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of;

lBa-o f ~~.lw. has tor Ieiii' H~alw.'1d.'eB", and

Co'~ Dau~m, 'N'15bo. to paeMillio Il'l'f' or 'the tOllovin,g1 ,Al.ored~e Kokto t~!. i&:p il!Ior"l:al:" I hlJt,h~ ~ !&'br1do8 IlaY~"lah, o.n!n&; ~-cme:r baal8:e.ll ~feto •• ;P.lato MOllfI[l~' .ntJ!eDt 'lor.q,ue/'bron'Ze i;wb... d.. 'r. Illrl.o:t. il'hr-~M1.lL IiSlImd ,1Iook.. Pal&'IiI ;ha4s[. eito,. Abo, :l'lq'utr-B!1I 'the OOIIiiliOtl61" ,1te:ms ,u; 'well ..

iD:ld 10'U :tnow that. :1:n, p.ro-,~ t\h!fi;. ~ 'the Haw:! :!.iln.8 'uilliecli lD'urda ." m.on,e-y. (ib;~&C'h :im 'tib,elr. t'N4q ,and be:'rt«r.h.g,.. l'he:Y lINn v>&l:u8:.d 4' ,d:r.:!:nk1ng ~P$[. '~:t~n,,' bg,ttJles .:md eQn'ba1I1~' ,tor .-tor',:li:ig clo,t'lu'JI1lh beloillil:1ng8 gd food. .!iII '!f$'l'l as i'Uttl~;e t~ iba'bl&~ ,Silld, hulA, _O(:$.iL"8 ~
'!he iOQl'd1 v!M'l& ,~i:~ t$~,tbil!lrt alLd i'~!J,":

nev,lpe.pe::r ),,
,

.

tb. (A'brldpd _q. ,t1ret. ,1~, £tQ.

'u!I!!IMI all l!'IIOII.;j!J'lr,!!I wIth n:mboo'h~ '11,.1!!U,!a:na· :i!n. '. Honolulu

i
Deiz,&.u
r

iJolnqlfl,

~t. ,1JU~1. ,'{J •. (), Box. 1.ffJ'Zl,?' f N'a.IIw.u.tA~ 1'1' J1,ZH~ U. S.;.t. ·aJl.tQi"Elidl bl~ ,S$.'ie, ~t'hod! b nill f.,k'u.iJir~,. li.t, Ins.ttlad of ,a f1xl;iitl. Iii·d·~ list he lG$Ui!d a MilL Md .. sal.• a.'1id: be:tu.ded. a:QmI! ver.l rd;ci;I l't.e:msl ir.J.cl.~d1ne: ~

f.lH:1 Iml'

'!ifl;i:i;lit· Af.rlca..F.erna.ndlo

f,IF1,Q'

'P~:SO

112.5.0 ...
711

:f:o;-,~""

.su:U

8'n.ct

l1 as: Qu.:1IH1n.
2
iliX

'~5a:W-'~

;X'

iIW:sauml 132.~OO.. t~p

6:j:iI1l 'Q:ulgg:h1i pl,.~ '11 ng~ dl:'1nc

B:ro.o:~
<&X

N.. :Ra'm-1des:.. :20'11
SO,lO'ifiQ'ntl8hhook
,of whlc:hI

Iml;5i

SUiQ8 ·fU.n,ppfl t

'Other. l.tea

,.ifIi

or

w.bilel eheU t

dlloil.;.

oJ..Ld. ~.'Q'bUdned
Gl'b'bs:

!B!6 ·~!a'IIIbu:,!iI,...,•.• x; ·fY,uU.

Qu,een. l118Dillas-:Ka;ta,ngs ereSIl!I' A~1ca ...Az,'tec jadie om&m9Dts-,oba;idu'n, ~ po..1mIt-Aateo h.Q81 A'1...... ~::t. nOa6-sen. ba;r...... :f'1,.1h 'o:piua ·wtI'1:ll~c:hoi1l'11 ~ h('liI1JC-w'oO!1 p1.g",ta"wGJ ...cllOi· tserJl.b :t\i!:e'klsce.
e

don.it·

:l·15~OO.• kf!Iov' pr1,eel!!l. in.eluded

·136...

Ml"le.aIl"':a.pear·s§IO

Scott ,~1.
,I~

h givu ,Ii, very in.ter.stoW ·'U·!!l~.Y Q£ Illa~';tElit 1lin~u nJl.a.tli:Dii' to 'b anc.i.ern.t Oh1n.etlf;!! 1Da.'beria'i ,lI'IlIlr'tlJlclng'reclmtl1 3lld acme ot his ,flftw.ing)!,
.n1.C!i!i

~i:tflim. aq,Ua.'b1Ei ,~ Chim-itl,o;llow

fJ'tl(j~ .lkK

1,'001, N~ 04.~'t

:b1B l:LlI·ti!I

I, '7~

LA 70iUS~ U..S.A.
,1II'4!I,..

Ml!I.

iiiiClY,d.!(dt
lElUtllf'19

.irludil.

it~)IOCh1

kntU ... b!M.vl .a.pa.d6,

.root. '~e" pointed ,:rGO'", ~" ]lQ·1n.tedi. ik.n1t!"~t '!!ling blUe" etc, .. Abo noticed the ,t,ollowbg" , i'u14.n,l. ilmb9r ~ ,30'-JSCIli i10 ..oo An<:!e:nt· :~i. 2, 0(l0!li .C·.. lRdo,1Jn"it!icy' X",inga: iS~t 140.00 I.b:t.Q j;bne1~- S1BIII "JM _ 7:5•.00 nti, mat ~,~ o,f' Mala)' 76 ~ 7~ kr8 .~OO •.OO'

of.,

iBrliln.81 :~

wl·Btiln 'brorlL~1 .P~ .1\0 ~rey

Be,Il ~aw'

,1lOO.oo

'Q.u.lgg!n p~ ,113

:po.:l~itill!

$1II2 •.S0'

~M:S.:OO

~ ~, M~,~ A.d.6, .P..0 •. lJo.c Z.n)'. Buttaeo~ NY 1~z 2&. USIA. :bae h.:l;i· u.i9ual. q1!lA.U:t., an,t.:l.qui tl,.s !Ii:.nd p;r-'.i!r:IJit:1'h I!!~.oy &,Y&;U,$..'blo m~1u41~; 11.1000 :a..,10." bronze ,Ulil~ f. wiat&ln, '71"'1 s.pearh_ 124!~. ig,y!'t 4~CM)) s.c, shell amll,et. $S~ S.~b '1tSOO B:.C" 1291" SuIlliJ~1&n, ' ..000 ,6. 0,. neeklaoe :;!,!'I $49.t· •. Amlir'.ind1uJ '~molIi1al. ,
1

l'lEICkl.ai.C8

l
L

1141

'" 7'~ iBha.r.irtl .gp·ld we:Jpt!;l",,;!ll~o,:r.p.i.on, ,$,,3·21' ~ Tl~'r 4n~. :3iOllilEl! n:1O:e &.11$1" SJ:iZ'E!d 36,11 koztec 1'1a;u 'hoe, iIII~f.·

'~8

"I24.jj.

lJoI.. frk.w~ ~

302"', ~&wJ.~ ,M 9i l.JQ~ ,lJ~S ..:4. U Qr.t~l"1ng ~ tb:rOIll.&m llli~ la,tIJl!lt, Usts t ~!ililt eoiIuJ u..d. Ch:1I'lt"ll!IJO ea!iJ,b. - ,11j!.'Q nQt~Cled Ohm... pointed: h_~ mUe 1135~ Ming lm.:lto 16S, sqt~, t'O~ ,IIl*d.~ 1',7'6', &m. l8n l1glit knU'$ _'18,',~ Ch:tng' ~ 'bridge ~ey' ,'1'~,. Ceyl~.nf'!8bbJ)Olr;: lM'1li .1~i~ Trobr-.18M. MgU IJ§j 08u.O& 1).11 ... ~ey '.',. 'T:o.1SO h,''O,1oH,··I.tone, . '11a6-,r iI;I!·tc;. AbQ co'ples 'Gt Qu.:Lggtn's book iI!il!.gbtly w..'tel" d~UllApd lilt. ~2:5..
r --~

In, 1'982 I _3 :inv,()l;"d in the ~,la't1iOn, ;il'llto lingU.8J::Lof' 'thif;l ~.",uI'Y' DepM"t.: B\r.Iit. boot: IiiCo:'~ of th'(! ~ tkm,atos~:n '!ri!: II 'wii1eb 'Iif3!~, ~:r.t of" th-e ;ji,'i;I'P'lmerllt';9 'CM:tr1 '1:0::1;.109, tQ'W,me.: 1!:,!u~1 litBl.t~'!kolS;i!f:i. IMl..o,'i!lQ'tiI!,mlllal ee:1el:i:m;timrI!9 .. l&i!'t :),,>$,,",1' I re~ce.d! some ,~(I;'t.:lon1l' ad.a!p'ited f'l"(ID 'thiS :l'mrterflist1fl1,g 'boo}:,. In: 'th1~ ,&rt;1c,Jl'~ [ am age,:1n, fin~.I~:UI: g, hw !lore .ai9i~ch o.f '.1, 'moru!I'tl:r;y Mi!i!tQ~ ,tr,o;m 'tile, IJlI.Ifiei '!book" by cOU;r'lt;eiSY Qt, tliiofii 'PNaiii1,!!.T'Y L'iopel""tl!.8nt. ' '.

