mythically born on December 25. Vegetation-Gods. appear in Now. Emeric-David (Introduction. and it would be hard to show that they were primarily . But then Mithra also was represented by a bull. . 2 See hereinafter. however in the ancient cults . is not new. Dionysos and Adonis. the cult of the Vegetation 1 Spirit. clearly because of the winter solstice and the rising of the constellation of the Virgin above the horizon. principle of mythological interpretation. different might be the original world inevitably lead to some identification of the even were it not equally inevitable that the Sun should be Gods with the pretexts. but the principle had not been properly brought to bear on mythology in general before Mannhardt.

fire finally. Frazer had done explicit ethical teaching superadded. to the recognition of the crucified Jesus as the annually slain Vegetation-God But Jesus is buried in a rock-tomb. ii. 34 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY the case of Osiris there recognized as a main factor in the annual revival of vegetation. born at the winter solstice it is as Sun-God (though also as carrying 3 over the administrative machinery of the Jewish Patriarch ) that he on the Sacred Tree. Such is the nature. The whole line of Dr. i Id. pp. "Presbyter" (New York. work was the psychology of the process ascertained. for For Dr. § 18.. See hereinafter. — . 1876). § 7. The Gospel Myths. i. or the Art and Symbolism of the Primitive Church as Witnesses and Teachers of the one Catholic Faith and Practice. Frazer's own admission. Frazer's investigation leads up. on which Dionysos also rides. his consort. See the author's Studies in Beligious Fallacy. this by Dr. Such questions come to a focus when we bring comparative mythology to bear on surviving religion. Part III. Once more the expert is unduly narrowing the relations under which he studies his object. Lundy. . indeed. Its point of view " It is a most singular and is thus put by its author in his preface : 4 his 2 See Pawn Christ s. Frazer. also hereinafter. 3 1st Div. . The Gospel Myths. with some Judaic elements as nucleus and some Not till Dr. is to shut out one of the most obvious of the natural lights on the subject. 1st Div. In is the further obvious cause that Isis. 21. it is as Sun-God that. ed. as is 2 and it is as Sun-God that he is the rock-born Sun-God Mithra. Monumental Christianity. of the religious consciousness that it is possible for some to recognize the exterior fact without any readjustment of religious belief. Osiris. To the literature of Christian Origins there has been contributed the painstaking work. Christ cult. Part III. something else than the Goddess his the sun enters the vegetation cult 1 as standing for the stored in the sacred fire-sticks. like surrounded by Twelve Disciples he is to judge men after death a thing not done by Adonis it is as Sun-God passing through the zodiac that he is represented successively in art and lore by the Lamb and the Fishes and it is as Sun-God that he enters Jerusalem before his death on two asses —the ass and foal of one of the Greek signs of Cancer (the turning- is . 164-5. The God must needs stand spouse. is an Earth-Goddess. in short. though unavowedly. § 19. . Part III. point in the sun's course). by John P. Divine Institutes. 1890. 4 Lactantius. But to assume that only in that roundabout way would primitive man allow for the obvious influence of the Sun on vegetation. was a synthesis of the two most popular The Pagan myth-motives. 369.

et Religions. that the Christian faith." On the other hand the author holds by the Incarnation. This theory. p. Lundy imperfectly indicates— imperfectly. there is to be noted a marked tendency on the part of philologists to revert to etymology colligation is purpose 1 Work cited. because he has taken no note of many Pagan works of art which are the real originals of episodes in the Gospels What —has been set down with great theoretic clearness by M. 1905. passed on from one country to another. fully myth of explanation. 11. 65. It reveals a unity of religion. pp. Eeligion. as being " a more intelligible revelation than Deism. Reinach.MODEEN SYSTEMS 35 astonishing fact. No one can be more astonished at this than the author himself. W. and may attach to a God of one nation stories which hitherto belonged to another nation. T. p. 6 The Nattve Baces °f South Africa. Clermont-Ganneau if in his L'Imagerie is iconologique chez les Grecs (1880). therefore. 346. finds its parallel. fi. has probably occurred independently to many inquirers 2 in any case it is a principle of the most obvious importance. . among whom the : of myths with pictures which had no mythological seen arising in a quite natural fashion. as embodied in the Apostles' Creed. how a mere object of art with a mythological purport (as in a group or series of figures). 113-4. Ger. or Pantheism. Stow. Antiquities of Egypt. See also the R.°. Mythes. and cp. See again ' .V il Collignon in n 11 s Myt hologie figuree de la Grece. as given by man's Maker. It furthermore points to but one Source and Author. M.£ iqIo f aa *?' It is endorsed. . Theal. 1841. albeit he has really modified at some points his old sectarian conception. in the different systems of Paganism here brought under review. 3 As against these important advances. . is no cunningly devised fable of Priest-craft. or dimly foreshadowed counterpart. article by article. which M. S. 1884. may give rise to a new Phenicienne et la mijthologie there shown." 1 Thus the good presbyter's conscientious reproductions of Pagan emblems serve to enlighten others without deeply enlightening himself. sought to be developed in this work. and shows that the faith of mankind has been essentially one and the same in all ages. It not for the first time. CiUtes. Clermont-Ganneau. Heidenzeit (1876). Mr. ™ ioo ! . or all that mere naturalism which goes under the name of Eeligion. by G. S. Quite independent corroboration of the theory comes from students of the rock-paintings and folk-lore of the Bushmen of South Africa. ed. especially in the investigation of the myths of the Gospels. 2 all 11 S G ottesdienst des Nordens wiihrend der £e&/ rr den la <|ependent statement of the principle. Clermont-Ganneau ably establishes by some clear instances. . • The derivations of Christian myths from Pagan works of art hereinafter offered were made out before I had seen or heard of the work of M. again. by G. but it is rather the abiding conviction of all mankind. i.

1891) turns on the same conception. It is clear. that of phallicism. is the hidden truth of the my thus to be discovered. that every line of research into human evolution is fitted to elucidate every other. we are hardly even within sight of such a socioThere it is still necessary to logical method as regards mythology. 1889) is wholly in terms of the supposed root-meanings of names in ancient myth and the Prolegomena zur Mythologie als Wissenschaft. and through the knowledge of the myth-language of the Greek poets. but religion which in some hands is indeed which certainly entered largely into ancient and symbol. seek for broader grounds of interpretation if we are to We must comprehend the bulk of the Finally. the intellectual and the material conditions of the process are studied in their connections throughout raises Every problem of religious growth in a given society problems of economics and problems of political psychology. entitled Bivers of Life (1883). with. taken. Thus far. a further insistence on Ottfried Miiller's doctrine that it is necessary to study the myth in Dr. strive for the application of ordinary scientific tests as against the pressures of conservatism and mediatory reaction. however. and in this particular connection prudery ends in facilitating nearly every species of general error above dealt with.— : 36 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY as the true and perfect "key to all mythologies. of the play of a principle much overstrained. Wendorff (Berlin. While some inquirers exaggerate. and that there will be no final anthropological science until all history. und Lcxihon dcr Mythensprache of Dr. concerning others philologists are hopelessly at variance. Forchthe light of the topography of its place of origin." The criticism of such claims is (l) that different all myths tended more or less to find acceptance in localities. : . . But science cannot afford to be prudish . Forchhammer (Kiel. hammer's motto runs " Only through the knowledge of the local and chronological actualities in myths. account phenomena at must be all. Some have an obvious meaning . others evade the issue. W. P. indeed. with or without synthesis of local topographical details even Semitic myths finding currency and adaptation in Greece and (2) that the hope to reach certainty about the original values of mythic names all round is vain. in which the evolution of religious ideas in presented broad relation with the general movement of the species. in any professedly systematic survey. subject can be handled at once scientifically That the and instructively has is been shown by the massive work of General Forlong. however." Thus the Erkldrung alios Mythologie of Herr F.

and with a limpidity which is no small advantage in controversy. Lang's books make amends for setting up needless friction. Mr. and Religion (1889. 37 Mr. Andrew Lang. we can credit it with coherence and a general reasonableness. In large part they stand on the sure ground of evolution and comparative anthropology and they do unquestionably make out their oft-reiterated main thesis. 1824. Lang on the Origin of Beligion. and the Appendix. Mr. Lang may on this score claim to have established all he sought negatively to prove." Be la Beligion. however. professes to abide. While. either in or out of connection with a faculty 3 possessed by the very same savages for " supernormal" knowledge a theory so completely out of relation with his earlier exposition primitive stage of understand or expound the latter. p. we must for Taking his earlier mythology by itself. This main If there is any positive no one now seems to dispute. . 1 sometimes irritates scholars on the other side. ii. not only for the method of his handling of the point supposed to be in dispute. Ritual. concerning which a variety of " explanations " have been offered by mythologists. it is to be found in Mr. Lang to certain of the cruder Greek myths. has been laid down not only by Fontenelle but by such an influential modern writer as Benjamin Constant. the paper. xvii. if not the main body. is The protagonist. otherwise condensed in his article on Mythology Written with a vivacity which in the Encyclopedia Britannica. he in turn is open even there to some criticism. that myth has its roots in savage lore and savage fancy. but for his failure to carry out to its proper conclusions the evolutionary principle by which he Mythology that.MODEEN SYSTEMS § 6. some of his doctrine. Lang and Anthropology. It is thus necessary to rectify the course of the science by calling in question To begin with. de l'lnde. by the fresh impulse they give to mythological study. revised ed. Mr. of the mediatory school Mr. 1 and that He has been over-solicitous to create and 2 It See Professor Regnaud's Comment naissent les mythes ? 1898. and that all bodies of myth preserve traces of their barbarous origin a proposition specially applied by Mr. . to the time keep them apart. et de la Gaule. whose Custom and Myth (1884) and Myth. counter-theory. in the author's Studies in Beligioics Fallacy. Mr. 3 Cp. 1899) set forth his earlier views of the subject. who put in the forefront of his great treatise the proposition that "la plupart des notions qui constituent le culte des sauvages se retrouvent enregistrees et consolidees dans les religions sacerdotales de l'Egypte. — such as that of Kronos and Saturn. Lang's own later and obscurer argument that a high " religion " arises in the most 2 position — of life. . pref p. Lang has in the opinion of some of us over- stated the stress of the difference between his point of view of the solar school.

hension." Now. Where Mr. George expressly points to the primeval savage as the first and myth-maker and he uses phrases similar to Mr. would naturally figure for Mr. Inasmuch as Sir George Cox and Max Miiller more and Sir or less definitely accept the principle of evolution in affairs. the former in particular constantly human comparing savage myth no good ground folk-lore with the classic mythologies. taking Darwin's theory as substantially proved. Lang and some of the rest of us though we do not all go as far in Pyrrhonism as Mr. ii. those of difficulty. Fontenelle's sentence may really be made an indictment against the method and performance of Mr. but it is science to understand what led Greeks and Phoenicians to imagine these follies. his main tenet is not only perfectly compatible with most of their general doctrine. But Mr. there is for saying that they ignore or reject the anthropological method. ed. found no more in those of Dr. Lang himself but it certainly does not tell against Sir George Cox. 324. as we shall see. As a matter of fact. ii. he was entitled only to call in question given interpretations.— 38 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY continue a state of schism. purpose of Sir George Cox's work is to " understand what led Greeks and Phoenicians to commit these follies ": the only trouble is that. "It is not science to fill one's head with the follies of Phoenicians and Greeks. in the opinion of Mr. to the study of Indeed. A 2nd . and even now it is beyond their compretypical . Tylor. in Sir George Cox's pages than where the mental 1st ed. Casaubon " in this connection. Lang has made of these divergences a ground for challenging the whole body of the work. . and Religion. App." he goes on "A better and briefer system of mythology could not be devised but the Mr. Lang's concerning the psychological condition " of early man. There is absolutely nothing in Sir George's works that is incompatible with Fontenelle's doctrine as to the origination of mythology among primitive and savage men on the contrary. Lang is always charging upon that school a positive rejection of anthropological science. us who came mythology as evolutionists. Quoting Fontenelle's phrase. who. . that : is more or less clearly implied all through them. as the leading English exponent of a system of (implicitly) universal mythology. Casaubons of this world have neglected it. 343. ' 1 : . Lang on his own part really seems unable to see the wood for — the trees. Ritual. but implicit in that. Lang's readers The whole as a typical " Mr. Mr. apart from problems of interpretation. Lang certain of his keys or clues are fanciful. life of savages is the special 1 Myth.

obscene. in a note (p. and were puzzled to find Mr. or Hellenic myths is not silly. and Max Miiller. p. Lang complains. if it comforts him. Cp. the attack on Huxley's teaching. Heyne. justly enough protests that "the great body of Vedic. gross. but on this we may let Mr. Lang's general tone should thus maintain that one of his chosen specialties consists mainly 3 He is the collection or study of absurd and offensive anecdotes. with his derivation of the my thus " ab ingenii humani imbecillitate et a dictionis etjestate" so much objected to by K. Lang have his way. Part of his grievance against other schools is that they are too ready with explanations." which statement of the direction in is to be sought. and of the deepest interest. carrying the principle of evolution further than we could well expect him to do. Man's consciousness of sin. and personal adventures of his deities. As a rule. disgusting. are told to or by the worshipper concerning the origin. what stories. view : Let us take his own definition of his point us with a sense of the hunger and thirst by the Hebrew psalmists. but definitely refuses to apply the evolution principle beyond certain boundaries. about "that strangely neglected chapter. Sir George Cox. Lang in chapter after chapter insisting on this datum as if it were a struggling heresy. that essential chapter. 19) on an early article by Mr. O. his sense of being imperfect in the sight of larger other eyes than ours. Mr. we were the more puzzled. ignored or opposed by all previous mythologists.— MODERN SYSTEMS theme. and Religion. We took savage origins as a matter of course. to 39 In this connection the idea dated back at least a century. 2 3 . ii. because while Sir George Cox. ii. 1 While retaining this passage in the revised (1899) edition of his earlier work. But all this aspect of the Vedic deities is essentially the province of the science of religion rather than of mythology. and falls back on the simple iteration that " what led Greeks and Phoenicians he again and again flouts attempts at all this is came from savages. Bitual. he has often the air of saying that it is hardly of no explanation at which explanation all. 152. the Higher beliefs of the Lowest savages'* (p. but merely a worth troubling about. When he does accept an explanation that goes beyond totemism. Lang. 183).' is a topic of the affect ' " It would be difficult hymns. not with what feelings of awe and gratitude the worshipper approaches his gods. 2nd ed. Nay. full of the most absurd and offensive anecdotes. Lang not only shows himself more of an a priori theist than Sir George. clergyman and theist as he was. It is explicitly in odd that a writer of Mr. which even now after righteousness ' to overstate the ethical nobility of certain Vedic so passionately felt ' comes but by accident into the realm of mythological science} That science asks." explanation. these stories are a mere chronique scandaleuse. 1st ed. and revolting ". 129. Teutonic. 191. personal characteristics. but what myths. but it crudest fictions " 2 . in his Making of Beligion (1898). Myth. Mr. led us definitely through mythology into or at least up to the reigning religion. Instead of seeking above all things to " understand to commit these follies.

Canon MacCulloch. who. p. avows that "mythology is wrapped up with religion everywhere" (Religion: Its Origin and Forms. which is demonstrably fallacious. Cp. p. such as these are." or that "mythological sundering of religion from mythology. explaining it by the human " accident " the ethical elements or bearings elevation of the brain structure. as savages. as it happens.— 40 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY However falls. it cannot be too emphatically said that Mr. Tylor and Mr. A partial not complete contradiction of these propositions given in Mr. Primeval myth and primeval ethic are all of a piece primitive man's mythology is in terms of his ethic as well as of his 2 science." 2 Save in so far. like civilized people. differ on one issue while concurring on the other. But as we see in all ages a profession of austere religious belief conjoined with unscrupulous or frivolous practice. that is. head I shall under- take to support. Whatever purification. Lang's disciple. 5). Nor is that all. Lang. modification. Serious and frivolous savages might well frame myths of a different cast. it is especially in the absence of authoritative science. 1 but mere mythography. his logic. it is clearly on him if : on any one that there It is Fontenelle not science to pro tanto. the rebuke of one's head with the follies of Phoenicians and Greeks. vary in mental type." On this head. Where that is is may if cause further inventions and modifications. we must credit savages with similar inconsequence. that may be. and sophistication of : of a myth takes place in later ages is largely the outcome of the pressure more advanced ethic on the old myth lore. . it would seem clear that to set aside as of mythology is to throw away an essential part of the explanation of " what led the Greeks and Phoenicians to commit these follies. where the avowal that " both mythology and a great part of religious belief and worship spring from one common source" is confused by the absurd proposition that "religion and mythology are two separate affairs but so much intermixed and blended that it is impossible to discriminate between tliem. Lang's later theorem be dealt with hereinafter that the lowest savages are found holding together a high-grade religious theory and a low-grade mythology and that the former is ." and what led them to put a different face on them. —to probably the earlier development. is as arbitrary as anything that has been said on the other side of the discussion. which on the side of form or bare statement developed. otherwise apt to be blindly reiterated. But even on that view. 87. The spirit of Fontenelle's remark carries us beyond the search for the bare explanation of the groups of pagan 1 Mr. 2. his proposition that they come together only "by science" has nothing to do with the ethical purport or colouring of myths. the 1. fill surely doing himself an injustice. who follows him in his theory of the moral first God-ideas of primitive man. despite the formidable authority of Dr. Lang's accident. Mythology as defined by him Two assertions on is this not a science at all. his imagination.

1. he writes in After all his iterations another chapter concerning Greek myths that "it must be remembered that. with historical religion. but still adhering to his arbitrary division of things. when rational ethic has definitely broken away from the old amalgam. 1 about the origination of myths in savagery." on the ladder of facts to a knowBroadly speaking. if we cannot call it astonishing. But to put aside the mass of written theology.MODEEN SYSTEMS : 41 myths it sets us upon tracing the whole connection of mythology with social and intellectual life. Modifying the uncompromising dictum above quoted. like all myths. . is wilfully to impoverish and humble the science. Lang and so many other mythologists do. Lang. ethics and religion are everywhere inseparably blended with myth and in so far as religion has remained bound up with myth and with primitive ethic down to our own day. The one respect in which Mr. make a division of labour. on which he has so zealously staked his case in mythology. Ritual. 1. To stop short of that. Lang's books on Mythology and Keligion are consistent is that in each in turn he looks only at one side of the shield a course so arbitrary and so confusing that it can be explained only in terms of some extra-scientific bias. — . Myth. In the words of Ottfried Miiller." writes Mr. the is argumentative side of the later historical and to keep out of sight the vital connections and reactions of myth and doctrine is quite another. they have far less concern 1 "Christian conduct and faith. Lang repudiating for religion the fundamental principle of all mental science. That is the work of the that it not that the subjects are separate. with ethics and philosophy as affected by historical religion. as apart from narrative bases and symbols. "are no longer affected by the answers" we give to questions about myth origins. and Religion. but their conjunct development into and survival in the latest forms of all. always out of sight or even surmise of the bearings of these matters on the creeds and institutions one thing . it is perplexing. as Mr. It is accidents " in these matters save in the strict logical sense that in is certain cases there an intersection true that it is not the mythologist's business to discuss the developof ment and variation hierologist . At the beginning of the historic period. of the civilized nations of our own day. and religion. ritual. 1st ed. it is supremely important and supremely interesting to trace not merely the earlier forms of myth. but is necessary to systems. 11 we must " ascend ledge of internal being and life. keeping it always concerned with " the follies of Phoenicians and Greeks. to find Mr. reasoned and written religious doctrine." always among the ancients or the Hottentots. there were no of causal connections.

and move. 43. 3 book on The Making of Religion. and than with the religio. of statement that Mr." . 280. 199." purpose is all Mr. 309. 289. 305. making no reservation of any department of mental life. just as he repeatedly imputes " sacerdotage" to many phases of the religions of Egypt and India. in the merest obiter dictum. 175. 290. 208. we are driven to note that very soon after drawing a line between the science of religion and that of mythology. he here undertakes.' superstition which is afraid of changing the and which. to what God in the making or in the beginning. { ' ' — — the luck.. Id. Lang has not thought out his position and when we compare them with retained as they are in the revised edition of his earlier work — his subsequent credit 2 ethic. p." Compare The Making of Religion. To speak of " the beginning " is neither here — Myth. Lang's polemic ? What is the meaning of the If we cannot title of his last treatise. that is none of his affair as a mythologist. 4 Myth. In any case. Ritual." but that "no man can watch the idea of 4 If this be true. 185. whether from his own point of view or from ours. 273. But when he has gone a certain distance he asserts not only that "the question of the origin of a belief in Deity does not come within the scope of a strictly historical inquiry. i.— 42 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY with religion in its true guise with the yearning after the divine which is not far from any one of us. and Religion. ii. of Religion. pp. 307) 1 2 Making 3 that his opinions have become more emphatic as to the remote antiquity of both the purer religion and the "puzzling element of myth. and Religion. 281. Ritual. This view again is virtually quashed on p. "The Making of Eeligion"? watch the God-idea in the making. therefore. 206.' after the God in whom we live. as to " beginnings. i. misgivings. 65 . And we are bound to observe that." 1 myths was that ancient ' It would appear from these variations . putting aside for the moment the oddly haphazard assertion in the last sentence of the passage before us. At the outset he professes to stand on the evolutionist basis now common to the sciences. 186. 309. 211. misapprehensions. In this regard he is doing exactly what he charges on the other mythotaking an a priori point of departure instead of going to the logists comparative history of the facts. 1st ed. neither can we watch religion or myth in the making. 1st ed. 307. pp. keeps up acts of ritual that have lost their significance in their passage from a dark and dateless past. which is a tissue of old barbarous have our being The religion which retained most of fears. the lack of these sequence becomes bewildering. ii. to lay down the law as to what con- stitutes the "true guise" of religion. 334. 2nd ed. which inclines to primeval savages with a high-grade religion and a "pure" and to explain their mythology as a later excrescence on when we put all the propositions together. Lang abandons this particular sentiment. and — claiming to stand only in the latter's province. 2nd ed. 235. though he explains (p. I do not gather that in the revised edition Mr.

are either God-myths. We not only take myths " as we find them." to solve such conflicts of theory is The one way to go to the evidences in anthropology. . Lang indeed proceeds to admit that " the notions of man about the Deity. and part of its history. — — the making"? What else do we find stages of the mythology of any one people? previously 1 when we compare successive And what had Mr. in Ghosts. Indogermanische My then. man's religious sentiments. 211 (Mythologische Stellung ). 39. i. the " beginnings " of myth. p. and religious history." Then is it argued that at no stage do we find myth " in . corresponding in some degree to the various changes in the general progress of society"? Such attempts at the separation of growths that are visibly and complementary are necessarily abortive. Lang will here dissent the God-idea must be in similar case and Mr. that Lang meant when he said "we are enabled to examine mythology as a thing of gradual development and of slow and manifold modifications. it is the merest mutilation of mythology to take the "absurd and offensive anecdotes" of the pagans and the heathens in vacuo. with which Mr. since. as we have seen. One of the most laborious of . and his mythical narratives. . must be taken as we find them. 36 E. Meyer. and then claim to have given us a " mythological science " of them. " We are acquainted with no race whose In other lie far back in the unpenetrated past. and Religion. he never disputes main periods objects that all alike belong to " myth-history. and in Gods. for the proposition must hold equally of myth. i. Ritual." but we try to understand how they came to be there and to be so even Mr. Lang goes on to say. their history is directly for the history of the God-idea. the later German mythologists syncretically decides that " : Myth those of belief in Souls. And or indirectly commonly so called. 1st ed. Then though Mr." insisting that " the conception (Vorstelhmg) of the existence of the human soul precedes the animizing of natural history passes through three 2 But while thus drawing a dubious and and phenomena." words. 1 myth literature. they are among the first data as old myths. beginning does not Lang never deals. in terms of the theorem of Darwin and Vignoli. 1883. albeit confluent : fitfully.MODEEN SYSTEMS 43 nor there. as Mr. i. Lang tries. H. Even when the God-idea is nominally separated by philosophers from all myth and ritual. are pre-human. 2 Myth. it remains none the less a development from the myth-and-ritual stage and as every one of the historical religions has at every stage connected the idea with primitive ritual and what we recognize as myth." untenable line between the orders of myth-material. 2nd ed.

animism lies deep in animal instinct. 119. Neither is it possible to show in terms of experimental psychology that a God-idea could come into being only as a fresh superstructure on concepts of soul and ghost rather the naturalistic surmise is that a God-idea grew up with and in terms of the others. like later man. Early man. animizing inanimate things without doing so in the case of rain and wind but then there is no reason to credit them with a ghost-idea so they or a soul-idea. ghost-lore. start which ancestor worship 1 . or the group of emotions so labelled. . then they had a kind of God-idea at least as early as Animals. noting how the process of tions differentiated from them. and God-lore. 3rd ed. It took relative genius at one stage to create even a myth which to a civilized sense is offensive 2 and absurd. 285. or was a primitive form from which all other forms were derived. indeed. alternately or conflictingly. or. adding the second and third one by one to the first. Cp. as the socio-economic conditions may tend . and was only by means of reflection or of priestly instituIf. there is no evidence that he passed through successive stages of soul-lore." Here we come to the factor of which so many theorists are always tending to get rid. i. it may be. as against those who for the concept " discriminate " and its variants substitute that of deliberate creation. nothing can hinder that the mass of inherited lore shall be modified from period to period either upwards or downwards. 1896. The earliest beliefs were a jumble of ideas.44 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY first positively as regards the mental life of " primeval " man. in all likelihood. seem capable of a ghost-idea or soul-idea. p. proceeded of necessity in his mental life by way of modification and readaptation and the work must have been done in large part by the of his lore few thinking minds for the many. and fatally fixative as is the religious instinct. Primitive Culture. and it was long before the elements of the different kinds of religion were discriminated. either in terms of increasing knowledge or in terms of deepening ignorance. though they certainly seem to have dreams give us no reason for putting the germ of the God-idea very late in man. in terms of a strife of forces and institutions. . Tylor. have independently come to the conclusion so decisively put by such a competent student as And : . we perforce credit the earliest men with a notion of living force behind the phenomena of sun and rain and wind. albeit much more slowly. 249. 1 Thus 2 Principles of Sociology. Many of us. are destined to be overthrown. and slow as is all aggregate development. Professor Giddings : " I believe that all interpretations of religion from the assumption that fetichism. animal worship.

" or. it is not the only one. For instance. naturally the claim of is commonest motive. Other religions show kindred phenomena. phenomena primitive thought in systems which yet seek to glose . myths and those of " Pagans. Hebrew and Christian religion is mythological. the Hebrew sacred books crystallize round the most disparate nuclei of older lore and again the Christian innovation is connected with older and lower conceptions of ritual theophagy and yet again. in view of these long-drawn permutations. or that ethics attaches to either and not to the other. in other words. . that the myth of (a) the conservation of all it . Yet we shall find one mythologist or anthropologist after another claiming to make such severances and though the desire to accredit religion is . scientific We can but proceed to judge of the .MODERN SYSTEMS we have the 45 manner of and (6) the fresh grafting of primitive survivals on systems which have been partly shaped by higher forces. — is essentially alien to the religion. different attempts on their merits and in the same way we must Christian deal with the chronic attempts of writers with an orthodox bias to make out a fundamental difference between Hebrew and to . is to override the evidence. since the made in the same fashion by one or two writers on the side Naturalism. the Church gradually adds to its stock of myths that of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mother of the God-Man this by force of the same myth-making bias (however sophisticated) as framed the previous dogma of his Virgin-Birth. deny that . in the Middle Ages. To say.

Lang as to a mysterious " purity " and philosophical elevation about the ethic and religion which in certain primitive peoples are found in context with an " absurd and offensive " mythology. can say which. 188. element. Mr. that the high " conception came first. as Mr.. which they at once "forget" and retain. or at least psychologically alien to certain others of their mental processes. Lang nevertheless insists that there That is no real connection between his ethics and his mythology. myth is classified as a species of by-product of the primeval mind. Tylor and Mr. is of his own making. is the earlier"* such is the motley 5 doctrine with which Mr. something out of touch with the normal psychology of those who produce it. Prompt advantage has been taken of his argument and his authority by orthodox exponents of the science— e. p. Lang has burdened anthropological science. and that animistic degeneration " inevitably 3 and "necessarily" followed. is a fair sample of the Here. The puzzle. and does not inhere in his data. more definitely than ever. Lang presents it. fallacy of the separatist method. 194. 1 Making 2 Id. 46 . etc. though all the while both aspects " are found co-existing. Huxley that there is no connection between the ethics and the religion of the lower savage. : 4 m. pp. We may grant him every one of these. if either.Chapter III. pp. 5 of Beligion. joining the mythical or narrative and the didactic aspects of we logist mythoMr. THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY § 1. 281. that degeneration may occur at any stage of human evolution that primitive tribes find important clues as well as cases in the writings of a already dealt with. 3 Id. in our total lack of historical information about the beginnings. 199. 16-20. The theorem . Canon MacCulloch's primer on Beligion Its Origin and Forms. p. in almost all races and nobody. still LOOKING for the grounds of the common persistence in disof religion.g. grant him that very primitive tribes may as apart from his glosses have a notion vaguely and loosely analogous to that which civilised men express by the term "Supreme Being". — — . The Theistic Presupposition. 276. primeval men had primordially a " high " conception of a Supreme 1 2 Being. Denouncing the doctrine of Dr. p.

47 be in certain relations much more unselfish in their normal than highly civilized peoples that they may be innocent of cruel religious practices found in more advanced civilizations that they do not discriminate as theologians do between " spiritual " and 11 material " beings all this without for a moment concurring either in his arbitrary addenda as to the " purity " of primeval ethics or the actuality of Hebrew narratives. Mr. Mythology among the Hebrews. . Lang's case we have the old fundamentally fallacious presupposition belief that his own theology is the height of rationality as compared with that of polytheists turned afresh to the old account of making out that primeval man was not "left without a witness" as to there being only one God. . 3) that " it may. while arguing implicitly that savages have no ethics at all. Eng. 5. being applied to the God-ideas of savages. Lang's view is corrective savages certainly have ethics. he admits a " secondary " ethical element. p. First in order and importance comes the fallacy as to the 11 Supreme Being. and with any degree of " absurdity " in myth. the 1 existence of the raw material. He speaks of their " monotheism " in the act of . Lang assumes that any concept which can be described by the words in question must be "high. W. cited by Roskoff. In Mr. proceeding with a " However that may be. "the heathen (i. 2nd ed." or "deep.. the South Pacific. i. tr. — : — 1 Rev." or " pure. Lang's philosophic savages never do believe in One God. 1880." Because in civilized thought the phrase is associated with philosophy. which is an effort to find an ethical solution where the former does 3 not even face the problem. p. Mr. 2 3 W." In the words of Lazarus: "Alle Sitten sind sittlich alle Menschen haben Sitten" (Vrspncng der Sitte. fallacious) myth for all who have critically rejected it as an expla4 nation of the cosmos. 1876." 2 There is really nothing necessarily or " profoundly philosophic. of course." : ." in which the word " supreme " engenders fallacy from the start. and Religion. It is itself an " absurd " (that is. Ritual. albeit not " high " or " deep. Das Beligionsivesen der rohesten Naturvolker.— THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY may life . 211." high or deep about the matter the bare theory of a Single God is not more but less ethically elevated than the theory of Dualism. p. 15 but. This is denied by Goldziher. at least in part. In point of fact. p. The former is perfectly compatible with any measure of barbaric crudity in ethics. savage) intellect has no conception of a Supreme Being creating a universe out of nothing Whenever the gods make anything. be argued that the belief in a Creator is itself a myth. is presupposed. who never think out the thesis of "supremacy." This view he does not attempt to meet. 4 Mr. p. Lang notes (Myth. 20. or in the obscure inferences concerning the " supernormal " and the supernatural with which he embroiders the whole. 146)." Further. Gill.e. Myths and Songs from Work last cited. Here Mr.

224. who have two Creator Gods. are actually the " children of Vatea. in the way of degeneration. 1893. 5 6 . in the fashion of the Indian fable that the earth rests on an elephant. but secondary not early. 11. 1st ed. Lang never explains. Either way. A just Supreme Being. Id. for their Gods is not only conceivable but likely. which rests on a That primitive men should often account in that fashion tortoise. — — : 1 E. p. and what not. p. He has begged the question. etc. 7-8. Not once can he point to the existence of a belief that the " Supreme " Being as such is at once a ruling 6 power and above propitiation he does not even bethink him to But in the child might readily reason so. Harrison. but late. 1-2. Pacific the " High Gods " Tangaroa. though his wife. 188. Eonga. Pacitic.. Ghost-Gods. ii. Making of Religion. On the other hand. The fair inference from parents. the savage's High God or Creator is either a God gone out of action or a figure put in to account for the presence of the other Gods. pp. Mr. 2 Gill. Psychological Religion. 5 But how a God believed to rule all things could ever be so shelved by beings regarded as of a lower grade.48 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 exhibiting their polytheism. he argues. i. 4 with whom they are so much more practically concerned. Ritual. But he never asks whether they regard propitiation as useless. the data is first 4 Max Miiller. — . Golden Bough. Myth. is 2 almost undisguisedly the Earth-Mother. Lang's theory appears to be that the Supreme Being in savage theology has been shouldered aside by demons. 2nd Myths and Songs from the South that Vatea and Papa. citing Rev. Lang constantly adverts without apparently seeing its 8 bearing the fact that as a rule the savage pays little heed to his 11 Supreme Being" gives the rationale of the whole matter. were originally the primal Gods of a conquered race. though he claims to do so. C. And one fact to which Mr. 8 Work last cited. p. and Religion. would give no such chances to individual egoism as are given by " squarable " lower Gods. 17. who makes her children out of pieces of her side. as a rule are Broadly speaking. a good and a bad. 87. Vatea in turn was son of the Great Mother. We find even the belief "that the Great Spirit that made the world is dead long ago " (Frazer. That the disregard of the Creator God arises not merely because he is good. ii. on whom new Gods were super-imposed. a given God may become "supreme" precisely because other Gods are doing the actual work a development which we shall have occasion to discuss later. Mr. Lang relies on the apparent absence of propitiation in regard to certain primitive deities. 222. and who disregard both alike in comparison with their minor created deities. the process of elevation is not primary. A thoughtful mythology of the South and the rest. and seems to suppose he solves the contradiction by noting that so-called monotheists practically polytheists. is made clear by the case of the Haidas of North-West America.g." the first man. Mr. 213). the ed. Papa. On the next page he records a virtual process of propitiation of an " author of all good " among Patagonians.

357. 42. Sir G. as cited. Ellis at first held Nyankupon to be a God borrowed from the whites. the Creator God of the Goddess to act as Mediatress) Shilluks in the Sudan . i. 1899. 52-53. 2 3 He is ostensibly the racial 5 Gill. although " Supreme." the Supreme people. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago. pp. pp. 6 * Below. " sacrifices constitute their only attempts at inter- they seem to regard him not as a being likely to confer benefits. being mainly supine." Hebieso and Abui. p. 1889. Macdonald. The Lower Niger and its Tribes. The Native Baces of South Africa. at Tahiti and Mangaia. 32-33. The sacrifices formerly rendered to him were human. E . 458. 14 Major Glyn Leonard.g. Sir A. B. the Creator God of the Tahitians. 1905. 401. Thomson. as well as 13 Yet again we find a Supreme Nyankupon. ed. overthrown or superseded. as we shall see. i. p. 162. 281. and these were stopped by a disgusted chief. the Tangaloa or Tangaroa of the Samoans. p. art. 388. Partridge. 145. God of the Polynesians. 324. the Creator God of the Ainu (who allows the Fire10 Jo-uk. Id. fact. but afterwards gave up that view. 197-9. 79. pp. 22-23. p. " the Awuna Zeus and Hera ". Supreme Beings " are in a number of cases propitiated by savages the Imra of the pre-Moslem e. .. See Gill. is simply that the Gods in question. 13 Sir A. his primitive savages the conception of inexorable He has simply given to the phrase " Supreme — " all its possible connotations. 1908. S.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY prove that 49 among impartiality exists. 1 On the other hand. The Kdfirs of the Hindu-Kush. pp. 3 2 Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush. 24-30. Myths and Songs. 1885. p. 12 H. Magic and Beligion. but the governing God of the 14 In the case of Deng-Dit. the creed is that only after man had learnt to sacrifice cattle become fruitful. pp. B.-Col. 1831. 19." The explanation of all these cases. p. their priests having never been course with God. by Lieut. Robertson. The Tshi-SpeaUng Peoples of the Gold Coast. Jos. 9 10 11 The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: A Compendium prepared by Officers of the Sudan Government. the Ngai of the Masai. and most of the Leeward Islands. and so burked the real problem. pp. France. T. 184. October. i. Cross Biver Natives. Oceania: Linguistic arid Anthropological. the Kaang of the Bushmen. 12 and the Gold Coast Gods Bobowissi and Tando. And In and sheep to him did women while the present generation are niggard of their gifts to him. receives little propitiation in general. 4 Turner. 62. ed. Batchelor. 444-5. in the known ethic Stow and Theal. Ellis. This Supreme Deity. ed." in Jour. 133. ed 1870. 322. 1884. 113. 1887. of the African Soc. 1906. Through Masai Land. 1901. as cited. See T. Kongo." happen to be still more or less actively regent. " who is not Being " 1 4 . 14. D." God habitually propitiated in the case of Yor Obulo. on "The Worship of the Thunder-God Among the Awuna. 7 6 the Ndengei of the Fijians the Rupi and Nisrah of the Nigerians 8 Taaroa (=Takaroaor Tangaroa). . PoUjnesian Besearches. Fiji and the Fijians. only chief of the deities of the Andoni. pp. however. 128. Count Gleichen. Williams. But Ndengei. "the Rain-Giver. is in some islands (where Kongo is primate) little regarded. 381. his twin (and more popular) 5 brother. 15. See Lang. 1905. 7 8 W. and Rev. 97. 18." and Creator-God of the Dinkas of the Sudan. 11. but as a destructive power to be propitiated 15 if possible. 15 The Anglo-Egyptian Stidan. 1905. "Lord of the Sky. 1892. 195. 296. The Ainu of Japan. p. 166. pp. the Supreme Deity of the natives of the Obubura district in Southern 9 Nigeria. Ellis. p.

his name is one of the names of the High God Mula 3 Djadi. we find a complete negation of the idea of imparThe African Wakuafi account for their cattle-lifting pro- clivities by the calm assertion that Engai. pp. Lang's Magic and Beligion. 6. Asiasi. by the cattle to . s 6 8 9 5. Id. Lang's Mosaic Hebrews. it is told that all things are dependent upon him. and in this view he is the giver of all good. pp. preface. And over all the ethical conception is that of simple fear and safeguard-seeking. See the first chapter of Mr. i. p. p. being a kind of compound or essence of a group of three. 2. At the same time. there is a benevolent 5 Earth-God. all such however. 61-62. Die Beligion der Batak. priest. gave all them So in South America the fierce Mbayas declare they received from the Caracara a divine command to make war on all 1 other tribes." the fourth. with traces of former human sacrifices. or five Over-Gods. pp. . yet he is regularly 4 propitiated by sacrifices. 2nd ed.. id. whom he so strangely represents as returning to an ancient purity of morals. Magic and Religion. And the God of the Mbayas may have been just as " high. and Beligion. 1 Some of us. Lang's very assiduous investigation as to any of the savage beliefs on which he rests his case. Southey. For some. that is Heaven. 4 392. and are always invoked with the Gods. 7 Idm pp. 25. 28. Myth. who in prayers is always invoked before the High Gods. and gets sacrifices only by way 2 of something added to those of the three other High Gods. They have three. balancing their differences. and he is reckoned "a just judge". 7 The is right line of inference to follow no need the antiquity of from the data being thus saved. 3. ia. 2 8 Warneck. and generally before them. pp. 6-7. Tylor appears to doubt the aboriginally of conceptions." "Heaven" would seem to be a sufficiently "high" God.50 of THE PKOGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY many savages " tiality. Ritual. 27. however. or four. as it were a Holy Spirit. who are the powers most constantly and directly recognized by the mass of the people and by the sorcerers. killing the men and adopting the women and children. again. He is seldom prayed to. But it is the priests who deal with the Earth -God and the High Gods and all the while every head of a family propitiates the Ancestor-Gods. there Mr. Id. were it not that Dr. and he is of course duly propitiated. see no conclusive ground for Tylor. and here are the Wakuafi attaching to him just such an ethic as that of Mr." Among the Bataks of Sumatra the rationale of the process of propitiation becomes fairly clear. Of the High God Batara Guru. Primitive Culture. 1901. 26. 39. citing Krapf and 1909. 32. 20. His anxiety to make out that the First God Ahone was believed in by the redskins before Columbus 8 would seem entirely needless.

For all masses of men it certainly did . 174. But it was made still earlier by Creuzer. 2nd ed. Myth. " I find that in ancient times. So with other aspects The notion of a Good 1 Wesley's abridgment of the Life of the Rev. ii. 290. p." seems to have inquired without preconceptions. The Childhood of Man. and Leo Frobenius. the author's Short History of Freethought. Lang notes. pp. Brinton. some who presided over the Others imagined the sun to be the only deity. : . of their theism. making them the immediate authors of good to certain persons. Id. ii. 51 full value —over We and are ready to make Mr. perhaps an adaptation of Christian Trinitarianism to the needs of Mr. they seemed to suppose there were three deities. Lang earlier a donation. so frequently mentioned by the more learned ancient heathens. 1800. 1895).. and themselves. front. 182. Lang himself constantly reminds us that the savage does not distinguish as theologians do between "spiritual" and "material" beings. 2 This should remind us to construe strictly Hume's substantially sound thesis that polytheism preceded monotheism. that all things were made by him . The Food of Certain American Indians (Worcester. David Brainerd. . somewhat like the anima mundi. Cp. and may pass as a good witness. Social and material degeneration did indeed take place among the redskins 3 after the advent of the white man but the theory of Three Gods is no more degenerate than the theory of A God. which amounts to saying that they are only at the very first stage of the theistic hypothesis. objections to its adequacy. English. Negroes. Ritual. . It was a primitively scientific attempt to explain a newly observed phenomenon which the older views did not seem to account for and the process shows very well how simply and childishly the older theories had been framed. and three only. and have not realized the most elementary Brainerd. at above the evidence he cites — of such of the testimony as that of the missionary Brainerd. whether apart from others or existing alone. As Mr. 4th ed. ch. coming of the white people. as he now notes. Lucien Carr. In reality there has been no such thing.. Eng. But after the four corners of the earth. 48-50. diffusing itself to various animals. Here then we have among savages (l) worship of the Sun by some as 2 Sole God. that there has been degeneration in the latter case from a higher to a lower form of faith.— THE SEPAKATIST FALLACY the doubt. the point was made long ago by Dr. trans." — though an "enthusiast. and even to inanimate things.. 179. and others at the same time having a confused notion of a certain body or fountain of deity. redskins in the second quarter of last century who saw much : [Indians] supposed there were four invisible powers. before the coming of the white people. (2) the conception of a Good Supreme Being by Polytheists and (3) finally general resort to a belief in Three Gods. Lang's theory implies the case as seen by the redskin's science. . . 54. but at an early period a monotheist or an atheist might exist among polytheists. Mr. and Religion. and pref 4 Making of Religion. Mass. 3 Cp. 1909. because they saw people of three different kinds of complexion 1 viz. p.

" 2 seventeenth century. xvi. pp. any more than among Christians. 11. therefore hath given the charge thereof to Satan. and sacrifices of Cocks. some supreme Gods who are . Alexander Ross. But there is no reason to suppose any such general rigour of logic among savages. 85. ed. 13. but "they try rather 4 with sacrifices because he treats them badly. ed. In their offerings it was a maxim to defraud the God 1 : more potent. p. The Lower Niger and its Tribes.52 THE PBOGKESS OF MYTHOLOGY Power other — as distinct from that a mere First God to account the Gods — would be a simple generalization from the observed of for T cases of propitiousness in Nature. men of the Gaboon region is because he are reported to honour the evil spirit Mbuiri the ruler of this world. 423. p. But where." 6 they naturally offer him no service. but a more irritable The ancient Slavs put the matter more decorously when they " confessed that there is a God in Heaven. as we have seen. 1851. 33. Krasinski. though they neglected his worship. the Gnostic passages in John. Cited by H. So the negroes believed really to rule are regularly propitiated. as in regard the Creator-God " as having no connection with them whatsoever. p. 461 3 4 Bohn citing Pocock's Specimen. . As Gibbon noted of the Supreme God of the ancient Arabs " The most rational of the Arabs acknowledged his power." Dupuis. ed. Abrigk de I'Origine de tous les cidtes. 1822." The Dutch traveller Dapper explained concerning the people of Benin in the for the profit of the idol. The question is not one of the character or the hierarchical status of the God. citing Helmold's 5 6 ' Chronicon Slavorum. Great Benin. 60. who was good. Pansebeia. with regard at least to the administration of human affairs." travellers more of uncompromisingly. 4th ed. but of his supposed activity. 49. 7 and needs to be appeased. not a patron. earlier reported of the people Malabar that "they hold that God made the world. 31 xiv. If it w ere the case that the Good Power alone was held not to need propitiation. but because the trouble of governing thereof is so great." in contrast to their "Bad Captain below. Nigeria. but having care only of heavenly things. . 30. Ling Roth. Sketch of the Religious History of the Slavonic Nations. p. Cp. 2 Ch. and was neither a higher nor a lower conception than that of a Bad Power or a variety of dangerous powers who did the more abundant harm. commanding all the 3 others. 1906. xii. v. 50. Major Glyn Leonard. 1672. 108. that they did not think pitiate the it necessary to proto satisfy Still the devil High God." Evidently it is the supposed activity of the God that governs the procedure for. i. . that would be a specially logical deduction from the datum that his only function was doing good. 1 This view was found long ago among the Hottentots. 109. whom they worship with flowers on their 5 Altars. 1903. as regarded their "Good Captain above. p.

38. " no service. who did not interfere with them . punishes serve " him no longer. Paul Wurm. 154." " They gave the good spirit. . 41." 7 In this view he is corroborated by travellers without number. 392." king is the visible God." So the Waganda of the Victoria-Nyanza region say of a nearly universal.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY while the good 53 God Ndschamti is in comparison impotent. p. 1855. Handbuch der Belicjions-geschichte. G. 39. or the 4 First Father. ii. thinking him too pure to need it . is " a mischievous and ever-active deity "). that " their highest 5 place and given the rule of the world and of Spirits." says another writer of pagan primitives. Stotf. 1899. . or the Old One. 2 " (incarnate in a "a black bird of nocturnal habits of Niane. 43." says Burton concerning religion in Dahome. ib. " regarded as a benevolent and indolent being" (and incarnate in the albatross). 16te Anfl. The Caroline Islands. Dalton. Id. Yalafath. 8 9 A Mission to Gelele. the law of the recession of the "high" God is In South Africa. and every province has Accordingly the orthodox German compiler Wurm laments that they while the African peoples in general "know" the One God. 136. " the Supreme is judged too elevated to care for the low estate of man. God of death and disease.. 2te Aufl.* and even so the Yaps of the Caroline Islands have a Creator-God. Cp. for he seems Shining One") of not with the " Nyambe " of many of the Bantu-speaking tribes a spirit who may be regarded 3 either as "God" or " daimon. 1908. and can In the same way the people of Madagascar worshipped only the evil God Niane. i. H. p. 1864. and rules all things its special deities. as it The character happens. simply But whatever the variations the Ewe-speaking peoples in Togo. p. but make themselves familiar with spirits or inferior deities to whom they attribute the 1 Buchner. 6 Id. 5 jo. disregarding the good God Zamhor. " Conscious of a Creator. while Luk. who the but rewards good. but Father. " the One God seems to have been pushed into the background by hero-worships ". the be ignored. Kraft und Id." 9 and the same writer decides concerning the Caribs that. and consequently is neither feared nor loved. and by many tribes " is no more called Heaven. p. they feel so incapable of appreciating his existence that to obtain a nearer they exhibit no desire knowledge of Him. ib. Hist. 384." God Katonda has gone back into his dwellingmen to the Lubari or So among the Malagasy there is a tradition of a good God evil. pp. W. of British Guiana. is equivocal. if to be nearly identical with " Onyame " (=" the — God's aspect. 7 2 3 4 F. Being incomprehensible. Christian." like Zeus and Jove." but seems primarily to have been " Heaven.

and besides. ii. p. animals. their prayers to him. 368." Herein the Caribs agree with Stevenson's South. The any religion verdict of orthodox Christianity pronounced can be found among the Wahuma. The natives explain this in fact ignored rather than worshipped. ii. 1856. citing Young. Johnston's George Grenfell and the Congo. 70-1. p. and they hold that after having made them he takes 6 no further interest in the affair. . contending for the existence of a belief Supreme Being among the North American Indians before contact with the whites. It pains to show that such belief in a 3 is evidently necessary to be at some is religion. They believe most thoroughly in the existence of an evil influence in the form of a man who exists in of faith is on such forms : by a distinguished modern traveller No traces of uninhabited places. Anthropologic der Naturvolker. as 1 Id. p. 87. if true. Mhnoires. i. he thinks much less about us than does our king. Our German hierologist." And in our own day a keen inquirer who lived among the Bantus concludes that " they regard their God as the creator of mankind. 2 3 4 5 The Beach of Falesd in Island Nights Entertainments. To the same Waitz. iii. is not decisive: the "good" power would not necessarily be denied the same service. Notes on Central America. 1890. But this. 442. But the same does not hold good with the devil. Sir H. Travels in West Africa. by saying that he is too distant to trouble about man and his infinitely good. for without these Seldom do they address gives he for them 4 all that " is good." The same simple theology found at Benin over a century ago. accepts the verdict of Waitz that " the Great Spirit stands at the summit of the religion of the Indians. and we give him victuals to appease him. 1908. Stanley. p. 1893. Cp. who vividly remarks : " All-e 2 same God and Tiapolo. Great Benin. effect Beauvais. and prayer rarely. who notes that the evil power was worshipped with human sacrifices. he cares little or nothing as to its course. but not at its centre. p. 6 Mary Kingsley. Tiapolo he small chief work very hard" — evidently —he like too a transcript " God he big chief much makefrom nature. Cp. ii. 1903. 178. 51. 1897." etc. 97. and the earth. cited by H. plants. or for the troubles of men.Sea heroine Uma. To the same effect Squier. Landolphe. 1823. got too see much work. 210. for as all troubles come from him we pray to him and worship 5 him. God is infinitely greater [than the king] : and also he never does us any harm there is therefore no need to worship him. 189. Ling Roth. In Darkest Africa. " though Mawu is considered the most powerful of all the Gods. High raised above the world that he created. 635-6. whether good or evil. there also cited. He is sacrifice is never directly offered to him. and not often do they thank is him his gifts.— 54 THE PKOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 immediate occurrences of daily life. again." Among the Ewe-speaking peoples of the Slave Coast.

knowing even the thoughts of men. the government of the world is.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY affairs . replied that his ancestors and his people concerned themselves about the " They never troubled themselves about what went on earth alone. Account of the Abipones. " affectionately salute the evil spirit. whom they call grandfather. 55 and they believe that he remains in a beatific condition of of bliss according to the perpetual repose and drowsiness. the missionary Dobrizhoffer found no word for God. Beligion of Babylonia and Assyria." one of excess of reverence is to anticipate the a priori The Sky-God of the Odjis is simply in the fallacy of Mr. the acme notion of the indolent negro. Ellis. 7 Like a constitutional monarch." to w hom they 5 " but believe in a certain pray. 57. he reigns but does not govern. Eng. "Thus the Odjis or Ashantis call the Supreme Being by the same name as the sky but they mean by it a personal God. as does Max Muller. on the other hand. who is finally dropped out of practical religion. 153-6. deputed by him to inferior spirits. who. the theoretic head of the Babylonian pantheon. omniscient. 1878. 3 in the Heavens. called Pillan. Hibbert Lectures on the Beligions of India. and is the But though he is omnipresent and giver (?) of all good things. p. ii. He turns out to be the God of thunder. 4 They did not worship him. 59." To call does not condescend to govern the world. p." is to offer an irrelevant solution. Jastrow. the God of the heavenly expanse. pp. that the withholding of worship from a Supreme Being " may arise from an excess of reverence quite The as much as from negligence. . citing Riis and Waitz. 1898. though philosophic religion continued to make much of him." They did not inquire as to the nature of this personage. 64. The historic process takes a quite diplomatic form this attitude 1 " He 2 3 6 7 Sir A. Max Muller. 33. and who was creator and governor of the stars. and among them it is the malevolent spirits only who require worship and sacrifice from . very illustration offered goes to show that neither reverence nor "negligence" comes into play. 5 Id. as they believe. created all things. Lang. when asked what he thought about the firmament. 107-8." The same people." 1 Among the Abipones of Uruguay. pp. The Eiue-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast. but when questioned admitted that he must be of their race. r Similarly the savages of Chili aerial spirit know no name of God. 89. 90. man. same case with Anu. 1890. pp. 4 Id. Id. To suggest. B. and pitying them in their distress. and he had to give them the Spanish word 2 Dios to express the idea of a Creator of all things. An intelligent native. 86-90. 1821. tr. p. as they say.

whom they call Motogon. ' West who " believe in — ' : 1 2 3 represents Asiasi as " not a separate person but his name is a combination of the other lour" of the five chief Gods. 28. Such prayers as he receives are formal requests to ." According to a recent authority. And Warneck corroborates (p. there has been direct by Vakeels or proxies. the three Gods of the Indian Trimurti being assimilated as sons of 2 By this Mula Djadi. Nor is Cienga. 4. Since completing the work of creation they suppose have remained perfectly quiescent. Moreover. excuse the small attention paid to him 3 ! A similar evolution has taken place. 56 THE PROGBESS OF MYTHOLOGY the Bataks of Sumatra. Coleman. including Mula Djadi and Batara Guru. For this some Bataks account." is too far off to help them. 4 propitiated by any service" the Australian deficit of the wherewithal for cult and sacrifice being here. is confronted by Cienga. they no longer pay him any worship. as it happens. 364. 18 Warneck. and Batara Guru taking the first place. and wise man of their own country and complexion Motogon. excess of reverence " will hardly be suggested as In any case. he is seldom prayed to. 28) . Hibbert Lectures on the Religions of India. although the natives believe that he afflicts them with calamities. powerful. Batara Guru. pp. p. having wholly committed the government to his three sons. by one account. yet again. Supreme Being of the Bataks was Grandfather Mula Djadi and the present deity of that status. the original political modification. " believe in the among existence of one Supreme Being. he is too far away. by the impiety of men. . as Motogon has long since been dead and decrepit. Evidently the doctrine concerning Asiasi is multiform and Coleman's account may be quite accurate for some sect or group. Id. 25." " Our Maker." and the Guiana Indians say that the " Dweller on the Height. creator of heaven and earth. Num. the author of good. Yet he too may well have been for some tribes once the Supreme God. who. and prefer to propitiate aborigines of Australia. 1878. When the Samoyede says of regards the attitude to Motogon. among certain an Omnipotent Being. but 1 Here. being named " Grandfather " equally with Mula Djadi. p. perhaps. p. Die Religion der Batak. the explanation. in the Jewish fashion. In any case. was imposed from without by Hindu influence in the thirteenth or fourteenth century." whom the natives fear exceedingly. the author of evil. and whom they imagine as a very tall.. . " Debata [God] Asiasi " is only a Saviour or God of Pity account but he holds the balances among the three. 4 Max Muller. and receives an occasional sacrifice only in connection with the worship of the Three Gods. who [in turn] do not govern in person. despite his protective function. . Warneck again (p. the Sky-God " I cannot approach Num. whom they name Debati Hasi him to Asi. Mythology of the Hindus. 5) as to the small interest latterly taken by the Gods in human affairs. 17 and ref. 1909. it is agreed. 27.

is superior only where his tribal state is relatively communistic. pp. the Haidas are unconcerned about their bad and their good Creator-Gods alike. to .198. Among Cannibals. and he escapes the force of admission only by denying that the mythology is really connected" with the religion a paralogism which might as well be applied to the case of the Greeks and Semites. The savage's ethic. That becomes more and more evidently a 3 chimera. nearer Gods of explanation who are mixed." They simply think of him as " above. Lang's own admission. The Lower Niger and Crawley. 1905. 20G. they are not moved by reverence at all. ' Strange tribes look on each other as wild beasts. note. having no conception of goodness save such as they find in each other. is relatively beneficent simply because he has been relieved of if he ever had active administration. p. Cp. 17-18. and Religion. Lang in his comments on the absence of sacrifice among ill-fed races. altruistic as regards other tribes. 1906. 6 Myth. while they fear and propitiate the ." ancient. as ethic. ii. its Tribes. and which goes on repeating itself in the religious evolution of the more advanced races. pp. They do not in reality even conceive the far-off God as " supreme. Those very Supreme Beings. 17ti. pp. 148." 6 " The stranger who dares trespass on the land of another tribe and 1 slain and eaten. Religion: Its Origin and Forms. i. — — tion as to his character. pp. are savages 5 concurrent with a " low" mythology. . A Short History of Freethouglit. establish Mr. as we have seen. The Tree of Life.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 1 57 the spirits they fear. etc. The speculative process is visibly from hand to mouth and the remoter God. pp. Here again the supposed activity of the Power in question. and inactive. 3 As I have pointed out elsewhere. 101. not at all because of a primeval loftiness of concepSun and terms Sea. Major Glyn Leonard. ed. especially of tame animals— a factor ignored by Mr. even if Creator of Evil. 33. and only so far forth as his own tribe for he is never this 1 — . Lang's theory. in short. Cp. 289. sacrifice. which is a form of prayer. 197. 19. we are evidently confronted by a normal psycho2 logical process. 4 Lang. and the assertion that the Supreme Being of the lowest " on a higher plane by far than the Gods of Greeks and is 4 Semites in their earliest known characters" is absolutely astray. yet. by Mr." is pursued like a wild beast These statements are not to be taken as of Instances given by Canon MacCulloch. To propitiate an Evil Power of any sort again would seem to be a most natural course and we know how simple Christians in all ages have had a sneaking tendency to "speak the Devil fair". Ritual. 94.". 179-180. Making of Religion. 2nd. is conditioned primarily by scarcity or abundance of food. 1889. which is perfectly intelligible. 1 The [Australian] tribes are each other's mortal foes. 471 2 Id. 423. Carl Lumholtz. As regards the general removal of the good God from the sphere of action. 347-8. is in of the .

Finally. See below. 283) that " the natives are very reluctant to give any information in regard to their religious beliefs. is eaten as the chiefest delicacy they know no greater luxury than the flesh of a black man. whether the Australians have degenerated or not. A fallen man." This last negative testimony may be true of one tribe but Lumholtz actually tells in another chapter (pp. however. They look on them as secrets not to be divulged to persons not of their own race. for fairly general rule. p. Boyma. omniscient Being. 58 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY some tribes make alliances. 283) accepts Manning's account that some believe in a "supreme. they seem to fear an evil being who seeks to haunt them. "they have no conception whatever. as to the ethic A. benevolent. He having argued that the Australians cannot have got the idea of a Chief-God from a tribe-chief. 101. woman. that true solution. seated far away in the north-east on an immense throne in a great lake. who lived much among the 2 : universal truth. since they have no chiefs. when they have no pottery. 5 On the general question of the scarcity of chieftainship among primitives see the article on " Authority in Uncivilised Society. Lang as to the elevation of ethic which must go with the conception of a Supreme Being. he then triumphantly declares. Spencer and Gillen. Native Tribes. Lang's apriorism. "Of a supreme good being. The degeneration argument." though he denies that the natives among whom he lived had any such belief. Lang yet again to fallacious purpose. p. though. 1894. It really does not matter. one Head-man being " potent through the whole Dieyri tribe 2 P. writes thus foe. Whereupon Mr. pp.. the actual and open facts are sufficient to rebut the whole doctrine of Mr. 63. or child. 240. but they state a The same witness. 1908. for the confutation of Mr. he admits (p. inasmuch as no remains of pottery can anywhere be found to show that the Australians were ever higher than at present. but of whom their be it notions are very vague.. but not as to their creed. F. 4 In another connection. must be the resort of despair" on the part of his opponents." adds Lumholtz. and though 3 they have no idols and no form of divine worship. 20-21). the point as to degeneration is raised by Mr. Messrs." Thus he is a valid witness 1 Id. Calvert (The Aborigines of Western Australia. 38). whatever may be the secret or way of life. Cp. nor do they believe in any existence after death. and (p. it is answered that they may once have had them. Howitt to count for a good deal. ." private religious ideas behind this Now. 4 Cp. This is all pure misconception. in The Sociological Review. is possibly the He himself concedes in a postscript that Australian Head-Men of tribes are shown by Mr." by Barbara Freire Marreco. There are superstitious notions connected with cannibalism. 1 aborigines. "The Australians are cannibals. 8 . who doubts the existence of any belief in a "beneficent God or righteous Creator" (p. Oct. Spencer and Gillen are emphatic in denying a belief in a Supreme Being to the tribes they have so closely studied. Lang who at other — times affirms a wholesale degeneration in matters of religion that there is — replies no proof of degeneration here. p. as regards the question of chiefs. 279. 32. as to their conduct. their present stage being one of social or physiological degeneration. 282) that the natives do believe in spirit life after death.

Appendix D. 3 5 6 Id. p. principle is . iii.— THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 59 over three hundred miles of country". Taplin. does not require the concrete fact of chieftainship to suggest it. . 2 Rev. p. G. 34. as being on the one hand necessary to explain the facts of the life of the aborigines as he saw and studied them. Eyre. 4 Lumholtz. and his advice is sought on all occasions of difficulty and perplexity. 5 while Sturt speaks repeatedly of " chiefs " seem to be elders." It matters not that this tendency is slight the hereditary : no necessary part of the concept of chieftainship. 1873)." Mr. 2nd ed. as cited. 177. is not bettered either way. usually an old man and a young one. then. That the native Australians have however undergone degeneration is a proposition incidentally worth clearing up. or of who we have seen. the idea of a a Good God who does all the favourable things. Lang's case. who do and " are sometimes even two chiefs in one tribe. Eyre. Mr. as cited. There is further testimony that in some parts of Australia " there the electing . Journals of Expeditions into Central Australia." 2 This elected chief presides over the " tendi " or judgment-council of the elders of the clan. and on the other hand as vindicating the truth of the story of the " fall " in 6 Of the blackfellow in general he wrote Genesis. admits that " in all there are always "acknowledged" in any some men who First take the lead ". among the tribes of South Australia. The Rupulle is the negotiator and spokesman for the tribe in all disagreements with other tribes. E." Of the race as a 1 Making of Beligion. in the interests of all sides of anthropological science. Taplin. 32 An Account of the Tribes of South Australian (first ed. method which he has been taught. whose title is Rupulle (which means landowner). the elective. Adelaide. pp. temper. " Each of the tribes of the Narrinyeri has its chief." 4 Even the earlier writer. he is generally 3 chosen for his ready speech. J. who is the leader in war. considered as a basis for a God-idea and there is indefeasible record of a nobler form of Headmanship. Lang had overlooked the evidence when he framed his thesis. 1 while "there are traces of a tendency to keep the office (if it may be called one) in the same kinship. p. And after all. and whose person is carefully guarded in battle by the warriors of the clan. The Narrinyeri. G. and capacity for authority. Rev. The Narrinyeri: Aborigines. 1878. 1840-41. 119-121. as God who made the others. : " It seems impossible for or to improve on the him to originate a fresh way of doing anything. So far is it from being a doctrine of " despair " on the part of perplexed Naturalists that it was confidently and independently put forward a generation ago by a thoughtful missionary. 315. The chieftainship is not hereditary but elective. who misleadingly asserted that no chiefs are known to be Australian tribe.

p.000 yet they seem to the student to be rather the remnants of a noble language than a tongue We find the dual number throughout. gradually driven further southwards 2 by invading Papuans. p. 333. tribal and on the other hand in their relatively 6 It is not a matter of and other law. Tbe case of tbe Fuegians. 4 Pescbel. 323. where he admits probable retrogression. The latter writers. Elsewhere (Id. however. 1876. scientific resources. We have in process of development." etc. Mr. Cp. p. 115) he admits that the presence of Chiefs depends on accumulation of property and their absence or unpopularity is noted among Fuegians and Eskimos. case rests on the fact that the Australians are not The conceivably probably by autochthonous. Nortliem Tribes of Central Australia. as has been con- were Dravidians. six cases in each declension of nouns. but must be held to have anciently immigrated. . W. 12). 325. 1899. 1904. tr. p. 8 Pescbel. Prichard. for Logan's theory. ii. But inasmuch as races not yet " high " are seen progressing in the environment which the Australians left the Papuans being their superiors. Christian. 324. to some extent their 3 educators it follows that whether or not they were of the same stock as the Papuans they were in more progressive conditions before than after entering Australia. . on the other hand." and "a man's sons inherit their father's property" (Taplin. it is rejected by Pescbel. and Religion. in recent times." F. The Caroline Islands. 275. Lang's own final admissions. Eaces degenerate not through an inward bias that way. of Mankind. after having lived in much better conditions. the number of its inflections. is closely similar to that of the Australians. could there prosper. Races of Mankind. 346-7. Hist. but through their conditions. p. than the Polynesian elaborate system of dialects. And that is the gist of the whole matter. 1857. Ritual. If. 75-76. Although the number of and the precision with which it can be used. Spencer and Gillen. way of New Guinea and Cape York. do not admit degeneration. As put later by Bleek. It is further noteworthy that among some of the Australian aborigines "a man's children belong to his tribe. Now. whereas the more primitive matriarchal method is "tolerably common among the Oceanic races in general. And there is a measure of proof. on the one hand in their language. Researches into the Rhys. and not to their mother's. 2)cissim. 325. 15-20. p. must be held to have partly degenerated. words is comparatively small probably not more than 4. pp. that "they possess a language which is remarkable for the complexity of its structure. pp. they were presumably " low " to start with." 4 Only a race bringing to it a high secondary or tertiary civilization. — — But the thesis has been just as independently framed and urged by other writers with no religious or anthropological axe to grind. having for ages lived in conditions exceptionally unfavourable to progress. and actually. As to tbe relative richness of the Australian language. p. c Cp. "nowhere can the retarded development of mankind be more readily accounted for by the jectured. Eng. then. neither of whose civilizations can be autochthonous. they — — unfavourable configuration of the country than in Australia. Myth. and Spencer and Gillen. see Pescbel. which is much more various and complex in its grammatical forms with domestic animals and The mass of the Australians. v. 1 Pescbel. 5 Cp. 2 See Nott and Gliddon's Indigenous Races of the Earth. 74. 1847. ii.60 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY whole he wrote.

Chieng. 5 2 Id. very little religion. ii. 52-4. ja.'" their Supreme Being. The Kdfirs of the Hindu-Kush. 830. Tangaroa. 1884. witness avows that they called him Twpa. ed. Sir G. 3 J. 2 of primitive of theism is not in the least a philosophically higher order concept than that of the more plainly anthropomorphic God. they see " 1 By another account whose name simply means sky. 109. The Ja-luo. 1870. Williams. nothing " as clearer than the savagery of the conceived by savages. Nilotic negroes of ness " is no bar to the conception. Concerning the Guaranis. 1885. though. is Ndengei is but a savage an elderly savage of a more amiable type and the same may be said of Imra. that which cannot be seen the dead Soychuhet. warlike. Dr. . p. Natur. ed. pp. 4-7. pp. is the same name as the sun. By one account they believe in a vague power sky. though that has a separate name and when we learn that among the Wamasai God and rain 6 are synonymous we are confirmed in the inference that the Heaven" ' ' ." have Masai. stands also for rain. They say that God created both good and evil demons. they can only associate the overruling Power with the Supreme conception. 1880. 1899. to wit. Through Masai Land. 1902. 11.und Kulturleben der Zulus. " a word composed of two 1 Sir H. ii. men that dwell with God beyond the world. 233. an agricultural. p. have specific testimony as to the "purely materialistic idea of an " interchangeable with Adam which All. " believe in a Supreme God whom they call 4 The Masai name This. maker of men and of the world. Account of the Abwones. Ngai." the same . however. 7 8 — — content when the culture-stage is similar. pp. 43. 631. 444-5. 90.' Uganda. S. the 9 And we Supreme God of the Aryan Kafirs of the Hindu Kush. Fiji and the Fijians. Turner. and cattle-stealing people. who " knew the Supreme Deity. " The Patagonians call hence they call God Soychu. Id. 6 7 8 9 10 11 Burton. when questioned. 211-212.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY losing 61 struggle with pottery but of losing ground in is the total Nature. p. ii." 5 for " sky. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago. M. 4 The Uganda Protectorate. 791. the High-God of the Samoans." again. the rain. p. Wiesbaden. T. Johnston. 1860. wherever we can analyze their We have seen this on the ethical side as regards the Wakuafi and the Mbayas. The Lake Begions of Central Africa. in everything remarkable. In the same region the and the thunderstorm. Dobrizhoffer. pp.Father of men and things 10 is all that underlies the Zulu God-name of Kulunkulu. 830." 3 But " vagueand yet locate him upon the mountain Kilimanjaro. . Robertson. Thomson. Kranz. of the sky. 381-8. Seeking for the philosophic basis we find that in Uganda the Bahima "have a name for God. The most abstract-sounding names are similarly limited in real in action simply . 342. On " the other hand.

" see ii.' simply the ordinary savage or barbarian God put in the first place." With what noticeable exactitude does this develop Spinoza's hint as to the bases of the God-idea in an ' : his own race : ignorant of understand any phenomenon. The Psalmist calls the miracles in Egypt the works of God. 445. and take place solely by His power. Thomson. and pd. to find him alternately represented as Fire. And it the first 2 man. Oliver. and therefore especially marvel at. of interrogation. ii. p. Allen and Thomson. P. we have but to turn to the "Great Spirit" of the northern Redskins. 1885. for it was thought that God kept the winds confined in caves. 117. Anything unusually fine. as being especially marvellous though in reality. 183. a deep valley. is always associated with his presence. Narrative of the British Expedition to the River Niger." be supposed that such expletives stand for any profundity of conception. Madagascar. THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY if til. a wide plain. 1886. As to the " unknown " Great Spirit Rupl ("alas! awful truth—unknown. unusual natural loss " If the Jews were at a its to cause. Thus a storm was termed the chiding of God. 181-2. My lamp was Ngai.— 62 particles. then. 199. 3 i." Perhaps the clearest illustration of the simplicity of the intellectual process in question is supplied by Batchelor's account of " One Supreme the theism of the Antankaranas of Madagascar God is worshipped. his treasuries thus differing merely in name from the Greek Wind-God Eolus. p. 188. 5 Jos. In like manner miracles were called works of God. 4 Cited by S. who makes the thunder. a word of admiration. 2 Waitz. to whom are offered first portions of the meat got in hunting "through the mediation of the Ihohs or idols. such as a very tall tree. Sun. of course. 1848." Similarly. they referred it : . and a great bird. I was Ngai. iii. there explicit stress concept is not " ethical. . because the Hebrews found in them a way of safety which they had not looked for. 1 Id. 331. Anthropologic der Naturvolker. As. or deep water. and 3 for this purpose are the Gregres or Buhs. 201. thunder and lightning the arrows of God." is Even when on the elevation of the High God. His house was in the 5 eternal snows of Kilimanjaro. a culture-hero. the "conception of the Deity seems to be marvellously vague. among the Masai. 338. 64." is the comment of our witnesses) of the Edeeyahs. Through Masai Land. Ngai was in the steaming holes. even while he was in the main superseded by a is He in fact Jupiter blended with the Vejovis of the Etruscans. as was Janus. 39. such as a very high hill. all natural events are the works of God. the The Grebus and Krus in Nigeria say they cannot see or know the Great God or Nisrah. and every place remarkable in any way. " God of Gods " among the early Romans. and regarded in the light of a manifestation of himself to men All evil of any kind comes from the lolo 4 (ghosts).' and therefore it is necessary to have some intercessory agents between them. or were to God.

p. W. p. which is that of an enterprising savage. or becomes an expression of flattery. or concerning punishments and rewards. Williams. i. It now becomes tolerably obvious that the inference of some "high" and "pure" starting-point for savage religion and ethics at what seems to theists their best. Fiji and the Fijians. is the Fijians. Cp. saddling anthropology with his own theism. Pharaoh. and that of Gillen." even this belief is limited to that part of Australia. This reference of things wonderful to God was not peculiar to the Jews. "is that he is a deified chief. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. ch. which is equivalent to the Hebrew phrase. ed. tells 1 Mr." 2 3 . "the native word expressive of Kalou. G. and displeased if they do not do so. is also constantly heard as a qualification of Often the word 'anything superlative. Howitt. as before cited. idea Spencer the investigators speak here with Australian natives " have no most authority. wrought with the hand of God. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. we cannot wonder that very strong and tall men. on the other hand. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. 500. vii. 1904. vassim. are in Genesis called sons of God. and trees of unusual size are God. which. ch. and who is supposed to have some kind of influence on the morals of the 4 natives. T. so far as anything like 3 And if. though impious robbers and whoremongers. They have not the vaguest idea of a personal individual other than an actual living member of the tribe who the existence what we approves or disapproves of their conduct. exclaimed that the mind of the Gods was in Joseph. us that " these high Gods of low savages preserve from dimmest Spinoza. " My own opinion. while used to denote the people's highest among notion of a God.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY phenomena are called trees of 63 called works of God." 1 ." though they did believe in a future state. 183." the aborigines of South-East Australia " a belief exists in an among anthropomorphic supernatural being who lives in the sky. we have who of all Central of the explicit assurance of Messrs. 4 A. is not only arbitrary but ' obscurantist. A. Meyer. a studious missionary testified half a century ago that no fears about the future. and is in itself the flimsiest possible basis for any doctrine of a moral who had high " plane. whether good or bad' sinks into a mere exclamation. 1870. on hearing the interpretation of his dream. 61. as to Nurundere's character. Nebuchadnezzar told Daniel that he possessed the mind of the holy Gods so also in Latin anything well made is often said to be wrought with Divine hands." Finally. who has lived in some remote period. 58). Lang. 1904. E. whatever any Supreme Being who is pleased if they follow a certain line of what we call moral conduct." writes Taplin (p. 491. 5 Rev. are entertained 5 by them. call morality is concerned. p. p. Even divinity so. The Narrinyeri. quoted by Rev. Concerning the Narrinyeri. Taplin. Supreme Being on a as their Supreme Being Nurundere or Martummere.

1 selflessness." The true explanation lies in a line of inference from 2 the facts that even among wild animals the male parent will feed the female and the young that many flocks of birds and beasts live . Where other anthropologists see " the tyranny of the old. p. men . 163) that "it is as a rule difficult for young to marry before they are thirty years old. . each community is utterly exclusive as against most of the rest. If then a savage is found conjoining an "absurd" mythology with an ethic of altruism for his own group. which ethic is very astutely taught to the young by the old in the mysteries. while a young man must consider himself fortunate if he can get an old woman. degenerating " — or.. Carl Lumboltz notes (Among Cannibals." Taplin notes that boys are forbidden to eat common kinds of game to the number of thirteen. and that even wolves hunt in packs. there is nothing incongruous in the matter. Ritual." there as in many other primitive communities living mainly by collective hunting." a conception aloof from or precedent to mythology. p. Anthropology. more or common 1 Lubbock. p. can transcend the ancient paralogism of the Good God who made evil and it will not be permitted to our theists to impose their estimate of primordial theism on sociological science because primitive man anticipated their favourite myth. Lang protests that he " never hinted at morals divinely and supernormally revealed. Lang sees a hyper-Christian religion of ." On the ordinary definition of " religion " that may be. Origin of Civilisation. these being reserved for the elders. it may be. All the while. and Religion (ii. These are conditions of relative success (^survival) for individual types and for groups of species and the law holds good for savages just as for lower animals. are ostensibly much more . 451-2. though it seems extravagant but if by the "highest religious thought" he meant "highest thought " the proposition must here be negated. in their separate communities. 5th ed. fraternal and com- munistic than any Christian community but it is a bad fallacy to look for the explanation to or through some primordial conception of a moral Eternal. (The Narrinyeri. The old men have the youngest and bestlooking wives. 409. 16. 64 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY God which our highest ages of the meanest culture the sketch of a religious thought can but fill up to its ideal." and that he always held the given ethic to be the natural product of the social conditions. happily. One asks the more insistently what he then means by arguing that religion began in a high ethical conception of deity? His statement that "all morality had been denied to the Australians" is a complete perversion of the issue. Those . Mental and other science. pp." Mr." It is perfectly true that the Australians. Cp. It is extremely important to the old savage that the younger should supply him with food and the principle naturally takes the shape of a doctrine of " sharing all round. Tylor. If less in . 23) Mr.) 2 In the revised edition of Myth. 1889. and with the conception of a Creator God. now stationary — Australian tribes have developed among them in a perfectly natural fashion a tribal ethic of altruism.

reasoning holds good. the trouble is easily got rid of. 3 This view. lies in the colligation of 65 whole crux and puzzle of mythology.' In fine. F ." as Mr. of a Creator God is simply a less obvious absurdity than the more naif myths concerning him it is itself as much myth as they and : . though according to the same savage (says Mr. Lang) 2 the same God is the Omnipotent Creator of all. iii) supposes the original monotheism to have lapsed into polytheism by way of Pantheism. and excess of poetical inspiration. p." Yet the evil spirit does so in the 1 : of sacrifice to the entirely eaten religion in which he was trained.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY " the us. i. liv. Christians indeed think they have a high conception — — a fact fact that the savage not once faced by Mr. as perfectly natural as hunting. between the crude practice of sacrifice and the clinging to the theory of a divine sacrifice and the fact that a given savage. does not offer sacrifices to his God. The conception puzzles remain after the false puzzle is put right. Nor does the latter-day Christian in turn salve his case by substituting for his compromising sacrificial idea that of " the sacrifice of a contrite heart ". 3 torn. The joint ethic of altruism for the group fishing. imagines a God who punishes wickedness. there is nothing left to refute in Mr. Lang now tells absurd legends with the idea of a Good Unhappily many real Creator. all theistic . ethic is flagrantly mythological. and his ethic is thus incurably unsound. through a superfluity of religious life. 188) assumes to discredit one testimony by the remark " Why the evil spirit should punish evil deeds is not evident. it is "irrational" in the sense of being is illogical. Rougemont (Le Peuvle Primitif. Lang is " highest " is intertwined with mythology just as surely as that of the savage who. p. But the beast was by the worshippers. whether sacrificing or not. Lang's theorem that Animism arose partly if not wholly by way of the " supernormal " powers of savages. and the mountainous never dreams of a universal altruism Lang disposes once for all of the theory that he started with a " high " conception of a universal Father. lacking the where1 withal. 2 Mr. but only a refinement of manners or mores. 1855. 8 After seeming throughout the greater part of his work on The Making of Beligion If this Taplin (The Narrinyeri. for his God remains the Cause of Evil. like the more familiar thesis of a primordial monotheism. to suppose that the unlettered savage even But there is no reason goes through the process of pretending to himself or to his God that he loves strangers or his enemies. 55) notes a case in which he saw something like a ceremony God of hunting over a slain and cooked beast. without for a when they talk of a universal Father moment attempting to practise universal brotherhood. there is no vital ethical difference. For the rest. Thus the ethic that for Mr. Lang (Making. is found in previous writers. or fighting. does not make him a better man than the slaughterous Hebrew of the past.

. independently o( "super high ethical formulas in civili/. But (had gives oomfort It has been estabnegation of all bhe data it is very easy bo show. 9nd ed." mistletoe on the oak. Now. 994.ed normal" Corruptions: much more may they do so anion. p. 1885 88. whose leaves spread into a rank and impenetrable tree Mr.-eil descendant bhe express aim o^i Mr. ." he elects bo stand bo bhe position bhat they rather Mr. Lang replies that the myths flourish. Ritual. but among primitive rustics in Europe/ alongside of formulas (K> [iOW practical ethics can ami about a Supreme or Good don. which is is a mere am unable bo oonjeoture. a. they . i\>rtni jhilu R«vtnv. Absurd ami gross myths oan arise cither out of crude fancy or out of gross praotioe. When <^ Brugsoh. It oould be bo oonceived bj the earlj praotisers of the ceremonj lleliaion umi Mytholooie d*r alttn leawter. pure conception oi deity sprim. I are alike fallacious. decides that "from the root and trunk of a. no one knows better than Mr. B Makingof Religion. might serve is bo animistic lore but bhere oorruption " of religion by mythology bhat add oertain Items bo bhe mass of not a Bingle element in the so-called is not easily deduoible from normal psyohic experience."" in The two formulas ri. But if it oould latterlj be believed la a Buoh an episode. p. 999 S. 66 lo THE PROGEESS 01 MYTHOLOGY '* 1 " bigfa primeval oonoep oonneot such powers with the alleged lion of an "ethioal judge. li. 91). . Lang's made final conception and oorrupted Animism which followed on bhat bheistio 9 By normal powers (such Beems bo be dootrine) yon get "high" conceptions. li) and Irnobius I 1 I Zeus and Qmtea. lished with perfeot clearness bhat bhe animizing instinot is present in animals. another apriorist. Like luxuriance. and Rtlioion. Lang's earlier anthro: pological work is precisely bo mythologists who primitive myths. oould ooour among primitive rustics to day. Lang how the ideas of the Bavage remain embedded in bhe religious lore ami praotioe of his civili. over bhe sturdier growth o( a religious ooncep ' tion of 1 another root. normal powers you get low Bave as regards bhe belief in a moral " priceless. in. found it. and unless all savages are " supernormal. '. [Protrtpt. Supposing such faoulties I it. the boughs and bwigS of a myth. suhsist alongside of these ami oi countries. . N»v. as an to he must admit have its roots in primal Bavage lite." it is in no way dependent on supernormal faoulties. 99. c Muth. to revert bo evolutionist. make this out as against the a priori "high" Bymbolic origins for so many " his is therefore mere scientific perversity ow high " original for the God-idea which. put."' To whom this theory of things future Btate. t\' uu'i er. \. such as oan go <m\ not only among Bavages. L898. The Bee particular pp t 6 •. it was doubtless • Beasona] oeremons trana tarred to divine olograph) In the QBual fashion. bo " exist. given by Clemens Alexandrinus The BymboUo aotion there deaoribed .j the unpleasanl itorj >>t Idv. f . by superfor the it.: savages.

and a future State. We of are asked to suppose that primeval man have (whom had all the while. which revealed to him all manner To earliest of forces that do not exist!' insist that " powers " which thus the effect in tho main mere of delusion and corruption. the God-ideas whioh satisfy Brugsoh are but the modifications of earlier hy Later thought. But the classification is in keeping with Mr. To introduce the oonoept of the is supernormal" hy way of saving tho merely to resort to mystification. 1 " Even this. Lang's handling of the phenomena of savage ethics and philosophy. Tylor. the cavo man. conception of a righteous benevolent Supreme Being. Animism is indeed not primitive. ' been —developed ' supernormal " powers. fairies. of of This in despite of phrases about information not accessible to the Known ohannels about our esoaping " at moment! from tho bonds of Time and the manaoles Space" (work cited. as against 'high" thinking tho might just as well have had such disastrous powers). souls. and quasi-higher God-ideas <>f savages whioh so appeal to Mr. is strictly Animistic.or whatovor else we figure him to havo with trespassers. demons. As if the Question were ever supposed to •>•• raised In early Animism at all! <>n thit view. B9B :D. Lang has here in oiioct altered thu whole significance of tho term. hy natural inference." " THE SEPARATIST FALLACY " root " alike of tho 67 tho same tho minor myths and the larger is mythoposic faculty of the evolving those man . having thought out a righteous " Omnipotent God." " Animism was not lucdxt for the earliest iilea of a moral Eternal " [MaMno. unities that Iwniusf tho early man ili'l not ruiso tho question of "spirit. Lang. i»i». 71." is surely an odd way of classifying things. The very conceptions of a Supreme Being which he sets J and his Over against those of Animism are instances of Animism in men (who turn I . are rightly to be described as supernormal. hut late ami metaphysical Mr. Mr. is doctrinal chaos. mind) began with a " high that is. IHii). as Bavages conceive righteousness and benevolenoe: that without a single had the concept (though tho ape-man animistic. l». these matters with his theory of the making of religion is thus worse than nugatory. liiiiii. it applies tO oxuetly 2 mn. can and do arise and flourish among savages and more "high" theorem advanoed communities independently of any of the supernormal His whole colligation of processes contended for hy Mr. As framed hy Dr. - preliminary Then. and the total result. of oourae. habits <>r we must hold " to animistic. a " moral Eternal " who represents only his own morality. Beliefs in ghosts. repeat. as they do with so much of the rest of the savage's vocabulary. resurrection. Lang are but thought -forms into whioh later men put higher moral and philosophical notions." ami :| i . habit before him) the primal man proceeded straight to a universalist theistio abstraction all tho while playing the oannibal animistic.

One is disposed to say. § 6 and cp. None the less. and Religion. ii. theoretic formulas of his own. is Somewhat similar in form to Mr. 4 There is nothing in worship but what existed before in mythology. Ritual. again. the historic ritual may give rise to new concrete myths. 147 Mr. and Beligion. 4 Darmesteter. very severe on Huxley's "crude" position. The Golden Bough. of the Zendavesta. : however. Lang expressly posits " a rational and an irrational stream of thought. ii. 1908) Mr. Lang has in view. as cited above. 282." In one passage (Myth. Ignaz Goldziher. he elsewhere makes the severance before noted. 156. pp. " to our [savage] predecessors what we thought most our own" a proposition which cuts both ways where Mr. of a student of a religion as which there is no special motive to set up arbitrary distinctions.A. ii. p. while noting elsewhere that Dr. . Lang is 1 . i. to the conception of the it myth it a narrower scope than is I believe necessary to separate strictly from the conception of the the unconscious assumption which Mr. of course. 147. Mr. p." and another aspect " sacred. 1st ed." when both alike are the best the savage can do to explain his cosmos. in particular this "I have given usually done. hut something else. Bitual. one aspect of primitive anthropomorphism " absurd. It is to be kept in view. ii. "For myth changes while custom remains constant.. 300) Mr. while affirming just such a severance between savage ethic and savage myth. but To call 1 grind. 1st ed. 195 Myth. but which a inadequate. to trans. ! . with. 191. ii. 2nd ed. In the words of a mythologist with no supernaturalist axe to of the question. his classifying of all stories of " moral " and " creative " Gods as " religion. ch. justifiable as such at the time when they were propounded. The Metaphysic of Beligion. 10. but simply hypotheses. In his later essay on Theories Origins of Beligion (in The Origins of Beligion." § 2. ii. 141. 3 Frazer. Lang himself takes up this position. work cited. Lang would have it cut only one " and their — we are indebted for much of — errors were not wilful extravagances or the ravings of insanity. that while ritual thus always presupposes a mythical process. Bergmann. Introd. See above. lxxiii." making "prayers and hymns" on the contrary " rational. And to condemn Huxley and others for making a severance between 2 savage ethic and savage theology." Frazer. 2nd ed. 62. etc.P. is to give the inconsequence an aggressive emphasis." to " 3 fuller experience has proved to be And in the words. 211. is an unscientific inconsequence. On p. Lang's effort is to show that the savage's Moral Eternal is not in origin a Ghost or Ancestor-God. Lang's doctrine that of a learned continental mythologist and Hebraist who preceded him." and confines the "irrational" to "myth and ritual.— 68 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY title chronic restriction of the of "myth" to stories which make figure as animals or as immoral. "So he it: hut in any case he remains a product of Animism. Cp. 2nd ed. a professed adherent of the schools of Kuhn and Max Miiller." is not merely a begging Gods an ejection of scientific method from the problem. R. Dr. 5." As if prayers and hymns were not ritual and myth-narrative 2 Making of Religion. Tylor has said the same thing. 2nd ed.

There is an immense difference between the ancient mythical view of the origin of nature and that later cosmogonic system. If the mythologist gives it up. of a kind frequent which is so commonly carried on with an unfixed terminology and an irregular logical method. Even if the Babylonians got them from the Akkadians. What : many remains foreign Hebrew Bible contains. these materials are in the terms of the case myths. then the mind is ready to receive foreign cosmogonic ideas. to mark of mythic matter but to set aside the second order as non-mythological is simply to renounce one of the most interesting provinces scientific history.— THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY of religion. treated either 1 by believers or by unbelievers as part Mythology among the Hebrews." : This startling procedure " justified as follows The latter point was of especial importance in reference to the Hebrew Myth. who is to take it in hand handle the stories of the Fall and the Flood as expressions of the ethical attitude of the adaptors but the stories about Adam and Eve and Noah remain myths. which can be fitted into the frame of its religious thought and accommodated to its religious views. moreover. I think. they must at some point have rooted in relatively "primitive" fancy. mainly from Chaldseo-Babylonian materials. p. when the times are ripe for cosmogonic speculations. But when the myth has utterly vanished from consciousness. the solution of these questions by the Hebrews was produced in the later period of civilization and from a foreign impulse. is to be regarded rather as a mere literary creation than as a view of the origin of things emanating directly from the mind of the people. It is perfectly fitting. and the advanced apologist of our own day excitedly protests when they are ? The hierologist may . Granted that the Genesaic cosmogony is a literary compilation. tar. an obvious confusion." in mythological discussion. besides Hebrew myth. intr. and hence I have not treated as Hebrew mythical matter the Cosmogony of Genesis. of xxv. It is immaterial to the question whether at that or any other point in the development they were There is here. since. specially shaped or influenced the same we come possibility holds by men of relatively uncommon genius good in every mythological case. This was the case with the Hebrews. a cosmogony appears as a state of development of the ancient myth. as I show in the last chapter. that the of primitive it is incumbent on the between the two orders mythologist. late adaptations of myths made by way of cosmogonic teaching or quasito then is this. of the study." 1877. religion. Eng. 69 mythology and especially to exclude from the sphere of primitive 1 the questions of Cosmogony and Ethics is (the origin of Evil). So long as mythical ideas are still living in the mind. though under an altered form. clearly the distinction . . nay. which. made in or after the Exile.

" and "Psychological. with different Godnames. 114. a necessary complement to all finite " knowledge.70 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY Obviously they come within Mr. he perceives finite objects whether or not he is conscious that they are finite. really sure that these myths are in essentials non- any It is quite impossible to grant to Dr. however." Nor can we be Hebraic. s P. Goldziher but it may be well to analyze it afresh in the professedly revised form given to it in Midler's Gifford Lectures of 1888 on what he calls Natural Religion. Goldziher that at point in Hebrew history. The attempt to draw a 1 legitimate our consciousness." "Anthropological. Lang is always insisting. " if it is to hold its place as a ." "Religion. sought to blend all together. and finding more elaborate statements current among their more civilized and cultured conquerors. clearly retained " primitive " elements in virtue of that tenacious tendency in mythic usage on which Mr. Then a dog might 1 P. As a matter of fact. begin with sensuous experience. That doctrine preceded and presumably inspired the formula of Dr." as distinguished from the later stages of Physical. leading as it does to the most contradictory results. myth had utterly vanished it possibly do so save after division of species between absolute myth and mythless religion in a visibly composite whole breaks down on whatever lines it is attempted. in some spontaneous way. must. a dog may do the same that is to say. 2 As the argument proceeds." which is repeated later on. whether it of or not. or. like all other knowledge. though complicated by astronomical knowledge and speculation." he tells us in his fifth lecture. it is very plain that if " from the very beginning is insisted that " every perception involves. if you like. 2 P." Mark the "begin. men perceive (not conceive) the infinite in perceiving the : finite. embodying different cosmogonic notions." Now. P. 125. In any case. the redactors have preserved two creation stories. . it of element we are conscious and the conclusion of the lecture is that this perception "from the very beginning formed an ingredient. the Babylonian myths themselves. Such an attempt it is that brings Professor Max Midler to confusion with his Schleiermacher theorem of a perception of the infinite at all stages of thought. " the [old] from consciousness. 141." How could it had been crowded out by a later myth ? Rather we are bound to suppose that the Jews of the Exile. Lang's comprehensive species of absurd and offensive anecdotes. 140. some perception 4 3 of the infinite ". having some simple cosmogonic myths of their own.

we may be (which is only a single necessary perception) without really thinking. . " It gave her the sense this though of a Beyond. and say that a perception of the infinite which is not " real thought " is a chimera." If that be not explicit enough. Is that an answer?" Of course it is an answer to him He has been telling us that there is no "real" thought without words. the previously beginning of religion at all. the definition : we have infinite " Religion consists in the perception to influence under such manifestations as are able I look the moral character of man. — ends in threefold and irreparable confusion. Soon it is intimated that "we must restrict the sphere of religion. saying she did with the lecturer's comment. and that thought = reason. upon this as a definition of religion in its origin" is to say. P. He explains that his expansion of his definition of religion to include moral influence was made in Pfleiderer acknowledgment on his previous of the force of the criticisms of Professor definition ." is have the beginning of religion." the Professor says. so far as it is founded — ! on perceptions influence of the infinite. 188. conscious of the infinite not real thought. i it being so 5 much " his P. alleged beginning of religion was not a And yet. and embody that common property in a sign or a name. after since it did not affect the moral character of man. 168. We religious for those perceptions of the must reserve the adjective unknown or the infinite which and yet again. P. Further. that thought and language are the same His opponents simply meet him thing. after the "whether we are conscious of it or not. on his own ground. stipulated that " Real thought But already the Professor had Then the beginning of religion. " I am told that there are many savage tribes even now who do not possess a word for finite and infinite. That lifts a man above the realities of this material life is religion. but in a little while. and that is the true life of all religion": Professor thus The there is no moral influence whatever involved. 116. of the man's actions and his whole moral nature". a P. on the Professor's showing. 193. Pfleiderer position nor adhered to his own. But that is only one stage of the confusion. we have its woman who what he did . but he has neither adopted the He has simply used the two 1 definitions inconsistently 8 and at random. 2 This is tolerably sequent. 568. P.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 1 71 combine the begins when we percepts of sensation into concepts by discovering something they share in common. 6 the dictum that " anything that all. we have in the closing lecture (italics here Miiller's). 125. saluted the sun at the story of the old Samoyede rising and setting. P.

And on the next page Herr Sack notes that it was in the same exilic period." prescription by of the first. Pfleiderer' s influence is to be seen in the form given by Israel Sack to the summaries in his meritorious and often luminous work on the transition of Judaism from Bible-dom to Talmudism. Wundt. decides that " all percepts and sentiments become religious as soon as they have reference to some ideal existence which can supply the wishes and requirements of the human heart ". while the forces of the myth-mongers and ritualists expand as the restrictive element is removed. ethical or mythical. that there was set up the is That to say. 25. The second testimony . It was in the exilic period. or any other system that holds by sacred books. altjiidische Religion xv. to pure religion. disposes The conditions is of the exile would naturally develop a but the a substitute for the old private as distinguished from a public habit of devotion Zizith symbol precisely the effort to . nationalistic regimen to assert that they . much as he claims to be and anti-theoretic and the equally a priori dogma of Pfleiderer refuses to combine with it. historical . Yahweh to Moses. 37-41." 2 emergence of the purely religious was only the movement towards the purely religious.72 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY tendency to cleave to any doctrine he has once adopted that he does not logically readjust his thinking even to a change he is disposed His first definition was a priori. the beginning of a Zizith symbol of — the "ribbon of which is blue upon the fringes of the borders given out in the Mosaic law as a 3 their garments. the Protestant impulse being on the way to euthanasia in rationalism. Judaism is tribal to this day and Christianity. ." Nor can the claim be any better made out for any later style of Judaism. l of the age. 1 2 s Die Cited by Mliller. born to make. who is a good deal more of a psychologist than either of these writers. that " there came upon the Yahweh religion the pressure of a new element. and that account covers the great mass of ancient mythology. 1889. the personal godliness (Gottesverehrung) independent of social life. It was the first step towards the releasing of the religion of Israel from Palestinian soil. instead of progressively denuding itself of myth and symbol and ritual. he writes. im Uebergange vom Bibclthum zum Talmudismus. shows everywhere the tendency to make more of them than ever. p. 73. Numbers. which first really sabbatized the Sabbath. p. and generally towards the conceptual {begrifflichen) sundering of the religious from the social- ethical. namely the purely religious cult. make and of people in that frame of mind it is idle have risen from tribalism.

Milton or Butler. Sir George somewhat obscures the point by saying of the Greeks that " we must draw a sharp line of severance between their theology and their religion. 3. lecture in Beligious Systems of tlie World. appear to number of classical historians and some cases well-informed as to anthropology be conducted to separatist conclusions by the 1 On Greek and Latin Religions. in vain. the anecdotes become under Mr. p. 184." That is we may differentiate aspects. religion of a people and mythology. of " the history of the Gods " as " the auxiliary science of most — Zeus espoused Themis and by her begat the Destinies. and that according to which Eurynome bore to him the Charites. p. insists that the " inmost and most essential characteristic "4 of a myth is just " the religious element a straining of things the — other way in religion's name. 3 Id. § 3. In the Mythology of the Aryan Nations. fallacious 73 we find Sir George Cox avoiding the extremes to which theological bias has led some lay " In one sense. But 3. who is reputed to have been a religious man." for an auxiliary that is essential is In any case. draw distinctions 1 between the to say. In these conflicts of judgment we can recognise certain specific forms of bias the Philhellenic in Ottfried Miiller. if we use religion in the sense attached to it by Locke or Newton. p. if not absurd. p. Ottfried Miiller. though in in general. 1845. We are hardly even entitled to speak. we may their not. but cannot negate the organic connection. thetic scholar has well argued that in Homer the conception of Zeus the moral governor and Zeus the cloud-compeller is one twofold thing and he goes on to cite as essentially and even nobly religious the set of myths in which Zeus has offspring by different females the " beautiful and sublime fable in the Theogony" wherein ." he says. 175."' And Miiller to be entitled like another to his view of religion's "true guise. true religion. genuine. " we may. . which is what we are concerned with. yet another Miiller. But Ottfried Miiller. the pro-Christian and the pro-theistic in others." Julius to wit. protests that " He who does not here recognize religion. 2nd. ed. far. Eng. for him have Moses and the prophets written would seem Nay. the same sympapractically a part of one process. Some Academic Categories. Lang's system slightly offensive.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY Here. with worship of the Grecian 2 importance to mythology. and in another mythologists. 2 Introduction. Inasmuch as Zeus here plays as usual the adulterer. On the Theory of Myths. 217. p. in Voices of the Church in Reply to Strauss. 1 Julius Mtiller." But he goes on to insist on the historic unity of the whole system. 186. as at other points. further set of confusions is — introduced into our problem by a students who. defending Christianity against the mythological interpretation of " Strauss.

Principal of Durham College. by Dr. 4 Work cited. Jevons's handling of the special phenomenon of mythology. and magic from the field of religion also the occasional rehabilitation of all of hose factors. F. trans. one ruling conception not on the line of This purpose incidentally is among other things. 1892." 6 and (3) that the Roman cult was " nothing 7 but organised magic" that is to say. we are concerned mainly with Dr. p. Plutarch's Romane Questions. "we might more fitly call the Roman faith Pan8 daimonism than Polytheism." 5 (2) that "the Italians had no Nature-myths . 7 Id. i. Part I. Jevons. xxxv. " had not advanced as far as polytheism. however. Jevons. Romische Mythologie. 8 xv and xxix." 4 inasmuch as " the Romans had not advanced as far as polytheism. cp. B. " the genuine Italian Deities which remain fall into two classes. and the excommunication alike of reason. 2 In the present connection. xxviii. ch. by Philemon Holland. science. . polytheism was unknown in Italy. In the same section in which he affirms that the Romans. A close study of to seems to reveal make out is that what evolution of Christianity not religion. mythology. to the History of Religion." he explains that after "having eliminated" all the loan-gods. to the ascertainment of the differentia it — the determination involves. philosophy. Jupiter." of which the first " can scarcely be dignified by the name " such gods as Janus. in terms of Dr. has devoted a bulky but brilliant volume of religion. p. was not " religion " at all. of which he has . 1896. i \ An Introduction 2 3 1603. 5 Id." and the second includes . Jevons's essay happily enables us to dispose of his first propositions by later dicta of his own his candour guarding us from acceptance of his thesis. ed. of gods. xxiv. before the arrival of Greek influences. The main theses are (l) that " until borrowed from Hellas. pp. the sanctification of religious cannibal- ism.74 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY of academic habit religious isolating the phenomena most evolution from the main mass hierological science. Id. One 1 of the Greek and Roman and accomplished of these of of anthropological scholars. separately treated in his very interesting introduction to the Questions of Plutarch. Dr. in view of the fluidity of early Roman religious ideas. The thesis as a whole is an adventurous application of a somewhat haphazard remark of Preller that. 6 Eep. i. p. p. 3 Roman In this entertaining essay we are presented with more than one of those invalid definitions which are the delight of the theologian and the bane of all science. Jevons's — teaching elsewhere." The comparison of a few pages of Dr. U. See Pagan Christs. but were still in the purely animistic stage. xviii. monotheism.

' 1 Cp. inferior. had " no polytheism. animistic of the great gods " is a mere evolution from an albeit he is all spirit." and has the same functions with the latter Yet we are also told along cognized and worshipped as " greater. In defiance of all fetiches" scientific usage. p. ' title to all "spirits" who are not (1) "members of a family or a community.— THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY 75 Mars. xxi. which denies the . xxvii." These " genuine Italian gods stand forth essentially and fundamentally different from those of Greece. wherewith shall it be resuscitated ? The best defence to be made for Dr. of Lehrbuch der Beligionsgeschichte). 126-127. 2 Id. 6 Id. When the theorist undoes his theory. than beings. cited. nymphs. lvi. . Jevons is that he has been countenanced in his conflicting propositions by conflicting authorities. 4 Introduction 5 Id." Now. he calls the Romans' " gods " at once and " abstractions. and dryads). Diana. in a which the Greek and others were not. Venus. Jevons does not admit any sort of myth " in the religion of the ancient Italians. Hephaistos. Hercules.. p. and Ahuramazda are excluded from the category though Yahweh presumably comes in as not being one of " the gods." (2) plastically represented in human form." but " God." Yet even here the original definer is drawing a line between Gods and " divine beings in the sphere of naturenature-life. etc.e. pp." 5 though by implication he concedes personality rather to their tree spirits while pronouncing their dii indigetes 6 numina." we have here the express avowal that " inferior." All the while he is insisting that . Aphrodite." this amazing definition (which would make Gods and Goddesses of many heroes. Horos. xxvii. animistic powers to whom the title of spirit is the highest that can be assigned. 3 Id. p." that the Romans." was nothing but organized magic " that is. For this mortal leap — in origin the sole semblance of pretext is the dictum that Janus and function is not to be distinguished from those inferior. Chantepie de la Saussaye's Manual of the Science of Religion (Eng. or forces. trans. xix. Indra. and (4) conceived as " ideally good and beautiful. Hathor. p. Siva. p. believing in a number of " great gods " who were recognized as such in contradistinction from " inferior " spirits. a magical implement. as Janus had been immediately before described as one of one the great Roman gods. Ares." Then in the next section he recoils to the conclusion that "the Italian god was a that " the cult sense in and fetich i." and Dr. (3) morally By envisaged." and that between animism and polytheism there is a difference in kind. For his spurious chronological distinction between animistic spirits" and "gods" he has the sanction of the futile definition of "gods" by Chantepie de la Saussaye. 1891.

Id. the corn-spirit. as in Hellas. myths. ch. xii. Jevons ascribes to the early Romans the mental methods at once of negroes. against it As . 28. in the midst of his the marriage of Hercules with Acca Larentia and Flora. numcn. i. p. Dr. Coming as straight as may be to the mythological issue. tells us of the myths of is 2 4 History of Borne. after recognizing the organic unity of the whole Greek system of "theology" and religion." of place. fee. Of course the proper state- ment would be simply that the surviving Latin mythology is bare or 2 commonplace. cited. i. and the old Roman way thought was in general primitively concrete. And in the process he denaturalizes the meanings alike of fetich. what are? Gladstone. speaks of the Goddess of Night in Homer as possibly an " obsolete Nature-Power standing in the same relation to an imper1 "Nature-myth". ed. of philosophers. 183. Abstraction of a quasi-philosophic process decisive." 3 personification lay at the root of the Roman "Abstraction and as well as of the is Hellenic mythology. but the reverse. xii. 1868. . Eng. denials. who seems to have inspired Dr. is But is the admission as to " personification " personification of Nature-forces there Where there Jevons in turn. sible. he has twice stated the historic fact lies at " : In Italy. George Cox. i.76 the THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY Romans were of at the stage of is meaning animism "animism". ch. and Dr. The phrase cited is an echo of Mommsen but the idea is one of Mommsen's many self-contradictions. strictly so called. The word is " abstraction " here clearly out . 184-6. In short. in the elevated sense. pp. Mythology of the Aryan Nations." succumbs to the fallacy of empirical classification upon Speaking of the Romans." 1 It is not here meant that the Latins were specially religious. there the foundation of the popular faith the same common treasure of allegorical and symbolical views 4 of nature. 169. Jevons partially excused by the countenance given to his language in other treatises. Barnett. On the latter head he may be defied to cite any form of primitive belief in any living race in which " powers of nature " are not conceived as having life and will. he says that in their system "so thin was the disguise [of the natural forces worshipped] that the growth of a Latin mythology. and of modern men of science. became imposanother side. and the unquestionable " the tendency to read wills into the " forces of nature. 5 Work 3 Id. and abstraction. Sir we again find Dr. and of the 5 If these are not Natureworship of the Dea Dia. And if no such case can be found in living mankind it is an idle fantasy to reduce the whole beliefs of the early Romans to that unexampled category. ii. lxxxiv-v. ch.

seem equally insoluble problems in the light of such reasoning. A that scrutiny of this play of declamation reveals only this meaning. 1869. Prof. of 1901. Nux is not a Nature-myth. in order to understand " the lesson of evolution of Greek religion " evolved from. trans. while Leto is not one. to Eng. not being What to impersonated. and where to find a Greek Nature-myth concerning Night. Inventus Mundi.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY sonated Leto. Greece sees God with her own eyes and if we would share the loveliness of her vision we must put away from our thoughts the uncouth forms which had been worn by her northern forefathers' deities. and thus gave birth to the divine forms of Hellenic religion. Barnett means just "paradox. we must put out of our minds The steps are worthy made to all recollection of what It it of the conclusion. 259. as Gaia or as Demeter to Here. Barnett that " No truth is more vital than the seeming paradox 2 which declares that Greek myths are not nature myths. Steuding's Greek and Boman Mythology and Heroic Legend. or the Hermae . The Greek myth is the child of the devout and Coarse lovely imagination of the noble race that dwelt around the iEgsean. . or should be thought of as definitely not nature-myth. to ask Dr. . The ape is not further removed from the man than is the nature myth from the religious fancy of the Greeks as we meet them in history. Barnett heavenly bodies as to Plato. 3 4 1 Italics ours. ceases to be a nature-myth. Jevons when he reads the deliverance of Dr. It can show how gods are born in the mind of the savage and moulded into his image. Comparative mythology can teach us much. Lionel N. being impersonated make of a non-impersonated Demeter who evolves into Here. Jevons's lines may perhaps be realised by Dr. the slough cast off by her gods as they grew into shapes of godliness and beauty. is implied that Greek attempt is myths evolve from nature-myths but not an show how or at what point a given myth would presumably be useless." : . combined with Dr. ceased to when the notion of the personal spirits. Barnett's. But it cannot reveal to us the heart of the Greek as his devout thoughts turned toward his gods. fantasies of brutish forefathers in their northern homes softened beneath the southern sun into a pure and godly beauty. on its way from the barbarian be nature-myth or when the cult of Demeter . True it is that in regions where nature and history hindered Greek religion from developing its potential riches* that slough was still often trailed by the figures of popular faith but these exceptions point 4 all the more effectively the lesson of evolution in Greek religion." In a glorification of Greece he might have given a Greek word its Greek and only reasonable meaning. 2 By "seeming paradox" Dr." 1 77 On ! that view. p. To what a shifting sand of arbitrary classification we should be led on Dr. Pref. It and for scientific purposes it is needless. and Persephone passed from Pelasgic nature-myth into Hellenic religion or whether the arrows of Apollo in Homer.

its numina. But this dearth is a phenomenon to be considered and comprehended not an absolute datum to be founded on without examination. The sternly legal mind of Borne. Jevons there are none in Roman mythology " formless conceptions. Still less is it permissible to fill the void with verbalist formulas about the to be sundered 1 . Barnett rules that " while the plastic fancy of the Greek was actively remodelling the uncouth and formless conceptions of barbarous faith into moral and human personalities the Roman went on a different course.e. the pell-mell of a people's an abstraction of one incarnate in the town-clerk. we may confess that Dr. Jevons. Instead of gods it worshipped deified functions." and they it is a body of have not yet Where then in Aryan or non-Aryan evolution is there grown up room for a nature-myth ? Turning back to the special case of Rome. But the assumption that the Italian character and temperament differed fundamentally from the Greek to the extent of keeping the lax writing this subject is to be upon and Romans inevitably devoid of a native mythology and poetry is a persistent fallacy of apriorism. For Dr." (Work cited. who presumably sees many nature-myths in Greece. : ! : " sternly legal lore to mind of Rome " — reducing will.78 of THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY Athens in history. The outstanding it facts in regard to its Roman literature are that. Barnett there are no nature-myths in Greek mythology they had formerly been embodied in " formless conceptions." and have now been elided.) What does he mean? * . We are dealing not with a scientific theorem but with a flight of rhetoric. are really so godly and lovely in conception as from savage myth as ape from man. is checked in birth by the 1 Professor Steuding similarly. has some pretext for his proposition in the scantiness of the mythmaterial preserved to us from ancient Italic folklore. § 2. Dr. For Dr. what we do know first and last is that the native growth was in large part obliterated in books by the imported growths of Greece. after admitting that " it is probable that the Greeks were once" at the stage of thought of primitive man— i. that their race was probably like others— says " it is unlikely that they were ever exclusively dominated by evolved these conceptions. Jevons. first. which looked upon the person merely as a unit in corporations ruled by definite law.. was little likely to lend human personality to its conceptions of divine forces. Concerning the latter. significant only of the persistence of rhetorical methods in what ought to be psychological science in our universities. Like Dr." Observe the upshot. Much to recognize the exact value of literary accounted for by failure artistic development in Greek mythology in contrast with Roman.

when the conditions begin to favour its growth. And even Preller recognizes that " in the earlier Italian antiquity perhaps much later. against those earlier Graeco-Italian 1 influences. In insisting that nevertheless there was no early Latin epic. stamped itself upon the face of Eoman literature. 2 Rbmische Mythologie. 4. Prof. secondly." or that they imagined minor deities by the hundred and told no stories about them. ed. anil . iEneas Yesta . Eng. Lavinia is same time a solar and river divinity." 1 Cp. concerned mainly about natural history so-called. the conquest of Greece by the Eoman arms of letters. see. by Pliny. concerned only to deride the pagan beliefs. as we shall went upon lines unfavourable to the preservation of much beyond the abundant ferial traces of the popular religion." To dwell on the bare fact that so little was saved is to miss the problem. ." but by the The culture influences of the iEgean. Kohler. Even that gleaning suffices to show that the Eomans lived in a world of imaginary beings. of fundamental differences of race bias. Yet Varro evidently collected a great deal " On Divine Things. " of the stuff of epic and mythology " may have existed. Ennius is half-Greek and a freethinker to and precisely when the Eoman culture-conditions become boot such as to make possible a native growth strong enough to react conquest for centuries . as is partly recognised by Preller in the act of repeating the formula. p. 1906. scanning the palimpsest. as cited. Ancient Legends of Roman History. or baldly. 1865. Stories by the hundred must have been current among the people before the finished song of Greece. and to say that they conceived of these merely as " forces. p. Since Hartung there has been no 3 question that the process took place but German and English scholars alike have been strangely slow to realize the correlative truth that there was something primordial which Greek influences overspread. finds ancient lore underlying all the Grsecized versions of things. 42. note. is identified as " is and iEneas at the merely an ancient Latin god. is to propound a countersense. Ettore Pais. Preller is forcing an open door. 3 Preller. tr." all of which is lost to us save what is preserved in malice by Augustine. p. reinforced by her art. 79 kept primitive by continuous wars of and that. The Eoman literary and political evolution. from the very start it is overshadowed by the Italo-Greek lore. was lost. so tenaciously clung to by German scholars.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY Etruscan conquest. . which through lack of literature and as a result of the early loss of 2 national freedom. 89. The latest Italian scholarship. educes the conquest of Eome by Greece on the side determined not by an earlier Greek evolution had been occult force of " race character.

g." It may well be. 1906. p. 21. In the Hebrew books themselves. not of the peasants.: 80 " THE PKOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY " Numa and Tullius. 142. were merely river and solar divinities. Kings of Turnus also is a river deity. § vi. Christian. ' Prof. tr. The Dii Indigetes. And. priests. 1 — — kindred process of Evemerization. that some of the higher Eoman " abstrac- were the work of the State Such a creation appears to arise in the case of the Egyptian Maat." tullius being an old Latin word for a spring. Jevons's able showing. Just such specific spirits are found by the hundred in the folklore of contemporary primitives. Cp. as cited. history. 3 E. " Lucretia and Virginia. tr. 1 2 . 1897. Religion of the Ancie?it Egyptians. and. myth is disguised as pseudo- One difference there is is between Eoman and Hebrew Evemerism . Steuding. of rivers and springs and hills.. 200-201." Eome. 1899. made wholesale on such official the savage principle of securing control over natural forces as over daimons by But apart from pragmatism. Barnett's pref. ens. p. was official and 2 by Dr. 4 Erman. were naming them. the process pragmatic. become mere mortals Vulcan was changed into the lame and one-eyed Horatius Codes. Handbook of Egyptian Religion. F. she is said to 5 have " no place in mythology. and Dr. § 190. the latter On one side. Ettore Pais. whose priests were the supreme judges.. turned to monotheistic account the former retained its original character of imperfect rationalism and while the poets turned deities into heroes the archaeologists turned them into forces of Nature. in short. and daughter of the supreme God Ee " (or Ea). Eng." The inference that no tales were told of these divinities until they had been Evemerized into mortals would be a thoughtless solution indeed. it is the etymologizing archaeologist. and those in Turner's Samoa." Yet even this " pure abstraction " tions. Eng. doubtless. She is seriously described by a hierologist as " entirely 4 a product of human [sic] invention" and "a pure abstraction". indeed. 1907. Goddess of Truth and Justice. the notion that the Komans "had no mythology" is as untenable as the thesis of Eenan to be examined hereinafter that the Semites had none. and not the peasant. W. The Caroline Islands. in origin two goddesses. Introd. App. to the Romane Questions. the lists of deities of the Caroline Islanders given by Mr. 1884. of disease who sees "forces" or "allegories" in the deities of and health. tr. though mentioned in some of the oldest texts. under a . to 3 whom no traveller has ever ascribed a " sternly legal mind." as well as the Dii Indigetes. sowing and reaping. and who was regarded as wife of the divine judge Thoth. pp. iii-v. Eng. . Ancient Legends of Eoman History. and the god Minucius was transformed into a tribune of the people. 5 Wiedemann.

102. It is a mere evasion of all psychological science to suggest otherwise. popular mythology is a ground mythology. ideas failed to find expression in the but not the most abstract of their Godform of a God or animal or is compound figure. Handbook. "anthropomorphic" from Egyptian religious In early Eome there is no trace of any such attempt to negate anthropomorphism and it is quite clear that the veto on images in Jewry and Persia never for a moment interfered with an to excluding the thought. Thunder. storm. Wiedemann. Were not the Egyptians. The gloomy fancy of the Ponapean peoples the swamp. is the — 1 Id. every family its household God. every clan its presiding spirit. the royal devotee there is mind But it is represented by the king's will as the solar disk. Christian. 75. i F. W. of the The worship or totemism." That Maat should not figure in for supposing that her cult was myth a part of The most probable explanation we can frame of the 2 countless God-names in Egyptian religious lore is that they grew up at the hands of the priests somewhat as did the Eoman Dii Indigetes exclusive. famine. the greater part malignant. What has not been achieved in popular Christianity was certainly not achieved by the early Eomans. or stream. the solar disk. 2nd ed. " the Aten is never represented as anthropomorphic. planting. Significantly enough. the Egyptians and the Hindus had abstractions enough in their pantheon . p. every tribe its tutelary deity. hill. then. p." . death all these events and phenomena have their supernatural patron or Master-spirit. rain. . lightning. anthropomorphic conception of the God. 21. a wife. 85 sq. harvest. 2 3 Cp. judgment-hall of Osiris form. Every village. Hibbert Lectures. p.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY is 81 a daughter. and the hanging woods of the inland wilderness with hosts of spirits. the reef. Renouf. Erman. If to and she is is she received the dead in the constantly represented in female . birth. The Caroline Islands. has its genius loci. Of the people of Ponape in the Caroline Islands that 11 we are told Ani or deified ancestors. war. disease. coupled with a sort of zoolatry backbone of the Ponapean faith. p. p. every valley. G . some beneficent. the mountain. wind. 39. be and do this to have " mythology will have to be recast. polytheists In a sense. festival. but not for refusing to see in a late at the hands '? of Eoman officials. the one attempt in Egyptian history to exclude such a presentment of deity that of Akhnaten (Amenophis IV). no place in mythology. with numerous life-giving hands at the end of long rod-arms and we may safely say that that is the nearest approach a deliberate attitude of 3 : Here of Aten. fishing. and a mother ! .

E. Dr. 1878. (1846) : . 118-119. a Sea-Goddess. he perpends thus "But the Romans had it only (!) an abstract conception of the Deity. to the Romane Questions. 2 Introd. the Huaca or Vaka of the Peruvians). the emblem of the fairy Li-Ara-Katan. it is " impossible to suppose that they are cognized either as " abstractions or as fixedly theriomorphic. the blue starfish of the God of rain. a Moon-Goddess. Jevons and Ihne would have us place them at a higher stage of evolution than the Romans of the early ceived by the 2 dogs. a missionary wrote at a time when their traditional lore was still fresh " Nearly all animals they suppose anciently to have been men who performed great prodigies. and within reach of 1 Of the Narrinyeri tribe of Encounter Bay. and it is extremely unlikely that they are definitely conceived as animals save in the facile 1 fashion in which man and animal interchange in universal folk-lore. the shark of the God of war. and darkness. "In their mythology they have a submarine Paradise (Packet). Gods of districts. heroes. Jevons supposes that the Lares praestites were originally con- Romans "not in human shape. After representing the Romans as being under an impression of 3 : perpetual supernatural controls. the other a blazing torch a gloomy conception very much resembling the Yomi of Japan and the Yama of the early Vedas. 59). then. p. below or above the stage at which Dr. And yet Dr. they did not see revealed in a form palpable to the senses. literally canoe. G. Australia. Thus the chestnut tree is the medium of the God of thunder. i. cold. vehicle. p. xli. or " merely " animists ? Since they actually have. They also have a subterranean Tartarus (Pueliko) of mire. or the native owl. and Ancestor-Gods. 2nd ed. or medium (like in Vaa or Vaka of the Polynesians. fish. Eng. A. Meyer doubtless misunderstood the speculative process indicated by Mr. cited by Rev. Being either adaptations of deceased ancestors or fortuitous constructions which had these for models. polytheists they must be admitted to be. mere demigods. and so on. Even the very spirit of apriorism might have saved Ihne from of his preposterous account the matter. 3 History of Borne. Adelaide. but in the form of Are the Ponapeans. a Rain-God. as distinguished from a War-God. by definition. 1871. and at last transformed themselves into different kinds of animals and stones "(Rev. These they style their Tan-iuaar. and the Lukot. Taplin." republic. a place of perpetual feasting amongst lovely sights and sweet odours. one of the local genii of the east coast. Christian in the theology of the Ponapeans. or both. they cannot have been "abstractions". one holding a glittering sword. guarded by two grim female forms (Lichar and Licher). and with which they are identified." — Concerning the Gods" or " daimons " thus particularized. Jevons conceives the Romans to have been immediately before the advent of Greek culture? Are they polydaimonists or polytheists. or tree which they are supposed to reside.— 82 All these THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY Ani are honoured under the guise of some special bird. The Narrinyeri. ed. Meyer.

1870. Jevons Eoman polytheism at least begins with the advent of Greek Gods. Fiji and tlie Fijians. 61. pervading spiritual world to influence human life. p. Afterwards. they did not join in marriage They did not live together like the Greek gods in Olympus. the old views and ideas still remained in the hearts of the people. T. who " in time of peace was a doctor". Williams. 188. when the Romans had learnt from the Etruscans to represent the gods as men after the Greek fashion. they had no intercourse with mortals.THE SEPAEATIST FALLACY human without 83 sympathies. 343) and among the mHlVv. though anyone interested in comparative hierology might then have pointed out to him the nugatoriness of his inference from the facts that a spear or a rough stone served the Eoman as a Godsymbol a consecrated space or a sacrificial hearth as a temple or altar." Thus. For the inspiration of prophecy was substituted the dry formal science of augury. which aims at nothing but the discovery of the simple assent or dissent of the gods. ed. 1884. it. The gods transplanted from Greece took no root in the minds . has gods. Jevons. no oracle uttered a divine revelation by the mouth of inspired prophets. " Roman religion. Cp. p. For Ihne there is to be urged the excuse that before he wrote (1871) the accumulations of modern anthropology had hardly been begun. 1892. Saynoa a Hundred Years Ago. p. 209)— of setting up a spear over a grave. and no anthropologist would dispute that the finally negates the thesis of Dr. : 1 _ in Turner. to merge into the godhead of the universe. human forms. ' . by the divisive courses of arbitrary definition and a priori thinking. like a wave in the ocean. which gave no hint. * • . of the Roman people. Doubtless the origin of the symbol Samoa and Rome was the usage— noted in New Caledonia (id. or beget children. Rome knew no religious images. a sacrificial hearth. even a rough stone sufficed pictures or statues of the gods. For Ihne there was never any Eoman polytheism at all.' 1 '' Here Ihne in support of who cites Ihne For Dr. by means of the anxious observation and almost mechanical interpretation of a strictly defined set of phenomena. p. No genuine after the manner of men Roman legend tells of any race of nobles sprung from the gods. inasmuch as the imported Gods took no root. . The Ainu of Japan. like the unfeeling elements of nature and before the eyes of man had caught their form. as a sign of divine sympathy in the affairs of men. they retired from sight and contact. without human They emerged from the all-surrounding and allvirtues or weaknesses. The latter phenomena belong to countless cults in which Gods are unquestionably conceived as quasi-human a spear was the sacred symbol in Samoa of the war-God Tu. no warning. we once more reach mere nihilism and verbal vacuity. " Such an unimaginative conception of the Deity could not create ideal A simple spear. it is said. . therefore. but no mythology. a consecrated space. as a symbol For 170 years. without human feelings and impulses. no advice. as a temple or altar. though not before. Though the divine forms were conceived as male or female. and the heart had drawn near to them. To them the gods were only mysterious spiritual beings. tchelor.

He blankly supposes a world of superstitious grown up without any of the psychosis of superAs seen by him. The conception is.290. 101. Major A.84 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY all Samoans ascribed manner of human vices. Eng. 72. in short. ch. vii. 1827. x. p. Turner. or plant) in form and character. Sir A. W. Mommsen. The Tshi-Speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast. 20. 214. Pioneering in Formosa. and Tlie Ewe-Speaking Peoples.ix. Roman religion is a monkey on a stick. Handbook of Egyptian Religion. 4 Cp. 234. 1876. as well as of among those 4 of Greece. 1860. ed. Jevonu. aspects. W. a people in close culture-contact with the Greeks. 1898. what had the Roman people done on their own it known branch of the human race that is open found to conceive of its Gods as human (or animal. i. sect. 1860. Gill. what right can tr. pp. on what possible pretext can we conclude that the peasantry of ancient Italy were without such notions? And if we find among the priests of Polynesian cannibals. the practice speaking in the 1 name of the Gods. tr. But without anthropological anyone with the the simple impossibility of lore at slightest turn for all. and of account ? If every is to examination primitives everywhere. Myths and Songs from the South Pacific. 1884. A. 1891. we have to 2 * Erman. i. Samoa. Could he have delivered himself from the presuppositions set up of by a study Roman religious survivals considered solely in contrast 2 with those of Greece. Glyn Leonard. If be true that the Greek Gods never took root in the minds of the Roman people. ch. pp. Tonga Islands. Der Mensch. following Dr. Mariner. Der Mensch in der Geschichte. 1887. virtues. practices to have stition. lime's seems to tell of problem in hand which no criticism could instruct. i. psychology might have realized the "mechanical" religion verbally constructed by Ihne.. 35. vol. ch. 128 *><?. ii. 1870. Roman limitation in the religious was developed 3 from Roman beginnings on lines given by the Etruscans. A spear was also a symbol of Horos. 189 sq. Bastian. Eng. Tlie Lower Niger and its Tribes. life. ch. Williams. p. 1908. and abundantly given to the personification of their Gods. 79 8Q. T. p. Fiji and the Fijians. But such an interpretation as an attitude of mind upon the particular Proceeding to construct rationally for ourselves. Ellis. and 1 proclivities to their Gods. Ellis. pronounces that "The 130. 1906. how can we rationally suppose that the Romans wholly failed to do so ? If every other barbaric race is found conceiving of its Gods and Goddesses as joining in marriage and begetting children. again. History of Pome. Pickering. i. he might "dry formal science expression of From Preller and have learned that what he terms the augury. B. we first ask. one might have supposed. ed. 1890. ii. Ihne might have learned from Bastian enough concerning primitive personifications to have withheld him from his assertions as to the Roman of Mommsen. Polynesian Researches.. iii. xiv. a Hundred Years Ago. . Preller. one of the commonest phases of savage religion." instead of being a permanent conception of deity. 37. Yet Professor Granger. 18. p.

But his difficulty will not end there. beyond conveying from Chantepie de la Saussaye the implication that men became what he theists only when they made statues of their Gods. they were surely common in ancient India but what ideal pictures or statues were evoked by them ? . 1 Romische Mythologie. asks. and modern These and Zulus. imaged by a young bull. underwent evolution from crude beginnings. Will it be contended that the Gods grew into Godhood pari passu with the improvement in art and that the presence of a few good from a Nature-God . to believe that the Italic races were devoid of a predilection and a faculty which are found alike among ancient Finns and Teutons and Celts. Gold Coast have priesthoods claiming constant Gods and what are their images worth ? It ought not to be necessary to point out that ideal pictures and statues were never forthcoming anywhere save after a long artistic evolution and that the archaic statuary of the Greeks is as crude as that of any other race at the same culture stage. profound thought that the personality of man may be the vehicle of the will of a divine being was first brought to Rome by the systems. into a God " proper " is quite impossible to trace and perhaps Dr. 2 See Teuffel and Schwabe. half philosophical. 4. Greek art. After such a wholly inconclusive series of judgments on fairly simple issues. Australian blackfellows. half theological. Jevons will be tempted to say that in that case there was no evolution to specify. A late Roman statue is more " ideal " than an archaic Greek one. p. conceding the contrary." The peoples of the intercourse with the . It is significant that he makes no attempt to indicate. Where was The there ever a people entirely without songs and sagas 2 ?* traceable facts as to ancient Latin carmina in general' forbid us.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY Italy ? 85 suppose that nothing of the kind ever happened in ancient Latin The thesis that " such an unimaginative conception illicit of the could not create ideal pictures or statues of the resort to apriorism after Gods " is a Deity vain an induction. as apart from the case of the Romans. Maoris. and Redskins. 252). of Roman Literature. 98-101.itr. i. . the point of evolution of Yahweh Rain or Fire or Thunder. which came into favour at the end of the Republic" (The Worship of the Romans. like other things. and beautiful statues at that. when calls animism passed into polytheism. If there were anywhere imaginative conceptions of deity. it is impossible to put any faith in lime's further conAs Preller clusion that "the Romans never had heroic songs. On of that view. 1895. once more. Jevons's negative theory of Roman religion. 1900. p. . Eng. . Hist. and the outcome is only in parts sounder than the inspiration. other ill-considered negations went to the eduction of Dr.

with their arbitrary separation between polydaimonism and polytheism. then the historic Greeks and Hindus were not polytheists. in short. firstly. Jevons's formula. . passim. as varying under special determinants. 1 Christendom there is See Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Belujion. on the Roman. by J. then. principles of psychology obviously negate the theorem of a stage in which a whole people conceive of the whole multitude of their numina as collectively "inferior" or "mere daimons " without any "superior" or " more-than-daimon " from whom to distinguish them. the distinction between higher and lower must have been present in germ as soon as any explicit distinctions were made at all. The term " pandaimonism. the very basal universal psychological principles. pp." terms. in rehabilitating idolatry in culture-history by calling the sculptor the God-maker ? The fact that different Latin districts and villages had each their Mars and Jupiter is rather a proof of personification than a suggesIn parts of Catholic tion to the contrary. and their literary presuppositions as to an abnormal psychism in Romans. point. might as well be applied to their way of thinking as to the if The conception. and 2 In this way at least a few numina must have permanent thereafter. overtopped the rest in Roman religion before the historic period. like every other. 2 Professor Granger. we turn with renewed confidence From its standto the comparative method of universal science. And such a state of belief be not polytheism. And as it is further inconceivable that any primitive people ever explicitly posited absolute equality among their numina. 1910.86 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY a statues in his when of Roman gation reveals deme made the Greek peasant a polytheist proper patrician was but a polydaimonist ? Modern investipractical polydaimonism among the Greek peasantry 1 to Did their ancestors. relapse from polytheism polydaimonism when Christianity drove out statuary ? And were Theophrastus and Plutarch wholly in error in virtually ascribing polydaimonism to those Greek-speakers whom they represented in their own day as superstitious types ? our day. of a pandaimonism or polydaimonism which excludes theism or polytheism is a mere fallacy of Gods. lines of Chantepie de la Saussaye. C. certainly. Lawson. Roman religion is to be understood. but as exemplifying And. own Finding ourselves thus landed in a scientific impasse by our academic guides. in the act of giving a general assent to Dr. If the numina of primitives are not to be called why call the primitives themselves men ? Are we to end." again. 104-5). admits that Jupiter and Mars stand out from the mass (Worship of the Romans.

the retention of which by the Greeks is counted to them for proof of superior imaginativeness? as personalities. 50-51. Worship of th? Bomans. can we be really more certain that for the Roman the septemtriones were " seven ploughing oxen who continued round the pole 6 that agriculture which was his business on the plains of Latium. the answer into " superior is 2 that the Samoans graded their Gods by and inferior." by imaginary foes. 74. Turner. By the admission Granger. and gave him and many others families. should them have totally or generally failed to think of If they so failed." says Professor Granger. 116. 81. If higher. Compare Renouf (as cited. p. p.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY precisely such a reduplication of the Virgin 87 Mary. On view mythology p." recognized a Creator-God." than that for the English of two centuries ago the constellation in question was a waggon. p . they were either higher or lower in psychic capacity than the hosts of savages made known to us by contemporary anthropology. the epithets "father" and 3 "mother" with a are applied alike to the higher and the lower deities of Rome frequency seen in no other ancient mythology. gance to put the how came they to be so ? Is it Romans of 200 or 300 "beset on all B. having made that admission. however vaguely they may have thought of some of their incligitamenta. pp. or that for the people of the United States sides to-day his 1 it is a kitchen utensil 7 ? "For evidence." Indeed we are not." lower in psychic evolution than the present natives of the Gold Coast ? Is " admit at once that the Roman was not so benighted it not saner to 5 intellectually as we might think"? And.C. As pointed out by Preller. And if it be urged that this means to be counted by the dozen. Samoa.) on the significance of the Egyptian word nutar. pp. "we that 2 are confined to language. f< 3 Bomische MytTiologie. not a gratuitous extravawho " lived and died 4 in a spirit world. If lower. When Preller goes on to dwell upon the peculiarly abstract" signification of nimien he falls into the old snare. Secondly. The Worship of the Bomans. 4 Granger. . ib. 5 Id. 6 id. 31. 93 sa. No examples of the word can prove that it had any more abstract significance to start with than Deus. may is be left to the deliberate rejection of who reflect upon it. when and how did they transcend the general propensity. p. 7 id. And if that is to be the test. They were thus polytheists every test save that of sculpture. the same proposition holds of many if not of Professor 1 Among the Samoans War-Gods were most of the Gods of Greece. polydaimonism.. 75. it is inconceivable a priori and a posteriori that the Romans. why complicate the problem by obtruding the others ? As for the proposition that the Romans conceived their deities as male and female yet never thought of it them all as begetting children. 105.

it will make If any ancient short work of other mythologies than the Roman. 86. merely insofar as they were State functions. 1906. against the implication of Professor fcr. the last their fathers' Greeks the crudities of Like the Yahwistic Hebrews. 129. indicate that early Roman mythology was and the largely on the lines of the grossest mythology of Greece proud Roman aristocracy. who accept that principle to apply Such Romans. however. dignity that beseemed Roman things. standing application. academic theory is to be adhered to. though for a different reason. 1 is based upon the fact that " our common The nature manifests present argument itself in like is it ways under like circumstances. commits us to the inference that the had a native folklore in which tales were is told of the Gods." simply an invitation to those consistently.— 88 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY " a disease of would be language" with a vengeance! Where his language gives indications such as in other languages we know to be illusory. But ' — See the general argument of Professor Ettore Pais. . like other races. alike because they disbelieved them and because the to drag forth before the subject 2 men faith. p. the people can be supposed to have Egyptians must be so thought of. 42 . told stories about their Gods. ii. witness myths lacked the If the negative the expert "It : is in this period of [progressively creative] of the religion of . 32 . of their religious antecedents. the only reasonable course is to conceive the Roman's mental processes broadly in terms of those of other races at a The comparative method. these are expressions we meet with at every turn. 88) that the early Romans did not conceive their Gods under human form till they began so to represent them in statues. they turned their backs on their myths. Eng. Be natura deorum. De divinatione. posing as masters of the world. i. 95. Granger's own admission. pp. Yet by the documentary test ancient Egypt proves to be as "unimaginative" as Rome. grimly retailed by Christian Fathers bent on discrediting Paganism. 67. 2 Id. by Professor similar culture stage. iii. would be this primitive lore how dropped by the literate generations . I must demur. There not the slightest difficulty in under- was for the most part silently which read Greek. easily led because of the Evemeristic movement were the more 3 Preserving the old cults which reached them through Ennius. 50. Ancient Legends of Roman Italy. so To this they far as literature went. know anything allusions to Gods who i mythology that we first Egypt even our earliest texts are full of The night wherein The 'The day wherein the myth. . thirdly. Pais (pp. 8 Cicero. Actually actually surviving legends concerning Acca Larentia and Flora recorded usages. they lent themselves to a wholesale dismissal.

M .Pp." then neither had the Egyptians and " The most this indeed was actually affirmed a generation ago. it is still denied by yet one The tale of Osiris is as old as another school to the Romans." He has indeed somewhat minimised the mass that survives. there is enough mythmatter preserved from Rome to prove the abundance of Roman mythology. Erinan goes on to speak of " the great mass of stories of the gods with which Egypt at one time must have been flooded. 1907. p. "is altogether an erroneous 2 Egyptian civilization itself. We are. 105. 4 3 Granger. 181. as cited. Jevons denies that the Romans had nature-myths. Church of God on earth. . more reasonably may we say that there was a popular mythomuch logical lore among the Romans which the Roman literate class after Ennius would not consider worth reducing to writing. we understand little of them. Hibbert Lectures. goes far to show that they had nothing else. p. that however many gods the Egyptians might have. sq. I3. Eng. The very school which talks of "mere numina. " held by the best scholars common opinion. passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. entirely lost. when nothing like cultured scepticism and when all God-stories would possess religious value. influences." he adds. they had no mythology properly speaking. 2nd ed. for the stories If any literature relating to to which they refer are not told in the texts. 25. in a learned and interesting When he chapter. the belief in such existences attained a strength which now we can scarcely like the " true While Dr.' . obliged to draw our knowledge of this important " x side of Egyptian religion from very doubtful sources logical writings never existed If this can be said of a people whose religious literature goes back to primitive times. Cp. only a few years ago was. therefore." avows that " when every event which passed human comprehension was referred to the action of some particular spirit. these stories ever existed. as cited. and by another to the Egyptians. and even this was imagined to have been brought into shape through Hellenic existed. Renout." wrote Renouf in 1879. This opinion. 101-5.. pp. it is .THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 89 numerous as these allusions are. Professor Granger. If the Romans had " no mythology. 2 Hibbert Lectures. it It is possible that actual mytho- would be quite unnecessary to write down tales familiar to all. Handbook of Egyptian Religion. leaving the naturalist asking whether." mythology is restricted to the one set of myths that happen to appeal to the theorist ? Even as there is enough myth-matter preserved from Egypt to prove the abundance of Egyptian mythology.3 1 Erman." Just as mythology was thus denied by one set of separatists to the Semites." "mere nature-forces. tr. The only myth they were supposed to possess was that about Osiris. nonetheless thinks fit to explain that " the mighty God and most realize.

he insists to begin with. and (2) how the separatist gets the Egyptian statues of God-figures were not beautiful. Without noting Mr. Mr. that writer's reconstructions " wild. or Yah well. to the identification of where the Polynesians come in. not figures of " Gods "? (l) over the fact that When myth. namely. 102. Mr. Allen charges upon mythologists in general an erroneous identification of the two. 104. individual? Was Artemis? " Very little is known as to their origin. or Bel ? The separatist reasoning about polydaimonism versus polytheism Egyptians in respect of their facile numbers of Gods and Goddesses. It it seems to offer the sole harbour for yet to be done scientific thought." he is applying a method which would give the same result with Pan." are once more told that the Egyptians were polytheists in virtue of their grouping of the Gods in families." it will simply find itself discarded in this connection. this chaos of pseudo-classification can be solved. that much has before the phenomena are thoroughly colligated. Grant Allen's Theorem."" Then was Pan. But if English academic scholarship cannot otherwise counter the newer scientific Italian scholarship of the school of Pais than by calling. 3 Idt ibi . the latest attempt of The foregoing surveys already tend to prove the inexpediency of all to break up the phenomena of religion into unconnected species the attempt made. Devils and Cyclopes and Centaurs. who avoided towns. They have no more to do with religion. again. may be. are not Gods " or anything like one. than the unicorn of the royal 1 — Id.90 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 holy shepherd Silvanus " was after all "simply a wood fairy. 2 Id. as some do. and proceeds in his turn to pass one more verdict of divorce. " Like our English fairies." the Roman " have no individuality They are restricted to the forest and the adjoining country. and their recogAnd if we nition of them all under the conception of "powers. § 4. as so many systems of inconsistent conservatism have been discarded in the past. we have to ask once more will equally apply. by the late Mr. Grant Allen in the opening chapter of his able and suggestive work on The Evolution of the Idea of God (1897). p." 8 Can the Professor tell us the origin of Woden. and hence. and that many of them are still misunderstood. Lang's similar undertaking to sunder mythology from religion. properly so called. indeed. by his tests. we may reconsider our evolutionary and monistic conception of religion and For the present. p.

is as such. properly so called. in brief.e. {i." railway guard's decision that " dogs is dogs and cats is dogs." 3 This differentiation. Allen's fuller definition of a course worthy of mythology itself. is 91 as I understand to do with British Christianity. desired to have nothing to do with any other. Pagan. whom Mr. ceremonial. is in each country or race closely related with religion under certain aspects . becomes extravagantly so in view of religion.. A God. sure. to be setting aside. p. sacrifices. and so on. Lang. ritual. and the stories told about the Gods or God are much mixed up with the cult itself in the minds of worshippers but they are no proper part of . — religion. they must be all disallowed. let us proceed to consider the essentials of religion. I also is essentially practical: [as if theology or mythology. therefore. 438. 22-23. to account for or explain the one is by no means equivalent to : : accounting for and explaining the other. 2 i Evolution of the Idea of God.worship is the protoplasm of religion. theology This theory. but a modern and philosophical tortoise is a hinseck. the abstract theory of spiritual existences. And what is very little essential indeed is the philosophical element.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY arms has it. strictly so called Religion. savage and civilized— is the ethical element. . theology. Id. as such." The reason for this preliminary distinction turns out to be that Mr. Christian." religion but with 2 The decision to connect theology not with is it mythology Arbitrary on any definition. is in part in almost complete agreement with that of Mr. both past and present. that " folk-lore is the protoplasm of mythology. 8 Id. Mr. to be or mythology. Buddhist. " What is not at all essential to religion in its wider aspect taking the world round. it will be observed. 21. Allen. and as the vast mass of a supernatural heing to 1 mankind has always understood Bearing be revered and worshipped this distinction carefully in mind." but they strictly have very different ideas as to what constitutes religion so-called. that " corpse. Mohammedan. the word. which is that religion properly so called consists in observances." and is. Allen supposed himself Both writers decide that the connection between ' mythology and religion is " accidental " or " adventitious. pp. essentially theoretical theory and practice were opposite or unconnected] believe that the two roots the theory and the practice] have to a large extent distinct origins and that the union between them is in great part adventitious and that. prayer. p. and of its more Which recalls the offshoot." It begins to be pretty clear that these individual decisions as to what religion is to be are a in and that the name of science mere element of gratuitous confusion. having in view one particular line of descent for the GodHis position idea.

Allen. Grant Allen scouts all alike. In the name of the intellectual commonwealth. That is not pretended. Lang in effect bears them out Julius Muller . and as such part and Is Old Harry parcel of the religion of the believer in the latter ? "nothing like" the Pan from whom he came? And above all. that stories about the God are in hundreds of cases efforts to explain the . always ethical. but insist that all . not religion at theologians protest that theology and mythology have nothing to do with each other. . It is neither here nor there to say that in explaining one we do not explain the other. and that theology is just religion systematized and explained Mr. and declares religion to be simply ritual (which Mr. early ritual. Allen's dictum that " the Origin of Tales has nothing at all to do with the Origin of Worship" is a mere violence of dogma. protests that religion is of the very essence of . . Scientifically speaking. without letting be affected by their thought and practice as story-tellers and makers of folk-lore ? 1 P. Allen calls religion is " Religious" persons protest that religion and theology are different things. how could primitive as to men so keep their minds in watertight make up their religion rigidly in terms of their thought compartments and it practice as corpse-worshippers and corpse-eaters. But it is very easy to show.92 THE PROGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY what Mr. myth — as if there Ottfried Muller finds religion in the were no historical myths higher mythology Mr. both of which he yet sees in myths and Sack decides that it begins only after much of mythology and ritual is left behind. These attributes are in themselves phases of human tendency which make and make-for religion. . 29. while in other cases particularities of ritual originate in Mr. how could a ritual of prayer for wind or rain ever originate save in an idea about a God's character and function ? Is not the very idea of a God as a protecting Father (insisted on by Mr. Allen as the typical God-idea) a ideas about the God. we have a right to resist these illicit appropriations on the common domain of terminology. 1 matter of telling a story about the God ? Is not the idea of a Bad Spirit correlative with that of a Good Spirit. Religion in the mass has always been mythological. as against Mr. the term religion covers all the phenomena under notice. Lang declares to be mythological and " irrational ") while Max Muller finds it now in cosmic emotion and now in cosmic apperception. always ritualistic. To come to the point. always connected with what cosmic emotion or apperception there was. . always theological.

Tiele. that they are separated. in Voices of against Dr. We return perforce. 1 an immature anthropology is found to join with the supernaturalist school in drawing lines of arbitrary severance between the co-operating elements in all historic religion. from which all faith in the myth as such has vanished. 1836. the elements of ignorance and fear tend to have the effect of maintaining an ancient practice or formula or myth . to the anthropological position that primitive man fused instead of discriminating the states of mind which set up his myths and his cosmosophy." Such a separation is visibly a process of prejudice. Every primitive practice connotes certain ideas. but who nevertheless scrutinize religions in general in the spirit of scientific observation. Ideas about corpses and ancestors are demonstrably part of folk-lore." set with a very different order of ideas. In the words of the supernaturalist Julius Miiller here true to the evidence which his sympathies obscured for him when he came to the concrete problem over his own creed the historical form and ideal are inseparable.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 93 The division drawn by Mr. Allen is finally fantastic. trans. By . under the two sundering titles of tlie 1 Review of Strauss in Studien und Kritiken. While one of the persists in classifying all creeds most eminent historians of religion. tion in the matter is The one force or law of differentia- this : that whereas the whole of the ideas and the practices would in the earlier and ruder eras of savagery tend to be coherent or congruous. p. after the ideas turning on it have been greatly modified by changes of life and culture-conditions. means denying their perpetual and inevitable inter-reactions. insist that the definition of religion shall be faithful to historic fact. and it cannot hold for those who follow scientific methods. 16. Church . then. either material or social or both while on the other hand a practice or myth or doctrine that stands for one order of ideas with one set of minds may be imposed on another "religion. 1845. and purport of every myth or primitive usage penetrate each other and it is only by the abstraction of a later age. Strauss. Eng. Dr. his ethic and his ritual. and the ever-advancing differentiation of some of them but let us not plunge anthropology in darkness by law and ethic originally necessity. and every primitive idea connotes certain practice. — — ' . But all alike are Not only are mythology and theology and ritual and " all connected": they are so of psychological let us for purposes of elucidation trace their several developments. on the other hand men who still hold by the concept of revelation. Nor is it merely on grounds of systematic Naturalism that If on the one hand separatist courses are thus to be disallowed.

recognize the essential continuity and coherence of all the phenomena. not missionary bent like Mr. I cannot but think.— 94 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 "Nature Religions" and "Ethical Religions" nothing ethical in the first. . p. and myths which have usually been regarded. and mixed with principles of morality." Here we have yet another conception of "the essence of religion. ch. till within a comparatively recent period. persecuting. and again. by both travellers and students. 1. superstitions. 327. ed cited. 56-58. Chantepie de la Saussaye. Written before the Age of Reason. Any man is free thus to claim a customary name for an uncustomary creed. ii. When a man of moral and reformative genius country is the world. James Macdonald. Conway's ed. 5. Lang on making out the primordiality of " high " conceptions among men. Eng. as worthless and degrading. p. dated November 21. part i. Religion and Myth. 1778. is the only scientific attitude towards the declares : phenomena. Rights of Man. Under the term religion we must include not only beliefs in unseen spiritual agencies. nor yet upon rebutting the special claims of current creeds. pp. the unseen and the earliest ' ' This. tr. No. Humanity" may be turned to many valuable ends. Rev. on the score that honoured names may fitly set . Id. It is a Scottish clergyman : of experience. and I know of none that instructs him to be bad. Manual of the Science of Religion. ii. 1 2 8 4 5 6 Cp. — as if there were or natural in the second — others. They could not have made proselytes at first by professing anything that was vicious. Rights of Man." 2 " Religion in the widest sense . cruel. 504. 5 or immoral". 1891. " Every religion is good that teaches man 6 to be good. who puts the case thus may be defined as a man's attitude towards forms of human thought furnish the clue from which must be traced the development of those great systems of religion that have at different periods been professed by the majority of men. capable of elucidating the primitive religions he has studied at first hand. 1893 (Nutt)."'^ he indeed gives a profoundly necessary stimulus to the moral sense of men hypnotized by tradition and ceremonial and his conception of . but numerous customs. 472. The phrase is used by Paine in his series The Crisis. part ii. Thomas Paine. and my religion is to do good. 7. "my a "Religion of whether or stition. though he did lay it down that " All religions are in their nature kind and benign." Paine had unhappy cause to unlearn his optimism though he never flinched in his insistence that what he taught was true religion as against false. of Works. not we reckon among them a cult which in the name of 4 Positivism imitates anxiously some of the institutions of super- But to let such adaptation of old terms to new moral ends up a hallucination as to the historic reality of religion throughout human evolution would be to effect a confusion which the original adaptor would be the first to repudiate.

but I do not find in his interesting and useful volumes any instance of a "religion" which comes under this definition. were it not for the line taken by of acquired or inherited — ascertain. ! . And this. 8). and the doings of these. J. are for calling all high thought and feeling He who has art and science according to that saying of Goethe let us use words as mankind generally use them " (Literature and ' : Dogma." chased out of In fine. the come of the perception God-idea being common to all mythologies and all religions. though are framed under analogous conditions of bound up with myth alike 2 and their cosmosophy or quasi-science." In England. all historic religions are in their ethic prejudice what. not be considered by a prudent English mythologist. Allen). Gould. it is generically extensible to all the credences and practices by which men ever supposed themselves the matter is what they conceived as Gods. the God-idea = mythology with a fork. 21). 5th human a Mr.' But people.THE SEPARATIST FALLACY 95 be given to the systems which best deserve honour. that while not all myths are properly to be described aware of all as religious. indeed. the it Hebrew descent). 1 Compare Arnold: "Some . on the other hand (apart from the case of Mr. " true guise of religion. And we are led and driven to the solution that this attempt to sunder in the name of God what man primordially joined is an expression of some form speculative error. has also by the name of religion religion. in his Concise History of Religion (i. I understand. the only applicable principle is that of the careful comprehension of all facts and for that purpose we must either reject the word "religion" altogether. must be at least nominally kept out of the discussion. . ed. labelled" Absolute Religion. who in his simple way classified religions so as to leave Christianity in an order by itself. since if we avow this common ground we shall be driven to consider whether is the Christian religion not consanguineous with the rest in myth must and ritual as well as in the other thing. And that is never to be counted on. of attitude in question might be supposed to that. extra-human The sum of intangible lives. F. or recognize the plain fact that in touch with or personalities. as having no accepted significance. returns at every window. But when we are reducing to scientific form the facts of the mental history of mankind. gives as an alternative definition of religion "the authority of a moral law" which may be "viewed as a purely creation". even if he be at the point of view from which the problem can be properly seen. of course. p. Goldziher and Sack (both. it is not necessary to In Germany it may be either the ordinary religious heredity or an outcome of the influence of Hegel.

about the 'mythical' parts of the Old Testament. Whence this ordercorrect impression. Lang. ou "Mythology and the Bible. in the eighteenth century to the earlier suggestions that the Bible contained mythology like the sacred books of other religions and it is significant of the retardative power of orthodox habit among us that it is necessary to-day to examine and answer such reasoning on the part of a professed mythologist. have been carried on pretty much in AGAIN our of . does not convey quite a Whatever else the stories in Genesis and Exodus may they have moral and intellectual qualities. over a hundred years ago. is exactly what we wish to know. 96 ." For him. Mr. it may even be said. orderliness. i. sobriety. this is very much the kind of opposition that was made . who more or less avowedly resists the application of anthropology to the problem of Christian origins. including the argument of Strauss. vol. 1 Art. sobriety. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE § 1. to say nothing of — the Attic tragedians. On Hebrew mythology . considered separately from the New Testament. the mythological discussions of the first half of the century. perhaps needlessly and again. one occasion he has actually glanced at the question of and even on that. : "One has a kind of traditional objection to talking It is a . he stands very much where Eichhorn did. and.— Chapter IV. and what tell M. Hebrew Mythology. In the first place." in Neiv Beview. so much confined Hebrew literature. 1889. liness. 279. people. first illustration of the difficulty is furnished by the case Mr. does not us. why they are so solitary." 1 Save for the absence of fanaticism. Renan. to the ancient and poetry arise. p. seriousness. way of speaking it which must offend many be. . a poetic value. Lang here implicitly unsays what he has so often said in other connections that in Homer. He does not want to discuss these things he dislikes and disparages the view that the Judaic and Christian religions are products of normal evolution the evolution principle being in his hands valid only for the treatment of social origins and " absurd and offensive anecdotes. perhaps. there are qualities of seriousness. which are lacking in the mass of wild queries and fancies usually called myths. It is apropos of Renan's Histoirc du Peuple cV Israel that he writes vain. orderliness.

that Homer rejected or ignored " absurd and offensive anecdotes" known to be current in his time. and that it In the terms of the case it is impossible that the Greek epics could have held their ground if they had not exhibited seriousness. and that Pindar avowedly did the same and if. it 97 even be said. in the details of the the massacre of the Sichemites by Simeon and Levi. . of the crime of Lamech ." all imposed He has expressly told us. Lang to the Pentateuch. " and. . two versions of the tale of the ark in the anecdotes about the exposure of in the narrative of the Noah and the proceedings of Lot's daughters command to Abraham to sacrifice his son with Pharaoh and Abimelech same ^pleasing anecdote in the case in the story of his duplicated dealings in the further duplication of the of Isaac . in the ascription to man of the conception of ever occurred in the . if the " absurd and offensive " elements in the best Greek poetry deprive it of title to the qualities ascribed by Mr. he may upon mythical matter. sobriety. of the flood . a poetic value. the distinction that Mr. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE sobriety. In the second place. all over men's appreciation Testament. in the theory and the procedure . there are assuredly absurd and offensive elements enough in that to destroy the credit that he so liberally gives it. . Lang seeks to draw could hardly have been ventured on by anybody. either in the full understanding that his Gods never existed. instructions to connubial father life Abraham about circumcision in of Abraham and Jacob . Sarah at the age of ninety bore a husband. or on the assumption that they were " demons ". all of whom use the same God-names. after all he has said of Homer. and the ethical . the rest of it Homer has maintained dominion through the Christian period. will not now credit the Iliad with the qualities aforesaid. and the duplication of the laughing episode in Yahweh's in the allegation that child to her centenarian . in the talk of Yahweh with Cain death before death had in the cryptogram . in Yahweh's wrangle with her beforehand. . with selected works of the tragedians and the philosophers. orderliness. comment of their in his allocution to his sons — if in this string of alternately all in absurd and coarse anecdotes and of obscure rhapsodies. the H . while the Hebrew Bible has held its place on the express declaration that it was the one divinelyus must do as against him. as did others before him. Lang sees nothing but sobriety and orderliness in . If Mr. in a and if they had been bound up in one volume relatively high degree inspired book in the world before the New contained nothing but the purest truth.. the two irreconcilable accounts of the creation in the positing of in the story of the serpent and the fall light before there was sun .

and we are thus dealing with a Hebrew adaptation on all fours with the oft-cited practice of Pindar. p. des Alt. Anm. in his Pantheon (1713). ii. Mythology among the Hebretvs. mutilated his father Cham. This is not the occasion to attempt even to outline the main features 1 Goldziher. who seems to dispute the point. for instance. And with the Hebrew and compilation. Egyptian. sufficiently answers Mr. Meyer (Gesch.. argued that the Greeks had taken their story from Genesis. and of Homer. Lang's question as to how whatever comparative order and sobriety we find in the Pentateuch came to be there. But cp. Mr.. 103. representing the effects of Assyrian. The difference is that whereas Pindar made a clean breast of the whole matter. 209). . and Persian culture on the previously semi-civilized Jews the systematic effort to gloss polytheism into the form of monotheism. the Hebrew redactors. These books represent a prolonged and repeated process of redaction. Lang lays special stress on the story of the mutilation of Uranus by Kronos as a sample of the element of savage survival in Greek myth. But if he had perused an easily accessible work on Hebrew mythology he would have learned that in the Eabbinical crudities of primitive It is obvious — literature there is preserved the tradition that son. 70a. p. and to modify the — most glaring barbarism. 2 Now the context makes it practically certain that this was the original form of the 3 story. 98 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY book of Genesis alone. and Homer simply set aside the unmanageable. Outlines. culture. " the black " he had looked further into the matter he would have found that a slight vowel alteration of one Noah 1 and if word in the present text would give that sense. Mr. 2 The old mythologist Andrew Tooke. who refused to say that one of the blessed Gods was a mad glutton. misreading the word in question as they so easily might. be it observed. Sanhedrim. And this is but one of a hundred inferrible improvements of the text by the later theologians. falsified the text. Babylonian.). To call such a narrative sober and orderly as a whole in comparison with either Hesiod or Homer is to throw all criticism into confusion. represents a relatively late literary state of Hebrew Even Eenan. that in the story of Jacob's wrestle with the "man" the antagonist was originally Yahweh the Yahweh who had familiar conversations with Cain and Abraham and Sarah. 131. who simply left the worst stories out. in their usual way. one can but say that it is impossible to follow his distinctions. anthropomorphism and pastoral from the context. 3 "The God who mutilates his father and eats his children is of genuinely NorthSemitic origin" (Tiele. citing tract. The solution may lie in an early iEgean derivation. Lang does not see exactly the characteristics of the " mass " of barbaric myth. all his inconsistencies and laxities of method.

Goldziher and other recent mythologists. §§ 12. i.. xv. but it is justifiable to say. a solar deity can be established at least as satisfactorily as the solar character of Moses. that a great deal of the heterogeneous narrative of the Biblical books has long been satisfactorily identified as normal primitive mythology as clearly so as other portions have been shown to be purposive sacerdotal fiction — —and that when applied. 3 and as Moses' horns but one word. 4 1 . To say nothing the various by Dr. Hosea viii. " horn" and "ray". 27. that the son of the mythical Miriam there was probably an ancient Palestinian Saviour. The Jewish books would naturally drop the subject. it appears that Moses is at one point but an aspect of the same myth. Horned One. Rev. 5. some of them noted long ago and since ignored. not in the Arabic original. Moloch was similarly imaged. The tradition as to Joshua occurs in the Persian version. As the babe Moses is set afloat in the basket of bulrushes. 13. p. 5 Strabo. rnarg. 396. §'9. That Joshua is a purely mythical personage was long ago decided by the historical criticism of the school of Colenso and Kuenen that he was originally . ed. first. Dionysos is among other things the Zeus or Iao of Nysa or Sinai. 2 Exodus xxxiv. Keren.Sun-God. If the religion of Yahweh be compared it in its those around it. Judges viii. Jesus the son of Mary we are led to surmise that the elucidation of the Joshua is — — Christ myth is not yet complete. since 4 Yahweh was actually worshipped as a young bull. 3 Goldziher. being the it may mountain. 4-6. dwelling there in the 5 1 Chronicle of Tabari. Cp. rational tests are more rigorously and as more vigilantly much that still passes history will probably be resolved into manipulated myth. And when we note myths that that in Eastern tradition (which preserves a variety of the Bible-makers for obvious reasons suppressed or transformed) 1 that is to say. Kings xii. if not as that of Samson. Hosea viii. there are clear connections. one of the connecting links being the myth of 3 Moses. In the etymological explanation of the horns of Moses lies The Hebrew language has a possible clue to the horns of Dionysos. 179. Vers. 28. between the worship of Dionysos and the myth dealt with worship of Yahweh. for are certainly solar. 29." elements of reveals even in its highly sophisticated form the plainest mythical kinships. 6 See hereinafter. Christ and Krishna. the early conception of Dionysos as a bull. instead of being isolated from main aspects with them in thought as of an " ethical system. even as did Yahweh but for the rest he duplicates mainly with Moses. carried in the basket in the sacred procession. be that there was verbal pressure behind In any case. the babe Dionysos is 6 Like Moses. 1. THE STAND FOB THE BIBLE of 99 Hebrew mythology . Paris. 1867.

law on two tables of Jewish forgery. iv. Deut. 15. 36. Lang to fall back on a similar view at least If to the extent of deciding that the Mosaic myth is actual history. " the Lord" (Yahiveh) being named in the same sentence— clear traces of the process of redaction. Inst. 16. . At the annual celebration the priest put on this mask over his robes (even as Moses put on his veil in the presence of the people before and 6 after speaking with the Lord ). For the earlier Christian mythologist. Preller. however. and some writings relative to the rites were taken out. Elijah. 321. as did Enoch and There are. and refs. 1st ed. Golden Bough.* like Moses. 22. read from. anyone with the facts of Comparative Mythology before him can If the story of rest in such a faith. 35. 4 Exodus iii. 6 8 Exodus xxxiv. 1126-7. — — — : . the word has no rites these . i. " By Petroma " was the most sacred oath for the people of Pheneus and the stones bore a covering. in which Moses must needs have gone to heaven like Dionysos. and replaced.100 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY Dionysos strikes water from the ground with his rod . viii. 5 The statement in the Orphic Hymns that Dionysos wrote his stone— a datum founded on by Voltaire— is now abandoned as a late Cp. the solution of such coincidences was simple the Pagan stories were of course perversions of the Hebrew history and our own contemporaries have the encouragement of Mr. 2nd ed. In the Greek cult of Demeter much was made of the place Petroma. On the other hand. xxxiii. i. Euripides. Div. " two large stones fitting into one another. and within a bush 5 Dionysos was frequently represented in ancient art. And yet again it was told of the mythic Cretan king and lawgiver Minos a solar figure of which the traces go clear back to the early " Aegean " period that either once or many times he entered an ancient and holy cave to hold intercourse with his father Zeus. First it is the "angel of the Lord" who appears in the bush. G iech. is But the story that the grave of Moses could never be found evidently a com- promise between the Evemerism of the Yahwists and the early myth. 65. inside which was a mask of Kedarian Demeter. he is certainly past argument. and in fulfilment of the ancient rite 11 struck the earth with rods and summoned the Gods of the nether " world 7 another variant of the acts of Dionysos and Moses. 33. But the passage in Euripides points to the original of all forms of the myth. — 1 3 Pausanias. Myth. Cp. 7 Pausanias. and refs. 2 and in the " twofold rocks" of 3 Dionysos lies the probable myth-basis of the two stone tables on which Moses wrote the law on Sinai. then it is " God " (Elohim). he crosses the sea with his host. 119. 2 Diodorus Siculus. and 8 receive from him laws for the island of Crete. Frazer. Lactantius." At the annual celebration of the great were detached. the giving of the law on Sinai be not a myth. it is Yahweh who appears to Moses within a bush 4 . yet other parallels. Jon. ii. Cp. 2-4. iii.

edited by Frederic Harrison. Physical Beligion. Mr. Lang seems to perceive." for instance and he has never shown any great reluctance to dishearten or to ridicule those persons who. cited. are communicated by theophany to a tribal leader on a mountain top. scholars as natural episodes of Eastern like life . A set of laws which. . with or without similar alleged to have been . 284. some such movement of the general intelligence. so far as they are really ethical. Complaining of the vagueness of Eenan's — — account of Hebrew religious origins. It is hardly necessary to point out that we are not dealing with a spirit of pure humanitarianism or disinterested benevolence. and are seen to have been independently attained myths of revelation. so long as comparative mythologists can write on the whole matter as does Mr. who probably discovered the principle of Monotheism 2 so long as Moses is believed by Positivists to have been a real leader who invented the Ten Commandments so long as the feats of Elijah and the cheats of Jacob are gravely handled by clerical by all peoples. when next to nothing has its been found out at in ' all . of course. he speaks somewhat tartly of being welcomed by " the clever superficial men and women who 'think that everything has been found out. p.. 5. and to have been by him there engraved on two and we are invited by a tables of stone which he afterwards broke professed evolutionist. Lang has no the special scruples about offending a good many sorts of people clever superficial men and women. i. of mythological science in the Biblical direction. 220-1. So long. and resent. Arnold.1868. Lang it will be difficult to set up in the reading world that state of mind which shall at once encourage and chasten the activity But even Mr. 101 and nothing but an irrationalist bias can account for the profess to capacity to accept such a record in the case of accept also the principle of evolution in men who human things. 2 See The New Calendar of Great Men. 371-5. as educated publicists like Professor Max Muller and the late Matthew Arnold talk of Abraham as a historical character. to recognize an abnormal verisimilitude in the tale. who disbelieve in Authority."' 3 The psychic state revealed in this utterance something to be reckoned with in our inquiry. Chips from a German Workshop. p. as we shall see presently. p. instead of making much of the Paradise and Promised Land — . Literature and Dogma. exhibited as it is further in the previously cited protest against "offending many people" by talking of Old Testament mythology. 1891. Gladstone swear by the flood and. 5th ed. and do believe is authorities. so long as authorities Mr. . 1892. THE STAND FOE THE BIBLE meaning . be it added. 3 Art. represent the alphabet of all social law. 1 Muller. pp. 32.

Lang. Lang repeatedly applies to non-Christian systems and creeds." " anecdotage. secondly. p. first. On all of which it may suffice to observe. adds a demurrer : the wonderful tale of the Plagues. ." It is to be feared that these concessions will give a good deal of pain to " many people. Mr. some of them contemporary. Lang after all admits some of the most prominent of the Pentateuchal narratives to be as downright myths as any in the world. are " myths found all the world over " the first being "a variant of 'The Man Born to be King' Cyrus. Oidipous the exposed Eoyal child. or of those who hold other creeds that of ." Such being his latitude. and by the Word who believe in both Authority and authorities. which are not part of the world's common treasury of myth ? the rest. of the pillar and the cloud. Mr. try to frame and reach paradises and promised lands for themselves or their posterity. that science has nothing to do with susceptibilities beyond taking care to use decent language. the night and the fire? What genius invented these. Samuel Kinns. holding God and taking the word of Dr. "But This may be a mere literary question. ' — — — passage are "nearly universal. 286. such terms as sacerdotage. they have always open to them the twofold resort of crying "infidelity" and of turning their backs on the subject. What were they doing in that galley ? Coming back to the sphere of scientific argument. on the contrary they have shown a very general disposition to ostracize and ruin those who openly disagree with them. and easily gullible by authorities : his protecting sympathies are only for the superficial men and women who are not clever." while variants of the sea. other mythologists may surely go the length of calling Hebrew mythology Hebrew mythology." 1 some strange 1 Art. And if the good " many people " are hurt by such language. he writes. who think everything that is found out goes to corroborate the Bible." Mr." and " foolish faith. we note that Mr. He rather enjoys hinting that those who take a rationalistic view of the reigning religion are at best clever and superficial. and are thus not entitled to anything more than the normal courtesies of debate on vital issues and. that the common run of the men and women in question have themselves never shown the slightest concern for the susceptibilities either of those who cannot accept their creed. Eomulus.— 102 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY of Genesis. and yet one suspects the presence of historical facts. The stories of the finding of Moses and the passage of the Eed Sea. of the death of the firstborn. cited. Lang's mercies are somewhat straitly covenanted. however.

to be normally assumed that either a genius invented them or historical facts"? 2. 11) and the Muses (Hesiod. Virgil. Berry. xix. wherein ten months would be little more than nine solar months. the ten adults needed to make a Jewish synagogue. So strong was the inclination to apply this principle that in various myths a divine child is said to have been ten months in the womb. 61 and see Diogenes Laertius {Pythagoras. 1 See the references in Bahr. exactly wise on the part of a modern Theist. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE It is a little difficult to deal 103 with such very tentative orthodoxy in but we may put 1.. would he have dreamt of raising any question of historical fact ? Would he not rather have put the ten tales under his general heading of absurd 5. Eel.. Symbolik des Mosaischen CulUis. the ten made for Arabs and Persians by the nine heavenly spheres and the earth the usage of tithes.g. 25. moon.) as to the Pythagorean biology. after all.. earth. i. whether writing as a mythologist or as joint author of The World's Desire. Hymn. five planets. the answer in the form of a few questions. p. If ancient literature. the ten ages of the Etruscans. Apollo. the ten commandments. Hermes (Horn. (b) we must surmise " the presence of some strange Is there anything so very staggering to the rationalist position in the view that a Jewish genius ? may have had a hand in the redaction of the Pentateuch 3. as the " finishing " and " completing " number. should we have been any more entitled to " suspect Is there. Theog. Cp. Short History of Astronomy. iv.. 1. and central fire). and — if not offensive Is it — anecdotes ? 6. — invention than for suspecting the presence of facts ? some strange historical Mr. . 175-183. In the Pythagorean astronomy the "counter-earth" (Antichthon) was invented simply to bring up to ten the number of bodies of the central system (sun. This idea may very well have originated in the lunar computation. 1898. a myth of ten plagues in the presence of some strange historical facts "? ten plagues suggest ten times the a story of one plague 4. but the higher number is mythically preserved after the solar division is instituted. ? Or does a story of amount of genius required to make 1 Seeing that ten. if Apollo had been said to send ten plagues on the Greeks at Troy instead of one. anything abnormal in the development of an intellectual climate in which plagues of drought and flood and vermin and disease and dragons were constantly ascribed to the punitive action of deity ? For example. .g. Lang had met with a story of ten plagues in any other all ten of them monstrous miracles. E. as isolated Inasmuch is it and peculiar myths are found (a) most systems. the — ten spheres of the Pythagoreans. was one of the favourite mythic and regulative numbers in antiquity e. where the year=ten months). and so on is not the particular total of ten plagues rather a reason for inferring systematic . the ten made by the nine Muses and their head. 58.

Lang distorts the problem from first to last. " the Chaldaean cosmogonic myth was a medley of early metaphysics and early fable. pretending that they always stood for the same deity it repeats traditions concerning mythic founders of races if all this be not a " medley of early Mr. Does " the rest " include the wondrous tales of the per. Lang's discrimination is unintelligible unless fable. p." he writes. . cited.— 104 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 to suggest that his deity and Heavenly Father. 1st ed. proceeding professionally on collected materials with a sacerdotal purpose. of a worthy of a professed cultivator and mental science thus to darken counsel for the "superficial men and women" by suggesting that there are some supernatural facts behind a narrative which so many religionists of a rather more earnest sort have definitely given up as unhistorical. and fire sufficiently considered the wonderful story of may spare ourselves the discussion of the pillars of and cloud. like other cosmogonies. 3 Art." what is ? he be taken merely to mean that the Hebrew redactors.Cain and Jabal it grafts the curse of Cham on the curse of Cain. Tubal. 1 r 2 . . Early in the eighteenth century Toland. remarking that no supernatural genius would seem to be necessary for the adding of these items to a story which all sober Biblical criticism has admitted to be an utterly incredible compilation of fictions. " who is not far from any one of us. 340. in the history Joseph it makes use of various God-names. 281. early. medley of early metaphysics and early fable history." really operated on the intelligence of a stubborn king by decimal affliction and final massacres among that king's subjects? 7. making that finally the curse of Canaan it tells the same offensive story twice of one patriarch and again of another. Ritual. story of the " of . that It is a is." or the myth of Adonis. and Religion. it gives an early "metaphysical" theory of the origin of death. We know to-day that the whole but Toland's Evemerism may serve well story of the life in the wilderness is a myth enough to meet Mr. Why is the It is hardly 2 branch of historical Biblical story so different in character?" 3 It is not different in character. life. undertook to show that the cloud " was simply the smoke of the night's guiding-fire. Two Brothers. " Manifestly. formances of the rods of Moses and Aaron or are these forms of narrative which could be evolved without setting up the impression of " strange historical facts "? Perhaps we have the plagues. Lang's supernaturalism. . : " Myth. i. . relatively to known Hebrew It ties together two creation stories and two flood stories it duplicates several sets of mythic personages as Cain and Abel. . But Mr. in his Hodegus. and evil it adapts the Egyptian — .

2 Cp. 39-40). Max Muller. as Bunsen had done. iv. us is and sociology among is a matter of sociology kept fully as backward as mythology by religious prejudice . Draper. Lang indicates. Eenan's : earlier days. than in those of " — biology. I 1 think. vi. Robertson Smith. vii. Sack. Steinthal. any special development of bias or faculty in any people is a matter of "selection." might here. viii. setting up at 5 Jerusalem a would-be unique source of sacrificial and other revenue. have but to recognize the Hebrews (l) as groups Palestinian tribes. 4 Saul is described (1 Sam. in the author's Short History of Freethought. Chips from a German Workshop. but even in the light of the mere history of Jewry as rationally 3 re-written by modern Hebraists. 8 I. Yahweh. and Peschel. cite on his side many sayings of M. that has discussed it.. 33-34. none of them a mythologist. during centuries. THE STAND FOE THE BIBLE to [ 105 wrought them up in greater fulness and elaboration than belonged But that is exactly what a dozen Greek the older records. 1 It is rejected by Kuenen. Cp. ix. in one We of of which. 2. like all other apriorisms. and Max Muller. indeed." not in the Darwinian sense that the special development enables the people to survive where others would succumb. xiv. Wellhausen. This. Roscher (the economist). So incoherent was Eenan's thought on the subject that he alternately presented the Semites as marked Hebrews were — by a —the minimum of religion " and a special genius or instinct for it theorem now endorsed by Mr. Spiegel. Stade. Later he massacres the priests of Yahweh (Id. There is no more mystery in the matter than in any other natural process much less. indeed. 5 Goldziher (chs. That he himself was a worshipper of Baal appears from his son's and grandson's names (1 Chron. But the pre-scientific assumption of an innate genius for anything in an entire people must give way before science. viii) conceives the special development of Yahwistic monotheism . Lang. 3 and xxi. Lang's final deliverance that " Behind it all is the mystery of race and of selection. previously special to 4 Judah. It is accepted by Noldeke. 17-19). the eminent genius of one tiny people for religion. See refs. the that the days when he told the world. is at times officially imposed^ over all others. perverted by the Yahwists (2 Sam. Nor is there anything more than uncritical rhetoric in Mr.e. mythographers and Hindu poets did with their materials there is no mystery in the matter. on the other hand. who were Amorites.. of course. the cult of Yahweh. Mr. Kuenen. Lang's difficulties cease to exist. Goldziher. i. 4). xxii. As Mr. i. as well as by Ewald. 350-1. ii. It is an ultimate fact in the history and government of He the world. 35) as building his first altar to Yahweh after driving out the Philistines with the aid of Judah. but in the sense that special conditions bring the special development about. Bluntschli. 2 Sam. unless it be Spiegel. etc. 8. Winckler. was also the God of the Gibeonites. destitute of a mythology a proposition which has been rejected by nearly every student of mythology. welded now and then into kingdoms.

among whom the monotheistic idea has emerged by way of syncretic philosophy. associated with some development of scientific knowledge. and 1 a guardian angel whom God at most. but simply those Jews who. Jeremiah xi. We that in despite of such efforts. and conjoined with others. gave to return to Jerusalem. There its scholarly and priestly members come into contact with a religion kindred to that of Yahweh. The shortcoming of Goldziher's theory lies in the usual tendency to narrow the process of explanation. and another factor is needed to account for the positive elevation and localization of a cult formerly more widespread. This principle (4) is by the Yahweh devotees among the Jews imposed on their merely tribal or nationalistic belief. though haply they might each be allowed Baal-altars as streets. That the Return was thus partial and sectarian there is abundant evidence.20. in contact with a much wider religious system. but in the testimony of those much to have occurred in terms of national enthusiasm and patriotic self-consciousness and no doubt that might assist. or anti-Yahwists). and chronic invasion by other powers. from either of which directions it may have been carried to Babylonia. the rest of the nations of the world having no real God at all. far more fully documented. none the less (2). the natural and inveterate polytheism of the people subsists in all directions. but far more literate. carried the " tiny people" by the time of the Captivity. and carried on by an endowed and leisured scholarly class. permission to those Jews not " the " Jews who would was who returned. which were intermittent (many of the kings being polytheists. All the political and psychological conditions must be taken into account. after undergoing defeat and depopulation by Assyria. grew more and not less fanatical in their special tribal cult. . and all save its poorest are carried bodily into captivity by the new military power of Babylon. had its innate genius for religion. But other nations were zealously patriotic without giving up polytheism. as it had earlier done in India and Egypt. 1 a Dan.13. with the result (among the most fanatical) of making out the One God to be the God of the Jews and housed at Jerusalem. x. 13. not only in the new sacerdotal literature. so that a Yahwist prophet can describe the inhabitants even of the capital as having as many Judah as having no fewer Gods than cities. When Cyrus. 2 Thus far. Isa. the conqueror of Assyria. xxiv. thus going on the whole backward in its civilization and culture. is utterly overthrown. punishes with his nation when he goes wrong. And now which to this occurred the first main " act of a process of " selection day has sufficed to set on a false scent the amateurs it of a priori sociology.106 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY are to remember. in contact with a higher culture. having conquered Babylon. This polytheistic people (3). albeit they were irresistibly influenced by their surroundings towards putting a higher form on it. . 21.

is woven into the concocted history of the past Hades emerges while the comparatively civilized law of the new power. both under Zerubbabel and under Ezra. formerly exhortation. apparently endorsed by that " they were only the bran. 178). however. on Chaldean lines the lore of angels becomes a prominent part of the system and as time goes on and the . What is special to the Judaic life is just the systematic writing-up of Yahwism. see Sayce. list Zodiacal ideas. that all 1 returned to Jerusalem after the end of the Captivity. THE STAND FOB THE BIBLE more numerous Jews who remained the latter. now becomes prediction. the Evil Power. that in Babylon. which was actually claimed as a distinction by the in men of the Beturn. . the principle of the Adversary. as they did still later after the Boman of Jew to those of the Captivity that intermarried with foreigners. and as such old Saviour- much Gods (Mosheh being " the raiser-up. 107 The account of many is. 51. conquest. of the later Palestinians. the factitious literature even of the fanatical Yahwists had begun to take on the colouring of the Chaldean culture of Babylon. Persian cult in turn influences Jewry.. and New Testaments Connected. in Kiddushim. part i. were mostly pedantic ceremonialists. who narrowed down the name had returned and had not Meantime the natural diversity of thought and faculty which belonged to the Jews as to other nations was merged in the foreign populations. in which they had scattered themselves during century after century of invasion and oppression. Talmud Bab. is the dregs of the people. . As to the God-names Jacob and Joseph. and Records of the Past. drawn thence." and Joshua or Oshea " the Saviour" or "Conqueror"). The Old citing 2 1 . Already." precise value of that estimate. deities into servants of Yahweh. i. 1815. Hibbert Lectures on the Babylonian Beligion. Thus Moses and Joshua. it Whatever may be the with the fact sufficiently accords that the Jews of the Beturn. his children's and in the story of Joseph's dream the task of a prophet. are made the leaders of a miraculous theocratic deliverance and conquest in the prehistoric period while the tribal legends of divine founders become the biographies of patri2 archs and various myths concerning the Gods Shamas and El and . doubtless with modifications. v. 48. as part of a deliberately-invented though redacted body of false history. from Media to Egypt. are developed characters. Prideaux. obviously solar personages both. and that the fine flour stayed behind at Babylon. New Series. book iii (ed. is embodied in the pretended law of Moses. Jacob's of . p. The very institution of the synagogue dates from the Babylonian sojourn. and credited to the theocracy. and the turning of the old local the idea of a secular .