Th:1.I!I, ,mectdiOlll, ,dMl.:IIIwith oMR"i,e, .be.lle..

"'B,w·
1

M

~k,

S.u t.(4,

Covr!e r;l!l1,eU.8I ~ kri.ow. ,in ~ alii! 11IibU, ft' ( a t,e'rill later appU.ed 'to any mn:o:r M!l!ie~lI.C!!tal 1:):010,) are sal. t-va;tel" 41,b81]s ~ I ~ ~tElEid ,t,!'011 !iUil:Qi,:i.e.Qt t;1,!!!i$Ii!li 'IiIi,&:1 trOi 'iIib.~ Unt 'pa'it"t Mt the lilatti!il!.s:k,ol!;lln :b
a~1 IIlMU cb$.DG,e.

''l'h~" ~!1"ICl!
of ~,;
M~I \iKI/N1

89'V8;rB1,

'brou~t to fti.l,i14nd, b:I se.a,if'!!IIr.1't1gm.ifil'1'"c'hinta end ¢lOJI,r;I.;i~t.ed 'Q.'rl'E!lt1,~iSi !S;\l(lh, ,61,., Ibla 'pLo:iiL,!i'J' Ma c'han ~ 'ibia m1!l~ 'b1R, '!)'la, !nO!!)', ib1a ~ loDil ib1a. bla and, 'b':H: Qn~ 'The: 1ZI!)!,"t. pJ:)~lar' th.Q bU. ~II M.d bl~, ,tmAlli. ,All 'C!iOlill"1ellll, ,h,owo:w(1'!~ WN of the valu ngardLe'ei ,or ,e.:l:2ie. i!!1

Ib}If.U

""1~ ......",~__..
!.:.H'1:I1
~·i

oi.lI.fl~.

.'f'iL·~t,#.
~

.. '-1rJi" I.'

"''I' . lI:d ~ : iq.M 1 .,~,.

I

__ ~ .oJ'

'B"·_""""~} -~

II

II

Q!. ll'q :b. IU" fhr.&y.a Chula, bJ&iJ!Qtitd 'v1d't(id SlnPpo:n a:ndi, KalAY.1i ~ M:s :MII'Itiw':fII to 'fbaila:m'l: he N,pO:I"t!i!id to 'tbe ,iU.q <HI. 'til. 'lUI$ o£ ,eOPllM" Clams ,tn the 'Wo 'then 151'1 sb U Col!.on:1Et!s ~ tae Xlng 't.\g ,~nd, Chao,Ph:ra.y'8 ~, ~g ~ tlifj, ij1.nl,iSJ'telr ,01 't;~ ,o'bt&1n rlllifitp].,ea o:f' coppaI"' cobis '!tic !be, prQi1'~~d in, i'Dghmcl.

1Mr1ng'to nlsn

n:fiS;Q~',.
.11,:$

fte

,1!Ii~ fO'llQ.'Wi9!1

~e f'r.om: oow,ri,li;iIs to oo:ppe:t:" cotniSl _191 th~ M&'~S' Mver' had been. 'u~ed ad .& il.MDl Qt ~,~. in. T:b!!.lland :wJl~e the Su'kbotiLai Period '. 'n'Ii!i!ni"!I!I' ill ev:ldieoJ!l; :in 'th,oe 111'w'boa!k.8 t'ba to I!OO eow:r.1'1;1!i!!! Hr'e' req]u:1reCi to, ibe ]Xt'ld te, Atil!lfy I. f'lnt! o,r OrUJi t.u;m,ji ('OO$~gh\b ,at' I, 'beh.t)t Salt w,ti9r' c.OJi!ll'1~' bto'WiSh't. £1''0':1, the 1.n.a:1SD, ~.m vera W!;lElQ, tb:f\O.Ugbo:ut :rftBO'1!L
tif;1.f'

want!;Dg

to

frQ!!!,

'tb!!ll

d: ~fo,li' the, f'lrs'it t..Jrir.... :R!lt't$;n!!il:l:;o~:l1'li,!ira ~
\Iii

to be

32 rdgnlBi 9iu ,41'7

}!'ilJal'S

Q,r

the' qutt.hq'& Piori'!)! tmll (lOntlnuM Ad$.JUli and ,':,4" :y.ea;r,~ of tb,e

U!5e ()f' _tal. (i:!'J~!!) (to:U,owl'DI!' t:be '~'MP1Eirri o,t 'tbe Europerll!lis 'who UII!f!d ,eoppeir cgo1n!!li~'th,e; Ohl:n888 who ueea, 'bn.1li1 eaah ,I!mdi 'tbEli 'II'iiete,~8!i3!' who 'l!I1!i;lidl t,1t!, ~n.;s) sbCil!lld be :su:bat:Jtute:dJ 'to, .a,v'g,:m"dl nii;h ,B·1n;fu.1. ,acta ..

..md, til!. t

Con.:dcler!.ng tt.U!!' J!!.Ulii;!e,r of l.11l'!ng ONa.t.ure.a !k1Jl.l&.dto obtain, the Go.¥:rie ilbJ8inSi I' ,1to wa:e, '~e::h,t. titla;t 'tt.i.e, pr.aet,;1ee .~o.u:ld H I!tcp.peti

"II

~ng, JiIJllCWI, :U:!i II ,o:l'\ile{l"~ ~ ~:1i!11te:r ,of' n~lIi1l:!9I. ,aibt&:LiIiL.. d ;CO,!Pp8,F' ~ ttem,B, ot, t.w dUt'!!Iiren,t di!'#ilgns. ib>8 f'1r;;'t ~:t~OllIledJ an el.~ t ",1,'UI, 'tb.e lD!lu':.rip,t1,C»\ ~g.' .7Iw.i.! M.d, ths, Qtheir a :Jh::rt.UII, ,W'Uih th~ ,al:ll..M' l'n.s;gript.t,o:1tI!.. :'1"" iwwr,adi ,1i8impl,Elsof '$P.c.fui weN, ,p,rCilducad ,$ind, pre!Se:mi'ted to \he KJ:ng ,t~t a:ppro.wl~ ~ ,l,og.'tu.r!II i!loo!B!l,1Vl :b~~I",! Will! zcej'IQIrmt 'bectulBe t:be J!;ot1;!lSi Wi!! th.1 81,f1ibiiil .of' the :H&rbour 'De';pu"m.n't. and _,19! ''UUius :n.o,t ,r.e:p~!Jen,ta't1w
t

:Fo.n~

'i

~OUD,try &1 ill ..,.hw"" Tho o.t.h!lH" ie..e1gn, '.191 &1$0 ~j'e(rted Uu! (lOwn..o sltt.Ui;l ~:t1:ru.ted to be iiJ:,~~g.'~B money tilt Q, n'te ex;,QbS.iilP. Qr 1!J,P' to. 1,.600 .c(J'l!rri,ea to. .'on~ l\l.8rng'~

,Gt ~,
iKii

of'

ilitl,tal,

te &8 ,t.a:i l~r.e, ot 'thiilii Hp$r,l mo\f!L 'th.!i;IJ ldea of ,i!Ulbst1 tut:l:n,g ti, Cloina ,t·w ,c,OYl"le.s p;lJ:"!lililtad,., Ii!>S:'QI!m, iI:io is'QeD, f'rQlil 'the . ton.crw.1n~ ,;N'lLtU":t ~ :~;n!'il:~RAm n:r t. tI~e.1iI tbli!Ji Wa;t :fiI"jm, Chlt'U,plum ~,lelbr& t1~ !,I O'Il"tlr 'n gll ast<: th,e Q.ue«1'1 ,of :iQa_gbmd 'lbo, .pr(lthiGe copper' coin!;!: beliri~ ~i!!I mit of: the P.1AI¢.e to 'be, used .:L'i301l1r. eount1'7. Ii ~II
De,!S;~

,H'~GVer:l!' thf! nns ,i11,ed; a Y6Bl" la,ter.'t 'lbetote ~d!S 'w.!.bcO'lJIld! 'be ,h1f';1U,!!d... li!fllv,81"tili;ijlku! ~. Ki.Qg itlm In 'iIB,e: tho Uf.'ilt, Thai. rmoo"r¢h to plan, .tl!ili!!i a'boUUon of ~. ahe'db a,a ~,Dey ~d: to 1ntIl"OdUCIii thfJ, idea, ,of 'usiq ,!).Opper cO'iDs. 1u 'TUilBni:l.

:D\l!rlng the ,eig,n
QniQ tuang
til,EI'

of' r.h(il:'

,a.,tt a_:_rtd ,soJl.ot

~I

p:ro.du.'ced

~I!:II. U' ,a;o.i.n!s'wi ta a 'v,p.l\UII.at' :itll',:!B, tb~ toi r.,a:puCie tJ'iIa cow.riei9.. 'The,Bel C!cd:n.fI 'w'$r.e

81i1.d, W,:!!'B

~iUie1l;!ld,

MRQ\mCi;!I!IIEI\t'I't

i,:I!I,SlIlI!CI,

in, :Si(!lpi~'!!lber:ll

1&62;:

:in, ,IIOOO:M'nM
as

Ili'T,hBlbndlll

'111 th,

CQWI,tr.l'E!S

t1_Ii!I~
per

O'DWI"1e1l :;:I:'\~ ,e~~~d ,at tit. :mo c~l,o:J Fore::igrun~a; r.eal:1elnr tbe d)I1trDa.l1Ut.or ~<I;I1;li (lQllfrioai,t gJltbe.It'" tb.Q tro:m the iY& iI!, ~g;1II and :b&v,e t.helil in, thls C!CHimtry ;, f;he, niB!.!l t .1.1 tha, t Mis ftlu!;!! or. t;M; oowriU.8 has thlotl1l& ted .tIlnd 'the :ra te (If' Ji!lx!eihl9l,QSI)l 1.milta:bl9,. Tii11s 11'11 lSi hm eal!lBeS p,roblea :3i;fj, the ,law eo:urt.B iIIhl;!i:tle fine !II illin S:l:Iitliii83a.dl at, tile, ra tEll ,ot e05n'1.iS ;peiJ' fuMg P'EliQp\J!il;!! :a.l'I~! i!Jarti'lmg to, el;)!!!,p~n of: 'tiM un,8'table valw lu,diiiS 't.o. J!.Q'i!I' pui!!:",(!;htH!1n~' poowr.

r~e:.

tll~ae'

t

haVEI Malll

'Uilliig co'Wl"1e,!iI (b:ia)

DiiOOrLBY' ,s!n.e. N,t-e, o.f

:~(1'8 ,and

iSla •

o,thM" ,an!3i<e:DIt

'!JJ"~

aoo

4'

'tI

'L'h!9 ,sd"tua;t1.on ali!lo atte¢t.1i 'th,e g&ii1ib,l1ilB: hOlit'IilJlj,1!! ',dlon peopl@ :bave' to, 'u.!$ 'bowla to Eeas1;ln' t.liI.e (l01l!'l1'1'68 'OJ:" delfj),se 'I,I',ulQq[' m""thr;;!3;!iI: of
~O'!lIiliting ~D~, :t:lOIloil'

'I.li;s ,IM.,eM,!!:l8l)" ,ls

';P:P:ro:Fla.'te
iii AiIIl

C01.U~:"ery..'rh.eH eO.ill!!!: !NUl be IfWXe of ·~r tin Ild,KM tq~$!the;r to :!r$b thi;!llll bitrd'il'J" '~,

to iSwt

1nstB11.Eid to, mint, ,eO'1~il!i'. the
~~lD'
ibASe!-'l!ii!Jta.l

Coina

.and 1flili:l eMil,

t.tm.e .:1.,9 tor- Uli!t& :in

~ron
'tM,i5li

w'!il(l;k

o,rdbELl",lf

U,n.

for the dloi:ii.:lp, on, one :iididi$! t~, won.I, be. ,iUIi ,elaphlm t vt'th1n iI.I. 'aI:i.a'krti:, '!Ir.i.tn tbe ~.,EI in, Thai. Ol'!! t.QP, In Etlgl1~ Ql.I, :IiIMi br'll. .and) rlg,.\t. ,Qlndl ~, iChii\l,13:.etEl ~,t th.ebot.t:O'!!'!", The lii!t_btij,l"diEt, '!lUI. ICIl!'f.',y' th!l 'big" iii e:m'bl'!(bi IEiO that t:b:a; })e,op1e will ilmiow t.h:ii:t :IiAu.e,!le oo.i'tli!; an, mil,ted dw.",q ·tiiJe,ptlesa1:t ni~,~ '!!fill 'be, 'two ,i;lenomW. t:li.onm I: Th.e lar~ oae will 'b!;I! called .aM lI;l,r:u 'be val'uld !!l t 100 (I~!e!:!li ~ '~l,ilIlvs:,len.t t,.o. C!i1l,19 '~i.gbi'titl of a tuM.g:l wldb tho amaller Q:ne will 'II» '~,lled .40,tgt 'Qd v,lll 'be valued at ,50 C~i!;l!BI.' eq,ut1.'w,bnt to' Q,nel L'lr.ix:WiI!I!l:t;h 'Of' a ,f'wtin..,K ..
p1:f!!le(l'lft

!I~ere.
td.;t.,

rjj'lo ta.Ollltate
aU"owd~,iI
'Th~llI:

bllow50' (!:QW'l\',:I.,e'iIIl~ th.eiir. 'use ,dU, !9!tJlU, 'be
't¢,'!be, l,ilI!1I~d tor onl¥ 'be'ClaU,I!I!I

the, OOW'l"i!lSl

cCirlt1l:lluei';1,

di.isap;pEuU'eCl.from

.11v10,.,

't<liel

rbt

or

:80~

trlme.. 'Th~~ r,inl!'lll:Y 'th!31 r15int: cost of

wl"El 1n,troo.uoe~, '1n 11 65.. 8 'the ililall&;r ,011'1, the .i!i.o~

m

,l!:dd:l't.lol:11 the 'Un ,!iitt and s:olo't. two addlt.i,o:J1O,l oopper '0008 to 'T:h~ la1"tl:8r <CO'i'r!!i!'a~ ~lled, 'the .4lk. .mdJ
iwo ,B!1k ~u~ll.,t!'d
,O!\'i!;Ii ~,id,Q

81o~ ~ A~Cord:!~:ty,. _.a ,B:lJ'~:we!,"s~it"u~:nl_ aM
C!oUl.s van

!u.i!I).ng. 410 '(U,d tail.!u"

~1l!"lt !;MlIt, 1n:to ei.F'OullitlO'tl .in J'q,y.~'.

:1, f'u~'~~+. l[Ib~"1
11 66~ S

II

~tiA~'

N~

,'r~,

GBmhling to'bBB, ~ .as ,Ipu :plall''ed, EIlil'rl im$lO~t&nt r-ob, 11:1, the irr.'01iEItary hi,d~ lid tb}e' RA tta.l'likoeli n ElIPl,~ ibo.:LLJ:g Used :i1Qt. O7l:ly' as a~ hi tih;Ei' plIJiblJ:nl!l:' ,iJ!~n8 'but, :aJi..B!O ,laIei i9~n ,e:~, 111, 't!.h,e !Degk~lb.

_ir~ts, 'Oi$X" tbe fi::r.st to ,:!;n.'trodllco ill ,iSt Ch.:J.na;i!iili! lltbll1j;~ in, Tha:UmdJ. G tho!IPM~ :IIi:!iCI!!m !Ill!! ,~; '~" DB i!i:t, tir:.a.'t, poO-pgmr' ,rnuly' ,~~, the 'Ch~ciOOt1I;it w,t l&te~, its: 8Pr,tad ~~,oU,t -tc&' e~~'>i "'tua~' !I-~:![i: II to< 'liIQa,t. ,0)1;\1'141;11 'W ,lIIer;pa1.la,tet1i WhUfii !lclii;ii(!l;1I ~ni91 !'IiIlOiil91 Q£ a law" dAii~m'na t:l.,~iI1' ~
Th,. C,h1ne&e :N'sddal!!;t.:s 4Ddi,
1II~liplO fOl"!!!,

popuhH~ -

;!e ~~

" ,$;, gtau,p f4 Obi'n,e,iilEi ;!Jam. 'WaS 1i!l'iIoImNd, 't,Q~th~r.. bed)" o;n :bow' ;m:8i.ll1 cQ\ln;liI: 'r.rleuld ;Nrriai~ .afte,l" !i!::~(Q'uI!J Oil' ,f'<:iyt' ~:5Jl!il; ,hd. kEiiP., ta'~Emi hl!m t4lte' iP1lE!iI ''toM illili'OUfit .lett, 'W~]d 'bel elite t t'llo'-O t 'tM>ee, O'l" :tE!i:ir'-O 'fh,CUIlEi, ~ [bet, 'o:rJi, 'tM, r~t 'litU!!!~ '~rl;!i tllie W:5lruil.Eii",III,., QtbSit" to-.rIllB ,of' 'tbl:Bi l!I:im,1MIi d)e,v~~ 8i1,Co.um,s;mB: ,10 ,p,::tq thl,~~
ilill~i;Ii

waiO

ph"ed

w,o

~~

:pei).p-~ 'to IDl:jll'bl,e ~
'0> '.....