Israel " in the 2 3 . 1856. tageous to religion to describe forced or grafted it as a genius for that. closing of their canon. so long as that temple whereafter he figures as the " Chief Rabbi of Heaven. but it is a kind of faculty on all fours with any other deliberate specialism." For- merly he had spent three hours a day in " playing with Leviathan ". Arabia. . good and bad. and to the last of it never overcame the indurated tribalism and ceremonialism for the mass of the selected people. Samuel. the Chaldeans. 195. Gesehichte Israels. pp. or the Austradied in those who had infancy. The express is doctrine of the latter. Elijah. whom . and article on "The Names of the First Kings of Modern Bevieiv. Lang. Finally. The quality of a genius for religion might just as well be ascribed to the Egyptians. 170 sq. in fine. Its supposed antecedents in Essenism are themselves of late and foreign origination in Jewry. and is certainly post-exilic. January. 462. 1884 W'inckler. Elisha. in which all phenomena are explained in terms of themselves. and the hours formerly given to recreation are spent in instructing Such was the "genius for Jewish doctors before they began to acquire new heathen lore from contact with the Saracens. The most admired Biblical if written by a Jew at all. p. All that is relatively high in Judaism. the Persians. the Hindus. The quasi-monotheism and ethical universalism of the later prophets is similarly a product of book. History The Making of Religion-. As for their ethic. only in the hands of the superior few among the Rabbis does it surpass the measure of altruistic thought which Mr. that of Job. is by one who had been in contact with the life and culture of Persia. as to the Jews. of the Jewish Nation after the Destruction of Jerusalem. lians. 52-57. ii. etc. p. foreign influences ." oddly objected to by Mr. lasts its God is the tenant of one temple. of late GraecoJewish and Gentile teaching. citing the Avoda Sara. is demonstrably on the primitive cult from without. and Egypt. and David. In all this there is doubtless a faculty for cult-building . Kenan's phrases about " the clean and sober imagination of Israel. and belong to the pre-scientific interpretation of history." 2 religion " exhibited by the . Christianity is on its theological side an unquestionable adaptation of the Pagan principle of theanthropic sacrifice and on its ethical side is merely a blending. the Arabs.108 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY David and Saul and Solomon 1 are reduced to biographic details in the lives of Samson. Lang 3 for another purpose credits to the aborigines of Australia and Africa. but after the fall of the holy city the heavenly court is in mourning. Edersheim. Hibbert Lectures. such as Brahmanic metaphysic or Roman law and it is not very advan. since the . 1 a negation of all progress in religion and Sayce. are quite in his own spirit.

and the religious separateness and persistence of the Jews of it all a special and peculiar mystery is merely to raise mystification. 245. 1 Only in the last sentence of his valuable book religion. § 2. dealt with. The race as a religious group in Europe stands collectively for mere mental fixation and separatism. to ignore their symbolical development and later ethical connotations is : in the treatment of Christianity the principle to pass over the concrete myth forms altogether and consider only the metaphysic and the ethic that have been grafted on them ." When the mythological basis of Hebrew is religion. 2 does Dr. conceded a thus put back in doubt by professedly anthropological mythologists to-day. Frazer glance at the obvious survival of theanthropic sacrifice and the Tree Cult in the Christian In this connection we find the procedure of the anthropological school completely reversed. pp. alike tians. century ago by theologians. In medieval and modern times.THE STAND FOE THE BIBLE their 109 of commentary has less intellectual bulk and kind in the world. German Excepting Sir George Cox. which in its kind is paralleled in different degrees in the cases of Brahminism. 242-3. 218. as in ancient. — — as of Christianity . Christianity and "Degeneration. either English or continental. as well of the hostile reaction they set up. first In the second edition (1900) the Christian . his lectures in The Religious Systems of the World. So rooted is the habit that the most recalcitrant theories are 1 Cp. 3rd ed. To call is a strictly analogous to that of the survival of and culture-contacts and the special phenomenon Jewish religiosity is no more a mystery than Japanese art or Eussian fiction. Lang. the problems of Christian mythology are naturally kept far in the background. albeit ineffectually. Jewish faculty like every other is evoked and developed by phenomenon the Parsees. 241. or to admit as myths only the Catholic inventions of the Middle Ages. end. and Mohammedanism. the result first of its own claims and secondarily accumulated literature its value than anything of among Pagans and ChrisThe fact of the preservation of the bulk of the later heterogeneous Hebrew literature as a mass of sacred books mutually contradictory as so many of them are is in itself only another sociological fact. 2 This applies only to the is problem edition. Buddhism. In its treatment of " pagan " myth the aim is always to go back to the earliest forms. special conditions . hardly one of the later professed mythologists. with the tacit consent of such authorities as Mr. has a word to say on the subject.

tempered by interpolated denial. so. In a certain sense. grafting of a pagan sacrificial and propitiatory creed on the old. for the Jews and others who adopted it. Then. in the misleading fashion of Mr. 325. instead of classifying and that the so historic religion Hebrew much so that the temple at Jerusalem this on his general it principle as a process of " degeneration. ii. with gift doctrine of immortality added as a from is Animism. 304. Ritual. when we come to Christianity (a fresh religions that be. Lang treats the " priceless " as the consummation of the " pure " theory. ii. where Mr." he does not once 3 recognize mythical. accommodated religion as disparate We have seen Mr. Mr. whereof " the stuff same as are nature myths and divine myths. Lang treating the Hebrew and superior to those of other ancient peoples. Lang sets aside his own doctrine we may fitly ask what is the true formula. whose creed had been involved in sacrifice and anthropomorphic this in the face of the facts that the written myth " — Hebrew religion contains a mass of anthropomorphic myths. 329." . Lang and 4 Mr. he speaks of the religion of Israel as " probably a revival and purification of the old conception of a moral. only the In this connection. iv. 4 8 305. and Religion. If we suppress most of the facts about Judaism. describing it as a "pure" monotheism. beneficent creator. 363. Collected Essays. i. Huxley. 5. — — 1 Myth. that the Gospels themselves contain matter late equally are On the contrary.110 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY to it. As in the Zoroastrian system the cult of Mithra gradually supersedes in a measure that of Ahura-Mazda. sacrifice being in his opinion a descent to a lower plane of thought — albeit perhaps by " supernormal " means. albeit by way of abolishing animal sacrifice). ed. Finally. that he assumes that Christianity was popular accretions "given pure. in a later work. was one of systematic sacrifice. arguing strenuously for a "pure" primeval monotheism in which the God was not sacrificed to . had normally the aspect Such are the accommodations granted to the of a shambles." Mr. the cult of Jesus in a measure superseded that of Yahweh or the " Theos " in general and this obviously because the humanized and suffering God comes home to "the business and bosoms of men " and women so much more easily than does the of "degeneration. etc. we may easily see degeneration in the Christian polytheism grafted upon it. 2 Id. 2nd Id. Lang's theory of the triumph of the " squarable " God does actually here hold good. We have seen him again. Freely granting that Christianity in the Middle Ages the 2 developed a multitude of 7Mrc/i<m-myths. ." and mythical. ii. 312.

who revolts from the vulgar model. i. Ra. 95. — 1 Cp. receded majesty in exact proportion as the Mother was obtruded on popular reverence. degeneration is In some such fashion. a statue. of finer sensibility. Adonis. As Mother and Woman she was. A given convention is contentedly acquiesced in by the majority but there comes along the man of genius.— . Demeter and Perse- phone. who in turn. After a time. it is the fact that (l) a God becomes relatively "high. Lang's phrase. perhaps after he has been stoned or starved. all flourished for just such reasons in comparison with the cults of Zeus. . Lang's theory takes no note of to wit. more easily "squared". as Logos and Judge and part of the Ineffable Trinity. In the higher civilizations. a picture. and proceeds makes for to create something be it a novel. pictures positively destroys in a large population the faculty of 1 thinking reasonably about religion at indeed. however." That term may indeed be fitly applied to the process whereby a once imageless conception of any God is made fixedly concrete through the use of images or a multiplication of images and . 111 The cults of Attis. them a stepping-stone to a higher art and a As regards art. not Such a law is perhaps not without its before generally possessed. — . always going on alongside of progress. Herakles. again. insists that it does not stand for the truth which he perceives. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE remote Creator. there occurs something that Mr. the author's'/STiorf History of Freetlwught. Isis and Osiris. comforting side. by the very process of introducing another God between him and the worshipper and (2) that the obtrusion of a crude belief or a crude art on superior all. But it is an unscientific use of the term to call this development "degeneration. In any case. and the And for the same reason. till it in turn becomes a convention repellent to a later genius and again there is innovation. of the Virgin Mary in later times overlaid the cult of Jesus. again. this better model is accepted by many. In both kinds of case alike. The process is however complicated at all times by the rule of . a recoil from the vulgar conception towards a higher. Dionysos. in Mr. Ptah. degeneration is endemic in so far as bad life-conditions are always creating a larger area of low culture around centres of high culture. or of more various culture. or a poem which better satisfies his tastes or perceptions. we see the process every day." and positively less unethical. and it was as an intercessor with her more judicial Son that she was generally into a cloudier welcomed. the cult rest of the " high " Gods. intelligences less gross credence.

which Mr. meddling in everything. Lang obscures by his To put it plainly. And instead of the adoption of intermediate Spirits or lower Gods being a process of moral declension. it may at times be resorted to for the very purpose of refining and exalting the greater God. Thus we know that in the Samaritan Pentateuch later writers deliberately substi1 tuted " the Angel of the Lord. Lang contends. the extent to which the higher doctrine is assimilated and thus far in human history the general law is one of the prevalence of crude and ignorant beliefs. is really very simple. a God becomes polemic. in the sense of having so many more stories told about him. through the interposition of another God between him and the worshipper. The process. All the while. more " mythological. as Mr." for "the Lord. more respectable precisely as he gets less to do. . however." on the obvious ground that Yahweh's dignity was lowered by making him appear But the law has a more in human guise on parochial errands. that the simple removal of a God by one or more degrees from direct worship. To 1 Cp. moral elevation precisely through his hierarchical elevation. the partial substitution of the angel for the deity in Exod. or whether genius itself can evolve to good purpose. however.. 112 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY the environment. has pro tanto an elevating effect on the older God. either because the majority are always of low mental calibre. relatively to the effort made. which determines whether the majority can or can not rise to the finer presentment. . . interpolated by later hands) rebuking the ethic of their fellow-monotheists and fellow-prophets Pindar. It stands to reason that when he was the near God. or because they are sideration in the case of religion. or of their retention alongside of the more refined the broad reason being that the mass of the people have always been more or less crudely ignorant. And this is the specially important con- At all stages. Zeus in the Greek mythology acquires his relative general bearing. think. . there operates the general law above stated." so to say. ii. : always uncultured. he was so much the more obviously made in the image of his worshippers. or from both causes concurrently. find Hebrew prophets (haply. Bowdlerizing the current myths Homer and the Vedas leaving the ugliest out Egyptian and Brahman priests evolving an esoteric system which turns to symbols the barbarisms But the socio-political conditions determine of the popular cult. there is reason to some measure above the prevalent and their success is in the ideas. some minds have risen in . as aforesaid. and have sought to correct these Thus we ratio of the total facilities.

and meddles all the more in human affairs. the relation of Christianity to Judaism. in which totemic Gods. It is even maintained that his cult grew out of various animal worships. note. pp. 1909. 7. " high " by the If. — Jesuits who demanded 1 " works " and the Pauline party who insisted But see above. would as generally envisaged. and was pantheistically resolved into the idea of a universal Mind. and bore the heavier burdens partly saved his dignity superstition . had tales told of 1 It is when he is put them which survive in the lore of Olympus. a tribal and sacerdotal God. some tribes he was the One God. p. helped by Greek thought. it is . a God is made relatively simple process of being made to overshadow or absorb similar deities as seems to have happened in the case of Apollo. are the really old data in the matter.THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE start with. and thus becomes the Sun-God for Hellas in general there is in the terms of the case no proportional ethical elevation. as the swan and the bull. he entailed a tribal and sacerdotal ethic and though doubtless a few. Lang's theory. over others in the position of Supreme Judge. he was not a high " God. but inasmuch as Yahweh of the popular remained. ed. supposing against his will. now. The One God was not "high" at the last any more than The intervening host of angels and demons. at the first. overruling the more wayward actions of the younger Olympians. The low" myths about him. still break down. save for the ' 113 even few better minds. . which men's minds were portions. may be theoretically elevated by a concurrent improvement in — — general ethical thought but this is not in virtue of his increased importance and his continued direct activity will always involve a counter-tendency which in part makes the higher ethic nugatory. which we are told have no connection with the alleged if for ' high primordial religion. since he has only the more stories He told about him. As regards. on the other hand. 119-20. indeed. the Almighty who " plays with Leviathan " and sits as Chief Rabbi in Heaven is not a relatively imposing conception. speculated at a higher level. that he begins to lend and the highest of all were those formed when the God-idea became so remote as to elude form. easy to see that Mr. it to be applied of the Jews. Reinach. of himself to higher ethical ideals . who is made the father of so many local Sun-Gods. . The first Christists accordingly were but doing what the myth-making and religionmaking mind has always done in its innovations seeking to frame a rather more satisfying ethic. S. Orpheits. despite the higher ideas of some prophets or their interpolators. This holds good both of the Judaic .

its ethic being pro tanto widened. dotalism had come into complete possession the ethic remained with many popular myths superadded. the contribution of the saner or finer minds. act as a stimulus to the Jewish mind in a new environment. continue to see history in others. But in the process it became more and more sacerdotal and when sacer. ethic § 3. Even when the outworks thrown up for Christianity by an imperfect mythology and by economic conditions are removed. seem unable to realize its mythic origin some who. after ages of social vicissitude. and the cues of accumulated mythological knowledge. which they could not collectively transcend. So obvious is the play of such bias in every great issue that it should be one of the first duties of every educated passional. Beginning as a Jewish variation. the enlisted affections. in the name at once of mythological science and of social rectitude. Hence the need. the emotional habit. on The latter did in point of fact adopt a common and ancient Gentile conception — that of a sacrificed Divine Man . with the help of recovered Greek thought. with a variety of ethical ideas of which some. despite Dupuis and Volney and Strauss and the plain bearings of the latest mythological researches. The Psychological Besistance to Evidence. to the principles of geology. Some even who see the untenability of the original . of Christism. however. did transcend the central dogma. the cult was developed on a broader ethnic basis. offered — man how to challenge his own case at every serious encounter see with an innovating doctrine. . Thus it could come about that the spectacle of its crudity and its anthropomorphism could in turn. there will still remain to be met the obstinate resistance offered to every scientific view of religious origins by the forces in the camp to wit. unjudicial. to the principles of Darwin. and as a point of repulsion for the new cult of Islam which movements between them. has been the resistance — advance in succession roundness and motion of the earth. Meanwhile. but they gradually surrounded this conception.114 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY faith. the acquired code of judgments. to apply to Gospel myths the tests of comparative method. Most men can now how purely how prejudiced. with Strauss. Yet in every to the truths of the by orthodoxy to every great scientific . thus reached a higher ethic and a higher level of cosmic speculation. detect some of the myths. the European economic system serves to maintain in popular credit the mythology fixed in its original crudity.

if not indecency. hold with the savages that the Christian with civilized myths are preposterous and some savages can see men that the savage myths are so. i. We partial explanation. can recognize unreason and fiction in other men's faiths and unconsciously run their heads against them in their own. may men sense in the old notion and extravagance in the : have seen how Mr. in the myths on which he was brought up whereupon he inadequately observes that savages and That is but a civilized men have different standards of credulity.annihilative dicta from the second and twelfth chapters of Mommsen's History of Borne. as he is aware. the Latin sank into a singular insipidity and dulness. The determining is simply freedom. And if any inquirer difficult to understand how modern investigators can make fish of one myth and fowl of another. He sees at a glance the nonsense and indecency of the myths of savages. condition of vision lasts. be sure. . but exhibit no may suspicion that they contain any contradictions at all. Many civilized men . I quote from the 1868 edition of Dickson's translation "But. and how far it may avail to confuse historical serve to compare two sets of mutually. they can equally see absurdity. 91. on the other hand. it far such incoherence may go in the case of a writer of repute. and Religion. Lang fails to find offence or absurdity most offensive and absurd " anecdotes " when they occur in the Pentateuch. Hardest of all does it seem to be where the habit has been bound up with worship and chronic religious emotion. we 115 thought they saw commonnew so easy is it to find the rational in the habitual. so hard to consent to see by new light. he should firstly pay heed to the phenofinds it mena and self-contradiction which so abound in argumentative literature even where writers are not mastered by the of inconsistency special bias of a creed or prejudice or conservative sentiment. original or acquired. is one of the most blinding of influences." in the . even after he has taken to crediting them 1 with " selfless " ethics and. from But the prepossession. but are merely giving play to the different currents of sentiment set up in them by detached impressions which they do not seek or do not contrive to co-ordinate.— THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE one of these cases. . Myth. while it prepossession in a given direction. Ritual. with the preliminary assurance that the chapters not only make no attempt at a synthesis of the contradictions. As showing how science. and early became shrivelreligion 1 : "At the very core of the Latin religion there lay that profound moral impulse which leads men to bring 1st ed.

the universal " 29 ch. in substance made up" (i. a singuconception and of the products of had in the effort to . like every other. earthly objects " (i. certainly. The Romans made efforts. the spiritual and . 2). Romans dogmatize so chaotically as does he can contrive to think thus incoherently on a question on which he has no master-passion to blind him. fathom the abyss of thought superficial view. as we have already said. to the attainment of very substantial the world of the Gods" (ch. 193. the depth of the stream because is outward abstraction of the homeliest simplicity. which is only to a deceived as to is it "Of such notions. in search of advice early betook themselves to the Delphic Apollo himself" (i. 184). Mommsen but if . 198-9). and never were able to exercise a serious control over public or private acquired the life " (i. it It is given to few. or at the most to the making their will known by the method of casting lots. remained larly low level insight " (i. . 185). 184). sometimes ridiculous Roman theology was — clear. or Roman " The Latin its origin religion. the "But faith the forms of at. to treasure up such counsels [Greek oracles] and copies of the leaves of the Cumaean Sibyl . above all things an instrument for helping him ceremonies. of sank to.116 led into THE PEOGKESS OF MYTHOLOGY earthly guilt and earthly punishment into relation with an anxious and dreary round of The God of the Italian was. " Comparatively slight traces are to be found in among in the Romans of belief ghosts. by a practical and utilitarian tendency (i. 12 : i. 197). fear of enchantments. 191). or Oracles dealing mysteries. even at an early period. "It [Roman religion] was unable to excite that mysterious awe after which the human heart has always had a longing" (i. 12). as he had in his utterances on the Celtic races and on French civilization if he can in different moods see spiritual profundity and mere mechanical externality in one and the same set of religious phenomena. "The Latin worship was grounded mainly on man's enjoyment of earthly pleasures " (i. 193). that its transparent spirit-world — can appear to be shallow" (i. sometimes venerable. " The language of the Roman Gods was wholly confined to Yea and Nay. to . and importance in Italy which they obtained in Greece. " This indifference to ideal elements in the " Throughout the whole of nature he Roman religion was accompanied " [the Roman] adored (i. it 181). 192). For the reading and interpretation the fortune-telling book a special college was instituted in early times. ch. prophecy never were accordingly a highly -valued of gift.

or that violates the rules of propriety. his opportunities. is The believing Christian who for the first time however guardedly. of which even the last 1 is Part vii. frivolous interests. that the only thing that would have created surprise would have been the absence of this element. though cognate and and least different in particulars in their circumstances. " There it is we find not duly called for by the circumstances the supernatural does interpose. One inquirer put together a list of the Mohammedan myths about Jesus. and so suitable to the aim of the whole. that his creed is historically on all fours with those of its age. it may be well to scrutinize closely a few arguments which were earnestly or adroitly put together when Strauss seventy years told. — there are no no miracle which is none that serves merely claimed. With the wrecks of such arguments the path of discussion has been more and more thickly strewn for the last two hundred years. is sure to be sincerely scandalized. the life of the Founder was as credible as that of case of miracles. only more industriously developed." it " Where so presents itself in a manner unconstrained. pp. In the " hyperbolical delineations. gave a new reverberation to the doctrine that Christian supernaturalism is part of the subject-matter of mythology. To him the two sets of phenomena are wholly disparate. Strauss. . 1845." gospels. of Voices of tlxe Church in Reply to Dr. despite its supernaturalism. On the first head the line of argument was very much that of Mr. As had been sought to be done in the eighteenth century in the ago strove to show that what were called had nothing in common with the admitted of Paganism and that on the other hand. men . and his interlocutors. And it finally depends on his intellectual qualities. Lang. and with of course more resort to the stock "bluffs" of Christian Evidence. But as many still see in the wrecks nothing but good building material. myths myths in the gospels Julius Caesar. whether he ever gets beyond framing arguments which merely follow the beck of his prejudice." 1 Place beside these typical assertions. his studies.THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE becomes at least 117 much less surprising that men should see in such similar. because his feelings about them have always been so. as well as in degree of familiarity. are at different lights phenomena which. and that its prodigies are but myths and false marvels like those of Paganism. 355-9. and claimed to show that all had an extravagant or frivolous or ill-finished character that was totally absent from the German gospel narrative.

The wholesale turning 1 of water into wine at a feast at which a presumable sufficiency of wine had been already consumed. As thus :— " And as Jesus came from that city with his disciples there lay before them on the way a dead dog. on a tempest. there was and that the Founder multiplied that food for superfluity enough to fill exactly twelve of a The instantaneous cure malady its of long standing through a touch on the 6. as It figures out at over a thousand 2 Let the "apocryphal" story . The miraculous draught of fishes. containing only five (or seven) loaves and two (or a few) fishes. 1. and if they could without scandal accept it in exchange travail of several generations more. The instant restoration of maimed limbs. some extent edited by ! it did previous German critics. The catching of the fish with the coin . yielding a much larger pro- portion of sane matter simply because they represent the literary and the selected thoughts of many men bent on making a Christist movement whereas the Mohammedan myths about Jesus are mere random survivals. in its mouth to pay the tribute taken in connection with the statement that Judas normally carried a stock of money for the group. Jesus answered " Ah how beautifully white are the dog's teeth. which set reasonable narratives : are really flotsam from early Christian lore. Yet if Christians had found in their gospels the story that when the disciples complained of the smell of the dead dog." with the added explanation. The story that 5. 9." that is. and the effect will be tolerable enough. The so-called Moham- medan myths. a few of the only a delightful development of a actual Gospel miracles. ignorant myths of the ordinary Oriental sort. but be told in the archaic style of the English versions of ttie Gospels. The rebuking of the wind. in the completest degree. And the disciples 1 The quantity of the wine greatly impressed Strauss. 10. 4. devoid of " propriety. hem of the Messiah's garment. Nothing save a prepossession approaching to hebetude can obscure the fact that these are just "irrational. 5. in epileptic patients. they would have been well 2 pleased. The walking on the waves.000 persons went into the wilderness with twelve (or more) baskets. The rebuking and expulsion of the "devil" 8.tossed The instantaneous removal of leprosy. and the sea. 3. imperial pints. immediate " great calm 7. 2." for instructed people. and even touching thoughts alongside of absurd the gospels do the same. till the host baskets. all to .118 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY common implication. " with instant cessation.

plea. That the great Messiah sleep in the boat down weary at Jacob's well. but see ye not the wondrous whiteness of the dog's teeth ? This spake he unto them that they should take heed to see the good in all the works of God. Met thus at every turn by the challenged parallel. that in he gave utterance to the deepest feelings of as little have appeared in a mytho-poetical picture of his life. cited. and that they should think not of the faults but of the righteous deeds of their brethren. that come with on the lake." 1 Such are the devices of " foredeeming. see the now normally sophisticated consciousness of religious men prompting them to claim sexlessness for the old Gods and turn the were much offended with the smell thereof. " By the wayside she sat her down. Can the apologist ever have read of " outworn Demeter. 23. many would promptly and gladly make the transaction. and in as many of Buddhism." 1 Vol." In not a single case does any gospel ascribe any act whatever to its own writer. Again. or indicate who its writer was the apologist has but adduced myth to defend myth. As for the picture of the God resting by the well. searching for Persephone"? sore in heart. at the Maiden Well. slightly altered. when the apologist claims it to be a specialty of gospel narrative to contain simple and natural episodes. in the shadow where overhead grew a thicket of olives. And the Lord rebuked them and said. he does but exclude from his survey one-half " of the literature of sat mythology. p. . 357. where the townsfolks drew their water.THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE for 119 the inept story of the cursing of the fig-tree. Edgar's trans. the customary apologist usually ends by insisting that the Gospels stand out from all other sacred histories in respect of their utter aloofness from the that Jesus alone of the Gods of old is without the instinct of sex But this again is a fallacious passion of the male for the female. as the honest and sober-minded confessions of their own conduct which the evangelists so artlessly he was overGethsemane and on the cross human weakness all this would — embody in their narratives. it can be paralleled on the side of artlessness in a dozen of the most familiar myths of Hellas. . Apollo himself is acclaimed as hagnos. Nay. for the entire literature of the early Christists is in the same way stamped with the character of an age in which Oriental asceticism has become the standard of sanctity and the new God 3 is but specialized as Virgin Goddesses had been before him. or sleeping in the boat. In her guise she was like unto an aged woman who is bereft of childbearing and the gifts of garland-loving Aphrodite They knew "2 her not: the Gods are hard for men to discern* This of Great Demeter. 2 3 Homeridian I Hymn to Dimeter. of the many temples and the glorious name. say nothing of the unpleasant problem raised by the wording of John xiii. the chaste God and in Julian we : — .

than in Christism. p. p. 27) does not even tell further of the fulfilthen the miracle here consists simply in the foreknowledge. as before observed. vii. Providence attached a peculiar blessing to his labours on this occasion and he found in the mouth of the first fish which he caught a coin. 1 Christ's foreknowledge of the result constitutes. xvii. Clement of Alexandria actually accepted and prized the of Cana is neither here nor there. p. Voices of the Church. To reply that the Gnostic of Alexandria would have scouted the miracle Gnosticism had many mansions. note. The fourth edition of the original says in conclusion only " Der zuerst gefangene Fisch sollte so viel einbringen. The narrative (Mt." 2 Das Leben Jesu Christi. Kap. 273. of a transaction which from his peculiar point of view must have appeared utterly unworthy of the Saviour's dignity. end. for the first miracle of Christ. i. As if supererogatory absurdity were not enough. that prodigy is but a proof of foreknowledge. § 83. 4te Aufl. The formula is naught. If But the extremity of Neander's bias is best illustrated by his handling of the miracle of Cana." 2 would be hard to be more arbitrary. is and no modern entitled to say that there 1 Cp. da ein von ihm verschlungener Stater in ihm gefunden wurde. but changes the venue: " If we are to regard the author of that [the fourth] gospel as a man of Alexandrian culture. 4te Ausg. alleges its Gnosticism only so far It forth as the Gospel can be shown to contain Gnostic thought. dispose of the miracle of the fish with the stater in its mouth in less : dominant Buddhism no " He [Jesus] wrought no miracle in order to procure the necessary money. that the fourth Gospel suggests Alexandrian or Greek culture and a Gnostic leaning." . Here he does not employ the foreknowledge" formula. The theorem of Strauss 8 and others. so will he look in the very face of puerility in his own myths and vow that it is surpassingly divine. Das Leben Jesu Christi.— — 120 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY And the principle is stories of their appetites to pure allegory. in which Jesus actually tells Peter in advance that he will find the coin in the mouth of the first fish. 428-9. 1845. nay. it does so in every case in which Jesus says anything before a miracle is consummated. Even as the determined believer will not see charm or sobriety in any myth of the heathen. the miraculous element in the transaction. ment. The passage is thus translated in Voices of the Church. as before cited. : . which had probably been sivallowed a short time before. pp. is incomprehensible. in an English translation.. the theologian must needs glose the narrative. but told Peter to have recourse to his usual calling. whose mind was imbued with the notions of the Gnostics. 427. 3 Das Leben Jesu. were not thousands of the earlier Gnostics who would have accepted the miracle with reverence. his selection. Thus does no less a teacher than Neander. 508.

His argument must remain that the story is to be held apostolic How then because it would scandalize an educated Alexandrian. we have a systematic It may have priestly imposture. 1 2 God was miraculously and dramatically . In the Christian tale there is no such element left above ground and we are driven to ask whether the first . true that he never refers to that the water-and-wine might be argued on Neander's premiss was an addition to the original perhaps made after Clement's time. tract. when we what can we say. I. into wine ad captandum vulgus. is that the gospel miracle As for the rest of us. actually repeated year by year. word disparages the while he revels in the miracle. except that in his view repeating what he did annually in the course of nature. The modern apologist who felt that " in the Gospel miracles the only thing that would have created surprise would have been the absence" of the supernatural. or the story may originally have been told by way of embodying that doctrine in a mythos. was clearly at the true primeval point of view but even he would have been hard put to it to show that the Christian tale is more dignified or more plausible than the repeatedly "attested" wine-miracle wrought annually in the Dionysian temple of Andros in solemn manifestation of the might of the . as to how such a story came first to be told. But this view would of course be repudiated by Neander as reducing the miracle to myth once for all. of their subtler principle that the Sun-God 2 turned water into wine in ripening the grape. In Joann. This was actually Augustine's gloss of the Christian miracle. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE name of Gnostic It is . God over his special element. collate the two prodigies. ." " and his disciples believed on him. cited by Strauss. the See the treatise on The Gospel Myths in the present volume.. that the naif phrases " manifested his glory. equally set up by other episodes in the gospels namely. In the Dionysiak miracle. an esoteric idea presumably underlay the annual performance. as reasoning men. In any case. been done in pursuance of some old tale of the God turning water or it may have been the priests' reduction to falsehood." doctrine of the Logos and it story reveal a notion of divinity and Messiahship which puts the narrative outside the pale of tolerable testimony for a critical reader. single it . it will probably be allowed. Div. 121 and he never by a . § 11. but a parody of the Pagan ? : 1 At the next stage of the analysis there arises an issue that is the question. came any educated Alexandrian ever to be an orthodox Christian and how came Clement to let the miracle pass ? The special pathos of the defence lies in the perception it betrays that the story is a scandal to the educated modern . 8.

we can but answer that the formula will have For we really know nothing of the precise manner of to be recast. If. and a prompt pretence to lay hold of the land by quasi-historical narratives . it follows that the conception of " myth " should be allowed broadly to include not only stories of a supernatural cast told of divine personages. though it has been ascribed to them all and that there were not four Christian nurses who respectively alleged that they had witnessed the death-beds of Voltaire. and Mr. as it is . that any story once written § 4. Johnson and Talleyrand and Sidney Smith and Douglas Jerrold. we are reasonably entitled once. there must have been a beginning in somebody's deceit. Blank. we find related of Julius Caesar and William the Conqueror and other great captains the tale of a stumble on landing in a new country. but some told about historical personages. may have happened decide that the did not same witticism was not really uttered by Voltaire and Dr. They were all traditionary forms of error and the business of mythology is to trace as far as may be how they came to be started and conserved. But here we must reckon with a logical difficulty of obvious happen repeatedly just as . say. we rather count ourselves to have therein a sidelight on coincidences When all is said. If the foregoing argument be substantially sound. how the human mind manufactures these modern false coincidences. but which fall short of asserting downand not only stories of that cast told about nonhistorical personages. and the belief that Jesus turned so many firkins of water into wine by divine volition.122 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY It is narrator of the Christian version was other than a wilful vendor of fiction. and would not Knowing again see a freethinker die for all the wealth of the Indies. we . The Problem of Non-Miraculous Myth. And if on this we are met with the old formula that a wilful fiction is not a myth. and as a belief it was for all practical purposes on all fours with the belief that Alexander was the son of Jupiter Ammon. Eousseau. We only know that it was believed . hard to see how we can answer down in favourably : certain an accepted gospel was sure to be believed. for instance. hardly any other way of divining how primeval men contrived to tell the same stories with innumerable variations of names and minor details. origin of. the myth of Isis and Osiris. it to say that. Thomas Paine. though the thing . we have of a more sacrosanct sort in older times. many right miracle way of reassuring superstitious soldiers.

troublous rather for the Protestant than for the is The story vouched : how came it to be told? Is it that an element of ? myth really did get into the biography even of Luther Once started. undertook similarly to confute Strauss by a work supposed to be produced by a Mexican mythologist in the year 2836. Das Leben Luther's kritisch bearbeitet. . in a sufficiently German manner. with. 2 wherein Luther is shown to be a myth. the rebuttal is simple enough. such cases is the mock demonstration by Archbishop Whately that Napoleon=Apollo. . and the question as to Luther's birth mythologist. . theorem of the unreality of is place-names very ill . 123 importance. . which undermines his power his defeat by the northern hosts his twelve marshals=the signs of the zodiac his passing away in the western hemisphere in the midst of the sea. Many a student must have been for a moment as much bewildered as entertained by the series of data the birth in a Mediterranean island. the mother-name Laetitia=Leto= the four brothers=the Latona the three sisters=the Graces the hero's overrunning of the surname Bonaparte seasons Europe the two wives=Moon and Earth . . . Further. In this case history and literature biographies are found to chime in a queer — . as a later writer it reproduced in would be apt to put it. It all seems at first sight uncommonly awkward for the solarists and a German theologian. which has been somewhat adroitly turned to account of This difficulty mythical interpretations of certain religious narrais that there are very odd coincidences in : and that some perfectly attested modern way with certain mythThe most familiar and the most striking of all cycles of antiquity. and the curious story that Luther was born while his mother was on a journey. 1 3 See Or. . and the modern Greek pronunciation nearly Apoleon=the Apollyon of Bunyan's allegory.THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE by opponents tives. Strauss. much for Apollo is even mythical person and nine-tenths of the Napoleon data do not apply to Apollo at all though the Archbishop might have improved his case by noting that the Greek spelling is Apollon. . .* the apparition in Egypt the turning-point of the hero's career in the land of winter. Here the effect is much less striking and the main hits are made over the mythical appearance of the name Wartburg. To begin . . . Apollo had not three sisters and four brothers and was not defeated by northern hosts and had a great . . with more point. The Voices of the Church in Beply to Dr. the clever Archbishop's thesis proves far too in his opinion a . Dawn and Twilight. it begins to appear that the satire has come home to roost for the mythical interpretation of the gospel narrative does not rest on a . .

man test. . b. The Sermon on the Mount is further demonstrably a collection All alike are . in 1873. — — clever for the safety of the creed ? It is only gradually that the average man learns to appreciate the logical recoil of such dialectic. of which there is : a whole series. as thus a. they cannot possibly be solved by any record of a real career. Here we see how a myth may be superAs regards (2) the miracles. He laughed at Copernicus. as for others. as in which may be usefully corrective. And for the rest. many wives and a great many sons and never led any hosts. Bretzivil und von For the a Bretten. and unemployed by the other epistle-writers. Finally comes the category of presumptively- fictitious utterances. (c) like the miracles. is this. at telescopes. visibly in unknown the the falls exposure of the infant Moses. unknown to the writers of the Pauline epistles. as did the late Professor Baden Powell in the Essays and Beviews. the Temptation. though Dionysos did and save in one stray myth never died. caricature His first impulse is invariably to theory which disturbs his complacent ignor- which assails the triumphant. the Resurrection. of science. even to rise again. not the test of truth. last. at microFor him the scopes. of the Pauline epistles. irresistibly delivered at Florence his lectures on Vedic Mythology. we need but ask the Archbishop and his German emulator.— 124 THE PROGBESS OF MYTHOLOGY . he laughs best who laughs We have but to restate the mythological argument in this connection to make clear its real strength. . gospels. As thus : (l) Jesus is but not in the original version of the first gospel and not in the second and not in the fourth and not in any writing or by any mouth known to or credited by the writers said to be born of a Virgin . (3) We come next to non-miraculous episodes which yet bear the mark of myth in that they are (a) imposed on a cult. he found the average man still disposed to enjoy Whately and such skits on the mytho- logists as that published by Wackernagel in 1856. When Professor new doctrine is always De Gubernatis. laugh at the scientific ance. . (b) not common to to the four Paulinists. And in other matters. Lang admits myth The Massacre (4) the story of of the Innocents by the same tests. reducible to unreality on various grounds. ridicule. whether they mean to suggest that there is nothing more miraculous in the life of Jesus than in the lives of Luther and Napoleon ? In fine. the Ascension. at Newton. duplicates of episodes in previous hero-myths. Die Himdchen von and the science if evolves. was not the Archbishop a little too . Even Mr. at Galileo. But the skit passes. at Darwin. at the geologists.

xviii. without additions. 31-44 Matt. Any man could set forth anything he would as the teaching of the Messiah. Cp. at others to be in the habit of explaining to them privately what the multitude cannot understand (Mark iv. 34. The decisive difference between the whole cast of the fourth gospel and that of the synoptics shows that invention was no less unrestrained as regards doctrine. are valid evidence. To make the whole mass the basis of a conception of a 1 See a number of other instances cited in the author's Short History of Freethought. may have Messianically uttered some of these teachings various periods. The "Come unto me" formula has no congruity whatever with the main body of the narrative and is intelligible . 125 and has none of the characteristics of a real discourse. only as a formula of the mysteries. etc. /.g. Matt. 1 17. xviii. 50 Matt. 15-36) . i. essay on "The Jesus Legend and the author's Studies in Beligious Fallacy. and Luke ix. Matt. 218-9." in the . 6. 30 . forty or more years later and that documents to which during a century anybody might add. 5. in an age Clearly this is the merest of habitual forgery. Many of the parables are similarly impossible as " teachings.). . it can to-day find no credence among instructed men. Predictions such as those of the fall of Jerusalem are clearly Other teachings were as easy to g. 10-16 Matt. . c. A multitude of absolute contradictions of narrative in the text prove unrestrained invention e. xii. blame them bitterly. presumably after the writing of the Pauline 2 epistles." The disciples themselves are represented as needing explanaand at times Jesus tions of parables (cp. . xiii. written after the event. 43 Matt.. and xxi. 2 Myth of the Twelve Apostles. All that can rationally be claimed is that a teacher or teachers called teachers at named Jesus. 3 and xiii. or several differently named Messiahs. x. . xiii. d. interpolate. No scholar pretends to believe that all the speeches ostensibly reported in Livy and Thucydides were really delivered but though it is not recorded that any reports of Jesuine sayings existed in any form in Paul's time we are asked to believe that a multitude of Jesuine discourses delivered about the year 30 were accurately reproduced. is said to e. such body of reasons can be given for doubting a pagan narrative. When any fanaticism.— THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE of written sayings. and verse 22. . 54-58 and Luke iv.

fairies. the primacy of the Pope. the shooting of the apple on the head of by William Tell. another. . named Freudenberger." the liquefaction of the blood of St. at the end myth is but one of the primary modes deceived . the efficacy of prayer for rain. The beliefs that Demeter wandered over the wide-wayed earth seeking for Persephone that Isis searched mourning for the body of Osiris that Apollo shot arrows of pestilence in punishment among the Greeks that Athene miraculously succoured her worshippers that Perseus and Jesus and a hundred more were supernaturally conceived that Jesus and Dionysos and Osiris gave men new knowledge and happiness in virtue of Godhood that Tezcatlipoca and Yahweh were to be appeased by the eating. historical judgment. — medicinal value of charms. .. Galilean. undertook to show its source. 126 THE PBOGBESS OF MYTHOLOGY is teaching Jesus before Paul. belief . in reality or in symbol. written centuries before the date assigned to Tell's exploit. Jenny Geddes and her stool. the miracles of his child mediums. . . Arthur and the Bound Table. . the couvade. . Julian's saying " Thou hast conquered. stages and wherever the result is a widespread hallucination. Januarius. and should apply to it the same kind of tests. The fortunes of the Tell myth may serve once for all to illustrate the fashion in which a fiction can even in a historical period find general acceptance such a and the time and effort required to dispossess by means even of the plainest evidence. the episode being found in the Danish history of Saxo-Grammaticus. . As early as 1598. a Swiss antiquary pronounced the story a fable and in 1760 . Boer outrages. the credulity. O Bruce's Cave. of human flesh and blood that iEsculapius and Jesus raised the dead that Herakles and Dionysos and Jesus went down to Hades. and returned that Jesus and Mithra were buried in rock tombs and rose again and that the sacrifice of Jesus brought salvation to mankind as did the annual sacrifice of the God-victim of the Khonds these beliefs were set up and cherished by the same faculties for fiction and fallacy as have conserved the beliefs about the Amazons. as at the beginning in : Primary all which men are collectively the habit of erroneous belief persists thus far in . the miracles of Lourdes. . witchcraft. transmitted from age to age through channels of custom and emotional of civilization we are dealing with the same kind of psychological problem. Periodically repeated . Wallace's Tree. to ignore all the usual principles of To put the case broadly. said that Freudenberger It is was condemned to be burned alive for his pains . but this looks like yet another myth. and the consequent establishment of the Swiss Confederation.

leaving popular opinion to develop as social and wafer . Cp. THE STAND EOB THE BIBLE by scholars. E." do but proclaim their own immaturity. 127 resisted by learned Swiss historians on various untenable grounds down till the middle of the nineteenth century * and when the pressure of criticism at last it capacity. The science of these conditions is indeed the most vital of all but the critical inquiry none the less must be followed up for its own sake.. and our general survey may fitly end in a consideration of one of the problems that arise for the mythologist on the borderline of the religious resistance. and that no trace of the Gessler episode occurs for generations after the time to which it is ascribed. 47. while the apple story is plainly myth and Tell a non-historical person. an accomplished scholar is found in all good faith to contend that. so it may pass on myths to less developed systems. § 5. being Do detected. Bordier. religion of the foregoing argument that any one any other with which it comes in contact that as Christism borrowed myths of all kinds from Paganism.g. Swiss people.. the exposure was obstinately . indeed. It would be strange if a set of myths round which centre the popular religious beliefs of Christendom were to be rectified more The great majority of the easily than the Swiss belief in Tell. myriads more in their remoter myths will It remains for those who do care about reason and critical knowledge to pursue these ends faithfully notwithstanding. is " dead. Vieusseux. The Problem of Priority. there is some reason to believe that some disturbance occurred about the time in 2 question as if the reservation of such a proposition counted for — anything in such a connection. probably believe devoutly in the Tell story to this day. what we will. note. . the pamphlet of M. however. being broached in the name not of orthodoxy but of historical science. when became irresistible by men of education and was shown past question that the Confederation had been formally established a good many years before the date assigned to Tell. economic conditions may determine. p. 1869. Le Griitli et Guillaume Tell. Geneve et Bale. myriads of "educated" English people will continue for generations to believe that their deity is present in a consecrated . 1840. Hence a possibility It lies on the face influence may 1 2 History of Switzerland. . so little do the studies and conclusions of scholars represent popular opinion in any age who and those rationalists among ourselves go about proclaiming that Christian supernaturalism. and the faith of continue proportionally vigorous.

If the historical data leave a given case in doubt. the psychological probabilities and. in terms of a posteriori evidence and a priori plausibility. As concerning Krishna. 262. that in earlier times Christianity was drawn upon here and there in the fashion formerly taken for granted by believers as regards all cases of coincidence between Christian and pagan narrative and practice. E. It is not necessary to is Professor Bugge. we have to ask ourselves which of dispute as to Christian times way day . Dr. H. that a little-esteemed Scandinavian 1882. The theses of Professors Weber and Lorinser and others in regard to Krishnaism (discussed at length hereinafter) are typical. and that their theses are always apt to be turned to the account of orthodox belief. then. on the other hand. H.Petersen. Meyer. ask here whether or not any one of these writers desire to buttress Christianity it is influenced by a quite conceivable that all alike may be indifferent to any such result. It is easy to see why the Christists adopted the belief in the Virgin Birth and the solar birth- how savages could acquire from missionaries a belief in a punitive deluge. And so great still is the effect of the so long unchallenged habit of treating Christianity as " absolute religion " that in the name even of scientific mythology there Christianity in is a persistent tendency to look for inde- imitations of myths that had been held by pendent scholarship to be prior to Christian propaganda. Obviously such problems are to be solved. and others. 1 1 The position then. early evidence for the myth- name. cited by W. Nicolson. trans. Religion. p. The point is that they are apparently influenced by the old habit of treating the Christian system as positively non-mythical. Petersen. p. Ger. in But there are less simple which a variety of tests must be put as to the relative likelihood of a given myth's passing from A to B or from B to A. tration that maintained in recent years we may take up for illusby H. if at all. though there is. the only evidence for the tvorship being late. E. Germanische Mythologie. Helsingf ors. . Meyer. L. p. Wimmer. Putting these theses aside for detailed treatment. 84 H. 103. 1892. Ueberden Qottesdienst des Nordens wahrend der Heidenzeit. we are told that " no certain traces are to be found of an actually existing cultus " of the God in early times is . to see lie. so concerning Balder. There is a curious correspondence in the line of argument in the two cases mentioned. Tylor has shown reason for believing that a deluge-myth was set agoing in Mexico by the early Spanish priests. Myth and . as to a Christian derivation of the Scandinavian myth : of Balder. It may be.128 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY whether a given heathen myth discovered in postis or is not borrowed from Christianity. cases.

and the thesis was sustained by Von Schlozer in 1773. 1889. in his treatise affected on the Gylfa Ginning Christian 2 in of the Younger Edda. Bergmann. etc. 114. as cited. of Strasburg. H. Both in the Elder and the Younger Eddas All this fairness and the elements are Christian or partially Christian splendour [of Balder's complexion and character] in Professor Bugge's opinion is only a reflection of the Son of God. so in descriptions Christ is spoken of as fairest of body. that the swearing of the trees and plants." theological conceptions associated with Odin. Professor Bugge's general argument is thus summarized : "While the Balder myth includes in itself the most diverse elements main element is Christian. Chips from a German Workshop. notably that So long ago. is derived from the Jewish anti-Christian Gospel of the Middle Ages. an admirer of the latter. and other sagas is generally conceded. Voluspa: Bine Untersuclmng. p.. where the trees and bushes swear not to bear Jesus if he be crucified. ii. 5 . H. The rationalist Professor F. p. Such views were overborne for a time by the enthusiasm and nationalism aroused by the Brothers Grimm but E. but where Judas makes a cabbage-stump serve the purpose.] who . the Sepher Toldoth Jeschu. the White Christ as he has As Balder was depicted by an old Icelandic author as been named legendary and medieval purest white in the colour of his body. Cp. Meyer. and the learned Jacob Grimm wrong. 195-6. again. as 1728. H. Among recent students some amount of Christian contact before the composition of the Voluspa . it is not disputed that Christian and classic ideas probably some of the later aspects of Scandinavian paganism. 320. 1861. not to injure Balder.Thus Professor Rhys holds that the "prophetic" form in which part of the story is preserved 4 As regards the is "due to Christian and Biblical influence. and Dr. 3 argued for Christian and scholarly influence in the Voluspa Saga. Professor Bugge Longinus slaying Christ. 535. 1888. fully recognized a old modification Scandinavian myths. 1-8.— THE STAND FOE THE BIBLE 129 deity of old standing could be developed into a highly-esteemed one by grafting on his personality characteristics borrowed from Christism. p. 1 By Mr. and with golden yellow The blind Had [who threw at Balder the fatal mistletoe] is the hair the blind Longinus that the Balder legends " [of He concludes drove the spear into our Lord's side myth has been influenced by these medieval Christian Further. See E. Professor 5 Muller suggested Christian influence a generation ago. Now. indeed. 2 3 4 La Fascination de Gulfi. 104. Nicolson. p. excepting the mistletoe. And so on. as cited. Hibbert Lectures on Celtic Heathendom. 1867. suggests that Lucifer is the original of Loki . the antiquarian Keysler of Loki. G. Petersen. declares himself bound to confess that the earlier and less scholarly inquirers were right. and by Adelung in 1797 and later. pp. and this in face of Ohristist opposition and propaganda. Meyer.

1 2 3 . who contends in his elaborate treatise on the Voluspa that the Saga is a literary adaptation from some current Summa of Christian 6 "Whereas Bugge had argued with comparative diffidence theology. who had heard Christian and classical legends. 5 See also his Mythologie der Germanen. as by the Anglo. 466. and are the work of Latin scholars of the Middle Ages. 1883. p. p. etc. Bd. that Balder was first shaped after a classical model. that the Balder and Loki story in the Voluspa Saga.130 THE PKOGKESS OF MYTHOLOGY Eydberg has shown that certain of the migration myths of the Heimskringla and the Younger Edda belong to the Christian period. 130) so summarizes Meyer as to make him seem to hold that the saga-poet had a Christian purpose. it was embraced by E. again. as regards the item Thus we are to suppose of Balder's consuming passion for Nanna. H. and that Balder himself is an adaptation from the White Christ this is a hypothesis And the more Protoo unplausible to pass without clear evidence. 267. Eng. the weaker do his evidences — seem. Deutsche Alter tumskunde. fessor Bugge's theory is examined. and that Saxo-Grammaticus. must be said that such a proposition raises acute sociological difficulties. adaptation from an apocryphal Christian legend. 1903. E. pile of Among his Balder is incidental conclusions are these : that the funeral . 1 Dr. 294). Meyer decides confidently that the of the twelfth poem is rather the work of a Christian priest century belonging to one of the four theological its 6 schools set up in Iceland after whole native It is a literary mystification. Mullenhoff's most distinguished pupil. 65.Scandinavian Professor George Stephens/ and with less emphasis by Dr. Meyer. Cp. v. and finally designates the poem a Summa Christlicher Theologie (end). H. 454 sq. and by its pagan terminology to serve Christianity {Voluspa. is derived from Achilles. Vigfusson. Meyer really contends that the poem is not a "tendency" writing at all. 1883. sees a marked Christian colouring in the entire 2 But that the main episode in the Balder saga should be an myth. After being vigorously attacked by the German 3 archaeologist Mullenhoff. 1889. pp. 326-345. gathered by the Vikings. Nicolson (as cited. i. p. and later after a Christian and this on the score of some very remote or very taken from that of Patroklos. normal parallels. myths at all. In the hands of Professor Bugge's adherents. 1883. tr. p. 4 Professor Bugge's Studies in Northern Mythology shortly examined. which is older than that in the Edda. 220). the theory is pushed still further. being unfitted by its Christian ideas to serve Paganism. heathen in basis. ii. 6 Mr. was worked up by a heathen poet. Still he speaks of the "entirely Christianized (ganz verchristlichten) Balder and Hoder" (p. Eydberg. Christianization and that the not a genuine reproduction of . 39. Corpus Poeticum Boreale. Unless the priest-poet of the twelfth century were a Teutonic Mythology. in the picture given of the Homer God in .

as distinct from simple unbelief. So far as names 1 of persons and places show. he must have been either a Christian or a Now. Petersen. It is one thing is but a substitution of a great difficulty for a small. p. to lend literary attractions to the story of a : new besides a number of possible Celtic originals or parallels for the 3 name and of character of Loki. . might not a Balder1 worshipper desire to raise the new cult on the ruins of the old ? But Dr. as to what any one "heathen " poet would want to do. cited. in which triumph is ascribed only to Balder and Hoder and " insignificant beings such as Hoenir " " how could — a real heathen poet have the heart to deny the new glory to his old Gods Odin. p. as Id. as cited. as we shall see. Meyer takes no account of the Celtic parallels to the Balder myth. H. conclusion of the poem. . Meyer. stand for the their body myth common this all to the Aryan peoples before divergence. Mythologie der Germanen.a THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE Pagan." really exorbitant such a " Ratselgedicht. Now. pp. and there gives rise to a similar dispute. to grant that the slain and beloved Balder of the poetic Edda is a marked aesthetic advance on the Balder of Saxo's "history": it is another thing to explain both the mythical and the literary development in the fashion under notice. H. Meyer. just as there is 2 a plausible mythic equation. a greater improbability than that any of the aspects of the saga " How. who had no importance in the cultus?" question. to begin with. 42. and in their place bring in other younger This begs the Gods. 2 Celtic 4 Heathendom. is 131 highly-evolved skeptic." asks Dr. and Frey. the 1903. pointing to the should be pagan work. Meyer's challenge further recoils upon himself. p. 84 E. once more. 282-304. and so to give heathenism the greater glory ? The thesis is Dr. the existence of an impartial artistic skepticism. so far as they may indicate identities. Thor. Meyer's conception of such a " mystification. Gwydion = Woden = Indra. der Germanen. But against not figure at difficulty view there stands the difficulty that Balder does prominently in the old Scandinavian worship — which. 466. arises in the same fashion in the 4 case of Krishna." on the part of a medieval Icelandic priest. in such an environment at that period. With all his learning. 538-542. pp. chief God 3 of Scandinavian Mythol. Assume that the poet was a believing Christian priest : was ever such a one known heathen God. as Professor Rhys has shown. In Professor Rhys's opinion such parallels. Given a special devotion to Balder. Dr. there is a whole group of parallels between the Celtic Cuchulainn and Balder. And here. there is to be charged on the innovating theorists a lack of comprehensiveness of survey.

So far as such a problem can be speculated upon from the outside. duplicating one or two figures in the Christian As hitherto system. 4 Cp. : alike apparently late literary developments.. 83. Skirnir A . 314). between the northern mythology and that of the Vedas. That theory is that the germinal force which wrought the remarkable poetic evolution in Iceland was contact with 7 the Celtic literary culture of Western Britain and Ireland a culture resulting from the long-standing Celtic institution of bardism. 89 sq. Icelandic Literature in the Encyclopcedia Britannica. by H. Eng. just as a Krishna myth was probably ancient among the pre. & Sons. Eydberg. § 36. 101. myths were never made in that fashion. see a very careful essay. 76. 652. and that these were poetically developed. 6te Aufl. Not that the negative evidence against the Balder cultus is conclusive. p. 94. Teutonic Mythology. . 133-4.Aryan Dravidians in India for though Balder names are scarce in Scandinavia they appear to survive in 9 And when such parallels exist as Eydberg has shown Germany. 101. Far less unlikely is the assumption that. 1887. Cp. ch. Id. etc. On the possible significations of the name see also Simrock. 9 Grimm. pp. Nicolson. xi. originally lacking or left rudimentary in Scandinavia. 271-282. cited by Nicolson. we are not entitled in advance to disallow a single figure in the former as a . p. p. 1899). Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie. too. Introd. 1871. the English Frea " (Professor Bugge's 1 2 Chadwick (Clay Studies Examined. p. Eng. the saga-poet or poets created a whole series of new imaginary figures. See the article on As to Slavonic influence on Scandinavian mythology. by the common consent of Holtzmann. but also that this Goddess was at first one and the same with the God Froy or Frey. Celtic derivation of the Balder myth is suggested by N. 3 Petersen. 87. again. As to the original cast of Odin.111. Meyer as cited by Nicolson. 90-97. pp. 90. 5 6 7 8 tr. 21-71. — . and Eydberg. tr. understood. Such a contact could account for many of the mythic parallels noted by 8 Professor Ehys. M. the solution seems to lie obviously through the theory of Professors Vigfusson and Powell as to the general development of 6 Icelandic literature. Nordisk Mythologi. A Balder myth may conceivably have flourished among a stratum of the northern population that had been conquered by the Thor worshippers. Teutonic Mythology. M. to begin with. see Bergmann. seems to have been the Sun-God alongside of Thor and. Odin's supremacy and Balder's prestige being 2 3 Freyr. there were pagan mythical personages with some of the characteristics under notice. 5 For Dr. pp. the solution in every case is imitation of Christianity that is to say. 402-7. The Cult of Othin. Petersen. 74-5. pp. Le Message de et les Bits de Grimnir. Bergmann. Professor Stephens writes: "Even as to Frigg herself.132 THE PEOGEESS OF MYTHOLOGY 1 paganism was Thor. it is certain not only that Frigg and Froya were originally one deity. pp. Petersen. the figure of Harbard in the sagas is identical with that of Loki. p. Heimdal in the Edda has many of Balder's characteristics 4 just as. Here again we have blank unverisimilitude. Meyer.

refinement of the Balder story 1 133 as the aesthetic But inasmuch one of the main grounds of the play of the Celtic literary influence is an adequate latter theory. p. 139. Meyer why connect with Fair and Balder. doubtless. 327 sq. As Professor Ehys has pointed out. But against the whole theory of derivation there stands the difficulty that the alleged coincidences are so remote. Teutonic Mythology. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE medieval copy from Christianity. Cp. might carry with it concrete Christian Christian elements. 1882. The Celtic influence. and Grimm. But how could such a manipulation promote an acceptance of the Christian creed ? There is no Christianity is in no way advantaged by the poem. mourning Christist. should not Loki be traced if to any remote source to the Egyptian Set. as cited. As regards the which Professor Bugge thinks must be of Christian into 3 derivation. a Batselis gedicht. H. is taken from the name Apollo then should not classic sun-myths also have reached the North. is a flout to all psychological probability. and the Holy Spirit as the water flowing therefrom. whereas the theory of a literary mystification. 32. again. 120-1. i. " Summa of Christian theology. who in the spring. which Dr. it is part of the normal sun-myth. p.. G. . Meyer." : — — 1 Cp. tr. 4 Citations by Nicolson. cults of the pre-Christian Southern world than with the Eead as a sun-myth. and is obscurely present even in that of Apollo. the story it is is tolerably transparent as an imitation of Christian theology truly a Bdtselgedicht. supposing them not to have been primary ? Why. Professor Bugge thinks that the South-Teutonic God-name Fol. Petersen. as there is no cross. La Fascination de Oulfi {Oylfa Ginning)." is a misnomer : what his evidence really suggests is an imitation not of the Christian theology but of the cosmology and the mythology. Balder's death is not the salvation sacrifice. Myth. 2 3 For an interpretation see F. the detail that Balder cannot return until all nature weeps for his loss is a very close notation of the fact that the sun " returns " in strength only when the winter frosts thaw descent bedewing the whole earth. Dr. Rydberg. 1861. p. der Germ. like the other statues. Now. and in respect of the alleged connection of the admittedly ancient myth of the hiding of Odin's eye in the fountain with ecclesiastical views of God as an Eye. hell. as cited. Nicolson. p. Christ as a fountain. 104-119. and the sorrow that of men but a sad catastrophe among the Gods prevails until his return connects far more obviously with the . pp. Meyer's phrase.. p. suggests an image imported from the south. of the The theology is present only in the parallels to the apocalyptic lore Dark Ages. See hereinafter. § 16. Cp. Rydberg and Dr. 82. 464. Eng. 5 In the ancient description of the temple of Upsala by Adam of Bremen the figure of the God Freyr is said to be represented cum ingenti priapo. the explanation. Christ and Krishna. This. Bergmann.

note. and is duly punished therefor. i. from the tears of which issued mankind . Eng. this though the pyre is specifically northern. though Dr. while. Handbook ed. and O. however. tr. and fit : Canon MacCullocb. Whence came Jeschu ? the late cabbage-stalk story in the Sepher Toldoth and How ? came the myth of the blind Longinus into all Christian lore Parts of the Sepher are in probability of late medieval origin. p. "is also found among the Scandinavians. Stephens. who plays no such part? And. rather than to Lucifer. . Muller. 1882. as there cited. Professor Bugge holds to have been suggested by the transmitted story of Patroklos and Achilles. 6 105. 34 but the soldier does not become blind in any legend before the ninth century. the name Longinus may very well be evolved from the spear. tr. . But what of the pyre of the Sun-God Herakles. 5 Cp. 5 soldier How did that myth originate? It is quite con- ceivable that the medieval Christians should adopt the idea that the who thrust the spear was blind. of the Egypt. 4 Robertson Smith. notes that the Persian myth of the bridge which the righteous cross into Paradise. Before even the Vikings. p. of John xix.* seeing also that 2 the old Egyptian race is held to be an offshoot from the Aryan. Eng. 2 of Egyptian Beligion. we have seen.. All the .. and had to be guided to the by others but on this view the hint had to be given them." and adds " Perhaps the two conceptions had a common source in some ancient Aryan myth of the world beyond the grave " (Religion. Bugge's Studies on Northern Mythology. Tiele. p. as cited. Eng. Professor Bugge has never asked the obvious questions. 12 Renouf. seeing that the movable Eye of Odin. 28 sq. which probably gave the motive? Bugge's theory is that the Christian matter in the myth came through the wandering Vikings. Belig.. tr. hidden in the fountain. Hibbert Lectures. 54. while the wicked fall off into realms of torment. 4 and what of the primary phenomenon of sunset. As regards the other myth. 653. 353. why 3 should not the Voluspa myth in that regard pass for non-Christian ? Such an item as Balder's funeral pyre. 2nd 3 to allege that tbis essay denies tbe possibility of Christian influences in non-Christian mythology. Hist. . that the Sun-God should be slain by a blind brother=the Darkness or the Winter and as the northern story turns in the later form upon the magical character of the mistletoe. p. wbo bas seen Nicolson. Rydberg holds that Had or Hoder in the primary form of the Scandinavian myth had not been blind. Professor G. connects much less obviously with Christian theology than with the wonder-working eye of Ra. Teutonic Mythology. 134 THE PROGRESS OE MYTHOLOGY compasses the death of Osiris. Teutons had reached the Graeco-Roman world and thereby hangs the question whether northern myths may not thus at different times have had an entrance into the lore of the south. longche. on mythological grounds. Now. Beligion of the Semites. 1883. 1 Erman. we are almost driven to conclude that there was a act . p. 155). p. 6 it is very credible.

it should be noted that in the preChristian cults of Attis. p. 220 Simrock. 18-22. 1844. 656. Stephens. and that the Scandinavian consuming love of the God-name Sun-God the probable original meaning of 9 Above all. for the Christian narrative. southerly Teutons. p. p. as cited on p. . 1 It does not follow that the been introduced? Christians got their idea from the Balder story as we now have it but the obvious presumption is that a pagan myth preceded theirs and such a myth may have been current among the Irish Celts. pp. 3 A Celto-Britannic origin would seem to be the solution. Rydberg. v. Grimm. 339. Again. THE STAND FOR THE BIBLE sun-slaying 135 Why else should the of some sort to start with. 391. Agni in the Rig. whose cult was fabled to have come from . as to veneration of the mistletoe . and Osiris there are similar pheno- mena. I 8 Cp. Deutsche Alter tumskunde. be as fair as the Greek Sun-God Apollo. finally. Rydberg. In 2 its earlier form. Pausanias. pp. and K. Ottfried Muller. which do account So. Nicolson. 5 Rhys. 401-6. „ . 125. der Germ. c. 4 weeping of the Mother-Goddess Frigg over the slain Balder. i. Celtic Heathendom. when mark Professor Bugge seeks a Christian origin for the for the derision of Professor Stephens. as cited. Mtillenhoff. the death-dealing weapon . Compare the comments of Hermann Muller. bk. p. who had contacts alike with northern paganism and southern Christianity. p. with the idea that Christ was fair-haired. ft. 56-7. common-sense apart. identified with the Sun-God Grannos and Sirona. and his mother. when we know that the it title Lord was given to many pre-Christian Gods. 4. 7 Why then seek a medieval source for the whiteness of 8 Balder? And if Balder is an Anglo-Saxon word meaning Lord. p. 9 Bergmann. 447. But. too. 5. . is the sword Mistiltein. 29. suggest the mistletoe but then the mistletoe is This would at once unknown in Iceland and in Sweden. why are we to assume that it was never applied to a Teutonic God the hyperboreans? . Mythol. 5 are borrowed from the Christian Madonna and Child. 24. 6 before Jesus. Adonis. 22. Sun-God of a fair-haired race. i. x. as to the reasoning involved. Le Message de Skirnir. Teutonic Mythology.Veda is white. as cited. Das nordische Griechenthum und die urgeschichtliche Bedeutung des nordwestlichen Europas. The Dorians. . Whence came it ? Conceivably from golden-haired Apollo but then why should not the hyperborean Balder.. 123 and Meyer. „. why should the Freyr? is for Nanna be held to need any literary derivation at a late period i from Oenone ? 2 3 4 among the more 6 Cp. pp. But cp. son of the Matron"). he gives a fair As well might he argue that the Mabon Mab Modron ("the boy. In this way. might be explained the entrance of myth mistletoe have the mistletoe into the northern myth. and drives white horses and Professor Rydberg finds his traits reproduced in Heimdal. ii. 655.

Etymology. and the effort towards if the progress of research. as regards every species of mythological problem. it . is best to be gathered from a detailed examination of the claim made. in its present terminology. It is too much to hope that so vast a growth can be speedily interpreted with and many a special research must be made scientific certainty — . solarism. symbolism.136 THE PROGRESS OF MYTHOLOGY When . is demonstrably an adaptation of a mass of pre-Christian myths. the influence of art. astronomy. there is in all cases a special ground for doubt as to its being an original for a myth found among a semi-civilized people. But at co-ordination we must be made pari passu with the latter is not to become unintelligent is possible. is thus far a very ill-established and recalcitrant hypothesis. phallicism. before a decisive co-ordination must aim and . The complete justification such a doubt. Meantime. the vegetation principle. the pseudo-historical influence of Evemerism. as already mentioned. which only remotely and in externals compare with the Christian. however. No single clue will lead us through the maze. sterile. on a more comprehensive study of relations than is hitherto made by any one school. all is said. the problem of priorities doubtless remains but enough has been said to show that the confident inference of Christian sources for northern myths. all play their part in namely. the religious elucidating what it concerns us to elucidate systems of the world in their mythological aspect. studied hereinafter. we have seen reason to insist. And as the whole obscure Christian legend. in regard to for the myth of Krishna.

CHRIST AND KRISHNA The Problem of Priority. 1 The views of Professor Weber. 119. October. " It is the opinion of the best Indianists. 66. 2 " There can be no true objective criticism until a man stands more or less indifferent to the result. but the question as to everybody else. because he preceded him by four or five centuries. Mitchell's Hinduism. have naturally been welcomed less fully endorsed by many Christian writers. J. Dr. pp. Carpenter's acceptance of the pro-Christian view on the historical question typifies the attitude of Christian scholarship. divided on the historical issue. Were it shown that another cult borrowed. § 1. however largely. and more or : 1847. he would be in no sense put out. 72. missionary and other. on the historical data.PART II. See. have. and this confessedly second-hand opinion he immediately erects into a certainty " Christ can owe nothing to Krishna. 1885. Past and Present. article on Hindu Monism. art. " that the worship of Krishna did not arise until the fifth or sixth century of our era". 1892. 29-35. p. making errors of assumption and errors of inference in the course of an attempt to does like it settle priority in a particular way . 137 . in Nineteenth Century." he writes. he is discussing. in my opinion. who is most likely to be impartial. Eationalists are thus far he is free to reason and so may arrive at just conclusions. inasmuch as they will not be affected by any result of the particular investigation." Baur. partly the evidence. Mr. 1880. What is now Some rationalists in hand is a question of priority of myth forms. 79. in The Monist. pp. on The Obligations of the New Testament to Buddhism. for instance. hereinafter discussed. partly because of But in the case of the because of the uncertainty of differences or oversights of logical method. J. not the truth of any religion. gone astray over the problem under notice. Kritische Untersuchung ilber die kanonischen Evangelien. by Professor Richard Garbe. Carpenter apparently regards Krishna as a historical character. M. from the Christian. the two main disputants in Inasmuch as this controversy. 1881. pp. but the detection of these errors does not settle the point of priority. Major Jacobs' Manual of Hindu Pantheism. of which justly religion first developed certain beliefs." Mr. methods. it is he. The record and the Krishna rationalist long-debated issue of the historic relation between the gospel myth 1 would seem to be one on which the may hope to reach a scientific conclusion by critical His general principles are in no sense at stake. Estlin Carpenter. And while the Naturalist. affect the and much less comparative principle. is fallible. p. December. 971-2. and frees himself as far as possible from all subjective relations to the object of criticism.

§ 10. for an a priori theological reason. and must finally decided beforehand. that under the restrictions of scientific principle and logical law. On such lines no sound critical results can be reached. Ueber die Krishnajanmdshtami (Krishna's Geburtsfest) in Abhandlungen der KonigAkademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1867. iii and vi (1874-7). 311. founding even then on two previous writers. Das Leben Jesu. The alternative terms myth or legend. one Father Cassianus Maceratensis. Cyclopaedia article. This special question of priority has long been before scholars. Major Cunningham believes that the worship of Krishna is only a corrupt mixture of Buddhism and Christianity.a 138 disputant CHRIST AND KRISHNA who sets out with a belief in the complete historic truth is of the Christian religion. He strengthen the Naturalist position if that position be really scientific. cited by Weber. implying respectively the absence and the presence of some personal basis or nucleus for the legends of the Hindu and Christian Incarnations. in so far as it makes super- Thus him every question as far as possible overwhelmingly biassed to the view that any "myth" which resembles a Christian "record" is borrowed from that and if. or whether there is any historical connection whatever between them. for the subversion of both religions in India. 1762. whether the Krishna myth or legend is in whole or in part derived from the Christ myth or Jesus legend. as is pointed out by Professor Albrecht Weber in his 2 exhaustive study of the Krishna Birth-Festival. in his Alphas betum Tibetanum. See on this point of terminology Strauss. Einleit. vols. and was a sort of compromise intended In point of fact. pp. 1 2 lichen 3 Rome. in some instances. p. as we shall see in the sequel. . referred to in the As early as 1762 Father Giorgi. He holds his own religion to be supernatural and is true." etc. In Balfour's Cyclop&dia of India. it is still. the Christian theory is much older than the middle of the nineteenth — — century. 253-263. miracles and all. 1 leave us quite free in our treatment of the historic facts is. any permanent results it attains are pure gain to human science. and not for simple historical reasons. . or vice versa. he repels that conclusion. We wish to know. and every other to be merely natural claims. But whereas the rationalist inquiry is in this connection logically free of presuppositions. impartiality impossible. Translated piecemeal in Indian Antiquary. in the article " Krishna " somewhat rambling and ill-digested compilation it is stated that " since the middle of the nineteenth century several learned men have formed the opinion that some of the legends relating to Krishna have been taken from the life of Jesus Christ. discussed the question at length. human and for is false. — free. then.

note. p. The narratives. 6 7 Buddha with Indian Antiquities. pp. 1810. Giorgi held. It has been pointed out {Bible Folk Lore. . as cited. T. adding that the name of the female 4 Other propadeity Saraswati was only a corruption of Sarah. he declared the geographical name to be derived from the scriptural Judah GomatI from Gethsemane the name Arjuna from John. 240. ii. Works.. Italy. 110) that Abraham's oak compares with Brahma's tree. But long before Giorgi. especially from the But his theory did not end there. and — citations by him. and Sir William's shocked protest did not hinder his disciple. 8 An English translation of his work on Ceylon. 9 Cited by Maurice. 806. and long 2 before Hyde. had been got from the apocryphis libris de rebus Christi Jesu. As early as 1672 the 8 Dutch missionary and trader Balde (Baldaeus) maintained a number of the propositions supported in our own generation by Professor Weber (who does not refer to him) namely. the prophet Daniel" (H. 325. 317). . gandists. Indian Antiquities. Vishnu. 1552. 31. again. 1 Historia Beligionis Veterum Persarum. — the massacre of the innocents. Nor was this all. Yudhishthira. etc. 1700. a corruption of the very name of the Saviour whose deeds had been impiously debased by inexpressibly wicked impostors. History of Hindostan. p. H. Yadava. 330. i. ib. that there is a very remote and secondary connection between the Abraham myth and the religion of India. . cited by the Eev. and v. Durvasas from Peter.). 272. 1793. 1884. a doctrine which they have preserved ever since the time of the apostles " (Kerr's Id. Sousa (17th Collection of Voyages. 322 (should be 382 paging twice repeated). ii. and Mahesa were no other than the Christian Trinity". and India : in Asiatic Researches. 3 Maurice. the English Orientalist Hyde. and worship the Blessed Virgin. 130. p. scandalized Sir William Jones by assuring the Hindus that they were " almost Christians. 323 (383). 1812. etc. Thomas Maurice. the Rev. 139 All three the other the French Orientalist name " Krishna " De Guignes (the elder). says the Portuguese historian De Faria y cent. The absurdity lies in the assumption that Brahmanism derives from the Hebrew Scriptures. 1798. 228). was published in the eighteenth century in Churchill's collection of travels. 9 etc. The Rajputs. the derivation of parts of the Krishna myth from the Christian stories of the birth of Jesus. ii. and so on. 1893. of course. Postel had declared the name of Brahma to be a corruption of Abraham a view which appears to have been common 3 among Mohammedans and Catholic missionaries early expounded this discovery among the Hindus. Wilson. 2 In his commentary on Abrahami Patriarchce liber Jesirah. iii. 5 On the Gods of Greece. was only nomen ipsum corruptum Christi Servatoris.. vi. 785.THE PEOBLEM OE PBIORITY held that the Christ. because their Brahma. etc. Maurice. writings of the Manichaeans. "acknowledge one God in three persons. from speaking of the " almost Christian 6 theology" of Brahmanism. The Indian epic-names Ayodhya. p. 25. On the problem of the origin and meaning of the name Brahma see Professor Max Muller's Gifford Lectures on Psychological Religion. 1 — . vol. It may be. " Writers are found to identify 4 Moor's Hindu Pantheon. Maurice's general contention being that the Indian and all other Triad systems were vestiges of an 7 original pure revelation. ii.

2 Id. and resenting its being raised. 273." (On the Gods of Greece. decided that the triumph of Krishna over the serpent Kaliya (whose head he is represented crushing under his foot. observed that he "willingly believed that the Christian for a Christian presupposition. and probably to the 2 And in the same treatise time of Homer. p. 445. who. and the general outline of his story." to announce that " the " could not be " seeing in the Hebrew Scriptures the earliest of all religious lore. were long anterior to the birth of our Saviour. and the wildest part of them repeated to the Hindus. who ingrafted 1 them on the old fable of Cesava. 274. and whose head the saviour of mankind was to crush." Thus far when Volney Christ from both sides had proceeded on a priori principles in his Ruines (1791) implicitly derived the . 4 Mythologie des Indous. [Krishna] fable did not Gospels. Sir William Jones in 1788 suggested that " the spurious gospels which abounded in the first ages of Christianity had been brought to India. Maurice constantly aims at repelling the criticisms of Volney and other sceptics. we know very certainly. always begging the question. i. 147. and India) the scholar took occasion adamantine pillars of our Christian faith moved by the result of any debates on the comparative antiquity of the Hindus and Egyptians. was to be dated " a thousand and more .140 CHRIST AND KRISHNA Following this line of thought. and name Krishna (misspelt) he was but substituting an antiA comparatively scientific position was first taken up by the German Kleuker. 152 . the Indian theology. 3 6 Sy sterna Brahmanicum. the Apollo of Greece". . on the other hand. years before the birth of Christ." but that first arise it out of these [Apocryphal] nevertheless might have derived " some 1 Asiatic Researches. or of any inquiries into 3 Still later. Italy. cited by Weber. In the same spirit. discussing Paulinus' polemic. the French Orientalist Polier. this after the statement: " That the name of Crishna. and which at times. ." 4 These writers had of course taken it for granted that all heathen resemblances to Jewish and Christian stories must be the result of heathen imitation but on equally a priori grounds other Christian writers argued that the " impure " cult of Krishna could never have been derived from Christianity and the view spread that the Indian myths were of much greater antiquity than had been supposed the 5 Carmelite monk Paulinus (really Werdin or Wesdin) surmising that the legendary war. . cited by Weber. Rome. pp. i. is seen biting his heel) was " a travesty of the tradition of the serpent-tempter who introduced death into the world. with which was connected the story of Vishnu's incarnation in Krishna. 1791.

which has measured the lives of its mythic heroes by millions of years. in his great work. Eng.000 years old. has multiplied time in its traditions as wildly as it has multiplied action in its legends. It of a far later redaction than had once been supposed. 3te Aufi. unparalleled in its disregard of fact and its range of exaggeration. i. F. 5 See Colebrooke in Asiatic Researches. cited by Weber. On tion of Christian priority has been in a general the other hand. which was one of the first weighty criticisms of the early assumptions of Orientalists. no history in Indian literature at .000 years 6 Of this delirium of speculamultiplied by six times seventy-one.) 2 Hindu Pantheon. 398-9. however. — Osiris. . . 70. but on the contrary throwing out some new heterodox suggestions. History of Ancient Philosophy. certainly not 3. set aside the supposed Christian parallels. and probably to "2 this while saying nothing to countenance the the time of Homer theory of later borrowing from Christianity. 69. tion. iv. i. ix. (Tbe work is a translation. Riga.320. See a number of samples of this disease of imagination cited by Buckle. All early historical traditions are untrustworthy but no other people ever approached the flights of fancy of the Hindu mind. is doubtless that of of nature in Buckle —the influence p. . Symbolik. by J. Krishna story was the earlier became for a time the more general but in 1810 we do find It is doubtful whether this was so one. the case in favour of the assumpway strengthened by the precise investigation of that Hindu is literature. despite all cavils. an antiquity exceeding 4. the view that the matter" from them. the true explanation. § 2. is judicial 3 4 and reasonable. based on documents. i. tr. 135-7. . 5 capable Orientalists that there all. Age of Indian Documents. as it stands. 200.AGE OF INDIAN DOCUMENTS 141 1 According to Weber. 116. which has gone to show much of it. ii. following Jones. 42. the English Orientalist Moor." measureless imagination of India. 3-vol. of the most uncertain was indeed admitted by the properly speaking. Later the German 3 mythologist Creuzer. declaring it to be "very certain " that Krishna's " name and the general outline of his story were long anterior to the birth of our Saviour. and pointed rather to the Egyptian myth of . ed. with the result that its history is likely to of all that are first remain one It is. and assigned to the Institutes of Menu. of overwhelming manifestations 1 Abhandlungen iiber die Geschichte und Alterthiimer Asiens. cited by Weber. of papers from the Asiatic Researches. 1797. Ficb. Hitter's whole argument. 6 Jones in Asiatic Researches. literature are so many works has been truly said by Eitter that in no to be found to which a remote origin 4 The has been assigned on insufficient grounds as in the Indian. with notes and comments by Kleuker. . 1838.

. He wrote a work on India. See them all translated by Dr. from the collection of Schwanbeck. in Rhys Davids' Buddhism. was known in India before the third century B. and in the Indian Antiquary..C. tr. 1877. condensed from Bryant's Analysis of Ancient Mythology. about 250 B. whether paper. 500-1." 3 Brahmano period to Muller's unscientific . Appendix i. pp. bark. however. 4 One of the generals of Alexander the Great. Cp. more than this. as cited. In view of the antiquity of literary habits in other parts of Asia. When the documents are examined. Outlines of the History of Ancient Religions. rep. McCrindle in the Indian Antiquary. vol.) 5 both state that the Indians did not write their laws but the latter speaks of inscriptions upon mile-stones. Professor Max is Muller : " There no mention of writing materials. in Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian. who complains of this. Ancient India as Described in Classical Literature. 5 Greek ambassador from Seleucus Nicator to the Indian king Sandracottus (Chandragupta) about 300 B. McCrindle (last vol.] all the evidence we can get would lead us to suppose that even then. vol. Interesting extracts are given in Max Muller's Introduction to the Science of Religion. about 600 or 800 B. pp. . it may well turn out that the . to . there being reason to doubt whether the practice of writing in India dates many centuries earlier.— 142 — CHRIST AND KRISHNA 1 stimulating imagination and stunning the sceptical reason. J. division of Indian historical : periods is somewhat view as but Tiele. W.C. See them in Asiatic Society's Journals. 6 Outlines. too. the step startling .C. iii. 220-8. in which objects are multiplied and transformed. according to the Professor's division. Only fragments of his account of his voyage on the Indian coast are preserved. 6. we have only the fragments preserved by later historians. On the general question of the antiquity of writing it was long ago remarked by Jacob Bryant that " The Romans carried their pretensions to letters pretty high. ed. as of that of Nearchus. cannot be taken as settled. pp.) 4 and Megasthenes (300 B. and registered the priestesses of Argos" (Holwell's Mythological Dictionary. of which. p. 1901) constitute a great service to historical study. and the Helladian Greeks still higher yet the former marked their years by a nail driven into a post and the latter for some ages simply wrote down the names of the Olympic victors from Corsebus. 259). viii and xii in Wheeler's History of India. and the waking perception of time is superseded. published by Dr.C. . vols. Tiele.C. 5. p. older records being found. 244. though the art of writing began to be known. and it down to documentary was not unnatural that skepticism should it turns out that the oldest Indian inscriptions yet found are not three centuries earlier than the 2 Nor does there seem to be a probability of much Christian era. accepts his to the introduction of the art of writing "Nearchus (325 B.e. 23. All are copiously annotated.C. From this it is evident that writing. Calcutta. to say nothing of the fancies of the Brahmans. 1882. be carried to extremes. vi and vii (1877-8)." 6 1 Possibly. or the Indian Diaskeuasts [editors] collected the songs of their Rishis [poets or seers] nor is there any allusion to writing during . 121. the partly entranced state of mind cultivated by Hindu sages may involve a repetitive brain process analogous to that seen in dreams. but was applied only rarely. 1793. vi. p. if at all. even during the Sutra period [600 to 200 B. probably of Phoenician origin.] Nay.C. Constable. The question as regards India. the whole literature of India was preserved by oral tradition only. Says skins. 3 History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. and the former mentions letters written on cotton. From facts is in turn even a moderate calculation of Indian antiquity. Eng.. 1877. June. at the time when the whole of the down [i. 2 Those of king Asoka. literature. This and the other five vols.

work cited. Tiele's "only rarely. religio-philosophical treatises. And the practice of oral transmission has survived. tr. no one disputes that the Vedas are main of extremely ancient composition (the oldest portions being at least three thousand years old. . 'Brahmanism has kept to the last to its primitive tools. — estimates above cited are too low. He tells (De Bello Gallico. 304. whereas in the other the facility of transcription permitted of many errors. and a few vessels of wood" (Barth. religious. 1 Miiller. and were transmissible and the lack of letters did not at all necessarily involve loss.' How then was the Veda learnt? It was learnt by every Brahman during twelve years of his studentship or Bramacharya. 14) that many entered the Druid discipline. p. those also who defile them. if at all. Tiele. ii.E. originated at more or less distant periods before our era. of a great body of very ancient utterance. Taylor's work on The Alphabet. and theology. invariably learn them from oral tradition. . learning orally a great number of verses some remaining in pupillage as long as twenty years and this though writing was freely used for secular purposes. p. For a discussion of these see I. This description corresponds remarkably with Caesar's account of the educational practices of the Druids. 501-3. . 123. its turf-clods and grass-blades. 2 Barth. 6. the young Brahmans who when MSS. learning a little day after day. repeating what they have learnt as part of their daily devotion The ambition to master more than one subject is hardly known in India In the Mahabharata we read. Eng." 1 ' ' : § 3.' Kumarila [800 C. 129). " Even at the present day." makes rather too little of the Greek testimony. Modern European parallels will readily suggest themselves. the prestige of ancient custom. 1883. its penthouses of bamboo. no other way In all probability ancient unwritten compositions were often as accurately transmitted as early written ones. sa. which in other religions made priests continue to use stone knives long after metal ones were invented. The Religions of India. though probable. vi. learn the songs of the Vedas and the Brahmanas and the Sutras. and accidental interpolations. are neither scarce nor expensive. They spend year after year under the guidance of their teacher. p. omissions. Caesar offers as explanation the wish to keep sacred lore from the many.] says That knowledge of the truth is worthless which has been acquired from the Veda. and possibly large part even of the literature of much more) 2 . Outlines. shall go to hell. and the Upanishads. if it has been learnt from writing or been received from a Sudra. and learn them by heart. The Special Documents. pp. and even those who write them. We have seen that Miiller makes even the Sutra period that of the composition of manuals for public and treatises of ritual Brahmanas. THE SPECIAL DOCUMENTS But all this is 143 perfectly compatible with the oral transmission All early compositions. is only one of many conflicting hypotheses. Comp. and the desire to strengthen the faculty of memory. in historical. We may add. poetic. The Phoenician origin of the Indian alphabets. Those who sell the Vedas. just because in the former case there was a severe discipline of memory. in regard alike to Druids and Brahmans. too. and that a as the commentary upon them. in the In point of fact..

in and it simply makes Krishna the voucher of 1 advanced pantheistic teaching. or little known. position. theological literature.. four or five centuries before our era. including eighteen separate works. 1888. system of the 1 But the religious history of India. be found. "which is in the main the most ancient source of our knowledge of these religions. if so much. Thus. that the great It is in the latter. there arose the which comparatively new doctrine was bound up with modifications of ancient legends while on the other hand deities formerly insignificant. no sense a popular one " {Religions of India. pref. and of which much of the matter is 2 " Song of the probably pre-Buddhistic (2) the Bhagavat Gita or High ". Barth. and 2 in . The Mahabharata. The Gita is a fine poetico-philosophical comone of the masterpieces of . is not even roughly dated it has been of slow growth. It is. it would seem to have been accepted and endorsed by the Brahmans either because they could not help themselves. At the present moment the worship of Krishna is the most many faiths of India and it has unquestionably been so for many centuries. cultus that pressed Brahmanism in hard.worship. in . 144 domestic guidance CHEIST AND KEISHNA —begin about 600 B. however. See Professor Goldstucker's essay in the Westminster Review. ii. Goldstucker. is that of a process of develop- ment . but the advent of his worship as a preponderating religion in historic India is late. "I recognize a literature that is pre-eminently sacerdotal. notable degree in the case of the cult of Krishna. and is besides of an essentially encyclopaedic character" (Religions of India. . 187. 135. On the face of the matter. Hence the is peculiar difficulty of the question of origins as regards its details. 130). a great epic poem. no part of the ancient Vedic system and the bulk of the literature in connection with it is not more than a thousand years old. giving no legends In the Veda. of which the earliest written belong to our eighth or ninth century. so the elaborate system based on the Vedas by the Brahmans was innovated upon from different sides. (3) the Puranas. April. p. Such a development took place in a great of movement Buddhism. of which the events are laid long anterior to our era. an immense body of legendary and Most . ii. Mention of Krishna certainly does occur in the earlier literature. every way superior to the Puranas its Indian literature in its kind. gradually came to be widely popular. The (l) chief documents which Krishnaism to be studied are the Mahabharata. says Iff. cp. or his Literary Remains. extending through ages. xiii). or by way of finding a weapon to resist some other popular of the . says M. p.C. Barth. and just as the Vedas was superimposed on simpler forms of nature. especially in the Bhagavat Purana and Vishnu Purana. as of every other country. 142. of mass of mythic narrative concerning Krishna is to The tenth book of the Bhagavat Purana consists wholly the Krishna saga.

this entire idyll of Vrindavana became in course of time the essential portion of the legend 1 Owing to theBhagavat Gita and the Bhagavat Purana being alike sometimes^ referred to as " the Bhagavat. Of this work the date is uncertain. But it is impossible to construct for that legendary history any certain chronology. The Krishna Legend. slaying monsters and demons bent on their destruction. Rohini The two brothers grew up in the midst of the shepherds. 172 n. again.THE KRISHNA LEGEND as to his 1 145 be considered later. on the Yamuna. The outlines of the Krishna saga are well known. Like those of to many solar heroes. 172-4. and so mixed up with quasi-historic events as to leave it an open question whether the story has grown up round the memory of an actual historic life. pp. 4 Beligions of India. equally invincible in war and love. On the very night of his birth his parents had beyond the reach of his uncle. a hero." there has occurred the mistake of referring to the Gita as containing the legends of Krishna's life. like all the figures. at another time another wife of Vasudeva. because he had been warned by a voice from heaven that the eighth son of Devaki would put him to death. 367-371. ed. and sporting with the Gopis.). 1882.' who had been saved as he was from massacre. performing feats of valour. and put under the remove him who sought his to a distance life care of the shepherd Nanda and his wife Yacoda. personage. 2 In one passage " all the heroes of the poem are represented as incarnations of Gods or demons " (Barth. he was brought up as their son in the woods of Vrindavana. . King Kamsa. Rama the strong. these erotic gambols with the Gopis. a name which we meet with again at a later period in history as that of a powerful Rajput tribe. between Delhi and Agra. p. but 3 for the convenience of readers I transcribe the brief analysis given by 4 M. Barth :— "As a character in the epic and as accepted by Vishnuism. pp. his first appearances were beset with perils and obstructions of every kind. and the obscurity of the subject leaves it arguable that even in the epos Krishna is not an early but a late element of his cultus. presents Krishna as 2 a warrior demi-God. with his brother Balarama. — an interpolation We § arising out of the to analysis must then look modern popularity and comparative research for light on the subject. however. These scenes of their birth and infancy. 3 See a detailed account in Sir George Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations. and will have to The Mahabharata." and "who has for his mother at one time Devaki herself. Krishna is a warlike prince. among the race of the Yadavas. and of a singularly doubtful moral character. L . Beligions of India. The son of Vasudeva and Devaki he was born at Mathura. 4. which retain in a marked way the mythic impress. these juvenile exploits. ' the female cowherds of Vrindavana. but above all very crafty. and who consequently had his nephews the princes regularly made away with as soon as they saw the light Conveyed to the opposite shore of the Yamuna.