'~_-......u ' + .... ..,', , ~,l ~ ~..,_, ",""I.. ""1jII~;&,II;I'" I'"Qll,ed8:r:'O'wd aM. 'nn
~o;.t;I,

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1 '....... , "'" ...1Ii.

JI·~
;&O'I;;II

P.

,

t"~.( 'I!iIY_.,u

, ".,

IIoIII;U...

II.~: ,.., ,,~._,&;lI .1':'~, ... .....,'!I!'Ii.l -

t-~~.--. -.t!;l AI",.~.,.-, .,~iIji

1~rted!
IC"'" _'

de;i;i:1!!linedto ;irEifp:~;g;e !.l8et1 t ltiut U'Ill!I",in.g 'the

th,QlIi~

t.roll! Oill;ne., ,!ind CaIMl! 11i:t-o ~

'Ms1ly lo:~,t. (lOM,to!". or 't.-okelWS, ''!lEI" At, ,f;'iract _tal and! ,8:'1&S$ 'toteM, ~-er..e :rd~ ,of KIng :F.~l:Itl9i, I[ :pcrceldi'l 'ti:)bna ~

A.!!i, t'hi;!! !i,Qrte'Y
..... .11

11J: e1reul!i.,t!on
,oj.'i< -;0;,

i)!:e:ne-ta.'l U5'6i ... at, the tJil!De, IuidJ a itI:L.fl'J: f.OI"(!hi!Ii!l:tne; JliMl-&'.r
...,11. "','~&M. 1>;... oIi'O~ iIIi.I ..... (h.lier _ Ai w.'1l ~,-...;. ,~_.;, ~i)'W",l,etL.. il'Wst ga'm'tding '~.n,~,
-

:iiEiCei9d t-lel v1 t..hI. jiUiB!,t

.' .... 1l~~~

'W,lI;1!!(bI, ~~'.

I ....... ''':...Ai

'~ie :pa... 'fl ,Pw

~

I,

;rew

'1IoI8:r;e

11 ~, in, tb$ ~lun~,~ 0lMii~ ,iI~ :z....pal d~i)!!Ilnat:lm.lll. but lower' 'WllU$!!i!: ElqU81, to, 200'~ 1 '0001, SO 2,5' co.n"i!9l. 'N.'N :M.de, to fAni.n ,-_. te !Iii!"' - ·.,-;o"'or·· 't'ho:Ii!I' or U·:- !IIIoIO_ 1IINn8,t. ta ,lJ'iIil'libU;nliJ" '1M. ,i,-.:>; '..., ._.

,au

a.11!o

_.;!!

,l't '~
or .~~
lUlU"

other s:ood:s troll'!

IItEII"CMn,h • ~, tb& ,pl!:lbl.k1g hou... t'b& t, :i.siBUed,

end, ,0£' t.lie day plIJ'blna had 'tb.fJ Opt1o:n of :kMp~ the, tg'konll '"'''' 't.n.:m for 9O .......;r • So:II!IB "''''""d,- ;j,.'b.. "",_'1._,_ :;.,.. ......... J!. "' .,. ' ... _ D"iJ' <;''''' ,~.""'''"O '.......... """.,.,. ....... 111,........ '...... ~. 01"
iPII

~CJi)pt th.i!l!ltI4

t'belll!,

u,JI,ual'ly

th.m;i8

of t:ttilllp:rlbl1n.S: ,kOUSil;!I;Ili.hO'lf.lW«l" t ,of"t.n, t.oo.k w;l,vantag .• of gtYbliIIIl'1)I, ib:I ,"ttl'rile: .a 'Q"ty l1,1IIi1:'t.d t1,_ :in 'iIdtlc'b, to 'red.illil. t:'D8 tDken:s., attar whloh 'UIiI,~de$EIedl 'to't:,elIi. beea:1iI wr·thl .•III!IIIi. MIDO'ri11.......... ~ " ~:-i;;"'''''' ...t~;i; on Audii 1. D"';ii; S' ....... 'I'i.!O 'm..... .. ;A"...... 'II . ~ ,_ •• _.1 1,-4 "",'" .. ', '.' . -.~ .o;.::;.i. ,.... ~~" va. ,u:!iu..Y: :req1!lu.-,~ t:h.o8l tIh.o. p,os!.!!Ie:~d tb$ p1l!b1:!ni 't.Obn8 to' ~e:!!! them 'by' ifo,'IIIiIlbM' ZB Qt' tllu:,t ~,' ~ wl,en date Ol.:roul&,t~o:n _5 FOh[M tell.
<;,;II ~

The :p:opt:ktor.s

:l!"n. ~I69) ~ !i.U!e of: tokens bt ga:aibU'nl liOU8$B &"'--*1 1·~ 1 rJ,t 6. 'the l!!o""E '1""'1' . ~~Vll&_~ 'Dr'" .... c"l; .. ... ~. ..." ¥........ _.,..• _ ___ _, ...... ng ..,..,...... "-, __. _ .Ii.,.,. ;,;....4;
_ ~.., .L'I;I\~' ,M!I ...

_I

,OUtli,wed,~,
Oh1pi11!

On,
f

'Wi th t:h.e bd'q of: 'thli:1r tis. ,b a;on,El" Il'nd, ,t,or ,p:llbllng 'the:!!!!111 ................... """"""'" ...... , "',""",,,, ..._~···' 1-: ·. ~y ........ 'h.:r- ....,.,' e' "' ...""', ""'06;1 ..... _ ~s ,_
if.cnty'
,I!''''''''''

at

tAc, ,~
'i; ~ "",.... ,,",,,,,,. ~,!',M_

V~,t
"""""e
jIM" V'"
,~","".. ..

~
_.. _...

~

,......_,"'., •••,Jjj """"~~.Ii..Ii.~

......,'i""" ". ,""","'",",,011

~4lOil8, 1n I.ddi:tloti. t<> lmeil:' ot 'the~ovi ~"Sh;~ ..·-·.. ~ Fow:~,' ,~1'

r,.<'" ....A

'i":i

~ ~-,,;:j'

:fA'"
__ Vb

'If&~;o;Ml ... he . ~ 'illi,o& ,lIidJdn1111it.. ;,;ta, '" _ ._ __ J/a:l·..:1 ih!id, i"',"'~ ti~ ~~,""",* ,'& _~........ '~'~'""6""'~P''''' MI, t'.b~ t.ddrd"t.ri!il:t1C1d t/b, eap.1:tal~ - 'I'Iu;, '.-- t.tLfIi cspltal 'lIN!'. :kn,GW a.1IIi p:I"OvlAci!lli!l,
~~

I!IIn"'!.......u;;I1,; .... , .... JiI ,..

~"j; _,_,..,

....

or

.-

,-'

..

-

'fb,$ !!IOrO dlgta;nt, j;it"O'V,bl~i!! iii tih.olllie :tmHti.~,te~' bo,0t\C: tbeIJ :Fourth. ,Ste;t\m prov1:nGeB t werEI' d1,"1'~ :btb :p1"O'riQ.CJi!J:e, of" tb& 'FirdJli ~o~,~ ... _ _,,;:j, fiI;L.... ._jJ Q'!OQ;, .UIII _~ .II""'....... t;~-,t·· A~~~ .... ,ng on tb&~"" '" 'ae ,_.... l'iF"""'"ta,fiCoe t. " '. '.' . _'" __ -1~_ "', Ai -'t'-' '_

b DSIial. III.'W:tes 'W'Ol"o ~e IIIItl t1f. ~ Oil ot'h.M" '~v1ei!: :uWl o.onslated, .o:dJy of people. ,~ <,-,ther rae.,8 ,!!~, ~1IIi~
bOIirn'Ol\'I'

II'Ii... ':" .. ...... -" ~M! ....... he1.r own :rul.sli'lIIi wbo :I' ,~,Qel5e a,IiQ 4-_ ~ ; _.' e ,0; ~lla.I..A-l 1...--Q;I _'.... ....... is U;f. t _ .. ,aull.!IDDd \11o.1r PO!l:l;1t,:I.on, ¢!Illy .f't6r iIlpp:l"<Mll a:n..iJ oonf,:lmI&U,~ 'b.2f the ':l'ha.:!. :Uq~, ••• Ji'.~;, ~ ':t"fKl'ui'N~, to pay tl:'1~ to tho &ng em a pen<,-d1c 'bl.b~ IU:f!Ulally' a:n:n.UJill;v:t b:f F.!!l!l!Qlt,hJ.g ,bim nth, Q':aibO:l1<O; ~e,,,, ,di!lc(U"&t&di with "Miry:l.ng nuliibori!i Q1" ,gold, ~ "Uve:r- l_viI. and other gU't8 ~

the aa'mD;lt1,\ra t1'fm ol 'the r.t'~ ,,;'u··-, "'I:.... ,i:f"" _._...~O\l'rneeilli and 'IMiI!IMl .... 'I,IIIP!' ."t.e:$ to, tbe Hi:n1;1!~' 01" li:'~,tor1'Qt' :t"'$'~il" t:bi!Ul, to thfi; ~1IIi dlrtie't appointH!IIi !ULd' .1I_l nlM"l.
'h,.,
_!II' .!I:,.....-. ~ u""""'p_s: ,01.,"",' ~I!:I _.;!I~oit."".4i

In. 1393 K'hl8 Ra. V n.tONeal
~.~
,..
.:I.

_

~

,~I;,_, ,~Ii! "' ......,u ~

~

~Mil

Bb,.-hiD £ra tho

t1'!ifii

,~

r.t.ns:

Raua

Inre

:!D, the Horth"

il

:Mor th..... 't. Scuth ..._st
~

,.,"hole fir t.n.:!&~ 1n~g:

South ~ :Iiri'~ iI10,rtb. tbey :in-e:Lrwled, the tb,e. CM4ng Saen, ar.ea., DOW 'c:QJt!lsl,&t;ln.g' o'r pro'l,I'lru:!es of' Obilug Kfi:1 ~ ,Ia~[;, ~n.m t kD and ~.(!I,.,
aDd, t.&~ I!i..~ t~ :alB the 'town ot. tOe :llita:ks or Sd,wtl. B::Ollal1teE.[,

JII'ii. the, iNo'r.t.beastl, ''tihe.~' conl!,il!!lW
f.l.r' aiB '!Ibn,t,l,a.:'DeI!!II ~

South, tilt.

'Ca'lIIbodl8:nSta

and Lua.ng Pra~iU:

,or

the, Lao..J.miba~,W Pu,tthalA8; _
l'n the
bliJ.ngg.~n:u t

,Sout.h'!.l!it~ tJii!
l!lll,.d ,in ':tm.e Songthla,

pro1t1n,eea

4S

:h,t.~n1and,.~
Y&iili ..

M ~t..

l .ta:tei!S
·T~,II

lngotll 1n, the 'tii.• Jq'o:rtba.lJtJ:

IIOhh'rli@:iI1I and

In.on,ey wh~o.n ~ !N!Qorth~.: I1,Kangl! t t!~!!!,

pro:tu.coa

tli8,ir

om

:lIIeilll~

IIl:bcuk
1II.IJ:,t,,1I1i

!Ii'!1d, CQhu!I 1sl!Jue-i by tho FO'Y11~;(::,h.ll gonrno't'8 Of' ,pt-iva Wly' :tIi:ll!u.ed ibydnht,g OOIJlflliD·iell i__n the ,So~\, U:ltl.y t,in, in ,1,0'11 de,noziM.tlan,.,

_ with, Ch1:n,8!SB aM IlBoat!!! ItOne.;!1" :in f!Il

o.f'

t6di ~~

iI!II,Xcha:D'(,Ei

,B.'u,oh,illII

(io'&! CalM, Th'. !!!,to:tl ~ tip! tH ,Ilt'l,d, !!'pat dua:ns;'11 '. ,rmd 0't..h4r Bl!I:rl1 ,flll;t ooi:.€~ w'Meh !~clw.iilly r,,flI,p,lae4d "t.ha Ml"Ue:r IfibullG,t,!!! CO,biB. 'the lB'QIrit'lngTru,t-y of' '~,826,with GHii t Br.ltll:Ln t f'Ol'\O,,i,gn, M~H.$ ,1n,~N.se;d Ui.d til, €:I'M,t, d,.al G,t iold .,111 brought inti) tb;E!I ooun;tr;y'~ eo it deo:id.d, to, 'U89 't.bill gold. to milt Gotn. ae _e.: be, :In tIM \!If.at., _ Fo.ll.ov,~

trade w1.'~ 'W.starn

_I)

Alter' 'the ~stallaUon

o.f' the. 8ti8'~pcNtI('ed .b:t!ng 'J!!.l~II,e, at th,. Roiy,d, T,b&t ,Ki:t:llt. I!Uid the iil!ti.'r;'t of prOO!\lC,t:ig,D, Gf' the 1Id¥ tla,t, eo.1DtI.se, ilfllf',:!:'1e!eIn:t COlu '~ pl"ocb.l;ceQ to ;ceut the, eoun:try'.' iJ r".qu1r'I!i!IIIDt8 ~ ,EI.O 'the eoon.ollV ~~d ,!!I::N& tq ~

lQ, O¢to.ibor 18.6:31 :r.t9!f Ram IV' tbe."f'Q~e 1s!JUeda Dael'~. Pl'o,v!41~ ,f'o'l.' tli" !IUn~1t'It!:' of 'thre8 ,goN COirul" DI!!i ,~e C!ont&1.lled • _ ,~bsOI"ta. ",em QQ, the :h:LiSt01"Y or gold G~e[,. irl,Ot-iq:' ita 'ule !n 'E~!:)pe and hLe,~1<* anal tb f.&ct _'thsi.t lIlIeb - go:ld Will .be,tug l!1pOl"t.ed lnt(ll 'iho.llud, JLQiCionti~b',
!I\~ VIi,I, dQn.(l

til." iKiilg M'W' !,it ifjo, i.lGI$I ,tlald y, ,~ !!tedlulli Ctt aXQ~anp in, ,otber 'CO'Un~lell', 'lhI; 'taB1C!1 ,atlin.dar.d ado.,p';'t:~, waa that r.4 t:h.iI)i ,iEl1"l t:l,Bl:Ii I!:OWIhlp ,(t:b!!il g<>ld coin. .lit, t'ba't 'UIH eq,iUJ1Ji. :!:n.va.1u. to iO:D8 pound !l!t.et'l1ng,)' !Il~1' I thfl eoven.1gn '111$.11, only 11/12tb. iEJUM' 'W 2_2-iI:!Gir.&,t ,g(:l,ldl, The, K111lEJ 'iJ.8c:1d$d 'that ~ Tbl!lil ~oltl ¢01:n.8 would Oonta1;n nc .. 1101 at ,lill and! 'Wo.uld thus iba, J!Uli",$
OJ

lito14 or ,2'-e.a.ra,t.

I'Q a.dOp,tm$ ilAi=!$8 for. t:h1ll, Jl(N 001'DB :it '~'B d~1dI?d tQ 'use da,!iI'ilde&l lSa:nsila'l t aDd! PaU) UIIeS &[Q _,j5 done in. :Da'III1n,g at'h$l"

'bi!'h.t),.. De: ~iE!ln,

CQ'iii:9 ~h. r8P'f':lli8DMi':!!

.~:gI.

1 Ii) cQ1n8

to 'the tilwlii~ ·(·one Wttitl: .fr:tt tn. laJ'\S8 !lJo1n.• ,w ' ..li-aht.) t ,
'1IIa~

a tt and aolot.

Tlte ii'wt!!! :HiBininr
,Gf'
,!Ii

'I'I! ....

chRng

n,1f anal or ·8

L

'!'lint~' '~lnr
tn:rr.toliJth

::t: aJid .':~t~~.~ ,_
or •. c~
mte

intwen.t:yl1i ~.I!U!lliLt:t;ng

2.0' eo.i~~ 'to a cb~ng' (!!me
ononn for tlu!, lI.ed;i:I!1I1"Size'

·~~:_1i~1:~~.,twO!!! ~~entint: ;32 ~lnB -. ~. (,iQlUI _ ,·1rtlBeOOl'l!l of a chang ,or ~ 1M.h.t) W!!!I ~b:osem foOl" thfii ·e..U, cQin. f'hi.;B W!! .:!:n.oonto:rml.'t:r 'wi, th. t'h.~ FeY-aU:ln;g

'D~ '0Iii$i ~

-equ,allEd eight teht.