. 2nd ed. Pausanias asserts (viii. and black in other 1 . though the identification of Krishna with the sun is as old as the written legend. wounded ' in the heel. Gentes. In the interval he had transferred the seat of his dominion to the fabulous city of Dvaraka. 22. i. Cp. and the blue-black robe of Leto (Hesiod. 33. it may be well at the outset to indicate the solar meanings that have been attributed to the story by various writers. and by the mere fact that. Pausanias. 195. Letture sopra la mitologia vedica. name . 6 Pausanias. 406) as Night-Goddess is obviously significant but Leto also. 23) that all River-Gods in Egypt except the Nile have white statues. p. like Achilles. and Krishna of Krishna. vi. just as the places became king of the Yadavas. Sat. which forms the subject of the Mahabharata. primary mythological explanations." Plutarch. he himself perished. notably the Osiris of Egypt. Pausanias. Krishna. Ethiopia 7 For instance. Hindu Pantheon. in particular. and of the Christian 4 Jesus. Gubernatis. and O. Arrived at adolescence. himself and his race. . i. must be pronounced necessary and one is offered by Tiele of : .' the gates of the West. . 138. i. i. by the arrow of a hunter. I. waged successful wars against impious kings. all the material seems to have been purely fanciful." In this mere outline there may be seen several features of the universal legend of a conquering and dying Sun-God. See Moor. i. Again. and seen the Yadavas. 239). to say nothing 3 of the black manifestations of Greek deities. After having been present at the death of his brother. and the site of which has since been localized in the peninsula of Gujarat. . Nilus being figured as black because it flows through 1 p. 42. 27. the epithet " blue-blooded. 17). On Isis and Osiris.16. The Krishna means "the black one" (or rather "black-blue one ")/ and he thus in the first place comes into line with the black 2 deities of other faiths. as to 2 3 . their persecutor. and. in fierce struggle. The Black Demdter may reasonably be assumed to be so as representing the earth the black-robed Isis is naturally the moon (Plutarch. the two brothers put to death Kamsa. p. Baruch. 173. Compare King's Gnostics. which.. It was there that he was overtaken. 1874. in view of many of 7 the facts. p. 48 ii. and took a determined side in the great struggle of the sons of Pandu against those of Dhritarashtra. was further represented as an Earth-Goddess (Macrobius.\i. He continued to clear the land of monsters. as in Egypt. 52). 2 viii. 1836. Theogony.146 CHRIST AND KRISHNA which were the scene of them remain to the present time the most celebrated centres of his worship. by the final catastrophe. same. Adv. the Boy-God of Sleep was figured in black marble as being associated with the night (Addison. black ? It is fallacious Why then is to assume that any one cause can be fixed as the reason for the attribution of this colour to deities in ancient religions primary mythological causes might be complicated by the fact that the smoke 5 of sacrifices had from time immemorial blackened statues innumerable. 42 ix. 21. 4 For a list of black Christian statues of Mary and Jesus (=Isis and Horos)see Higgins's Anacalypsis. 5 Arnobius. black stone was very At Megara there were three serviceable for purposes of statuary. cc. 5th ed. 27. Remarks on Several Parts of Italy. built on the bosom of the western sea. kill one another to the last man. ebony statues of Apollo and the mystic explanation of the choice of 6 But there are. 262. 6. the city of gates. as to the grimy statues of Athene\ said to have been touched by fire when Xerxes took the city. like Isis.

" as it were. i. The bull Apis and the bull Mnevis. Compare Pausamas. Arjuna is "himself a name and form of Indra" (Weber. 78. 20. . 246). the statue of the later God Serapis. in which he figures as swimming on the water. Macrobius. 31. ib. . pp. § 31 Herodotus. p. and refs. understood as " changing colour. Bemains. iii.. Animal. Eng. The alternate ascription of the colour bhie. Das alte Indien. 39 cp. In the early faiths the " daemon " of mixed characteristics is a constant figure. 326. and accordingly he slays Arjuna. 7 Cp. first figuring as the twin of Arjuna in a pair of Asvins. the burning fire. I." tenebrous. argues that as Indra himself is called in the Satapatha Brahmana Arjuna.' ' a God of the solar fire. represented as "dark blue. Isis and Osiris. Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus. in the great cistern oi Khatmandu (Bahr. more indirect symbolical meaning. 4 Moor's Hindu Pantlieon. says Mnevis was sacred to the sun. may be either solar or lunar (Aelian. like Osiris. as containing many metallic ingredients (Clemens Alexandrinus.' Like all Gods of the is the nightly or hidden one. De Nat. s 5 Of blue marble. in the Egyptian cults. 28) but put on black robes (Plutarch. i. Egyptian Beligion. The transpositions are endless a warning against rigid definitions in less known mythologies. Goldstucker. on the other hand. 3 Outlines. 9. tr. 145. . as noted below. his father's solar fire. he being often the deity of . and Os. 10 Compare Senart. 228 Kenrick. the " image of the soul of Osiris " (Plutarch. and later acquiring the luminous character of Indra. points to the Night-Sun theory. He springs from the Brahman race of the Bhrigus (lightning) name is Jamadagni. and as were at times Kneph and Osiris and Amun Gubernatis." 3 Krishna is an Krishna himself 7 6 5 in one statue. 29. in Indian Antiquary. — . "That Parasau-Rama. Clemens. and O. 9 In sum. 147 Krishna is " the hidden sun-god of the night. but both are § 27) that Mnevis was treated as a God in a temple of the sun at Heliopolis black. the "white" or "bright one. Typhon. 262-7." 4 as . p. of is whom is Incarnation. . 41). is black to begin with (J. as to a blue-black demon. 9 Letture sopra la mitologia vedica.). cc. iv. who was black. pp. Saturnalia. Prcsparatio Evangelica. Protrep. 2 In Egypt. l. In the myth of Krishna. THE KRISHNA LEGEND in the present case. p. the of axe-Rama. and O. 21). 2 the old pair of deities Vishnu and Indra in a he new shape. 1. Protrept. Essai sur la Legende du Buddha. 22. 30. 27. On the other hand Professor de most acute. and who was also declared to represent the lunar world (Id.. iii. 309. Plutarch. Apis. was blue or black. 1 Outlines. 43). 52). 145. iv von Bohlen. said to be the sire of Apis. and 0. while Arjuna again occurs as a name of Krishna. Ancient Egypt." while Indra " decreases. Sun-God and Moon-God. 8 Kenrick." and in the Mahabharata the father of Arjuna. was the enemy of the "good" Sun-God and Vegetation-God Osiris. 370 Tiele. . 1. and Apis to the moon) and we know from Strabo (xvii. . in short. p. xvii. who was red (Is. 26. 33). 396. And Mnevis. " increases. x. Again. iv)." Gubernatis is points out that in the Eig cases seems to have a but convinced of the solar character of Krishna 10 a natural Veda he is merely a demon . c. n. — . the three are interfluent and Krishna is to be It should be also noted that Vishnu. i." less to a character attaching more or ' many is figures in the Hindu admits pantheon. 6 Eusebius. 322. 33) and was declared to be solar (Id. i. 1.. 39. if also one of the more speculative of modern mythologists. Contrast 51. no doubt. Professor de becoming decadent and "demoniacal. who in turn becomes Krishna. 160. i. Cp. I. one of the in Egypt. . the the bright God of day two Sun-Gods are friendly. 2e ed. . was not only black himself (Strabo.

55-62. Cp. Or he may have been black merely as a God of the black-skinned natives. De Natura Deorum. 577). 190). who survived with the ancient race. p. the terrestrial.22 Servius on the Mneid. however. 1865. and in particular makes himself black with ashes (Callimachus. A reasonable presumption is that he was a demon for the Aryan invaders. were held to be raised "from the rank of good daemons to that of deities. Egyptian Beligion. 131. He who and remains. common in rural Britain till recently. 2 Id. But the old discussions as to the four or five Mercuries. . p. 1 Zoological Mythology. p. 69) in one story. and cp. again. 62. but still propitiated. cp. and only later becomes the God of the is 1 cows and cowherds. Osiris and Isis. 27. 4 In any case he was the rival of Indra. and is thus a genuine Egyptian deity" (Tiele. See also his monograph. v. of which the result was that Hermes. pp. though not conclusive (pp. and so presumably had similar functions. Geschichte des Alterthums. It is thus probable that all three were primarily aboriginal Gods. 75. the infernal. pp. See Plutarch. of " speaking the Devil fair. 46. Leide. p. 71. hence also black. 42. hence associated with the Night. 47-51. 3 See Note at end of section. point to a number of syncretic adaptations. Professor Pais. of solar among the female cowherds. tr. and who figures in the — outsiders to begin with while in any case the need to propitiate him would tend to raise his rank. 51. 1875. Cp. " the God who 2 black during the night.Sun. cited in Ernesti's ed. Cp. ed. Tiele's historical theory is interesting. Hymn to Artemis. Cicero. hence a Sun-God generally. 5 Vishnu Purdna." The complications it one thing to give a general account such as this. 143 and p. 112). . It is not clear whether Set was not confounded with the alien God Sutech. chs. 1840. History. . as is other mythology are endless and being a God of the aborigines. who figure generally on the side of the Krishnas or black demons and that for these he was a God of the sky and the rain. Miiller) to have been a Pelasgic deity. O.. the celestial. 18. pp." while Typhon (Set) was discredited. 1888. Ancient Legends of Boman History. pp. i. Eng. Wilson's trans. E. The theory of the commentators (Spanheim. Compare the habit. recalls the formula that the Iliad was not written by Homer but by another poet of the same name. that this was not the celestial but a terrestrial Hermes. following K. and thereby discredited (Meyer. Grote. tr. i. accepted in different degrees by races of conquerors. Eng. Frazer for the blackness 3 of Demeter and Osiris. Cp. 49). Egyptian Beligion. is character of " the black one the enemy of the Vedic God Indra . . ad loc). Tiele. Eng. iv. Emeric-David. Etudes d'histoire religieuse." He. b. Again. and another to trace with confidence the evolution of such a deity as Krishna from the beginning. Frazer be right as to the priority of the idea of a Vegetation- God in cults commonly associated with the Sun. And that original relation to Indra is perfectly borne out by the written legend. and yet others (cp. Set-Typhon. and as thus associated with the earth may have been black the explanation of Dr. i. 146 ff The conceptions of a God alternately of day and of night is seen in Greek and Roman names for Zeus in the two capacities. end). Hebrew Mythology. p. 30. 69. in which Krishna is represented as turning away worshippers from 6 Indra.148 CHEIST AND KRISHNA ". 25-6. 49). La Beligion des Pre-Israelites. p. being a survival of the genial Pan. As to the gradual lowering of the status of daemons. if Dr. Krishna may have been primarily such a God. 135=§ 111. I. iii. exemplifies both of the tendencies to compromise. has many of the characteristics of Krishna. . though not clearly a Sun-God to start with. whose cult his probably superseded. hence God of the night. of the dawning. The difficulty is to conceive how otherwise Set came to be "in turn revered and hated. and Pleyte. though 'from the most remote antiquity Set is one of the Osirian circle. who is surmised (Kenan. invoked and persecuted. 4 The Greek Hermes. and O. Goldziher. tr. 1872. but becomes luminous or in the morning among the cows . 10 11. in the end has the solar characteristics (cp. 1906." and calling him "the good man. 522-7. Introduction." till finally his very name was officially proscribed (Id. 66. p. Meyer.

The most obvious grounds for connecting Osiris with Vegetation are his associations with corn and trees (Frazer. therefore. Gubernatis. Kenrick {Ancient Egypt. G. i. . 403 Mitologia vedica. God way to "2 heaven. 67-69 and refs. That Osiris was either a Sun-God or the Nile-God in origin is the view most favoured by the evidence in Plutarch (Isis and Osiris. J. 1890. pp. Myihol. But it is not at all clear that these are the earliest characteristics of the Egyptian God. where he is " the pluvial and thunder- through whose region of space Krishna passes on the 3 Whatever may have been the machinery of his deposition. for a given race. Indra is one more instance of an older God superseded. 528). — 1 He acknowledges ii. Handbook of Egypt. was added in imitation of the Adonis cult of Byblos. Zool. 2 3 4 Gubernatis. According to some. there is maintained on the Christian side not. 311 sq. by one who for them was newer. in fact. . 264. Note on the Black Osieis. 183 sq. Original Sanskrit Texts. p. i. But as against all such attempts to explain Krishnaism in terms of the observed mythic tendencies of ancient Aryan religion. iv. By Rameses IV. based on the Christian gospels. 33). 400) rejected the solar theory. 473. Frazer as the root of the cult. 267. p. c. c. 12. however. Similarly Krishna overthrows Varuna. The solution seems to lie in admitting that the later Osiris combined all the characteristics in question. To insist upon any one in particular is to obscure the psychological process of ancient dogmatics. Half a century ago. Belig. 32. professing to follow the Mahabharata. Muir. however long 4 worshipped by another race. tr.. himself vanquished by Krishna (Id. who in The Golden Bough (ed. 1850. that the entire Krishna legend is a late fabrication. a character always more or less associated with him in the Vedas. Mitologia vedica. 204. and that of Isis is equally impossible to discover " (Erman. as we shall see. by any important thinker the proposition before mentioned. i. 1907. ch. as against Tiele and others. § 5. Maurice. and identified Osiris with the Earth and the principle of fertility here anticipating Dr. — — It is necessary. " The original character of Osiris is doubtful. p. that Osiris was a God of Vegetation. to examine that argument in detail before we form any conclusions. whose cultus was latterly modified by foreign elements that. History of Hindostan.) insists.THE KRISHNA LEGEND 149 1 account of Krishna's death and ascension as a subordinate God (obviously = the firmament. i. regarded by Dr. Osiris is expressly addressed as " the moon " and " the Nile ". Geschichte des Alterthums. 31). 303-9). Eng. p. the strictly historical evidence appears to show that Osiris was originally a SunGod. the Vegetation-principle. 588) and honours him (Id. Frazer. See Meyer. cc. i. yet at the same time he figures as the supporter of the earth . ing ). 30. ii. Cp.

that symbol itself is problematic. 84). Hibbert Lectures. ' ' . But we have here to note (l) that Osiris might be green by the mere chance of the medium being green basalt (see Maspero. 1847. there are many to his connection with the earth. 2) teristic of the Vegetation-God. De Diis Syris. Deor. 81) to be very common in the Osiris monuments.150 CHKIST AND KEISHNA (Erman. 81). . 12. 43. and was represented as gold-coloured and with Yahweh. save that of rain-giving. p. but this is only on the surface and (3) (Id. ed. pp. ed. 33) while others associated him with sun and moon respectively (Id. p. 7. 73). 1878. while Osiris is often . pp. like Hades. the Osiris cult may have done the same. Egyptian Beligion. would form . at present very little studied. 26) that "water is always represented by a flat tint of blue. The arboreal character of Osiris is shared by him with Dionysos (see above. ii. 203 cp. xiiixiv). as a solar or thundering God. pp. (Cp.' " one of the names just as I'alba or Vaube signifies the white one '" of the Dawn. Syntag. 'green felspar'. c. De nat. 7) may have determined the doctrine. Wornum. So in Greece black bulls were sacrificed to Poseidon as representing the On the other colour of the sea (Cornutus. 52). hand. 204). Eng. the place of the dead. though on his view he can explain him as black or as green (i. The Golden Hawk has wings of green. Dr. . which latter colour is said by Wilkinson (Manners and Customs of Ancient Egyptians. p. The case being thus complicated. 22). p. pref.) earth is masculine (Id. Osiris was held by some to be black as representing water (Plut. Selden. 15. however. Erman. i. 135-137). 2nd ed. 11. In the Book of the Dead. tr. and the green colour of the frog is a clue to the meaning of the ancient Goddess Hequet " (Le Page Kenouf.God Shu is neshem. Manual of Egyptian Archceology. iii. grounds on which deities may be represented as black. 1895. 16. p. as cited. " One of the names of the Dawn is Uat 'it. But the fact that the Egyptian word for pp. (2) that in the coloured monuments " the blues " have turned somewhat green or grey . we find him so hailed in a litany (xv) in which he is styled " Lord of the Acacia tree " (Budge's trans. ed. : deities on the monuments. or by blue covered with zig-zag lines in black" (Maspero. As is observed by Wiedemann " The precise colouring of the . 51. cap. which he If then Yahweh assumed it after having begun shares with Zeus. described as the sun. The Lion of Dawn had a green cap or mantle. 403). who nevertheless assumed solar characteristics. Perhaps the true solution is that he was first. A similar blending occurs in the case of the Nile-God Sebak (Tiele. p. 237). 1680. which signifies the green one. green. Eng. p. Epochs of Painting. which symbolises his resurrection. it is hardly possible to settle it on the side of one hypothesis by ascribing the blackness of the God As we have seen. 35) and though this may mean the coffin-tree. was for the Egyptian a characteristic colour of the dawn. no less than crimson or gold. The water theory may be the most comprehensive solution (cp. 80. . 4. Frazer offers no explanation of Osiris as blue. p. who has no other characor red (Pausanias. tr.

Osiris cannot well have been merely an EarthGod or Plant. last cit. Plutarch. 402). Then the blackness of Osiris is not symbolical of the Earth. in a married couple. iii. lord of all things things dry and moist (Diodorus Siculus. and that the Earth was described by the later Egyptians as male under the form of rock. and is also identified with Horos. which rivalled the All things considered. 35). It is not disputed that from the earliest times he is the consort of Isis and Isis. as was the black Aphrodite. Even the blackness of Isis is not to be ascribed strictly and solely to her as symbolizing the Earth she unquestionably was associated. and would thus be black as Queen of the Night Sky. viii. 140) of "the green face and hands characteristic of deities of the underworld." a view which meets the case of the green Osiris. 18. could be prevented from gradually assimilating to any of the others with similar status. Qucest. It is true further that Osiris spiritual." is probably the germ of Amun of Thebes. note). with the Moon and the zodiacal Virgin. . but leaves open the problem of his blue aspect. 14 cp. . Bom. p. ii. iii. of Upper Egypt. also of dark complexion (Erman. . and others female but these are In visibly late theories or common fancies. What happened later in the Christ cult. though as " Place of the Dead " he might incidentally be both. 118. where the counted for so little without the Nile overflow. . is an Earth-Goddess and Corn-Goddess approximating at several points to Demeter. not early God-ideas. Macrobius. 32. and as female under the form of arable land (Seneca. But the Earth can hardly have been figured as at once God and Goddess. p.) The truth is. . we are left no less in doubt. while Typhon represents everything fiery and dry (cc. It is true that there was an Earth-God Tellumon (Preller. In any case. Myth. Osiris is said to be the Nile and Typhon the Sea and Osiris stands for everything moist. trans. Eng. But the rock would not symbolize the fructifying power of Osiris and the idea was probably drawn late from the cult of Mithra. This writer in turn speaks (p.Spirit. pp. but of something else. among nations with cognate or competing cults. 8. before the Osirian. nat. . 33. 1-2 Macrobius. or both. 6 Orphica. And when we note that the ancient God Min. there was no means by which any God or Goddess in antiquity. who is "of dark complexion. 11) and there is some evidence that fruitbearing trees were called male. it seems likely that in Egypt. . Frazer grants. like whom she is figured as black. whether first or last. If Isis be the Grain or Earth. 1897. . but hardly Grain or Earth over again. Osiris might be either the fructifying Nile or the Sun. as Dr. . leading to interesting results in regard to the nature of the several divinities" {Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. i. 19). Saturnalia. was held all fiery and and Isis ruler of . soil . the latter rather than the former would figure as the greater or more worshipful thing. (Pausanias. from time immemorial.THE KEISHNA LEGEND 151 a profitable subject of inquiry by one on the spot in Egypt. as to the moon). on the other hand.

;

152

CHEIST AND KRISHNA

period of crystallization under Roman headship, happened perforce in the older cults. As Yahweh grew from the God of a tribe to a God of the nations, so every thriving deity tended to receive wider and wider functions. The process was economic as well as psychic. It was every priest's business to increase the vogue of his temple's divinities, unless he were expressly hindered by the bestowal of a monopoly on a particular God by a particular king and every worshipper, when smoothly handled, was naturally ready to aggrandize his favourite deity. That this historically took place in the case of Osiris we know from the monuments, which show him to have been assimilated to the Sun-God Ra (Tiele, p. 44 Erman, Wiedemann, p. 306. Cp. Diod. Sic. i, 25). pp. 81-83 But this was only one of many such blendings. know for instance that Ptah, who was " certainly not originally a Sun-God," is "distinctly called the sun-disc" (Chantepie de la Saussaye, Manual of the Science of Beligion, Eng. tr. p. 425). Now, Ptah does seem to have been originally an Earth-God or Vegetation-God, and he was represented as green (Tiele, Egyptian Beligion, Eng. tr. p. 160), though he had also "the blue beard and diadem of Amun, whose colour was blue," as was that of Kneph. Amun in turn seems to have been a Nile-God and a Sun-God (Tiele, pp. 146, 148, 149 cp. Wiedemann, Bel. of the Anc. Egyptians, Eng. tr. as cited). In short, a unification of all the Gods with the Sun-God was one of the most prevalent tendencies in Egyptian religion (noted by Frazer, i, 314), as again in the Mexican. "The Gods of the dead and the elemental Gods were almost all identified with the sun, for the purpose of blending them in a theistic unity " (Maspero, cited by Lang, M. B. B. 2nd ed. ii, 134). Compare E. Meyer, Geschichte des alten Aegyptens, in Oncken's series, K. iii, p. 249. As to the case of Cham, the Vegetation-God, who was blended with the Sun-God
; ; ;

We

;

Horos, see Tiele, pp. 122-127. Such combinations may have been deliberately arranged among the priests, who at all times received an enormous revenue (Diod. Sic. i, 28, 81). It is thus doubly unnecessary to resort for explanation of any
junction of the solar and vegetal principles to the ingenious theory of Dr. Frazer (ii, 369) that the fire-sticks would be held to contain fire as a kind of sap. Kenrick (i, 403) readily acknowledged that the principle of fertility would involve alike the Sun and the Nile and the historical data since collected amply bear him out.

§ 5.

The Christian Argument.

Among modern
one of the most

explicit

statements of the Christian theory of Krishnaism, and emphatic is that inserted by an anony-

Sanskritist in a criticism of the first volume of Mr. J. Talboys Wheeler's History of India, in the Athenaum of August 10th, 1867. The criticism is hostile, pointing out that Mr. Wheeler " is not a

mous


THE CHEISTIAN AEGUMENT
tions with


153

Sanskrit scholar, nor has he very carefully examined the transla-

which he works," so that "we are never sure, without what particulars [as to Hindu legends] are drawn from the great epic, and what are from the Puranas and other It might have been added that the previous performance sources." of Mr. Wheeler had shown him to be a somewhat biassed historian. He had produced a number of popular abridgments or manuals of Old and New Testament history, in one of which he does not scruple to assert that while " Matthew, who wrote for the Jews, traces the pedigree of Joseph through David to Abraham, Luke, who wrote for the Gentiles, traces the descent of Mary through David to Adam." Such an apologist naturally does not flinch at alleging that Celsus and Porphyry "recognize " the gospels as the " genuine work of the 2 apostles"; and for such a reasoner, it is readily intelligible, the " mythic theory " is disposed of by the argument that it would make out the history of Julius Caesar to be a thorough myth. It will
referring to the original,
1

doubtless be comforting to

many

to learn that this soundly religious

Moral and Mental Philosophy and writer Logic " in the Presidency College of Madras, and that he has written an elaborate history of India with a considerable measure of

was made

Professor of "

acceptance.

But the critic of Mr. Wheeler's history in the Athenceum is hardly the person to take exception to intellectual tendencies such His own philosophy of history includes the belief that as these.
Krishnah has been borrowed by the Brahmans from the Gospel"; and he proceeds to prove his case by the following account of the legend in the Bhagavat Purana and Mahabharata an account which is worth citing at length as indicating a number of the minor myth-resemblances in the Hindu and Christian narratives, and as unintentionally paving the way for a fresh historical investigation of the latter
"
:

" the history of

Purana] commences with the announcement that to hear the story of Krishnah and believe it is all that is required for salvation and throughout the narrative the theme of exhortation is faith. Next it is declared that, sin and impiety having spread over the whole world, the Deity resolved to become incarnate in the form of Krishnah. He determined to destroy a tyrant king, whose name signifies Lust, who ruled at Mathura, and who murdered children. Krishnah is represented as born the nephew

The

recital [in the

;

of this king,

and therefore

of royal descent.

The name

of his tribe is

Yadu,

1 Abridgment of New Testament History, 1854, p. 35. Cp. Analysis and Summary of New Testament History, 1859, by same author (p. 28), where it is explained that LiuHe went back to Adam because he was "desirous of proving [the Gentiles'] admission into tpe Gospel covenant "—the descent of David from Adam not being an established hypothesis.

2

Analysis, as cited, p. xxviii.

154
which

CHRIST AND KRISHNA
is almost the same as Yahudah in Hebrew. His real mother was Devakf, which signifies the Divine Lady, and his reputed mother Yasoda,

or Yashoda. His father's name was Vasudev. In comparing this word with Yusef, we must remember that Dev in Sanskrit signifies divine, and

the d appears to have been inserted from that word. the
' '

The resemblance
'

of

name Krishnah itself to Christ is remarkable enough, but it becomes more so when we consider that the root Krish means to tinge,' and may
Preliminary to the birth of Krishnah the four Vedas become incarnate, and the tyrant king is warned by a divine voice that a son is to be born in his house who will destroy him. Upon this he puts to death the infants that are born to the Divine Lady, and makes a great slaughter of the tribe of Yadu. Notwithstanding this, Krishnah is born and placed in a basket for winnowing corn in other ivords, a manger. His father then carries him off to Gokula (or Goshen, the eastern side of Lower Egypt), which is represented as a country place near Mathura. On finding that the child has escaped, the tyrant makes a slaughter of infant children. A variety of puerile fables suited to the Hindu taste follow, showing how Krishnah was subject to his reputed mother, and how he reproved her. Being now thought to be the son of a shepherd, Krishnah plays in the wilderness, and is assaulted by the various fiends, and overcomes them all. This temptation winds up with the overthrow of the great serpent, upon whose head, assuming the weight of the three worlds, he treads.' Even in the strange recital of Krishnah's sports with the cowherdesses, threads of allusions to the Gospels are not wanting. Krishnah is continually manifesting his divinity, and yet disclaiming it. He goes to an Indian fig-tree and utters a sort of parable, saying, Blessed are those that bear pain themselves and show kindness to others. In another place he says that those who love him shall never suffer death. He proceeds to abolish the worship of Indra, the God of the air, and to invite his followers to worship a mountain. He directs those about him to close their eyes, and issues from the interior of the mountain with a face like the moon and wearing a diadem.' In this there seems to be an allusion to the Transfiguration. Then follows a scene suited to Hindu taste. Indra rains down a deluge, and Krishnah defends the inhabitants of Braj by supporting the mountain on his finger, and he is then hailed as the God of Gods. Krishnah now resolves on returning from the country to the city of the tyrant king. He is followed by a multitude of women and by the cowherds. He enters the city in royal apparel. He is met by a deformed woman, who anoints him with sandalwood oil. On this Krishnah makes her straight and beautiful, and promises that his regard for her shall be perpetual on which her good fortune is celebrated by all the people of the place. In the account of this miracle the narratives in Mark xiv 3 and Luke xiii 11 are blended.
well be taken to signify also
'

anoint.''

;

'

'

;

It

may be as well to mention here another miracle, which is mentioned in the Maha Bharata. Krishnah is there said to have restored the son of a widow to life And Krishnah laid hold of the dead man's hand and said, Arise, and by the will of the Almighty the dead man immediately arose.' A
' :

great army of barbarians is assembled by a distant king to destroy the holy city of Mathura Krishnah then transports the city and his disciples
to

Dwarka, which

is built

in the sea.

This appears
tlie

to be

of tJw siege of Jerusalem

and

the flight of

Christians.

a distorted account Krishnah now

THE CHRISTIAN ARGUMENT
returns to
;

155

and

Mathura and combats with the barbarians flies from their chief, pursued into a cave of the White Mountains, where there is a man sleeping, covered with a silken robe, apparently dead. This man arises from sleep and consumes the pursuer of Krishnah. In this account of the
is

cave there are evident allusions
in a following chapter there
is

and Krishnah into Hades and his recovery of certain persons from the dead At the great sacrifice performed by Yudhishthira the task which devolves on Krishnah is that of washing the feet of those present. One person alone is said to have been dissatisfied, and that is Duryodhana, who is generally regarded as an incarnation of the Evil Spirit, and who, like Iscariot, here carries the bag, and acts as treasurer It must be admitted, then, that there are most remarkable coincidences between the history of Krishnah and that of Christ. This being the case, and there being proof positive that Christianity was introduced into Judea at an epoch when there is good reason to suppose the episodes which refer to Krishnah were inserted in the Maha Bharata, the obvious inference is that the Brahmans took from the Gospel such things as suited them, and so added preeminent beauties to their national epic, which otherwise would in no respect have risen above such poems as the
to the

burial

and resurrection

of Christ ;

an account

of the descent of

Shahnamah

of the Persians."

1

As to the authorship of this criticism we can only speculate. In an allusion to the doctrine of the Bhagavat Glta the writer expresses himself as " willing to admit " that " the Gita is the most sublime poem that ever came from an uninspired pen"; thus taking up the position of ordinary orthodoxy, which presupposes the supernatural origin of the Christian system, and prejudges every such This is the standing trouble question as we are now considering. with English scholarship. Even Professor Miiller, who has produced an Introduction to the Science of Beligion, is found writing to a correspondent in terms which seemingly imply at once belief in
Christian supernaturalism and a fear that the discussion of certain
questions in comparative mythology

supposing," he

writes, "

may damage the some or many of the doctrines
Does a
sailor trust his

faith.

"

Even

of Christianity
are),

were found in other religions also (and they certainly

does that
less

make them
because
it

less true ?

own compass

can be proved that the Ghinese had a compass before we

had it?" And again: "These questions regarding the similarities between the Christian and any other religions are very difficult to 2 treat, and unless they are handled carefully much harm may be done."

From

scholarship of this kind (though, as it happens, Miiller finally opposes the theory of Christian derivation) one turns perforce to
that of the continent.
1

2

Athenceum, as cited, pp. 168-9. Letters to C. A. Elflein, printed at end of a pamphlet by the latter entitled

Buddha,

Krishna, and Christ,


156

CHRIST AND KRISHNA

Weber, who refers to the Athenceum critic's argument in his study on the " Geburtsfest," emphatically distinguishes between what he thinks plausible and what seems to him extravagant, though the argument in question goes to support some of his own positions. The identifications of the names Yasoda, Yusef, and Vasudev, Gokula and Goshen, he rightly derides as being " a la P. Giorgi "; and he mentions that the stories of the woman's oblation and forgiveness, and also that of the raising of the widow's dead son, are not from the Mahabharata at all, but from the Jaimini-Bharata, a work of 2 the Purana order a point which, of course, would not essentially affect the argument. On the main question he sums up as
1

follows

:

wo could so construe these words that they should harmonize with the view of Kleuker " [before quoted] " we might contentedly accept them. If, however, they are to be understood as meaning that the history of Krishna in the lump (ilberhaupt) was first taken from the Gospel history (and indeed the author seems not disinclined to that view), then we cannot
' '

" If

endorse them." 3

That is to say, the theory of the Christian origin of the general Krishna legend is rejected by Weber, the most important supporter of the view that some details in that legend have so originated. And not only is this rejection overwhelmingly justified, as we shall see, by the whole mass of the evidence, earlier and later, but so far as I am aware no Sanskrit scholar of any eminence has ever put his name to the view maintained by the anonymous writer in the Athenceum. Even Mr. Wheeler, who believes all the Gospels "and more," does not go to these lengths. He is more guarded even where he suggests similar notions.
"The account of Raja Kansa," he obsorves, "is been borrowed from the Gospel account of King tho case or not, it is certain that most of the inserted for the purpose of ennobling the birth of
supposed by many to have Horod. Whether this be details are mythical, and Krishna " i

it being Mr. Wheeler's opinion that the story of Krishna as a whole has a personal and historic basis. He further holds that 11 the grounds upon which Krishna seems to have forgiven the sins of the tailor " [who made clothes for his companions] " seem to 5 form a travestie of Christianity"; and, like the writer in the Athenceum and earlier pietists, he thinks that the Gospel stories of the bowed woman and the spikenard " seem to have been thrown

1 He puts a " sic!" after the spelling Yashoda in quoting the passago, and another after the word " inserted " in the phrase " appears to have heen inserted from that word." 2 Ueber die Krishnajanmdslttami, as cited, p. 315, n. 4 8 Id. p. 316. « Id. p. 471, n. History of India, i, 464, note.


TH1 OBNTBAL DISPROOF
157

together
aolvoa

Id

bhe Legend of Kuhja."

conceives bhat bhe Hindus
:

On bhe other hand, however, he may have invented Borne things for them
bhe
great

1

" Kriihna'i

triumph

oysr

Mrpent
ol

ECaliya

wm

*t

one

time

luppoted

(<>

be

borrowed

from bha briumph

Ohriit over Setftn,

There

eppeeri, howtvtr, bo be no ellueion whatever bo bhe bruising «»f bhe Berpent'i hoad in thu in wiudi It li understood bj Christian ooxxunsntators."'

mdm

§ 6.

The

('rut nil

Disproof.
of bhe Late origin
of

Qnsupported as are bhe Christian theories
the Krishna Legend,
It

is

necessary bo eite bhe evidenoe whloh repels

might be held as Bettled onoe for all by bhe evidenoe of Patanjali's MahabhAshya or Great Commentary," a grammatical work based on previous ones, and dating from tho hocoiuI oentnry B.C., bnt first made in part aooessible bo European The evidenoe of bhe soholars >y bhe Benares edition of L872. Mahabhashya is thus summed up by bhe Learned Professor Bhandarkar of Bombay, after discussion of bhe passages on which ho
bhem.
point, indeed,
I

The

founds, as dearly proving:
1st..

That bhe

stories of bhe death of

Kansa and bhe subjugation
in

of Ball

were popular and ourrent in Patanjali's time. '2nd. That Krishna or Vasudeva was mentioned

bhe story as

having killed E£ansa.
sentations,
1

"8rd. That suoh stories formed bhe Bubjeots of dramatic repreits Puranio stories arc still popularly represented on the
stage.

1

ii

id u

"4th. That the event of Cansa's death at the hands of Krishna was In Patanjali's time believed bo have ooourred at a very remote
time."
bo quoted from an existing
1

to Othor passages, Profossor Bhandarkar thinks, would appear poem OH Krishna"; and, in liis opinion, Not only was the story ol* Krishna and Kausa current and popular iu Patanjali's time, but it appears clearly that the former was

stories of

If bhe worshipped as a God." And bhe Professor oonoludes bhat shall notice hereKrishna and Ball, and others which after, were current and popular in bhe seoond century B.O., some suoh works as bhe Barivansa and bhe Puranas must have existed
1

then."

Disoussing bhe Mahabhashya on
1

its

publication (some years after
1,1.

1,1.

v. -170,

;/.

P. tflS. a.

Art.

"AUuiioni
ill

t<»

1 ECriibse la PataojaU'i Mababntibya,' to bhe Indian

dntumarVt

Moiubuy, vol.

(1H71),

Lfl

;

158
his paper
it

CHEIST AND KRISHNA
on the
Birth-festival),

Weber had

already conceded that

1

pointed not only almost beyond doubt to a pre-existing poetic

compilation of the Mahabharata Sagas, but to the ancient existence
of the

Kansa myth.

Kansa, he pointed out, figured in regard to

Bali, in the passages quoted in the Mahabhashya, as a demon, and his " enmity towards Krishna equally assumed a mythical character,

into

which
'

also the different colours of their followers (the

'

black

ones
1

are
'

then also those of
'!)

Kansa

?

though Krishna himself
Or," the Professor goes on,

signifies

black

would seem

to enter.

battles between Aryans and the aborigines occupying India before them?" In

could there be thereby
2

signified

some Indian
of

another place,
"

alluding

to

the contention

Dr.

Burnell

3

that

much

in the

modern philosophical schools

of

India comes from

some form of Christianity derived from Persia," Professor Weber pointed out that " quite recently, through the publication of the
Mahabhashya, a much older existence is proved for the Krishna cultus than had previously seemed admissible." Finally, in com4 menting on the argument of Bhandarkar, Weber allows that the passages cited by the scholar from Patanjali are " quite conclusive and very welcome " as to an intermediate form of Krishna- worship though he disputes the point as to the early existence of literature of the Purana order a point with which we are not here specially concerned and goes on to contend that the passages in question " do not interfere at all with the opinion of those who maintain, on quite reasonable grounds," that the later development of Krishnaism " has been influenced to a certain degree by an acquaintance with the or even doctrines, legends, and symbols of the early Christians with the opinion of those who are inclined to find in the Bhagavadgita traces of the Bible for though I for my part am as yet not convinced at all in this respect, the age of the Bhagavadgita is still so uncertain that these speculations are at least not shackled by any

;

;

chronological obstacles."
I

as far as

know of no recent Weber does
;

expert opinion which refuses to go at least
here.

His persistent contention as to the

presence of some Christian elements in the Krishna cult I will discuss later but in the meantime it is settled that the most
conservative Sanskrit scholarship on the continent not only admits

but insists on the pre-Christian character of the Krishna mythus,
1 Indische Studien, xiii (1873), pp. 354-5, 357. 2 Notice of vol. iv of Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts, 1873, reprinted in Weber's Indische Streifen, iii, 190-1.

3
4

Academy, June

14th, 1873.
246.

In the Indian Antiquary, August, 1875=iv,

ANTIQUITY OF KRISHNAISM
of

159

and of such an important quasi-Christian element in it as the story Kansa, which had so zealously been claimed (and that with Weber's consent in former years) as an adaptation from the Herod
story in the Christian Gospel.
§

7.

Antiquity of Krishnaism.

The proof of the pre-Christian antiquity of the Krishna cult, however, does not rest merely on the text of the Mahabhashya, or the conclusions of scholars in regard to that. The extravagance of
the orthodox Christian argument was apparent it was rejected, we have seen, by Weber before the passages in the Mahabhashya were brought forward. There have long been known at least three inscriptions, in addition to at least one other literary allusion, which prove Krishnaism to have flourished long before the period at which the Christians represent it to have been concocted from the Gospels. 1. The Bhitari pillar inscription, transcribed and translated by 1 Dr. W. H. Mill, and dating from, probably, the second century of our era, proves Krishna to be then an important deity. The Krishna passage runs, in Dr. Mill's translation " May he who is like Krishna still obeying his mother Devaki, after his foes are vanquished, he of golden rays, with mercy protect this my design." This trans2 lation Lassen corrects, reading thus " Like the conqueror of his enemies, Krishna encircled with golden rays, who honours Devaki, may he maintain his purpose "; and explaining that the words are to be attributed to the king named in the inscription (Kumaragupta), and not to the artist who carved it, as Dr. Mill supposed. "As in the time to which this inscription belongs," Lassen further remarks, " human princes were compared with Gods, Krishna is here represented as a divine being, though not as one of the highest Gods." Dr. Mill, on the other hand, holds Krishna to be understood as " the supreme Bhagavat " referred to in other parts of the inscription. However this may be, the cultus is proved to have existed long

:

:

before the arrival of Christian influences.

fragmentary inscriptions discovered in 1854 by Mr. E. C. Indian Civil Service, equally point to the early " deification of Krishna. One has the words " Krishnayasasa arama in Aryan Pali letters the other " Krishnayasasya arama medangisya."
2.

Two
3

Bayley,

of the

;

The

first

two words mean
of

"

meaning " the glory
1

Krishna

The Garden of Krishnayasas," this name and Mr. Bayley thinks that ";
1837, PP. 1-17.

2
3

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, January, Indische Alter thumskunde, ii (1849), p. 1108, note. Journal of Asiatic Society, xxiii, 57.

160
"

CHRIST AND KRISHNA

medangisy a, =" corpulent, is some wag's addition to the original As to the date, Mr. Bayley writes " The form of the Indian letters had already led me to assign them roughly to the first 1 century A.D. On showing them, however, to Major A. Cunningham, he kindly pointed out that the foot strokes of the Aryan letters ally them to those on the coins of Pakores '; and he therefore would place them more accurately in the first half of the second century A.D. at the earliest." Major Cunningham, it will be remembered, is one of those who see imitation of Christianity in the Krishna legends, so his dating is not likely to be over early. In any case, Mr. Bayley admits that the inscriptions " would seem to indicate the admission of Krishna into the Hindu Pantheon at the period" when they were cut. " If, however," he adds, " this be eventually established, it by no means follows that the name was applied to the same deity as at present, still less that he was worshipped in the same manner." It is not very clear what Mr. Bayley means by "the same deity"; or whether he would admit the God of the Jews to be the same deity as the Father of Jesus Christ, as worshipped by Archdeacon Farrar. But if he merely means to say that the Hindu conception of Krishna, like his ritual, might be modified after centuries, his
inscription.

:

'

proposition
3.

may

readily be accepted.
pillar inscription, translated
2

by Wilkins, to which I have observed no allusion in recent writers on Krishnaism, serves equally to prove the early existence of a legend of a divine Krishna born of Devakl and nursed by Yasoda. It contains the passage, alluding to a distinguished lady or princess
:

The Buddal

" She, like

another Devaki,
the adopted of

bore unto him a son of high renown,

Yasodha and husband

Goddess Lakshmi being here identified with Krishna's bride. This inscription was dated by Wilkins "shortly B.C.," and by Sir William Jones 67 C.E. I have not ascertained how it is placed by later scholars but in any case it must long antedate the periods assigned by Weber and the Athenaum critic to the arrival of the Christian influences which are supposed to have affected later Krishnaism. 4. In the Khandogya Upanishad, a document admittedly older than our era, there occurs 8 this passage " Ghora Angirasa, after having communicated this (view of the sacrifice) to Krishna, the
of
;

Lakshmi

"

—the

who resembled

:

1 By "century a.d." Mr. Bayley means "century after Christ." "First century anno domini," a form constantly used by academic writers, is nonsense. In this paper I use " "c.e." to signify " Christian era," as b.c." signifies "before Christ." This, or the use of the form " a.c," is surely the reasonable course. 2 Asiatic Researches, i, 131. 3 iii, Muller's trans., Sacred Books of the East, i, 52. 17, 6
;


INVALID EVIDENCE
son of Devaki
ledge)

;

161

—said,"

—and

etc.

On

he never thirsted again (after other knowthis passage Muller comments
:

The curious coincidence between Krishna Devakiputra, here mentioned as a pupil of Ghora Angirasa, and the famous Krishna, the son of Devaki, was first pointed out by Colebrooke, Miscell. Essays, ii, 117. Whether it is more than a coincidence it is difficult to say. Certainly we can build no
it than those indicated by Colebrooke, that new fables have been constructed, elevating this personage to the rank of a God. We know absolutely nothing of the old Krishna Devakiputra except his having been a pupil of Ghora Angirasa, nor does there seem to have been any attempt made by later Brahmans to connect their divine Krishna, the son of Vasudeva, with the Krishna Devakiputra of our Upanishad. This is all the more remarkable because the author of the Sandilya-sutras, for instance, who is very anxious to found a srauta authority for the worship of Krishna Vasudeva as the supreme deity, had to be satisfied with quoting modern compilations Professor Weber has treated these questions very fully, but it is not quite clear to me whether he wishes to go beyond Colebrooke, and to admit more than a similarity of name between the pupil of Ghora Angirasa and the friend of the Gopis."

"

other conclusions on

may

Weber,

it

may

similarity of

name ":

be noted in passing, does " admit more than a 1 in his treatise on the Birth Festival he founds

on the Upanishad reference as indicating one of the stages in the development of Krishnaism. And as Muller does not dispute in the least the antiquity and authenticity of that reference, but only queries "coincidence," it may be taken as pretty certain that we have here one more trace of the existence of the Krishna legend long before the Christian era. There is nothing in the least remarkable in the fact of the passage not being cited by a writer who wanted texts on the status of Krishna as " the supreme deity," because the passage clearly does not so present Krishna. But it is no part of our case to make out that Krishna was widely worshipped as " the supreme deity " before our era on the contrary, the evidence mostly goes to show that he attained his eminence, or at least his Brahmanical status, later. The point is that his name and story were current in India long before the Christian legends, as such, were heard of and the series of mutually supporting testimonies puts this beyond
;

doubt.
§

8.

Invalid Evidence.

It does not

seem

likely that the force of the foregoing evidence

will be seriously disputed.

At the same time, it is necessary to on by some scholars, and in particular by Lassen, to prove the early existence of Krishnaism will
point out that

some

of the data relied

1

As

cited, p. 316.

and which Von Bohlen (Altes Indien.) 1 " We may from this passage conclude with certainty that in the time of wives was born . so little 3 were the Greeks disposed to master foreign languages. 647-9. Ptoleinaios names Mathura the city of the Gods. Alex. and might seem to impute an inclination to make out an identity between the Greek and the Indian hero. "much to be desired. More probably he needed interpreters. has mentioned [the] connection of Krishna with the Pandavas. KXetcr6/3opa. vi. It would appear from a remark of Arrian (Exped. 233) with apparent justice reads as Krishna-Pura. especially when we compare the form Pandavya and in that connection my previous conclusion seems to be irrefragable. for Vishnu also carries a That he also.— 162 CHRIST AND KRISHNA not by themselves support that conclusion. Indische Alterthumskunde. 22) calls Carisobara or Cyrisoborea or Chrysobora.. and specially in warriors. After his (Diodor. It leaves. Arrian. but many sons. puts his case thus : " Megasthenes. making them kings. 4 Outlines. among whom he divided all India.000 wives and 180. . ii. Besides Mathura. are descended. which Pliny (Hist. the Indian Hercules] " excelled all men in strength of body evil. That we are entitled to take this Hercules for Krishna appears from the fact that he was specially honoured by the people of Surasena. and wiped them out. p. 39. the whole earth and the sea of and spirit he had purged and founded many cities of his many . from whom the series of Pandava Kings . Ind. there becomes apparent that writer's exact acquaintance with Indian matters. vi. Nat. 8. When Megasthenes describes him as bearing a club. i. whose descendants reigned through many generations and did famous deeds some of their kingdoms stood even to the time when Alexander invaded India. 30) that only one Macedonian in Alexander's train learned Persian. says Tiele. (Ind. Pandaia is exactly the name of Pandava. and in talk between these and the Brahmans the poetic epithet " lion " would hardly be used. Probably Megasthenes was misled by the fact that in Sanskrit the word lion 3 is used to indicate a pre-eminent excellence in men. Pandaia. viii. like Hercules. Of cities founded by him. 440. however. His statement is as follows: He" [i. who incarnated himself when the transgressions of the world began to overflow. does not correspond to Krishna. Megasthenes named another city of the Surasenes. 5. .) death. UavSaiv. . The account of Megasthenes further corresponds with the Indian Saga in respect that there many wives and sons are ascribed to Krishna (16. 2 Lassen here assumes that Megasthenes knew Sanscrit. we know only Dvaraka and Palibothra had another founder. See Vishnu Purana. Clearly.e. divine honours had been paid him. pp. indeed. i (1847). whose account of ancient India is the weightiest because the oldest of all those left to us by foreigners. which is not at all certain." 4 Note by Lassen. 148. . In Alexander's expedition communications seem at times to have been filtered through three interpreters.000 sons. that Megasthenes has signified by the daughter of Krishna the sister." 3 Now. who identifies Krishna with the Indian Hercules spoken of by Megasthenes. Lassen. 591). and precisely in the character of Vishnu. wore a club (hence his name of Gadddhara) lion's hide. thenes 1 it is sufficiently plain on the face of this exposition that the identification of Krishna with the Indian Hercules of Megasis imperfect. city of Krishna. Megasthenes Krishna was honoured as one of the highest of the Gods. and his remarks deserve close attention as giving a historical foothold in regard to the vogue of the worship of Krishna. only one daughter.

and allude to. such statues have been thought to resemble. vii. . evidence the prior currency of the traditions constitute the argument of the Mahabharata. very emphatically combats Pandaean country. pref. and a pestle for beating ." 2 accepted Lassen's view but does not do so with any emphasis. Bala. It is necessary. 409 (1853). " was and their notices of indubitably the Bala Eama of the Hindus Mathura on the Jumna. n. Barth. and 3 points out that it has been contested by Weber. to see in him Bala Rama. relating to the Pandava and Yadava races. regarding Megasthenes' testimony as of uncertain value in any case. a much more satisfactory identification of the Indian Hercules of Megasthenes lay ready to Lassen's hand in Wilson's introduction to his translation of the Vishnu Purana. ii. it is true. His name. Essai sur la Legende du Buddha. p. When we established : glance at the description of Bala Kama as he figures sufficiently in Indian effigies. " The pestle is of . and Musali. means strength and the beneficent attributes here noticed are by some called a ploughshare for hooking his enemies. in my opinion. who." (Note. 4 as M. as bearing the musal. vi. Beligions of India. to Krishna and his contemporary heroes. whose masterly Essay on the Legend of Buddha has put him in the front rank of Indianists and mythologists.— — INVALID EVIDENCE 163 In point of fact." says that sound scholar. an affinity. meaning plough-armed. — 1 2 3 i Trans. declines to accept the reading of Kleisobora as Krishnapura. Lassen finds Vishnu more vraisemblable.. and to the dynasties M. even in respect of the association with Krishna. and of the kingdom of the Suraseni and the . that Hercules with Krishna. and he has epithets derived from the names of these implements viz. 11 The Hercules of the Greek writers. p. which and which are constantly repeated in the Puranas. has tacitly of the solar and lunar heroes. Halayudha. in the eyes of a Greek. and a club for destroying them and being sometimes seen with a lion's skin over his shoulders. the view of Wilson and Senart seems "Bala Rama a benefactor of rice . I think. 339. the more striking because it was exterior. 1 . Itidische Studien. and considers Wilson's theory of Bala Eama more reasonable. who seems simply to [Megasthenes'] : infinitely have confounded under this one name legends appertaining to several of the avatars of Vishnu it is. Senart. for whom his club would constitute. And M. to accept the same synonymy for the Hercules spoken of by Megasthenes. Lassen has done. of Vishnu Purana. 1840. mankind although a warrior. pp. an error of over-precision to identify. 163. may from his attributes be esteemed for he bears a plough. or rice-beater. . those of the Theban Hercules and their legends. 2e ed. Lassen's position " In : it would be Hercules M. with the son of Alcmena." .

§ 9.Moor's Hindu Pantheon.' Vishnu. The early vogue of Krishna-worship being thus amply proved. who is the favourite subject of heroic and he is described of ample shoulders. however. brawny arms. Diodorus club and lion's skin as among the Greeks. . Weber if even of mind. That theory. corresponds with shall We significance of Hercules figure so far as to support strongly M. circular and full. . 1 tells (ii. shell-formed to the knee marks body. hyacinthine with eyes and lips of sanguine hue the lord of the source of joy to Ikshwaku's the world a moiety of Vishnu himself blue-bodied. of course. — In fine. that he has approached it from the first in a perfectly scientific frame Professor that. p. 194. then. we are not entitled to say with Lassen that Megasthenes clearly shows the worship of Krishna to have attained the highest eminence in India three hundred years before our era but what is certain is that the whole group of the legends with which Krishna is connected had at that date already a high religious standing and that an important Krishna cultus. he is perfectly disinterested in his whole treatment of the subject. beyond noting how precisely the former corresponds with the Hercules of Megasthenes. of course. keeping in view at the same : time. amatory poetics ' : . about four feet long. with the ends 1 tipped or ferrelled with iron. . . closely connected with Krishna. p. the next great Hindu epic after the Mahabharata. an appellation of Krishna.— 164 . Moor's Hindu Pantheon. This is not to say. and two inches in diameter. CHKIST AND KRISHNA hard wood. It is only fair to mention that besides seeing Christian elements in Krishnaism he finds Homeric elements in the Ramayana. 195. 39) that iu India Hercules has the .") have to consider further hereafter the mythological Bala Rama and the other two Ramas. . it remains to consider the argument. as to the derivation of certain parts of Krishnaism from Christianity. it will suffice to say that one of the other Ramas. Weber's Theory. ." 2 as of the prototype of both Rama . so long persisted in by Professor Weber. resting on these. more With these is not to be identified there is no reason to doubt he be mistaken. existed before and spread through India after that period. as well He is also called race. Senart's hypothesis of a combination of various personages in the Greek's the conception " It is : Chandra. to prevent their splitting or wearing. In the meantime. . the extensive claims made by the partizans of Christianity. but certainly flourished long before the advent of Christian influences. extending chest. with auspicious neck.

" 2 It is Gebiirtsfest latterly not likely that. individual. by Professor A. as the Buddhists in the freshness of their religious zeal. " Still epoch forms a common type of all Hindu sects. the argument for a reciprocal action of the two and it becomes religions is on the face of it plausible enough Christ . = black.) Bombay. 28. necessary to go into the details. which includes a frank avowal that there is evidence of Hindu influence on Christianity just about the time at which he thinks Christianity influenced Krishnaism : more deep [than the Grecian] has been the influence of Christianity. which is not to be found in India before this time. namely." Apart from that. after the banter he has bestowed in Krishna's on the Eather Giorgi order of etymology. One passage will serve to show his general position. the monastic system of monks and nuns. being often too marked for it to be an independent production compare the worship of relics. confession. even the name of Christ seems to stand in direct connection with it. and need not be here discussed. can be best explained by the influence of the latter. and several legends of Christ. Christian ceremonial and rites (which were forming just at that time) show to the Buddhistic in many respects. Fanny {Indiscne . the tonsure. rosaries.— — WEBEE'S THEOEY 1 165 however. are transferred to him. T. 1854. of Ancient India. universal God. p. by way of Alexandria. 25-6. 2 Modern Investigations Lecture delivered in Berlin. etc. . Translated by Skizzen. In an opposite manner. had early The great resemblance which the sent their missionaries beyond Asia. celibacy. pp. which now takes an entirely new form. . which stands on a different footing. The Manichaean system of religion in Persia is very evidently indebted to Buddhistical conceptions. 1873." and of In his treatise on the Krishna Birth-Festival he posits a number of — 1 See it ably criticized in K. Weber. 1857. seems to have met with very small acceptance among Indianists. Telang's Was A the Bdmdyana copied from Homer ? __ . universal God and the idea of Faith. more especially in Alexandria. might mean " anointed " because the root might mean " to tinge. but which from this also chiefly introduced . to which is to be attributed the idea of a personal. Weber would have adhered to the above suggestion about the name of or that he would give a moment's countenance to the argument of the Athenceum critic that the name Krishna. any more than his old argument as to the influence of Greek art on India after Alexander. In the worship of Krishna. March Metcalfe. as well as of his mother the Divine Virgin. bells. of " a personal. 4. an ancient hero. In the above extract Weber indicates only two respects in which Krishnaism was in his opinion modified by Christianity the Faith. Hindu philosophy too exercised a decided influence upon the formation of several of the Gnostic sects then rising. carried on by their principle of universalism. ." doctrines. the architecture of church of each faith towers (with the Buddhistic Topes).

the Birth Festival itself . how source of narratives these stories — as to how these particular miraculous came to be told in connection with Jesus —he makes (save on one point) no inquiry. that but for the Professor's to have lost conwould seem. are just as likely to be mythical as the story of of sumption Herod and the massacre never inquired of the innocents ? Apparently Weber has His argument simply assumes that the Gospel stories (whether true or not. the attempted killing by Kansa . and the sin-removing power of his regard. important. So . Pagan Parallels. one would think. he does not say) came into circulation at the foundation of Christianity. the reprethe curious sentation of Krishna as a child suckled by his mother item that. the story of Christian myth. at the time of Krishna's birth. of which. and the Christian Herod-story be thus admittedly a redaction of an old Eastern myth. his foster-father Nanda goes with his wife Yasoda to Mathura " to pay his taxes" (a detail not noted by the Athenaum critic) the representation of the babe . A most important admission. the carrying of the child across the river (as in the Christian " Christophoros " legend) the miraculous doings of . has already been made by Professor Weber in regard to the story of King Kansa which he admits to be now proved a pre-Christian myth. . § 10. and apparently feels no difficulty though to a scientific eye. the straightening of the crooked woman . the central Kansa be admittedly a preit we might have surmised him If fidence in his whole position. it will be remembered. later restatement is that withdrawal. the " massacre of the innocents". as laid in a manger . in Weber's investigation is his allusion to the view that the representation of the Virgin Mary as either suckling or clasping the infant Jesus may have been borrowed from the The one exception 1 Work cited. and so became accessible to the world. on the face of them. citadel has fallen. the raising of the bereaved mother's dead son. 166 concrete details : CHRIST AND KRISHNA in particular. pp. But as to the the Christian stories in general originated. the clearing-up in some way of the causation of the Christian legends is as necessary as the explaining how they are duplicated in Krishnaism. the child and the healing virtue of his bath water (as in the Apoc- ryphal Gospels) . . These concrete details I will first deal with. her pouring ointment over 1 Krishna .. 328-9. indeed. what becomes of the pre- Indian imitation of other Christian stories which.

614. cited by Weber himself from ' De Rossi. to question whether these early Madonnas were really Christian whether they did not represent the almost universal vogue of the worship of a child-nursing Goddess apart from Christianity. 3 4 Indian Antiquary. one of the and meant a sucking infant . s. a Roman Catholic Anglo-Indian." illustrations Now. special in the 6 myths he 1 is either suckled by or actually the child 2 of Demeter." the Virgin. 142. 480-1 (. "the Maiden. Geographia Sacra. originally The very name Iacchos. Suidas.v. even if it be decided that the earliest " Madonnas " in the Catacombs have a classic rather than an Egyptian cast. that the Roman catacombs. c. Cp. 381 . ix." Diodorus. i. iv. 1843. Images de la T. p. pp. So the Latin Liber. in." And again (a passage which Weber does not cite) " The frescoes of our the Holy Virgin with her divine child . 300. Growse's pretext for his indignantly and justly resented. 6te Aufl. an imputation which the scholar has 2 Mr. but there were in the vague. in. 18). of 1 desire to give offence". les . 4 titles of Dionysos. and Maury. c. Myth. 2nd ed. p. The paintings of Says De Rossi : our subterranean cemeteries offer us the first images of and they are much more numerous and more ancient than is indicated by the works hitherto [before 1863] published on the Catacombs of Rome. separateness of the cult of Iacchos see Rohde. iii. b. of course. Rome. splenetic charge was the claim. like her mother. " earliest representations of the Madonna in the recently brought to light. Growse. 6 Diodorus Siculus. iii. S. Preller. 5 Cataconibes de Borne. follow a classic and not an Egyptian type. There is no artistic or documentary evidence whatever of Christian Madonna. c. 6-7. 4te Aufl. 21. pp. Cp. Bochart. 314. i. It does not occur to Commendatore De Rossi. Sirnrock. 1674. As to the original ''Iclkxos. : and the monuments cited by me here. Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie. Otherwise Dionysos is the child of Persephone—Kore. iii. Griech. For citing from previous writers he has been angrily accused a wanton by Mr. " Madonnas " of a " classic " cast before the time at which the absolute images of Isis were transferred to Christian churches.Chanaan. Julius Ccesar. demonstrate that in the most ancient works of Christian art the Virgin holding her child is figured 3 independently of the Magi and of any historic scene.worship in the first century. 284-5. 38. Ligendes Pieuses du Moyen Age. which seem to me to be as the models of the different types and of the different periods which one meets from the first centuries to about the time of Constantine. nothing would be proved against the Egyptian derivation of the cult of the Virgin and Child." leave matters very much There might indeed be Christian. Strabo. 251. i. 62. was . 5 lb. I have chosen four. Vierge dans Id. See above." and his final claim that his series of images " goes back to the disciples of the apostles. pp. — certainly non-Christian. and black images of Mary and Jesus were made in imitation of them. ed. 4. Plutarch. 1. iv. and De Rossi's "premiers sidcles.— PAGAN PARALLELS this suggestion 167 Egyptian statues or representations of Isis and Horus." who. Psyche. 64 . 1863.

Ettore Pais. O. Miss Harrison. trans. Prolegomena. tr. p. K. pp. O. Miss Harrison. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Beligion. 31. savage and 12 other and the notion must have been familiar in early civilization. who was 13 fabled to become a virgin anew each year. 100. In ancient art she. 14 Preller's GriecMsche Mythologie. Preller. 7 8 10 11 251 sq. especially on Athenian coins. 377. is universal. and was revered as a virgin. 267. mother of Melicerta or Palaemon (=Melkarth and Baal-Ammon). and rude images of the sort are found among the most ancient terra8 Gaia. Id. or a specific Goddess is 4 abstracted from the primeval concept of the All-Mother. 493. whence a presumption that among the Semites Melkarth and Baal-Ammon were represented as Figures of a " Divine Mother holding her child in carried infants. p. 1908. 1 a babe — Hercules or Dionysos. " an attribute become a personality. Cp. 13 Pausanias. 12 . p. 4). 274. was also styled the Virgo Coelestis (Augustine. iv. Muller. Prolegomena. often represented as suckling the Babe-God. Pausanias. pp. 1162. and (severally) the nymphs Neda 10 The type. 2nd ed. GriecMsche Mythologie. 25. Monuments Ine"dits. 538. p. 1906. pp. The idea is ubiquitous. Ancient Art. s 6 Cp. 47. Harrison. Cp. in which " the Mother " is the chief 11 symbol of the reproductive principle. i. Miss mysticism which made Dimeter or Ceres. Leto had the same title. Id. 927) and in the same way bears Typhon (Homerid. To begin with. Nor was the appellation of " The Virgin " any more unfamiliar before than after Christianity in connection with Madonna-worship. Juno was identified with the Virgo Coelestis (Preller. the mother of all the Gods. and probably derives from a primitive presentment in the (or a) matriarchal period. Muller. though the mate as well as the mother of Jupiter. the most virginal Goddess of all. 430. and " seized with a love without passion for Attis" (Julian. Ancient Art. Ancient Art. Here bears Hephaistos " without having been united in love " (Hesiod. But it was given to Artemis. Eng. as to the concept of a Kourotrophos without other name. 71. Eng. In Etruscan and Grseco-Roman statuary. 269. suckling virginally. i. Muller. 402. pp. Mythology of the i. p. Turner. Ino Leucothea. viii. 1906. Cox. a virgin too. 1 Greece the name 3 who Kovporp6<f>os* the boy-rearer. 493. 752. Juno (Here). Cybele. pp. in Rome. 28. 200 (impregnation by the sun). i. 326 . was sculptured holding the cotta figurines of Cyprus. 5 Cp. The Great Dionysiak Myth. iv. note 3. O. p. ii. 14 Isis bears Horus being impregnated while hovering in the form of a 2 p. 1884. again. Virgin-births occur in many mythologies. So. . 2nd ed.'* in turn bore in The Earth Mother. Lucretius. 5 the Roman Portumnus. 261-273. Pausanias. Ancient Art. c.. 68.168 " CHRIST AND KRISHNA " the many-breasted. ii.ii. Hymn to Apollo). Cp. in and GEnoe were figured as carrying the babe Zeus. In Deorum Matrem. Muller. ix. 438-441 Winckelmann." or Ceres Mammosa. Ancient Legends of Roman History. Pausanias. Theogony." 4 K. fact. Pausanias. 554. 7 her arms " are found in the remains of pre-Roman Carthage. and Brown. Bomische Mythologie. 1865. 280. 135. 110). 9 K. . the earth mother. p. 599. called Mater Matuta by the Romans. 4). tr. Aryan Nations. Babelon. p. 9 infant Dionysos or Erichthonios. 184. This myth often recurs. i. Eng. 38. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago. was 6 represented with her child in her arms. 34. 22. was represented as . Equally transparent was the Cp. Manual of Oriental Antiquities. De Civitate Dei.

" " holding smaller figure or child. are much older than Christianity New World 1 before the arrival of Christianity. who also was identified with the Virgo Coelestis. 41. 8 9 § 4. 7 Written in 1889. 257. Muller. De Errore Profan. See the figure reproduced also in Lundy's Monumental Christianity. Ancient Art. 3 K. 1853. 3 with the sceptre and ball a form adopted by Christian art. as cited." though the deity of the former is to the full as certain as that of the. Fortune giving suck to the Child Jupiter. . Erman. PAGAN PARALLELS 1 169 sparrow-hawk over the body of her slain husband. 16 6 Layard's Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. O. in the labelling of which officialdom ventures so far as to write " Figure of Female or Aphrodite. 34. Griechische Mythologie. end of the Egyptian Hall. 1907. i. are (or were) a number of similar outer figures. 474 Preller. was represented both as carrying a child and as having one before her. 246-7. . Similarly the Greeks had statues of the abstract Virgins Peace and Fortune. . at the latter. We know that in Rome in the time of the Republic a special worship was paid by matrons 4 to the image of a nursing mother. each carry5 ing Wealth (Plutus) as a child in her arms. K." — the thought of fatherhood. 212. 477 Rawlinson's Herodotus. as last cited. tr. Belig. may be seen 7 which is old Chaldsean figures of this kind. . In a case of " Miscellaneous Objects from Assyria and Babylonia.. which were evidently cherished by multitudes. one of described merely as a "female figure holding a child. De Divina5 Pausanias. i. p. Part IV. Lafitau. Muller. 8 Muller. Handbook of Egyptian Religion. It is agreed that the Goddess Alitta was 6 represented by such images and there are many specimens of similar ancient Eastern effigies of small size. too. a circumstance point- 9 ing to prehistoric derivation from Asia. though figures of the child-bearing Isis are traced to the earliest 8 periods of Egyptian religion. . Mceurs des sauvages ameriquains. 547. For the rest." while another female figure is unhesitatingly labelled "female deity. See Erman. We find the idea common in the Beyond question these popular " . i. who could be called Virgins without any sense of anomaly. qui lactens cum Junone Fortunes in gremio sedens. p. Venus. ii. p. adpetens. Eng. ix. There were abstract Divine Mothers. tione. p. 7. On Roman 2 coins. 4 " Is est hodie locus septus religiose propter Jovis pueri. castissime colitur a matribus. Pagan Christs. Handbook of Egyptian 'Religion." in the Assyrian basement of the British Museum. In another case of " Antiquities from Dali" upstairs. iv." Cicero." Madonnas " of the East and it is even possible that they represent a Chaldaean cultus earlier than the Egyptian worship of Isis. since there was no " male of the Maternity had thus an elemental significance apart from species. 1724. O. 2 mammam . 268 Firmicus. p. Cp. and holding at the same time the Child Juno. i. p. we know that in old Assyria or Chaldaea there was a popular worship of a child-bearing Goddess.

Even if there were no old Asian cultus. Christian models they might equally well be borrowed from the Egyptian. and probable source for a remote and improbable one.evolved religious system. one of the sanest criticism — to be that in which he compares the delineations of Krishna at the breast of mother Devaki with Christian pictures of the Madonna lactans (the Madonna giving suck). are of very late date and further. Under one of the four is inscribed the name Lakshmi. as well as an excuse. under the protection of the serpent with seven heads. the Indian illustrations given by Weber." and so satisfy conservatives without having recourse to the questionbegging " Comparative Theology." If this term be adopted. suddenly became enamoured of the Christian presentment of Mary and Jesus this is to set aside all reasonable probability on no better pretext than a prejudice. it is very doubtful whether they all represent Devaki and Krishna. safety. to place it in Hardly one of the four recalls a Madonna lactans. Even from the engravings appended to his paper by Weber. administered by an exclusive priesthood. Devaki and Yacodha each lying on her bed. since it passes over an obvious. no of or indifferent to all for many centuries. the first strongly guarded. the emblem of Lakshmi. It is in the preface to his Outlines that he suggests the word "hierology " as a substitute for the cumbrous phrase. For in the his first place it is not proved that the Indian representations are imitations of . Christus en Krishna. — idea multitude of portable Asian images. and equally the Christian." or to the solecismof " Comparative Religion. The Horos — 1 Let me offer a plea. In both the Goddesses have by them a lotos. 1877. but." which is ( no more 2 than " Comparative Words" for "Comparative Philology. Another is held to stand for Lakshmi or Maya with Kamadeva. indeed. anything of like universal. the might obviously have been derived from the Isis-figures of Egypt before Christianity came into existence. passes In this connection an unanswerable Tiele. 65. [Note. .]" 2 . which Professor Tiele himself has fathered. near. 1 on Weber's argument in the Dutch Theologisch Tijdschrift "One of the weakest points of his [Weber's] demonstration seems to me hierologists. carries the child through the river. seeing that India was already in communication with Egypt before our era. we might when necessary say "Comparative Hierology "instead of "Comparative Mythology. Weber acknowledges that that is of very late date. for this most necessary term. p. And a third gives the whole legend. " Science of Religions. while the father of Krishna. when she had a highly. in the Theologisch Tijdschrift. of a child-bearing Goddess. To argue that India remained ignorant Asian presentments of child-nursing Goddesses and at length. and both with that of Isis and Horos." Art. sitting on the lotos was certainly borrowed by the Egyptians from Indian pictures and in return the Isis with the child Horos at her breast may well have been transported to India. the course of surmising a Christian origin for Indian effigies of Devaki nursing Krishna is plainly unscientific. it appears that other divine personages than Devaki and Krishna were figured as mother and child in Hindu art and mythology and the usage might perfectly well have prevailed in India before Krishnaism became . Moreover. justifiable .: 170 CHEIST AND KRISHNA This being so.

The Legend of Perseus.. for the birth of Ares. rejects the notion is that the birth was held supernatural. 249. 1908. 1910. There being fairly clear proof that the Virgin thus so little reason for surmising Christian influence in the matter. Before his descent into his mother's womb he was a deva. 89-95. mother of Oro.. 299. and so much for discarding any such surmise. 2nd ed." Here we have perhaps the its place. as Tiele urges. leuses. 273). and P. If then Buddha was so early reputed Virgin-born. Primitive Paternity." he writes.PAGAN PABALLELS lotos being 1 171 I cannot speak with Tiele's certainty as to the Horos-on-the- borrowed from India but in any case there is no solid ground for assuming that the Indian cult. S. when the celebration of the birth alone that he dates the Krishnaist borrowing of the Birth Festival from Christianity. Tiele puts this view tentatively. it is clear that. " did not ascribe to Gotama any divine birth in the Christian sense. was not as old as the Egyptian. 337. and Here. remark as to the Buddha birth-story which sets up some risk of mis1894. Ellis. xxiii. from Egypt before Christianity was heard of." But Christ also was held to exist from all eternity before his incarnation. may reasonably be held to have had the same distinction. Pleyte. Lilly (printed in the latter's Claims of Christianity. i. We have the decisive testimony of Jerome that in the fourth century the 4 Hindus were known to teach that their Buddha was born of a Virgin j —a before." most striking example of Weber's uncritical treatment of Christian 1 In his History of the Egyptian Religion. by the touch of a flower. i. Krishna. pp.. . 5 Indian Antiquary. There is a Krishnaist custom in India of " name-giving on the festival day of Krishna's supposed birth and in answer to 5 criticism the Professor writes that " it is because the custom of the Egyptian Church of celebrating the birth and the baptism of Christ on the same day prevailed only from the second half of the fourth . p. 42 (Migne. the Hindus could perfectly well have borrowed. As the mother of the Mexican Huitzilopochtli is impregnated by the touch of a ball of feathers. 326. 3 W. passim. Ueber die Erishnaj. understanding. 1894. Polynesian Researches. in some form. shaken by the power of the Arm of 3 Taaroa. 52. century took till the year 431.. if they did borrow. Saintyves. Eng. 4 Aclversus Jovinianum. makes a . In any case. who ranked as an incarnation of Vishnu before him. conceives him through the passing of the shadow of a bread-fruit leaf. Hartland. The idea of a Virgin-Mother-Goddess is prac2 tically universal. there is a fortiori a presumption against Weber's final contention as to the precise time of " borrowing. In India such a myth must have been prehistoric. Les vierges meres et les naissances miracu. that Buddhism borrowed from Christianity. tr. Professor Rhys Davids. p.. myth was current in India long Such a dogma could not have gained such vogue in the short time between Jerome and the beginning of Mary-worship. so in Tahiti the Goddess Hina. W. iv. 30). i. Patrologice Curstis Completus. " at the very time during which that custom peculiar to Egypt prevailed. " The Buddhists. The essential point Professor Davids. of course. as that of Dr. in a letter to Mr. 2 For a variety of myths of the kind cp.

c. x. and the 25th day of the month Pachon. ed. 280-2. (1) his nativity or incarnation (2) the appearance of the star. that is. Cp.' But before the time of the Council of Ephesus. . Cana "And Cassian (Collat. Preller. that they asserted that Christ was born on the 24th or 25th of the month which the Egyptians call Pharmuthi. equally solar and Pagan in its character. To be sure. which denotes Christ's manifestation to the world in four several respects which were all commemorated upon this day " i. Christian Antiquities. 172 origins. in Baron. 216) has at large demonstrated. adopted the ancient solar festival of the 25th of December. 1 : "For. The Western Church. an. the usage of the rest of the Church was itself an unquestionable adoption of a current Pagan one. . The facts are collected by Bingham. vii. who points out that it is "a very great mistake in learned men" to say that Christ's birthday was always celebrated on 25th December by the churches somehow impressed mined to adopt it. asks. and that it was rejected by the rest of the Church just because it was so obviously alien in its origin. or the 6th of January. 37. long after the time when the possibility of ascertaining any facts as to the birth of the alleged Founder had ceased. April he says a more remarkable thing (Id. ? for only the short period it he speaks Was a mere freak And if were. Bomische Mythologie. as Mr.— — CHRIST AND KRISHNA Why. 20." 2 his divinity at 1 Julian. that they borrowed their peculiar usage from some other cult. Basnage (Exercit. 2) says expressly 'that in his time all the Egyptian provinces under the general name of Epiphany understood as well the nativity of Christ as his baptism. p. which signifies the month of May. i) says of the Basilidian heretics.. 755. is it reasonable to suggest that this mere temporary provincial ecclesiastical freak in Christendom the remote Brahmans so much that they deterand succeeded in grafting it on the Krishna cultus ever since ? Surely it is more reasonable to surmise that the Egyptian Christians were the borrowers. who were more curious about the year and the day of Christ's nativity. = Epiphany or manifestation to the Gentiles (3) the "glorious appearance" at Christ's baptism (4) the manifestation of . adopted and for some time adhered to another date. But what is more considerable in this matter is that the greatest part of the Eastern Church for three or four of the first ages kept the feast of Christ's nativity on the same day which is now called Epiphany.e. one came it . .) of some others. But the Eastern Churches. does he not inquire as to how the Egyptian Christians to adopt that peculiar usage of celebrating the birth and baptism of ? of Christ on one day. p. then specially connected in the Empire with the widespread worship of Mithra. anno 431. not to mention what Clement Alexandrinus (Stromata. In 2 Begem Solem. influenced by the Egyptian and other preChristian systems. 1855. the Egyptians had altered the day of Christ's nativity It was not long before this that the Churches of Antioch and Syria came into the Western observation. c. which they said was in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus Csesar.

PAGAN PAEALLELS 173 . As a matter of fact. Christian Antiquities." which stands in the Calendar for August 7th. 32-33. What right then have we to suppose that India borrowed just such a usage all of a sudden from a short-lived borrowed practice of Eastern Christendom ? We have a distinct record that in connection with the ancient solar worship of Herakles among the Sicyonians. as the month of Krishna's birth is the it seventh in the solar year. 194. close on the date of the Krishna Birth-Festival ? Any one of these hypotheses would be as reasonable as that on which 1 2 8 Pausanias. there is The Christian theory is hopeless. and which practises general 3 circumcision as well as general baptism on the day in question. Oriental. ii. as cited. in which the festival of the autumn equinox was originally connected with Mithra. It has been preserved down to modern times in the Church of Abyssinia. Neale. All of this is abundantly proved from Epiphanius and Chrysostom and only a supernaturalist criticism can here fail to see that the usages of the Egyptian and Syrian Churches were imitative of pre- existing Eastern astronomico-theological cults. which has continued to receive its primate from the Church of Alexandria. 69-70. History of the Holy Eastern Church: Patriarchate of Alexandria. finally. 4 Bingham. 1823. who sacrificed lambs to the God. Geddes. 10. p. Cp. Church History of Ethiopia." Hindu festival. citing the Berhan-t Katted. pp. 1696. the usage of general baptizing on Epiphany did not disappear from the Christian Church after the Council of Ephesus. ii. . Jewish. iv. and the second Herakles' Day"] and there is surely good reason to presume that similar usages prevailed among other solar cults long before Christianity. If it is good for anyno need to restrict it to the chronological scheme of Weber. after whom the first autumn-month (then current) is named. counting from the winter solstice. for the month of Mihr is the seventh from the beginning of the Persian year. Wait. from Why should not then the Hindu usage have been borrowed Abyssinia at a much later time than that at which the Alexandrian Church regarded Epiphany as the day of the Nativity ? Why indeed should it not have been suggested by the much more general custom 4 And in the early Church of reserving all baptisms for Easter-day? why. and Classical Antiquities. should it not have been suggested by the Catholic 11 Festival of the Name of Jesus. 1847. Is pretended that the Persians borrowed their usage from the Christians ? If not. In the old Persian system. " the first of the days of the Feast which they keep to 1 Herakles they call Names. why should the Hindu usage not be as old as the Persian and the Greek ? thing. 347. it was "auspicious at this season to name children 2 Here we have a close correspondence to the and ivean babes.

. and as unreasonable. instructive A more Weber's argument the Krishna Birth-Festival. without his mother. on the other hand the Mother comes very prominently into the foreground. ment that of the God's birth. at the time it of the composition of the He decides that must have done. playing a principal role. Wilson." 1 That is to say. the author in whom book. he mentions. the more so because even in that there appears in time a tendency to suppress this side. is told in detail in 1-8. There is there no suggestion of a Birth-Festival. In the Birthday Festival. part of The whole concerning a mistake. end of the fourteenth century of our era —about a : . except as regards quite modern MSS. CHEIST AND KEISHNA fastened Weber has theory is —as reasonable. raises the question whether the Birth-Festival existed Purana. . I do not hesitate here to recognize a quite peculiarly ancient phase of the Festival. while at the time the Purana was written the cult ran to the glorification of the God himself. 3. he declares. 1 Ueber die Krishnajammdshtami. and the celebration of his exploits. as now observed in India. consists in showing that no trace as the Puranas. entirely fails. and Bournouf ascribe the composition of the Purana as it now stands. for he is here represented as still a suckling at his mother's breast. the Purana ignores the Festival because that preserves the old practice of honouring the Mother of the God. to That was about the thousand years after the period at which the Professor thinks the Hindus borrowed their Festival usage from Alexandria. The time Book x. and this he considers the more curious because this Purana. but because the grammarian Vopadeva. was contemporary with Hemadri. which is chiefly concerned with Krishna's love affairs. and in which the Mother of the God passes progressively into the background. not on account of internal evidence proving the lateness of the whom Colebrooke. He might thus well decide that the usage existed before Vopadeva and he offers an explanation of the silence of the Purana on the subject first find specific we mention of the Festival. but without a date. pp. little To this explanation there can be objection. and to give the tribute of the Festival to the God alone. It is conceived in the historical spirit 240-2. and at midnight and he . An of it is to be found even in such late literature attempt to find authority for it in the Bhagavat Purana.— 174 . and in particular the tenth book. save it was under the star what is implied in the stateBohinJ. while of the love affairs of Krishna no notice is or indeed can be taken. is the peculiar text-book of the Krishna sect. "In the Bhagavat Purana is presented the modern development of the Krishna cult.

ed. after a certain time. the frame of mind in regard to narratives of the lives of the Gods would be exactly that of the early Christians who manipulated the first and second gospels. nizing that the Festival preserves an old popular which changed slowly than the poetic recitals of the God's exploits. Trevelyan's Life. Besides. Macaulay. which manuscripts are not abundant and the knowledge of There is overwhelming internal evidence of the manipulation of the Christian Gospels and the reason why. It is implied above that the Puranas represent the literary development of mythic lore but this does not mean that even their contents are not mainly made up of matter that in some form long antedates our era. when earlier copies were authoritatively collated. writes me that it has to be locked up in an air-tight box during the wet season. otherwise it would be destroyed. 181-2. p. derived from old Greek political usage. and History of Indian Literature. Ant. 246. there is good reason to believe that late redactions would often take in floating popular myths of great antiquity. Brig. should yet decide that even the popular rite was originally borrowed much more from the new western religion of Christism by a people who rated own religious and historic antiquity high before Christianity was heard of. of meeting in Councils. Cp. no manuscript lasted long Weber has pointed out how unfavourable is the 1 Indian climate to any such preservation. and that this one forgery was ultimately accepted by the entire Western Church from about 1550 down to the eighteenth century. 30. . iii. Our every-day nursery : . But it would be fallacious in the extreme \o argue that a late redaction meant late invention on the contrary. A friend in Burma. In fine. while thus recogrite. For this view. And even as it in : was. which had merely missed being committed to writing before. The absolute preservation of an ancient document in its integrity. There was no such thing as a canon or a received text there was no " apostolic " tradition there were no religious councils no scholars whose business it was to compare manuscripts. 323. Berlin lecture. . p. tr. modern research in Folk Lore should have prepared all investigators.PAGAN PAEALLELS and the only perplexity is 175 that Professor Weber. 1-vol. to whom I had sent a book. Now. we know that so late as the fifth century the text of the " three witnesses " was fraudulently inserted in 1 John v. the re-composition of sacred narratives would be a perfectly natural course. . unless it be a matter of rote-learned their . . is not to be looked for in a state of civilization reading general. ritual like the Vedas. pp. was just the multiplicity of the copies. and compiled the third and fourth. their text became substantially fixed. in India down till recent times. and the ecclesiastical habit. 1 Ind.

The star Eohini under which he was born. See Ovid's explanation and that of Macrobius (Saturnalia. Now. has the name given in one variation of the Krishna legend to a wife of Vasudeva who bore to him Kama." Cp. cited by Keightley in his ed.176 CHEIST AND KEISHNA fables are found to be in substance as old as the art of story-telling. came Krishnaism was is to be specialized for Christians . and it is clearly not only possible but likely that every in vogue in other Indian In these matters there is astrological festival of worships before Krishnaism prevailed. is the omission to date beginning in the record in Christianity. by the magistrates or priests. 16). of the Fasti. Stativce and Conceptivce. i. favour of Suppose the its be the oldest datum in the case. Eohini (our Aldebaran) is " the " a mythical name also applied now to Aurora. which was not written down. just what would would have been 25th December in but they did not do because that was so notoriously a festival of extreme 8 antiquity. I. On the failure of the harvest she planned that the messengers sent to consult the oracle should bring the answer that Phrixos. now to a star. 2 Barth." We have seen in the case of Christianity how a universal astro- logical festival. should be sacrificed (Apollodoros. i. There were fixed and unfixed festivals. there is no shadow festival of reason for supposing. of which the latter were "annually given out. older than literature. But the story of the dried seed." 3 red. looking for the date of the old Sementivse or Festival of Sowing. The very festival to fact that no account tells in is given in its the older Puranas of the rise of the festival antiquity. 1). where the birth connects with the rise of the constellation Virgo. just But the most singular matter in regard to Weber's argument is 1 This holds good even if we recognize in myths of menaced divine children an idea of the dangers run by the planted seed before it ripens. as Devaki (sometimes held to be the mother of Eama also) bore Krishna. Golden Bough. Here we are in the thick of ancient astrological myth. 303. sought to destroy the children of the first wife Nephele (the Cloud). happen — just what happened It a simple matter for the early Christians to insert their records as the date of their God's birth so. . of immemorial antiquity.?iofe. the second wife of Athamas. for certain or even uncertain days. . and the simple fact that the Purana gives an astronomical moment for Krishna's birth is a sufficient proof that at the time of writing they had a fixed date for it. Some such idea is suggested in the myth that Ino. Religions of India. But that a Hindu connected with the star-name Eohini and the birth of Krishna should be borrowed from Christianity. 657) that he went three or four times through the official list of festivals. 173. p. 1st ed. Frazer. the son of Nephele. really no invention : there only readjustment. And the birthday of Krishna may have been that of another God before him. it will be remembered.wheat looks like a late fancy framed in elaboration of Ino's plot. in vain. 3 It is worth while in this connection to recall the statement of Ovid in his Fasti (i. as old as religion. it is a common rule in ancient 1 mythology that the birth- days of Gods were astrological. by telling the women of the land to dry the wheat before sowing it. ix.

1866. N . 524-5. Astronomical festivals. in any case. " Even Mr. pp. If the a critic can thus make Krishna Birth-Festival were borrowed. but in the month of July. Supposing the division in question to have been derived by the Hindus from the Akkadians. Sayce. It is the white Sun-God who is born at Christmas. the most strenuous opponent of the claims of the Hindus " to an extremely ancient knowledge of astronomy. 1 That is to corresponds not with Christmas but with the Egyptian festival of " the Birthday of the Eyes of Horos. pp. i. it in January. and is only spoken of incidentally " in a parenthesis. c. 52. centuries before the first traces of systematic astronomy in Greece. Hibbert Lectures. And see hereinafter. Isis and Osiris. 2 Plutarch. which was the last day Egyptian year. p. the argument remains the same. 529-530. But on this head it should be noted that the death of the Sun-God Tammuz (Adonis) was celebrated in different climates at different times. § 15. as last cited. As he says in answer to a criticism. 3 So the proposition is that pre-Christian festival. indeed. But doubtless Gubernatis could explain the midsummer birth of the black Sun-God in terms of solar mythology. why should the borrowers select a midsummer instead of a midwinter date for their importation ? Why.. and Frazer. the Hindus must have had from 5 a very remote antiquity and every argument from analogy in . midwinter or midsummer) plays no part at all in my discussion. if it only occurred to them late in the day to give him a birthday. 249. iv. the Hindus celebrated the birthday of Krishna in July by way of imitating the Christian fashion of celebrating Christ's nativity in January. Yet never occurs to Weber to connect the Krishnaite Birth-Festival with this purely Pagan and Indeed one may go through Weber's treatise without discovering what the date in question is. on one of the other Krishnaist festivals ? I have not noticed that the Professor theorizes on the origin of these but their probably astronomical origin is surely important to the argument. should they not place their God's birthday. but this appears to be an error. " The date itself (December or July. probably resulting from Professor Weber's omission to lay stress on the date in his standard treatise. 3 4 5 Indian Antiquary. 1889. On Vedic festivals see Max Muller's Natural Religion. As the historian Elphinstone has pointed out. ed. when the Sun and the Moon are come into one straight line "2 —a festival held the Egyptian month Epap of the or Epiphi or Emphi = 24th it on the 30th day of July. Myth. 51) it is customary "towards the end of to give presents of cows " in celebration of the new solar year. One is at a loss to understand how so light of such an important item. Bentley. p. 140. " pronounces in his latest work that their division of the ecliptic into twenty-seven lunar mansions (which supposes much previous 4 observation) was made 1442 years before our era" that is. or the birth of the pastoral God Krishna". — December " 1 According to Gubernatis {Zool. PAGAN PARALLELS the fact that the date of the Krishna Birth-Festival is 177 neither in December nor say. Natural Religion. 232. See Max Miiller. History of India.

lasts three days. date of the Makara-Sankranti. or the sun's entrance into the sign Capricornus.: 178 CHRIST AND KRISHNA now popular seasonal history goes to support the view that their festivals are prehistoric. however. this was 1181 B. identical with the Uttarayana. in fact. 30. on a luni-solar and therefore variable date connected with the vernal equinox. 104. Hermes. The points of resemblance are numerous and suggestive. which falls somewhere in the course of March. H. or Perum Pongal. ii. Makara-Sankranti. still in force. as cited. 189. " The new year of the luni-solar computation now in use [in India] begins with the first of Chaitra. and in solar reckoning is said to agree with the entrance of the sun into the sign Mesha. Historical View Astronomy. p. and in Christianity is associated with the sacrifice of the God. and is properly to be traced to the relative Of position of the figures in the fuller zodiac or celestial sphere. 1835-6. H. 4 Wilson." 4 The Indian and European dates do not actually correspond with us 21st December is the time of the sun's entering Capricorn. which in the Mithraic system 2 was the as a new day.C. Works. Wait. " There was. And when we compare a few of their usages with those of Christianity. — — course the solar element The is manifest in the Hindu usage. symbolized Lamb. and that some of them may even be derived from Dravidian or pre-Aryan practice. Note by Wilson. Beligious Festivals of the Hindus. a reverse historic process. or Aries" 1 — that is. while the Hindus put it on the first of their But the astronomical motive solar month Magha=12th January. or. a period at which a the different principle was followed 3 the the new year then commenced on first of the solar month Magha. and that the day after the sun's entering Capricorn is termed Mattu Pongal. to the winter solstice. is explicit . . Wilson. 1 2 3 of Hindu 5 Origine de tous les Cultes. or return of that luminary to the regions of the north. is dedicated to the day of the sun. or the feast of cattle. as cited. or give up his theory altogether and look for. and when we note that this old festival. we see a new confir5 mation of the argument of Dupuis that the myth of a Christian God being born in a stable (which corresponds so strikingly with many other myths of Gods as Krishna. it becomes plain that we must either suppose them to have borrowed a great deal more than Professor Weber says. and the day of the Mattu Pongal to Indra they are both . 159. the sign of the " Ram or Lamb. vii. Herakles born or brought up among cattle) is really at bottom or by adaptation astronomical or zodiacal. ed. if anything. the sign of the Goat. According to Bentley. p." the creation day. and the greatest festival.