·Hher.e.·b,i'110 pouI'j~1I!I! ste:l;Ung
·t13

equalbd.

an.1i!!ehutg~,

,or

,1-58_ .i1:!: hp~~. 186,,3 .I1.Qtetl;: ill' •• ~'Our .i!M.!p-s. br'1.'ng iMc!k :!iiI) s.UWIl" from 'l!!!br~d.jI 'tn.iJt !llel'il,'~' Q.£' &oM. illll 'QiI!i.a: :In .t,h1[!l' iIiE:I.'l'iti.'tW of ~'.!.!'UlTL!;Ii. 'to If,o,-.A JUOe ''''''''''-i.'' 'Co.; 1.1i!~:f "--iii:"" ,...11. iI!!"!'4v,e:r ~tll.1_g ~-- - --c;... ....... .- 1>...:i<t-· .. ·.1 . ""' ...... ....:i.e .it 'Ii, -'.' '"Y·· _ Meh~ ~, tw1e~ 'broken: down, due to ~ hol·t.Wty· o.r t'h& ~tt-~ nn :towa.:r-d '-8- ·iiiii,e_t.,i,":","iiI • .~.'i,- "' -":", ,..... 'k-l'i...., 11"Il00., .. n!...!I-' ........... '!' ~;..., ...". ·"u.u.... 'llllYIIoI' 'l,1li1 ·... 10 , ......-, ,,",,", '.... I!. .... i6"_'-""'~ __ oIi.hI! '¢.M.:l"-p! ·to cm:uee ·such ~'''' ~ alli:)W' .t.l!!.e ¢J'·dt-a!l!~n. to, ·ca:!"l"lf ,on 'QUI' 'I!I'O:r.k~'h.ow&VM".~ 1" irlQt '~EI!I!Il'bl>i;li a~ '~::f' GaM,ot ~ap '!lIp wl'th t~be!l ~. f'or oahUli .1Q tho ~let.. 'l'o ·Sld'ttl, thb :p"ro!bLem; Hi-Eli Ma~Oi.'ttr MlI! oriil!f\8d 'the mn.ting tot!~ pit ,an.4, ~.t, 'dui;II,ni ,go:ld 'Coins as the li!!i:)tll''I,!';!]_4trt, of' .s.. b$bt .. 4...~t ,~nd.'1'0' H Iun IE' i)l;),l:n~ ~: "~ttt:i'lfOl¥ ~ as _r1"1w 'iIi~.c&di I .·,As i11111vor 'bIih:t eo1ni!ii ,..:I 'Ii., ·_""t ib;I!I ~ :i i':', .i!j.,.ti't:I ... ...... - q_.n_I*_.:I,,'I;I'!;I: l t .......~;·v'"~ t ___ ....~ £;I.O'r'''' _ _!..._t;sd _ ~ _~_.&,O.o_""" to '~'!J' ·~mDlh.t- - &I.lar~~-, rAii!i Qr.r;--~;-][~,.. Ji, ~~-,.Ij.tl ·~.t,ta th . ~ ~~~- --- ~ -",g~~.-~ . K1,'I!'i,,'I·is :lIir'Wm".too :8tart_ d:1-i!trl-"';'-·.t~i·.·~ -,t .--.11·· .~_ ....._ __ _ __ _ .~ ...lij: I!:!i.,.-··.".--.~_n, e.~._ .. ,1-,98 l .rt.....--.Ai - - fr- QG. 'M' .,!!I\oo,,-, ... "'jw_ 1ii'Uoill< I!OD._-,_. ;;>~ __- .y' .......t-·i,_ 1.'1_. -~" . ~ - -,-Qn"""'ll.r t:n l:'.ioii-.;is ai! .--to !•., ~x~ng - ,~-RS: -~ ._.,-_d!I;I, ....... !I, ~Iii i$$r Qt tttti lta·t (OS 122:6). with ,pU"t ,~. ~ 'ball.t ¢Q'Ul:S ·to 'be """,,-4id rer'lil#'~ ,.cad '~ I~"""""'" ''''4 -"",";:1 ··l·t I!lnd,.,....,.u po . _u j)"ng • It -t.dI ... ,r"""- - --'- --' '¥ "'f'o"!iA '......'.... i}~ Pc .' - o;.,-~

vJlJ:~ ·th~.

'fhl!ii ·tQt~ p1 t a:lltl PII:t.

d'!ilea:lg wre 'I.l8~ werl!! 1niJ1Jlt:1e.1e!l.t cnils-blibt

J.BY' ~'O"rjr.QM:nt, saJla:r:LS!!!!:
AiI1L .jhtnOlln(:~iiiartt

cOiu!~

s.nft,1"

th.

or

~~,II'I;!I],<,II.

~.£

...

"

.Aa th~
8!&1":LG[9!

W&;gi.

rUth :!lalp •.
m; iii
••

Qf

to,t.

,Q,

'p1 t

,gr_t

ana:

~t!!I!md .for' t:h.8$B ,eoii!i!,iji .I!I:,~ koQ,P.iIJQ.~8", ill :tI:~. p.t dJ.I.en$ __ I ·1I~'t.ed iii 18'94 .ai~1nPl t.~.

13,f ItO¥Al ~nd. the ~I:I::I.:I!I.t17 of F!Jtg~ f~.r:b· m.:ntad! gp·l:dJ a:na e:11ve~ ooi:1iI1!II,:!,n ,~JeiEl· f)''()-~ t1!:!!~ to t!,DB fe'r ~"iBen,ta t,l·OIi: to m.embiSl"oil of the, iRo.~~]l Pa'!d~. gQVf)lmll~!I,t ·ot:tlew.e· gd 'tbe pner:'-al puIWe., It ap:pea;roilli the.,t then ~ ~I)pla whQ 'ri:eh ·trj· M,ve tb..,:lliil il.-I!II kMI,pMka:!!. .Son;a, ,an, lu,008!111!111tul il'l o'bta1n1'n~ tbl;l!!I! 'WhUe otM~1IIi aror.I,Qtl a. tMI"e an n,ot, iI)i,u:;ug-'b tQr ~'ryOO.El'" 'li'h$ l!i1m.stat' tor r~ 'hail tbere-lore, ordend. -t. :m:.1i'ibar 011' re:0;iru!: to· 'be iIii!nt"d .and. bpt in .r8ser\li$ .at .·n 'ti;~jJ eQill:iI ,shell ~: .. ",.11;''"'Ii!i t1i-.~ ;';"1 ~~ ,..,-it 'r;,1-t, ...-~ _" A t ,.IL ..... ".._!!I ·_i.U~ l~~ ~F _ ~~
4'
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n,ttmt to the :tourt'b: h1ign.~ to eelei'bn,wl K1ni';' RaIlA ,IV I is (&lrta.) AnnlYef'.S~ in 1'~6.4,1i' a iilel'l,e:9 o,t ,gold! an>d! sUver eOllHrllOl'ffli,t"'l,ve CO"lllS was lJ'-aued wi. tn des1;gll,e; ,~!cl:mn!Bit to' tBe n.gn.tlU' ~: ~~'1 - ,..,.,.._ ~1Io_·t;~,.) .J!,5sue ,~, _'liar' ,""C!(t-'ns ~ ex.ee,,!;,'''' '..,.~.:a - It.,,. 9' o,iRll.a:.Wl.'gIi l V~"!;,!!;I,'bt oO'~n. . _5 .,:

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t,h,e

1neCrJ,pt'i'oD Ii!'Cb~llig Ba.ot1l rfl,I,tlli1dEli 'th.-e £n:iiilJ£l (In the ~1"'i:iA;i of the eein"t 1-'!i1 'the n~1le Q:f' 'th,'ei KinE; 1:n Ch1ne e~1 and, tung' 1'&13 iIi.;i::!!Si

SiI!l:III) ,1'0.

a ira:. EUJd 't'he Cltme1e)ij!

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'wl tb,

the

mael"iptd.on.

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,eoo*ia~ ,M, pArt ,0£ ,fla,t ~1~ of' ThAUJlfni~,t,l'Il fo:r'ellign, oc:oo,:!,.ns I!Ultl'i,o.r1i;iI8di, ;g:t. 'that t1i1!e f;w use' 1i1il T,t.Lii-l~ t ,i:I-lI.W:h as t:iiI:" 'Me«1C1ifi S-,r,M]l ,eoiJ.'b .' D;u,tch, ,21-g:I!dJJiel" '!Joln and!
-:t'.he In,d:LiI.'i'i.
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The, ~.ate,of' iUC~ 't.Q S bah.t.. ~~ Duk~

for th.l!I!e ¢0'1:!i!811, .) ~d(;4'n a-n'l.l ~(i;:l.1.J:e, ifiq~l, 2!-gu:ilder' 'C(;h!;, <8q,~_Ulil 20 'babitl l1n.d '7 to Indian, ru,~eiBI equal to ,. 'belih.t~

;mo, pOi9iB-esi5Odi the; i'(ij'I'e:1gn eo.:lnlBl" prl~:il:y' th~M'W~It!L tQ p,~Iji:e~nt 'the--JIJ a.t the 'l"rMi!iW7 'tg. be, COUl'iL'tet',I!Qm,ped! w1:th 'the, Crown :and Cha~, Mrb to ,pari!II~t.e~ t,."idr

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~' p;e:rhl!l'P& 101,,000' :t1:rm, .~, ot:bar' t:tl:lngi~' smj'h as ar,m~n!! and ffla,th.e:!(':$ 'o.t 'ibWs, (;Jf' pi!i:r.4!~1:1Uil!, &t.e:,~ :lit bas :n.o,tb:lng 'to do \iII,l'ttL 'tIui, gov,e:mDMlit. 'bi!iC!:,U\SiIII tb .. 'ib:rld\e 'p:i",I,ce, b no,t new "to !lIS :fa~ - O'r.' to Hw Mltuu. e.lt'he::r. ftl:e ,all, !:)lid 'cnJlsto:!~ Selle ~, en !9 t!.11, pay~ 'thi'!:,ifl, ii;'U.Ch or 1iI~',. iBU.t U' ;:rOll :know thi!ll,iij ;f~ ~It a.ft'li);ir.d to- 'pei:Y ~ha:t. iSUell~ t'b&p leave us Pa:pua.n, g:lr'1s a'tcme ..'11 '

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!il ,~, 'bride~, w'$ Pa:PWJl: ,€.:ll"la (lost too, ~ .. i,til:lll And, l't I'S! oot jiu:El,t, :;Y(lU Nw Guil1:1,E1M.8, get1l-1'ng '~itd too 'iHb(i :e:l'\$ p.ay;iilil! 'th,e, Mg' 1IWi'&1" auo'h ,1i,19 8,.000, k5M,t IN'o:!

to, ''tlw: !d:1tor i:n, th.. Papu.a'" '!lOll Gu:j:ru!l1. Po.st-Cour.iQ.r~ P-O.1"'t, jI a1~d ~ I!Im88 P'a;!puan· .. 11'1:,~lIO! eO:I]Qeir,n&ii l!II,bo\It th.iIII

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.l'ra,pori intended :p.~t1,on o,~',.' ',S~'--Qt t.he'_ t., br.1'alut arr1'Ved in :~ ill t'h1Ji 'mid 19701,8 and q!.d~' 8,precm tillroqhout th. world. 'nle >obverse of theile ~gbly 1:a ;I; 1 13, !nob: b-h'l!lJli::a ,01;' ~ ~!!ietJ, Toa rept'eIClEln,ta a ChiDe ,f.cn:rr-pilkr-eaJ ,o:rna'te pte, :r~d 'b;y' 'keelJ:t t1,ve ,tJ:,ve-pomtH ,IIIWl",II, ~1'n, iband a:t 'top ,and, & & dngb, nem ,daro over' tih,1i!I .0\11'&1 :giS:.te: :1tad€' • hLow l;a; ,!'1 'tw lhu;, t~ Chino •• o:b:&r&c:kr ,hi,'JCl",lptiJ"OJi '~L."mlngw1,Ui. ("tnntik;b;d)- ·'Ch~ iu-o-.. C:h:b:i:a. ii and :ilte.lutU,nIi' 'the; sk,te_nt.. 1I~.e~ ~ Tuig, :L5n Ch:ln to. Br1ak F&otQl",:II' mdnA ba ''11'',_.::1 .... '!ho :I\S¥8r·H,',,',' iII-eori!ild 1um sb":t.Hn rec,tian..-"1elJ 1m: ~ w;-,f-, Co q:e.Dy • ,,', ' ',,'II ', ," ", , ,,'- e:-'" 1:'01' br_king.. TnMiel kb'kil al"O ,lIlmllitr to t:b, ,o:ld illOllEl'Y bri.o'k'SI

,tor

'!I!$ an, ,!9Jl'"'Miele prh1:ed. in Co1l:I Wor:d of h'brUAry' 6th" 1 '980., :Dav,1d T ..- 1Il.e::u.'M!!Ir i' &'utb~, of "tiie, .artiol,.. ~ glWl!I9: $, I!bo:rt h~Btor~,. of' the 'tiM '1n'1,ek 'Id:tb its ua. 81 a \)r,pe or iIIOnEI",' ibnt aJ.!!I!iO p01'nta ou.t 'thl;t 'the' '~ _ br10l .c!iI,t eau,Ol'Ily ortEl~.d

tea br!c'k f,;o ,.'M, to :rq COll.e.ation iULd Clit 'TellPl'. Me

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I !Ita". ibQg,

,.le t.oday .till

"or '~~,
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atate., _ ittn,o oolh:et.or
CUlit1qU~

lII&1l't .' out. :g, :LntoJo.o8'H'il€ :e'b.Q.rt a:rt1'a:1o Oll ,hl.ki:n ~o."-lIIIl1Ol'1 :NQt.;ell' prln,W itv 'toM; Ru!!.e1:an, ,A!!!i!Q",l,eg Oo,~ " 1-~aUEld :in. 1 8116~ '18;, .t 1834.. :DenoIll:lm:t1OI1J! wre 110, 2:5 I, ~ to-peob .and, 1:t ,,~ 10 I 2§ :~!)ubl.... 'MO~:t.,n..O"teili a:~e 'It!ld& qf ,~Ilt,"l ... ,i!kUr!, JlaNb"n,t, v.ith unOldQa UCIli on req,r",e «ltd. ,on, 'the ~It. the ;BtU. o!t ae Ru~ be'ri'C!iln ~~' wi lob • 9pN:"ntat1¢l1 ot.' 'tha I4lrf:9: ,oo,.:t ,of ,lind!!l,t :1:, 'tw~ Eiasle w1tb. iJ9~ ,~ or.''I:) ,gd l'nSi3.tlp,tiimll '~:tr_ng i.:iIip&r,1alproted~O!t. -

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or
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p.oSIli!lili!i&d

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7hi;Ii ut1,c:LeII va.: pr.tn.t.~, :Ln, tb9 Co,:hJ_ 'lIlw'h1. ,~ A"I:lguitt 1 ,7'th~ '198.3· .. but I d:W:D,!,t !ban, !1.lp.CO In, 'th;e. 1ut ~ ~1'1i

'.

n.• :&~

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Hand, kHl

'Wha't .'UI thi:l!l h.a~i!i t4 part-Leula!' in,t.ireilllt, ~, i.e 'th:.P:iit, 'bJ ttUIi 't~'H at :1t4;1: part.Cw'Q,Ih dm-,lnr the I.OoM ::IJ)torgla,d.;l~;b:Id:. 1,t _8 'b$1iC:g ~ia(!:,tv8d OVor ,a ~' valt il.Niil.l ,fro. Sou,1ib ,AJ"r,iCll_ to. ~th EagJ!ud an:dl trOll ~h:nd &Cl'Gle tIuI, !loutli.m :bilt at .... _ ... .Ii"'" ~JIi 'tIi,,_...,,_, . ',AM ""- ... ,~-... _...............'" I'~.i.z-· i~ ... ~ """""'~:r. 1-" ,.~.'to ...., . iJ;II~,~, .... ......._';Ii,.~ - .. v_~ :fa.'" I.......... !III '$tlir'l~Bt 'U',gu,Hnt to'l" diUh!iJm:l:~ £-or an 1mp!h:Mnt -1::11 411,t,fn,ct~:V8 ~a 'tbe A~'Ul.e!m :hImlI:a WI!)1lldmot'M,n '''-en, CNAt.d :lttde,~' en,tll ;iD DU¥ d:ltte::rcl!m,t, placo8 bJ 81m<11a:rf'tljl' ct l1M<lt, One would not ~ Ute.1 8"11, pr,illl:l. .l'Hi pe~. t 'to 'till lId,the iIiIO:b11a (.out.l.:l.de 'thIitr own. bunting ,groundI) O~ olllria'l'l:lt)1aat!'!ft;II ..
'Th.• dH't11!!1on

of the ,Aobil1liu.m .. Iijrlji o.t, iIII'tiola ~~ and, :i!I,pscitic.allJ' the _~ ,oan, H •.x,pl_d:n.Id: m iIiIlD1 'n,;'Il '.. '. -. ~ 'lIlqn;t1-oa t eoafllo,t. t.:t.a:vflib 'bV :l.U.iy1dU&1I!,iIIi~ diNet. borrowing ibf ,I~"I. ,01!~_"1 '. ....~ tt!!le .' t.. -... :II"""""' ...... 1d.ll, ,r-".-..., .......... ,'II\iii'l!" 'M _-'h1u- · n ..-_ .. """-I ....... V...... .ao-5... oq. ~-.l _ !I""-.n COllpJ...to:1r 1md.e1",;t.o-od, bu,t,~ 'to the c:ol.hc:tor of prl:i!d.t~;'11$ !IOII:&Y. the A~ ,b8~ ,OOm,;!); » ou' of' tIt8 t1r,et; £&~, 1 tx.d. 01" 'bu'ter ::I.:t.o'BIII, pr,l'!!!Il'U:,V-!)i 'llan ..

e....