413. and Dr. i. p. It is not argued. 206 History of Greek Literature." 4 This holds true for every religion in the case of Christianity we shall and if we apply the principle make an end of more pretences .. passim. the sprinkling of them with water. and Grote. O. The Progress of the Intellect. tr. ii. xxvi. p. 3 j#. p. which is an anniversary festival of a 1 week's duration. p 175. 210-211 A. 171. goats.] But. no student can well tended swine. 1890. as cited. 1858. really originated. See it also laid down by Kenrick. pp 173-9. in which they worshipped Neptune. The Golden Bough." " A myth is never so graphic and precise in its details as when it is a simple transcript of a ceremony which the author of a myth witnessed with his eyes" (Work last cited. cattle — at —cows. . p. The Religion of tlie Semites." 3 . that they may be exempt from evils. believe that the Roman Catholic usage St. Rome on : Let Professor Wilson testify — Anthony's day (January " The time of the year. R. 161. pp. Eng. 35. i. and were he asked what ceremony he witnessed. 1850. the decorating of the cattle. Ancient Egypt. that Roman Christianity borrowed its from India on the contrary. 172. 1st ed. Professor Robertson Smith. blessing the St. Etudes de Mythologie et Archceologie grecques. This maxim of interpretation (see above." 2 that between the But there is no more remarkable correspondence than Hindu practice of honouring the cattle at this time of and the strange Catholic function horses. there can be no doubt of his answer he would at once declare they were celebrating the Pongal. [An unwarranted negative. W. Poseidon. end of ch. or January. "No people ever observed a custom because a mythical being was said to have once acted in a certain way. 1 . Bertrand. 1850. 175. 19. . in the fact that Anthony To-day These are the theories of the Dark Ages. Eng. 287-8. Now. pp. The Roman Catholic celebration of 2 j#. 1889. and to K. Muller: Orchomenos. Introduction to a Scientific System of Mythology (1825). several of the usages in this and other Hindu festivals are traceable in Europe in non-Christian as well as " The Greeks had a festival in the month in Christian times. MacKay. . or the Sea. as the fable tells. 1810-12). 246). on the contrary. and the very purport of the blessing. for the ritual was fixed and the myth was variable the ritual was obligatory. are so decidedly Indian. Miss Harrison. tr." Now. of ritual usages direct course. p. the presumption is that these usages were even more widespread than the " Aryan race" in pre-historic times. Wilson. that could a Dravira Brahman be set down of a sudden in the Piazza. Rennes. and not the ritual from the myth . 411. 4 . etc 17th). PAGAN PARALLELS 179 comprised in the term Pongal. i. 11) dates back to Creuzer (Symbolik. even semi-orthodox scholarship decides that " So far as myths consist of explanations of ritual their value is altogether secondary and the it may be affirmed with confidence that in almost every case myth was derived from the ritual. xxxiii. 1844. the worshipper. Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Atliens. by the way. asses. than that as to the borrowing of Christian practices by Krishnaism. Cp. in like manner as the Hindus [at the same time] worship the ocean. 1820. 128. Frazer. pp. 195. and faith in the myth was at the discretion of . all peoples have invented myths to explain why they observed certain customs.

as to argue that the Krishna Birth-Festival is similarly derived. celebrating the Gopi revels. with more or less licence. citing the Bhavishyottara Purana. i. would appear to obtain also at Krishnaite festival of three or five days' duration in the month Shravana=Julyanother August. There was a " swinging festival " in ancient Greece 4 and this too has survived to modern times. xxxix-xliii. of Moor's Hindu Pantheon." 2 3 . The 17th of March was the date of the Liberalia in Rome and licence was the note of the festival. Krishna). pp. The further we collate the main Christian myth-motives with it those of Krishnaism. the " swinging festival. § 11. Letter from Rome. Fasti. what reason is there to surmise that conservative and custom-loving India came to Alexandria for the hint to Krishnaism has a celebrate the astrological birthday of Krishna ? number of festivals of which no proper account seems yet to be accessible in England. ed. . 663. it is explained that many of the Hindu festivals have been displaced. CHRIST AND KRISHNA Anthony's day probably derives from the ancient Paganalia or which the cattle were garlanded at this very season of the year and it is possible that even the modern name came from that of one of the Antonines. 180 St. 221. p. instead Ovid. which depends on a particular conjunction of the star Rohini (Weber. Cp. 4 Miss Harrison. xiv. in the months of Jyeshth and Asharh." which begins about the middle of March (Phalguna) and lasts as a rule fifteen days. 5 So called because of the ritual practice of swinging an image in a chair. In a note to Wilson's Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus (1835. pp. Rev. . transferred to festivals appi*opriated to Krishna alone. pp. In the month Kartika= OctoberNovember. that given in Balfour's Indian Cyclopcedia being so inexact that one is at a loss to know whether in some cases different festival-names do not apply to one and the same feast. at least. 10. 262-3). In the large British towns it is or was restricted to three days on account of the liberties taken but among the Rajputs it is or was the practice to celebrate 2 it for forty days. 139-144. ii.. Simpson's ed. Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens. O. or as old as. according to Balfour's Ind. 1741. xv-xix and 141-143. and in Bengal. cp. the more clearly does 1 appear that. On this I can find no exact information. there is yet another festival. The Solar-Child Myth. This I take to be either the Birth Festival proper or the special form of it called Jayanti. W. Middleton. June-July. Athenseus. the ancient celebration of the Dionysia or Liberalia in honour of the Sun. But it is clear that there is one great Dolu or Dola Yatra festival. But this practice. agricultural festivities in ! . Now this practice has certainly an astronomical or seasonal origin and is as certainly akin to. Cyc. It would be just as reasonable to derive the Indian 5 "swinging festival" of the vernal equinox from the Christian celebration of the rising of Christ from the dead. Feriae Seinentivae. and "the Dola Yatra and Rath Yatra have also been displaced. pp. (art. 264). Thus a festival once named the Holika is now termed the Dola Yatra (or "swinging of the Gods"). But if Christianity is thus seen deriving its festival days from immemorial custom. .and Wine-God among the Greeks 3 and Romans. 1864.

it was the subject Now. but . king of the Medes. go. named Cambyses. A year after her marriage. while they actually reared the prince as their own When the child grows child. but gives the command ii. however. his wife and they agreed to . resolving to destroy whatever should be born of her the Magi having signified that his dream meant that her offspring would reign in his stead." When had give just been delivered of a still-born child the herdsman got home. up its body to Harpagus as that of the young prince. i. insurrection 1 Later Harpagus secretly helps Cyrus to make an Astyages impales the Magi. in question is extremely familiar in ancient legend and nothing is more unsatisfactory in the modern discussion of Krishnaite origins than the way in which this fact has been overlooked. having had a remarkable" (and Rabelaisian) dream about his daughter. 107-130. as told by Herodotus. . sent for one of the king's cowherds. History of Himlostan. the child was clothed in " gold and a robe of various colours. All the same. dead from exposure. and causes a disobedient playfellow to be scourged. they dramatic representations before our era. Astyages. 2 B. which portended great things of her progeny. Astyages punishes Harpagus by causing him unknowingly to eat the flesh of his own child but is told by the Magi that as his dream has been already fulfilled in the coronation of Cyrus by the village children. boys as their king. This Astyages discovers. follows. We have seen how Professor Weber concedes that the story of King Kansa's killing of Devaki's earlier children in the attempt to kill Krishna is not only pre-Christian but of old mythic standing. safely let him . gave her in marriage to a Persian of private station. the originals from which Christianity borrowed. he had a still more alarming dream.THE SOLAR-CHILD MYTH of the latter being 181 are. the myth -motive . Over a 1 hundred years ago Maurice called attention to the parallel between infancy and that of the infancy of Cyrus the the story of Krishna's 2 The story about Cyrus is briefly as Great. he may . he of course reveals royal qualities in the village in which the ox stalls were " he is chosen by the other ' . The . not indeed always preand in one or two cases they do sumptively the more ancient appear to be possible sources of Gospel stories. shrank from the act. when she was pregnant. and while playing to boyhood. 478. officer (Harpagus) whom he entrusted with the task. and the story comes out. giving him another name than Cyrus. and that of borrowed from the former. whereupon he sent to Persia for her and put her under a guard. and ordered him to expose the child on a mountain abounding in wild beasts. Mitradates.

Sir H. whom his mother. for which her father seeks to starve her to death. viii. and it is explained that this arose of Cyrus being suckled by a bitch recalls the story of —a is how the story myth which at once . 312. of Telephos. 134. but without killing his grandfather. of Ion. 79. Hartland. plainly the many-tinted cloud- drapery of the Sun. 102.182 of his troops to CHEIST AND KEISHNA . ii. the story of the exposure of the infant hero is plainly cognate with the legends of the exposure of Eomulus and Eemus. anim. ii. of iEsculapius. Hymn to Zeus. 26. 64. 5 And the robe " of many colours " is. Apart from these details. then. 25. suckled by the she-goat Amalthea. and parts of the tale are of the massacre of the found closely paralleled in the northern legend of British Arthur. Be nat. 2 Here. who betrays him and Cyrus reigns. The daughter is isolated but the inevitable man arrives. beginning. reared by the Magnesian centaur. Artaxerxes. 6 The child Arthur. the river-nymph Nana. . of Cybele. and the prophecy is fulfilled by the child's growing up to slay the king. of Iamos. sun. 5 6 7 9 Callimachus. 1902. Attis. 3 in its Persian form. ii. and like him is 7 secretly sent to be suckled by one not his mother. Pindar. Pythia. like Cyrus. of Attis. in another myth. The Legend of Perseus. suckled by a she-goat and protected by a watch-dog 9 or. certain primeval mythical details are seen modified to suit history. 49. 44. 4 Again. 1 Diodorus Siculus. p. 6-7. is . we have an old myth. An African version of the story is lately reported from Uganda. Zoological Mythology. 1882. and the historic Cyrus simply sun-legend. of Semiramis. Malory's Morte cV Arthur. is robed in gold. 77.Elian. 8 is found by Autolaus and nursed by Trygon (=" the turtle-dove ") or. i. with modifications. In the older mythology iEsculapius. Plutarch. iii. See . have been crucified by an Amazon queen of Scythians. bears after impregnation by a miraculous pomegranate. exposed as a child. The name Cyrus. . in yet another. A wizard warns a king that his daughter will bear a child who will bring destruction upon him. Harpagus. pp. xii. the circumstances of whose exposure are so strikingly recalled by the Jesuist story innocents . ed. 2 See above. Gubernatis. The . however. as well as in that of (Edipus. Mythology of the Aryan Nations. . like Joseph's coat. A similar story appears to have been told of the hero Gilgames in the old Assyrian mythology. including Moses. in which already. Cox. Uganda 3 4 Protectorate. suckled by a she-wolf and that of Jupiter. Eomulus and Eemus. Herodotus tells. of a dozen other myth-heroes. 21 and cp. Johnston. ii. Id. iii. 8 Pausanias. 594-5. chap. the secret message from Harpagus in Media to Cyrus in Persia is sent enclosed in the body of a hare an animal which in early mythology — repeatedly plays the part of a message-bringer. Of Cyrus' death. 1 there were many accounts and in one of these he is declared to . was or stood for that of the had fathered on him the popular Thus the herdsman's wife's name means " the bitch ".

vi. with her child. viii. Aleus. is born secretly. viii. 7. Pausanias. . 42. bearing the twins Zethos and Amphion to Zeus and Epopeos. At times. Hiding him in a cave. Hist. as happens to the by a goat. Lang's admission in regard to the Moses myth. 9. son of Apollo. 18. v. son of Thyestes and Palopea. 14 See Mr. as in the case of Saturn. Antiope. 3 5 Arnobius. 102. 7 ii. is exposed on the mountain Ostracina. Sayce. viii. slays the children borne to him by Megara. i. is exposed as an infant by her father on the mountain Cybelus. ff 12 iElian. 10 u Pindar. she puts subject his . as cited. 12. her father.. or a and at the same time Aleus gives Auge to goat. 2 Semiramis (" Istar in . hidden in the rushes. Even Herakles. his mother. i. Auge and Nauplius to be sold or drowned. 6. is the 14 Abraham. Ion. dragons feed him with honey. like Danae and Perseus. 13 Pausanias. 12. 60. . and his mother Auge hides him in the temple of Athene. 2 6 Pausanias. 8 9 Euripides. is Exposed found by sheep-dogs and 13 killed. 1. p. Mli&n. Pausanias. who 10 So the prophet-child Iamos. 54. In an Arab legend of mother hides him at birth because the astrologers and wise men have declared that according to their books a child is to be born who will destroy the worship of idols and overthrow King Nemrod and the king accordingly gives orders to destroy all the male children who may be born. 43. Alkimedon. of which she is priestess. and is 5 suckled by panthers and other wild beasts.27. a sea in a chest. 48. 4. by her father. where two azure-eyed possible prey to beasts birds. 1 Pausanias. is goatherd. Semele and Dionysos. 17. 11 babe borne to Apollo by Psamathe. Apollodoros. and 9 And so Priam's son Alexander was nourished by a she-bear. Pausanias. Apollodoros. son of Herakles. The wish specific of the of bad king to slay the hero-child. p. 4 iii. it of Crotopus. Telephos. Var. 271. Diodorus Siculus. cited above. 58. and they are found by a shepherd. 4 1 Kings xvii. leaves them in a 6 grotto in swaddling clothes. THE SOLAR-CHILD MYTH exposed by the father's orders. in frenzy. 17. iii. and JEgisthus. is left by saves them. ii. vii. 12 Very rarely is the divine child slain. the father himself is the would-be slayer. after bearing Aichmagoras to Herakles. . 38. 4. or a goat. 6. are put to the child. Olymp. Evadne. Hibbert Lectures. who dwelt there in a cave and the call of a jay draws to them the attention of Herakles. as Elijah is nourished for many days by ravens 4 in the Hebrew myth. causes him to be exposed on the Parthenian (Virgin) Mount. 8 Ion is placed by his mother in the rock-cave. So Phialo. xii. citing Timotheus. and 1 183 found and nourished by a 3 another guise" ) was fabled to have been exposed for a whole year in the desert and nourished by doves. or by shepherds 7 In a composite version. again. finding the child. ii. Cybele. 6. where he is nourished by a doe. many more myths. daughter by her for fear (as usual) of her father. daughter of Maion and Dindyma.

Zoul Qarnei'n and the prophet Solomon. is found to have been reared under difficulties. As the Moses myth is duplicated in the myths of Cyrus5 and Horus. 33. finally becomes tyrannos of Corinth (Herodotus. Augustus in his lifetime. leaps into the sea with her child. is driven from place to place by the jealous hate of Here. 9 In another version. In the Greek pantheon. found dead. is sent by his father to a secluded island. hero " Neither after hero. Homerid. Zeus himself in his infancy is stolen away by the Curetes from fear of his father Kronos (Saturn) and nursed by the nymphs Ithome and Neda 12 while in the more of . I. As the story further makes the mother hide Cypselus in a chest (icv\J/{\r]). iv. Semele. mother of Melicerta (Melkarth). he is excited by Here to go against the Tyrrhenian 11 pirates. 2 Bochart. and who. is buried and the wandering Io (who in the common myth is a cow) rears the child in a cave. 3 Revue de I 'Histoiredes Religions. and unquestionably preceded by the myth of Sargon. who has killed her previous child Learchus and the two are saved by 7 Nereids. 94. have I heard that the children sprung from the Gods among mortals have a happy life. 1. and guarded by the virgin Goddess Athene from the jealous wrath of Rhea.184 CHEIST AND KRISHNA a stone at the mouth and there suckles him. 22. 70. xxii. vol. God after God. without the knowledge 1 even of her husband Azer. Apollodoros. son of Ammon and Amalthea. 68. ii. 4 See the Frotevangelion. Nemrod and Bacht en Naser (Nebuchadnezzar). pregnant with Apollo. The same story is told by the Arabs 2 concerning Daniel. iv. iii. 11. 9 10 Diodorus Siculus." and dwells at Babylon. n Euripides. i. Hierozoicon. it is pretty clear that his name had pointed the myth-makers to a current myth in which a child so figures. As showing the medley of ideas in mythology. iii. Aug. Hymn to Delos. who bears Dionysos to Zeus. they having failed to kill him. Cyclops. 1 : 6 7 Vv. 44 Ovid." Ino. No.-Aout). 3 Suetonius. ix. 6 in pictures nor in story. and changed by Poseidon into sea-deities. 5 There is a further echo of it in the story of the infant Cypselus. Hymn to Delian Apollo. c. Nemrod rules "the seven zones. p. 10 In another legend. . pt." says the chorus in the Ion of Euripides. Pausanias. 57 (1890. 8 The infant Dionysos. i. . the wife of Ammon. Callimachus. who were in all likelihood merely freshening up two immemorial forms of popular religion in Syria. In point of fact there is hardly a leading detail in the Krishna birth legend which is not variously paralleled in other early nonChristian mythology. v. 1. . as by the Jews concerning Moses it was told .. and it was told at once of John and 4 of Jesus by the early Christists. . 55 if. is spirited away with her child in a chest by Cadmus the chest is thrown in the sea and cast ashore Semele. 3. who capture him. 23. 24. . it may be noted that in this story the world is ruled at the time by four sovereigns two unbelievers. cc. 93). 506-8. it would seem sufficiently idle to suppose later variants to be derived from the New Testament. 489-550 Metam. 8 Pausanias. : . Fasti. Juil. Leto. . to save him from his furious father Athamas. 2. 511-541. Similarly. and two believers. 12 Pausanias. concerning whom the oracle warned the oligarchs of Corinth that he would be dangerous to them. vi.

For instance. 9). Wilson's trans. 7 Sayce. and who in 1 turn overthrows his father. 14 So thoroughly did this particular notion possess the human intelligence in antiquity that it was grafted on the biography of the : : : Hesiod. i. Yet again. 9 Horn. and in the cave-worships of Adonis and Mithra. .). In yet another story. and in this case she gives 2 Kronos a foal to eat. Saturnalia. 40. 9 Hermes. 3 Pausanias. 8 Apollo. Hymn to Delian Apollo 103-32. Again. p. i. In PseudoMatthew. 86-7. 17. Here in one story exposes the child 3 Hephaistos. is turned into a she-bear by Artemis. 4. " whilst yet in his mother's womb. Clermont-Ganneau this myth is accounted for as a Greek attempt to explain an Egyptian vase-picture of Horus holding the two serpents. 18. 20. in whose epitaph we have " My mother the princess conceived in a secret place she brought me forth. And yet we are asked to believe that an Indian variant of this myth. 8. we note a variety of parallels in regard to which there can be no pretence that Christianity is borrowed from. See cc. whom she brings forth in a distant place and rears in a cave. Last cit. Nem. Hibbert Lectures. She placed me in a basket of reeds She gave me to the river which ". Pindar. Carrying the comparison further. 54-63. 14 xv. 18. c. Callimachus. i. iEsculapius narrowly escapes 4 being burned alive with his mother Coronis. 3-4. iii. p. § 7.THE SOLAE-CHILD MYTH familiar story will dispossess 185 Kronos devours his children successively. fab. spoke to his father and asked him to go and buy two spears and a shield for him. 13-14. 5 Macrobius. 13. Hymn to Hermes. makes Apollo speak in the womb. Pseudo-Matthew. Part III. etc. which he swallows in place of the new-born Jupiter. By M. 8. it was applied to Sargon. 10 and 1 12 Jesus. he is " deposited with the flocks and fed with the lambs ". The idea passed. Pausanias. closely resembling one current in Persia ages before Christ. Callisto. Protevangelion. c. as Cyrus overthrows Astyages. is wholly or partly borrowed from the Christian Gospels. p. and Hermes has to be sent to save the child. : Cunningham. Hymn to Delos. 8 Vishnic Purdna. all alike speak immediately after birth. 9. 26. when Arcadian Ehea bears Poseidon. 11 Koran. . Needless to speak of 5 the serpents sent by Here against Apollo and Artemis and the 6 infant Herakles. 12 In the folklore of Uganda the Hero-God Katwimpla. Pausanias. 6 Pindar. Jesus at birth stands on his feet. and the battling of the young Horos against Typhon the myth is universal. Sura xix (lviii)— " Mary " Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. Ages before Cyrus. 21 (xii. 10 Horn. 140. ii. 477-491 Pausanias. i. canonical and apocryphal. Theogony. till Ehea his wife gives him a stone wrapped in cloth. 7 and again we have it in the myths of Horos drowned me not and Moses. 1 2 4 . from mythology to real biography. Pagan Christs. 3. bearing Areas to Jupiter. Hyginus. 1905. 6." . Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. fearing they him. 17. Uganda and 13 14 its Peoples. the story of 13 the God being born in a cave is anticipated in the case of Hermes and Dionysos. 5 (i. Pythia. viii. 29. 2. viii. 502. 26. Krishna. as we have seen.

Tales of this character were scattered broadcast during the Han Dynasty by men who delighted in the mysteries of geomancy. saying This is a heavenborn. above recapitulated and the various accounts of his games with his comrades. where she gave him birth that genii had announced to her the honour her son would bring her. . 7). 1 Douglas's Confucianism. Marvellous tales have always exerted a sort of fascinating influence over the minds of the Chinese people both in ancient and in modern times. of the devas or bright Gods. given by a Chinese scholar to the " Parliament of Religions":—"I once looked up the derivation of the word 'sing (surname). who was called the Son of Heaven on this account the character sing is made up of two parts— 'me' (woman) forming the one part. went to a cave on Mount Ne. to be the product of man." The Hon. in obedience philosopher Confucius. Chips. ' ' ' . as above noted. The view that Astyages= Azidahaka. the philologist. representing the five planets. and 1 that fairies attended at his nativity. ii. which seem to be regarded as having suggested the Gopf revels of Krishna. said Five hundred years hence. 9). Miiller. vol." is in the Greek (Ki'pos) and the Persian (Cosroe or Koresh. which is given by Hsu She." Yet further. Mythology of the Aryan Nations. . so is Astyages only a Graecised form of Ashadag. descended unto the open court. It may be worth noting that whereas Krishna is a serpentslayer.. ' : ' : Id. 1893. are similarly indicated in 4 Herodotus the killing of boys by Jesus being mildly paralleled in the chastising of a boy by Cyrus. on coming to the place where Confucius was to be born. 1880. Dasyu. 46. 7 "As Laios [father of CEdipus] in the Theban myth is the enemy. on this sacred spot. swaddled and cradled. . hence the sound of melodious music descends that a unicorn threw out of its mouth a book of jade. which appears to have been first advanced by Lenormant.' It is also said that the Duke of Chan. cc. or biting snake of Hindu legend and the Zohak of the epic of Firdusi." See Report. 1. ed. in a paper written for the "Parliament of Religions. There is an ancient saying that remarkable men have remarkable circumstances attending their births. It should be noted that the "two dragons" occur also in the myths of Ion and Iamos. in the Persian system the serpent is to be killed " at the end of days " by Keresaspa. This name. during his lifetime. 3. who lived five hundred years before Confucius. " to the same cave where she had been 2 united to the God. : ' . In the historical sketches of ancient times are recorded many instances of wonderful birth. 426. cp. ii. What is the precise historic 6 relation between the Krishna and the Cyrus legends is still uncertain. so much altered by our pronouncing the "C" as "S. 4.' He adds that in ancient times the holy mother conceived a child by heaven. Exodus ii. 3 Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. after bearing the child to Apollo. divine child. 179. 25. ed. 42 (xviii. Miiller. 24) Gospel of Thomas (1st Greek form). 172-3. Chips from a German Workshop. OutWies. p. 2 Euripides. Compare the following native account. 21. that the air was filled with music that a voice came out of the heavens. ' . 172-4. priestcraft. p. they do not set much value on them. 4 5 6 with Khor. In the Greek myth of Ion. again. Ion.' As Confucius appeared at the time predicted. that the events were heralded by miraculous portents. 16-18." Cox. 47 (xix. is scouted by Tiele. carries him. is clearly based on or akin to the Cyrus legend. Though Confucianists do not reject such stories altogether. i. It was not confined to men of wisdom and virtue. 186 CHEIST AND KRISHNA whom it is told that his mother. that as the name Christ. ' ' ' . p. 41. Later (949) she says she bore him in the cave. PungKwang Yu. the Sun) sufficiently like " Krishna " to be at least as capable of connection with 1880. of to a vision. It is said that two dragons wound their bodies round the house where he was born that five men. p. as again more completely in the 5 killing of an Egyptian by Moses. M. venerable with age. often dreamed of the Duke of Chan is also attributed to this circumstance. 4 (ii. and soothsaying. Tradition has handed down many marvellous circumstances connected with the birth of Confucius. 12. identified or interchanged. 324. The fact that Confucius. the account of Jesus as being 8 chosen king by his playfellows. " Azhi dahaka is a purely Aryan demon. shall a divine character be born. the mother Creusa. upon which was engraved this inscription Son of the essence of water. the Duke of Chan is therefore considered to have had a previous knowledge of the coming of Confucius. though the connection is undoubtedly close 7 but on any view the . the Azidahaka. and shang (born) the other. M. who shall succeed to the kingdom of the degenerate house of Chan. and Astyages has nothing to do .

of Hindostan. 4 and 48. to bear Telephos (the Far Light) afar for nurture Evadne by her mother Pitane. the destroyer being the Power of Darkness. too. 34. 369). Maurice. and finally crucified Cyrus. Callimachus. . See below. 90 (55) Diodorus Siculus. The same idea is turned to very different account in the slaying of Argus by Hermes and yet again in the slaying of Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins. a wandering mother who bears a child to the God. Christian story of the massacre of the innocents by The obviously mythical Herod was 1 myth in an Oriental cult or a blending the legend 2 massacre by Pharaoh with the legend of the quasiMessianic. 1). which the myth is framed to explain. 124. Frazer..i. T. It may be interesting to note the probable mythological explanation of this story in all its forms. 1 Daniel vi. Origin of the Aryans. that the massacred innocents are the stars which disappear as the sun is about to enter. i. THE SOLAR-CHILD MYTH Christian claim either a standing of the child is 187 out of the question. Erdnische Alterthumskitnde. . means just the founding of a colony under the God s auspices. But only an astronomic idea can well explain the idea in the case of indisputable Sun-Gods. 9 (herself sent to Poseidon) goes away secretly to bring forth under dark bushes the inspired with him. 6 Erman. however. Aryan derivation . athwart the sea. . Origen explicitly says (i. to Libya." This view. and Spiegel. Mandane comes from Persia Isis flies to the swamps of the Delta to to be delivered in Media 6 bear Horos. "no one knew where " Rhea goes to bear Zeus in Crete Latona wanders far to bear 7 Cyrene is carried by Apollo nurses him Apollo. . 242. 13 4 Arab. s Pindar. in his careful and ingenious analysis of the myths of Vegetation Gods. Pythia. who bore her . that the argument of Origen with Celsus shows that the Jews of that day did not dispute the story of the massacre. c. and suckles the child in solitude. and Themis to . . is plainly a phase of the universal and presumably 5 astronomic myth and though the myth-necessity of taking Jesus . 15-22. to bear to him the 8 Auge (the Shining) in one version flies. . 531. Bethlehem might account for that detail. Dionysos. iii. had paid more heed to the differentiating clue of the manner of birth of the different species of deity. p. doom -escaping. immortal child Aristseus in others is sent from her father's land. garden of Jove. p. for instance. according to the solar school. . On the other hand. : . after her amour with . Eng. . 1 It is erroneously stated by the Rev. who stood high in Jewish esteem as a liberator of the captive race and a believer 4 3 in their God with the addition of the prophecy of Zoroaster. 3 vi. 319-321 Sayce. as to the killing of the six children before the 2 Exod. 5 It could be wished that Dr. when Krishna steals the milk of the cow-maids. which is. . 9 Pausamas. 190. it may be the sun who takes away the light of the stars (Cox. Divine One. or the -sinking night-sun who takes with him the light of the sky. 81. is born under difficulties equally with the more strictly solar Apollo and Herakles. 61) that " the Jew of Celsus " denies the story. Taylor. iv. vm. 3 v. ii. ix. The journey is really made because of invariable mythic precedent. Herakles. Handbk. 28 etc. of Eg. 7 iv. section 2. In the old stories. Ancient Empires of the East. In some cases. the flight into Egypt is mythically gratuitous from the purely Messianic point of view the motive "out of Egypt have I called my son" being plainly an after-thought. pp. . Bel. again. . . 298-9. as cited. The item of the God being hastily transported or born on a journey. Hymn to Apollo. It is conceivable that such stories may at times have been understood of the sprouting of a seed in despite of the enmities of cold and of animals. 3 Ezra i Isaiah xliv. . § 15. 7 (iii. tr." Cp. and in nearly all cases we are led to surmise a customary childcarrying rite. will have to be tested by the reconstructed theory of and in any case it is not clear why Astyages should not rank as " purely Aryan. or is taken by the God over seas. 28 xlv. Hist. Gospel. . 7 Homerid. p.

5 Under all disguises it seems to be the Sun-Child. whose women till the time of Antonine must be delivered in the open air (Pausanias. . bears her holy child under a palm-tree (as Latona bears 8 9 Apollo. 62. i. iii. 01. Apollo.— " Mary. Hymn to Apollo.. can be born Khoeo. vi. 27) may be due to the mythopoeic tendency. as Yasoda bears a child simultaneously with Devaki. ii. 26. v. 1861. 117 Theognis. . far CHKIST AND KEISHNA whom she bears to Apollo . the Jumna) has long had the poetic name of Kuli)idi=" daughter of Kalinda. as and Buddha is suckled by her sister. Pausanias. 10 Professor Rhys Davids seems disposed to treat this episode as historic (Buddhism. . 90). he not only overlooks the mythological significance of the river. 4 Diodorus Siculus. 1 3 5 6 . 8 Horn. ." which last is a name of the sun (Wilson. 49. p. or Day-God. 11 Ueber die Krishna janmdshtami. . And. Hymn to Apollo. . the daughter of Phlegyas follows . Myrrha has to fly far and be transformed into the myrrh-tree before 8 her child Adonis. 129. Iamos.. 1. Maya dies. . 1835. 10 Semele dies. are as significant as the violet colour of her babe. 208 Pliny. Theatre of the Hindus. is sent 2 by her father after bearing Perseus. like Auge. 5. who is so born and the purple zone and violet hair of Evadne. as we have seen so many of the Greek Gods were suckled by nurses whereas Mary lives and keeps her child but when Weber assumes that the carrying of Krishna across the river is borrowed from the " Christophoros " legend. 66. ( . 7 Philostratus' Life of Apollonius. 27). Hist Nat. hidden by his father. 249. Sura xix. however. xiv. where she bears the child Anios. 188 son. with child by . elsewhere mentioned by himself. ix.* Danae. house. Horn. 9 . 2 Id. 302 ii. Hagar goes twice into the wilderness (a distorted myth) .e. ff. i. But the motive does duty for all manner of cases. Metam. 84. 326-331 Ovid. begotten of Zeus and Zeus conveys the daughter of Opus to Locrus. the Lord. 280. there to bear Iapetos. pp. 5 Callimachus. ff Pindar. xi. 231-258 Diodorus Siculus. 44. as he himself points out twice in his treatise. her roving father far to bear iEsculapius Apollonius of there she is Tyana is told in a delivered of 6 the mother of the deified dream to go into a meadow. a period about as late for India as that of the pregnancy of Sarah would be for Westerns). is locked in a chest. Ovid. and 7 her child and in the Buddha legend. which presents the close parallel of the herdsman's wife being delivered at the same time as Mandane. but the whole legend of Cyrus. It is further noteworthy that the Yamuna (i. ." Ilodwell's trans. and Here goes men to conceive and bear Typhon or Mars or Dionysos. 4 thrown into the sea. v. Fasti. 26) and writes that it was " in accordance with custom " that Maya went to be delivered in her father's house. It is evident. pregnant at the age of forty-five. p. Olymp. Compare the odd legend of the Epidaurians near the temple of iEsculapius. that the journey is one of the "details" which he admits (p. and cast on Delos. Hymn to Delos. and Elizabeth simultaneously 11 with Mary. . and as Mary does Jesus in the Koran) on her way to her father's Maya (who becomes Of course there are variations. ii. . the Dawn or — who is then taken and "far away" from Zeus and — . Sunset Goddess.

the serpent-worshippers viewed the serpent as "a moist substance ". 4 Vishnu Purana. Mary brings forth Jesus "in Bethlehem. 17) being taken from the cave that he is laid by his mother at after 3 Now. why should we here suppose that its taxing. who 4 The Bhagavat had come hither to bring tribute due to Kansa. . crossing the reasonable hypothesis. who has come to that city to pay his taxes. however. which follows Luke for the enrolment story. with the babe Krishna in his arms. 2 derive from the third journey to Mathura to pay his taxes. if the Krishna legend is clearly Bethlehem "in an ox-stall." 6 Purana. bk. Note by Wilson. Ch. The only canonical Gospel. however. which obviously began at what is now the third chapter. whose waters are stilled and lowered. in Matthew. " does not quit Mathura. has no hint of the the taxing. added late as it was to the original composition." On the exhortation of Vasudeva to go. hand. Jesus is born on the in Bethlehem of Judea. v. Wilson's trans. " Nanda and the to is Hindu drama or from a common source. in the Vishnu bringing tribute or tax (Kara) to Kansa. the liberated Vasudeva goes "to the waggon of Nanda". The gospel story of Mary and Joseph going . 503. 2 4). birth to 3 In the History of Joseph the Carpenter. 506. be it observed. . p. instead of vice versa ? In the Purana story." Purana version " more consistently makes Vasudeva find Nanda and the rest fast asleep in their houses and subsequently describes their 5 Again.journey motive is borrowed from The latter is plainly the more Christianity." bound up with the long pre-Christian legend of Cyrus. river Yamuna. a motive not found in the gospels. in the cave.THE SOLAR-CHILD MYTH 189 the river figures in the Krishnaite ritual as the serpent or " serpent1 On the other prince. story of Elizabeth giving . in a cave near the tomb of Rachel " (ch. 22. 5 Id." Kaliya. Refuta- tion of all Heresies. 17) the statement is that it was decreed " that all should be enrolled. obviously myth : : . 7). p. Vasudeva. which has the John when Mary bears Jesus. 1 Among the Gnostics. and the symbolism of serpent and river is obvious (Hippolytus. c. 6 Id." and it is journey. Gospel the item of Nanda's we are entitled to meet him with the converse proposition. that here at least it is the Christian Gospel that borrows either from the when the Professor would taxed under the edict of Augustus Bethlehem to be there was no such practice in the Roman world and in any case Galilee was still independently governed by Herod-Antipas when Quirinius went to Only the late third Gospel tells the story the narrative tax Judea. but implies that Joseph and Mary lived at Bethlehem Gospel of Mary gives the visit without the taxing and so loosely was the myth credited that in the Protevangelion (c. three miles from Bethlehem (c. sees on the bank " Nanda and the rest. who were In that story. but goes to the and in the Bhagavat he halting ground of Nanda. .

which. which the second gospel. : fall back save that the knowledge of the Indian religious drama. though of course grounded on a myth -motive the Christian story. returned to their village. we may with established. iii (ed. 5 of guard. from the Christian legend. 3 without any thought of Maurice's contention. just as myth in which Astyages puts his daughter under a Kansa does his sister Devaki and to the familiar the imprisonment of Danae in the brazen tower which in . note on chap. 314. Herodotus. M. and their taxes having been paid to the king. I saw the birth of all the devas a hundred fortresses of brass enveloped me I escaped with violence in the form of a falcon. 23. preserved by the Mohammedans. had been conveyed to Egypt or Syria. 314. either by what explanation can we travelling Hindus or by Westerns who visited Asia and that the compilers of the third gospel got it in that way ? How should such a hopeless story have been invented for such a purpose if the hint . On flourished before our era. or of some Asian tale of the same mythological origin. 1. p. with its variations. considerable confidence assume to have formed part of those dramatic representations of the birth of Krishna that are on the evidence of Patanjali's Commentary. 1734. were not already in circulation ? And the answer is still more easy in the case of the old attempt of the self-frustrative Maurice to derive the item of Devaki's imprisonment by Kansa within seven gates. ii. p. their goods being placed in their waggons.190 CHEIST AND KRISHNA other cowherds. and the first as it originally stood. and that the latest. as having The Hindu story is detailed and dramatic. 6 Is it likely that the Hindu imagination would need to come to Christianity for the detail of the seven gates ? Mohammedan forms of much more likely that the ChristianHindu drama alike were derived from the ancient myth which makes the Goddess Ishtar pass Is it not legend and the 1 2 3 4 6 History of Hin&ostan. 6 Pausanias. Essai sur la Ligende du Buddha. 39 b). the fourth. is either a mere myth-echo or is introduced in order to give a basis for the mythical birth of Jesus at Bethlehem. do not assert at all. Senart. Big Veda. in the Cyrus legend." Here is a detailed and circumstantial narrative. given in one only." 4 And we may further point to the close parallel 1 : : . Sale's Koran. 27. ii. i. 2 that Mary during her maidenhood was guarded by Zacharias in the sanctuary within seven doors. — one version becomes an underground chamber. . iv. of which probably he never heard. 108. of the synoptics. gives a Hindu antecedent " Being still in for the story in an utterance of Indra in the Vedas the breast of my mother.

Treatise cited. On this head a sufficient answer is given out of hand by M. 1 . without reckoning the representations of all the exploits attributed to the child Krishna [Weber. But it must be remembered that the stitika-griha must. which on the mythical character is of the birth in thought by Christians to have suggested. and even. in certain sources. 280. illogical if it be. Of myth there is no " original. may and it may point mythically either to the notion of the " seven zones. Senart : " The confusion. i. of the arrangement ? The idea of representing the young God at the . bears Herakles to Zeus and the twin Iphiclus to 4 Amphitryon in seven-gated Thebes. 4 Id. but also. 268. Thy sources are seven " (Colebrooke in Asiatic Researches. a stable. of the Apsaras and the armed Danavas. In modern Brahmanic ritual occurs the formula :— " Fire seven are thy fuels seven thy tongues seven thy holy sages seven thy beloved abodes seven ways do seven sacrificers worship thee. the Mithraic. who with her husband well have been pre-Aryan . contrary to the strict details of the recital. 1-2. p. .] the facts reported in the legend. and and Weber lays stress 5 on the representation of the birth of Krishna in a cow-shed in the elaborate and dramatic ritual service of the Krishna Birth-Festival. 3 like so many other mothers of Gods. or any other mysteries. 273). which here departs from the Puranic legend." save mankind's immemorial dream. on that footing. ff . far seen of the correspondences it is After what has been thus the Christian legends and prior myths. 269. apparently. could separation be made of the new-born and the mother. seems to him [Weber] one more sign of Christian imitation. The intention then was not to give a faithful picture of pp. Shield of Hercules. 221-227." or climates. . pp. of Yasoda and Rohini. in the terms of the ritual. 3 5 Hesiod. Amphitryon had come away from her own home. Becords of the Past. . of the siltikd-griha (lying-in room) with a gokula. like so many other details of the myth. his upbringing among the Gopis. and a similar myth may have been taught in the Dionysiak. 191 through the seven gates of Hades. Hibbert Lectures. 49. 2 1 . contain not only Devakl with her son and Vasudeva. The number had early become a fixed idea. to reach and bring back her lover? This. stress between unnecessary to lay much a stable. vii.— THE STABLE AND MANGER 1 . . The Stable and Manger. to and fro. the guards of Devaki. the images of the shepherds. Alcmene. the Osirian. the legend of the placing of Krishna in a basket. that making the birth take place in Kansa's fortress. or seasons. How. 141 Sayce. We have seen that an orthodox English Sanskritist identifies the basket with the Gospel manger corresponds with. § 12. or to the seven 2 planets of ancient astronomy. and all together. or distinction between the prison and the dwelling of the shepherd ? And of what weight is the novelty. of the servants of Kansa. but -to group in a single frame all the personages included in it.

with the oxen standing around and one of them snuffing at the cradle. ed. Antiq. ii. with an ox and an ass looking on at his feet. i. 723. used to this day for corn for cradling children. . 3 cradle of Hermes 2 In the ancient Greek lexicon of at this point the Christians certainly did nob interpolate. on an ancient red-figured vase. Carus in The Open Court. Miss Harrison. p. 127 and Apuleius. This bas-relief. p. . Metamorphoses. throughout France 7 and Italy." But not only Christian so. following Boeckh). which includes the father and the argues. Lit of Ancient Greece. 1879. " an epithet of 4 Dionysos. began their year at the winter solstice and in Bithynia the month beginning on December 24th was known as Dionysos. Hermann. Hymn to Hermes. Dionysos would be carried in the cradle-basket on Christmas day. while in the Roman period the month Posidaon was in some calendars made to begin on December 25th. Compare ante pp. which would correspond nearly to our December. 523. 7 See the reproduction in Northcote and Brownlow's Roma Sotteranea. 507 sq. pt."in a golden basket. as our Christian apologist and as it is in the well-known picture of the Nativity by Botticelli). In actual fact we find the God-Child represented. vii. pp. Again. Xikvltvs. in the fashion in which he is to this day represented at Christmas-time. 1876. 2 tr.. as copied from Nork's reproduction (in Scheible's Kloster. is 5 Now it is if. bk. 401 5 6 sq. "in the sacred basket. pre- the items of the basket-manger and the stable are equally is Not only and the Greek liknon. Hymn to Zeus. \Lkvov. the Trieterika. p. took place in the Attic month of Posidaon. Cp. p. 192 CHRIST AND KRISHNA breast of his mother wanting examples of is it really too simple to prove anything : there are not 1 in the religious representations of the Greeks. in the processions of his carried in such a was represented among the Greeks as being basket. Eng. from the lihnons in which children are cradled. as in the old Christian pictures. 4 See Liddell and Scott. 48. 7rcu6Ya Kot/xcovrat. the child Hermes is represented cradled in a liknon. Hesychius (which though as eiridcrov they did so at others) the word Aikvitijs Aiovucrov a7ra) t(dv Xlkv(mv. congestam ramulis. See also p." Callimachus. Cp. on a sarcophagus in the Catacombs. 158. and Bergk. the month began then in the Cretan calendar." Further. 1899. Muller's Ancient Art and its Remains. . standing under a shed. as we previously saw. of Gr. and K. a basket a manger (as in the East. 235. iepQ ivi XiKvy. 712 for a copy of a less elaborate design on a sarcophagus of the year 343. apparently in illustration of the story of his cattle-stealing. as cradled in a basket. s. p. following Clinton. Eng. O. 166-70. 2nd ed. the oldest of all. Fig. further. December. and Bom. tr. and \iKvo<p6pos and Servius on Virgil. is the suckling motive. Schmitz in Smith's Diet. The Boeotians. after Kraus—that given in Roma Sotteranea. p. 11. i. which was "the same as that used by most inhabitants of Asia Minor". Hymn to Demeter." Homerid. Chicago. The rural or lesser Dionysia. vol.. 288. 335. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Beligion. Miss Harrison. 258 also in Lundy's Monumental Christianity. which again is represented as being the and of Jupiter. . but cult. it clearly follows on his own reasoning that the Christian story is derived from the 6 previous Dionysiak or Hermetic cultus. 30) and in an article by Dr. concerning the auream vannum . Under different names. . 1 Essai. is defined ev oTs To. 3 \lKV(p ivl xpv<T^u}. xi. was celebrated on Parnassus at the time of the shortest day (Muller. 493. Prolegomena. 166. ii. Georg. v. we know that the infant Dionysos. . as in Botticelli's picture. the great biennial festival. 85. or twig basket.

" and as " cattle-stealer in the cradle. in Cererem Callimachi. 1823. ii. cited by Von Bohlen. pp. swaddle-clothes. and is asserted by Miiller (Ancient Art. is always used in the rites of Cal. The cradle of Dionysos is a " long basket description of that in the scene in the Catacomb sculpture and the Botticelli picture as it is of the " basket of bulrushes " in which A " woven the sacred child Moses is sent floating on the Nile. on which they place before the image of the Deity the articles used in the ceremony On all solemnities the rituals prescribe exclusively the use of this fan. is it 193 claimed as primarily the adoration of the 1 who see in has been argued.THE STABLE AND MANGEE mother. In Hindu ritual the winnowing fan. 436. and all. with an ox and an ass looking on. Pelasgic ritual of which the story of cattle-stealing in the Homeridian hymn But is the customary would-be explanation by late observers. apparently. whose mother takes him in it to the rock-cave. . basket-cradle" again figures in the myth of the birth of Ion. and Miss Harrison. 157. and Bom. p. Christian or Hermetic or Mithraic. this bas-relief. Ramage. and may be based on just such a picture. in Jovem. p. 1. The frequency with which Greek and Indian deities are associated . and the illustrations on pp. — . 494). . 258. But the point is put in Nork's Die Weihnachts und Osterfeier erklctrt aus dem Sonnencultus der Orientalen. 43-4. 1849. 52. " cradle." The thesis is urged later by a Dutch rationalist.— Art. and three figures coming with Christian by Christian scholars. H. Ant. 3 Smith's Diet. Dio7iysia. 1596. on the other hand. That this is the mystica vannus Iacchi would seem to be implied by Liddell and Scott. The " mystic winnowing fan " was indeed a basket. proves that a God-Child was early represented as lying swaddled in a basket. 56. as cited. that the sculpture a view which has much probability. Nooks and Byways of Italy. in his Over den Oorsprong der Godsdienstige Denkbeelden. i. the mystica vannus Iacchi. as cited. though the vase-painting of the babe Hermes and the snuffing ox points to a connecting element in Magi. in Hymn. Dr. 475). 523. and surrounded by the sacred animals of Ormuzd. 1838. They use it as a tray. " . ed. Cp. 1 First. of Gr. Obs. O . citing Nork's MytJien der alten Persen. which they call Surp. 4 Euripides. defending himself from the charge of cattle-stealing. viii. whence he is carried by Hermes. p. whose typical animals are the bull "3 exactly the and ass. gifts. 30. by Seel (Die Mithrageheimnisse. 487) describes Hermes in this or a similar scene as " lying in swaddling clothes. 518. . or else lying on his mother's knee while the ox and ass seem to eat out of the basket. but was it not also the Kaneon of the Canephorse? Cp. 1. p. Von Boblen lays it down that Mithra's birth was dramatically represented at the winter solstice the Sun-Child rests with a nimbus. the Greek usage of carrying in a basket the infant Dionysos. which probably belongs to the fourth century. 127 and in Hymn. 525. 48 (Ernesti's ed. p. p. since is originally Mithraic there is really no other way of explaining the entrance of the Magi into the Christian legend. in Asiatic Besearches." to the temple of his 4 father Apollo. 822-5). 524. Spanheim. 2 Miiller (Anc." The vase-painting may be an illustration of the hymn but the hymn-story is clearly late. 526 sq. and Durga but the Hindus at present affix no other idea of mystery to it than its being an appendage to husbandry. Cali. in any case. Das alte Indian. Hartogh Heijs van Zouteveen. Art." Patterson.. for one thing. It . 411. which I have not been able to see. 31-39. Ion. p. the answer is that it is one of the oldest motives in Aryan mythology. in circumstances which irresistibly suggest the gospel legend of the birth of Jesus and that legend is thus clearly imitative of. And if it be argued that the stable story is something special to Christianity. Prolegomena.

and the cow is to the Hindu to-day as sacred as ever. again. But as we come nearer Christianity the plot thickens. . playing among the cows with the cow6 herds. In ancient Egypt 3 But the and in Phoenicia it had the same pre-eminent sacredness. Renan. The antagonism between Hermes and Apollo. and herself puts on beautiful garments. and Rydberg. Here the myth is that of the Sun-God meeting the Twilight-Goddess in the sky vacant of clouds. the sacred cow (herself a virgin. or the deities of different races. 22 sq. 9 and cow-headed Isis logy. who on the evening of the day of his birth steals the cows of the 4 Day-God Apollo (who himself was a cowherd 6 ). So have we seen the solar Cyrus playing among the ox-stalls of his foster-father's home the sun-child disporting himself in the stable of the sky. : . 665. In the worship of Isis. p. 6 . cited above. xxi. c. was just such a figure as the black Krishna. Isis and Osiris." while the shepherds and the cows and sheep are absent and he disrobes her but when these return she breathes sleep into her lover. iii. and preserves its cultus. 28. 41 4 1 In Norse cosmogony a cow plays an important part in the creation of man (Grimm's Teutonic Mythology Stallybrass' trans. . untrammelled by commonplace moral principles. 3 Herodotus. the " cattle idea holds its ground. 52. PP.194 CHRIST AND KRISHNA is sufficient religion that a to indicate to any student unmesmerized by 1 nature-myth or ritual underlies every case. coloured by the sun as he sinks to rest a grace of poetry which tells of a literary civilization that only slightly retains the primitive fancy of cloud-cows and sky-stable. Handbook. 7 Herodotus. . c. . the love-sick Goddess comes to Anchises " in the stalls. as cited. 9 Id. " deluge the earth with milk". as above noted. as Roscher argues. ." 2 bellow as loud as roaring clouds ". 11. so that we find the solar Herakles and Hermes fabled as living with shepherds or dealing with cows and the thievish "night-awaiting" Hermes. myth of cow and stable spread world-wide with the race. But the " Night-Sun " concept is a point of fusion between solar and lunar deities. p. Teutonic Mytho2 Wilson's trans. ii. 559. ii. pp. 8 Plutarch. 46. 42. 497). Cp. just a solar deity of the native races they conquered as on the other hand Krishna's superseding of Indra has been above conceived as the final triumph of an aboriginal cult over a Brahmanic. 9. 43. all have that aspect in turn and to the last the In the Vishnu Purana the clouds. Cp. 148. may be plausibly explained as occurring between a new and an old deity. parallelism between Hermes and Krishna goes to support the view of Ernst Siecke (Hermes der Mondgott. pp. 525. ii. The cow is the foremost myth-animal in the Vedas the clouds. the firmament. 5 Iliad. 11 Erman. Her garments are the returning clouds. 529. Assuming with Miiller that Apollo was the deity of the conquering Dorians. — flash of lightning or by the rays of the moon 7 ) was carried 8 seven times round the temple upon the eve of the winter solstice. p. In the Homeridian Hymn to Aphrodite. 8. "the cows and the bulls of Indra. Pomponius Mela. 1908) that Hermes stands for the moon and not for the wind. c. when the sun-child rose from the lotos. Porphyry. the moon. Hermes may be. The . Hymn to Hermes. Etudes d'Histoire Beligieuse. the earth. 446-8. . 391. Homerid. supernaturally impregnated by a with cows . Plutarch. i. 263. as cited. as well as that between Indra and Krishna. De Abstinentia.

Miss Harrison. See the treatise on Mithraism in Pagan Christ a. 1 as in Indian legend the sun born of the cows. And still closer comes the parallel. Be Errore.. Isis. 51. pp. and the ritual of the birth of Amunoteph. And to the inquiry of King Ptolemy as to the cause. v. is reduced to the child-status in connection with the cult of 6 Isis and Osiris. Zoological Mythology. 385. 18. seeing that a Christian might though this in the circumstances would be extremely unlikely invent such a story to support his own faith. 340. were already mystically. In the worship 6 of Mithra. xcii. and adore a child in a manger. Migne. and would not by itself suffice to prove the cultus alleged.THE STABLE AND MANGER bears the 195 is Sun-God Horos. Prolegomena.God and from Plutarch we know that the infant Horos was figured on the lotos at the time of the winter solstice. Handbook.. 6 Firmicus. anciently a SunGod. on the testimony of a Christian writer. 31." The Chronicon Paschale dates from the seventh century. T. ill. that being evidently the purpose with which the chronicler cites it. And the expression " Child Saviour" clearly points 4 to a child-worshipping ceremonial. But read in connection with Macrobius and Plutarch. whose worship was much older than Jeremiah. p. col. Pt. i. and laid in a manger {frxrvrj). We know from Macrobius 2 that the Egyptian priests exhibited a babe to the people on a certain day as being the new-born Sun. they answered that they had received this mystery from a holy prophet who gave it to their 3 fathers. Erman. seeing that the temples of the sacred bull. Comp. : — — 1 3 4 5 2 Saturnalia. That such a worship was primordial in Egypt may be inferred from the fact that Horos. . evidently that of . Curs. 560-5. Apis. The proof is furnished by the remarkable record in the Christian Chronicon Paschale (formerly but improperly called Alexandrium) 11 The same Jeremiah gave a sign to the Egyptian priests that their idols would be shaken and overthrown by a child Saviour. and not to the Christian idea of salvation by the crucified adult. But there is documentary evidence that in the Egyptian system a Babe-Saviour was in pre-Christian times worshipped in a manger or crib. stables. As to this cp. But for the ox and stable there is yet another precedent. Patrolog. The Virgin and Child must of course have been Isis and Horos. born of a virgin. It is needless to remark on the possibility that the ox-and-ass myth came from the same quarter. Series Qr. in connection with a virgin mother. i. and in the former case literally. and of the sacred cow. it may be taken as certainly resting on a usage in ancient Egyptian religion. the lowing of the sacred heifers was part of a festival ceremony. p. Wherefore they still deify a child-carrying virgin.

28. seem to and in the treatise on The Gospel Myths. 21. p. was pre-eminently the God of the winter months. Frazer plausibly argues (1st ed. Inst. : of the Christian God-born-in-a-stable. in 8 7 contrast to Apollo. xxiv. constantly associated with Dionysos. again. the heifer plays . p. Qriech. and note in Bonn trans. and O. 3 hide his. Preller. ch. evidently had a special significance for the Jews. 11 Plutarch. 31. The legend that the Jews worshipped an ass-headed God doubtless 9 10 . i. La religion des Pre'-israe'lites. 146)." not only of phallic repute. Gubernatis. xxviii. 11. as well as black (ante. 150. Nikon. 31. c. In the sacred processions of Isis.. as to " the heifer Baal. Dionysos. i. 4 of all the talking beasts they are from of old symbolic animals. and they were the two prophetic reputation. is is The . again. Be Legibus Hebrceorum. iv. again. 5. as myths so often are shall we then suppose that this primitive myth Christmas eve. and O. 11 one of whose symbolic animals was the ass. who had the widest bull or ox. 10. The latter animal. where the ass's name. Saturnalia. cc. 41. ed. 13. 398. xxvii. probably at bottom the night-sun. and also for the Hebrews. I. 52.). c. 3 Calliniachus. i. 1686. 30. p. Myth. xliii. and were meant to promote the ripening of the corn. i. 401-2) that the red-haired victim and the red cow were symbols of the Corn-God. 5 Aristophanes. evidently connects with the similar usage in Egypt. i. 10. as the cries of the infant from hearing them that this is anything but a variation of the myth-motive of pagan antiquity? The mimic presentment of the scene is one of the immemorial features of the Christmas festival in Southern France and Italy who can finally doubt that the usage : — Zeus were covered in order to prevent Kronos was there before the Christian creed ? That the ox and ass in the Mithraic-Christian birth-scene have a mythic or ritual significance is very certain. Cp. and which early him as being born between cow and 2 whose cries. Div. 361. 6 Gubernatis. 1 Macrobius. 2 4 . Zoological Mythology. 8 Numbers xix. Zool. Spencer. it has been shown that in a multitude of points the Christian myths are simply based on previous ritual." Red cattle. one of the symbol- animals of the Sun-God while the ass is 5 but " carries mysteries. vol. They are not merely inmates of the " stable ".339). 12 Exodus xxxiv. the day-sun. and O. xxxv. own worshippers. . 11. 160. 392. For the talking horse. For the ass. 1865. were a special sacrifice to Poseidon (Pindar. 3. Dr. as cited.196 CHRIST AND KRISHNA 1 Now. 21 also Plutarch's Life of Antony. which was associated with the solar cult of 10 Typhon. 6 as is Dionysos himself. i. see Grimm. 53-54. Myth. Plutarch. I. ii. which only after a time passed current even with his takes the form of representing ass. i. Hymn to Zeus. hereinafter. "Victory. For ox and cow. i. In the Jewish ritual the red and is an important part and the rite. since the firstling of the ass was specially redeemable. vol. passim. it will be remembered. 20. 340. Frogs." predicts to Augustus the triumph of Actium and the Hebrew legend of Balaam— all widely circulated stories. iii. 15. I. in the popular Catholic fable. Plutarch. of which the Rabbins 9 have lost the explanation. Cp. Tobit i. 18. The ass in turn was "red" for the Egyptians (ib. the Night-God or Winter-God and Principle of Darkness. and on that ground 12 bracketed with humanity. 539-541. i. see the legend of Liber in Lactantius. 1 Id. see Livy. Pythia. 1. 247. Pleyte.

and both very different from the Hebrew text. that which was said by Isaiah the prophet. 31) was so figured. who is cave-born as the offspring of the Earth-Mother. Sanhedrim. ix." 2 so that we have the Greek version ev jxeo-a) 8vo fdW yv<Dcrdrj(TY). and challenges attention by its peculiarity . citing the Talmud. but followed by lives. 63. saying Between two animals thou art made manifest. and inclines to the former some [he says] by two animals understand angels and men some the incorporeal powers near the divine Glory. the latter 1 Now. 2 Note in the " Ante-Nicene Library " ed. xi. x. fol. in which. 197 being sometimes adorned with wings. it would be borrowed from the Apocryphal Gospel of Matthew. as above. Then was fulfilled The ox knoweth his owner and the ass his master's crib. having him in their midst incessantly adored him. The reference to Habakkuk (iii." the text reading "revive") are made to read as " two living creatures. Does the Septuagint proceed upon an Egyptian or other version of the ox-and-ass 11 make alive " (the myth ? Let us see what the commentators have to say : " There is a double reading of these words in the Septuagint version of them. is doubtless in part based on much older originals. not the only animals. of the Apocryphal Gospels. 186. Then was fulfilled that which was said by Abakuk the prophet. 14). by a change of the midst of two lives thou shalt be known accent. 23. the cherubim and seraphim others the Jews and Babylonians but to me it seems that the prophet does 1 . . Cp. : the Catacombs and Weber decides that And on the third day after the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ the most blessed Mary went forth out of the cave. the ox and the ass. The very animals therefore. In the same place Joseph remained with Mary three days" (c. not say animals. so the Arabic version." Here then rises the interesting question. in the midst of two animals thou shalt be known. p. the words " years " and marginal reading in the Authorized Version is "preserved alive. and PI. is. the present and future ' The latter reading is many of the ancients. and stable-born for the reasons we are now considering. B. p. Metamorphoses. entering a stable. late in its present form. in the Krishna ritual as they do in the birth scene of much this is one of the details borrowed from Christianity. both bound up with the worship of the Sun-God. * . but to the Septuagint. in the The other. and. by a slight variation in the vocalisation of one Hebrew word and the spelling of another. The narrative of that document. 1 Apuleius. Pleyte. 2) is not to the Hebrew as commonly rendered. Pleyte. placed the child in the stall. " between two living creatures thou shalt be known. .— THE STABLE AND MANGER ox and the ass were the principal the ox and the ass figure very if — . The one is. whose different senses are given by Jerome derives from the fact that the Samaritan God Tartak (2 Kings xvii. On that view. saying : : " Here we have a forced combination of the two myth-motives of cave and stable. and the ox and the ass adored him. Theodoret makes mention of both.

the ox and the ass. ." The reference is to the corrupt passage Ps. Justin Martyr. on the other hand. we are left to what we otherwise know of the mythological standing of the animals in question." was well fitted to serve as a Messianic prophecy for the Hellenic Jews. 777. ' ' : ' Nativity. the "two animals" was a quite fortuitous reading.198 . and of the two seraphim in Isaiah and there were some who understood them of the two Testaments.' Maranus says David did predict. then we trace to preChristian times the entrance of the ox-and-ass myth into Judaic channels. ancient "demoniacal Nothing is to be gathered save that the Septuagint somehow adopted the reading of " two creatures. DioAooue v. . c." Whatever "David" said. if. But that a merely accidental reading or rest is The modern Talmudism —the possession " of verbalism over again. but that it would happen before sun and moon that He would be born of a Virgin. . " thou shalt be acknowledged when the years draw nigh thou shalt be manifested when the time is come. not that Christ would be born of Mary before sun and moon. misreading of the the stable Hebrew text could be the origin of the myth of and the adoring ox and ass. . The stable. but explicable in all likelihood by the ancient ritual-usage under notice. ex. If the translator of Habakkuk in the Septuagint was influenced by an Egyptian or Oriental mystery-doctrine. 76. Doudney's ed. by whom the Father is made known others of the two cherubim in Exodus. . Here. has a statement that David predicted that he [Christ] would be born from the womb 2 before sun and moon. as later found in the apocryphal Gospel. the context in the Septuagint. we have here the glyph of the symbolic ox and ass at the . iv. and to which they refer in their ancient hymns. as we have seen. and is therefore from old 1 Gill's 2 Exposition of the Old Testament. who was " pretty close to the myth-sources. And the passage in Pseudo-Matthew is singularly suggestive of just such a process of legend-making ritual as has been above contended for. is incredible. For the rest.ith Trypho." a formula unintelligible on Biblical grounds. the Old and New and others of Christ's being crucified but besides these different sentiments many of the between two thieves ancients concluded from hence that Christ lay in the manger between two animals. CHRIST AND KRISHNA on the place some interpreting them of the Son and Spirit. Ml [Cognovit bos et asinus Quod puer erat Dominus] . was an established myth. the laying-inthe-manger is entirely dissociated from the birth. as in the Protevangelion. 3 and the translators of the Ante-Nicene Library version have this note "Justin puts sun and moon instead of Lucifer. and the ox and ass were at home in the stable.


THE STABLE AND MANGER
the

199

more confidently

to

framed to meet a purpose

be looked upon as a piece of narrative just as the pragmatic account of the
;

have a doctrinal significance. such a doctrine lay in the pre-existence of cave-worship, especially in Mithraism, from which Christianity so largely borrowed
lightless cave is evidently intended to

The need

for

Pagan ritual in which was exhibited as born in a cave and the need for the laying in a manger in presence of ox and ass can be explained only in a similar way. Thus established, the myth would easily reappear in the form of the animation by the child Jesus of figures of oxen and asses, and in the appearance of oxen and asses in the
in other regards,

and

in the actual practice of a

a Child-God (as Ion)

;

1

fabulous cortege of the family in Egypt.
Is
it

2

then reasonable,

is it

plausible, to

assume that
form
?

this certainly

derivative legend, never accepted as canonical, suddenly captured the

Hindus

late in our era in its Christianized

Are we not, on
?

the contrary, driven irresistibly to infer that the Christian ox-andass legend derives from a ritual of

immemorial antiquity

And

here, at least, the

thing like a decisive
Fire,

Hindu sacred books and ritual offer someanswer. To begin with, Agni in the Rig Veda is
fire-sticks,

constantly addressed as a new-born infant, he being primarily the

which

is

generated afresh every time the aranis, the

are rubbed together, a process conserved for religious purposes (as
fire was rekindled in Mexico and elsewhere) for ages after had become unnecessary. Thus, for one thing, the ever new-born Agni of the Veda is associated with the crossed sticks, which on one theory are the origin of the cross symbol. But not only is Agni repeatedly adored as the new-born by his worshippers, he is held to be similarly adored by the forces of Nature, and by the Devas or

the sacred

it

divinities in general, as is the luminous Christ-child in the Prote3 vangelion, and the " beautiful beloved child " the Sun-God in the

ancient ritual of Egypt

4
:

fills all dwellings with shining Agni, art the embryo of heaven and earth variegated, infantine, thou dispersest the nocturnal glooms Therefore the genetrices (of all things, the herbs) the cherishers (of all) with food, wait on

"Agni, the bright-bodied, as soon as born,

light.

When

born, thou,

O

thee

who art the augmenter of food, with the sacrificial viands." 5 "The Vedic Gods render homage to Agni when he is born, and when he

passes resplendent from his parents the aranis." G " He [Agni] diffuses happiness in a dwelling like a son newly born." 7
1

Arabic Gospel of Infancy,

c. 36.

2

Pseudo-Matthew,

c. 19.

3 c. 19. Cp. Arabic 5 Wilson's trans, of

6
7

4 Ernian, Gospel of Infancy, c. 3. Handbook, p. Big Veda Sanhita, vi (1888), pp. 1-2. Senart, Essai, p. 292, citing Big Veda, vi, 7, 4, Wilson's trans, i, 184,

9.


200
"

.

CHRIST AND KRISHNA
He
[Agni]
it is

whom

the two sticks have engendered like a new-born

babe." 1

"Thou

[Agni] art born unobstructed of two mothers

sticks or the

heaven and earth]
3

[i.e., either the firethey have augmented thee with butter." 2

So in the later western world is Dionysos hailed ignigenam, satumque iterum, solumque bimatrem, "fire-born, twice-born, the only one with 4 two mothers." And this transparent infant-myth is curiously interwoven in the Veda with the other primeval myths of cow and cave.
"Agni, as soon as born, blazes brightly, destroying the Dasyus" [demons] " and (dispersing) the darkness by his lustre he has discovered the cows, the waters, the sun." 5
;

rite,

"In this world our mortal forefathers departed after instituting the sacred when, calling upon the dawn, they extricated the milk-yielding kine,

concealed among the rocks in the darkness (of the cave) " Rending the rocks they worshipped (Agni) and other (sages) taught everywhere their (acts) unprovided with the means of extricating the cattle, they
:

author of success, whence they found the light, and were thus enabled (to worship him) with holy ceremonies. " Devoted (to Agni) those leaders (of sacred rites) with minds intent upon (recovering) the cattle, forced open, by (the power) of divine prayer, the obstructing compact solid mountain, confining the cows, a cow-pen full
glorified the

of kine

"

The scattered darkness was destroyed
:

radiance
all

the firmament glowed with then the sun stood above the undecaying mountains, beholding
:

that was right or wrong

among mankind." 6

This last extra-obscure passage well exemplifies the frequent difficulty, avowed by the best scholars, 7 of making out what the Vedas mean
a difficulty further deducible from a comparison of the renderings of Wilson and Langlois with those of later German translators, and of these last with each other. But the association of Agni with cattle and cave seems certain from that and the previous extract, and there is no great obscurity in these further passages " Both the auspicious ones (day and night) wait upon him [Agni] like two
:

female attendants, as lowing kine (follow their calves)." 8 " The night and the day, mutually effacing each other's complexion, give
1

2

Id. Id.

iii,

iii,

253-4. 256-7.

Elsewhere, Agni

is

thrice

born— in the

last, doubtless, being on account of the 21, 34 ; vi, 119; and Grassniann's, pp. 45, 73.
is

—the

air, in the earth, and in the water sun's reflection there. Cp. Wilson's tr. iii,

3 That Dionysos is primarily a Thrakian Beer-God, as such born of the Earth Mother, convincingly proved by Miss Harrison, Prolegomena, ch.viii but in his later Wine-God stage he seems to have acquired some Asiatic characteristics. 4 Ovid, Metam. iv, 11; Diodorus Siculus, iii, 61 iv, 4, 5; Orphica 1. i. G Id. iii, 115-6. 5 Wilson's trans, iii, 261. 7 See Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, ii, 214. It should be noted that Wilson's translation, which is here primarily used, follows the commentary of Sayana, as to the merits of which see Max Muller, pref to 1st ed. of trans, of Vedic Hymns, 8. B. E. On comparing the passages here cited with the later renderings of Oldenberg, I find no vital differences. In any case, we want in this connection to have the text as understood by the later
; ;
.

Brahmans.
8

B.V.

I, ii, 2.

Dawns have been

Wilson's trans, i, 246. Oldenberg translates :—" For thee Nights and lowing, O Agni, as milch-cows in the folds for their calf" (S. B. E. xlvi, 193).

THE STABLE AND MANGEE

201

nourishment, combined together, to one infant [Agni] who, radiant, shines between earth and heaven." 1

Of these two extracts the
the
for

first is

thus rendered from the original in

German

H.Grassmann: 2 " To thee, Agni, shout joy (jauchzen) Night and the Dawn, as in the stalls cows cry to
metrical version of

Is it going too far to surmise that, seeing Agni himself, Fire-God and Sun-God, was in the Veda said to have been, " in the olden time, the bull and the cow," 3 the symbols of the Night and the Morning, here represented as saluting him, may even then have been the Ox and Ass ?
calves."

When we compare the notion of the instantaneous growth of the new-born Agni (who " as soon as born fills heaven and earth with 4 light," and "fractures, as he advances, the solid cloud"; and who " archer " and the " lord of night " 5 the Vedic address is further the ), to Indra as having " discovered the cows hidden in the cave," 6 and 7 the legend that these cows were stolen by the Asuras when we compare these data with the Greek myth of the night-waiting, cattle-stealing, infant Hermes, it is difficult to doubt that the latter fable derives from the Asiatic original preserved in the Veda. Whether the " two mothers " were suggested by the common myth of the suckling of the child-God by another than she who bore him, or whether the latter notion grew out of the misunderstood symbol of the two fire-sticks, or the mystic doctrine that the Sun-God was 8 born of both Heaven and Earth, we need not attempt to decide.

But

a fresh light

myth we get when we connect the Vedic myths of the infant Agni 9 (who, by the way, was specially invoked at the vernal equinox )
as regards the Indian origin of the ox-and-ass

In the Jayanti form of the festival, the erecting of a shed, the watching by it through the night, and the distribution of the images, are important
with the Krishnaite ritual of the Birth Festival.
items.
10

Now,

in the

Catacomb sarcophagus, the basket containing

the child, and the ox and ass, stand under a sloping shed-roof, resting on two posts, while none of the other figures do. Here there is
there is only a scenic shed, exactly answering to the shed of the Krishnaite ritual and to the right of Eemarkably that two palm trees, between which the mother sits.
neither cave nor inn-stable
;
;

who

Wilson's trans, p. 252. Oldenberg's version runs: "Night and Dawn, I, xcvi. constantly destroy each other's appearance, suckle one young calf unitedly. The piece of gold [= Agni] shines between Heaven and Earth " (S.B.E. xlvi, 119). 8 Wilson's trans, vi (1888), p. 11. 2 Leipzig, 1876, p. 8. 6 Id. i, 16. 5 Id. i, 186, 188. 4 Wilson's trans, hi, 120. 7 Id. ib. Wilson's note. 8 Oldenberg leaves open both views, citing Bergaigne, Beligion Vhlique, i, 28, 238. Elsewhere (S.B.E. xlvi, 51) he notes that " Agni, as is well known, is the son of the two worlds,"
1

B.V.

.

9

Id.

i,

157, note,

10

Weber,

p. 223,

202

CHRIST AND KRISHNA

enough, one of those trees bends, as do the palms in the Koran legend of Mary, in the Buddhist legend of Maya, and in the account
in

after the birth.

Pseudo-Matthew (c. 20) of the wanderings of Mary and Joseph The trees clearly cannot be reconciled with cave

or stable.

How

then came this shed to appear in early Christian or semi-

Christian sacred art, unauthorized either by the generally received

conclusion
that

cave legend or by the story in the third Gospel ? What possible is open to us save that it represents a usage in the dramatic ritual of some other cultus and that it was this usage
;

view in the peculiar version of the story in the Apocryphal Gospels ? And, apart from the familiar myth of the births of Apollo and Buddha under a palm tree, what ritual usage do we know of that comes so close as that of Krishnaism ? Either
in

was

the scene

If the latter, we have Christian or it is Mithraic. complete identity between the Persian and the Hindu a phase of and in that case Mithraism would cult, which need not surprise us be the channel through which the myth of ox-and-ass, stable-andmanger, came into Christianity. But if we suppose the bas-relief
is
;

to be non-Mithraic, then

it

must be held

a ritual usage previously existing in India
in our

—the usage which survives
mythology as early

to be a close imitation of

own

day.

For the ass appears

in Indian

the Vedas, where already he has two characters, divine and demoniacal, being at one time the symbol of Indra, Krishna's
as

predecessor, and at another his enemy.

As the friend of the black and once demonic Krishna, he corresponds, with reversal of colour, 3 to the ass of Egypt, who was the symbol of the evil Typhon. " childlike." 3 Again, curiously, one of his Vedic epithets is When, therefore, we find in the art of Buddhism, as in the 4 Gandhara sculptures, a representation of a Nativity scene, in which
a woman lays a child in a manger-basket, it is quite out of the In the scene in question to look for the suggestion to the Gospels. question, horses' heads appear in the place of those of the familiar

1

ox and ass

and here we are probably dealing with another solar was in Asia specially associated with the The babe in this case may very well have been Agni, who in sun. the Veda is driver of the white horses of the sun and though, as we shall see, the Buddha myth has borrowed a good deal from that of Krishna, it could also draw directly from the Vedic store.
;

symbol

;

for the horse

;

1

2
4

Zool. Myth, ii, 370-4. 3 Zool. Myth, ii, Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, cc. 30, 31. Fergusson ancl Burgess. The Cave Temples of India, 1880, p. 138.

364,

.

THE STABLE AND MANGER
And
if

203

Western borrowing there were on the Hindu side which now be argued it could perfectly well have been preChristian. The ass might be the ass of Typhon, " who was the chief God of the Semites in Egypt," though in ill repute with the Christians and it may have been from Egypt that the Christians
will hardly

1

;

derived

it.

And when we

are discussing origins,

we should not

Dupuis and Volney, 2 that the birth of the Sun-Child between the ox and the ass is simply a fable based on the fact that in the zodiacal celestial sphere the sun would come, at the winter solstice, between the Bull and the Ursa Major, sometimes represented by the ancients as a Boar, sometimes as the Hippopotamus, sometimes the Ass, of Typhon. In view of the vasepainting of the babe Hermes in his cradle among the kine, we can
forget the suggestion of

accept this suggestion only with the qualification that the astronomithan that of the cow-stealing. But the conception may well be as old as the zodiac the sky-cow is one of the oldest
cal gloss is later
:

may be only less ancient; and the imagination which placed terrestrial creatures in the heavens would house them there terrestrially. The Sun-God is in this
of

myths; that

of the cloud-cows

of the Earth Sky in the stable. 3 Another detail comes in to extend the surmise that the Christian legend borrows from the East. In the Catacomb fresco representing the (supposed) adoration of the Virgin and Child by two Magi, as reproduced in large and in colour in De Rossi's Imagines Selectae Deiparae Virginis* the dish tendered to the babe or mother by the

primary sense born of two mothers, Earth and Sky
in the cave, of the

right-hand

man

bears a small
?

human figure.
is

What

is

the Christian

explanation of that
is

What

hypothesis

more

likely

than that this

one of the Krishnaite images, or an imitation of an intermediary
That, of course, remains a hypothesis.
to

Asiatic cult-practice ?

bound

And, indeed, we are keep in view that the manifold Egyptian ritual may have included just such a ceremony as that under notice. In the pro-

cession of Isis, as described by Apuleius, the ass

a feeble old
Gospels.

man

—exactly

is

accompanied by

And we know

the aged Joseph of the Apocryphal that the solarized Amunoteph III, who

here seems to typify customary royal ceremony, figures in Egyptian sculpture as supernaturally announced, conceived, and born, very

1

Eng.
3
4

Robertson Smith, Beligion of the Semites, p. 449. Cp. Tiele, Hist, of the Egypt. Relig. 2 Les Ruines, note tr. p. 48. on ch. xxii, § 13. Cp. Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Relig. Eng. tr. p. 8.

Rome,

1863, pi. v.

Cp.

Roma Sotteranea,

as cited,

ii,

140, 170,

204

CHEIST AND KRISHNA
as
is
1

much

Jesus in Christian legend. The messenger-God, Thoth, announces to the maid-mother the coming birth the Spirit-God
;

Kneph miraculously impregnates her

;

and the

priests kneel

and

adore the new-born babe, holding up the cross of life. This must have been a matter of ritual. In the Catacomb bas-relief and frescoes, again, the adorers, the " Magi," both in the picture with two and in that with four, 2 wear the Phrygian or Mithraic cap but,
;

instead of representing the venerable sages of
fancy, they are all

modern Christian

young and beardless.

The

juvenile angel, again,

exactly corresponds to that which figures in the admittedly Mithraic

remains in the Catacombs, as reproduced by Father Garucci and accepted by Canons Northcote and Brownlow. On the other hand, 3 in the fragment of the earliest-dated Catacomb sarcophagus held

ox and ass, the swaddled child, and two adorers, the men are rather of Western figure though at the end behind them a hand appears grasping a palm tree or branch. Thus there is the suggestion of the East as well as of Western assimilation. We cannot yet decide with certainty as to the myth's line of travel we can only decide that all early Christian myth is an adaptation of previous myth. The case, I think, is thus far clear. The Krishna birth myth is and it is highly probable that the Birth-Festival at bottom primeval ritual, which Weber supposes to have been based on Christianity, preserves prehistoric practice. Some rite of the kind there was in the Dionysiak Liknoplwria, in which the devotees by night hailed 4 a cradled Babe-God. At the midnight hour of the Hindu God's 5 birth there is a ceremony of a" pouring out of riches" (ein Guss Reichthums) which it is a wonder the Professor does not hold to
to be Christian, representing the
; ; ;

In all probability it does point myth. The "riches" are symbolic, an offering of melted butter and sugar surely the " nectar and pleasant 6 ambrosia" with which Themis fed the babe Apollo; and with which the Hours feed the deathless child Aristaeus, son of Apollo and Cyrene, and by some called Shepherd, Jove, and chaste Apollo, God of Flocks; 7 the milk and honey on which Dionysos and the 8 child Jupiter were nourished the " butter and honey " that in the
represent the offerings of the Magi.
to the origin of that

:

1

Wiedemann,
2

See the woodcut and explanation in Sharpe's Egyptian Mythology, pp. 18-19. Belig. of theAnc. Egyptians, Eng. tr. pp. 16:2-4.

Cp.
235,

Sotteranea, as cited, ii, 169: Imag. Sel. pi. iii. 3 It bears the names of the consuls of 343 c.e. See the cut in Roma Sotteranea, and in Open Court, as before cited. 4 Miss Harrison, Prolegomena, pp. 401 sq., 517 sq., fig. on p. 524. 5 Treatise 6 Horn. Hymn, 124. cited, p. 299. 7 Pindar, Pythia, ix, 97-106; Diodorus Siculus, iv,81; Athenagoras, Avol. xiv. b Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus, 49; and note in Bohn trans, p. 123.

Roma

ii,

;

THE MYTH OF
Hebrew prophet
1

ST.

CHRISTOPHER

205

are named as the food of the child Immanuel to be born of the " virgin " of that time, and that were used in their

milk for butter) by the early Christians, especially in the till the Council of Trullo (held at Constanti2 nople, in 691) forbad the usage, doubtless because its pagan origin was recognized. And surely the ancient adoration of the ever-newrites (with

"

Mystery

of Infants,"

born Agni was either the origin or the parallel of the offering of Does not the whole mass of data butter to the new-born Krishna. go to suggest that a more or less dramatic ritual has preserved a Babe-Sun-God worship from immemorial antiquity ? In preChristian India it became actual drama, which the Festival ritual, with its multitude of images, appears to preserve as far as may be and there is much reason to suspect that the form of part of the
Protevangelion comes of a semi-dramatic
3

ritual, as

the adoration of

the Magi must have done, and as the legends of the Lord's Supper

Be that how it and the rock-tomb burial almost certainly did. may, the theory that Krishnaism borrowed either its myths or its rites from Christianity is now evidently enough untenable.
§ 13.

4

The Myth of

St.

Christopher.

The study of a few of the minor myths of Christianity in connection with Krishnaism will be found no less instructive than the
comparison of the central myth-motives of the two creeds. Always the lesson is that the mythology of Christianity was derivative and at times, though there can be no certainty, there is some reason We to suspect a direct Christian adoption of Eastern details. have spoken of the item of the visit of the foster-father of Krishna to the holy city to pay his taxes, which in the Krishna myth is as
;

it

were naturally embedded in the narrative, while in the Christ

myth it is grafted on loosely and vicariously. But the same statement may be made even more emphatically in other regards. " 5 Professor Weber has assumed the priority of the " Christophoros
legend, in

which

St.

carries the rejuvenated Christ, the Christ-child,

Christopher under miraculous circumstances on his shoulders

across a river by night.

that the idea of regarding Christ
1

The Professor does not ask how it was still as a child came to persist in
2, §

Isaiah

vii, 14-15.

2
3 5

Bingham's Christian Antiquities, xv,
Chs.
xiii, xiv.

3 (ed. 1855, vol. v, 242-3).

4 See Pagan Christs, Part iii, Mithraism, § 4. Here adopting a thesis of the pre-scientific Giorgi— cited by Von Bohlen, Das Alte Indien, 1830. i, 232. Von Bohlen states that Kleuker held the Christophoros story to be of Indian origin but I cannot find such a remark in the place cited. Kleuker did, however (Abhandlungen, as before cited, ii, 234), argue that it was probably the Christians who borrowed from the Hindus, and that the apocryphal Gospels show distinct traces of
;

Indian influence.


206

CHRIST AND KRISHNA

the Church through so

many centuries, and that only gradually did he come to be pictured as a young man, and finally as a man of middle age. We can see what preserves the child image in Krishnaism the ancient usage of dramatic ritual, which is only partially overruled by the literary presentment of the stories of the God's career. Now, by far the most probable hypothesis of the origin of the Christophoros myth is either that it was framed to

explain a

Pagan

sculpture, or that, like so

many

others,

it

was

invented late to explain some dramatic or other representation
that there

was a ritual in which the Christ-child, like the infant Dionysos or Hermes in Greece, and the infant Horos in Egypt, was carried on a man's (or God's) shoulder, long before the legend of the
colossal Christ-bearer

was framed.

For

this hypothesis

we have

the most convincing evidence in the

plural term Ghristophoroi, found applied to martyrs in
letter of

an alleged

the third century quoted by Eusebius.

1

This term the

orthodox authorities deduce from the epithet " Theophoros," said to have been applied to Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch and the usual
;

explanation

means " full of Christ," as Theophoros meant 2 "full of God." The Bohn translator, Mr. Cruse, however, insists on the etymological meaning of the word, writing that " the martyrs
is

that

it

by a strong figure, Christophori, because they bore ; and This is called Theophorus for the same reason." probably nearer the truth than Mr. Cruse was aware of. The name Theophoros would not have been attached to Ignatius had it not been in existence before. It literally meant, in classic usage, 3 one "bearing or carrying a God"; and would naturally be applied
were
called,

Ignatius

was

to those

who carried

statues of the

Gods

in ceremonial or procession.

There were a score of such names in connection with the Greek rituals. Not to speak of the soldiers and police officers called after the weapons they carried, as the doryphoroi, aichmophoroi, mastigophoroi, rhabdophoroi, etc., there were the liknophoroi, the women who carried the cradle-basket of Dionysos in his processions the
;

kanephoroi,

women who

bore sacred baskets of another sort

;

the

oschophoroi, noble youths who, in the disguise of

women,

carried
;

deipnophoroi,

branches of vine in the festival from which came the name the women who, as mothers, carried food for the youths the arrephoroi (or ersephoroi), maidens who carried the mystic chest
;

i

Eccles. Hist,

iii,

10

So, in effect, Bingham, i, 6; Riddle, Christian Antiquities, p. Smith and Cheetham's Diet, of Christ. Antiq. sub voce. 3 Liddell and Scott, s. v., citing ^sch. Fr. 224. 4 In such cases as those mentioned by Pausanias, ii, 7, 11; vi, 20,

2

134; Migne,
.

ad
.

loc.;

21, etc.,

or in civic or

.

royal processions.

THE MYTH OF
dophoroi,

ST.

CHRISTOPHER
;

207
the lampa-

with nameless contents in the festival of Panathenaea

who carried torches
is

in the torch-races

;

and so on.

Always

the meaning the

the literal carrying of something.
1

Hermes with the

image of Only secondarily and indirectly could the word Theophoros come to have the meaning of "possessed by the God"; and the instance cited by 2 Liddell and Scott, in which the phrase is " pains of inspiration," is clearly in close connection with the primary meaning. In all probability the name Theophoros at times became a family one, 3 just as that of Nikephoros, " Victory-bearer," which continued to
is

ram on his shoulders Good Shepherd )

(the admitted origin of the Christian

Hermes

Kriophoros, the ram-bearer.

subsist long after

Pagan times among

Christians.

On

the other

hand,

we know

that in the Attic theatre one of the seats officially
4

reserved was allotted to the Iacchophoros, the bearer of the statue of

Iacchos in the Eleusinian procession, the designation in this case remaining an official title. Either way, we are dealing with a

common and
solider basis

recognized ritual practice

;

to infer that the generic

name

Christophoroi must have had

and we have every reason some

than an analogy from a metaphor. That the Christian myth of the Christ-birth is a concoction from previous myths, we have already seen and that the borrowing was first made by way of " mystery " or ritual, the Catacomb remains go far to prove. We know too that in the Egyptian system, apart from the practice of carrying the new-born Sun-Child to exhibit him to the people, 5 there was a whole order of Pastophoroi, bearers of the pastos, who according to one theory bore a shawl in the mysteries of Isis and Osiris, but " according to another interpretation " and a much more tenable one " were so denominated from
;

carrying, not a shawl, but a shrine or small chapel, containing the

image of the God." 6 These Pastophoroi were "a numerous and important body of men," who had allotted to them a part of the Egyptian temples, called the pastophorion a term adopted by the

1

See Smith and Cheetham's Diet, under
;

"

Christianity, ch. vii Didron, Christian Iconography, Eng. tr. i, 339, 341, and the figures copied in Dr. Carus's art. in Open Court, December, 1899. This type also appears in Buddhist sculpture. 3 See Athenseus, 2 From iEschylus, Agam. 1150. v, 27. 4 Haigh, The Attic Theatre, 1889, p. 309. 5 Macrobius, Saturnalia, i, 18. It is important to remember that Macrobius says the child is carried ex adyto, out of the innermost sanctuary of the temple. The adytum " was almost certainly in its origin a cave; indeed, in Greece it was often wholly or partially " subterranean, and is called fxtyapov which is the Semitic HI J?0 and means a cave (Smith, Beligion of the Semites, p. 183 cp. Tiele, Egyptian Religion, p. 115). Here once more the Christian myth is led up to. 6 Smith's Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Antiq., art. Pastophorus. Ed. 1849, p. 871. Compare Apuleius {Metamorphoses, bk. 11), who speaks of the Pastophori as carrying "the sacred images " and breathing effigies " (simulacra spirantia). See also last par. of the book.
;
'

Good Shepherd." Cp. Lundy, Monumental

;

;

208

CHRIST AND KRISHNA
1

And they spread Jews in describing the temple of Jerusalem. beyond Egypt, having a " college " or brotherhood at Industria, a 2 city of Liguria. Now, it may be argued that the term Christophoroi might be jocularly applied to Christians by analogy from these and other classes with the same name-suffix but that the Christians should have adopted it without some real reason is
;

hardly supposable.

early Christian ritual,

And when we look into the admitted remains of we see at least hints of what the reason was.

In early frescoes the Christian hierophant bears a pastos, or a kiste, They would hardly analogous to the sacred chest of Dionysos.
carry the serpent, as the kiste did
;

but their shrine or chest carried

something.

might be, then, that this was only the sacred host, which to day is " the good God " in Catholic countries. But whence then came the idea of making the mythic Christophoros, giant as he was, carry the child Christ ? I can see no explanation save one or all of three (1) that the persistent Pagan charge against the early 4 Christians of eating a child in their rites rested on a ritual custom 5 exhibiting or eating the baked image of a child, a rite to which, of 6 7 as being a sacred mystery, the Christians were unwilling to confess
It this
:

of

1 Maccabees, iv, 38. Smith's Diet, as above, citing Maffei, Mus.tyeron. p. 230. Apuleius locates a college at Cenchrese. 3 See Boma Sotteranea, ed. 1879, i, 362. PI. xi. 4 Justin Martyr, Apol. i, 26 ii, 12 Eusebius, Eccles. Hist, v, 1 Athenagoras, Apol. c. 3 Origen, Against Celsus, vi, 27 Min. Felix, cc. 9, 10, 30, 31 Tertullian, Apolog. cc. 7, 8, 9. 5 Note the image on the platter of the Magus," referred to above, § 12. Baked images were known in the sacrifices of the poor in antiquity (Herodotus, ii, 47) and in Mexico dough images of the God were eaten sacramentally. See H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of tlie Pacific States, iii, 297-300, 389; ii, 321. A very extensive list of cases in which either a baked or an unbaked image of a child or adult is ceremonially eaten in ancient and modern times is given by Dr. Frazer, Golden Bough, 1st ed, ii, 68, 79-84, and notes. Macrobius (Saturnalia, i, 7) gives accounts of the substitution of images for human heads as sacrifices to Hades, and again of heads of garlic and poppy for human heads in sacrifice to the Goddess Mania, mother of the Lares. Yet again, Ovid (Fasti, v, 621-31) tells of the substitution of rush or straw images for old men formerly sacrificed in the worship of Vesta. Mommsen, whose chapter (xii) on the religion of Rome is, as we have seen, a mosaic of incoherent generalizations, declares that it is only an unreflecting misconception that can discover in this usage a reminiscence of ancient human sacrifices." He then explains that the Romans acted in the spirit of their merchants, who were legally free to " fulfil their contracts merely in the letter "; that they in all seriousness practised " a pious cunning, which tried to delude and pacify" the deity " by means of a sham satisfaction." Of what then was it a sham ? 6 The existence of secret mysteries among the early Christians after the second century is abundantly shown in Clarkson's Discourse concerning Liturgies (Select Works, Wycliffe Society's ed. 1846, pp. 266-277). And see Dr. Edwin Hatch's posthumous work, The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, 1890, pp. 292-305, where it is frankly admitted that the Christians imitated Pagan methods. In practising secrecy in particular the Christians only followed the general Pagan usage. Compare Clarkson's citations with Herodotus, passim. 7 See Tertullian, Apology, c. 7, where the denial is anything but straightforward. We may rest content with an orthodox explanation: "The method of celebrating baptism, confirmation, and the eucharist the nature and effect of these ordinances the sublime doctrine of the Trinity and the Creed and Lord's Prayer, were only communicated to converts about the time of their baptism. Christians were absolutely prohibited from revealing this information to catechumens or infidels; and whenever the early Christian writers speak on such topics (except when controversy compels them to a different course) there is usually some reserve in their manner, some reference to the peculiar knowledge This primitive discipline is sufficient to account for the facts that very of the faithful few allusions to the liturgy or eucharistic service are found in the writings of the Fathers 2

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ii. of eating a baked image of a lamb. The just inference is that. Pagan Christs. as to the use of a confectionery image of a lamb. Without suggesting a similar process of substitution. end. 300. of Anc. B. 1887. Palmer. Muller. Eng. Mariner. and contains but a small part of the probable truth. three theories and so much implicated one with the other. 4th ed. taken in connection with the distinct records of pre-Christian the more clear does become that the accepted notions wide of the facts. . or Horos was represented . Light in Africa. Origines Liturgicce. when speaking of the Eucharist. by a Pakeha Maori. 190-1. Amerikanischen Urreligionen. tr. Egyptians. cp. 107. 33). iii. 1827. Bingham. Belig. See also the Rev. 134. p. J. B. i Cp. plain traces of the 4 sacrifice of the first-born child in the Hebrew code are clearer in it the light of similar usages America. Old New Zealand. James. may have set illiterate Christians. Trollope's edition of the Greek Liturgy of St. W. 5 P . which still subsists in Italy. 177 Dimeschqui. are so probable. as among the Semites. Pausanias. 8. See Pagan Christs. 6 Lafitau. why should the early Fathers have kept up any air of mystery? 1 See Wiedemann. 164. p. 214. A. Rhys. cited by Bastian. p. 14. The. i. and as a child may have been the rites of Mithra or (3) that the many or representations of the carrying of a Divine Child by Hermes by Herakles in Greek 1 sculpture or painting. 58. 22. W. Pagan Christs. i. after the fall of Paganism. i. with an actual killed lamb and Easter eggs. 156. 325. the 7 a child has been commonly regarded as of special efficacy. viii. ch. p. of the rise of the cult are hopelessly First as to the charge of ritual child-eating. xv. enter as little as possible into detail. CHEISTOPHER dummy was child 209 or (2) that in the Christian celebration a real or was in actually carried in the sacred basket. It is an admitted historic fact that in some of the churches. p. ch. 2 Hatch. Hibbert Lectures on Celtic Heathendom. upon all the framing of an explanatory Christian tale. just as Dionysos as in his. that we are not free to reject any. or the figure of the God Bes And carrying Horos. 9. He comes to the conclusion that no liturgy was published till late in the fourth century. p.. Moeurs des sauvages ameriquains. they are almost entirely silent" (Rev." Mr.— THE MYTH OF ST. The more it closely we look into Christian myth ritual. On this obscure problem has to be remembered that among primitive peoples the sacrificing of infants has been common. 201-2. Macdonald. The Tshi-speaMng Peoples of the Gold Coast. 6 sacrifice of among primitives in Africa and North Among primitives. 15: " The Fathers in general. sec. G. As to what may seem to many readers the most unlikely of all the eating of the baked image of a child there is really most evidence. when the Church was no longer in fear of its enemies. 212. by modern Catholics. 1890. . Tonga Islands. p. pp. 2. when the popularity of the cult made the old secrecy impossible. 144. 144 ff. p. 171. c. Trollope's explanation— that they feared to expose the mysteries to ribaldry— is clearly inadequate. it is clear. 300 ii. pp. 3. its ritual was to a large extent shorn of the grosser usages derived from Paganism. we may reason3 ably surmise that the infans far re contectus of the Pagan charge was really a model of a child in dough. . 5 and that on the more solemn part of consecration. ? Cp. pp. etc. s Minucius Felix. Antiquities of the Christian Church. Rev. there arose the practice. Ellis. after the manner of so many pagan — cults in all ages. 1848. Der Mensch. after the abandonment of the practice of eating an actual lamb in the eucharist at Easter. If the eucharist ritual all along was just what was set down in the Gospels. Cp. as cited. in Egypt. 1724. 181 J.