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or

Col Davidl:on 1d8l).e. to ,obta1D ()y putCbaH~ trade or. abart 'ten 'I_~~) any '1. __ .'11..' or ali' .."",e:.:..iw",'~'r ~~ ."._ ( ..... iIn_ ~-'i._" iltiw..............., -.9 ...... 'Dot's..'1 iI'I 'kI, _ oI.!I.!IIUl, 1IIIoIV": 'llUllli1l "--"""1"'; 'I0'0I.,' !WII!I!' ,1;!'..L1IoI.I! •• ', ....., R ..,')...... ~,.,.' __ nIii"1 ...... : __•-S,• "'......__... ...n. iCI';I"i"'''. cal co·.....or ,J".~i lib, '00..,... .. ....... .il<1l. ... , "...... 1!OI'i!:. ~, ..I.II.. ..I-Y "'... _ ~
l;O\AiI ••

1'7
R&

the Nii¥,li!1!~r. i& (:QLhctor ot iIiIi;;lI!!!1';Il l!'1'1i:.h tJ.\e words .. lI'daeB anyone Q'U\ ULen l!;.iIlorif bOl!ll to. girado .0 t.~;t I ea:n M!.eOt one, f'olf! IIi1 t,',pei ,eo,lleOtiO:IlI ,-

jUm 'tm!i !.w!It.toY1!:n C~9~~ at [gl;VEln,on II cI'J.!1nbook reJat':lniJ

,F-ebl"U8.l7't 1984
to

Ii book ,:I;\I!l1Vl,&v Hlgvil:,.. Go..:Jld Coal!it. I' $'tc,.. "I\f';;r.1 ~n, ~J,'n,iIII~edl hili ~,:Y' S:1&;V8i1i11

fb:,~ foUo;flng
ft,tiyiwl

ri!J~lJ i&p~peared 1n tle, ,kpr,n" 1'984

Austm-ll,a.!IiL Coin

Sl~ _, :1 en.,,1 oy8d the HV;1~ of Da. V"!d V,liC11e:1 ,iJ; book 'by :Dr. l%08.i"l"t R.od,ge;rs CAOR hlb~)' and rliO'kIdbb ;nlqu'est re' Ii, athodi to gl:iad,1!Jo t81:Q;vEI!!1!If'0l" HlCiCli'M,on to hl!! 't_ype ~a-lhll:):tlon,~ I .:Iii H>C'1"'EIitaI7'
ooolle.etins;

r
I

to, iil'v.

of' primd t~'YO

ot.

a "l'ub a,e.votMi, ~
~Ii!i

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th~ht.

encoun1giD,g- th..

tbl,t I 1Id~'bt, 'be a:blb

lIJ~

a.n.d

,.OM .Q$f;$I" to

hioi'll

p'l"Obl.,elll41

The ,B,Nding, of ala'V9i;i p Ifb, t'Mt, of. OQ,ini!J:! til ,ii, !llpec1dll!;1:~ a:1"9, ~i,~ ,oan only ibB p$~tee~d tbl"Q'ugh ilX:pI(ZOi4fiCI,t Whb:D ,g,ir-'&it1n,g .laveS! ,1 haq- !'Quna:tbe booka ~Q,U1gIJ1l!1iI' !::tuig, !lndi Suodatt'lom (8al!l ,S;01;!iI'(IlI~8 lII,t ,eM ,or artio,},.) to 'b. J.n..a;lDble
lj,

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!lIIiI.d of ro'fbU$t.

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8 'l'Iillt.a~

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t11 1'7th Cgn~rl ..,

,Sla;" B lao ld;n g' ln one' OJ:" ~n
ae!J 'belting fraa,t1nne

or

'the 'unit ..

of t'h<l'i!!ii!! !!t,Splu~'ta v:.:r,e ac04W'tod,

fh& ~,~

q:e Rinse
... U.osa

'flii8rb.t with 'the 1iO,t.her),.

,of th.ls ·:e.tanda~ !iliJ..:y~1ll! ranged 'b!i!itv.~ a.nd ,)6 '131der 'than 1,;5, 01" ;t'01II1PI" hn, f'Qul" bad! :no. £,111::04 llB:Ji:u,e (tM ~.'t't..er ''!ietIe uSU:.a.:n", thrown into t'hEI' l;el'p.1n

l'

etl,t1i.!!:iiIi,t!i!iid, at.

'fih.e illta,;n~ lor he:ii!J:b:t'W1l, .'botit f'ive f'oot, and th•• 'YEIrttJP v:l.1:u~ of' f1J_b to rrale' ak'n. alang the, i;UlIIillt.-h coast. can be

trOD

8il-8.S ~

Qe>nt..

Tihe or!s:l.i:i of 'the 81a:.,. &li11!OarlEl~·te 1i111vahL.. lIio,lot or .. 'bilra :lb.'\I'M: ~n ,:r..agami;d ii,$ ,~~perio.r \0 th;& ,Sen,.pl.e,liIo. Us Arc1raill! an1i t.\e ~t'h!. ha,\fEI] til,l;\l Mae ,f"01" lbe.l~ N'bellioU_8 ,l11Jfll.CI. lila'vell" Il:non tba't. :mbe, :elaws &.,y 'UBU&J!.ly d1i!1!ijJ~n tn.:ns-

pkn,tod to other

clll11fiiiJ..

-

AbovEil I ha:n !a.'t out the pnenl eU terkto 'b;), I'1I!Milibe!:tedl 1:l'li grading 1(ruX" ti,~,\'8. AiS 8. p:NIc,t1cal,_,gu!ie .;f(1!1 :mu.at c'hf;lCK lt1.~ tOl" o.h«:r ,~ . s. unbl,l!!ImiBhfld ,~, S¢.Oi! '~ (,th. pr,ic. <ill !all.se tae-tlii. t.oa~' liB pro.h1b1t1'IM). 'I!ii~ent health ,ud! ,ltg!lll ~
+

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'18

Be
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1101". to

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il

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from the 'IIhi:p - We

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d8illel"$ ~ W overgr-ad. the.ir a·h.'iI$!iI. but :if the, ~v1ou.a y.n;ir'ds'1;.1,,:ts: Ire· eh.Ic..k'llJCIi1'~ ~ihwld It.. alb·le 't.Q de,te'l'm:ne Ii. trul_y aer:nJfr8:t. I'nd.:1i.ng·...

.t c&rd1..nal
deale.!' ~

Nt&. :wnelll. pu~hl.9.ing
.D;lOSi't

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who iE!uppl.u. lit mcm'tli1ly Au<9;tniI:~ 001n ·Relvi!illW. '~rr ,1I,U(!:(U!!cL'ulf'ul. ~bl.bl;t1,on Olt o·ld 8c:tl:p' 8;t tM! .Sydney- stc.oik: .iElii:.~-e' :in ,1:;an.ul!L:t:f" 'The HIiIll, lbookJ!et vh!{)h aOQoDr].'iI.'i'i1od lb.'!) ~ 'bi iIi.ion '''i'fJ~l :lln.tere.s.t1:ng a;gQ (ffi;wi"ts.i:nmg i9..t<;J·UOI! an &ODt!!, t;MU"11' i!IIh~n8.' ad 1Iha.N!I, b;eu.el.
'l1'~JI,i!j,. !II.'I[DJ~r; t
(In

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u~ut·.~ ~,b.wi(;lo!'h

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'1 92t3 ~ D!Jje .Urst lOVfli(l~ Guadal~l

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