Tertullian. the Christians were accused of killing children in religious rites. the Harranians in the Middle Ages annually sacrificed an infant. which might or might not die. 51 Spencer and Gillen. It should be noted that Dr. Life of Belisarius. " until the beginning of the present century the custom of offering a first-born 2 Ganges was common. 199. 262.B. Prolegomena. the Greek tradition that at Potniae in Boeotia it was for a time the custom to sacrifice a boy to Dionysos. p. ed. till the God accepted a goat as 11 victim instead. is certain and in view of the myth of the dismemberment and eating of the boy Dionysos by the Titans. 379. As to the sacrificing of boys. v. 1860. pp. " according to Mohammedan accounts. 8 vi. child to the They made the charge against the pagans. took a pregnant girl. 493) have resolved the " Titans" into titanoi. 311. 108. 2nd ed. Apologeticus. . Bastian. ii. and. ix. 1900. That the victim whether bull or goat or lambwas sacrificed and eaten as the God. others than hood of secret ones. 9 Robertson Smith.. xvi. the men covered with white clay or gypsum Uitanos) who figured in the rite. Der Mensch in der Geschichte. and so made an unguent for the soldiers' gauntlets. 41-42. 87) as to the ancient eucharistic practice of making bread with the blood of a child. ix. 1 Pagan Christ s. Cp. Religion and Folklore of Northern India. see the passage in Horace. the story of how the people of Pergamos. Cp. 25. ii. p. cut up the mother and the foetus. p. G. 388. ii. Amerikanischen Urreligionen. it is difficult to doubt that at Potniae a boy was sacramentally 12 And the decisive fact slain and eaten till men revolted at the rite. 11 Pausanias. Miss Harrison. 475. p. citing the Fihrist. p. there freeborn men were allowed to partake. flsspft cTiild-SAjCrificp 7 Cp. Juvenal Armenian and Syrian haruspices at Rome would sometimes augur from the entrails of a boy and. Miiller. Cieza de Leon. boiled them. 5 it also against the Hebrews in their own sacred books 7 is 6 . Isaiah. when besieged by the Arabs in 717. the note of Elmenhorstius in Ouzel's ed. boiling down its flesh. Brough Smith. British West Africa. 348. too. Ritual. 389. as there is again in regard to the statement of 10 Procopius that the Franks in the sixth century sacrificed children But all these records are in a measure countenanced by to idols. 2 3 Cp. Thus. lvii. and Religion. 12 Cp. Dieterich and Miss Harrison (id." And the step from the sacrifice 3 to the sacramental meal is short. 383. cited by Lang. 5 Ezekiel. 502-3. to say nothing 8 alleges that the of the Carthaginians and other Semites. 'The many references in the prophetic and historic books to the practice of passing children " through the fire to Molech " seem clearly to 4 5 6 . J. Open instances suggest the likeli4 In the civilizations of antiquity. pp. of which only 9 Here. 1 Among Indeed. And see in Bury's History of the Later Roman Empire. 107. of Minucius Felix (1672. G. 490. which evidently preserves trace of an ancient usage. of course. 1896. i. 548-552." is room for doubt. baked it into cakes. 376. cited by Frazer. remains that the Christians retained for their sacramental food the . i. Myth. Crooke. 105. Religion of the Semites. 8. . Mahon. iii. p. 2nd. 10 Gothica. 103. Aborigines of Victoria. pp. Native Tribes of Central Australia. 2nd ed. 1889. The passage suggests further that at one time the priest of Dionysos was annually slain as his representative. till the priest contrived to change the theory of the ritual. Epod. — . 20. expressly made and the atrocity seems to have been well known in other races. and Chwolsohn. ii. Mockler-Ferryman.210 CHRIST AND KRISHNA the old Mexicans they were frequent. 169.

p. Jesus is there revealed by his devoutest worshippers as a Sun. it is the God name of hostia. for the substitution or sacrifice baked dough image for the animal which the ritual called for. and this is the explanation of the Catholic wafer. usages of pre-Christian Mexico. and might with literal fitness be so called whereas the Christ myth has on the face in the ritual of their cult The whole series of the later Fathers of it no such pretext. the mere round cake still was baked marked by a for the old cross. Beor. we may take it as highly probable that just as some Christian groups ate a baked image of a lamb. Clemens Alexandrinus. there was no reason why the mystic God should not be represented in the shape of a child. . . 4 Cp. after all." and that the Gospels 1 all dwell on the eating and drinking of the God's body and blood with a literalness that is unintelligible on the hypothesis of mere originating allegory. with a specified sacred food. arising often out of simple poverty. . others would carry the freedom of symbolism further and child. When nothing in human or animal form (often cult-offerings. : (Trans. Protrept. iii. but that was just special and peculiar sense Ceres and Liber stood for the because in a sources of bread and wine. It is true that for the ancients it was a common-place to call bread 2 "Ceres. reverently described and worshipped as "Jesus" or "God" in Anglican High Church ritual at the present time. Bastian. But there were abundant precedents. . anxiously explain that the Gospel phrase is figurative but no one ever explains why such a revolting figure should have been used. 34. . as cited. 479 sq. A baked image. Cicero. herein anticipating the make a dough image of a The lamb itself was the symbol of the God and the disuse of an actual lamb was doubtless motived by the then not uncommon Orphic 3 dislike to the eating of flesh. 26-28 Mark xiv. Nicene Lib. which finally took the doctrinal form of Transubstantiation.God. of the .THE MYTH OF old ST. wafer ." and wine "Liber" or "Dionysos". in Anteiii. Be Nat. as in the hot-cross-bun as in Christian use) stood for the God or Goddess Sun or Moon . CHEISTOPHEK 211 "the victim. And as it is now an admitted principle of comparative hierology that where there is a sacred banquet in connection with a worship. They had need deny the literal meaning. 22-24 Luke xxii. xxvi. would still be a symbol and when once the symbolism had gone so far. no evidence 1 for an early use . as of a . Prolegomena. 112-124. But there is which indeed was too 48-58. which laid them open to just such reproaches as they were wont to cast at the pagans but it is clear that in the shadow of the Church there always subsisted a concrete conception. 16. 19-20 John vi. ii.) Cp. that is eaten. 4 of old. Miss Harrison. 2 See Matt. 3 p.

) In any case. is the most probable explanation of the late — — 1 The usage was to eat round panicula after a sacrifice. in Vitell. as among the Christists. The great difficulties in the way of such a theory are (1) that. with the remark that the victims are said to have been crucified in the temples— another noteworthy clue to the Christian myth. Religion and Folklore of Northern India. 33) distinctly associates the eating of "raw flesh" with the mystery in which the rending of the child Dionysos by the Titans was commemorated. 30. trans." 3 2 It is not clear . and to eat his flesh was to secure the highest blessings of health. the habit of eating the sacrificed animal would psychologically involve the eating of the sacrificed man. This view has been confidently endorsed by M. Cp. that this refers to the Druids. ch.212 close to CHEIST AND KEISHNA 1 pagan sun-worship acceptable by a sect desirous competitors. 6. and even if the sacramental and theophagous usages which chronically revived 5 or obscurely persisted among the Jews he held to have died out among them at the beginning of the Christian era. 13. . Mythes. and Smith's Diet. 6 Clemens (as cited. art. Macrobius. since the priestly miracle of the Eucharist was one of the main grounds of — ecclesiastical influence and revenue. by offerings of images. etc. bk. et Religions. Cp. vi. As to the deification of the victim. when the Church could safely use their symbols and turn their usages to economic account economic in both senses of the term. Onomasticon. a baked image seems the probable solution. 336-340. while the animal sacrifice survived. . 2 Hist. pp. c. Pollux. even if primitive men sacrificed animals as members of the tribe. pp. ed. Canephoros. further. xxx. but came to be substituted for these at a time when the early way of regarding the animal as a member of the tribe had become psychologically obsolete. Nat. Saturnalia. iii. mentioned in the context in any case there are many reasons for holding that a sacrament of 4 theophagy was in pre-historic times widely practised. ii. see Smith. 1896. was borrowed from previous cults. . an example which they were as likely to follow as that of the Mithraic The survival of a symbolical resurrection-ritual and Lord's Supper. were in many cases avowedly superseded. 27. 1st ed. 4. § 5. the Christians seem to have had alongside of them. of Ant. pp. as cited. Alike then as to the Gospel myth and the charge of child-eating. Religion of the Semites. See the question of the pagan origin of the wafer discussed in Roma Antiqua et Recens.. is proved by a remarkable passage in Pliny as to the praise due to the Eoman people for " having put an end to those monstrous rites " in which " to murder a man was to do an act of the greatest devoutness. as we have already noted. in of the pagan period to be readilymarking itself off from its leading It was apparently adopted with other institutions of sun-worship after the Pagan cults were disestablished. iv. cannibalism the eating of the baked image of a child in the 6 Dionysian mysteries. and the wafer withal was extremely cheap. where animal sacrifices went on. Suetonius. like the others. Crooke. 1889. ed. in the cult of Dionysos. (Cp. 44-5. which is the point in hand. they had still a psychic reason for selecting the animals (2) that among known primitives human sacrifice has always been common and (3) that in most of the civilized cults of antiquity human sacrifice figured as a far-off thing. pp. where the Druidical sacrifices are specified. c. i. 167. 4 It has been ingeniously argued by Professor Robertson Smith (Religion of the Semites. And that this rite. i. while others substituted images. Reinach (Cultes. iv. and probably some groups continued to eat one of the God's symbol-animals. and Frazer's Golden Bough. 16. 5 Compare Robertson Smith. Human sacrifices.). 341-6) that human sacrifices did not ante-date those of animals. 3 But see Strabo. 7.

I have carried the Cernos [said by the scholiasts to be a fan=Ztfc?io?ij. again. trans.] 7 But cp. 534-6. George Cox (Mythol. note) observes that "no Greek derivation has been attached to this name. equally 5 and again of that of Agdistis. born of Gaia. Golden Bough. There is ( . 404. In the artistic treat- Miss Harrison points out. Be Errore. 4 . I have drunk out of the cymbal. which certainly cannot be explained by reference to any Greek word. 1st ed. 554 . which was bound up with Though the former tale was allegorically understood the Dionysiak. see Frazer. 29) :— " I have eaten out of the drum. of Erichthonios at Athens. 62. that would hardly account for its invention nor would the allegory put a stop to the ritual practice. 1 Preller. And the Servians have many mythic ideas in common with the Greeks. eating. the well have been a 7 On that view the carrying of basket. 6 Arnobius. ii. Mythology and Monuments of 1890. 9 Compare however. 19. Sir i. [The identification of Semele with the earth is now established by Miss Harrison. a resemblance between this and the Phrygian formula in the worship of Cybele. xxvi-xxxv. 1 of the spread of vine-culture. cited by the same author Id. i. Prolegomena. and further Orpheus. p. cited. For an explanation of the Phrygian ritual as that of a " sacred marriage" see Miss Harrison. 27. the Earth Mother. v.. Firmicus. as lid of the chest of wicker-work. We have seen that the Divine Child figured in the birthand as the images in the ritual of Dionysos as in that of Horos Erichthonios. THE MYTH OF myth of the ST. born of Demeter. pp. the image was simply a variant of the usage of carrying an actual child a practice always open to the objection that the child might ment of the myth is of Erichthonios. 8 As to the same idea in connection with the sacred victim among the Khonds. I put . History of Servia. or of Semele. the sinister process of primitive casuistry by which the Mexicans it in the basket. These figures would hardly be of marble. of Aryan Nations. and out of the basket into the chest" (Clemens. Ancient Athens. 1882. Griech." Cp. 5. the Earth.. 18. i. A connection between the child-carrying and the ritual of childof the Titans rending the child myth of the rending of ." But it has not been noted that in modern Servia to-day Semlje is actually the word for the Earth. See Ranke. 260. Diodorus Siculus. pp. p. the Eleusinian formula :— "1 have received from the box having done. Myth. . The whole may — at any moment take to crying. 42-43. 2 3 5 Pausanias. 32). is brought out in the peculiarly parallel case of the ritual of the arrephoroi or bearers of " nameless things " in the cult The explanation of the myth of the was not to be opened is probably that given 3 by Miss Harrison. Eng. borne by the Earth to the Earth 6 Jupiter. to the effect that the Kistae carried by the maidens contained figures of a child and a snake. I have slipped into the bedroom. p. 2 child in the chest that : is only a variant of that of Dionysos. other rituals would have a sacrosanct virtue. like the lihnon of Dionysos. Adv. the eating of them sacramentally would be a natural sequence. Gentes. iii. his crying would be apt to pass for a bad omen. Protrept. trans. 8 In ordinary animal if sacrifice it was considered fatal to the efficacy of the rite reluctance the victim showed any and even if the child were not to be sacrificed. which would be impossibly heavy they But the myth of are likely enough to have been of baked flour. ed. CHRISTOPHEB 213 Dionysos in pieces. 386-7. p. pp. Proleg. 10.

which might very well be symbolized in the ritual of the Babe-Sun-God. 559. p. 1 He also carries the boy to 2 heaven." infant Herakles. Apollodoros. 18. In Greek sculpture Hermes carries the babe Dionysos " carefully wrapped up " to his nurses. in one myth. the pre-Christian existence of a child-carrying as observed in the Egyptian and Mithraic cults. —the representations are endless. 3 Ion. Muller. Dionysos himself. 7 . in a mythmotive. iii. p. 486. 20). 31-40. 6 7 . pp. In Hindu pictures the babe Krishna is carried by Vasudeva in its swaddling clothes. Ancient Art. a river was a But here again the hypothesis is upset when we Weber so strangely ignored that of the mythology of Greece. could be grafted in the Dionysia. It being necessary to have a possible story of the child being carried somewhere. The carrying of a Divine Child by a Divine Person a very small child by a very big person is one of the commonest figures in Greek religious art. Pythia. figuring in a Birth-Ritual in swaddling clothes. 4 12 is difficult to in sacrificing their children." § 4. O. It may or may not have been derived from the Egyptian motive of Bes and the babeGod Horos. I.) 1 K. as Psychopompos. p. 558. " a still enigmatical repre. vi. p. turn to the light which Professor — — — At times he bears it on his shoulder. 95-97. enough invention. Compare the myth of Typhon carrying the disabled Zeus over the sea on his shoulders. 554. 11 and so How far the motive it may have been ritually associated with a passing over water abundant rain and harvest (Pagan Christs. 571. Similarly he carries the infant 4 Aristaeus. p. carries Hephaistos. iii. on Orion. 11 Id. Id. p. Introd. to heaven (Paus. the Sun-Child. 1597-1600. 3. p. sought to feel that the inevitable tears were the promise of " The Religions of Ancient America. ix. iv. too. 562. to Mythol. the idea of making the mythic Giant Christophoros separately carry the Christ-child across a river. Id.35). yet again. I. pp. and point to art or sculpture. 492-4 Apollodorus. In the drama of Euripides he carries the swaddled and 3 cradled child Ion to the temple. Yet again. 336-9. it might be supposed. 6 and here. 12 Dionysos. 5 Yet again. and in one myth passes as an adult over the sea (above. . c. i. fortuitously on the old ritual-motive. § 2. 5 Muller. and 0. drunk. 10 See K. bk. for we have Herakles represented carrying Zeus over the water. and given the adoption of this rite by Christism. Muller. 8 Muller. we know. — explicable only as derived from an astrological picture or a sculpture. And this recurs. Pindar. we have a marked parallel to the ritual motive of the rivercrossing in the Krishna tale. was lord of the whole element of moisture (Plutarch. from his mother to the nourishing Hours and he carries in turn the child Herakles. we have the myth of Orion carrying the boy Cedalion 10 a tale says Muller. Part iv. he carries Psyche over the Styx. On on vases. we have Peleus holding the child Achilles. In many Hindu ceremonies. however. sentation. App. Ancient Art. O. 9 Id. 2 Pausanias. carries his own 8 Telephos in his hand or arm and Telephos is a Divine 9 Child. 100)—a solar item. These three seem to correlate. or as practised rite..214 CHRIST AND KRISHNA Given.

arbitrary. the carrying of the child Krishna across the mythological river by Vasudeva is naturally embedded in the Krishna legend while in Christian mythology the story is patently alien. 3). finally a noteworthy coincidence the festival day of St. cc. many other points. it is difficult to take the suggestion seriously. Weber is found surmising Greek and so putting the great period of the Hindu theatre com- paratively late. in which Pagan myth and it and ritual were eked out with Christian fiction. for us are that in any case Hindu drama was highly developed at a period before the suggested importation of Christian The points legends . : . precisely at the time of year when. on the familiar presentment of Hermes or Herakles carrying a Divine Child. water . Apparently Pyrrhus was mythically handled very much as was Cyrus before him. the first day of the Egyptian year . . 2. . it may state of opinion as to the origin and history of Indian drama. the people of Clazomente had a grotto called the grotto of Pyrrhus' mother— presumably a Birth Cave— and a tradition about Pyrrhus as a shepherd (Pausanias. Pericles. Pyrrhus in the story is put on his father's throne by force at the age of twelve— a very mythical-looking narrative (Plutarch. again. and that. Christopher is placed in the Roman Catholic Calendar on the 25th day of July. Again. Christopher's date on other lines to destroy the possibility of the surmise that it was determined by the Hindu practice and in any case we must infer a non-Christian origin. and unmotived. And. same myth-motive in the story of the kingly child Pyrrhus of Achillean descent being carried across a river. On that as on so influence. save in so far as it rests on the ancient epithet Christophoros . It will need some satisfactory explanation of St. — — Clearly would be represented as carrying Krishna across the river. and the festival of (< the " Birthday of the Eyes of Horos " was held on that day or the day preceding. insists on the priority of dramatic be well to take passing note of the In an argument which so often ritual to written legend. at times over water on the figure of Bes Krishna. § 14.INDIAN AND CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA decide . It is needless here to go into that question fully. in the Hindu ritual. in the arms of a man named Achilles. 215 but when we are asked to believe that the Christophoros art legend. Vasudeva carrying Horos . so impressed the Hindus at an early period in our era that they transferred bodily to the worship of their God Once more. and on the inferrible usage of carrying a child or an image representing the new-born God in early Christian ritual. 1 This was also. Indian and Christian Religious Drama. which is as wide as possible of the Christian Nativity. when flying from pursuers. vii. 5). the Indian date cannot be borrowed from the Christian it depends on the Birth Festival. and almost certainly in the early Hindu drama. since in all early civilizations ritual and drama One suspects the is devotionally employed as being the product of the sun. as already noted.

p. We have seen the concrete proof of this in the admitted existence of an early religious drama in which figured the demonic Kansa as enemy of Krishna. emphatically opposed to him. Weber fails to raise the question of the origin of the Western usage which he supposed the Hindus to have copied. 4 Inasmuch as Weber's argumentation on Indian matters is in a manner interconnected. 1883). at first declined to admit that the religious character of the dancing had been established. p. 284. 28. 1905. Cross River Natives. 3 Partridge. barely glances 5 Berlin at our problem. in his Essai sur I 'origine et les sources du drame indien. Yet the Professor frames his theory of imitation. Essai stir I 'origine et les sources du drame indien Les Epoaties UtUraires de I 'Inde. As usual. on the other hand : 11 Whatever may be the merits that they or defects of the safely asserted are unmixedly its own. (History of Indian Literature. p. of whose early cult 2 the tragos (spelt) song is the basis of tragosdia. and that the deification of the Soma in the Vedas is analogous to that of Dionysos as God of Beer. p. is widely at variance with Wilson. 2 See the whole argument in Miss Harrison's Prolegomena. But in his Indische Studien (cited in his note to the History. and in the face of such compositions as the Book of Job and the Song of Solomon it is idle to suggest that the Greeks alone could evolve drama." says Weber. as before. 273.). it may be The science of the (in Cp. 211. pp. cites in "that even the rise of the Hindu drama was influenced by the performance of the drama at the courts of Greek kings. Yet. And even if Greek influences did affect Hindu dramatic practice after the invasion of Alexander. latterly the God of wine. the fact would remain that India had these ritual elements from pre-Christian sources. 4 Though he of course discusses the origin of Indian drama in his History of Indian Literature. nothing can be more pertinent than to ask whether a religious drama did not similarly arise in Asia. as to the Hindu case in particular. without even facing the fundamental issue in this connection. is here very " It is not improbable. 261. lecture cited. 198) he modifies his opinion. pp. Neve. it may be pointed out that his opinion on the dramatic question that of other distinguished Indianists. 413-421— a triumph of 1 Weber vigilant scholarship. 25= Indische Skizzen. as there has been since. the Catholic Professor Neve. seeing that Greek drama originates in the cult of Dionysos. and his theory of dramatic imitation tends to prop up his theory of religious imitation." 5 Says Wilson. there must have been an abundance of sacred drama in India before the Christian era. Hindu drama. pp. Religious "plays" are even now invented among 3 aborigines in Africa. . noting that the Hindu name for drama points to its origin in dancing. whom Weber more than once self-support on other questions.— 216 CHRIST AND KRISHNA 1 were closely related because originally one. even to the extent of bringing Western mystery-ritual into the Indian (a sufficiently unlikely thing). 196 sq.

Neve. A perusal of the Hindu plays will show how little likely it is that they are indebted to either. Indische Alter thumsTcunde. ii. 217 Hindus may be indebted to modern discoveries in other regions. " The Toy Cart. Original Sanskrit Texts." . of Ind.e. can have been obliged alone to the Greeks or to the Chinese. 4 " that the dramatic art in India is a growth and he insists again wholly native to the soil. as.. ii. p. if they learned the art from others. tr." he points 3 out. Eegnaud. Cp. Neve. Eng. Anyone who reads Wilson's version of the Mrichchakati. the Chinese Lacnt-Seng-Urh. 1817. Alt. Cp. Lit. i. the Brief View of the Chinese Drama prefixed. and as Regnaud concludes. p. 4 Ind. Nor is Lassen less emphatic. N.INDIAN AND CHKISTIAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA . though not a higher pitch of achievement." in Asiatic Besearches. p. 289. 2 them with the will classic drama and. 1876. of the Mrichchakati. See Muir. ou6 of the the Theatre of the Hindus. have much hesitation in acceding to Wilson's opinion. 50. Lit. 11. 185. Lassen {Ind. which strongly evidence both original design and national development. he adds. S. pref. " a visit of play-actors is spoken of as something customary ". and by Prof. 258 and the Asiatic Journal. in the former passage. See Korosi's analysis of the Tibetan " Dulva. The antiquity of much of the "Dulva" is disputed by Weber. note 210. 130. 199. Weber suggests. 5 Trans. " must certainly be put before the time of the second Asoka how much earlier it is naturally impossible to say. as in Greece. London.E. the testimony cited by Lassen.C. hence Kalidasa may well belong. xi. Regnaud between 250 and 620. Alt. it is a reasonable conjecture that the literary representations arose in India. p. 8 apparently following a custom of older date than the Ramayana drama at poem itself. ii. they present characteristic varieties of conduct and construction.. " In the oldest Buddhist writings. as cited. pp. trans. as cited. 200-207. And seeing that the common people in modern times still played the history of Rama on his festival day. p. Eng. and could only have been possible after a very long process of artistic development as 7 . without foreign influence in general or Greek in particular. But cp. xii. That drama really represents in some respects a further evolution. . Hist. 1157. of Ind. to a later period than is commonly supposed. 502. 148) in the second century." The origination of Indian drama. ii." 1 Probably no one who reads Wilson's translations and compares say. and their mythology may have derived legends from Paganism or Christianity but it is impossible that they should have borrowed their dramatic compositions from other people either of ancient or modern times The Hindus. 8 See the Asiatic Besearches. ii. 6 Cp. with the exception of a few features in common which could not fail to occur. pref." dated by him between a century B. iv. 287. 198. than the drama of Greece. 1160) dates the play about the end of the first century c. 1 2 3 . will I think be " origination " must be carried a very long way convinced that the 6 back. But this still leaves the beginnings of Indian drama very far off. 12. Hist. and the second century 5 C. 7 Weber. as cited. pp. Weber (Indische Studien. xx.

which. admits (Hist. to mothers. Jessop in the Expositor.218 religious festivals." and "I. 65. it is CHRIST AND KRISHNA much has certainly small trace of the Greek spirit more akin to the romantic drama of modern Europe. 7th ed. 7. Cp. It is one of the commonest characterizations of the Sun-God in all mythologies. including Paul." 3 Theatre of the Hindus. to repeat. of the Christian thesis that the . the refutation name Vasudeva was based on that of and Wilson's note indicates sufficiently his conviction of the antiquity of Krishnaism. Mtiller (Hist. with no allusion to any theatrical Nor can I find any explanation of the phrases " I. Senart points out. n. The representation as thus described followed the apocryphal Gospels in placing the birth in a cave. and children to " come and see " the Virgin and the swaddled child in the cradle 6 . . is without hesitation taken by him to apply to the same deity. . Series Grceca." and strictly means " the player " or " she-player.. 6 Serm. p. Joseph The question thus given to Suffice it as to the practice of dramatic ritual among the early Christians. note) that "the Indian even if aboriginal. p. 2 and Senart joueuse. there is probably no connection with the theatre in the meaning of the name Devaki. Col. 207) that "no internal connection with the Greek drama exists." occurring in The Toy Cart. In Act v of the same play (p. 323. a 'singer of heaven. Pagan and Christian festivals with only a moral differentiation the repeated exhortations. his long account (Sermon vi) of the dialogue between Joseph 1 The remark of Donaldson (Theatre of the Greeks. 1889." but offers no arguments. 711. 145. Proclus (Bishop of Constantinople. 713. ch. fathers. it appears. and presumably follows some earlier Indianist. p. a Vasudeva. 2. 5 Migne. here to say that already orthodox scholarship is proceeding to trace liturgies passages in the apostolic Epistles to surmised ancient and that such a passage as opens the third Sermon of 5 St." K. that in the Mahabharata the father of Devaki is a Gandharva—i. 4 See the article of Dr. has only loosely and indirectly the significance of " the Divine Lady.e. Weber. 318. a significance." Weber translates it : Spielerinn. however. Col.. 26. torn. may have derived its most characteristic features from the Greek. 3 save Wilson's note on the former passage that Vasudeva = Krishna. 316. Ueber dieK. am a person mortal Vastideva. constantly associated with Krishna. Patrologice Cursus Completus. June. These passages do not seem to have been considered in the discussions on Krishnaism." 2 Weber." is professedly based on the proposition that "there is every reason to believe "that Krishna "was an imported deity. if that be necessary. 432-446). p. Greece. It :* For the rest. O. in his fourth Sermon. of Anc. 90) the epithet Kesava ("long-locked. stage. They serve." crinitus). comparing the . pp. But instead of the "ox and ass" of the normal show (which would then be too notoriously Pagan) there are mentioned the "ass and foal" of the entrance into Jerusalem. however. i. who of celestial nature. needs a fuller investigation than can be it in a mere comparison of Christism and Krishnaism. There appears to have been a whole crowd of New Testament figures. Senart. 28. " The dramatic poetry § 2) asserts incidentally that of the Indians belongs to a time when there had been much intercourse between Greece and India. iv. xxi. of the Lit. while leaning to the view of Greek origins. a man of rank. of course.

l. An attempt to sketch this is made in Pagan Christs. etc. and is the original Mystery2 play". ii. the German historian of the . iv. that the old play on the " Suffering Christ " is to be attributed to Gregory of Nazianzun and Klein. 4. iv (=Gesch. Dram. History of Latin Christianity. 219 and in general all his allusions to festivals clearly to a close Christian imitation of and mysteries. independently advanced by Renan. bk. of the rise of the Mystery-plays." is clearly erroneous. is so far decisive. during which 5 are simulated {on mime) or figured in the church the adoration of the Magi. Bohn trans. the death of the Saviour. Puer Parvulus in Contem" there was no actual cult of the infant Saviour 1900. p. As we have seen. 11. Jubinal and by 7 Dr. 2 Qeschichte des Dramas. Such defect of proof would be suspicious were it not and. Jubinal.. Part ii. ch. 4 Etudes d'Histoire religieuse. 2. iv. i). p. 2. 1840. who quotes as his authority merely the words of M. January. 51. viii.. and 4 Klein has further traced. though the explicit evidences to the contrary are not abundant. though that for the above-cited evidence from Saint Proclus . p. 1 10 and (3) the later establishment of such porary Review. ed. 7 As . INDIAN AND CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA and Mary point practices. . (2) the reduction of some or one of these to pseudo-history and their probable cessation {e. 320. . 2. is repeated by Klein. till The remark of the Countess Martinengo Cesaresco (art. 1837. perhaps fancifully at some points. cited. there little is Milman has made evident need for a complete research. decides that the sacrament of the Mass or the Communion " in is itself already a religious drama. bk. in a sketch sums up that "the fifth century cortege of religious festivals. merely cites these two writers. which was essentially a religious service. an interesting series of analogies between the early Christian liturgy and the Greek tragedy." 6 This statement. 117). who. carrying the statement further. 9 10 History of Christianity. the narratives in the Apocryphal and other Gospels derive from the ancient cult. _ 6 8 As cited. Ulrici. he rejects the view that they represented the deaths of the martyrs.g. ch. xiv. . . again. but says nothing as to the early mystery-plays. i. presents itself with its M. merely denying that plays such as that 8 and in his later work by Gregory were written for representation he discusses the Mysteries of the Middle Ages without attempting to trace their origin. pref. 1 . . the marriage of Cana. drama. 326. 4. a view accepted and echoed by the orthodox Ulrici. des Ital. p. 5 Mysteres IneditsduXVieme Siecle. that the thirteenth century. pantomimic spectacles at the martyr-festivals. Admitting that there were or none. 9 A complete theory would have to deal with (l) the original mystery-plays which preceded and provided the gospel narrative. Pagan dramatic It is further a matter not of conjecture. but of history. Paris. 3 Shakespeare's Dramatic Art. in the case of the Last Supper) as complete dramatic representations. made without citations.

History of Borne. tr. p. 295 Lord. universal feasting and merry-making. one of the commonplaces after of Protestant of church it historians that the State establishment Christianity borrowed many observances from Paganism. pt. 2 . The Christians certainly had the practice of celebrating some birthday of Christ long before the fourth century and we have seen some of the reasons for concluding that on that occasion they had a mystery. for detailed statements. Further. p. 1836. 1873. 2 What the student has to keep in view is that these usages. 32. which. 37. Here. of the Church. p. ii. Adonis. a Spondano. Mosheim. 4. § 3 4 Cent. See. C. Esq. 212-4. we can posit only the fact that such exhibitions did occur. 1 Wiseman's Letters to John Poynder.220 exhibitions as all CHKIST AND KRISHNA that of the Nativity. Gieseler. rep." cannot have been suddenly grafted on a religious system wholly devoid of them. for instance. indeed. especially such a one as that of " puppet shows and dramas. established when Paganism was still in full play. 1686. 1846. pt. ii. of Ec. Pacjano-Papismus. p. 256. 1 2 . 4. too. pt. p. The Old Boman World." 1 It is. It is noteworthy. et passim. 262. But the most convincing proof of the permeation of the early Church by the paganism of the mass of the people is supplied by the wholesale survival of pagan beliefs in Christian Greece. and p. 1675. Seymore's Evenings ivith the Bomanists. 558. 5. the Western nations seem to have transferred to it many of the follies and censurable practices which prevailed in the pagan festivals of the same season. 1910. mingling puppet shows and dramas with worship.. 4. of Mosheim.. ch. ch. § 2. . however. 1846. 1877. p. Lechler's Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times. . and note that such a conclusion is supported by orthodox clerical statement. Boma Antiq. etc. The dramatic character of the early Mysteries. were almost as inviolably secret as those of the Pagans. pierces Note on trans. visits and salutations. Eccles.ua et Becens. that the subjects first specified as appearing in Christian shows or plays were such as those which we ritual. 3. 1729. rep. and in the Egyptian system. 1844. It is hardly possible to doubt that these representations derive from the very earliest practices of the Christian . 1844. Hist. Eng. as we have seen. 1. etc. such as adorning the churches fantastically. 61. i and ii. i. Murdock. 51. As to this see J. § 5. ch. § 1. 3 Cent. 306. De Frazer. 1665. 24-26.. Cp. Waddington. 4 Cent. pt. Attis. know sect. ch. and Middleton's Letter from Borne. Osiris. to have figured in the cults of Mithra and Dionysos. Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Beligion. c. vi. revelry and drunkenness. 1889. Compend. Inventoribus Berum. . 79 Polydore Vergil. 5 Cent. observes that " From the first institution of this festival. Maitland's Church in the Catacombs. it was exactly such subjects that were represented in the earliest medieval Mysteries of which copies remain and it was especially at Christmas and Easter that these were performed. etc.. Hist. chs. in the teeth of the ascetic forms of pleasurable art. ii. Epitome Annalium. Dr. Lawson. discussing the Christian adoption of the Christmas objection to festival. . See finally some very explicit Catholic admissions by Baronius. Lugduni. Hist. Merivale's Four Lectures on some Epochs of Early Church History. 1906. pp. ii. 221. ch. For later views see Dyer.

§ 1. Hist. expresses it. This festival rite." 2 and illiterate way. as used in the liturgy. is the origin of the fable. of the Lit. 'a mystical drama." 4 processions even the God himself was . an ancient writer [Clem. 10. pp. pp. was betrothed to Dionysus in a secret solemnity. we find that they all permitted a variety of expression for every It appears to me that the practice of the western and fourth centuries. 33. there was also a maiden (representing one of the nymphs in the train of Dionysus). For it does not seem that the composition of new missae for the festivals excited any particular feast Churches during the ' fifth ' ' ' surprise in these ages. Dionysus on an occasion of this kind Plutarch. xxi. Gallican. carrying a hatchet. 196).— — 221 INDIAN AND CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA clerical eyes through the cautious writings of the Fathers. do what the Greeks had long done in their dramatic mysteries. 9. in permitting the use of various missae in the same church. the first Christians. 12. 287-8. . Cp. 3 K. if any. That tried is to say. p. who bore the title of Queen. § 2-5 xxvii. Muller. of the pursuit of Dionysus and his nurses by the furious Lycurgus. which he considers as still chiefly efficacious in the consecration of the eucharist. and by the singing of hymns. kd. Dionysus was supposed to have disappeared. Ptolemy Philadelphus in Athen. Palmer. O. 1847). ii. which occurs in Homer. which must have conformed in some degree to the creative tendency fulfilled on such a splendid scale in their public drama. illustrated by a There were significant sentences. 3. . sacrifice " Chrysostom He Hl often speaks of the eucharist under the title of an unbloody Other admissions are no less significant : "There can be little. xxi.] At the Boeotian festival of the Agrionia. Mosheim. thus. i. by priests though probably only with mimic action. § 3. of Anc. who was pursued by a priest. doubt that Christian liturgies were not at "When first committed to writing. as remarked by Fustel de Coulanges in La Cite Antique (8ieme. or was viewed as anything novel in principle. Compare the description of the great Bacchic procession under Nic. and in public slave of Nicias represented [A beautiful represented by a man. Potter] as Protrept. but preserved by memory and practice. It is true that. 4 Cent. and personating a being hostile to the God. 1 2 Id. as last cited. ch. Italian. at similar mimic representations in the worship of Bacchus history of : the Anthesteria at Athens. pt. the words and rhythms of the hymns in the ancient domestic and civic rites were preserved unaltered but this would not apply to the later syncretic mysteries. as read even by : most probably refers to the commemoration of our Saviour's deeds and words at the Last Supper. like a play. and Spanish liturgies.' in which the and few also priestesses. in their simple to " The Eleusinian mysteries were. which is frequently mentioned by Plutarch. when he attributes such great importance to the words of institution of our Lord. affords room for thinking that something of the same kind had existed from a remote period." we examine the remains of the Roman. Alex. p. Origines Liturgicce. 4 Muller. and to be sought for among the mountains. Greece. § 3 (Lewis' trans. 4. v. ch. Demeter and Cora was acted. the wife of the second archon. . 3 itself a development of religious ritual.

When. p. the theatres disappeared after the sixth century. resorted to religious drama as aforesaid . and even in an — 1 artistic spirit. The Medieval Stage. xxxiv . one of their natural expedients. Towards the end of the tenth 1 Mosheim (1 Cent. Hastings. The Theatre : Its Development. 4 Id. 95. History of English Poetry. 10. and typically the most ancient things in religion. p. 23 sq. Ulrici. 5 Id. we must remember that in all probability the ancient all race of travelling Pagan mummers survived obscurely through the Dark Ages. But while the central ritual was immemorial. Eng. 3 Chambers. 2 From the first the Church had opposed the secular theatre. 4. . however. the wandering mummers were probably constrained to some measure and a handling of popular religious themes would be of propriety . but by certain persons during the celebra- tion of the sacred supper 2 and the feasts of charity. i. K. as did so much genuine Paganism. p.. ch. 7 u. And this frequent or customary change. their mysteries and their festivals. it had economic distress. 233-4. it may be taken for granted that the secret drama and hymns were innovated upon from time to time. theatre on holy days drew the people away from the church and 4 . certain that the populace of Christian Constantinople in the days of Justinian was as gross as the Pagan world had ever been. ii. as cited." Cp. . i. p. by the first Christians. 6. the actors even dared to travesty the tales told of the saints and martyrs. and was a time when the theatre was declining on all hands through 6 While the ancient theatre subsisted. to which so many Western eyes were then turned. E. proceeding from spontaneous devotional or artistic feeling. Chambers. as cited.222 CHRIST AND KRISHNA The last proposition is one more application of the principle which has been so often followed in the present essay that ritual usages are the fountains of myth. Warton. Symonds. Vernon Lee. 19. 7 traded freely on the erotic elements of the old mythology and it is . sect. Shake spectre's Pre- decessors. ritual. C. Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy. pt. p. from the medley of religious systems around them. 1901. can we possibly be entitled to say that they did not take something from the ancient drama and ritual of India. 1903. etc. p. And only when we know details of the process Finally. tr. i. 10. 95. 8 sq. 15. reverting to her own this initial practice. pp. 5 It sion that the was only Church after many attempts at ecclesiastical repres- in the fifth century. till the religious principle and the church system of centralization petrified everything into fixed better than we do at present the by which they built up alike their liturgy and their legends. would seem to have been attempted in some degree. § 6) decides that even in the first century the liturgical hymns "were sung not by the whole assembly. p. adding a Hebraic hostility to that which had always been felt by serious men in Rome. 6 !d. where 3 The the actor had all along been treated as outside citizenship.

ch. 329. — Church combining music with drama on more religious by way of queries and responses which take us straight back to two of the oldest folk-plays of antiquity the play of the child laid in the manger. is fixed the Catholic commemoration day Septem Fratres Martyres. And still the list mounts. fabled to have been up in a cave in which they had hid themselves " in the year 250. i. fixed for August 1. and which. pp. in the " Tropes " which lead 3 way to find the the Miracle-plays and mystery-plays of the Eenaissance. in the carries the Hindu legend. end. would prefer to put it —in 479. in An examination of two other minor myth-motives of Christianity connection with Krishnaism will perhaps be found not uninstructive. c. and to have waked up or to have been martyrology itself. Hastings. these Seven Brother Martyrs are mythic they are duplicated again and again in that 1. 2 which are a foretaste of the medieval Feast of Fools. accordingly.THE SEVEN MYTH century. 18. 223 we find the 1 Eastern Church once more com- peting with them in quasi-religious romps. is Vasudeva new-born Krishna across a of the river. We have seen that the Catholic Church placed St. Here we are at once up to the eyes in universal mythology. Christopher's day at the time when. as to which there were even more guesses in the early than in the later Christian 3 .27 we are always in or just out of July is the holy day of the Septem Dormientes. See their story in Gibbon. But on the 18th day of the same month we have the martyred Saint Symphorosa and her seven martyred sons. 98 Chambers. as cited. indeed. 33. This date should have been the end of the world. By that time the Church no longer knew that primitive collectively. 328. we find included in the same martyrology the pre-Christian case of 4 the seven Maccabee brothers and their mother. 5 . That on July not the only 10. and that of the Sacrificed-God resurrected from the rock-sepulchre. whose But yet earlier still date is put under Hadrian. ii. it is we — — § 15. 4 2 Maccabees. On : specially so-called Septem martyr mother Felicitas. lines. On July . Hastings. the And when. — — — ' — discovered. in the persecution of Decius. and who are sons of a whose martyrdom is placed in the reign of Antoninus Pius a safe way off. a little earlier still. 5 2 Chambers. detail of the kind. i. like that. her children had never realized drama was the very womb and genesis of the whole faith. vii. point straight back to Pagan practice. 96-7 Chambers. the seven martyred brothers. p. our old walled friends the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. Just a fortnight before. Thus we have the Fratres Martyres. The Seven Myth. the very face of the Christian martyrology. as the scrupulous Butler 1 .

ladies of about seventy years. 1 who adored the crucifix seven times a day. whose holy day is somewhat belated. and when it set passed them on the left. or was. the leaders. another axes near two others . in which clubs lie beside two of them a knotty club near and a torch near the seventh. who is old. 1812. a sufficiently obvious of the Christian legend. In the Musaeum Victorium of Rome is. with their eyes open. still youths. — times. so as to help to cover the martyrological ground. who and the seven of Samosata (whose actual date of martyrdom was June 25) also divide off from the July group in respect that two of them. is flogged with loaded whips like the eldest son of Felicitas and." Rodwell's trans. two with clubs. 1st ed. vii. That the Seven Sleepers are of the same myth stock is clear. p. Now the general feature of the other martyrdoms 2 is the variety of Of the first seven. end 1 of the world. . In one version in others the time is under 200 years. are old. " The Cave." the tortures imposed. and are frequently called boys. Samosata. ed. in the plaster group they are beardless. whose mothers were martyred before or after them." and the sun when it arose passed on the right of their cave. December 9 and the seven Virgin Martyrs of Ancyra. . in their final Rip Van Winkle aspect. The seven Maccabees are not so much particularized but of the seven of Samosata. If the chronology of Julius Africanus were accepted. and that the remaining five in the story are represented as joining these two. 359-60. Again. one thrown over a precipice. under the dates given. and " in ancient martyrologies and other writings they 3 In the Koran. though the Sleepers are commonly conceived. 212. again. . they are finally despatched in three different ways. naturally. and three beheaded and of the sons of Symphorosa each one dies a distinct death.. they sleep. they themselves suffering between July 10 and August 1. but in the Armenian Church on June 20. We are left with four sets of Seven Martyrs. For these legends see Butler's or any other Lives of the Saints. . three of them sets of brothers. Sura 18. — a longer period than that sleep of only bad times. one is flogged to death with loaded whips.000 years.224 CHEIST AND KRISHNA Nor There are further the Seven Martyrs of is even this all. 2 3 4 Butler. . for them a . though all are crucified. and who in the Roman Catholic Calendar are commemorated on May 18. ably youths or boys . a plaster group of them. . all have a different mythic origin from in the four first cases are invari- the seven brothers or sleepers. Doubtless the Seven Virgins. etc. the first. 469 would be the year of the on Tertullian's (Magian) view that it was to last 6. . still " testifying" in 309 years gives which 4 and they are guarded some 227 years by a dog while the Deity " turned them to the right and to the left. who are placed under Diocletian. .

which is evidently an addition. of course. 1 2 it. as the reader need hardly be reminded. Q . 3 " An infinite number of beauties may be extracted from a careful contemplation of Philo Judceus. etc. it beyond an uncalculating sugges" It is tion that xxi. Vedic." So we are to suppose that the Catacomb artist painted the seven fisher disciples. as later to the institution of the seven Christian deacons. Bonn trans. again. i." Seven. 225 And the mythic dog. about 600 B. Now. Isis and Osiris. The picture could not have been painted for the story but the story might very well be framed to suit the rite. There was. rulers of the Roman sacrificial feasts. Boma Sotteranea. the seven pious priests. many other cases. Plutarch. vol. and his believe. Banquet of the Seven Wise Men. these exegetes. Eig Veda in connection with the worship of Agni. of the breed of the dogs who. Wilson's trans. Plate xvii. on the shore of the lake." 4 Robertson Smith. . 3 that constantly figures in Jewish. Mohammedans go with the Seven to heaven. represents the meeting of Jesus with seven disciples 1-13) after his resurrection. And here at least Mithraism had handed on to Christianity . " that He an institution of ancient India. iii. ii. Cp. is a ' sacred number" lore . 120. in certain old Semitic mysteries. a fresco representing a banquet authorities who 4 are labelled as the Septem Pii Sacerdotes. as cited. was one more fiction to explain a ritual usage. 101.C. 115. is and other ancient and there reason to surmise here. not stated. is to connection with the Sleepers doubtless hinges on the ancient belief that he " has the use of his sight both by night and by day. i. 5 G Big Veda Sanhita." argue Himself sat down and partook of the meal 5 with them. p. iii. He is. 156. however. stating that is common. the rite is probably a widespread one for in the Dionysiak myth the Child-God is torn by the Titans into seven pieces and in the . which existed before the painting. whose figure is left to the imagination. is plain that the picture is either Mithraic pure and simple or an exact Christian imitation of a Mithraic ceremony and indeed it is very likely that the story in the fourth Gospel. c. without a word (John of misgiving or explanation. Diodorus Siculus. 67-8.87. as in so is a Christian connection with Mithraism. Plutarch. 273. Beligion of the Semites. and pp. " were solemnly declared to be the brothers of the mystae ". Appendix B. 44. Among the admittedly Mithraic remains in the Catacombs of seven persons. 265. in place of the original three. the very Catholic it who admit the Mithraic character of the picture have put forward an exactly similar one as being Christian. ii. for the seven priests figure repeatedly 6 But. p. the founding of which was attributed to Periander. . vol. It may have been Mithraic example that led to the creation of seven epulones. 355. a traditional ceremonial banquet of Seven Wise Men at Corinth. in the presence of It their Lord and Master. banqueting at an elaborately laid table. ii. sitting on a couch. The Septemviri Eimlones appear often in inscriptions.THE SEVEN MYTH indication of the solar division of the year.

July 15 Now. undergo their deaths with unparalleled fortitude. 5 as St. p. 225. vii. reproduced in Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens." . Mallet's ' Intr. being captured in Norway. whereas the names of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus Maximian. : We The seven stars" [in Sanskrit. trace such a myth minutely to all its 2 and there is a risk of oversight in bracketing it with all the Sevens of general mythology. Vitalis. So. and Martialis. became the abode of the Seven Poets or sages. that on p. 283. are to rise again. lib. 488-494. 1890. " seven " seasons. that being the doctrinal lesson in the story of the Maccabees as well as in those of the Christian Martyrs. of Denmark. first rikshas. " the ward of the middle-root of the world-tree". Dionysius. and Symphorosa^ propitious. Swithin's day. the seven economic months " of Northern lore and in Germany and Sweden the day of the Seven Sleepers is a popular test-day of the weather. Sylvanus. and the Seven while tending sheep. who enter the ark with Menu (Minos) and reappear as the Seven Wise Men of Hellas. Martinian. The Rev." the seven changes of the weather. profitAnd the source of the legend is put beyond all doubt when able. the Seven Children of Ehodos and Helios (Pind. " sages] " . of course. . the very first stantine name of the Septem Fratres Marty res is Januarius. having been trained to despise death and all suffering. 26. Conhave no connection with a weather-myth. Verrall. shiners. however. to Hist. 2 The myth gets into Danish history in the story of the seven young Danes of Jomsburg. Serapion.— 226 there is — CHRIST AND KRISHNA reason to surmise that a Banquet of Seven gave rise to 1 that story. p. to Fergusson. who. fell Champions of Christendom. by Miss Harrison and Mrs. Sir sets of George Cox. Sir George Cox traces these generally to the seven stars of Ursa Major parallels. . Teutonic Mythology. we are always in July is for us." 3 " Epimenides asleep one day in a cave. The Irish before the Conquest] and in the Seven Champions of Christendom and thus the idea 4 of the Seven Sleepers was at once suggested. bears later rishis. and they awake They are in fact the at the blast of the trumpet of Ragnarok. too. In the Northern Sagas the Seven Sleepers are the sons of Mimer. Cp. 01. and did not awake until more than fifty years had passed away. 132). have the names alike of Felicitas. they are "put to sleep" in "bad times" after their father's death. 278. useful. 4 Id. Fertility. pp. p. But Epimenides was one of the Seven Sages. 5 Rydberg. — — — 1 See the bas-relief from the Dionysiak theatre. who reappear in the Seven Manes of Leinster [ref. Each "testifies" separately. does not connect these groups with the Seven Martyrs whereas Christian and Teutonic mythology In every case the point is that the Seven alike entitle us to do so. John. and the list includes the names of Felix. 4. Malchus. all of which have a seasonal suggestion. . 3 Mythology of the Aryan Nations. cannot here.

the more definite notion of the quatuor anni tempora . Dei. whom the persecutor drowns in a lake. the ancients had two respect of the symbols they bear. As his authority he quotes a certain Syrian. 530. 23. whose holy day. the myth is originally Teutonic though he notes that " Gregorius says that he is the first who recorded in the Latin language" the miracle of the Seven Sleepers. conceptions on the subject one of three Horse. but that the seven Pleiades of Greek mythology were rain-givers. In the view of Dr. Hymn. 3 the other. she bearing symbols. ' — not only that. And the Christian myth-maker in his turn has simply combined them anew. in Cererem. . are mere developments of those in the glyph of Felicitas and her children and the whips in particular are — . Eoman Goddess and . but the flails of the harvest time. O. that of the seven boy and of . 1 Felicitas Tiberius. 1761. 3 815-16. the sleeping Endymion was located in a cave in Latmos near Ephesus. just as he says the northern Seven Sleepers did. It is doubtless this idea that occurs in the legend of the Seven Virgins of Ancyra. Eydberg. "not before known to the Church of Western Europe. Suetonius. that the myth could always keep the same cast and it may be that it is at bottom the same as . 2 See the reproduction by Spanheini. 18. iv. which are the motives of the various forms of martyrdom. c. but they bearing none while on the other are four boys. Eydberg himself candidly notes. Ancient Art. in Callimachi ii. K. p. of course. There was also need of a man from the Orient as an authority when a hitherto unknown miracle was to be presented a miracle that had transpired (sic trans. adding the four to the three and making seven sons of Felicitas. Thus can myths be made. On one side she herself is represented with three children. girl victims of the Minotaur in the legend Theseus but there is certainly a close kinship between the Teutonic and Christian forms under notice. Ernesti. who distinctly stand for the seasons in 2 Now. ed. and May 18. as Dr. It is not to be supposed. 5. accounting for the Temporum as he thought fit. Obs.) in a cave near Ephesus.' who had interpreted the story for him. who were " not seasons. was separately Augustine. is set just about the time the Pleiades deified. properly speaking. Be Civ." It might be answered to this ." and who were often represented without attributes. Muller. and the medal under notice simply presents both fancies.THE SEVEN MYTH we find that 227 inscription 1 Temporum Felicitas is actually the on her ancient coins or medals representing that children the seasons. The symbols in the Museum at Eome. for the winter was never a Hora. and presided over navigation.

ii. the Graeco. "seven bonds of heaven and earth" which in the ancient Babylonian system were developed from the seven 3 But Gregory's derivation planets and their representative spirits. in the form of Martanda. 105. Ante-Nicene Lib. See Wilson's Rig Veda Sanhita. Cp.Syrians had their doctrine of the 2 seven zones or climates into which the earth was divided. vol. the sun. pp. who follows the Bhagavat Purana. 82. . 283. Cp. where also are located the Septem Fratres Martyres. Lenormant. removes Krishna. besides. b. Chaldean Magic. while commonly he is the eighth. 168." by the fact that in the . It is hardly possible to doubt that there has been a manipulation of an and the suspicion is strengthened by the confused earlier myth-form fashion in which it is told that after the birth of the divine child the parents' eyes were closed by Vishnu. " In the Veda. 153. 102. of the Christian myth from the East. 173. Devakf's eight children are said to have been seven sons and a daughter but only the six sons are said to have been killed by Kansa while in the Bhagavat Purana her seventh child is Bala Rama. tr. just as the northerns had their seven seasons the zones being doubtless rise. of whom he would appear in some versions 4 to have been the seventh. and. Id. Cox.— 228 1 CHRIST AND KRISHNA Furthermore. 199. so that " they again thought that a child was born unto them" a needless and unintelligible 5 detail. 6 Barth. who made Krishna the seventh son. as to the numerical place of the God in the list of his mother's children. tr.. Religions of India. the seventh is month. 5 It is made partly intelligible in the Prem Sagar (" Ocean of Love"). . Eng. and an evident confusion. Hibbert Lectures. Now. . is the scene of a local water-worship in connection with Pagan Goddesses. — . But further surmises are suggested Krishna legends there is a variation. 2 Bardesan. but cites Balde. other mythologies as in the Hindu the number of the supernatural 1 The lake itself. p. . 2. p. a Hindu version at second hand of the tenth book of the Bhagavat Purana. The idea there is that the parents are made to forget the preliminary revelation of the divinity. her seventh pregnancy is given out as ending in miscarriage. p. and it impossible to avoid the surmise that they have a connection with the month's ordinal number. Barth's account with that of Mam-ice (History of Hindostan. 110. pp. Fragments. brings us back to our bearings as regards correlative with the the present inquiry. he being "transferred" to the womb of Rohini. See Smith's BeKgion of the Semites. who is at times 6 In represented as an incarnation of Aditi. is a remarkable coincidence . 368. vi. 4 Compare M. the Semites attached a special sanctity to groups of Seven Wells and the Arabic name given to (presumably) one such group signifies the Pleiades. 107. p. There were seven bad spirits as well as seven good the number was obligatory. is the eighth son born of Aditi and his mother casts him off. 3 Sayce. «. Aditi " bore Martanda for the birth and death of human beings. in the Christian legend." . xxii. or just after July. 25. just as Devaki. p. The occurrence of all these dates of " sevens " in July. 330). is certainly pre-Krishnaite. The myth. 165. Eng.

as cited. Gen. And as there appears to have been a legend of seven slain sons of Devaki. 169. In this light. that in of the twelve shown us how the into martyrs. in his translation (Krishna et sa Doctrine. where the epithet is e(38o/j. 61. p. 800. six sons and a daughter. who are clearly akin to 4 the " Adityas " of the Vedas. cited in Id. there may have been an association of a myth of the seasons with that of the Life-God. •version of the tenth effect. 4 Tiele. Cp. Scholiasts on iEsch. Plutarch. 172. of one 2 The solution is dubious. rose in his solar character to virtual supremacy and it is noteworthy that throughout the Avesta the heavenly bodies always appear in the order Planets. viii. and 5 Sun. the chief of the seven Amshaspands certainly the basis of the familiar Spirits " or planetary spirits of the Persian system. On the other hand. Prcep. 3 It is possible that a myth of the birth of seven inferior or ill-fated children. : seems not unlikely. 1852) of Lalatch's Hindi book of the Bhagavat Purana.ayeT7)s. 2 3 Apollo. Symposium." though the text is not explicit to that Barth. as happens in so many Biblical cases Cory's Sanchoniatbon in Eusebius. but again the divine Eshmun (Asklepios) was the eighth son of Sydyk. 20-24. . £f38o/jLayei>7]s. Frazer's view of the primitive universality of the worship of a God of Vegetation. p." The Christian legends have sleepers (always young) could be transformed It is a curious coincidence. Ancient Fragments. Moon. again. the conception of stars and moon as ghosts or dead divinities in comparison with the sun . whom we have seen with " the seven seasons. pp. which myth of the " Seven who figure so much in the Mazdean system and in the Christian Apocalypse. 13-14. p. reputed born on tbe seventb day of the month. 19. " King Kansa kills the first seven children of his sister Devaki.THE SEVEN MYTH family varies between seven and eight. Pavie.. and Adonis. before the desired Rachel bears the favourite. Outlines. on Dr. the youngest of whom was consecrated from his 1 birth". may by that be a primitive cosmogonic explanation of the relation of the " seven planets " to the deity. followed who is attains supreme Godhood. Evang. Mithra. " 229 [II To Kronos or El] were and again to him were borne borne by Astarte seven daughters by Rhea seven sons. Hebrew Mythology. cult survived in . 7 M. these seven sons of the "celestial man" may 7 be duplicates of the identified seven sleeping sons of the northern Mimer. Osiris. of the one version myth Hebrew patriarchs the undesired 8 Leah . bears to the solar Jacob seven children. whose such as those of Dionysos. heads the first chapter. the while in the dual legend of Rama and solar Joseph Krishna the younger brother of pairs becomes the 1 greater. was probably first known as tseventh-day-born. e 5 6 Goldziher. p. the Sun coming last. who finally dominates everything. Seven against Thebes. xxx.

" and who are 11 always united with Thut. 58-59. 263. derived its Egyptian name. 49. there being indeed eight 6 "planets " in the Indian system. Yet again. . 270. 4 For an ingenious if inconclusive attempt to find an astrological solution of the problem. ii. Venus. iii. 60) he is the eldest born. in Asiatic Researches. p. Cp. ii. In Hesiod {Theogony. — . Dorians." Again. 2 Asiatic Researches. Note C. 3 Jones. pp. figures in the Vedas as well as seven.289. 258 Patterson. they do not square with the eight births of Aditi. 8 K." It is a conflict of myths. Callimachus. 145. p. and though these might be connected with the slain children of Devaki. but in the Iliad (xv. 3 Hindu lore as preserved six six . 55. plexity as to Hesperus 8 Finally. tr. the date of the birth in late texts appears to be August. . It could be wished that Weber had brought his scholarly knowledge to bear on the problem of the meaning of these dates rather than on the impracticable thesis he has adopted from his supernaturalist predecessors. that was seen now at dawn and now 1 Compare the ascendancy of Zeus over his elder brethren. brothers 1 Joseph. 56. 261. 66. Poseidon was held to have six sons and one to trace. iv. 46. 453-478) Zeus is the sixth and youngest child. Cp. One puts it " when the moon is in Rohini. while the Birth Festival falls in July. 156. in Egyptian mythology there are "eight personified cosmic powers" "from whom the city of Thut. daughter by Halia while Helios had seven sons and one daughter 5 And here we are reminded that the number eight by Rhode. iii. Eng. n. 1824. But for this last precedent. id. to the " seven seasons " notion in old Aryan mythology. Sir William 2 Jones gave a clue in noting the fact that in the Brahman almanacs there are two ways of dating Krishna's birthday. 7 Tiele. . on the eighth of any dark fortnight the other As is is when the sun is in Sinha. 6 Barth. Outlines. Esau and Jacob. Pharez and Zarah. " at the end of which the revolutions of the sun and moon . O. Salverte has followed some account which makes Krishna the seventh child of Devaki. Muller. viii. 182. 204 cp. again nearly coincided. it is probable that the old per- and Phosphorus the question whether it was the same planet. the genesis of which is so difficult 4 In Rhodes. it might be suspected that Krishna had been made the eighth child of the Divine Lady because he was the eighth incarnation of Vishnu but the Aditi myth is a strong reminder that the story of the eight children may be older than the scheme of the Avatars. it has been pointed out that the Pythian cycle of eight years was one of ninety-nine lunar months. vol. i. as cited. 43. 281. v. Manasseh and Ephraim. Hermopolis. 5 Diodorus Siculus. — Reuben and The suspicion of manipulation is further strengthened by the fact that. but nevertheless to be distinguished 7 from his seven assistants.. see Salverte's Essai sur les Noms. The number in it impossible to speak. 230 of CHRIST AND KRISHNA Ishmael and Isaac. Herodotus. Hymn to Zeus.

who accepted the Judaic (On the Truth of the Chr. Beilage. — — — is six days. 19. 38. On the general problem cp. Lucan speaks of Saturn as a baleful star with " black fires. the perfect number." Bentley proposed to read Caprxcorni for Batumi. It was really settled in pre-Sernitic Babylonia long Sayce. xvii. the priests on that day. of course. in connection with India. 336. 6 2 Carm. as apart from the deity. 1874 (iii. pp. Eng. as to India. Indian Antiquary. it is a suggestive though imperfect coincidence that among the ancient Semites. are also called Matris or mothers However. Max Muller. iii. 15. . 7. 6. 90) Philostratus. Das Alte Indien. like the black Krishna. Be Civ. Bei. bears signs of transformation from bad to good. 23. In Somn. Virgil." So there are two accounts of the number of children borne by Megara to Herakles. 98. i. iii. . since in ancient Italy he was both a good and a malevolent 5 deity. Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 113. des Alterthums. 13. p. See below. i. Horace. p." signifying gloomy. March. See further Lucan. . p. the possibility remains that a weekmyth may after all be bound up with the legend of Krishna and the The names of the days of the week. a mere astrologers' fancy. note. Augustine. iv. v. . i. 2. It may very well be that this ancient perplexity is the origin of the odd phrase in Ecclesiastes (xi.Itel. ii. as to the number of the Pleiads. the five formed the basis planets anciently known. Mythological confusion was doubtless caused by the meteorological significance of the star. one from the Fiji Islands! See also the same work. . Life of Apollonius of Tyana. 4 Gesenius. The Day of the Sun or Lord's Day was certainly a popular institution under Paganism. end. in which the sun has always the 3 place of honour. 5. 232. but for Christianity and its inheritance of the Jewish seven-day period as a leading measure of time"— a somewhat extreme statement. 8) makes the sons four in another (ii. Kuenen.THE SEVEN MYTH : 231 at sunset a problem which was said to have been settled by Pythagoras may underlie the alternations of a seven and an eight myth. viii. Saturday) to their supreme and sinister deity Saturn. 1830. Le Clerc long ago urged the planetary basis against Grotius. Prolegomena. or enemies of as many deities. 116) eight. (Duncker. clothed in black. Religion of Israel. On that view. . some authorities reduce the number to seven. ii. p. deor. Christianity without Judaism.258. and the sun and moon of the seven-day division of time. 569. and Pindar (lath.) Apollodoros in one place (ii. . for a surprising number of other instances. Theatre of the Greeks. 82-3) notes that "the eight Sactis. 344. citing Nordberg. 2. Jesaia.) 5 Cp. Juvenal. on which a curious question arises. . 538. 652. i. 7th ed. Now. before his time. from inferior to superior. 1870. Hibbert Lectures. Baden Powell. It would seem as if an eight myth and a seven myth. Georg. ministered to 4 the God in his black six-sided temple he having made the world in six slain children. Commentar ilber d. 233. ii. 1 Cicero. 81. ii. 264 Wellhausen. both 2 of irretrievable antiquity. tr. 1857. remind us that the " seven planets " that is. see Von Bohlen. and " saturnian " as signifying the golden age. 3 On this point. See Mr. who consecrated the seventh day {i. though the Egyptians had it but the Greeks early had a sacred seventh day. the Greeks and Romans had not the week of seven named days. Macrobius. 2 Compare Macrobius. . Lex. 2ter Theil. 81) writes that the planetary day-names would have remained to Europe. Gerald Massey's Natural Genesis. iii. 11) three. pp. 104-5. i. p. 41. This deity. ii.e. and also to Eight"— a formula which the commentators seem to regard as having no special meaning. Scip. Colebrooke (Asiatic Researches. vi. i. 4. i. True. The two numbers appear again in Micah. the planet most distant from the sun. In Somn. vii. 80. Gesch. but it is none the nat. 76 ff (Donaldson. p. giving ingenious but doubtful reasons. 2. Eel. Compare the words "saturnine. On False Analogies in Comparative Theology. Scip. ancient and modern. Contemporary Review. 90-93. Of course Ovid's etymology Be untenable. 2): "Give a portion to Seven.. 16) but Professor Whitney (Life and Groivth of Language. 245 ff The origin of the week appears still to be disputed. Pherecydes making them seven. had been entangled too early to permit 1 — of any certainty as to their respective origins.

writing in the third century. The same principle held in Babylon. It is to be noted. 7. And not the least curious parallel between this and the Krishnaite festival and our own Christmas festival is the old custom of making. Miiller. ^Eschylus. 413.. 22. Each gate has its God. See also Hesiod. 238. vi. 4 and Preller.ZEsch. Saturnalia. which were given as presents. Cp. December 17 but the time was one of universal goodwill. and to come. 7th ed. and the virgin Athene presides over all. 770. Bk. v. Tacitus. Balder dwells in the seventh celestial house. and identified with the sky and the sun (Macrobius. 249. 16. Myth. and sun. in the case of Grimm's story of the wolf and the seven little goats. 801. p. Preller. 4 children. Hist. c. Ancient Art. Mithra.232 CHEIST AND KEISHNA him Saturn. In ancient Scandinavia." 1 the chief of the Gods. 22). In the Mithraic mysteries. that Kronos (= Saturn) was represented in art with his head veiled (K. Miiller. from . Diogenes Laertius. 270. as cited. especially to . 7 Scholiast on . 348 and refs. last cit. equally God of Latium. or "hiding God. finally. Bum. Le Message de Skirnir et les clits de Grimnir. as in so many other myths. In the Mithraic mysteries Saturn had the " first " Origen. p. as last cited. whose image had two faces. Against Celsus. Works and Days. 85. i. the festival lasting for seven days. i. tr. Bergmann. was lord of the seventh gate. a dualist nature- myth behind have it the detail of the mutual slaughter of the two opposed brothers at the gate of Apollo. p. Saturnalia. Donaldson. Tylor. 520). who die in the attack it and though in the Hellenic legend of the seven chiefs on the seven-gated city the basal myth is much can hardly be doubted that there is sophisticated. 10. little images. Seven Against Thebes. 2 It may be that. the Deus Latiaris. i. 57). p. ." just before the feast of the New Year in honour of Janus. Miiller. To return to that : we find that in seven-gated Thebes. Theatre of the Greeks. Cp. Macrobius. 350. 14. calling up thoughts of the golden age past. . In four months. 4 5 6 Preller. 5 This is away from the week-myth. Apollo the Sun-God is lord of the seventh gate because lord of the number seven. followed by Dr. at the time of the Saturnalia. the gates being named from the planets. the Sun-God. two in each half of the year. and Herodotus (vi. The wolf is the darkness (Kansa was black) who tries to swallow the by who was by many reckoned gate. i. if we can trust the Grimnismal. Dorians. moon. the "leaden. the Deus Latins. 269. 228. Origen. and born on the seventh day of the month 7 . 2 3 Fasti. the seventh day was sacred to Apollo. Eng. Life of Plato. Cp. i. pp. p. p. 1 less significant that for or God of Latium. because in him was the end of the old and the beginning of the new year. is the Deus Latens." considering that Saturn was commonly opposed to Jupiter. i. too. tells that the Latins kept the festival of the Saturnalia in December " to commemorate the hidden 3 God. Thus he was celebrated at the time of the greatest cold.: Macrobius. 11. 10. . p. who makes the seventh day of every month as well as the day of each new moon sacred to Apollo in Sparta. plausibly explained More obvious Sir is the conception as we George Cox. the illustrious king of the race. the name helped the theory as to Saturn's " hidden " character but in any case the theory was persistent and Herodian. Preller. as cited. 414. O.

note. to the History of Israel. xxiii. Prolegomena Cp. There is one other possible key to this part of the Krishna In old Hebrew usage the month was also known as the first month. while it only fortuitously appears in Christian mythology. xxv. p. There seems reason to suppose that a change of calendar similar to that in the 1 Hebrew reckoning took place earlier in Egypt. Cox. not arguing that the Christian myth must have I have no filtered in the early centuries of our era from India information as to whether the Hindu ritual includes any allusion to Krishna's martyred brothers. while the seventh hides. again. ' : "In . {Assyrian Eponym Canon. case. 1793. p. Eng. owing to a change which had been made in the reckoning. I am : basis of all the stories should be plain enough to help to disabuse all candid minds of the notion that Krishnaism drew its myths from Christianity. Here.Gods whose birthdays were placed at the winter In Greece."] 2 year began at the summer solstice. 2 this change of era . But it is always spoken of as the first of the seventh month. i. that this day was celebrated as new year. 3.' Falconer's Miscellaneous Tracts. the civil new year has been separated from the ecclesiastical and been transferred to spring the ecclesiastical can only be regarded as a relic surviving from an earlier period It appears to have first begun to give way under the . fcr. That is to say. 9. is also autumnal. p. which should not be overlooked. who is observed the spring era. . seventh : "The ecclesiastical festival of new year ." whose fate makes part of the story of Krishna and these compare strikingly with the Christian sets of Seven Martyrs. 2 3 Wellhausen. Tylor. 1. as in the case of the Sleepers of Ephesus and who are so curiously associated with the . . 1 seq. 10. which they do not In any in the Hindu but the myth may be the same at bottom. etc.' Smith. . 103-109. Krishna relates to the New Year even as the Western Sun. . Wellhausen writes myth. and does swallow six. 19). But at the very least the mythological same month. This formally commanded by Moses month (the passover month) shall be the beginning of months unto you it According to George shall be to you the first of the months of the year. new moon succeeding it.— THE SEVEN MYTH 233 seven days of the week." Given such a usage in India. 24. xii. or simply boys. 302-8. 25 Num. here we have six or seven slain " children. the myth is embedded in the Hindu story. xxix. The yom teruah (Lev. 177. In the Teutonic story the six days come out again. in the priestly Code . Primitive Culture.) falls on the first new moon of autumn and it follows from a tradition confirmed by Lev. who are all either " children " of a mother who dies with them. use depends on the Babylonian. the Assyrian year commenced at the vernal equinox the Assyrian Exod." [Note. too. pp. the solar while the lunar year began at the solstice. influence of the Babylonians.

having before that time had great popular vogue."* On which Weber justly observes ! — — that the festival calendars of other peoples betray similar discrepancies. when the first of Thoth. 170 there is an allusion to the Avatara of " the Brahman Nain. and the Classical Bevieiv. abridged ed." in some versions. too. 8 It is a small matter. season. Earth's admirable book on The Religions of India. Gardner Wilkinson. as in others. Id. 2 fell on 29th August. pp. In this last case. Le Symbole des Apotres.C. p. Bhargava {i. Wood's translation of M. and Padmanabha (sic). Here clearly was one more assimilation 1 of a Pagan doctrine. Dwarf. that in Krishnaism itself there are different dates for the Birthday Festival. p. pp. which the translator had misconceived. series. of a mythological problem which on any view is subsidiary to our main inquiry. 364. or the " first "The of Thoth. of the Ancient Egyptians. or new year. 221. which gives the legend at much length.e. 217-8. the Varaha Purana entirely departing from the accepted view. April. Kalkin. p. Only in the sixth century 7 did it begin to be formally affirmed throughout the Church. 254. » Id. 260-1. which subsisted from 1322 onwards. 1899. 1867. Isis and Osiris. A case in point is that of Horus. was the dwarf's name." says Sir J. Boar." " Nain " is the French for dwarf. 223. who had more birthdays 5 than one. 252." 1 was perhaps originally at a very different But during the Sothic period. Cp. Exploratio Evangelica. We have to remember. the usage would seem to have been substantially the same as it was in Caesar's time. as cited. 52. pp. Wood has done his work in general very well.234 CHRIST AND KRISHNA beginning of the year. 1900. c. 9 for the Pagan vogue 1884. which occurs . as may be inferred from the noncanonical Gospel of Nicodemus. 5 Plutarch. fact is that the dogma of the " Weber would doubtless The known historical descent into hell " made its first formal appearance in the Christian Church in the formulary of the 6 church of Aquileia late in the fourth century. Mr. 79. 6 Nicolas. 4 Weber. ch. § 16. Augustine having accepted it with8 out exactly knowing what to make of it. argue that India borrowed from Alexandria. On p. Tortoise. It is only fair to say that Mr. Parasu Rama). Rama Krishna. 146. ii. xxi. perhaps more than enough. Man3 Lion. The Descent into Hell. But enough. 2 Wilkinson. Gardiner. but it may be as well to guard the English reader against an error in the Rev. I 9 On this compare Dr. though much more important myth-parallel than the last do not even here contend for more than the possibility of direct Christian borrowing is that between the story of Krishna's " descent into hell " and the Christian dogma and legend of the same Finally.'*' This should be " the Brahman Dwarf " or " the Dwarf Bahmun. a I — — purport. and "Bahmun. which relate themselves to the ten or avatars of Vishnu as Fish. p. rather eleven amounting to twelve. In that Purana the Krishna Birth-Festival appears to be "only one of a whole B.. Buddha. Bible Folk-Lore.

1-10. is not only the leader of souls in art. man-God Zamolxis. See Mr." Mosheim's own conviction was that "Beyond all doubt a man of that name" [i. 18. Nat. 123. Orpheus goes to harp Eurydice out of Hades and among the Thracian Getae. 6 Horn. xi. his last labour being to carry away Cerberus. ii. lies buried in the earth half the year. indeed. For the rest. comes back to earth no more" (Hist. the slain Sun-God or Vegetation-God passes six months of the year in the upper and six in the 7 under world. pp. xi. Compare any account of the Egyptian system. p. ably very great. 453. c. Mercurius. xxiv. passing through the twelve signs of the zodiac. 298). 114). 492. perhaps the Vedic dog Sarameya. . . p. p. 23. But he is satisfied to say that "vegetation. a form of the sun). K. and Beligion. and "wise one" (the Logos) of the Vedas." which is surely not accurate. 2. 46-52." 6 he being the In the myth of Venus and Adonis. the remarks above. . 23. Dionysos descends to Hades to bring back his mother Semele from the dead. 19." and whose name was given to the two dogs of the Indian Hades (Max Muller. . that the God does not die and his residence in the other world as Judge of the Dead in the Egyptian system is quite a different thing from residence in the Hades of the Greeks. . according monuments. the real point is. the fatal boar was held to typify winter. In any case. especially the corn.ii. Here is an apparently solar precedent for the Adonisian usage. Frazer (Golden Bough. pp. 3. The old race theory may now be said to be exploded (see Dr. Bel. and Osiris. O. not Hermes] " had lived in ancient Greece and had acquired for himself a high reputation by swiftness of foot. of the Egypt. while the others belong to the realm of Venus. who early developed . 5. disappeared for three years in a subterraneous habitation he had 1 and on ii. 211). 4 Odyssey. 5 Id. Tiele. and other virtues and vices and I have scarcely a doubt that he held the office of public runner and messenger to Jupiter. was peculiarly the judge of the dead: the belief in a happy immortality. " appointed messenger (angel) to Hades. and is so represented 3 Hermes. that Mercury is said by the poets to discharge the twofold function of dismissing souls to Tartarus and evoking them from thence. return. p. Isaac -Taylor's work The Origin of the Aryans. along with the whole theory of the derivation of the Aryan races from India. to the old . No doubt the Proserpina myth had such a purport but the explanation given by Macrobius (Sat. This and other identifications of Greek and Indian mythological names have been challenged. Pyth. 626. Herodotus. messenger of the Gods. Pindar. Bitual. It is noteworthy that Agni. Ancient Art. Tiele. citing Mannhardt but cp. Muller. Apollodoros.THE DESCENT INTO HELL myth of a 235 God who descended Osiris into the underworld 2 was unquestion1 and he goes to and comes from the Shades. mediator. Harrison's trans. the Gebeleizis.e. the three-headed dog and then it was that he took away with him Theseus and Peirithous. just as was Hermes (Barth. was a leader of souls to the Shades (with Pushan. 37. and to advance this as one of the principal arguments by which he attempts to bear out the comparison. 483. But concerning the predominantly solar Apollo it was told that he was present in Delos from the sacred month (January-February) to Hekatombaion (June-July) and absent in Lykia from Metageitnion (July-August) to Lenaion (=Gamelion: December-January). 495. one Peter a Sarn "dared to compare our blessed Saviour to Mercury. an ancient king of Thessaly. Outlines. but the guide of those who. i. 43) but Plutarch's words are explicit as to his return to visit Horus. the Psychopompos. which last called are the realm of Proserpina. states that "Osiris. 7 Dr. . eloquence. which gives the results of scholarship on the subject) but the question of the relations between Indian and other myths remains to be worked out on the new lines. p. i. tr. 2 Plutarch. 1st ed. 3 Pausanias. Olymv. Lang's Myth. Eng. who was once possibly "the child of the dawn. Hermes himself is supposed to be a development of Hermeias. spends six months in the " superior " and six in the " inferior" signs. of course. iii. iii. like Herakles. 572. Herakles went to Hades before he went to heaven. according to the indignant Mosheim (note on Cudworth. . who had introduced that doctrine. the Child-God. Belig. otherwise made for himself. though that part of the myth is certainly not congruous with the rest. 31. Hymn. as does the Sun itself. Isis . 21) of the Adonis myth is that the sun. Long ago. 282) will not allow that this myth bas any solar significance asking how the sun in the south can be said to be dead for half or a third of the year. Professor Tiele. and reappears above ground the other half. 4 5 to the Shades." Such was the light of orthodoxy on human history one hundred and fifty years ago. i.

gather from later myth-versions. Greece. 492. The same conception is fully developed in the Northern myth of the Sun-God Balder. pp. 93-96. of recent discussions. O. See K. Introduction to Mythology. 249-264. a fuller study of the Balder myth. wounded in a great battle. the myth of return. 595. p. 2 Gill. Dorians. fee. Lect. the God originally passed into the " place of torment " at the autumn equinox. descent and would become 1 B. in which some of his kindred oppose him. such a myth was to it of tality conveyed in the Mysteries. 136-140: Dr. of Lit. pp. 3 4 Wait. the gold-clothed solar child. 128The second part of Dr. pp. underworld) originally implied his descent 4 a myth rightly connected by Ottfried Muller with the solitary story of Apollo's death. 2 bound up with the in which. Hatch. Professor Nettleship. But the doctrine is universal. and to return. 339-340. and whence he is to return at the Kagnarok. pp. Muller. born as was Herakles of a dissembling father. goes to the island valley of Avilion to him of his grievous wound. Myths and Songs tr. 5 Common to all races. . Rydberg's Teutonic Mythology. etc. from a very distant period. it appears poetically in our legend of Arthur. 296. where he grows strong again by drinking sacred mead. either in the form of the equinoctial mystery in which he is three days between death and life. Essays in Latin Literature. 6 K. 6 As the latter belief gained ground. O. 653. Eng. of Anc. 194. Rydberg's great work. when Gods and men are alike to be regenerated. 530-8. who. who after being stricken in a great battle in the West. i. of the South Pacific.236 CHEIST AND KEISHNA 1 his unexpected return the Thracians believed his teaching. always prominent in the fable of Proserpine. which contains 135. Lewis's tr. Hist. or otherwise by the shaft of magic mistletoe. Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church. 3 It is even probable that the myth of Apollo's bondage to Admetos (a It is nesian myth of Maui. as cited. or in the general sense that he goes to the lower regions for his winter death before he comes to his strength again. 655. iii. p. 231. ix and Mosheim's extracts in note on Cudworth. who " neither disbelieved nor entirely believed " the story in this evidently Evemerized form. and the account given above. 1847. Cp. .. 1890. So tells the incomparable Herodotus. See the minute and scholarly examination of this myth in Dr. In pre-Christian certainly in —witness the the solar Ulysses the the Shades Odyssey — and was doubtless bound up with the doctrine immorcurrent visit of Greece. Eng. is unfortunately not translated into English. Muller. in which the British kindred slay each other as do the Yadavas heal of the Krishna lore. we find it in the obviously primitive Poly- religion of Mithra. 105. In a crude form. 239-246. as we name to of the God of the the infernal regions. goes to the under- world of Hel. and like Cyrus secretly reared. being obviously part of the myth of the death and resurrection not only of the Vegetation-God but of the Sun-God. or Twilight of the Gods. iv.

31. which I never saw. Take the account of Moor : "It is related in the Padma Purana. which he bore away in memorial of his victory. however that may be. with whom he returned to their rejoicing mother. and. struck such terror into Yama that he ran forth to make his prostrations. all signifying stained or spotted. iii. 5 Max on "False Analogies" in Introduction to tlie Science of Religion. Christian like myth of system was a result of the influence of and indeed. and Cirmira. or varied. He too. who is identified with Krishna. that the wife Kasya. as last cited. Miiller. : . and in the Bhagavat. as to the poems attributed to Hesiod. Krishna sought and after a violent conflict slew the demon. named Panchajanya. and has the additional epithets of Calmasha. the Cerbura of the Hindus is indubitably the Cerberus of the Greeks " ( Wilf ord. There seems some doubt as to the antiquity of the "three heads" in Indian mythology to the Puranas. p. Nemi. the Minyas. 2 Compare Mr. is a" conveyer of the souls of the dead. 1st ed. the cry 3 being "Heri-bol!" Singularly enough. and Pluto is seen at a distance armed with a trident. which elaborately described the lower regions. the infernal three-headed dog 5 of their legends. placed at the entrance of the choir of Bordeaux Cathedral one represents the ascension of our Saviour to heaven on an eagle the other his descent. V «s AiSov Kara/Wts. dominions of Varuna. art. the Guru or spiritual preceptor to Krishna. and she supplicated Krishna for their restoration. the first of whom is also called Trisiras. Agni and Hermes. he would most likely introduce Cerbura. " Sonnerat notices two basso-relievos. "the Descent into Hades. its regent. we have the exact title-formula of the later Christian doctrine. assured Krishna that not he but the sea-monster Sankesura had stolen the children. 308. where he is stopped by Cerberus at the gates of hell. art. In Pliny the words Cimmerium and Cerberium seem used as synonymous. and afterwards Not finding the children in the used in battle by way of a trumpet. Cp." and as such is invoked at funerals by the name of Heri. of : . 408). sounding his tremendous shell. 1 K. 233." But there is reason to 1 believe that the " Orphic 2 Asiatic doctrine. has two dogs. but on the Christian side he exhibits a number of other parallels which do not occur in the Hermes myth as we have it. Varuna. Yamapura. Chitra. the other Syama. 237 more prominent and in the " Orphic " period this fascinating motive was fully established in religious literature. O. Lang's Myth. and Religion. the regent of hell. In one " Orphic " poem. in Asiatic Researches. p." the name given by 4 the Hindus to the planet Mercury. 291-3. " In Hindu pictures Vishnu. of all mythic analogues to the the Descent into Hell. Mttller. ix. and Grote and Lobeck 3 4 as cited by him. but. i. is often seen mounted on the eagle Garuda And were a Hindu artist to handle the subject of Krishna's descent to hell. Ritual. complained to the incarnate deity that the ocean had swallowed up her children on the coast of Gurjura or Gujerat. he descended to the infernal city. I can remember none more " exact than the story of the similar descent of Krishna. or with three heads. 1st ed. and restored the children of Kasya. and tore him from his shell. Arriving at the ocean. one of them or black . "Yama. Pausanias. he connects with Hermes further in that he is identified with " Budha. according named Cerbura and Sabula. Balfour's Indian Ciiclopcedia.— THE DESCENT INTO HELL .

viii. 231. but his children were two sons. which. while Cerberus is also fifty-headed (Theog. i. pp. p. and Chiiruera. The appropriation would seem to have been made confusedly. 154). it carried on a myth which. 24). Hist. tit. there of " " as a parallel . 6 i p e ter iii. Zool. ed. Nile (xvi). cited by Nicolas. 276. In Greek mythology Typhon is cp. has three heads (Theog. hundred-headed (^Eschylus. In the latter the saved appear as children. Compare the varying account of Maurice (ii. 280. following the Persian version of the Bhagavat. Hesiod. Simpson's 1864 edition of Moor's work. whether or not the Christian adaptation was made directly from Indian communications. . 213-4. Letter to Evodius. ii. Cp. is in that connection. stigmatized as heretical. curiously enough. Pindar. the Christ descends to the Shades. 115-125. O. Le Message cle SJcimir. Theog. as cited. where Satan and Death are one. 385 of Didron's Christian Iconography. however. 312)." 1 : Yama the Rev. 1 Carm. Now. 23. as last cited. Krishna. 466. "the night" — which chimes with Wilford's definitions but here the assumption of derivation roust be discarded. — his arms. 99. Myth. Bergmann. Pyth. 3 of avenger an idea evidently derived from the Osirian system. 361. not only was the Brahman Kasya the Guru of 5 Again. as to Cerberi. closely approaches the Indian in the story of Osiris descending to the Shades on the prayer of Queen Garmathone and 4 In another view. Bohn trans. with the trisula. 186-190. however. sub. 19. and that on p. In northern mythology there is sometimes one hell-dog. . For obvious reasons. pp. or trident intercommunication between the pagans of the eastern and western hemispheres. 4 Pseudo-Plutarch. 825. 23. ' Vidal's trans. 453) that the name Kerberos is from the Sanskrit Sarvari. sometimes more (Rydberg. main legend as given in the Gospel of Nicodemus. which prevails in the restoring her son to life. on a mission of liberation. Rel. guarding the road to Yama's realm but the M. Prom. taking all the " saints " of previous history with him to heaven. It is important.238 and CHEIST AND KRISHNA of early a further presumption their Pluto. the whole of this passage is suppressed in W. Of the Names of Rivers and Mountains. I know not why. 49. i. Mosheim's Commentaries on Christian Affairs. but further restoring to earth for three days the two sons of the blessed high-priest Simeon. Compare the Abbe Cognat's Clement d Alexandrie. for the more of the 6 canonical story of Jesus going to preach " to the spirits in prison. 3 Augustine. born like Cerberus of the dragon-nymph Echidna. 29. . 362). But the for the descent of parallel goes even further than Moor represents . 3 See the engraving in Hone's Ancient Mysteries Described. Barth (p. These writers speak as if there were no scriptural basis for the doctrine of the preaching in limbo. Professor Muller decides (Nat. to remember that Clement drew more systematically on pagan religion than any other Christian before or since." which was adopted by many Fathers and became bound up is 7 with the Pagan-Christian doctrine of purgatory. was anciently figured as involving 2 Thus. 1871. 295-6. 321 Horace. xxvii. and there is in the underworld a three-headed giant (Rydberg. and compare Gubernatis. Trollope. from Christ in one view went to Hades in his capacity different sources. 5 Maurice. 377). 7 Clemens Alexandrinus. and Jortin's Remarks upon Eccles. 1 Hindu Pantlieon. pp. who had taken the babe Jesus in a forcing open of the jaws of a huge serpent or dragon. appearing in some guise in all faiths. Jesus into hell. See note above as to the Sarameya. figured in ancient India in a form more closely parallel with the Christian than any other now extant. p. pp. who accepted it. 228.i. 23) speaks only two dogs notion seems sufficiently Hindu. p. n.

Div. In regard. ch. pp. restricting our special reasoning to the problem under us. And if we are to choose between to half-a-dozen {b) the proposition that was through a Christian legend that India became possessed of a myth-motive ancient faiths before Christianity common of. 1 Greek World under Roman Sway. Krishna's blast on his shell at the . 3 See below. reaches the under-sea or over-sea region of " Cusha-Dweepa. 1893. Eratosthenes. was heard that the Christian legend was more or less and the inference by the Indian legend in something very like the form in which we now have it. and easily may much more (a) be it conceived as suggested-by than as suggesting the Krishnaite tale. The Influence of Buddhism on Christianity. notice. 28. without any attempt being 1 made to show how or whence the Christian compiler got his story. 399. in which Krishna. 27 Hyginus. while in the Christian mythology it is one it of the most obviously alien elements. there can be little room for hesitation among unprejudiced students. iii. and on the other is likely to have had affinities with the 3 pre-Aryan cults of India. To which we must once more answer that in the Indian version the myth has all the stamp of the luxuriant and spontaneous eastern imagination. we can only speculate. thus far. is perfectly Asiatic as is the Greek legend of Pan's striking terror in the battle of Gods and Titans by his blast 2 in " Nicodemus " the thunderous voice of on the same instrument Christ at hell-gate may indeed be compared to the shouting of Mars . 349. Cp. whence so many elements of the Christian system are now held to have come. Arthur Lillie's work. ii. in Asiatic Researches. but is obviously inspired by some primitive myth. for general views and details. . see Professor Mahaffy's 2 4 . § 1. ii.THE DESCENT INTO HELL 239 in the Purana myth. it might be that the Christian appropriation was made through the channel of Buddhism. 4 That question falls to be Wilford. In the Purana. 370. which on one hand shaped the system of Babylonia. and in the detailed legend is a confused patchwork." Doubtless we shall be told once more that the Indian legend borrows from the Apocryphal Gospel. especially under Asoka. in the earlier part of his search for the lost children. Such an alternative. and so wrought on the Greek through Asia Minor. is not really forced on directly inspired There are many reasons for surmising that Hindu and Greek mythology may alike have been influenced by the ancient Asiatic mythology known to us as Akkadian. See Mr. 1890. and his smaller work. As to this. Part III. finally. Catasterismi." where he "instructed the Cutila-Cesas in the whole system of religious and civil duties. Buddhism in Christendom. to some of the myth-parallels dealt with.' gate of the Shades in Homer. however. ii. As to the general Indian reaction on the West.

is as obviously myth in a late and literary though unphilosophic stage and that this claim is made with no attempt at explaining how such myths could so appear without antecedents. 1 2 See hereinafter. i. § 10. For the Buddhist mythology. the Buddhist legends are to a great extent themselves refashionings of Krishna legends. shown. 36. The weakness of the Christian position is that it claims originality for a body of lore which. tions In regard to Buddhism the actual historical connecwith Christianity are in some measure made out a posteriori sometimes points are stretched. The Gospel Myths. Christ's cousin. many of the antecedents lie in that very Krishnaism which the prejudiced Christist assumes to be borrowed from his own. so to For the Krishnaite myths. Trtibner's ed. The scientific grievance against scholars like Weber is that they claim priority on certain points for Christian myth without once asking the question as to whence the Christian myth itself came. and may further be reasonably assumed to have existed in the great mass of popular religion that must have flourished outside the sacerdotal system of the Vedas. too. but it lias an obvious- bearing on the problem of the relations between Christianity and Krishnaism. as say. we have in part seen and shall see further. rather than to the Krishnaite motive of Arjuna or Bala Rama but this course is reasonable chiefly because the Krishnaite system gives an origin for the Buddhist myth. our argument is not impugned. Senart has.. 240 CHRIST AND KRISHNA 1 considered apart from the present inquiry. antecedents lay in part in the simpler Vedic system. i. the general argument is But the argument for Buddhist priority over Christianity owes a large part of its strength to the very fact that. unless (which is unlikely) it be contended In some cases it that the Buddhist form preceded the Krishnaite. is plainly probable that the Buddhist legend was the go-between. III. again. the motive of the Descent into Hell may have been taken by the Christistsfrom the Buddhist fable of Buddha's expedition to preach " like all former Buddhas " the law to his mother in the upper. as M. obviously non-historical. sub-section Bigandet's Life of Gauduma. it be shown that any of the myths before discussed came to Christism through Buddhism. virgin-born mythology. Thus the late Christian myth of the synchronous birth of the if and impressive.world of Tawadeintha. since there not only is the preaching extended to a multitude of others of the unearthly population. . Div. . but strengthened. is reasonably to be traced to the Buddhist myth of the synchronous birth of the Buddha's cousin 2 Ananda. John the Baptist. but there appear . If. as weshall see. then. So.

(3) his teaching that those who life . . 153-5." who Certainly from Buddha "the reward of Thautapan. and the item of the dragon. stand upon is that the Krishna stories are almost always the more primitive and that if they are the basis of the mythology of the Buddhist system a system which so largely parallels the Christian it is exorbitant to presume that Krishnaism would systematically borrow again from Christianity. It remains to consider the minor quasi-coincidences noted by the 2 Athenoeum critic between the Krishna saga. for the antiquity of Krishnaism as compared with Christianity. Our general argument. (2) his invitation to his followers to "worship a mountain". as given in the Mahabharata and elsewhere. pp. then. holds good through a whole series of myth-motives in respect of which Christianity is unquestionably a borrower. — — § 17. the reader will be slow to suppose that such items stand for any Hindu adaptation of the Gospels. of Buddhism. (5) his being anointed by a (7) his woman of feet . See above. pp. by way. In the case of the " preaching to the spirits in prison. yet Indian. Whence came the Gospel stories ? we are rather led "fco query whether." in particular. Spurious and Remote Myth-Parallels. love the God shall not die. These are (l) Krishna's address to the fig-tree . 219-225. So with the " worshipping 2 1 Id. (4) his Transfiguration." By this time. and the narrative of the Gospels. The Krishnaite is story of the fig-tree appears to be as edifying as the Christian but there is no sufficient latter to be a perversion of ground even for supposing the the former. are details that come specially close to the Christian myth and one would have expected the Christian borrower to introduce the Christ's mother if he had before him the Buddha legend as we now have it. 1 — obtain . perhaps. But on the other hand he may well have had a different version or some of the details may have been added to the Christian story at different All we can definitely times. .SPURIOUS AND REMOTE MYTH-PARALLELS also the 241 mythic "two" in this case "two sons of Nats." Krishna's literal descent. as before suggested. as they must have been in the Buddhist. (8) the hostility of the demon-follower who "carries the bag. and sometimes conceivably a borrower from India. Some may be put otherwise . (6) his restoring a widow's dead son to washing . the Buddhist myth is on the face of it pre-Buddhistic. any of the Gospel stories did not come from India. aside as false coincidences. Raising once more the crucial question. .

11. is certainly pre-Christian in Europe and in Egypt.Hellenic mysteries." On this view the resurrection of the Widow's Son is only an Evemerized form of the resurrection of the Sun-God (himself at his death a widow's son). before Christianity in the duplicated precedented long myth of the Hebrew Elijah and and as all Semitic mythology centres round Babylon and points back to the Akkadians. 62. While the story of the raising of the widow's son occurs in only one 4 Gospel. 2 child Dionysos. but there question is every reason to suppose that the religious practice in before the rise of is was common long Buddhism. 43. 21) and in another Adonis is a child (Apollodoros. and. III. In the Elisha story. it reached the Christians. interpolated in the pseudobiography of the latter as a miracle wrought by him. 4 Luke. Yet a Cp. i. vii. the mother is not a widow but the husband is " old ". is a course barred to rational criticism. again. xiv. The disciplinary washing of feet. probably by way of the Neo. whence. Sat. again. Kings xvii. We are left to the two connected items of the anointing and the hostile attendant with "the bag. and Demeter assists at the reanimation of the slain boy Dionysos. p. The mystic teaching as to immortality. So in one view the Goddess who mourned for Adonis was the Earth Mother (Macrobius. In all likelihood it had a solar significance. over the restoration of both of 3 whom there figures a widowed " mother. implicit in Buddhism and the Transfiguration of Krishna is simply an item in the sunmyth. Buddhism. If the Krishna myth borrowed in this instance. 4). For Lactantius. is one of the established usages of Buddhistic monkery and there is positively no reason to doubt that it was so before the Christian era. again. 2 1 i. iii. . Diodorus. ." Obviously it matters nothing from the rationalist point of view whether or not these items were conveyed to Krishnaism from Christism. Isis is the mother of the lost or slain "boy" Osiris (Divine Institutes. and it would appear that in the unexpurgated form of the story the solar prophet was the real father. in common with the myths of the slain Osiris and Adonis and the slain Elisha. 34-35. the story presumptively had a common Asiatic currency. it did so at home . . 8 21) . the natural tendency 1 is to accept it as historical. . 21-22 2 Kings iv. 242 CHKIST AND KRISHNA a mountain. miraculous. Rhys Davids. The miracle of the raising of the widow's son. that of the anointing occurs in all and as it is non. . To suppose that such an ancient myth-motive was suddenly appreciated for the first time by the miracle-multiplying Hindus only after it had taken Christian form. But even this scanty measure of debt on the Hindu side is entirely unproved while there is cause to conclude that on the Christian side we are dealing with just another adaptation." a usage too common in the ancient world to need to be suggested by one race to another within our era. .*. in a manner.

. "the bag" would be to Gentile eyes simply the symbol of the act of betrayal for money. xii. since John tells the story of Mary the sister of Lazarus in her own house. Christian or pre-Christian. Both the version of the synoptics and that of John are minutely circumstantial. 2. and marg. § 2." the reasonable presumption is that the anointing 4 was a part of a mystery drama. 9. See "The Myth of Judas Iscariot" in the author's Studies in Beligious Fallacy. 1 Evemerism has in private gone so far as the suggestion that Lazarus may have had the ointment given him by "Dives "for his sores! There is really as good ground for believing that as for accepting the story at all. and. is only a variant of the other. which in the synoptics is related simply of " a woman. 2 See hereinafter. 6. 5 6 John hereinafter. the smallness of its significance is in striking contrast with the claim of which it is the last uncancelled item. i. and the remote detail in the Mahabharata there seems to be only an accidental resemblance. Div. John's synoptics version might be excluded as false on the face of it. is just another non-miraculous myth added to the primary myth of 6 Judas the Betrayer. * Oil and ointment were alike signified by one Hebrew term (Isa. xiii. and each excludes the other. or both . 182." in a Joudaios. Mary "the Nurse" ( = Maia = Mylitta). moment's scrutiny shows that its circumstantiality is quite delusive. The Gospel Myths. 11 the bag " — we have the myth of the discontented Judas carrying unexplained on the Christian side by any dicta a detail as to the source of the money so carried. is found in the fourth Gospel only. lvii. without Scriptural warrant. i. i. like that of 5 Lazarus and his household.) and the usage of anointing was general in the East.— SPURIOUS AND REMOTE MYTH-PARALLELS 243 . 29. while the ascription of the act to a " of the Gospel-makers. p. while the house and a strange woman. as cited above. § 17. Div. On our theory. R. if for once there was actually a borrowing by India. xi. the receptacle for the " thirty pieces of silver. and The Gospel Myths." fictitious personality made out of Gentile-Christian mystery drama. Cp. a pseudo-historical 2 And on the principle that " a myth variant of Mary the Mother. 3 Frazer. note. never so graphic and precise in its details as when it is a simple is transcript of a ceremony which the author of the myth witnessed 3 with his eyes. Isa. however (itself twice introduceduseless article." but which later fancy. Mary " was a normal expedient Finally. But. 6 . 3). V. attaches to the mythic personality of Mary specify another Magdala. that " Judas " is simply a a Jew. since it represents a pauper household as possessing a peculiarly costly and 1 John's myth." with perhaps a general Between this anti-Semitic suggestion of Jewish usury or avarice. xii. The story.

" 2 It should be added that. which. but the main elements of the whole myth were soon judiciously Take the following early exposition analyzed.— 244 § ..C. 2 was portrayed as an herdsman. being indeed avowed by the Brahmans. the serpent Python by the arrows of Apollo. as later inquirers have noted.43). as Arrian has it. and clouds. Not only was the solar character of Krishna recognized by the first European investigators. the cow of plenty and. furnishes them with light. including even the scholarly and open-minded Professor Weber. the Gita Govinda. amorous. the earlier statements. forming a circle the God is thus multiplied to attach him to each respectively. Explanation of the Krishna Myth. " Krishna obtains a victory on the banks of the Yamuna over the great serpent Caliya Naga. as before cited. and cherishes them with his genial heat. CHRIST AND KRISHNA 18. that sound and satisfying explanations of Krishnaism on the basis of universal mythology were sketched nearly a century ago though they have been completely ignored by the later adherents of the missionary view. " The twelve signs are represented as twelve beautiful Nymphs the Sun's apparent passage from one to the other is described as the roving of the inconstant Krishna. as in the myth of Hermes. inconstant. the clouds are cows in the Vedas. Both in the Padma and Garuda is . stars. and that "the fable was accordingly to be referred to astronomy.290)— a notion found also in the Osiris myth (Land O. ." and that the quasi-historic (it is not clear if he thought there was ever a real) Krishna was as it were a "terrestrial sun or" [here anticipating Lassen] " Hercules. purifies the air and disperses the noxious vapours of the atmosphere. to denote the Sun's passage through all the signs. it was natural to describe them by the same hieroglyphic and as the Sun directs their motions. He further saw that the mythic wars meant that "the sun in the heavens fought with planets. and indeed the sun in eclipse" [here giving a meaning for the "black"]. On a moveable circle. Asiatic Researches. by the powerful action of its beams. and that there is really no more valid argument behind the It is also the fact. We have seen that the claims as to the Christian origin of Krishnaite legends are only repetitions of guesses made by missionaries in the days before comparative mythology. hand-in-hand. which had poisoned the air. the symbol of the Sun. It is evidently intended by the circular dance exhibited in the Rasijatra. and by the rotary motion of the machine the revolution of the year is pointed out. and destroyed the herds in that region. twelve Krishnas are placed alternately with twelve Gopis." He had probably met with the myth of Krishna hiding himself in the moon (Jones. This was probably the groundwork of Jayadeva's elegant poem. Abhandlungen. . later than behind however. 236) was Krishna "originally {primigenie) signified the sun. 1 : represented as a Cow. latest 1. sportive. satisfied that 1 The monk Paulinus (quoted by Kleuker. as the planets were considered by the Hindus to be so many habitable Earths. and that this idea also enters largely into the Krishnaite symbolism. iii. ii. Krishna. 11 The Earth : . This allegory may be explained upon the same principle as the exposition given of the destruction of It is the Sun.

viii (1803). whom Krishna slew in his worshipped on this day. 24. . picture.' Perhaps this adventure of Krishna with the Caliya Naga may be traced on our sphere. The former part of that theory was put forward also by Colebrooke." 1 some of the main which holds good independently of the author's further theory that the origin of Krishnaism lay in the separation of the sect of Vaishnavas from the Saivas. Asiatic Researches. p. 64-5." Hence he opposed the surmise that early references to Krishna in the sacred books were interpolations. inductively proved. and that of Mahadeva and Bhavani by the Saivas and Sactas. pp. the milky way. i x 293. have been introduced since the persecution of the 2 Bauddhas and Jainas. elevating those personages Here is a rational. which he grasps with both his hands. » Ici. l of the 1 Patterson. which allegorically may be said to attempt in vain to obstruct his progress through the Heavens. there being then no part of the earth where he is not visible in the The Demons sent to destroy course of the twenty-four hours." But the same sound scholar declares that he supposes both Rama and Krishna to have been " known characters in ancient fabulous history. for we find there Serpentarius on the banks of the heavenly Yamuna. race. as the childhood. and to be really repetitions of the ancient myths of the This proposition. " The identity of Apollo Nomios and Krishna is obvious both and Krishna is disappointed by Tulasi as are inventors of the flute Apollo was deluded by Daphne each nymph being changed to a tree hence the tulasi is sacred to Krishna. Krishna are perhaps no more than the monsters of the sky. according to Clemens. Gods. appears to allude to the universality of the Sun's appearance at the time of the Equinoxes. see Donaldson." and conjectures " that on the same basis new fables have been constructed. . 11 The story of Nareda visiting the numerous chambers of Krishna's seraglio and finding Krishna everywhere. who held that " the worship of Rama and of Krishna by the Vaishnavas.EXPLANATION OF THE KRISHNA MYTH ' 245 [Puranas] we find the serpent Caliya. viii. . as the laurus was to Apollo. . that Colebrooke would have admitted the " new fables "to be in many cases new only in their to the rank of 3 application. was adored with Apollo at Delphi. renders impregnable the earlier deductive position. . As to the astronomic significance dance in Greece. Many of the playful adventures of Krishna's childhood are possibly mere poetical embellishments to complete the . and that the legends may contain an element of allegory on the persecution of the new sect. There can be little doubt. I think. in Asiatic Researches. amongst the deities Pythian snake. contending as it were with an enormous serpent. a scientific explanation of outlines of the Krishna myth. 7th ed. Theatre of the Greeks. 474.

" That. indeed. Mythol. Now. is the chariot . ix. . p. It is thus that so many dynasties of Gods have been built out of the same fabulous material. . or hero and hero.' Thus. after thee the ' in Professor Max Miiller's opinion. not only of being a lover of in respect of being a marvellous child. 204. 32: "The husband of the end. 303). Indra. 86. as the horse After thee . was presumably an outsiders' God even in the Vedic period. an expression which. after thee. v. p. but : is all that is born as he is the lover of maidens. Senart notes 3 that in a Vedic description of a storm. Soma. is the prototype of the of the identities modern Krishna. the husband 2 of wives. was probably meant originally for the evening sun as surrounded by the splendours of the gloaming. with what qualities we know not. at his birth. all that will be born : . as cited. 322. p. of Rig Veda Sanhita. we can find in the Vedas precedent for all his main features.V. like the Pagans. The Dawn herself is likewise called the wife but the expression " husband of the wives " is in another passage ." And this view is substantially adopted by the leading English mythologists. figuring as he does as a demon in the Vedas. and for the multiplications of Krishna also we find the prototype in the child Agni. p. 321. 3 Essai. p. like Agni. 6 Cox. i. 2. whether mystic or anthropomorphic. 5 Id. maidens "Agni. the personified God of the libation or eucharist. and the profound unconsciousness of the Argives that the two narratives are in their groundwork identical is a singular illustration of the extent to which men can have all their critical faculties lulled to sleep by mere differences of names or of local colouring in legends which are only modifications of a single myth" (Cox. Agni. the man cows after thee the host of the girls. as Yama. always tending to be identified with the Sun.V. like the Jews. of all popular deities in primitive times and M. "G wives approaches the B. he is the husband of the wives." ' 1 " The story of Perseus is essentially the same as the story of his more illustrious descendent [Herakles]. Arvan. a system of types. is an extremely natural characteristic." But "it is above all to the atmospheric Agni that we must trace voluptuous legends like those which have received such an important place in the 4 Krishnaite myth ". " enters into 5 all houses and disdains no man. 369. though Krishna. citing R. " plays among the Apas like a man among beautiful young girls. of Aryan Nations. n. 1 and because on the other the priest either sees in these. clearly applied to the sinking sun. x.— 246 CHRIST AND KRISHNA Every solar hero or deity necessarily repeats certain features in the myths of his predecessors and this the more surely because on the one hand the popular fancy is so far from being clearly conscious . or. 2 Wilson's tr. sees no harm in mystic correspondences. Yama. 181. i Id. On the relations of Krishna with the Gopis Sir George Cox writes : " This myth is in strict accordance with the old Vedic phrase addressed to ' : the Sun . who. as it were by a more serene repetition of the dawn. and Yama. the Fire-God. from Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts. 291. between God and God. 91.

224. of course. a carries us to that of the child Hermes Hephaistos. iv. Sanskrit Texts. So cited in Cox. 4 . the dwarf Vishnu [lb. again. Krishna as slaying the dragon is simply Indra smiting Vritra or Ahi. His name Krishna. P. and like Herakles slays . earlier epical literature of the Teutonic tribes. pendra line passage runs " Thou art the source of being and cause of destruction. It is the same with Rama. the God who transcends ' the minutest of the minute. as follows on the general question " If it be urged that the attribution to Krishna of qualities or powers belonging to other deities is a mere device by which his devotees sought to supersede the more ancient gods. 146. there is room for tracing Christian influence in the . 365. all. that these myths have been crystallized round the name of Krishna in ages subsequent to the but period during which the earliest Vedic literature came into existence the myths themselves are found in this older literature associated with other gods." p. 3 . is not more definite. the omniscient. Sic in Cox : 2 Id. iv.' of 3 Rudra. sometimes addressed by Brahma as the source of being and the cause 4 Upendra and Mahendra.' ' of 1 but Muir. the answer must be that nothing is done in his case which has not been done in the case of almost every other member of the great company itself method is of the gods. however. the younger and elder Indra. 250. the interchange or contradiction is undisguised. n. and Siva the destroyer is sometimes produced from the half of Vishnu's virile power. he is Time. as Bunsen rightly insists. 371. the vastest of the vast. the producer of all. gave rise in times later than those of the Mahabharata to the stories of his but in the life with the cowherds and his dalliance with their wives Mahabharata he is already the protector of cattle." 2 The fluidity of the whole of the myth material under notice is yet further illustrated in the following sketch of Krishna's many metamyth which morphoses : "He is also identified with Hari or the dwarf Vishnu. who is cited. and the necessary explanation is that in so adoring Rudra. has to Vasudeva. wnere m& Muir. the greatest of the great. But he is also Hari himself. ' the " God whom the Goddess Devaki bore to Vishnu. for he is the soul of all. As the son of Nanda." 1 And again: "It is true. and not always only in germ. he is Govinda. p. and Madhusudana. Rudra is worshipped by Krishna. As so produced. 331]. is connected with another parentage which makes him the progeny of the black hair of Hari. as well as to the story of the limping the bull. and Hari is Narayana. is also him Krishna was only worshipping himself. the all-knowing. and that the systematic adoption of the conclusive proof of the looseness and flexibility of the materials of which the cumbrous mythology of the Hindu epic poems is composed. or Phoibos destroying the Python. who Narayana. a name which the bull which ravaged the herds [Muir. the all.' In short. 206]. Id. But in the character of Mahadeva.— EXPLANATION OF THE KRISHNA MYTH The same writer. and is declared by his father to be the offspring of his anger. u Thou art Mahendra (the older Indra) younger Indra). — 247 who makes an sums up independent and able analysis of : the Krishna myth. and The character destruction. There is no more room for inferring foreign influence in the growth of these myths than. but 250 should apparently be 150. said to be sprung from Krishna.

Bala Rama. 147. Cycl." In the same note M. 234. for three different incarnations of Vishnu. The contrary opinion of Lassen Evemerism which will find." and whom M. 177. Barth. Senart declares to be : indeed mythologically one " In effect. and p. He too has a Birth Festival. Varuna. a Vedic personage connected by name and function with Vritra. who destroys the Kshatriyas the Kshatriya Rama. which it very closely resembles he too figures then as the Child-God and he too is associated with the stable-myth in that being also solar) . pp. 365-7. 173. citing Moor. represents the same weapon of is really only one (Ind. sometimes to Mitra. the plough-bearer and his distinctive characteristic is an ungovernable passion for bacchanalian revels. who is an atmospheric genie watching the " pastures " of Mithra. " Pavasu " means a sword according to Tiele (before cited). who pass case of the three Ramas. n. who is sometimes regarded as self-existent. The axe of the second. in which Rudra is scarcely more than an epithet. r > "As to his name of Bala. 164. 7 Asiatic Researches. and who figures both as lightning and sun." 1 Further illustration could be given. ! . the Asvins. applied sometimes to Agni. harvest. 10 1 Cox. or the Maruts It was in accordance with the general course of Hindu mythology that the greatness of Rudra. which the hero wields against the demons. whom 5 armed with a ploughshare." 4 William Jones identified with the Greek and Indian " Dionysos. which Weber supposes to be based on that of Krishna. whence his surname Halabhrit. as cited above. he was doubtless con9 tingently a Sun-God (Rama Chandra. Rama.. an axe Moor. See above. citing Tiele. enemy of Indra. Senart writes (p. a Essai. M. This is indeed certain as regards the epic Bala. but who were early surmised by students to be " three representatives of one person. : 163-4. a club 8 4 According to Moor. n) 9 10 Barth. and sensual love. like the ploughshare of the first. but whom we have seen to be probably the Herakles of Megasthenes. See Moor. should be obscured by that of his children. 163. 2. Hindu Pantheon. Bala Rama. 325. few the popular Rama. p. King's son and happy conqueror. But he appears to us under a triple form brother of Krishna. . p. p. or three different ways of 3 relating the same history. inebriation. ii. pp. there ii. 503) rests on an thunder. Senart draws a connection between Rama and the Persian Rama-gastra. ." 8 Like each of his duplicates. and Rama Chandra. . fluence of if need were. to and it might conceivably have been his fortune become the supremely popular deity instead of Krishna.— 248 . according to Balfour's Ind. the analogy of Krishna would suggest that it also had originally a more specially demonic significance. p. CHEIST AND KEISHNA This cumbrous mysticism leads us further and further from the simpler conceptions of the oldest mythology. Alt. 132. . p. " appears to be an ancient agricultural deity that presided over the tillage of the soil and the Sir " Now. 191. who represents the moon. p. and that the form Bala is only an alteration of Vala. adherents. the Brahmanic Rama. is ' He 7 '. 6 H Above. of this inter Parasu 2 myths in the Rama. I think.

taking the Vedic allusions as representing the beginnings of the cult. p. an exterminator of monsters. and partly depended on. that he is for historic India the original . at all. Treatise cited. and that it was as the companion 1 Moor. ancient has his transfiguration in the Bhagavat Gita. however. In fine. which was the inseparable preparation for the slaying of the tyrant. India. and as a God of Vegetation he may have been carried in the cornbasket by way of an incantation to make the fields fruitful. the finished type of submission to duty. is the one who. it will still be argued. the adoption of early in our era. that the M. 3 Barth." and sectarian manipulation. what we cannot maintain in regard to the enigmatic son of Devaki. and contends that the presence in that text of the name of Govinda sufficiently shows that the myth of the sojourn among the shepherds. On the " Like other hand. in answer. nobility of moral 3 Krishna in turn. 176. p. has been best able to however. idealized by the poetry of a more fastidious age. that while the antiquity of the main material of Krishnaism is admitted. and of chivalric generosity. 192.e.EXPLANATION OF THE KEISHNA MYTH 1 249 Jamadagni. 190. p. literary 2. a victorious Krishna. some of the Christian legends But it will be necessary. 316. but based like those on immemorial myth and of these Krishna. character. 2 4 Moor. the passage in the Khandogya Upanishad as pointing to a quasi-historic personage. But. that only in comparatively late times was Krishna a deity It may be. and by the myth [i. Rama is a hero. cause of his being made Krishna's twin and at standing was the 2 It is even conceivable present he ranks next him in popularity. only to state Weber's position in contrast with the make clear the soundness of the latter argument of M. points Kansa legend was already old 4 first to the admitted for Patanjali. " Child born in a Stable ". the father of Parasu Rama. Senart to and the untenableness of the former. one less affected . . had a crowd of Sun-Gods apart from those of the priest-made Vedas. Kamadenu. by dint of survive. then as now a manifold world of differing peoples and faiths. he has assimilated clearly solar attributes. and that this alleged lateness of creation permitted of. as by Weber. Weber seeks to trace the rise of Krishnaism by way of the chronological order of the references in the documents. I think. ancient as the others were ancient. was entrusted by Indra His old with the charge of the boon-granting cow. in the Ramayana] he is at the same time.. . the legends in the Mahabharata as a development of his story. was already ancient and popular. fact and so on. Senart. p." warrior.

be added that the antiquity of the similar myth in connection with Cyrus is a further ground same conclusion. Might not Alexander's Pan be Siva. and mixed up in dubious adventures. M. 85 B. which do not fail at times to disquiet and embarrass his devotees ? It is clear that the first step at least of such an evolution could be made only under powerful sacerdotal pressure now there exists in this connection no sign of such a thing in the literature we possess the cult of Krishna is not a Brahmanic but a popular cult. M. 2 As cited. not as 1 that Krishna for the was first deified. there is no doubt that we must reverse the statement. p. the testimony of Alexander Polyhistor [fl. How could a sacred poet. Krishna must have been at first the . be subsequently lowered to the position of the adopted child of a shepherd. Barth. whom M. and will stand very well on its own merits fully as close a parallel to Krishna as Pan would be : This testimony is the more important in that it leads us to carry further back the date of the legends of this order.C. Senart argues. p. the companion of shepherds. There is. from the epic period. identifies with the Dionysos of Megasthenes ? Certainly is the more plausible conjecture but is not Dionysos . 1 Essai. suddenly have become the national hero of an important Indian people. the fact is quite the contrary an abyss separates each one of these stages from the next. the bellicose performer of so many exploits. but clearly mythological ? And how could this warrior. 163. In support of that opinion there is little weight in the negative argument from the silence of the ancient works which have come down to us. what is perhaps less important. no other Hindu deity who could so well suit the latter title as Krishna a contention which seems to me inconclusive in the circumstances. if we were shut up to the testimony of Brahmanic literature ? We can certainly distinguish in Krishna a triple personage it does not follow. seems on this point to go even further than M. It may the hero of the epic. that these mean simply three successive aspects of the same type. . in the admiration and even in the worship of Indians. until it be determined that logically they derive and develop one from the other. Now. 339. Senart connects his conjecture. : " . In fine. Senart then goes on to cite. if we take them in the supposed order.— 250 of shepherds CHRIST AND KRISHNA and lover of the Gopis.] that in his day the Brahmans worshipped Herakles and Pan. as to Krishna being Alexander's Pan. Lassen. in spite of his opinions on the antiquity of the doctrine of Avataras and the cult of Krishna. however. ? In any case. with the rest of his argument. . What idea should we have had of the date and importance of Buddhism. as has been shown above. not merely marvellous. raised so high. 2 following — the latter Lassen. M. that works itself out independently. the obscure disciple of a certain Ghora. though M. Weber.

hast overpassed the sun by thine own force. a superposition not only of social classes but of traditions and ideas which could live long side by side Thus considered. Now. without rashness and without prejudice. alongside of the chronological succession. . Original Sanskrit Texts. whose worship. having become the son of Aditi. . more or less narrowly length. It must not be forgotten that the organization of castes creates. it leads us obviously to more ancient conceptions and the homogeneity which is exhibited by the whole demonstrates the normal and consequent development of all the parts. until the ever more powerful spread it to embrace him. "It is possible. Localized at first among the Surasenas and at Mathura. thou hast slain hundreds of Asuras. would put him in the list of its singers of his popularity forced of Vishnu. spread little by little Vishnu and admitted to the number of his incarnations. besides. of his infancy. touch entirely secondary details. the Brahbellicose character in which we know him. in three strides. Having attained to the sky and the ether. Krishna was at represent as necessarily and strictly successive. connected especially. O all-pervading Krishna.EXPLANATION OF THE KRISHNA MYTH 251 object of a secondary cult. In these thousands of thy manifestations. Krishna resolves itself into two periods. what idea and the doctrine of faith interests us chiefly at present is the age not so much of his cult. desirous to appropriate him. of the Yadava race. however. as it remained in the sequel. the all-pervading. under the title of Avatara new theory and in its modern systems. which. . fixed in that epoch under Brahmanic influence. with the legends of his birth. only ." This argument has been criticized by Weber in a review of Senart's essay. indeed. and the earth. identified with till at localized. thou. the younger brother of Indra. he M. . O vexer of thy foes. he was 1 ipso facto recognized by the superior caste. in its and masters." Muir. and being called \ ishnu. that Christian influences may have developed among the Indians in his connection the monotheistic However that may be. the customary methods of mythological analysis. independent of any argument borrowed from resemblances. O soul of all beings. still less of a certain form of his cult. the history of the cult of in a profound isolation. this cult would have sufficed to introduce into the epic legend of the Kshatriyas. hadst by thy energy traversed the sky. and occupied the abode of the Adityas. . in which. which I would not. becoming a child. iv. while differing from his conclusions. who delighted in iniquity. first a quite popular deity. attest the existence of essential elements of the legend at an epoch when there can be no question of those influences which have been conjectured and these influences finally rest on a very limited number of very inconclusive facts. the On its part. the atmosphere. this narrative has its roots in the images of a perfectly authentic naturalism it cannot be isolated from the various kindred mythological series and if we only apply. 1 A passage in the Mahabharata shows this evolution clearly enough :— " And thou Krishna. and of his youth. but of the legend of the hero. and more precisely of that part of his legend which embraces his infancy and his youth. 118. Several precise testimonies. manic school.

340. from Panini. as to the value of the evidence for Patanjali's date given by the words and citations in the Mahabhashya. See Senart. unless there were an old myth to that effect ? 4 These questions are 1 Though. pp. Senart's refutation of his as to own development theory. whose argument is that the Gopi idyl is part of an immemorial popular myth. : admits that in itself it is very " Only in the latest texts do we find this Gopi idyl : the older records knoio nothing of it. iii. that the Brahmans worshipped a Hercules and a Pan. given to dubious adventures. of which Weber had seemed formerly 3 though Weber have to face and explain the fact. that date of Patanjali. on the one hand. and how (2) the warrior hero of the epic could be lowered from that status to the position of the adopted son of a shepherd and companion of shepherds. is again too vague to permit of its being founded on in this matter. in view of the doubts which Burnell and Bohtlingk have expressed in connection with my inquiry. 3 See above. the Professor. 4 2 . The testimony of Alexander Polyhistor. but recognize Krishna only as an assiduous pupil or brave hero. of the ancient currency of the Cyrus myth on the Iranian side. or answer the questions how (1) the deity could be developed out of the student of the Upanishad. and as to the to take Professor Bhandarkar's view (shared by both Senart and Barth). 157-8. of cows has such a significance in hidische Streifen. 429. Vedas is new But he goes on to him. In any case Patanjali would have to be dated very late to countervail the implied antiquity of the phrases he quotes. Senart. his being evidently worshipped as Vasudeva: and the existence of his epithet Kesava but. remarking that 1 the theory of Krishna's herdsmanship being derived from the cloud- cows of the plausible. and the doubters sphere. Recently. n.. indeed. But as regards the Professor's objection that the Gopt idyl is not mentioned in the oldest documentary references to Krishna. which they constantly overlook. passages have been made known from the Mahab- hashya which set forth Krishna's relation to Kansa . Senart's assumption that that work dates from before the Christian era is very questionable. With his invariable candour. the herdsman idyl is there awanting and on the other. originally current outside the Brahmanic part of our evidences will have to be reconsidered will also . as we have seen. it can only be said that if the " doubts " are ever strengthened. p. — CHEIST AND KRISHNA 252 speaks in high terms of his French opponent's scholarship and ability. Nor does the Professor in any way meet M." 2 : ' ' The force of the last objection I have admitted . the reader will at once see that it is no answer to M. even further. the stealing and herding Greek myths. There are in the Mahabharata allusions which show the herdsman characteristics to have been associated with the hero.

Id.l{S. p. as we have partly seen above." And while it is impossible to say with certainty how and whence the Buddhist adaptations were made. then. 5 zd. as Sun-God. 7 and where Krishna. p. But yet one more reinforcement of the strongest kind is given to the whole argument by M. 305. p. but did it at second-hand through Krishnaism. Id. W Id.E. variations of this legendary theme one point remains fixed and constant it is among shepherds that the hero is exiled and it is impossible to separate from the series either the vraja or the herdsmen and herdswomen who surround the youth of Krishna. a "close relationship" between the Buddhist and the Krishnaite 9 " In nearly all the legends. 9 7 8 37 . 303. 302. which ostensibly influenced Chris- not even borrow from Christianity direct. p. 190. i. 4 2 Id. 1 or from pre-Krishnaite sources. the theory of imitation from Christian legends were sound. ff. p. and of various 2 the exploit against the elephant. bows by Siddartha (Buddha) . Life of Gaudama.xix. Apollo. Hermes. If. p. the 8 infant Buddha takes seven marvellous steps. it is frequently found here. 253 We are left to the irresistible conclusion that the myths of Krishna's birth and youth are not only pre-Christian but pre-historic. There is. EXPLANATION OF THE KEISHNA MYTH really unanswerable. And 10 this trait is found in the story of Sakya. i. the God of Love. their descent : Buddha and Krishna . p. 326. The exploit against the elephant the births of their early life of pleasure." in large part a variant Again. 297 Id. 315. Bigandet.B. Senart. takes three miraculous strides. and Jesus.. See above. 319. similarly common to the three personages. 312. did (a) that Buddhism. . 1 We have now seen reason enough 3 6 to Essai." The prodigy of the divine infant speaking immediately after birth occurs in the Buddha myth as in those of Krishna. p. of the Fo-Sho-Hzng-Tsan-King. and Beal's trans. which include such items as the breaking of Siva's bow by Kama. the genealogy of of Buddha is Kama. of Kansa's by Krishna. that the Krishnaite form of a given story is by far the more natural. we should have to hold either tianity. Essai. It is needless here to give at length the details. or (b) that Krishnaism borrowed from Buddhism legends which the Buddhists had already assimilated from the Christians. Senart's demonstration of the derivation of a large part of the Buddha myth from that of Krishna. p. in fine. 3. as in the Christian parallels. evidently " belonged to the Krishnaite legend before being introduced into the life of Sakya [Buddha] on that : it is infinitely better motived in the former than in the latter.3-A). 4 3 the parallel between 5 and 6 from "enemies of the Gods.

though doubtless he would have given Wilson's passage fully Its effect is so different if he had been able to lay his hands on it. he continues: of his earlier " Their Christian origin is as little to be One 1 doubted as the conclusion [Ind. in the words of Wilson (quoted in Mrs. which we have discussed in Krishnaism the foregoing sections. who cited . Up. and in particular the vital importance of faith. my Abh.'" 2 Weber quotes Wilson at secondhand from an Indian magazine. Krishnaite and Christist Doctrine. that the divisions of the Christian Church originated the doctrine of the Hindus. p. were directly [sic] influenced by Indian sects favour. or. : "It is impossible to avoid noticing in the double doctrine of the Gita an analogy to the double doctrine of the early Christian Church and the same question as to the merits of contemplative and practical religion engendered many differences of opinion and observance in the first ages of Christianity. was influenced by the acquaintance made by the Indians with the corresponding teaching of Christianity'. 434 cp. after enumerating the alleged myth-imitations. 423] that ' in general the later exclusively monotheistic tendency who worship a particular personal God. therefore. it is not at all unlikely that the speculations of those schools were reagitated and remodified in the general stimulus which Chrisand it is not tianity seems to have given to metaphysical inquiry . but she states fairly enough that Wilson only " hints " his opinion and this the Professor overlooks. Speir. p. it is true. p. 165. in particular its insistence on the need and value of " faith. 1 Above. of the i." and its monotheistic view of its deity. pray for his and trust in him (bhakti and sraddlw). statements of this opinion has been already cited. at the same time. : ' the diffusion of the Christian religion. Studien. She made the blunder of writing " directly " for " indirectly ". it will be seen. ilber die Rdmdtdp. it would not follow.— 254 CHRIST AND KRISHNA It decide that such theories are untenable. and there is no reason to doubt that in all essential respects the Hindu schools arc of a much earlier date . 277. § 19. remains to investigate the theory of doctrinal as distinct from mythical assimilations. 360). that the remodelling of the ancient Hindu systems into popular forms. maintained it to the last. 339 . These discussions. and had long pervaded the East before the commencement of our era . . Mrs. In the "Birth Festival" and he has treatise. borrowed from Christianity certain of its leading doctrines. when quoted in full that it is well so to transcribe it Here. Professor in addition to the mythical narratives Weber has more than once advanced the opinion that. Speir's Life in Ancient India. pp. 2 Treatise cited. grew out of the admixture of the Platonic philosophical notions with the lessons of Christianity.

and the thought of him in his mind. it 1 will be seen. See also Works. 368. 31=Works. Before we come to a decision on the point at issue. with certain sectarial marks. ii. but the question is a very dubious one. if in any. Natural Religion." This. or any other favourite deity. not only obviates the necessity of virtue. vol. if he spends hours in the simple reiteration of his name or names if he die with the word Hari or Rama or Krishna on his lips. note). In a later letter to Dr. though he there says that the doctrine of the efficacy of bhakti seems to have been an important innovation upon the primitive system of the Hindu religion " (Art. 214-215. And Prof. Philos. in review of Schlegel's trans. and which Weber holds to be without doubt entirely In his Oxford lectures Wilson declares that in the derived thence. . ." Wilson. 1883. were indirectly influenced by the diffusion of the Christian religion. his breast. Orient. Oxford. but it sanctifies vice. Eng. what it was exactly that Wilson understood by the doctrine of which he thought might possibly be indirectly influenced by Christianity. iv. It is well to keep in mind that while Krishnaism. Wilson. pp. Lectures on the Beligious Practices of tlie Hindus. i. 1840. He gives a certificate of merit to Sivaism as against Krishnaism. if he brands his skin permanently with them with a hot iron stamp if he is constantly chanting hymns in honour of Vishnu or. Thus the Brahman reformer Chaitanya. of Anc. Rev. of the Bhagavat Gita. makes a positive assertion where Wilson expressed himself very cautiously and doubtfully. and inaccurate quotation of his words. iii. p. v. 24. and does not meet (having apparently not seen) Wilson's propositions as to the antiquity in India of the general pantheistic doctrine which 2 prevailed in the East before Christianity. too (Hist. pp. what is equally efficacious. March. Conduct is wholly immaterial. 209. 1899. who flourished in the sixteenth century. 75. 2 ''Wilson's theory that the bhakti of the later Hindu sects is essentially a Christian doctrine. 79). Cp. of Ind. Muir might well write " I am not aware in which. Neve. made "discipline of the intellect and a surrender of all to Krishna" one of his main positions. it may be well to see faith. if he paints his face. in Indian Antiquary. 3 Two . : ' ' vol. I find no express statement to this effect in his Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus. India. he speaks yet again of 1 Calcutta. Max Miiller. his arms. H. without bringing forward any important new facts. and whose movement still flourishes in Bengal. Puranas the doctrine of the sufficiency of faith is " carried to the very utmost abuse of which it is susceptible. It is highly desirable that this subject should be further investigated. or. Quart. Garbe notes how in the Bhagavat Gita Krishna is made to utter the highest practical ethic. Weber. it has similarly been turned to higher ends. reprinted in Works. It matters not how atrocious a sinner a man may be. had no such opinion. 156-7. of his writings Professor Wilson may have expressed the opinion that the Indian tenet of bnakti is essentially Christian. 100. Lit. which is better. p. 1875. like Christism. p. he is certain of . he may have lived a monster of iniquity. as we have seen.' KRISHNAITE AND CHRISTIST DOCTRINE 255 impossible that the attempts to model the ancient systems into a popular form. by engrafting on them in particular the vital importance of faith. can be turned to the account of lawlessness. declares that "it is the worship of Krishna that has chiefly countenanced and furthered the moral degradation of the Hindus. ed. Les epoques litteraires de VInde. p. Weber's misunderstanding as to Wilson's view on bhakti seems to have become a fixed idea." 3 H. John Muir on the subject. p." The Professor does not appear to bring this thesis into connection with his argument that Krishnaism has borrowed doctrines as well as myths from Christianity. heaven. Entire dependency on Krishna. tr. Weber. vol. is a very different deliverance is and also from what Wilson made to say in the incomplete from Weber's. Dr.

and to have come as far as the Indies." This startling proposition. Pantsenus. then following the sense. pp. which is nominally supported by citation of the general opinions of Weber. and of Chrysostom as to an " Indian translation of the fourth Gospel. and of which he pieced into his work many passages (if not textually. whose position is that " the author [of the Gita] knew the New Testament writings. and the Persians. Hist. 2 1873. Nor is it incumbent on rationalists to object that such a derivation brings small credit to Chris- tianity.). The statements in question are those of Eusebius as " to the mission of Pantaenus. had preached. and advanced even as far as India. October. and had left them the Gospel of Matthew in the Hebrew. (The argumentative appendix has been translated in part in the Indian Antiquary. vol. v. to whom Bartholomew. F. 2. however. and the Egyptians. with the New Testament. Now.— 256 It . so far as he thought fit. And the report is that he there found his own arrival anticipated by some who were acquainted with the Gospel of Matthew. The narrative of Eusebius is as follows 1 : salvation by faith " The tradition is. was finally at the head of the Alexandrian school. a German translator of the Gita. iibersetzt und erlautert von Dr. he used. Lorinser. that he was constituted a herald of the Gospel to the nations of the East. which was also preserved until this time. and the Indians. there are decisive reasons for rejecting such a view. to increase divine word. that this philosopher was then in great eminence He is said to have displayed such ardour and so zealous a disposition respecting the divine word. and possibly of the Joannine epistles. reveals that the doctrine of is already fully laid down in the Bhagavat Gita and the Christian hypothesis involves the conclusion that that famous document is a patchwork of Christian teaching. F. rests deductively on early Christian statements as to the introduction of Christianity into " India. which. and the Ethiopians. . 1 Die Bhagavad-Gita. i. An impartial inquiry.) Eccles. in Europe. 10 (Bohn trans. 1869. 272." 2 their inspired zeal after the apostolic example. Of these The statement of Chrysostom. 283-296. p. and that that is of all Christian doctrines the one which may with most plausibility be held to have originated. who were ardently striving to employ and build up the Pantcenus is said to have been one. There were even there yet many evangelists of the word. though these facts have hitherto not been observed or pointed out by anyone. Breslau. after many praiseworthy deeds. Its most confident and systematic expositor is Dr." and inductively on a number of parallels between the New Testament and the Gita. one of the apostles. is that " the Syrians. and adapting it to his Indian fashion of composition). again. Lorinser. CHRIST AND KRISHNA cannot be denied that all this bears a very close resemblance to the practical applications of the Christian doctrine of faith in European history.

quoted by Mosheim. Holstein. Georg. There the reference is clearly not to India proper. to Ethiopia. 5 Catal. Adv. were taught. the teacher of Clemens Alexandrinus. to east Persia and south Arabia. Hist. 40. which was con- — J stantly called India 1 by the ancients.) Cp. Pantsenus.C. who in Homer's time. Lucan. ii. used as loosely by the ancients as that of India and the evidence of Jerome further varies from that of Eusebius in 5 stating that the " Indians " had sent delegates to Alexandria asking for a Christian instructor. p. Lorinser seems entirely unaware that the names " India " and " Indians " were normally applied by ancient writers to countries and peoples other 3 than India proper. Egypt. Ser. The Indian translation of which he had knowledge must have existed at least a hundred years earlier. 282. 1. but it has been made the occasion of much dispute as to what country it was that Pantsenus visited. accordingly surmised that the mission was to Ethiopia or Abyssinia. iii. Diodor. Gr. as Ethiopians. ffln. cited by Mosheim. Yet not only is this general fact notorious. in S. Virgil and others signify by India just the East. pp. in short. are both heard of otherwise and still in existence. ii. though bar- barians. rationally arguing lix. Apoc. ii (i) 2. Supplic. to all dark-skinned peoples.' and innumerable other The most surprising point about this argument is that Dr. T." (Von Bohlen. i. Ecclesiast. and Libya. disappears when we consider that all the translations here specified by name. In any case. 172. in Cap. That Indian Brahmans should have sent such a deputation is simply inconceivable. 29. Mosheim wrote that most of the learned had held it to be Eastern India proper an. x. ii. Chrysostom would not here have explicitly named the Indians if he had not had positive knowledge of an existing translation in their language." 4 Epist. c. Chrysostom died in the year 407 A." the addition peoples. 268-9. and that Bishop Demetrius sent Pantsenus. Gentes. however. i. : 3 " S . Mosheim. Cod. . Arnobius. ix. Joann. 669. 12 and Lucan. 9-10. Das alte Indien. After the time of Herodotus the name India was applied to all lands in the southwestern world. 23. Lorinser comments : " It may be argued that the significance of this testimony ' is weakened by This apprehension. had already brought this knowledge to the West. du Manichceisme. 116. Von Bohlen states that the name India first appears among the Greeks in ^Eschylus. the words running " I hear that the wandering Indians ride on pannier packed camels fleet as steeds. of whom we know that he had himself been in India. 32). v.— KRISHNAITE AND CHRISTIST DOCTRINE and innumerable into their (pvpia) 257 other peoples. Horn. Scriptor. 404. citing Virg. in their land bordering on the Ethiopians. 31." 1 On this latter record Dr. however. with the single exception of the Indian. Work cited. and others. i. as he was sent apud Brachma?ias. 517. 705. Fabric. N. The origin of this translation may thus possibly go back to the 2 first or second century after Christ. 2 Comm. opinion countenanced by the statement of Jerome that Pantasnus A But the name Brachman was. 36. by his [John's] teachings translated own language. further pointed out. were allotted the whole horizon (Lichtrand) of the South. Apparently. even orthodox opinion finally coming round to the view that it was not India at all. 83. Vales. 129. viii. Beausobre. but most commonly it stands for southern Arabia and Ethiopia. to be philosophers. (Migne. for the knowledge of it to reach him in those days.

! — 258 that the CHRIST AND KRISHNA Hebrew translation of Matthew must have been used by Jews. Lorinser's argument. fcl much :'. a " the fact that even Tertullian. like so many other Hindu writings. 206-7." In any case. even if have 1 the " Indies" of Eusebius had meant India. Dr. in a piquant passage. because he held that to been the scene of Bartholomew's " Indian " labours. pp. Hterete*. Barthol.j. c. in Mem Mardock't note admissions of v. which he located in Arabia Felix. it a it testimony of Chrysostom. formerly dated great epic. it '. Cappadocia. Asia.Ll. the testimony face of is on the mere tradition. re can be no doubt that. Dr. as we shall see when we examine his " parallel passages. so long as we recognize the absurdity of the view that the locality was India. I .. it Ostensibly an episode in the bharata. i probably only wont to Yemen. nor yet Jerome. decided that the delegates came from a Jewish-Christian colony. The same arguments. now is all only known to the Brahmans. Adv. to begin with. may say at Commentaries on the Affair* of Tn Vit. Indeed. i. him. note (citing Tille60-1). />. Medes." He admits. 110). dispose of the unquestionably alluded to some of Asia or Africa many it peoples of Western If further disproof of lies in commonly dubbed Indians. jther in one of those spoken by the people or in Sanskrit. neither Chrysostom nor Eusebius. . and Pamphylia " the whole Pentecostal series does not say a word of India . that it is impossible to say in what dialect the translation was made. 7. Pontus. and of Qieseler {Compendium. cast in the form of ited as a dialogue which is . ( the // * Eeelee. stands out from the rest of that taking place between Krishna I huge poem a-. 8 Advertut toiii Judaot. Lorinser's initial assumption be needed.* and that Irenaeus in his allegation as to the spread of the faith does not do so either. p. the who need hardly be said. involved in the difficulty of fixing the time of the com\ion of the Gita from either internal or external evidence. It matters little which view we take here.cally too early. pretends that the "Indians" had a complete translation of the books of the New Testament and nothing less than a complete translation in an Indian tongue is wanted for Dr. in his sufficiently eping catalogue of the nations that had embraced Christianity list which includes Parthians. parti c. theological treatise. I note*). Elamites. Compare the Quellen$ammlimo 1840. In the original. and the warrior Arjuna on the eve 1 of a great battle. Lorinser observes that it one (gleichgiiltig) to No doubt An argument for the derivation of the teaching in the Bhagavat Gita from the New Testament has the advantage. then as — — . Armenia. Phrygia. Heealso Hittory. who 8. jo. 2 Cent. and the people of Mesopotamia. c.

xii. 5. 6. and who argues persuasively for its antiquity.ix. 3 P. it remains to be seen whether he succeeds any better in his argument from resemblance. K. . Lorinser's thesis is thus far unhampered by any effective objections Where that period begins. even of the gospels.— KEISHNAITE AND CHRISTIST DOCTRINE 259 once that I cannot regard it as having been composed at the same time as the portion of the poem in which it is inserted. and an "Indian" translation of part of the New Testament. Telang took up a stronger position but even there he declared: "I own I find it quite impossible to satisfy myself that there are more than a very few facts in the history of Sanskrit literature which we are entitled to speak of as historically certain'" (p. -22. well worthy the attention of those who are disposed for a further investigation of the subject. The earlier essay. Dr. however. not to speak of the entire canon. vii). It is morally certain that no such translation existed. ^Gita. 2. Mr. Telang's contention that the Gita belongs to a period before that of the system1 — makers indeed. but pantheistically treated. pp. 1SS2. and another to regard it as a portion of the " original Mahabharata. viii. His argument from history being thus annihilated. however. which Dr. ' between Krishna's declarations on the one hand that to him " none is hateful. it is still impossible to say with any approach to precision and. 2 Introd. the able Hindu scholar who has translated it for the " Sacred Books of the East " series. very doubtfully to the view that it is a genuine "portion 2 Where he is diffident the rest of us of the original Mahabharata. It must. as Weber remarks. it really owes nothing to Christianity. and we have seen how it breaks down in respect of the patristic testimony to the existence of an "Indian" mission. T." must be disbelieving. 1S75). Lorinser strangely seems to think is covered by his quotation from Chrysostom. In the introduction to bis earlier translation of the Bhagavat Gita in blank verse (Bombay. the flat contradiction. Lorinser's arguments. . Mr. to which he alludes. . 5 Id. however." It is not easily to be believed that a piece of writing in which Krishna is not only represented as the Supreme Deity." and on the other hand that a whole 4 this even raises a doubt as to the good are " dear " to him homogeneity of the document. even if the Gita were composed within the Christian era. It is not difficult to show that. from Hindu chronology. Telang. confessedly holds "not without diffidence" indeed. But it is one thing to reckon the Gita ancient. contains a very able and complete refutation of Dr. It must surely belong to the — series of doers of period of his Brahmanic acceptance. can belong originally to the epic in which he is a heroic demigod. stand criticism on its own merits. There is much force in Mr. 12. The derivation of the Gita's teaching from the Christian 1 Vol. none dear. in the first Christian centuries. .

8. . . have passed Arjuna and ! know whence . not whence I came. know you also. unto you that every one that woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. they are one's speaks] birth . I have made this quite impartially. is iii. and picking out the remainder because of their comparative importance. that I should bear witness unto the truth. : God. v. 28.. 37. knowand Titus as regards all knowledge. the sense coincides teristic expression of the . from the beginning. I know them all. Because . 12. Thou art not yet fifty years old. Later Id. iii.e. point. The context clearly ought to be kept in view. I stand that you declared : [Krishna answers] I through many births. and second admonition] refuse ing that such a one 10-11. being self -condemned. 57. sinneth.— CHRIST AND KRISHNA Dr. 1 New {First Order. He divides : them into three classes (l) passages in which. Telang ally given in brackets parts of a passage elided by Dr. 1 and I have occasionI have followed throughout the prose translation of Mr. for the To this this end have I I been born. Lorinser claims to prove by about one hundred in 260 Scriptures parallel passages. and ruined. know them to be devoid of 32. New worse light : Bhagavat Gita. (2) passages in which a characTestament appears with a different and (3) passages in which expression and meaning application The nature of these " coincidences " can be best set forth coincide. Every sense has its affections and to aversions towards for its objects fixed. taking the majority consecutively as they happen to stand at the heads of the sections. with differences of . 4.) I say Testament. Lorinser as not bearing on his. but you. How then shall I underfirst? The Jews therefore said unto him. The devil sinneth John xviii. restraining the organs of action. Id. iii. that ye should obey the lusts thereof Romans vi. But those who carp at my opinion and do not act upon it. It would be easy to make a selection which would put Dr. One should not become them. subject Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body. I came. and whither the Jews] I go but ye [i. The deluded man who. I iv. 14. selected from nearly which Gita sentences are matched by texts all the New Testament books. viii. destruction of evil-doers and for the and the estab- end am come into the world. 6. opponents. do not know them. its A man that is heretical [after a first . is the mind etc. continues to think in his looketh on a mind about objects of sense. is discrimination. or whither I go. 1 John iii. [Arjuna [Krishna's] your the the birth of (this) sun is prior. Matt. terror of your foes. by a simple selection of about a score of them. 7. deluded perverted. 8. iv. and to protection of the good. of the flesh is enmity against 34. Lorinser's case in a much expression. am born age after age. and hast thou seen Abraham ? John viii. called a hypocrite. ment of piety. iii.

March. let and take up his cross. Rom. [the word] certainly signifies the place reached by going. is ruined. John Muir. 1877. yoke is easy. 2. 6. 17. Lorinser] iii. [Compare ~\ actions. and Living One behold I am alive for evermore. vii. rejected Dr.) To the man above all vii. and Matt. I am not manifest to all.. xiv.' 'refuge. John v. is and whose is full of mis- shall be saved shall be but he that disbelieveth givings. John (Third Order. 5. (Second Order. 80. the grandsire. none dear. and he is dear to me. 21. John me xiv. : [. he it is that] loveth and I will love him. 18. 17-18. ii. der Weg" is in am the way No one cometh Lorinser 1 ] than which there vii. 40. and the inexhaustible seed] I cause . I should be ruining these 23-4. and I have the keys of death and of Hades] I the life . nothing unto the Father.. the receptacle. divine knowledge] is to be apprehended directly.' : ' 'resort. released [" from blasphemed. iv). 18. I Titus ii.e. and I work. Lorinser's translation of "way" and anticipates Telang's "Here. . condemned. the mother. and sendeth rain 1 Dr.'" Indian Antiquary. hateful. Rev. the creator. is 261 baptized] ignorant and devoid of self iv. 24. of He [that hath my commandments. son of Pritha !] If I did not perform actions. seen God at any time. 26. any time not engage without sloth in action [men would follow in my path from all sides. 1875 (vol. the lord. knowledge I am dear things. To me none ix. and keepeth them. i. 16. the means of sanctification. people. Tijdschr. 6. My light. the residence. xvi. xi. 30. theasylum. and is easy to practise. Mark xvi. hath seen. the supervisor. p. never see death] that the word of God be not . than whom there is no higher authority in this country. Saman. the thing to be known. am . n. For should My Father worketh even until now. nor can It [i. in Theolog. Whom 1 no Tim. the Rik. 51. ix. No man hath John see. me higher. p. KEISHNAITE AND CHBISTIST DOCTEINE He who faith. present. and Yajus also] the goal [the sustainer. Professor Tiele. evil i. Even those men who mine are [" die always act on this opinion of full of faith.4s against passage in brackets] come after me. 75. his sun to rise He maketh [on the and the good]. these worlds would be destroyed. and " all without carping in lastern nicht If a man keep my word [he shall John viii. the . 31. 11. 18. the friend] the source and that in which it merges [the support. is He that believeth [and . as in many other passages of the Indian writings. and future). and no one cometh unto the John xiv. but by me. the syllable Om ( = past. iii. I at . To the same effect. way [and the truth. Father but by me] "I am the first and the last [and the and I was dead. . man vi. 17. There is no respect of persons with God. my burden I am [the father of this universe. any man would him deny himself If Matt. I should be the cause of caste inter- minglings. the goal the preceding sentences of the epistle. 29.

and we thine. and unto him.] ix. iv. . 19. : ' : : ' : ' . the beginning. I ix. I x. so strained and farfetched are they and that on the other they are discounted by quite could be . and also death I. " They who devoutly worship me are in me. 8. 288-9) is a long sentence declaring that the contemner of right conduct is " deserted by God " and in the end " is utterly destroyed. however he may be eateth me. are in you as if fighting in coats of mail And in viii. PLATO. Amor. 33). so] he that lives in me. 20. 36. Rom. and the ruler is always to be preferred to the servant. O Arjuna am that which is and ! that which ing in one] . things.) 2 Dr. . is is willing. 23. which serves. v (Jowett's tr. 28. parallels. and . Lorinser also brackets the Christian " I am the Alpha and the Omega " with the Gita's " I am A among the letters" (x. Telang points out (B. SENECA. he also shall live because of living". 29. thou art ours. and I send forth [I CHRIST AND KRISHNA and stop showers. 57. 8 We. and the middle also of all beings. 47. G. The unruly passions of anger and desire are contrary and inimical CICERO. B. I John in vi. nor can she be preserved.' " (. as striking parallels between pagan writings. [That devotee all who worships me abidis [As the living Father sent me. p. Lorinser is that on the one hand the parallels are very frequently such as made by the dozen between bodies of literature which have unquestionably never been brought in contact.— ' . Laws. it is said O Indra. But Mr. which rules. 32. in verse. Var. : [In B. 5. and in viii.. For of him. [on the just and the unjust] v. he hath no other kinship '. vi. 17. Muir " Tn the Rig Veda some passages occur which in part convey the same or a similar Thus in ii. and I live beings. 142. and they in be perfected me [that they may into one] am am the origin of all. 45. iv of the Laws (Jowett. Introd. are all on through me. and I in them. . Though you may take care of her body. xiv. In every man there are two parts the better and superior part. 18. xlviii. above : He who means to do an injury has already done it. 10. 4 xliii. x. 298). x them. p. 30. Ant. O Agni. the [coerced wife's] mind adulterous. and the end The first comment that must occur to every instructed reader on perusing these and the other " parallels " advanced by Dr. Tusculan Questions. and his family and city with him. v. 3. and through him. Hist. in New Testament texts and pre-Christian Take a few of the more notable of these latter the order in which the New Testament passages occur i. and all moves John xvii. Why should not the Brahmans have studied the prophets ? 1 writes idea. to the As to the passage. lam the first and the last. as cited. Matt. is not. 12. O Gods. we sages have been in thee '."] reason. 1 This worshipper.' Rev." Dr. unless she iii. Not only is he who does evil bad. the worshipper says to Indra. trans. 12. and in x. Note that the Deity is already "the first and the last" in Isaiah (so-called)— xli. OVID. 81. and I too in them. . 4. me. hath been in thee O son of strength. De Ira.Bid. am immortality. Iv) that the Indian writer merely takes A as the principal letter. But those who worship me with devotion (dwell) in me. 262 beat. i. v. holding that all because of the Father . 80. iELIAN. 5. 11. 2 xi. but also he who thinks to do evil. and the worse and inferior part.

2 Latvs." thus stated: "Let no man do to another that which would be repugnant to himself this is the sum of righteousness. 52-5. VIRGIL. (Jowett. Such parallels as these. SENECA. the rest is according tO inclination. but only to the good. Hymn It is enough for God xlvii. will be found a number of extracts from the Mahabharata and other Sanskrit works. on the Christian theory. Four hundred years before Jesus. to be a means of oblivion of and a rest from cares. Dissert. OVID. Zeus Zeus : shall be. Jesus and his followers were indebted to pagans for very much of their ethical teaching —as indeed it the compilers of the gospels were unquestionably indebted for a good theological ideas. to iv. I repeat. i. PLATO. 70. v. and the producer of things in whatever way they happen in the world. haws. HESIOD. God comes Epist. 73. . men nay. CALLIMACHUS. any extent from the Greek and Latin classics alone while the Egyptian is it "Book to of the Dead" furnishes of many more. must have been borrowed from the Gospels. v.KRISHNAITE AND CHRISTIST DOCTRINE I [Cyrus] 263 am persuaded I i. 50. all CICERO. Herodotus. Agam. which. 16796). of Jove he cherishes the earth my songs are his care. to Apollo. 60. v. ills. Eclogues. PHILEMON. expect no reciprocity"? (iii. The Gods look with just eyes on mortals. 1270) we have: "The Gods regard with delight the man who when struck does not strike again. Lorinser's principle. himself unseen. not to speak of the narrative myths. when they promote the welfare of others. EPICTETUS. Plato declared that it was very difficult all religious systems that 2 rise 1 In Dr. iv (Jowett's tr. Thus in the epic (v. cause of all. in PAUSANIAS. Laios. De Natura Deorum. PSEUD. middle. that he be worshipped and loved. All things are full all What can be done by mortals without 1461-5 (1484-8). what is closer. and end. he comes into them. for he is like to him. : . 14. i. xcv. Theogony. The temperate man is the friend of God. Cp. am born by divine providence to undertake this work. B.) Zeus was. of that is. Epist. Zeus? ^SCHYLUS. 289). B. God is verily the saviour of all. SENECA. The Muses whom Mnemosyne bare. 126. iii. It is plainly as native to the Indian poet as is the "Golden Rule. 11." If this be Christian (it is at least as old as Plato see the Gorgias) whence came this: "The good. Beligious and Moral Sentiments freely translated from Indian Writers (published in Thomas Scott's series)." But most Christians are kept carefully in ignorance of the fact that the " Golden Rule " is common to all literatures. Frag. research or reflection sions in is many of their needed to make clear But no great that certain common1 places of ethics as well as of theology are equally inevitable conclu- above savagery. holding in his hand the beginning. John Muir's valuable little pamphlet. God is within you. x. Not to every one doth Apollo manifest himself. ( . PLATO. 12. and was an ancient saw in China long before the Christian era. Metamorph. 9. 14. Pythagoras thought that there was a soul mingling with and pervading things. doer of . seeing all things.ARISTOTLE. all God. De Mundo. 288. Ancient Song. God. is. xiii. 18. 6. But worth while heap up the disproof a thesis so manifestly idle? On Dr. Zeus. could be multiplied to .

He further implies that the Hindu had read the book of Wisdom in the Septuagint 1 2 It I . inconsistent) pantheism while Christianity was but vaguely absorbent The law of religious development in of the pantheism around it. that the Hindu system is immeasurably removed from the Christian in its whole theosophical inspiration. of the second gospel and the earlier form of the first. might be quite independent of borrowing ? If all this were not clear enough a priori. p. Ant. 82) that he thinks the author of the Gita may have profited by a study of the Christian fathers. appears from Dr. like the Christism this regard is simple. including some which lay at the root of Buddhism as that of the religious yoke being easy though utterly rejecting the Christian doctrine of atonement and blood sacrifice Plato's help to reach the . A crude and naif system. while assimilating absolutely choosing to borrow nothing of distinctively Christian doctrine from the Christians their expressions of doctrines which had been in the world for centuries. and its mass of myth and ritual. as Clemens Alexandrinus and Athenagoras. borrows inevitably from the more highly evolved systems with which it comes socially in contact. as Christianity supplanted Europe. pantheistic and other. in turn of those of northern Cited by Dr. was Christianity capable of dominating Hindu Brahmanism. But not even at the height of its influence. as well as from the general drift of its exposition. Jew needed — — and the Christian claim as a whole.264 CHRIST AND KRISHNA : for the rich to be good does anyone believe that any thoughtful same notion ? Nay. Such a position is possible 2 Even were Brahmanic India in only to a mesmerized believer. much less in the second century. with its ingrained pantheism. Christian or post-Christian. doctrinal communication with Christendom at the time in question. dominating primitive systems. pointed out to Dr. Lorinser's notes (p. does anyone even doubt that such a close coincidence as the comparison of the human soul to a team of horses in the Katha Upanishad and 1 Plato's Phaedrus. it lies on the face of the case that the Brahmanic theosophy was already elaborated out of all comIt had reached systematic (even if parison with the Christian. Lorinser by Professor Windisch. it is unmixedly Hindu. as last cited. it is sufficiently obvious from the context of most of the passages quoted from the Gita. Muir in Ind. sanctioned in whole or in part by Be the Gita prerote-learnt lore of the most venerable antiquity. 78. absorbing myth and mystery and dogma It then becomes capable till it becomes as sophisticated as they. which we have seen it was not. We are asked to believe that Brahmans expounding a highly developed pantheism went assiduously to the (unattainable) New Testament for the wording of a number of their propositions.

In pp. 11. development under Christism in a decaying society. so demoralizing in practice . India of a doctrine so profoundly immoral in principle. that faith in divine protection is expressed in the early documents of other Eastern systems sufficiency of devotion. 14. Lorinser considers (p. Psalms. my his friendship and guidance are said to be sweet . 1. 103 ff. in which the spirit of subjection had eaten away the better part of all self-reliance . never occurred to either theorist to ask how the doctrine of salvation by faith came to be developed in Christism. vii. Zeph. to say that the principle is already clearly indicated in the prophets similar social conditions elsewhere. noted by Plato (to It found special inevitable phase of all systems at some stages. 7-10. which often occur in the Bhagavat Gita. xxvi. do not convey original Indian conceptions. and affectionate regard for. the germs of For though we cannot trace its full lie the stages by which the doctrine of faith reached it development. is name no other). and that the tendency to believe in the alland the needlessness of personal merit. Take the testimony of Dr. I . participial and verbal) is found even in the hymns of the Rig Veda in the sense of belief in the existence and action of a deity. iii. together with a great variety of other expressions in which the worshipper's trust in. Jer. Isa. first we do know that in the Veda. but sraddhd (together with its cognates. but. John Muir : "Dr. credit to Christianity if it were responsible for the introduction into. the historic facts discountenance all the hypothesis. * 265 When it is thus seen that all the arguments to prove imitation of the Gospels in the Bhagavat Gita are baseless. but are borrowed from Christianity. of Original Sanskrit Texts a number of passages are cited and translated in which the word occurs. The very proposition betrays some It has of the " judicial blindness " laboured under by Dr. and is in some degree really an . vassim. the God Indra are indicated. Nahuro i. 3. as it happens. if not also of devotion to his service. he is spoken of as a father 1 Micah iii. and just such a state of things can be seen to have existed in many It would be small parts of India from the earliest historic times. 12. He is called a friend and brother the fifth volume of .— KEISHNAITE AND CHRISTIST DOCTRINE 4. 7. . at least. Lorinser. it is hardly necessary to deal at any length with Weber's favourite general argument as to the necessary derivation of the doctrines of bhakti and sraddhd from Christianity. This may or may not be true of bhakti . or whether the same religious tendencies could not give rise to the same phenomenon in cannot burden this already over-lengthy treatise with an examination of the development of the It must suffice Christian doctrine of faith from the Judaic germs. 56) that two Sanskrit words denoting faithful and reverential religious devotion (sraddhd and bhakti).

in verse. the verdict of Professor Max Miiller — : : clearly Here then we have in the Upanishads the idea of bhakti or devotion pronounced and as no one has yet ventured to put the date of the Svetasoatara Upanishad later than the beginning of our era. 423). then will they shine forth indeed. — demonstrated. it is clearly impossible to admit here the idea of an early Christian influence. p. 260." He adds in this connection certainly weighty. 84-85. who feels the highest devotion {bhakti) for God. xv. Telang. " even if chronologically Christian influences were possible" at the date of the Gita." "It is strange that these 1 Indian Antiquary. cites other Vedie " The opinion that not only did Christian legends find an entry among the Indian sects of later times. and has no hesitation about pronouncing Krishna a historical personage. 2 Trans. as cited. 1876. 35) — seems to me unjustified. 66. ' Uefde)." 8 Similarly Professor Richard Garbe. These remarks are endorsed by Mr. iv. (Chicago. :. 2nd ed.' yet this has already in very old sources the sense of consecration' (toewijding). the Professor observes that. 5 Mtiller's trans. viytlie et i. 99. because 4 its earliest appearance is in a time for which Christian influences in India have not yet been Noting that the principle of love and intimacy with the Gods is found in the very earliest 5 portions of the Rig Veda. but that even peculiarly Christian ideas is to say. trans. 4 The Philosophy of Ancient India." . finally. 1877. p. Art. and as being both a father and a mother he is the helper of the poor." Take. pp. Also in Dr. in Sacred Books of the East. ments. " cannot adopt the opinion that the bhakti was transplanted from a foreign land into the exceedingly fertile soil of Indian thought. ' ' ' Already in the Rig Veda there is frequent mention of faith (sraddhd) in the same sense as is given to that word later and although we cannot speak actually of bhakti." 1 . in Theologische Tijdschrift. bhakti. who 2 passages and again by Tiele : . Muir's pamphlet Beligious and Moral Senti81. Eng. who accepts uncritically enough Weber's theorem of the derivation of parts of the Krishna myth from the Gospels. then they will shine forth. p. p. he cites from the Svetasoatara Upanishad a pantheistic passage which concludes " If these truths have been told to a high-minded man. and after him by Neve (Des tUments etrangers du du culte de Krichna. vi. introd. which there as yet only means division or apportionment. G Natural Religion. lxxxii. 'fidelity' (tromv). Paris. that the Hindus acquired from the Christians their high veneration for piety or devotion.— 266 — CHKIST AND KRISHNA and the most fatherly of fathers. G. that — Studien. sraddhd as is contended by Weber {Indisclie exercised an influence on their dogmatics or philosophy. Christ us en Krishna. and faith. "there is no necessity for admitting them. 1899). 'love resting on belief (op geloof rustende . 1850. and has a love for mortals. and as for God so for his Guru. p. . of B. " Further.

Paris. 97." . though he admitted that it was not without weighty reasons that many 2 ecclesiastical historians held 1 Id. as cited. or " White Island.400. It only remains to say that in the rejection of 2 and Weber's own theory we are fully countenanced by M. Weber. scholar. we have already seen that the idea of the God entering into his worshippers existed in the Veda (as it notoriously did among the ancient Greeks and has done among primitives everywhere).. he thought it just possible that there had been an apostolic mission to India. 70). was a historic testimony. Lorinser to be of and the one rebuttal reinforces the other." For the rest. " because the tradition that the Apostle Thomas preached the Gospel in that country is an old one. This. ii. Lorinser. had there found a race of perfect men. had visited the Svetadvipa. Christian derivation . i. . pp. p. Barth that Dr. p. who followed Weber in assuming that the legend come. Ivdische Weber's view is shared by the French Catholic Streifen. at least highly probable. 24. received the knowledge of who worshipped the One God and had that God from a supernatural . Weber and others as a piece of genuine history and the T White Island" (which might also mean the "island of the w hite ones ") is assumed to be Alexandria. however. who says " It is even certain. 318-321 Indische Stndien. not the least paternally favoured is his interpretation of a certain mythic tale in 4 the Mahabharata. quoted bv Tiele. infirm theses so long cherished by Professor Weber. Ueber die Erislmajanmdshtami. have also seen how completely Weber was mistaken as to the opinion of Wilson. is fastened upon . surmised on the other hand that Svetadvipa would be Parthia. Neve. 4 xii. 342-3. The "White Island. . there voice. Senart. for no other reason than that Alexandria seems the likeliest place whence the knowledge of Christianity could 5 Lassen. Tijdschr." There is only one more proposition as to the influence of ChrisAmong the tianity on Krishnaism that calls for our attention. though that too was held by Dr. 223. It does not appear. TJieolog. to the effect that once upon a time Narada. 12702. which is not in the British Museum. however. 1876. that the White Island is Alexandria " {Des elements etrangers du mytlxe et du culte de Krichna. We § 20. pp. 218-220. 3 5 Essai.THE "WHITE ISLAND" scholars 267 should not see that what 1 is natural in one country is natural in another also. as cited." On the other hand. and before him other mythic personages. 21. the only record that can be pretended to look like a Hindu by mention of the importation of Christianity. p. to have added anything to the German arguments.91. Lorinser's special proposition is scouted by M. ff. Neve's book. Religions of India. pp. I have not been able to meet with M." beyond the " Sea of Milk ".

Christianity 1 I It will readily be believed that these favour with later investigators." " White horse. and as ekdnta. is all assumptions find small Telang in India. 1099-1101. . too." and "White blood. : was very early and yet that Brahmans went elsewhere to learn it so loosely can a great scholar speculate. xi] or any other country or region in this world. that the instruction which Narad receives in this wonderful land is not received from its inhabitants. from God himself. to the twenty-five primal principles. that Christianity imported by Christians into India. I think that it must be at once admitted that the whole of the prelection addressed to Narad bears on its face its essentially Indian character. On the contrary. which is . . [Sanskrit quoted. Tiele in Holland." In the Mahabharata legend the Yoga is represented as the source of the true knowledge hence it follows that both stories refer to the same thing. in the reference to the three qualities. Against all this what have we to consider ? Why. but from Bhagavan. and having four scholars. I should like to know what geography has any notion of the quarter of this earth where we are to look for the Sea of Milk and the Mount of Gold. It is worth noting only as a further sample of the same laxity that Lassen thought the hypothesis about Svetadvipa was put on firm ground (ei?ies festen Grundcs) by citing the fact that in the late Kurma Purana of the Kali there is a legend about Siva appearing in the beginning Yuga or Evil Age to teach the " Yoga " system on the Himalayas." "White hair. or the British Isles [this has been done by Colonel Wilford. " White. Consider next the description of the wonderful people inhabiting this wonderful Dvip. to the description of final emancipation as absorption or entrance into the Divinity.— 268 CHEIST AND KRISHNA the " India " of Bartholomew and Pantaenus to be Yemen. Mr. and who entered the sun. ! 1 Indisclie Alterthumskunde. Senart and Barth in France. reject them. . whatever that may mean Remember. who ate nothing. and above it by thirty-two thousand yojans. ii (1849). We are thus left to believe. or Asia Minor. Telang's criticism especially destructive : " I cannot see the flimsiest possible ground for identifying the Svetadvip of the legend with Alexandria. Asiatic Researches. The Dvip is in the first place stated to lie to the north of the Kshirasamudra and to the north-west of Mount Meru.] It will be news to the world that there were in Alexandria or elsewhere a whole people without any organs of sense. Nor let it be forgotten that the doctrines which the deity there announces to Narad cannot be shown to have any connection with Christianity. and various other matters of the like character. if we choose. nothing more than the description of the inhabitants as white.

Tiele emphatically endorses Telang " With all respect for such men as Lassen and Weber. into Ena. shows us. blank verse." of the The details as to the supernatural character of the inhabitants White Island. Belig. there a monotheistic revelation.] Svetadvipa is a land of fable. p.). are ignored by both Weber and Lassen. 4 2 3 Theolog. for instance. i. means monotheists (Sed qucere). All the places and persons in the legend are purely mythological Narada can as little as his predecessors be reckoned a historical personage. such as we meet and the white inhabitants. but from the supreme deity himself. 800. Equally explicit is the decision of M. are spirits of light. 221." " We are here in sheer mythology. at least the legend says nothing as to its being derived from Alexandria 2 or any other religious centre. Nasiketas going to the world of Yama ancient origin : influence. Professor Weber thinks. Senart : " It is certain that all the constituent elements of this story are either clearly mythological or. a paradise. [Quotes Telang. sq) that the Pandavas were the founders of the cult of VishnuKrishna. Who would venture to see in these white heroes." regards the Svetadvipa legend as 4 a "purely fanciful relation. Tijdschr. xsxiv-v. . And whencesoever the poet may have derived this monotheism. p. the manner of their application (the Katha Upanishad. It 1 appears to me that the story is a mere work of the imagination. and a vague memory of borrowings made from Christian doctrines. of India." 1 Bhagavat Gita trans. It is to seek philosophical instruction)." and that there were probably Christian Churches in India "before the redaction of the Mahabharata was quite finished.— THE " — WHITE ISLAND " 269 which. Essai. iv. but one only needs to glance at the words in which it is conveyed to perceive its Indian character. i. apart from any Christian another matter to inquire if the use made of the materials. The question cannot be definitively handled save on positive dates. It has been sought to show (Muir. cited. 342. be it observed. Alt. n." : .' whom Lassen holds on the other hand to be new comers from the West (Ind. even while admitting that Brahmans may have early " visited the Churches of the East. the representatives of a Christian influence on 3 the religious ideas of India?" preserves : ' And M. Barth in turn. 70. I can hardly conceive of such a species of historical criticism. Introd. who pursue : the Evemeristic method. not from the inhabitants. which we do not possess inductions are extremely perilous. sq. art. pp. Sanskrit Texts. a dwelling of the sun. p. of very both belong to India. betrays a Western influence. in the speculative parts. sq. 248. with in so many religious systems Narada receives exalted above personal needs.

270 CHRIST AND KRISHNA It is needless. avowed that no practical influence on Indian religion could justly be attributed to the Christian missionaries in the early centuries. 144-6 (ch. Anacalypsis. His assumption rested mainly on an 4 oversight of the archasologist Moor. The Crucifixion Myth. . is on its merits nothing short of grotesque. Godfrey Higgins. . i. that a crucifixion 2 Indische Alterthumskimde. The latter circumstance plainly proves nothing of the whatever for his case. Weber assumes the Hindus to have been influenced by Greek thought at and after the conquest of Alexander why then should they not have had the idea from Greek philosophy not to speak of Persia or Egypt before the Christian era? Even Lassen. In the Bhagavat Purana the slayer is the forester Bhil. ii. ii). While the Christian claim seems thus claim. for the rest. a scholar whose energy and learning too often missed their right fruition just because his work was a desperate revolt against a whole world of pious obscurantism. in the Krishnaite ritual. as last cited. In other connections. and the veneration of Narada. or into 1 the point raised by Weber as to the commemoration of the Milk Sea and the White Island. to go into the question of the manner "introduction" of the monotheistic idea into India. pp.. In the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana the slayer is the hunter Jara (=" old age. the slaying is unintentional but predestined. however. In both cases. 1836. 5 being slain by an arrow which pierced his foot. 3 5 . and rejected the 2 view that the Hindus derived monotheism from Christianity. who in collecting Hindu Godimages had a Christian crucifix presented to him as a native " Wittoba" a late minor Avatar commonly represented as pierced Krishna is indeed represented in the Puranic legend as in one foot. here comparing curiously with the solar Achilles of Hellenic mythology but he is not crucified and Moor later admitted that the figure in question which — . Ueber die Krishnaj. 1102-3-5-9. : — — § 21. but mention here. 416-20. A strenuous freethinker of the early part of last century. after Athanasius. was 1 Christian. and pi. 4 Hindu Pantheon. 98. a problem of calls for there incidentally arises. It is not at all certain. and that it was the missionaries who had contrived to withhold the fact from 3 general European knowledge." "decay"). unwittingly put rationalists on a false scent by adopting the view that Krishna had in an ancient legend been crucified. moreover. out of an equally mistaken countervailing which I cannot pretend to offer a solution. while holding the Christian theory of Svetadvipa. to collapse at all points. though he professes to be placed beyond doubt by it and the idea that Brahmans could derive the idea of monotheism from the Christians of Alexandria.

84. It is very true that in their book the cross is represented. when all the people worshipped them. the Portuguese Jesuit Andrade. 1 Histoire de ce qui c'est passe av Boyavme dv Tibet. though it appears that the Nepalese usage in question still flourishes. Hist. who. others of metals.. hands. They believe. testifies to the existence of a crucifixion myth in that country. He appends two woodcuts. These were usually in the churches. in which the cross seems wholly covered with leaves. La Croze. Andrade will be found cited by M. La Croze has a theory of Nestorian influences. 1 with nails. but without any cross. 2 Aluhabetum Thibetanum. in the triune God. all The later missionaries . 51. 1629. us in saying that Christ" [i. and to represent him as crucified. "which crosses in their language they call Iandar. 203. holding only that he died shedding his blood. only the upper part of the deity's body is seen. 1724. Paris. pp. strewing flowers and lighting lamps before them. p. Christ. Dr. d'ltalien en Francois. 514. knowing little or nothing of the his veins holy cross. and certain mystic letters which they cannot explain. declares on his own knowledge of Tibet that in Nepal it was customary in the month of August to raise in honour of the God Indra cruces amictas abrotono. p. which flowed from on account of the nails with which he was put to death. two months' journey off. 45-6. known as "the great book"] "died for the saving of the human race. to whom he gave money to make a cross and they told him that in their country. trad. but on five days in the year they were put on the public roads. du . the hands pierced. their Second Person. V. p. but give " They agree with. La Haye. and feet. and only the head." Andrade further testifies that there were three or four goldsmiths King of Tibet. As long ago doubt have far from certain as 1626. des Indes. suppressed what they conveniently could that we yet know the relevant and it is modern facts. 2 Godfrey Higgins reproduced and commented on those pictures." This evidence is remarkably corroborated in 1772 by the Jesuit Giorgi. One is a very singular representation of a crucifix. natives of other countries. In the other. with the arms extended. crosses wreathed with abrotonus. some of wood. and bearing the •sign Telech on forehead. the hands and feet as if pierced of the . but I find no discussion of the matter in recent writers. the forehead marked.e. in the very act of maintaining that all Krishnaism was a perversion of Christianity. hands. 1772. with a triangle in the middle. and feet of the crucified one appear. in his letters from Tibet to the General of his Order. Cp. the forehead bearing a rnark. 49-50. but they do not know the manner of his death. tells. there were many such crosses as his.THE CRUCIFIXION MYTH myth did not anciently nourish in Asia. as 271 did in we know one no pre-Christian Mexico. he him absurdly wrong names and . Eomae.

September at the present time " figures of Indra." in the Contemporary Review of April." and that the old Persian and Egyptian symbols seem to explain this by a figure of the sun or the God with " the sun of righteousness with healing in its outstretched wings it is seen to be perfectly possible that not merely the crosswings" symbol. 6 The Christian crucifixion story falls to be studied in other lights. Alphab. and afterwards named Sulastha. ii. however. The only suggestions of the cross in Krishnaism apart from its appearance in late sculpture or pictorial art are in the curious legend 3 the meeting point of three rivers in the story of trees. 69. should have about the city" 1 — i. and there appeared two Brahmans a tale form a cross —which would that the God was buried at — — which the indignant Giorgi held to be a perversion of the crucifixion 4 The story given by Wilford 5 of the of Christ between two thieves. i 3 4 ! . 1880. p. I am not aware that there has been any detailed discrimination of the genuine and the spurious in Wilford's compilations. but as the matter is never mentioned by Weber or other later Sanskritists it is presumably one of the frauds practised on Wilford by his pandits." is stated by the narrator to be told at great length in the " Sayadrichandra. When we note that the Persian Sun-God Mithra is imaged in the Zendavesta " with arms stretched 2 out towards immortality. one of which is indicated above. Balfour's Ind.e. Cycl. 314. but a crucifixion myth. 259). Oldfield erected all further details. or " cross-borne. — — flourished in ancient India. at a time when it had been generally superseded by the cult of And there is no suggestion that any Christian doctrine Krishna. 1st ed. Krishna. a section of the Scanda Purana. holy Brahman Mandavya. Giorgi held that the detail of Krishna's commending the care of his 1. 2 Mihir Yasht.600 wives to Arjuna was a fiction based on the records of the multitude of women 5 Asiatic Researches. 6 On this see Professor Max Miiller's article "On False Analogies in Comparative Theology. A. reprinted with his Introduction to the Science of Religion. connects with the usage described. 253. 1873. Sketches from Nepal.272 CHRIST AND KRISHNA states that in the Indra festival in August. This. goes for nothing as regards Krishnaism. Kathmandu — Weber would seem to . 31. Thib. who followed Christ from Galilee (p. are H. though Krishna was the supplanter of Indra. who was crucified among thieves in the Deccan. x. which is universal. and Yasoda binding the child Krishna to a tree. or to two The trees opened. art.. with outstretched arms. since he makes no allusion to it. but he gives no have entirely overlooked the The prima facie inference matter. 1870. have here a really ancient and extra-Brahmanical is that we development of the Indra cult since it is hard to conceive how any Christian suggestion should be grafted on that worship in particular." and to be given briefly in the Mahabharata and alluded to in the Bhagavat Purana " and its commentary ".

vi. 24 (22). viii. is clearly worthless. and another to know what were the results. It is impossible to 8 the reference of Juvenal that India say what is the force of to the " hired Indian. The cult of Krishna is proved by documentary evidence to have flourished in India before the Christian era. There is thus an overwhelming presumption in favour of the view that these myth-elements were Hindu property long before our 3. Other leading elements in the myth such as the upbringing God among herdsmen and herdswomen are found long before Christianity in the solar legend which attached to Cyrus while this myth and the story of the God's birth are found strikingly paralleled in the pre-Christian mythology of Greece and Egypt. and though there was visited by Apollonius § 22. 2. on which Wilson founds. On the one hand. of Vishnu Purdna. for instance. . Summary. In its pre-Christian form it presumptively. and no uncertainty." This confirms our previous argument as to the antiquity of the hero-God 1 2 4 . worships. SUMMARY Scientific criticism. Adversus Manichceos. Nat. vi. It may be convenient to sum up concisely the results. though it has developed somewhat and gained much ground since. xlvi. i {Hcereses. as to the embassies sant by Porus to Augustus. 3 Sat. Hist. 1. like so many . it is one thing to be convinced of the communication. Strabo. finally. 74 Pliny. positive and negative. earth and the stars". 585. Trans.. sive lxvi). It is worth noting that Pliny in this chapter says of the people of Taprobane (doubtless Ceylon) that " Hercules is the deity they worship. if not certainly. tations. They may be roughly classed under these two heads. of the foregoing investigation. and by 4 the king of " Taprobane " to Claudius. skilled as to the of is no great reason to doubt Tyana. Introd. — of the — era. That there was then " an active communication between India and the Red Sea " is indeed certain and it is arguable that Christism borrowed from Buddhism but the testimony of 2 Epiphanius. 1. No theory of influence in either direction can be founded on such transient contacts. . were it only because he uses the term " India " at random. p. xv. 273 cannot found on the opinion of Wilson Weber) to the effect that Gnostic Christian doctrines were borrowed from Hinduism in the (who is so often cited to other purpose by 1 second century. other ancient writers. contained some of the myth-elements which have been claimed as borrowings from Christianity such as the myth of Kansa and that myth was probably made the subject of dramatic represen- — .

He acquired some ancient of the leading qualities of Agni. CHRIST AND KRISHNA The fact that Krishna is in the Vedas a daemon is rightly to be taken as a proof of the antiquity of his cult. and Virgin-and-Child contrary. to whom also was The same attribute is bound up with attributed a daemonic origin. points clearly to Its mythology an extra-Brahmanic origin. 5. was connected with myths which are enshrined in the Vedas.274 4. favour of the antiquity of the cult. we are led to the constructive position that Krishna is an ancient extra-Brahmanic Indian deity. and not vice versa." which is common to the conception of the oldest mythologies. the God as a " hiding one. All of which positively-ascertained facts and with the hypothesis theological matter from that Krishnaism borrowed mythological and fully-justified conclusions are in violent conflict Christism. The attribute of blackness in a beloved deity. since the Christian Virgin-myth worship are certainly of pre-Christian origin. remarkably paralleled in the case of the Egyptian Osiris. though it includes myth-motives which closely coincide with Vedic myth-motives. On 1. it could not conceivably have taken in the legend of the upbringing among herdsmen. or more probably in both stages. notably those connected with Agni. the other hand. The close coincidences in the legends of Krishna and explained in terms of borrowing by the latter from the are to be The ethical former. Ritual is far more often the basis of myth than the converse and the Krishnaite Birth-ritual in itself raises a presumption in . too. teaching bound up with Krishnaism in the Bhagavat Gita is a development on distinctly Hindu lines of Vedic it is ideas. and is no more derived from the New Testament than from the literature of Greece and Rome. and supplanted Indra. and of comparatively . Buddha 8.Aryan. who was nevertheless worshipped by Aryanspeakers long before our era. were of late and Brahmanic 7. Such phenomena as the Birth-Festival ritual and the pictorial representation of the babe Krishna as suckled by his mother cannot reasonably be held to be borrowed from the Christians. in his earliest phase apparently non. any more On the than the myths positively proved to be pre-Christian. is a mark of ancient derivation. 6. The leading elements in the Krishna myth If it are inexplicable save on the view that the cultus is ancient. whose prestige he acquired. In fine. either before or after his adoption by the Brahmans. and. origin.

third was borrowed from India and the necessary assumption." were borrowed by the Hindus from Chris- which itself unquestionably borrowed the first two and the The more plausible surmise is rather that the last from Paganism. and was presumably widespread. is that the others also were ancient in India. Christism in in its absorbent stage. Nor can we without defying all probability suppose that such motives as the " ox-and-ass. . . It is further possible that the introduction of shepherds into the Christian Birth-legend Gospel was suggested by knowledge of the Krishna legend. and already found in Semitic mythology in the story of Moses. 2.SUMMARY late Christian acceptance. which minutely paralleled in one particular in the Egyptian myth of the 1 concealment of Horus in the floating island." and the ' Christophoros. The resemblances between certain Krishnaite and Christian miracles." the " manger. cannot be set down to Hindu borrowing : 1 Herodotus. The natural presumption is that the Hindu massacre of the innocents is as old as the Kansa myth the onus of disproof lies with those who allege borrowing from the Gospels. 4. whether or not any of them thence reached tianity." the "tax-paying. The converse hypothesis has been shown to be the late third preposterous. ii. 156. 275 and since the Virgin-myth was associated with Buddhism even for Westerns in the time of Jerome. in the present state of our knowledge. though the source was more probably intermediate between India and the Mediterranean. and related in others to the universal myth of the attempted slaying of the divine child. It is equally extravagant to suppose that such a usage as the Krishnaite "name-giving" was borrowed from the short-lived usage India (which had a Egypt . 5. of the 3. in the same way. the adoration of a Suckling-God is to be presumed pre-Christian in Babe-God in Agni in the Veda) as it was in even becomes conceivable that certain parts of the Christian Birth-legend are directly or indirectly derived from Krishnaism. It is an extravagance to suppose the converse. A similar usage prevailed in the pre-Christian cult of Herakles. The myth of the Massacre of the Innocents it is the more to be regarded as pre-Christian in India because connects naturally is is with the motive of the attempted slaying of the God-child. though here again an intermediate source is more likely. and it Church of Alexandria in the matter of combining the Nativity and Epiphany.

Christianity so-called. : 1 It need hardly be explained that not a tithe of the mythical stories connected with Krishna have been mentioned above. and Religion. . in short. 2 Compare Mr. and bracketed with etymological arguments which are beneath serious notice. Scholars are agreed that late 2 documents often preserve extremely old myth-material. Thus every claim made in this connection by Christians recoils more or less forcibly on their own creed.276 CHRIST AND KRISHNA 1 from Christism when so many of the parallel myths are certainly not so borrowed. Myth. 1st ed. 6. The lateness of the Puranic stories in literary form is no argument against their antiquity. and are all either explicable in terms of the sun-myth or mere poetic adornments of the general legend. some of the parallels alleged on the Christian side are absurdly far-fetched. we find to be wholly manufactured from pre-existent material within historic times Krishnaism we have seen to have had a pre-historic existence. They are extremely numerous. For the rest. i. and so many more presumably in the same case. 291. Ritual. Lang.

are really mere adaptations from myths of much greater antiquity inferred personality of the and that accordingly the alleged or Founder is under suspicion of being as . the matter of doctrine equally so with the matter of action. In the second century. again. held by Christians to be historical. which only " seemed " to suffer on the cross and many Gnostics had all along regarded him as an abstraction. criticism denied the historicity of Jesus 1 and in the Dieu et les Homme s. Broadly. there is simply nothing left which can entitle anyone to a belief in any tangible personality behind the name. the sixteenth century. sectaries are found taking highly mystical views of the Founder's personality. A " Docetic " view of Jesus was professed by the secret society of clerics and others which was broken up at Orleans about 1022 and in England as elsewhere. in . . is not new in the history of though the grounds for it may be so. . contention criticism. they have shown that a number of data in the Christian gospels. Voltaire historical 1 tells of disciples of In the eighteenth century. as scholars are aware. if not in the first. the " Docetae " had come to conceive of the Founder as a kind of supernatural phantom. 277 ch. Such a view. and held even by some Naturalists to be either historical or at least accretions round the life and doctrine of a remarkable religious teacher and creed-founder. mythical as that of the demi-gods of older lore. Bolingbroke who on grounds of . both miraculous and non-miraculous. It is not here undertaken to offer a complete demonstration of the truth of that surmise but our survey would be unduly imperfect if the problem were not stated and to some extent dealt with. is that when every salient item in the legend of the Gospel Jesus turns out to be more or less clearly mythical. One or other view recurs in medieval heresy from time to time. 39. the .PAET III THE GOSPEL MYTHS PREAMBLE If the foregoing pages in any degree effect their purpose.

Einleit. 5 Etudes d 'histoire religieuse.. 161. 1806. See. was the "mythical theory" put in currency among special students. p. as to the part played by the cross in the Passover feast. reaching anew the conviction myth-construction by the consciousness of of the unhistorical early nature of the gospel narratives. as it was by Renan 5 in his youth. end. that new anthropological we can claim to have an of adequate scientific basis for a definite rejection the Christian narrative as a whole. suggested the mythical view. an extravagant position. has largely receded from a supernaturalist to a quasiand even professes its a new confidence on new ground. 1784. however. followed an unhistorical method and even the notably original work of Kulischer. in conversation with Renan. supporters. put. though containing many important mythological clues. pp. Miinchen. friend M. die am Passahfeste im Tempel dargebracht wurde (Leipzig. p. outran the problem and ignored some of the most obviously necessary processes of historical analysis. the latter answered. Origine de tons les Cultes." The self-contradiction is very characteristic. 4 Kulischer draws some of his most interesting details from Bonifacius Haneberg. set forth the theory of a process of the Christian community. Das Leben my . in the opinion of its Though in the meantime Christian scholar- ship itself naturalist position as to the historicity of Jesus. § 11. 86. Origine des Constellations. I so considered it. involving an extension of the mytho- and of the documentary analysis which of the he omitted to make.. "Cela aussi peut se soutenir. Jesu. which. Bruno Bauer. irrefutable. from that when he. 155. the radically negative view rapidly gains ground. for instance. " setting forth an early form of the conception of the Vegetation-God. But Bauer. Das Leben Jesu eine Sage von dem Schicksale und Erlebnissen des Bodenfrucht. I am well aware that it will still be commonly considered. logical analysis of Strauss It is only after a process of all-round induction. though admitting divergences. the naturalist view 1 and my later acquiescence though I already held has been the result Le Zodiaque chrono- 2 3 Les Ruines. but the anonymous German work mentioned 3 by Strauss as reducing it to an ideal which had a prior existence in the Jewish mind. as well as a study materials of the past half-century. citing Haneberg. 278 THE GOSPEL MYTHS 1 period of the French Revolution we have not only the works of 2 and Dupuis. The theses of Dupuis and Volney. logique. rather encouraged than checked the orthodox reaction and not till Volney . When in my youth I first heard it . But that claim is now. insbesondere der sogenannten palastinischen Erstlingsgarbe. Die religiosen Alterthumer der Bibel.. unduly ignores the complexity of the historical problem. Novicow I learn.' reducing the gospel biography to a set of astronomical myths. 1869. too. at a later period. 1876). 1791. 1794. 393.

are purely mythical creations. any more than in the existence of Juno or Ashtaroth. as well as by the daily devotion state if of ages. are still confident of the historicity of Buddha. Mithra. not satisfactory. Dionysos. are seen to be as certainly mythic as Apollo and Zeus and Brahma and Vishnu. it is still arguable that if Mohammed founded a religion somewhat in the fashion in which . of course. How then is a line to be scientifically drawn between. 85).g. Herakles. student now believes in the historic actuality of Osiris or Dionysos 1 or Herakles. to convey useful knowledge. Many scholars. the mythic personalities of Dionysos and Osiris and Adonis. Prof. . still affirm the historicity of the Hindu God Krishna. however. The so-called Evemerism of Spencer in no sense reinstates that view. Hermes. Mohammed is a real personage. It is now agreed that the ancient deities who figure as coming among men to teach creeds. it should be noted. as was believed in the eighteenth century by Mosheim. is exploded.PEEAMBLE of the sheer gradual pressure of the 279 argument from analysis a more thorough analysis. p. and on the other those of Zarathustra and Buddha and historical Jesus? We all agree that. however. which traced all deities alike to historical personages. Horos. that I consider the first recoil from that proposition to have arisen mainly from the mere force of psychological habit even on the plane of innovating criticism. The early rationalism of Evemeros. e. on the one hand. the incredibility of the lives of most famous religion-makers is in almost the exact ratio of their historic distance. That circumstance is not. recollection of A clear that psychological as may possibly make the present argument in a measure judicial. of course. for the theory that primeval man reached his God-idea by way of ancestor-worship gives no shelter to the notion that Hermes and Mithra. The belief in the personality of the Gospel Jesus. Adonis. Estlin Carpenter (see above. for instance. is a psychic product far removed from even a Greek's belief in Apollo. though not distance. is the determinant. p. 1 Some scholars. were distinguished personages within the historical period. Osiris. and No to found religious institutions. built up not only by the bare gospel record but by whole literatures of — appreciation. Attis. Significantly enough. than that which motived the earlier proposition. The question to the actuality of the alleged founders of ancient religions may best be approached by the comparative method. 137) and Prof. I would fain hope. in itself decisive against the actuality of any given founder for though all history becomes more and more clearly mythical the further we go back on any one line of tradition. Garbe (The Philosophy of Ancient India. but culture-stage. I desire to avow. 1899. say.

" system. But is it more forcible than that made anciently on men's minds by 1 Compare the recent work of Dr. 280 THE GOSPEL MYTHS is (supernaturalism apart) he said to have done. in that case." But what was that origin and who was their human founder? Clearly there was no one " founder ". Flinders Petrie. 1 Ehys Davids. he [M. : .. . for instance. be it observed like the cults of Dionysos and Osiris and Herakles all of which of course had a "historical origin. there was not even a group or school : . p. Senart] does not doubt and he holds that Buddhism. Personal Religion in Egypt before Christianity. more can well be made out. The bare surmise of a somebody. whose historic actuality is not doubted is one such myth in the life of Plato. . 1909. who compare so closely with Jesus as religion-founders. vii. Very much the same must be said of 3 the interesting attempt of Miss Harrison to find a historic personage behind the shining figure of Orpheus. nevertheless cites M. 2 Buddhism. agreeing with M. "That the Professor that the historical basis is or once ivas there. Senart as admitting Buddha's historic actuality. and an historical origin. must have had 2 Like every other a human founder. who appears to be at And a number of thoughtful bottom a real historical personage. It will not suffice merely to reply that there are unquestionable myths in the stories of Jesus and Buddha there are one or two such myths in the story of the life of Confucius. a Jewish or an Asiatic prophet in earlier times may have done : the same. 193. conveys no image of a personality and nothing . why do we accept as historical Buddha and Jesus ? Shall we say that behind the mythic figures of Osiris and Dionysos there may have been some remote actual man who communicated certain culture and was The answer is that such a later worshipped by certain rites ? hypothesis is neither here nor there it stands for nothing it makes no impact on our perception. then we reject as we do the pseudo-historical Osiris and Dionysos. there actuality is . . describable as collective founders : we are dealing with If a long process of evolution from simple primitive forms. students still believe in the historic actuality of Zarathustra and Buddha. though in their ostensible biographies they are framed in clouds of myth. The accredited personalities of Buddha and Jesus. Senart Buddha legend is substantially made up of myths from the older lore of Krishna and Earn a and Agni. whose historic no more doubted than that of Aristotle and there is much myth in the life of Apollonius of Tyana. ch. like every other system. 3 Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. on the other hand. do make a very deep impression.

No an argument a more complete non Supposing it to be granted that every sequitur than the foregoing. or than that made in India to-day by the story and the mystic teaching of Krishna ? Is not the difference for us simply one of psychological habit ? Is there any more evidence for a real cult-founding Buddha than for a real teaching Krishna ? scholar who in our time has done most and primeval origination of the religious ideas out of which Christism grew is content to give an impatient " The historical reality both of Buddha and of Christ. " has sometimes been doubted or denied. and the theocrats of post-exilian Jerusalem but he will not thereby succeed in proving the historicity of Moses and Aaron." we are not a step nearer proving the historicity of Jesus and Buddha. J. . and redactors of the Pentateuch. and the literature of early Buddhism and still Jesus and Buddha may be mythical. The great religious movements which have stirred humanity to its depths and altered the beliefs of nations spring ultimately from the conscious and deliberate efforts of extraordinary minds." can a specialist dispose of a problem which disturbs his pre- suppositions even as his own research disturbs those of others. Frazer. compilers. if he will. 1906. but sively Thus inexpenno favour with the philosophic historian. great innovating religious movement springs " ultimately from the conscious and deliberate efforts of extraordinary minds. G. It would be just as reasonable to question the historical existence of Alexander the Great and Charlemagne on account of the legends which have gathered round them. Osiris (Monograph 4 of recast of The Golden Bough). note. Among the movements coming under Dr. Attis. to rank as extraordinary minds the framers. Frazer's description may be reckoned the introduction of the Dionysiak cult in Greece but he would not venture on the strength of the formula under notice to assert the historicity of Dionysos. is proved as fully as that of any rulers theologian ever presented as . . unconscious co-operation To such a challenge the to illustrate the natural of the multitude. not from the blind.PBEAMBLE 281 the stories of Osiris and Herakles. : 1 Adonis. His hasty reference to Alexander and Charlemagne is the merest begging-of-the-question the historicity of those rulers. He is free. . p. The attempt to explain history 1 without the it influence of great will find men may flatter the vanity of the vulgar. 202. writes Dr. A whole series of relatively " extraordinary minds " may be supposed to have co-operated in framing the gospels." dismissal. as he knows. the Pauline epistles." and that there is no medium order of factor between these and " the multitude.

trans. when he suddenly [appears as a There is no analogy here to the careers of Alexander and Charlemagne. Jesus. Thus Professor Schmiedel reduces 1 to nine the passages which in his opinion clearly testify to the presence of a real person under the Messianic mask. Part present work. his full manhood. 38. had not its teachings become words of eternal life in 2 Once more the theologian corrects the the mouth of its Founder. and in the Appendix to the 2 3 Das Christenthum und Compare Baur." apriorism of the professed Naturalist. ch. as enigmatic from a humanist as from a superview. in fact. Frazer may be set the pregnant avowal " How soon would everything true and important that of Baur was taught by Christianity have been relegated to the order of the long-faded sayings of the noble humanitarians and thinking sages of antiquity. that totally lacking in the cases of Moses. Dr. Miraculously born.founder. in an increasing number. ii. § 4. not a man Jesus round whom myths have gathered. : Rationally considered. 35-36. 1853 pp. though on the basis of these he claims to validate of the record. are found to avow that on a close scrutiny the gospels present. as distinguished from a God or Demigod. the Earth-Mother. (Eng. Frazer's argument is.282 THE GOSPEL MYTHS is of their respective epochs. in the spirit and on the plane of that of the clerical apologists who declare that is the Resurrection of Jesus Julius Caesar. he reappears as a natural man even parents : the myth till will not cohere. i. long committed to the maxim myth is framed to explain the rite.) as cited. Whatever may have been the share of extraordinary minds in securing the spread of the Christian or any other religion. as well attested as the assassination of that "the While the professed mythologist. he an unintelligible portent a Galilean of the common people. even as did the Greeks to Demeter. even some professed theologians are found so much more alive to the nature of the problem as to confess that only in respect of a few particulars can they claim to find in the gospels trustworthy primary evidence of a real Jesus. to the knowledge of in the opinion of his is many. it would really be truer to assign the main influence to the multitude of ordinary propagandists and the much more : favouring social conditions 3 —not to say the " blind co-operation of II. . critically untraceable cult. And other clerical writers. die christliche Eirche der drei ersten Jahrhunderte. but an apocalyptic Jesus to whom have been given some human traits. is The Gospel Jesus naturalist point of by manifold normal evidence of a kind and Buddha." thus commits himself to the historicity of the non-miraculous details in the gospel narrative. 1 See these discussed in Parian Christ s. Against the nugatory affirmation of Dr.

Testament in such a case as the text of Moderately. Now. our tendency to believe in his actuality. Many plainly fictitious teachings were ascribed to King Solomon. come down to us solely as it stands in the apocryphal gospels. The story of the promulgation of the Ten Commandments is palpable myth. who is at most a historical outline and the same thing could easily happen with a pre-Christian Jesus-God. which give mere miracles without moral teaching. doctrinal myth in the New the Three Witnesses. movements as Mormonism and " Christian Science " in modern times are in possession of some of the knowledge that discounts the conventional formula still relied upon by Dr. and sees. Frazer in a field of criticism which he has not made field its his own. Entering that methods which tion as this in : with proper attention to the special tests and nature prescribes. it could not to-day retain any hold among men of education and judgment though a certain number of such men appear still to the Jesus legend . Even orthodox scholarship admits the late intrusion of .heterodox criticism goes so far as to see a similar process behind the text. " on this rock I will build my Church.PREAMBLE the multitude. even he be otherwise quasi-mythical. There are myths of doctrine as well as myths of action. for Thou art Peter. and More scientific criticism instance. Apollonius of Tyana so taught and where is his cultus? Those who have intelligently noted the history of such — to explain all in ." goes a great deal further. then does the analysis logically stop ? Careful comparative study resolves such discourses as the Sermon on the Mount into . Many extraordinary men have taught greatly without creating great popular movements. and it is because this is and Osiris that the same men dismiss the notion Moses and Zarathustra and lacking in the myths of Dionysos of their actuality. Had believe in the miracle stories of the canonical gospels. cling to the personalities of It is on this account that many men Buddha . we reach some such generalizais that where any alleged religion-founder represented what appear if to be ancient accounts as uttering a coherent is and impressive moral doctrine. ground it is obvious that in a general way this is no sufficient for a critical belief. it is the moral teaching that to-day upholds any sincere faith in the tale. Apart from the sheer force of habit and of partisanship. father and son. the same process ." whose blindness 283 is the main condition of all than terms of " extraordinary " founders. behind the whole discourses of the fourth gospel though these very discourses only a generation ago set up a special impression of Where actuality in two such men as the Arnolds.

In the forefront stands the compiled Sermon on the Mount the parables figure as 1 . and the invincible difficulty will still face us the theoretic beginner of the cult has eluded search we are dealing with myths stultifies the teaching of the context. the predictions of the . to set forth the conclusions reached by Dr. and is not permanently tenable. of testing the synoptic gospels down to an apparent nucleus of primitive narrative. 284 THE GOSPEL MYTHS many teachers compilations of the gnomic sayings of called Lord's Prayer is plainly pre-Christian. from the point of view. 1 Written in 1899. Nor does Mr. one which still passes with many semi-blasphemy the process. A. however. Even on the face of it. how came it that Paul never cites a single one of them ? I do not here press the point that Dr. such Jesuine teachings were actually current. is The one tenable historic hypo- thesis left to us at this stage that of a preliminary Jesus "B. Accepting for the argument's sake the "Primitive Gospel" thus educed. . public discourses . If biographical quality. in The Synoptic believers for . we find it to be still a literary patchwork. are admitted are already installed . Granting that there has been abundant interpolation. probably. Jolley retain obvious patches for instance. the mythical Twelve Apostles and there is not a single datum of a truly Jolley once face the problem. Bernhard Weiss in his works on Mark and Matthew seems thus far to have attracted hardly any orthodox attention in England. made up of miracles and unhistorical discourses.. J." a vague cult-founder such as the Jesus ben Panclira of the Talmud." in Luke xiii. that will be the position of those Christians who still continue to use the weapons of argument though the interesting attempt of Mr. . this new position is one of retreat. namely. where that formula completely Let the text be still further such evidently heterogeneous tissue. tested down. The Birth Myth and the Crucifixion are not there but the Temptation Myth and the Transfiguration are. of doctrine and myths of action. the " except ye repent ye shall : all likewise perish. Weiss and Mr. Ere long. ? and the soAt what point do . Jolley. this method proceeds on the axiom that a nucleus there must have been and argues that its disencumberment amounts to establishing a solid historical basis.C. Problem for English Readers (1893). we touch biographical bottom of The strongest way rationalist putting the Christian is : case. to the elimination of : . plainly written after the event.. fall of Jerusalem.

The myth of Osiris tells that he taught certain things and did certain things and no one disputes that the entire narrative It lies on the face of the case that no one man invented is myth. 1 See the Revised Version. In the previous pages we have traced a number of Christian myths to their pagan origins. Without professing to trace all the gospel myths of either sort. I have attempted a catalogue raisonne of a score or more of the former. like so many others of the same species. in which " Jesus " not of Nazareth figured for Paul as a mere crucified Messiah. many of of the proofs that the gospel teachings. But the historic cult certainly also gathered up. is necessarily left for other treatises. sociologically 1 considered. historically considered. But while this possibility cannot be decisively negated. into history. there may have coalesced various other doctrinal movements. . are myths of doctrine. Nazarite and anti-Nazarite." Round the early historic cult. Acts xviii. In the opening treatise I have given reasons for thus bringing into the category of myths such literary fictions as ascribe certain doctrine to a famous personage under conditions which are clearly unhistorical. of . again. a study of religious evolution in general entitles us to say that the historic cult can conceivably have been evolved from the ancient Jesus-cult. thus giving a connected and summary view of those already analysed and of a number of others. in so far as they purport to be utterances of a wandering and teaching Jesus with twelve disciples. The full presentment of this theory. What is here undertaken is the final step in the preliminary clearing of the mythological ground. Apostles we have an early admission by Christists that a sect "knowing only the baptism of John" could speak "exactly" or in detail of "the things of Jesus. . 26. roots in primitive And in the account of Apollos in the Acts of the nature-worship. which gradually conducts us from mythology. There remain • which the pagan origin is no less clearly demonstrable and there remain the mythic ascriptions of doctrine with which the other myths coalesced. which. round whose movement there might have gradually clustered the survivals of an ancient solar or other worship of a Babe Joshua son of Miriam. many documentary compositions and pragmatic and didactic fictions. a speechless sacrifice. and I have added some a number of gospel myths of action or narrative. generation after generation.PREAMBLE put to death for (perhaps anti-Judaic) teachings 285 now lost . which perhaps incorporated some actual utterances of several Jesuses of Messianic pretensions.

for instance. many process applied to the later stories also. Men are fain to believe. One must evidently reckon with a certain average incapacity to assimilate more than a modicum of new truth. however. taking generations to accomplish. Routledge's ed. comes of sheer failure to study the phenomena of comparative mythology. 1 was at pains to argue that the Massacre of the Innocents might well pass unnoticed by contemporary historians among the multitude of Herod's barbarities when a candid glance at earlier forms of the same story might have made it clear to him that he was dealing with . the Conception. 2 — 1 of the orthodox belief is the undisturbed condition of the minds of so many readers before the fact that all the stupendouscircumstances of the Nativity. and look only for presents a parallel to others which survive.286 THE GOSPEL MYTHS men to be civilized. 2 History of the Jews. however. The most astonishing aspect . that one Moses invented the Ten Commandments. we come to a legendary personage whose cult survives. Here the clinging to person- simply because of the closer emotional relation. by a survey of the adjustments made in the past. as we have First men seek naturalistic seen. Much of the delay. the herald angels. that all of these doctrines were current before the period in question. p. Percy Gardner repeating once more the fallacious explanation. Dean Milman. which has imposed on so many of us. in order that" they shall be forgotten not only by the entire generation among whom they take place. every detail of the narrative in hand having the stamp of didactic fiction. The course of thought. . and the Magi. 1899. Capacity may be slightly quickened. some men persist in framing formulas about " essential originality. agriculture or vine culture or taught When. that " an ass and the foal of an ass " represents a Greek misconception " an ass " as if Hebrews even in every of the Hebrew way of saying a common myth. however. At this stage the prodigies Testament remain unchallenged even for some who see of the New myth in those of the Old and only gradually is the tentative critical . there gradual psychological adjustments. the majority. 247. based on no one historic : episode whatever personality to . or is an instant recoil from such an admission. alities is strongest. on the face of the narrative. however. as Celsus would say. p.. explanations for prodigies in the Old Testament after a time some consent to see in such prodigies mere myths. whose later action implies entire oblivion alike of the Annunciation. still ascribing human mythical personages. 156. the Massacre. even after giving up supernaturalism. So. we have such a candid and scholarly inquirer as Dr. 3 Exploratio Evangelica." though the personage to whom the originality is ascribed is but an abstraction from the very utterances thus put in his mouth. but by Mary and Joseph. occur. is by way of small concessions. in recent years. and that one Jesus invented the Golden Eule and ascended a mounShown tain to proclaim doctrines of forgiveness and non-resistance.

a priori and a posteriori. Baur argued. that Strauss's at the story of Bacchus crossing a marsh on two — — asses. Eng. tr. it is by applying all the tests of traditionary error. And the documentary criticism which Baur began or reorganized turns out only to carry rejecting Strauss's process further. 1 But the way which See. perhaps who was moving on the true line of scientific inference. " is unhis. 3 Kritische Untersuchungen. 35. But the effect of the documentary analysis which Strauss failed to make is to leave us no grounds whatever for ascribing any teaching in particular to any one teacher called Jesus though it is historically possible. 43. 72-3. able as Baur was incapable still —but negative — in the sense of leaving the question open : that is to say. Zeller's reply Strauss and Benan. however. 2 By negative " he meant. Cp. 71-73. In this he was encouraged by his surviving presuppositions. and was meantime led to spend his powers on a philosophic explanation of his creed which has no historic value. early Jesuists Strauss clung to the view that while the had little knowledge of the life of the founder they had trustworthy knowledge of many of his teachings. What is certain. p. Broadly speaking. The same objection was made to the methods of Christian apologists a century before in the Examen critique cles apologistes de la religion ehretienne. though he claimed to do so. but did not live to complete the long journey. that while Strauss offered grounds for much. p.PEEAMBLE day life 287 lay under a special spell of verbal absurdity —when a glance and at the Greek sign or one of the signs for the constellation Cancer (an ass and its foal). 4 Strauss on this point took up a more scientific position. that we shall reach a just estimate of the historical value of the gospels. that there were several Jesuses who claimed to be Messiahs. is that the gospels are no less absolutely untrustworthy as accounts of any man's teaching than as accounts of any man's deeds. 1 it was." he tells us. would have shown him that he was dealing with a zodiacal myth. — — torical. Kritische Untersuchungen iiber die kanonischen Evangelien. ascribed to Freret. " While everything mythic. 1847. he could consistently show no grounds for retaining anything. "Every unhistorical narrative." 4 3 This is the last in stage of a pragmatic definition of myth. reached only a negative result because it did not include a comparative criticism of the documents as such. Baur's position was that of an extremely sagacious critic the acutest of his time." he writes in reply to Baur in Das Leben Jesufiir das deutsche Volk bearbeitet : 2 . pp. 1866. on the whole justly. pp. not everything unhistorical is mythic. and not very unlikely. and by recognizing that myth formerly so-called is only one form of such error. because they gathered up both kinds of statement in the same way. not that the argument was unprofitable because it negated a popular belief an inept commonplace of which analysis.

The psychology of all such error is substantially the same. (Einleit. in which a religious see an element of their sacred origins. in which a religious community recognizes a component part of their sacred origin as being an absolute expression of constituent feelings and conceptions. if these insuperable problems be set aside. is a myth. iii. As has already been argued. and short strings of maxims some . he with open eye the mystery of the soul He said in the jubilee of sublime estimated the greatness of man " All of which is absolute myth. 214) makes a sad mess of this passage:— "Every historical narrative. The soul. nothing is gained by the distinction under notice. beyond convenience of descriptive arrangement. how shall we. because of its being an absolute expression of their constitutive feelings and ideas. Einleit. And who was Jesus ? A Nazarite ? And if there were no Twelve Seeing that Paul Apostles." The English translation (i. added Emerson " forcibly writes that Christianity " dwells with noxious exaggeration about the person of Jesus. and he notes that ordinary Christian language "paints a demigod as the Orientals or the Greeks would describe Yet Emerson himself had just been affirming Osiris or Apollo. § 25. the mythopoeic process is possible to the human mind in all periods. and the At the same time. the documentary analysis shows Resurrection. p. and is actively carried on to-day. § 14. with the arbitrary exception of such teachings As against the consists as seem unedifying. Cambridge. the Temptation. which mainly in putting aside the miracles and accepting the narrative that is left. end : 3te Aufl. 1838. are just as mythical as the Virgin Birth. 159). In the same way the Johannine discourses What then is left? What did "Jesus " teach? fall to the ground. and. 1 Address to the Senior Class in Divinity College." he protests. us that Jesus was at first without cognomen there was no "of Nazareth " in the legend. analysis it may be well to show briefly the effect of the scientific recognition of all the forms of myth in the narrative. unhistorical statements get to be believed. how can we consent to suppose that later Christists had any real information ? Nay. and on the other hand such prominent teachings as the Sermon on the Mount. community . as truly emotion. Our shows that on the one hand the Twelve Apostles. sions believed." that "Jesus Christ belonged to the true race of prophets. is a myth. who was there to report his doctrine ? knew naught of it. most of which are proper only to the initiates of a fixed cult. later literary method of Renan and Arnold. however it may have arisen. I am divine ' ' myth as the other version. knows no persons 1 ". when delivered from the spell of customary acquiescence. end.288 THE GOSPEL MYTHS come to be drawn.'" The principle had been put by Strauss in the first Leben Jesu. and unhistorical concluis just the way in which myths got to be and pragmatized. to. continue to believe that any man ever made a popular movement by enouncing cryptic parables. He saw Alone in all history. "no matter how it arose.

The writings of his immediate followers show a fulness and ripeness of spiritual feeling and knowledge. and are utterly beyond the acceptance of any unselected populace in any age ? One realizes afresh the problem. then. 242-6) will bear no analysis. p> 174# U ." Such language implicitly affirms that. others. 172.— PREAMBLE of 289 which represent the last stretch of self-abnegating ethic for brooding men. his boundless love for men. Yet imme"the life of the Master is not. Dr. even the writings of Isaiah -and Plato. Gardner seems to me more arbitrary than ever. And yet even in the very act of affirming this. normal difficulty in even recognizing the turns to the notable work of Dr. His differentiation between the Synoptics and John (pp. recoverable beyond a certain point. or by passing by a passage in which. to the facts of the visible world. Yet he tacitly founds with absolute confidence on certain Dr. above all things. 4 Exploratio. and he left us men. Percy Gardner. and has ignored Baur's reminder this is not is That oversight. we can rely on the genuineness of the logia. has only repeated with a difference the proceto of historical dures of Strauss. 3 Renan and Arnold. 119. in an objective sense. evidence to know on which of the Jesuine or apostolic sayings the thesis is founded. It marks at some points an advance on even the positions it down sound caveats. seem superficial and imperfect. p." with " boundless love for men. and why those sayings in particular are held : 1 cited. since only by a careful selection of passages can we frame the conventional frequently lays diately after thus stipulating that effigy of a Hatch. his joyful acceptance of poverty and self-denial." 1 Dr. He was fond of appealing. while setting himself the highest standards method. He found us children in all that regards the hidden life. 3 j^. again. however mythical be the gospel narratives. Gardner. and Jesus of " gentle spirit." Our explorer even expressly excludes certain Jesuine dicta as obviously mythical. Gardner shows us that he has tacitly eliminated many logia for his purpose. 2 In his Historic View of the New Testament (1901) Dr. From that time onward (!) men in Christian countries seem to have gained new faculties of spiritual observation "4 we want Work For such an affirmation we want. Gardner affirms that Francis of Assisi " was like the Founder of Christianity in his gentle spirit. p. he pairs " The fact is that the life of Jesus was the occasion and the cause of an enormous development of the spiritual faculties and perceptions of men. which makes the best of previous religious literature. of Dr. when one above cited. like Jesus. made with Emerson : quite clear done in a merely incidental way. and in hearty sympathy with life in all 2 its forms.

pp. which really throws back the whole discussion. that we find even a trained Naturalist. and which here or there But must it has not in fact been anticipated. no explanahe fulminates his formula as did Emerson. to a pre-scientific level. all. must in time either surrender unconditionally to the myth or follow reason. . the mythic Jesus in the name of the historic Before Dr. What Dr. whether fancy or of thought. It may well be that even Dr. Only. 1894. taking for granted the conventional " biographical 1 Letter to Mr. cited in the latter's Claims of Christianity. Gardner offers no justification." 290 to be genuine. 30-31. we must dispose effectually of the myths of action before we attempt to estimate the evidence for the doctrine. and there an end. and the present . So little impression has been made on the general mind hitherto by the demonstration of mythical elements in the gospels. can but repeat with insistence and with evidence is as essentially a myth as the wonderworking demigod. there need surely be no more hesitation over such trifles as human Parthenogenesis and raising the dead. avowed that " There is little in the ethics of Christianity which the human mind may not reach by its natural powers. If the appari- tion of one teacher could thus suddenly bestow subtlety of insight on a whole world formerly devoid of it. It ought not to be necessary at this stage of thought to refute such a theory of psychological catastrophism. Lilly. with the claim that no verdict can be adequate which does not face it. lie The scientific solution in a fuller presentation of the proof that neither the of feeling or of is hypothetic Jesus of the gospels nor his immediate followers represented any rare originality." will not suffice merely to counter authority with authority. at this particular point. W. Gardner thus apotheosized method. men continue to argue the matter at It criticism can forever sit thus between the two stools of psychological habit and judicial method. tion : THE GOSPEL MYTHS But Dr. in the very act of applying mythological science to the Christian case. the foremost of the cultured and reasoning believers of the century. Gardner's measure of defection from the Myth of will take long to win acceptance. raising to manhood in one generation a humanity which had remained childlike through five thousand years of religious speculation. indictif ment it much longer still but I cannot conceive that. A conspectus of that evidence now submitted. 1 even where the latter has a special weight. Newman. Gardner describes is but an intellectual I Meantime that the teaching demigod and psychological miracle : a breach of all evolution. S.

instead of serving as a rock foundation for his application of Dr. 3. Rock of solid historical fact we may well be found our argument in this volume." which even some supernaturalist critics have admitted to be an unhistorical 2 addition. 2 Against Celsus. for which there is no support in Luke or John. worshipped by a group of fellow peasants who had once known him to as Jesus the son of the carpenter. nobody can accuse us of crude and gross Euhemerism. Allen's Euhemerism (or Evemerism. Grant Allen. is really a hindrance to even that So little critical heed has he given to the problem that he actually commits himself to the detail of "the carpenter. Frazer's theorem of the Vegetation-Cult into connection with the Christian doctrine of crucifixion and salvation —a step not previously ventured on in any in Freethought journals. solution. vi. the ground. I will not call Mr." And it is after this affirmation that Mr. seeing that for Origen the reading of Mark vi. then. and perhaps Man recently deceased.PEEAMBLE 291 The late Mr. Allen sets out with the dogmatic decision that the Gospel it English book. respected. as the word ought to be written in English) crude and gross but I do maintain that he has fallen into Evemerism. " at the moment when we first catch a glimpse of little him in the writings of his followers. and can only mean. xiii. 55. end. though had been made Jesus was. 36. does the excellent practical service of bringing Dr. are an attempt to clear . in the sense of an unwarranted assumption. understand how solid truth can be crude and Euhemerism. . which means. was not canonical. p. data. and that his assumption. which makes Jesus himself a carpenter. in his Evolution of the Idea of God. 16. Naturalism must found itself in a more scientific fashion than this if it is to hold its own against the eternal assault of credulity and organized ecclesiasticism. It is difficult to gross . and that there remains only the phrase in Matt. Here. a reverenced. Allen reaches the conclusion that all the salient items in the Jesus-saga are but parts of the once universal rite of the God-Man sacrificed to renew that unassailable On content ' the life of vegetation. 1 Work cited.' Or rather the crude and gross Euhemerism is here known to represent the solid truth. Both alike are excluded from the "Primitive Gospel " even by the school of Weiss and the rationalistic criticism which dismisses Mary and Joseph as alike mythical must needs dismiss the myth of Joseph's avocation. 1 Yet Mr. The following studies. at least. Frazer's theory to the Christ cult. the blundering application of a false mythological theory to a given problem of religious origins.

Inscr. cited v. 68 sq. § 9. the plain probability . 1850. 292 Aristotle. If. Indeed. Athene and Artemis and Perse3 phone. x. but are already present in Judseo-Christianity. The Progress of the Intellect. the Virgin-Mother myth is universal — a more familiar usage. Judaism was to develop its slowly-formed Saviour-myth at all. 19. at times received the title of mother. § 19. 1 Cp. Pausanias. The so-called prophecy of Isaiah (vii.g. the mythical character of the birth-legend is recognized by consent to apply rational tests to the gospels. .FIRST DIVISION § 1. rnythologising ideas are not first assimilated in the later Pagan-Christianity. but the converse was Pagan world. Compare the story of Delilah and Samson's hair with that of the hair of Nisus. 3. p. of a mortal mother supernaturally impregnated. Corp. in 2 Paganism. Grcec. 2 3 4 See above. cut off by his daughter. ii. but note how emphatically belonged to the surrounding sources. it could scarcely avoid the datum that he be born of a VirginMother that is. by Clement of Alexandria. Boeckh. If that be lost all THOUGH who sight of. as nearly all male Gods were at times termed beneficent.: " We see here also that a characteristic pagan idea is carried over to Jesus in Judaeo-Christianity The gentilising. i. whatever might be the cruelty of their supposed deeds. 1903. and as such termed a virgin by way of adoring flattery. 220. indeed. 168. i. : MYTHS OF ACTION The Virgin Birth. R. 6." To this it should be added that many Greek myths root in old Semitic lore equally with Hebraic myths— e. Strabo. 14) could never have been read as an announcement of a long-distant Parthenogenesis by the most insane Talmudism had not the myth of Virgin-birth constantly obtruded itself from the Pagan side. It was perhaps in the same spirit that those Goddesses who were specially distinguished as virgin. Mackay. 3993. Protrept. or in that the mother too was a Goddess. Paus. failed to 1 Strauss saw the it birth-story to be myth. Cp. as . 3. 235. either in respect of the mother being a mortal while the father was a God. is that the virginal status of Athene in particular is late that she was primarily a normal Mother-Goddess and that her virginity is an ascription 4 arising out of the growth of poetico-religious feeling. the conditions of the composition of the gospels cannot be properly realized. Gunkel. the myths of Samson and Herakles. and certainly has no recognized place in orthodox Judaism before the Jesuist period. Zum religionsgeschichtlichen Verstdndnis des neuen Testaments. seeing there rather analogies than Now. Thus. p. All the Saviour-Gods of Paganism were so reputed. W. it remains important to keep in mind the nature and extent of the documentary proof that the myth is borrowed from Paganism.

we saw. the God- See refs. so that the child was virgin-born. wife of Zeus and Queen of Heaven Cybele. who. Lucian. De A bstinentia. and was fabled to have been deflowered in the very womb 2 of her own mother. . Athene. and wife (and in a late version the mother) of Osiris. Isis and Osiris. 1 : ii. where she Goddess. i. 8 children. Cp. ii. again. 293 above noted. 547. She is Virgin as identified with Athene and Persephone. or the True Christianity. Roman. The myth. 7 An element God born stories of of mystification has been introduced into the is discussion by the plea that only in the gospel story of a virgin a Saviour- mother without any male congress. p. ii. was fabled to every year. is thus evidently pre-Christian. De Errore. Grote (ed. was. equates with both Ceres were all " Virgin "* as much as Isis. and Venus herself. and of Persephone. It is true that Diogenes wrote in the second or third century " after Christ " but for this story he cites (1 ) Speusippus. . Earth. b. i. c. Cicero. become a virgin anew All of these Goddesses in turn became associated with the Virgo Coelestis. with other ancient figures of fruit-holding Goddesses. for instance. and . 186. Demeter. 12. leaf-bearer. mother of Apollo and Artemis. "Comparative Religion and the Historic Christ. which likewise belongs to Plato's generation. p. who was at once sister ' '*." styled ayvrjs. De nat. . 7 Diogenes Laertius. De . and is only a transference of the Child-God from one Goddess-Mother to another. De Sacrificiis. 2 Plutarch. ii. even in Homer. as such. 62. pure. Messianic "branch. as well as Kovpocf>6po<s. 6 Iliad. the former being warned in a dream by —the Apollo. above. 1909. The Celt. p. borne by Mother — In the special machinery of the Joseph and Mary myth. Leto." and x^-ovfap an ^ wp-qcftopos. Nor is it confined to Europe even in relation to philosophers. deor. nat. 52) notes the "phantom of maternity" in this myth. iii. 24. but does not give due weight to the traces of primordial motherhood in Athene's cult. whose Funeral Banquet of Plato was extant (2) Clearchus' Panegyric on Plato. again 6 is no longer the Mother- is the nurse of the divine Erechtheus. with her extended 4 branch or ear of corn. the frontispiece to Volney's Ruins of Empires. Id. for we find it applied to Confucius. Cp. the Earth-Mother. the Virgin of the Zodiacal sphere. there being no trace of it in the Homeridian hymn but it is certainly pre-Christian. c. 8 See in the collection of lectures. the kernel of the myth of Mother Eve and her apple. warning in a dream and the abstention of the husband we have a simple duplication of the story of the relations of the father and mother of Plato. 1889. it In the Gods begetting mortal is contended. 3 the Maiden. See above. 6 the Saxon. that of the Rev. 42. note 13. and (3) Anaxilides' History of Philosophers. no doubt. the nephew of Plato. and dfjLa\Xo<]>6pos. deor. as regards Plato. § 1. and the plate in Ernest Bunsen's Islam. cc. Firniicus. who. iv Porphyry. Religion and the Modern World. 27. And Dionysos in particular came to figure indifferently as son of Demeter. the fruit-bearer. as to Buddha. 5 For the figure of this Virgin as represented in the ancient Zodiacs and constellation maps see. the and Vesta . Here. the corn-bearer. 4 Cicero. besides lending herself to the Jewish "prophecy" of the 5 Demeter was Kap7ro4>6pos." pp. Canon McCulloch. 321. and the Latin inscription in Wright. 4th ed. 3 The association of Dionysos with Demeter is relatively late. the Mother. the 32. c. Here. the "mother of the Gods". the child-bearer.THE VIEGIN BIETH . 1888. the sheaf-bearer. 130-137. 168.

Hartland's Primitive Paternity (Nutt. 1894. 42-43. 253-4. whose 5 fruit was the Sun. Cp. an admirably 4 Id. by treading on a holy 3 spot. is cancelled by the simple notation. by wind. And this myth was but a development of more primitive ideas such as that strictly — — The Legend of Perseus. i. iii." Id. xiii. p. but there is evidence that in our own day there exist whole tribes for whom spiritual birth " is north-central Australia believe that the child an every-day notion. whereas the Gospel " spiritually " begotten. and that the state of ignorance as to the law of procreation seen now in certain Australian tribes " was probably once the state of other races and indeed of all humanity. by a shadow. I. Spencer and Gillen. and so forth alternates with the notion of magical forces merely promoting normal impregnation. and tells of when primitive 1 certain notion as to the bisexual procreation of his children. 145. . ed. The Nortliem Tribes of Central Australia. pp. by a wish. by fruits. by fire. 1904. by divine breath. p. and O. 2 vols. They have no idea of 2 procreation as being directly associated with sexual intercourse. we are entitled to say that the belief in non-sexual birth by re-incarnation of "spirits" has been widespread. and that sexual intercourse has nothing of necessity to do with procreation. note.. which is at best a mere sophistication. Hartland in and testimony since collected in many fields is sufficient to raise it to the level of an anthropological truth. but of the frequent faith of primitive peoples in non-physical impregnation. c. learned and comprehensive survey of the whole problem. Cp. 606. Cp. 3 See ch. Wilkinson. 156. 9. a time from being a late product of So far " spiritual " thought. Ancient Egyptians. theorem to this effect was set forth by Mr. and whose robe no male had raised." 4 Given this. On the plane of ancient theosophy. and firmly believe that children can be born without this taking place. 5 Plutarch. 1910). man had no A 1894 . "Mr. Of the existing natives of we learn that " one and all in these tribes is the direct result of the entrance into the spirit mother of an ancestral individual. by eating of magical fish. Not only is the class of wonder-births found to be ubiquitous and innumerable. 294 father is THE GOSPEL MYTHS is Jesus understood as procreating sexually. 1878. we are bound to see in the birth-myths of classic antiquity only one of a hundred survivals of primeval notions in "higher" religious systems. p. the idea of a mystical birth was made familiar to the Mediterranean peoples by the scroll of the Virgin-Mother-Goddess at Sais. 162. But this plea. pref 1 2 150. the idea of non-sexual procreation as by the sun. at somewhat higher levels of civilization. 330. i of Mr. vol. not only of pagan myths in which the virgin-mother is expressly represented as being symbolically or mystically impregnated. i. Roth's latest work in Queensland shows clearly that the idea of spirit children entering women. the concept is really primordial." And though. is a very widespread belief among the Australian aborigines.

Myths and Songs of the South Pacific. M. — — cases thought about the gospel story . element of the normal barbarian notion of divine fatherhood (present in Gen. and Roth are in perfect harmony with his own main thesis. 4). Among God-bearers.very-beginning.— THE VIEGIN BIETH 295 concerning the Polynesian First Mother. is miraculously impregnated by a pomegranate the Mexican Coatlicue. 12. iii. Gillen. 326-331 Ovid. 5 and even Here is described as by the touch of a ball of feathers going far away from Zeus and men to conceive and bear Typhon 6 or Dionysos or Hephaistos. Vari. of course impossible to tell how the early orthodox Christians in all . 4-8. que de la haute et pure antiquite grecque. " the. 414." Lactantius asks " If it is known to all that certain animals are accustomed to conceive by the wind and the breeze. the river-nymph Nana. Saintyves. 413. but there was in all likelihood idea between the Ebionite belief in the simple natural 7 birth of Jesus and anything like a rigorously " spiritual " view. 4 Arnobius. bien entendu. Fasti. Above. 5 . 6. vii. bien plus sensuel que ce qu'on appelle le materialisme antique je ne parle. inasmuch as in the Johannine writings Jesus is It is repeatedly proclaimed the " only-begotten Son " of the deity.Rev. descending from heaven. again. 17. Adv. iv. 1908. Babylonian Influence on the Bible. pp. 3-6. v. v. Hymn to Apollo. entirely apart from case would be supposed to be out of the question. : . : — : . Gentes. have " no father whatever. It is arguable. that the belief in spirit-conception among certain tribes may have displaced or overridden the knowledge of fatherhood seen to exist among other tribes of the same race or region. introd. . S. mother of Huitzilopochtli. p." who makes her children by plucking pieces out of her sides. 7 I do not attach much weight to many of the frequent and facile generalizations of Renan on ancient history (his doctrine of Semitic monotheism has been a mere stumblingblock to historic science) but it may be worth while in this connection to consider two " C'est par un grave malentendu que Ton adresse a l'antiquite le of his utterances reproche de materialisme. Dr." 1 The religious usage of prayer to deities to grant offspring. 2 Cp. chose the holy Virgin. or Ares Thus even the notion of a " spiritual " Parthenogenesis is common to pagan and strict or a And in the Christian case we have still an Christian thought. 4 . On divine generative force figures in the Babylonian myth of the creation. would develop in all directions the belief in miraculous impregnations. . however. The Australians and the Hebrews alike believed that sex intercourse is subsidiary to "spirit" action the former simply regard it as unessential. 1876. in which Tiamat (Chaos. in ritual. 1862. Horn. mother of Attis. Christian myths of normal fatherhood. Les vierges meres et les naissances miraculeuses. After telling how the Holy Spirit. Spencer. citing Timotheus Pausanias. elle est humaine": "Le spiritualisme Chretien est. Saintyves refuses to accept the record of the ignorance of many [in large measure isolated] Australian aborigines as to the law of procreation. ed. The denial is quite unwarranted and the facts recorded by Messrs. Div. 1899. Sic. vi. 231-258 Diod. . pp. a quasi-abstract notion of prehistoric times. Inst. L'antiquite n'est ni materialiste ni spiritualiste. 171. Palmer. the Abyss) is feminine." On the topic in the text compare Lactantius. pp. 927. 3 Cp.) The word "sensuel" is of course not to be taken in the aggravated meaning of "sensualist. 9. " cujus utero se insimiaret. adapted in Genesis. which in the terms of the 2 Pagan and the kind are thus alike inferribly survivals from the other hand. These. In a medium 1 Gill. Theogony. P. why should any one think it wonderful when we say that a 6 . au fond. 3 and the Divine Spirit or Wind hovers above." (fitudes d'histoire religieuse. A. 66 Hesiod.

is perhaps still the least studied of the problems surrounding our inquiry. . though Lactantius had evidently met with doubters. like McCulloch. will probably not now be denied by any one who will examine the old celestial globe in connection with Greek and Christian mythology. Suffice it that the potent influence of mythopceic astrology surrounds the birth legend. iii. completes the proof that the virgin-birth myth is on the normal plane of pagan speculation. Early in January the Egyptians celebrated " the Coming of Isis out of Phoenicia. . 573. adding that " they have arisen from a stage of thought in which a purely material view of the universe was held. in which the Virgin faces the husbandman. and of the Polynesian and Mexican mythology. p. Eve. If he insists that the ancients thought of the generating wind as " physical. he may be invited to explain how the Hebrews and Christians conceived the "Holy Spirit" or Pneuma. affirms that in heathen of virgin-birth "we find that the mother is nearly always already married. and O. A myths ( . whether on the male or the female view of its 3 See above. and the Sign of Capricorn is the sun's habitation at the winter solstice. and constellation lore though raised over a century ago by Dupuis and Volney. § 1. and underlies the myths of Astraea. That the Virgo Cmlestis goes back to early Akkadian astronomy that the figure determines in part the legend and ritual of many Goddesses of Vegetation. affirm the historicity of the miraculous Nativity in face not only of its absence from the second and fourth gospels.und Volkerkunde. it is neither possible nor necessary to determine in this connection." and has written a manual on the subject. But whether the ancient rustic usages which in the East parallel the early Christian ritual-play of the birth of the God-Child in a stable were derived from the imagery of the celestial vault. any reflection any form of the belief has pagan precedent and a little might bring home even to the sincere believer the signi." 2 from which it appears that 3 Isis was supposed to make a journey either to bring forth Horos or of the influence of zodiacal The question on ancient religion. and Mary and that the rising of the constellation Virgo at midnight at the beginning of the solstitial year has a plain bearing on the birth story. 1905. Bartels. ed. unknown Canon the Pauline epistles. yet he appears to ignore alike the ideas of the Australian aborigines in this connection. Das Weib in der Natur. 1 1860. As to survivals of Christian belief in spiritual paternity see Ploss." because Zephyrus figured as a male. No less significant is the fact that most of the few details given of the Virgin-Mother in the gospels are in striking correspondence with Pagan myths. but of the absolute silence of the epistles on the theme. are outside of critical discussion. ficance of the fact that the gospel story to the writers of is 1 a late accretion. 274) virgin was impregnated by the Spirit of God?" The mirabile dictu of Virgil (Georg. Those who. Miilhause. 50. c. i.296 THE GOSPEL MYTHS case. Canon McCulloch (as above cited). professional apologist. For older German notions see E. and shapes it jointly with the religious presuppositions of Jews and Gentiles. personality. 187. Themis." "nor do the tales hint that ordinary paternity is not involved". Die Urreligion des deutschen Volkes. and in which conception through other than physical means was undreamt-of. I. 2 piutarch." Canon McCulloch is by way of being a student of "Comparative Religion.

Griech. i. The Miriam of Exodus is no more historical than Moses like him and Joshua. having "died a virgin. iii. 1906: Prof. Whittaker. to assume that the mother of the " real " Jesus was nevertheless one Mary (Miriam). The Mythic Maries. As to the problem of a pre-Christian Jesus cp. the wife of Joseph. the stories of iEsculapius and Apollonius of Tyana. x. p. the name appears in the East as Maya. raises an irremovable surmise that a Mary the Mother of Jesus may have been worshipped in Syria long before our era. Yet again. T. Die Christusmythe. who has the same father. For this there is the double reason that Mary. The whole birth-story being indisputably late and the whole action mythic. Der vorchristliche Jesus. The Origins of Christianity. Maya and Buddha. Drews. i. . 325. 189-90. The Return from Ilium . § 10. Preller. the slain "Lord" of the great Syrian cult. Dr. Christ and Krishna.Star. 2 History it cannot be. Maia is the daughter of 5 6 Atlas. Mythologically. and 7 who. II. ft 5 Apollodoros. Pt. following Hesychius. as Mary goes into Egypt. or Miriam. x. 6 Pausanias viii. 7 Id. 27 Grant Allen. For this assumption there is no justification. 2te Aufl. Myth. But the bringing-forth of the God-child while " on a journey " is an item common to a dozen — myths. p. has for mother Maia. 359. is Myrrha and Myrrha in one of her myths is the weeping tree from which the babe Adonis is born. she is to be reckoned an ancient deity Evemerized and the Persian tradition that she was the mother of 3 Joshua ( = Jesus). B. the Greek Logos. Evolution of the Idea of God. 99. 1909. 1. Maira is identified with the Dog. as those of Mandane and Cyrus. 61. — § 2. W." was seen by Odysseus in Hades. citing the lost poem. . . 2. pp. In one myth. 2nd ed. Latona and Apollo. taken in connection with the mythical aspects of both. Odyssey. 1897. 3 Above. ch. See above.: THE MYTHIC MAEIES 297 after the birth. 1909. 30. . Pagan Christs. p. and the probable basis of that of Hagar and Ishmael and the peculiar motive of the taxpaying is derived either from the Hindu legend of Krishna or and as is more probable from a cognate Asiatic myth. Again. Smith. c. pp. A. pre-Christian * . The mother of Adonis. whose name has further connections with Mary. thus doubling with Maira. 48. Hermes. 389. 2 Id. which is the 8 star of Isis. s xi. the Virgin-Mother of Buddha and it is remarkable that according to a Jewish legend the name of the Egyptian princess who found the babe . 27. 187-8. Cp. p. after recognizing the is myth of the Virgin-Birth. The first step of criticism. 4 It is not possible from the existing data to connect historically such a cult with its congeners but the mere analogy of names and epithets goes far. see also the scholiast on 1 4 . and O. Plutarch. I. was already a mythic name for both Jews and Gentiles. the name is also to be presumed mythical.

10 Bahr. ii. cc. R. Diod. actually 5 served as a Greek form of the name Joshua or Jesous and Jasion. I. In the gospels we have Mary the Magdalene that is. xxi. " Above. viii. of Ancient Egypt. note. 67a. 1680. 2 And as Meri meant " beloved. Essai sur I'histoire et la geographie de la Palestine.V. not biography. O. one of the most Jasius or Jasion . i. Egypt under the Pharaohs. who in one story is the founder of the famous Samothrakian 6 mysteries. cap. 1674. it is of some though minor interest to recall that Demeter is associated in early Greek mythology with one Moses was Merris. i. Mackay. v. . 6 preller. 8 Cp. 12 Plutarch. v. and O. one of the daughters of Eamses II. note. 101). 125. SymboliJc des mosaischen Cultus. 53. 1867. Magdala (ed. But Magdala at most simply means a tower or "high place" (the same root yielding the various senses of 15 14 nurse. was named Meri. 9 Porphyry.298 THE GOSPEL MYTHS 1 still further thickened by the fact monuments. 1. Hesychius. is in the ordinary myth slain by Zeus. 324. 1 2 Ramses 7 Mackay. part iii. Reland. 2 (ed. p." and the name was at times given to men. we learn from the not as mother. ii. 1st ed.v. Mary "the part of a hair-dresser. Lightfoot. which Jesus in 16 one text visits. Selden (De Diis Syris. Theogony. 404. Sic. xv. tr." the field of mythic speculation is wide. of the supposed place Magdala. i. Hist. 884). Ammas. 729)." Now. — 3 the pre-Christian Jesus important details of the confused legend in the Talmud concerning Ben Pandira. Dictionary of the Targumim. ix. u and Isis was alternately and Artemis were styled 12 styled "the nurse" and "the mother. Sabb. Horcs Hebraicce : in Luc. Cp. It is noteworthy that II. 16. 1. and the Midrashic Literature. we know. Eng. or otherwise of Minos. 667. w Plutarch. i. p. Sanh. 3 Odyssey. 16 Matt. 168. citing the Hagigah. But the partial parallel of his name is of less importance than the possible parallel of his mythic relation to the Goddess Mother.v. Griech. b." it — Eusebius. 1888. 436. Myth. besides being used in the phrase beloved of the Gods. both Demeter " child-rearers ". but as lover. 213a. iv." or " the hair-dresser. 12 Ant. 49. 15. 56. Palestina Ulustrata. TJie Progress of the Intellect. ed. i. 104b—earlier edd. had Semitic blood in him. In the matter of names. s. Hesiod. Ser Grcec. 117. v. De Abstinentia. Prceparatio Evangelica. 8 Thus Maia stands for "the nurse" 9 10 (rpo<f>6s) Mylitta means "the child-bearing one". and introduced into Egypt the Semitic institution of the harem. citing Artapanus. and O. 39. Rawlinson. I. p. Synt. is that the mother is in one place named Miriam Magdala. . A. 969. 13 Cp. 319-320. 182) derives Ammas from the Semitic Aymma = mother. p. le Ptie." or that becomes one of her epithets. Derenbourg. 4b. 4 Cp. who is conjoined with Ben 13 Stada. 1714. p. Talmud.27 (Migne. as cited. Mtiller. Dorians. cited by K. 7 In many if not all of the cults in which there figures a nursing mother it is found that either her name signifies " the nurse. 471. 48. and the fact that he had a shrine in every Pelasgic settlement. p. ii. s. as The plot is that. iii. W. s Josephus. Brugsch. 4 Jason. 14 Jastrow. he being the son of Zeus and Electra. As Isis too plays the seems clear that we are dealing here also with myth. ii. c.

Eng. baldly describing her had seven devils cast out of her by Jesus. 1. has underlain the pseudo-historical tale Talmudic reference. . and as the lover who leaves her. stamps the whole Goddess-worship of the pre-classic " Minoan " civilization of the This dual relation. is presumptively an echo of a mythic tradition. happens. instead of being a fiction based on the scanty data in the gospels. there before alluded to. is probably cognate with the Evemerized Miriam of the Mosaic myth. Cp. and Dionysos.THE MYTHIC MAKIES 11 ' . and hair-dressing") and in the revised text Magdala gives way to Magadan. Adonis. is equally remote . which may be the real source of the gospel allusions. Horos. 33. 1 Mary the Magdalene. 23. as having The interpolated text in Luke (viii. is fructified by the grain she herself produces. gospels. the mother and the consort being 2 at times identified. could not admit of having sex relations with women at a time when on all hands was outfacing phallicism and any myth representing the God as . the friendship with a "Mary" points towards some old myth in which a Palestinian God. who also is morally possessed by devils. In Jewry the profession of hair-dressing seems to have been identified with that of . as it 1 Wars. hetaira —the as character ultimately ascribed in Christian legend to Mary the Magdalene. 1897. Cox. that of one of the finders of the risen Lord. finally. thus disappearing entirely from the There is no documentary trace of it save as a citadel gospels. tr. Maria the Magdalene. who in post-evangelical myth becomes a penitent harlot. 2). and again as the lover of the Night or the Twilight. gospels a purely mythical part. 96-97. Mythology of the Aryan Nations. and the else. xviii. 299 nursing "= rearing. p. Osiris. perhaps named Yeschu or Joshua. It was equally natural to picture him as born of the Dawn. The story of OMipus marrying his mother Jocasta was thus mythically originated. 3 One mythic source of this double relation lies in the conception of the Sun-God s connection with the Goddesses of Dawn and Twilight. 104. figures in the changing a natural fluctuarelations of lover and son towards a mythic Mary tion in early theosophy. all of whom are connected with Mother-Goddesses and either a consort — or a female double. plays in the so named by Josephus. Attis. Again. Antiq. The coming into existence asceticism a religious principle sexualism. But the dual relation in the old " Minoan " worship arose probably in a simpler way. though in the fourth gospel. he could as easily be figured as born of the Night. 25. where he is humanly and attractively pictured as the tender friend of is the sisters of Lazarus. Mother Earth For another explanation see Wiedemann. . xi. from history but it points towards the probable mythic solution. and is Something expressly punished for her sin before being forgiven. pp. and one which occurs with a difference in the myths of Mithra. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. 241-8 Manual of Mythology. also left open the unpleasant problem Even in this case. xiii. evidently. pp. however.

recall the two Maries of the Christian legend. in which the Nature. 467. De natura deorum. i. 9 That lament was supposed to be made at the spring equinox. Ancient Legends of Boman History. Cp. 18)— a parallel to the function of John in the Christian story. and in another with Horos) when he has been dismembered by the Titans. mourning for her child slain and at both of those points we have for the legend those most decisive of all origins. Diodorus. she has two typic of the child-bearer and that of the Mater Dolorosa. And the solution in the case of the Jesus myth becomes pretty clear when we come to the story of the Eesurrection. xix. in yet another Apollo does it by order of Zeus (Clem. 7 Arnobius. pp. and in the saga which makes Demeter the mother of Dionysos it is she who brings together the mangled limbs of the part. (Cp. 1907. and Macrobius (Sat. See Ettore Pais. the character of the " mother of the Gods " and her " love without passion for Attis " (so Julian the popular view was different. 53. ritual and art. 38. 7 vii. taken as a whole. Diodorus. 1906. p. goes on to explain that it means the earth (the mother) mourning during winter for the loss of the sun. 343. iii. Lucian. mythic characters —that . Burrows. (as Isis in one story does with Osiris. 6 Hesiod. In the myths of Venus and Adonis. as last cited. one the mother. As at the beginning.) In the myth of Cybele and Attis. Be SacriUciis. with a difference. ii. Theog. xiv. so at the end of the story. v. ii. where8 after she bears him again. the time of ritual lamentation Osiris —a R. M. Ishtar and Tammuz. 8 Diodorus. It is clear from Lucian's account that she combined many Goddess-attributes. who is variously the daughter. p. i. Eng. iii. Etudes d'histoire religieuse. again. 11. the sister. 62.300 THE GOSPEL MYTHS is And we find it yet again. describing the image of the mourning Goddess at Mount Libanus. In another version the Mother Goddess Rhea performs the function (Cornutus. . and the wife of 2 Faunus. Adversus Gentes. 114. Cybele and Attis. c.Goddess the dominant figure. v. vol. 4 In one version of the Aphrodite and Adonis myth Adonis is a child given by Aphrodite in a chest into the charge of Persephone (Apollodoros. whom their 6 sire Kronos had devoured. iii. trans. the other the penitent devotee. 1 In the gospels. 4). 7). 113-120. In the cult of Attis the weeping of the Great Mother over the mutilated body of the youth is a ceremonial 7 feature. 5 and there is a rather remarkable anticipation of the inconsolable " Rachel weeping for her children " in Hesiod's account of Ehea (Cybele) possessed by a grief not to be forgotten " because of her children. 9 Records of the Past. Alex. b. 13. 4th ed. 20). 57. No less general than the figure of the child-suckling Goddess was the conception of a mourning Goddess. or Dolorous Mother. 5 Grote and Renan apply the term to her: History of Greece. Protrept. 73-74. And most noteworthy of all is the young God coincidence of the mourning of the two or more Maries with the of the " divine sisters " Isis and Nephthys for customary funeral service with the Egyptians. 30). iii. The Discoveries in Crete. pp. Mary plays a iEgean. wailing for Persephone. while Demeter. we have at first sight a non-maternal 3 but in another view a maternal 4 mourning. AmmianusMarcellinus. i. according to Arnobius. 1 2 3 : . Diodorus. in the myth of the Latin Bona Dea. 59. was for the Greeks pre-eminently the Mater Dolorosa.

The Mary-myth thus grew up from two separate roots. we have Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and and the mother of the sons of Zebedee. On the . 2. as Goddesses of Birth and Death.story had become current. . leader (and Arbiter) 2 But on the of the Fates. 24 Plutarch. Of these variations the orthodox explanation is the lapse of memory on the part of the chroniclers a mere evasion of the problem. " Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James the less and Joses " are accompanied by Salome (xv. naturally figured in many artistic Concerning them we know presentations of religious death scenes. not at Joses. face of the case mourning figures are the of more likely sources of the Christian myth-item. where we have " Mary Magdalene and the other Mary. there are weighty reasons for believing that the Christian legend was first set 1 forth in a dramatic worship. xxvii. — represented in pictures or sculpture. ancient ritual supports the view . put as only two — there being. Moiragetes. they were at Apollo times. pp. l). as with Zeus elsewhere. What we already know of and. and Mary Magdalene. 10). figures in a ritual lamentation 1 2 See above. 56. E . 301 the mythic crucifixion and it is plain that the gospel story has been manipulated on some such basis. again (xxiv. The crowd are represented as following the women who in all the accounts God from Galilee would on this IT. x. that. Part at Delphi. Cp. the inference is that the narratives of the part played by the women at the resurrection were framed before the birth. as we have seen. Pausanias. . c. In view of all the data. who dispute as to whether she was simply the whilom Virgin and the difficulty is not helped by verse 61. 25) we have Jesus' mother (not named) and her sister Mary the (wife?) of Clopas. the cross. More complicated still does the matter become in John. 40) Mary Magdalene and Mary the (mother ?) of while Mary Magdalene and Mary the Joses see Jesus buried (47) (mother?) of James with Salome bring the spices (xvi." Since Mary the mother of Jesus is here not mentioned at all." Here the mother of James and Joses is a crux for the orthodox. ch. with occasional variations. Christ and Krishna. In Mark. while they were commonly reckoned as three. matters are further complicated. notably in the temple at Delphi. but at the tomb. and nothing whatever has been said as to her dying previously. as mourners " . In Matt. . or Fates. and as such substituted for one of them. equally with the Maries. we may turn with some degree of confidence to the solution of an ancient ritual usage.THE MYTHIC MAEIES . In Luke. 218-23 and Pagan Christs. where (xix. who. we have the two latter Maries and Joanna. 1. It is not impossible that the two and three Maries were suggested by the Moirai. hypothesis be.

Martha.302 THE GOSPEL MYTHS . might a Maria (a tradition from a similar ancient Goddess-cult) weep over the image of the Crucified One. Mary Magdalene. or disbelieved. The finding of the body by a woman or women. and figures with her in the mourning scene of the ostensibly another variant of burial and resurrection of Lazarus And in the Gnostic Pistis the primary " two Maries " motive. myth for his artistic purposes. The rational inference is interpolator who made Paul speak of Jesus as that even the late having appeared to hundred at once. so in the early Jesuist mystery-drama. where the "other Mary" is found in the divine society 2 We are wholly with Mary the mother. who with " the other either the risen . Ed. introduces her as the first of three Maries who stand by the cross." which the Hebrew prophet denounced centuries before. though there would — doubtless be local variations. there 1 is at first sight something 2 of a crux in the legend 13. and which. though narrative gospels were already in existence. § 3. such as belonged to all the pagan worships of a slain Saviour-God as in the usage of the " women weeping for Tammuz. all. Ezekiel viii. Mead. in the face of the mythic data. the Magdalene story. . in any case. elsewhere as here speaking of Jesus' mother without naming her. that there was Mary " thought she saw Lord or the angel announcing the Lord's resurrecEenan. perhaps against a reluctance of many to give the God an earthly mother at cultus. but five critical caprice. notes that Paul says nothing about This is the women and he implies a touch of apostolic misogyny. figuring as his devoted disciple till the fourth gospel. Christism copies at several points. as in the different Christian versions. accepting the tion. was equally part of the cults of Osiris and Attis. 14. . Martha likewise intervenes. The Myth of Joseph. Sophia. pp. 120. Thereafter. which excluded the lover-motive. Alike from the point of view of the mythologist and from that of the believer. 60. To a surmise. as all way obviously we shall see. either had not yet met with. which has no Birth Story. which. the myth-cycle rounded itself for the Christian In the fourth gospel the " other Mary " is placed beside a sister. 1 And even as the Goddess wept annually over the image of the beloved Attis or Adonis or Osiris. figuring first as consort or lover and later as mother. is a mere defiance of all critical tests. And the crowd of women myth followers of is in a general precedented in the Dionysos. on the plane of myth.

" says 1 one scholar. so far as we know. Luke xvii. But it so happened that the Palestinian tradition demanded a Messias Ben Joseph a descendant of the mythic patriarch as well as a Messias Ben David. the grafting-on of the myth of the supernatural conception could have happened all the same. Principal Drumrnond (The Jeivish Messiah. " son " of the For this hero-king. All the while. who were always eager to raise the tribe of Joseph at the expense of Judah. "It is not likely. Fragments of a Samaritan Targum. : 1 Nutt. there is a decisive solution in terms of mythology. will assemble the ten tribes in Galilee. of the early Judaic myth-makers. and that the virgin-birth-myth was merely superimposed on the really the father at all. 2 John iv.! THE MYTH OF JOSEPH which gives the 303 " Virgin " a husband. p. albeit only to occasion the assurance that he is not Thus he does not strengthen the claim of and there is no ostensible ground for his the mother's virginity. however. which suggests a partial revival of the ancient adoration of the God Joseph as well as that of the God Daoud. But it suffices us that the myth had a general Jewish currency. 97). and lead them to Jerusalem. like Cyrus. facts." 2 The fourth gospel shows the occurrence of Samaritan contacts with the Jesuist cult and the book of Acts assumes that it was 3 There were thus spread equally through Samaria and Judaea. ch. 1874. p. . obviously genuine biography and even the naturalist might be so led to surmise that " the " Gospel Jesus had had a known parentage. 357) agrees with Gfrorer that the doctrine is very unlikely to have been preChristian. Had Joseph figured to start with as the father of Jesus. though it may have been a tribal matter. himself clothed about with myth. i. Cp. evidently. Bk. iv (ed. 1840. xxii. Cp. that being after all only a new and quasi-pagan form of the common Hebraic myth of the birth of a sanctified child to aged parents. But the mythical father appears. 1. etc. purpose were framed the two mythic genealogies. Thus we are asked to believe that the Jews set up the tradition in order to conform their Messianic doctrine to the Christian narrative 3 Acts viii. Apologists might hereupon argue that the detail is thus invention. Milman. We are not concerned here with the origin of the former doctrine. 69. 1877. The Hebraist just cited summarizes the doctrine on the subject as follows " Messiah the Son of Joseph will come before Messiah the Son of David. " that the idea of a Messiah the son of Joseph would have its origin anywhere but among the Samaritans. 5. simultaneously with the mythic mother. . ch. Messiah as Ben David. i. History of Christianity. 11. introd. but will at last perish in battle against Gog and The first preoccupation was to present the — — . sufficient grounds for adopting the favourite Samaritan myth.

Short and Easy 127-130. then. Messiah being expected under two names. and Pesikta. c. edit 15e. overlooks the circumstance that in two Talmudic passages the Messiah Ben David is identified with the Messiah Ben Joseph. 4. however. the Egyptians held that all things came from Saturn (or a 1 Nutt. donne a reflechir " (Vie de J&sus. and Luke xx. 74. pp. but in terms of the precedent. Method with the Jews. shows fol. along with that of the leading of the Carpenter (c. 1884. Grounds for the symbolism in question may be found in Plutarch's statement 5 that in the forecourt of the temple of a Goddess at Sais there were sculptured a child. an old man. c. as he is styled 2 in one case. In the sacred procession of of as described by Apuleius in his Metamorphoses. 1." was suggested by old religious ceremonial. not only in the interest of the Virgin-myth. 4 The myth of Joseph. he would naturally figure as an elderly man. i. Mark xii. note). 304 THE GOSPEL MYTHS for the sins of 1 Magog Jeroboam. the laden ass by Joseph in the journey of the "holy family. 41-46. Ben Ephraim. 2 Tract. 35-36. duplicated in Matt. as cited. dans le Talmud. and this is the view of Christian tradition. has the note: "Le nom de Ben Joseph. or. arose as a real accessory to the cult. . 4 Renan. Horce Hebraicce : in Matt. Zohar Chadash." This. 62. who has so many glimpses that come to nothing because of his lawless method. 6 Further. quoted by Belation of the Jewish Christians to the Jews. 1. ed. Lightf oot. pp. and O. qui. p. F. xxii. 5 I. 45. Once introduced. But here again there is a presumption that the detail. 6 Id. He is accordingly represented in the apocryphal History of Joseph (cc. p. Such a concept might of course very well arise from the simple wish to insist on the point that Joseph was not the real father of Jesus. 7) and in the Gospel of the Birth of Mary though not in those of the canon. 70. H. The obvious motive for this identificaThe tion would be as natural to Jesuists as to orthodox Judaists. It is sufficiently unlikely that the great Isiac cult would adopt such a detail by of representing way an episode originating in a recent system. 52. Succa.. adopted in the Hebrew myth of the parentage of John the Baptist. 1812. who interpolated the gospels for their special purpose. 32. But he goes no further. a claimant with either title might be met by denial on the score that he had not the right descent. one the figures is that of a feeble old man leading an ass. 8 Tbe passage that there was an anti-Davidic (possibly Samaritan) group of Jesuists. 2. 41-44. designe l'un des Messies. 37-38. fol. and some animal figures. fol. To make the Son of David a Son of Joseph by the plan of giving him an actual father of the latter name was a device thoroughly on the plane of the popular psychology of that age since the Davidists stipulation 3 could point out to the Josephists that their fulfilled in was now a manner which showed them to have misunderstood their prophecy. Isis. 8). 59. the two former standing simply for the beginning and the ending of life. Cp. Leslie. as a very old man. Reichardt.

Jesus " the son of the Demiourgos ". we note that. the other hand. which is fully set forth in the sculptures on the wall of in several . the cross symbol of life. we are left to surmise that some lost myth. and the we have first Goddess Hathor take the queen's hands and hold to her mouth the crux ansata. no less than the name Mary. without a knowledge of which we cannot complete our interpretation. however. 2 There the Annunciation to the maiden queen Mautmes. 52. 11) occurs the form architector . The word used in the canonical gospels. The detail.. and usually in the apocryphal.. 2nd ed. tr. and in Pseudo-Matthew (c. Belig. the Christian system is a patchwork of a hundred suggestions drawn from pagan art and ritual usage. Handbook of Egyp. and It is frequently again to be put forward in may or may not have been transferred In any case. 161 sq. and to literalize this into " the of early Christian son of the carpenter " would be on the ordinary line mythopoiesis. that the once Time and the Nile. 18-19. Kneph.\ Errnan. pp. 32. Eng. 1897. is tehton . that she will bear a son. pp. pp. and could apply alike to an architect or a carpenter. 175-6 Renouf p. Egyptians. of the Anc. Some anti. 10) Joseph is said to do house-building. 1 Id. and his adoration by deities or priests. tr. Eng. thus supernaturally impregnating her. underlay the whole. In the next scene the Holy Spirit. but in the Latin form of the Gospel of Thomas (c. Cp. the apocryphal gospels. X . 37. On seen and shall see throughout this investigation. 2 Egyptian Mythology. is explained as mythically motived. . This obvious introduction to the supernatural birth is anticipated pagan legends but the most precise parallel is the Egyptian ritual usage or standing myth in regard to the birth of the kings. the temple of Luxor. 305 1 who signified at and was always figured as aged. § 4. by the ibis-headed Thoth. the probable basis is the Gnostic view of the Jewish God as a Demiourgos or subordinate Creator-God." name " Joseph " figures in the final scenes in the person of Joseph of Arimathea. reproduced and elucidated by Sharpe. Wiedemann. Logos and Messenger of the Gods. c. the When. The Annunciation. given in only two of the canonical gospels. as we have human father of the God-Man was a carpenter.Judaic Gnostic sect might well call thence to the canonical. This was part of the syste3 a process which sometimes matic deification of the Egyptian kings . THE ANNUNCIATION similar Egyptian God). In another scene is represented the birth of the babe. 3 Hibbert Lectures. Demiourgos means an artisan of any kind. Belig. 162-4.

163. 3 Epist. bk. Herakles. — 1 In an inscription in honour of Ramses II and III. mother was the spouse of the great fore the king's father. . Hermes too. the Logos and Messenger or Mediator. 42 x. the story of the birth of the God-Child in a stable as And. 23 iii. . 4 who was identical with Tammuz. There can be little doubt that the cave shown as the God's birth-place at Bethlehem had been from time immemorial a place of worship in the cult of Tammuz. 2. ii. . and similarly God and Tammuz. . 2 4 5 6 See above. being its ." In view of these variations of God-names. Mary and Jesus that in short Maria = Myrrha. § 5. Christ and Krishna. pp. Forming as it does part of the late fabulous introduction to the is third gospel. x. . all the great cult of Mithra. 32. as we have seen. Hermes. Pausanias. however. iii. Homeridian Hymn to Hermes Apollodorus. 191-205. we take the " canonical " story of the inn-stable or the " apocryphal become an accepted Christian tradition. 25 vii. Sacred caves were about as common as temples in Greece and Apollo. may be taken as certain represented to be born on what we now call Christmas Day. would be figured as cave-born. Cybele. — . included their being raised to the position of the third person in the prevailing Trinity and 1 it involved the doctrine that the king's God Amun-ra. as thy father I have begotten thee. 5 But above Demeter. and that Jesus was a name of Adonis. and of the close similarities of so many of the ancient cults and on the hypothesis that the mythical Joshua. impregnating thy venerable mother. Hibbert Lectures. the Mediator. . whether obviously unhistorical as the rest of that narrative. the God says to the king " I am Renouf. 58. 15. was an early Hebrew deity. and Poseidon were alike worshipped in them. was born of Maia in a cave 6 and. 25 viii. made it a cave pre-eminently the place for worshipping that he. . ad Paulinum. 36. or Dodo. pp." 306 THE GOSPEL MYTHS . son of Miriam. which has clearly we have . as it actually was in the time of 3 and as the quasi-historic David bore the name of the SunJerome God Daoud. The Cave and Stable Birth." : cited. p. 56-57. it may be that one form of the Tammuz cult in pre-Christian times was a worship of a Mother and Child. he was represented in vasepainting as there lying cradled. Sayce. surrounded by cows either those of . . story of the cave. A little had to be left out but there was small need to invent anything new. it was not improbably on that account that Bethlehem was traditionally " the city of David. who was thereThus the post-Pauline creed-makers of Alexandria had well-tried myth material lying ready to their hands in the ancient Egyptian system. an ill-disguised adaptation of a widespread pagan 2 myth.

to 3 the 4 It may be worth noting that so late as the middle of the seventeenth century this symbol survived in Protestant England. 1 and the conception 192-3. belongs to an extremely The stable-shed. adding the shepherds. 202. sculpture. like the Goddess. The stable motive. the term used in Luke. at the Virgo. 6 In this case the word is not liknon but phatyii. Selden. son constellation of the Virgin Isis. by Hermes to the temple. the 5 "manger" 4 is just the long basket or lihnon of the is Greek God-children. . Id. tian evidence A similar ritual. Nothing in hierology is more certain than that the Christian story of the birth of Jesus is a mere adaptation of such ancient pagan materials. sculptures. p. which as we have just seen was paralleled in the Egyptian birthand the " ox ritual. pp. This was the given in the ancient astronomy to the nebula of the constellation Cancer (Ass and Foal)—a further connection of the birth-myth with astronomy. of the temple where dwelt the whom the former. The process of myth-manufacturing can be seen going on in* the gospels themselves. In the Catacomb . in shape See above. Id. name . was represented annually of as born at the winter solstice. Luke bull. 194. The cow myth was widely spread. "is in 195. and so represented in art and of the divine child Ion. which appears in the Catacomb or those of it was probably pre-historic in the birth-ritual of Krishnaism. That is the exact in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger. THE CAVE AND STABLE BIETH the cow-stealing 307 myth founded. pp. . 193. at that The Chronicon Paschale represents that even . but long anticipated in the myths of 2 So again with the " child wrapped the births of Apollo and Buddha. See refs. p. has every sign of being originally a ritual usage and ass " of Christian legend in all probability had the same origin as had the legend of the bending palm-tree as given in the Koran a legend set forth in a Catacomb sculpture. cradled. "The coffin of our Christmas pies. and given with a difference in an apocryphal gospel. Chkistmas. art." by the Christians from Mithraism. above. creche). and carried 3 thence. too. Christ and Krishna. who was carried in his manger-basket in ritual-procession. some rite on which that myth was would seem." says imitation of the cratch" (i. established by Chrisperiod the as having flourished under the Ptolemies in Egypt.. ancient mythology.e. 7 By a ray of light— an idea reproduced in pictorial treatment of the myth of the Virgin Mary. customary adoration of a virgin-born child lying in a manger 6 was an ancient mystery and we know from other sources that the Sun- God Horos. 1 and would seem even from these very sculptures to have been borrowed The adoration of the " Magi. 5 Above. Table Talk. who is laid by his mother in his swaddling clothes and basket cradle in the cave of her nuptials. 2 of Elizabeth." description of the Babe-God Hermes in Grecian song and sculpture and equally of the Babe-God Dionysos.— . note 1. p. in moment the appearance of the and sacred cow was held to be 7 supernaturally impregnated. long. 188.

It seems to have been on the 25th December that the Phoenician God 4 It was on Melkarth woke from his winter sleep in his sacred cave. and now called were solar. 308 THE GOSPEL MYTHS of the other versions. or Chisleu) that Antiochus Epiphanes the 25th December (Casleu caused sacrifice to be offered on an " idol altar " placed on the altar Epiphany. thus connecting it with the vernal equinox rather than the winter solstice. alten Persiens. soon after the birth legend took Chris. these dates or at the vernal varied in terms of the different ideas as to when the year began and the Christian choice would be determined by the prevailing usage near the Christian centres. That or on this must have been placed either on the 25th December. Christian Antiquities. apocryphal gospels add still The shepherds came from the same pre-historic source as the rest. while others placed it at 25th greater part of the Eastern Church for centuries May made . 174. save among the country-people. Grecian.. who placed the 2 that is. and the the date 6th January day assigned to the Baptism. vii. tian shape. Teutonic. p. Justi. Christ and Krishna. some other solar date. indeed. 20. 1853. Several sects. 5 Mace. and they are more or less implied in that of Hermes. 280-2. . 3 * c. 1 —the All alike — of God". The cave. — become as powerful as these could it thus openly outface them. Phoenician. who on the day of his birth stole the cloud cows of Apollo. 2 Diogenes Laertius. 2. i. § 6. 1879. Geschichte cles 54-59. 93. Plato. Only when Christism had Persian. and were chosen on the same principle as had been acted on by the Platonists. and God of shepherds. In Begem Solem. is simply the world. ed. and the late recognition of that date by the is obvious Church was simply due to the notorious fact of its having been the birthday of the Sun-God in half a dozen other religions Egyptian. As Julian has explained. long persisted in fixing the day on the 24th or 25th of April. 5 and from what we know of the persistent polytheistic tendencies of the Palestinians at that and earlier stages of their history we may infer that the birthday of the Sun-God was a well- known period date for it them for a as for other nations. i Bingham. But even in Palestine the day chosen had long been a sacred one outside the prevailing cult. either at Christmas master's birthday on that of Apollo equinox. himself a divine shepherd. See above. 176. according to Justi. as the machinery more. They belong to the myths of Cyrus and Krishna. pp. though after the Maccabean would time be little heard of in Jewry. notes. The Birthday.

THE MASSACBE OF THE INNOCENTS
§

309

7.

The Massacre of

the Innocents.

this story,

on the unhistorical character of which appears only in the late preface to the first gospel, being absent even from the elaborate narrative of the third, where It is the element of ritual is so obvious in the first two chapters.
It is hardly necessary to dwell

simply a detail in the universal myth of the attempted slaying of 1 the Child- Sun-God, the disappearance of the stars at morning suggesting a massacre from which the Sun-Child escapes and we see it already in the legend of Moses, which is either based on or cognate with an Egyptian myth. In the second century Suetonius
;

gives a variant of the
of Augustus.
2

myth

as accepted history concerning the birth

myth

goes to

But all the available evidence in regard to the Krishna show that the massacre motive already existed in Indian
era.

mythology long before the Christian

Note on the Moses Myth.
I have been challenged for saying that the story of Moses and the floating basket is a variant of the myth of Horos and the floating But this seems sufficiently proved by the island (Herod, ii, 156). fact that in the reign of Eamses II, according to the monuments, there was a place in Middle Egypt which bore the name I-en-Moshe, That is the primary meaning Brugsch, who "the island of Hoses." proclaims the fact (Egypt under the Pharaohs, Eng. tr. 1st ed. ii, 117), It is suggests that it can also mean " the river-bank of Moses." very obvious, however, that the Egyptians would not have named a place by a real incident in the life of a successful enemy, as Moses Name and story are alike mythological, is represented in Exodus.
:

and pre-Hebraic, though possibly Semitic. The Assyrian myth of Sargon, which is indeed very close to the Hebrew, may be the oldest form of all but the very fact that the Hebrews located their story in Egypt shows that they knew it to have a home there in some fashion. The name Moses, whether it mean " the water-child " (so Deutsch) or " the hero" (Sayce, Hib. Lect. p. 46), was in all likelihood an epithet of Horos. The basket, in the later form, was doubtless an adaptation from the ^ritual of the basket-borne GodIn Diodorus Siculus (i, 25) Child, as was the birth story of Jesus. the myth runs that Isis found Horos dead " on the water," and brought him to life again and this is borne out by the Book of the Dead (ch. 113 Budge's ed. p. 178) but even in that form the clue And there are yet other to the Moses birth-myth is obvious. Egyptian connections for the Moses-saga since the Egyptians had a myth of Thoth (their Logos) having slain Argus (as did Hermes)
; ; :

;

;

1

Above, pp.

183-5.

2

Octavius,

c. 94.

;

310 and having had

THE GOSPEL MYTHS
to fly for
it

to Egypt,

where he gave laws and learn-

ing to the Egyptians. Yet, curiously enough, this myth probably means that the Sun-God, who has in the other story escaped the " massacre of the innocents " (the morning stars), now plays the slayer on his own account, since the slaying of many-eyed Argus probably means the extinction of the stars by the morning sun (cp. Emeric-David, Introduction, end). Another "Hermes" was son of Nilus, and his name was sacred (Cicero, De Nat. Deor. iii, 22 cp. 16). The story of the floating-child, finally, becomes part of the lore of Greece. In the myth of Apollo, the Babe-God and his sister Artemis are secured in floating islands (Arnobius, i, 36), or otherwise Delos floats (Pliny, Hist. Nat. ii, 89; iv, 22; Macrob. Sat. i, 7 Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 213 Pindar, Frag, cited by Miiller, Dorians, Eng. tr. i, 332; Lucian, Deor. Dialog., On Delos).
; ;

§ 8.
1

The Boy Jesus in

the Temple.

Strauss has pointed to the obvious untrust worthiness of the story of the boy Jesus, at the age of twelve, being lost by his parents

and then found by his wisdom.
a proof of
stories of
its

in the temple,
It is

among

the doctors, astonishing

them

found in Luke only. As against those critics who see in the simplicity and non-miraculous character of the story
genuineness, Strauss points to the extra- Scriptural

his father's house at twelve to play the part of an inspired teacher, and of Samuel beginning to prophesy at that age. It was in fact an ordinary Jewish- myth-motive. But

Moses leaving

Strauss has omitted to notice Pagan parallels, one of which supplies the probable source of the first part of the gospel story the losing of the child.

In Strabo's account of Juda