# PRODUCT TO SUM IDENTITIES

SIGMA NOTATION
k

sin(a+b)+sin(a−b) sin acos b= 2 sin(a+b)−sin (a−b) cos asin b= 2 cos( a+b)+cos( a−b) cos acos b= 2 cos(a−b)−cos (a+b) sin asin b= 2 SUM TO PRODUCT IDENTITIES

∑ a n=a1+... ak
n=1

NTH TERM OF ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE

a n= a1 +(n−1)d d = common difference
SUM OF ARITHMETIC SERIES

n S n = (a1 +an ) 2

n S n= [2a 1 +( n−1)d ] 2 a2 ;r ≠1 a1

( a+b ) cos ( a−b ) 2 2 a+b a−b sin a−sin b=2cos ( sin 2 ) ( 2 ) a+b a−b cos a+cos b=2 cos ( sin 2 ) ( 2 ) a+b a−b cos a−cos b=−2sin ( sin 2 ) ( 2 )
sin a+sin b=2sin
DEGREES AND RADIANS BASIC TRIG FUNCTIONS POWER REDUCING IDENTITIES

NTH TERM OF GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE

a n=a 1 rn−1
ratio

r=

r = common

SUM OF FINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES

S n= a1

(

1−r n 1−r

)
∣r∣<1

S n=

a1 −a n r 1−r

opp y sin Θ= = hyp r cosΘ= adj = x hyp r opp = y tan Θ= adj x csc Θ= hyp = r opp y secΘ= hyp = r adj x adj x cot = = opp y
PYTHAGOREAN
IDENTITIES

1−cos2Θ sin Θ = 2 2 1+cos2 Θ cos Θ= 2 2 1−cos2 Θ tan Θ= 1+cos2 Θ 1−cos 4Θ sin 2 Θ cos2 Θ= 8
2

GRAPHING SINE & COSINE

SUM OF INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES

S=

a1 1−r
n

BINOMIAL EXPANSION

SUM IDENTITIES

sin(a+b)=sin acos b+cos asin b cos(a+b)=cosa cosb−sin a sin b tan a+tan b tan (a+b)= 1−tan a tan b
DIFFERENCE IDENTITIES

y =asin(bx+c )+ d a≠0 b≠0 Amplitude = ∣a∣ 2Π Period = b 1 Frequency = period c Phase shift = − ∣b∣ Midline = y =d
SECTORS, ARCS, AND SPEED
Sector area =

(a+b) = nC r a
x

n−r

b

r

where r = 0, 1, 2... n

BINOMIAL PROBABILITY
n independent trials, p probability of success, q = 1 – p

Prob= n C x p q

n− x

PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS Given that b>0 ; b≠1 :

log b x=a
log b b=1

b a= x log b 1=0 log b b =x
x

sin Θ+cos Θ=1 2 2 tan Θ+1=sec Θ 2 2 cot Θ+1=csc Θ
COFUNCTION IDENTITIES

2

2

sin Θ=cos Π −Θ 2 cos Θ=sin Π −Θ 2 tan Θ=cot Π −Θ 2

sin(a−b)=sin acos b−cos asin b cos (a−b)=cosa cosb+sin a sin b tan (a−b)= tan a−tan b 1+tan a tan b
HALF ANGLE IDENTITIES

( ( (

) ) )

Θ Angular speed = time rΘ Linear speed = time Arc length= r Θ
LAW OF SINES (AAS, ASA)

rΘ 2

b

logb x

=x

Given that m and n are positive:

SHIFT IDENTITIES

sin Θ+ Π =+cosΘ 2 cos Θ + Π =−sin Θ 2 pi tan Θ+ =−cot Θ 2

( (

) )

(

)

1−cosΘ sin Θ =± 2 2 Θ =± 1+cosΘ cos 2 2 Θ =± 1−cosΘ tan 2 1+cosΘ Θ = 1−cos Θ tan 2 sin Θ sin Θ tan Θ = 2 1+cos Θ
DOUBLE ANGLE IDENTITIES

√ √ √

log b mn=log b m+log b n m log b =log b m−log b n n
CHANGE OF BASE FORMULA

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c
LAW OF COSINES (SSS, SAS)

log b x=

log a x log a b

a 2= b2 +c 2 −2bc cos A
AMBIGUOUS CASE (SSA)

IF A IS OBTUSE

ODD-EVEN IDENTITIES

sin(−Θ)=−sin Θ cos(−Θ)=cos Θ tan (−Θ )=−tan Θ csc(−Θ)=−cscΘ sec(−Θ)= sec Θ cot (−Θ )=−cot Θ
AREA FOR SAS

sin 2Θ= 2sinΘ cosΘ 2 tan Θ tan 2Θ= 1−tan2 Θ cos 2Θ=cos 2 Θ−sin 2 Θ cos 2Θ=2cos 2 Θ−1 cos 2Θ=1−sin 2 Θ
AREA FOR SSS

a≤b = No solution a>b = One solution
IF A IS ACUTE

a<b a<h = No solution a<b a=h = One solution a<b a<h = Two solutions a≥b = One solution
AREA FOR AAS, ASA

A=0.5bcsin A

A= √ s (s −a)(s−b)( s−c) a+b+c s= 2

A=0.5a 2

sin B sin C sin A

CONIC SECTIONS ELLIPSES PARABOLAS HYPERBOLAS

HORIZONTAL

(x−h)2 ( y− k)2 + =1 a2 b2
Center Foci Vertices Covertices Major axis Minor axis (h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k) (h, k ± b) y=k x=h

( y−k )2 =4FL (x− h)
Vertex Focus Axis of symmetry Directrix (h,k) (h + FL, k) y=k x = h – FL

(x−h)2 ( y− k)2 − =1 a2 b2
Center Foci Vertices Transverse axis Conjugate axis Asymptotes (h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k) y=k x=h

y− k= ±b ( x−h) a

Eccentricity (vertical or horizontal):

e=

c a

VERTICAL

(x−h)2 ( y− k)2 + =1 b2 a2
Center Foci Vertices Covertices Major axis Minor axis (h,k) (h ± c, k) (h ± a, k) (h, k ± b) y=k x=h

(x−h)2 =4FL ( y−k )
Vertex Focus Axis of symmetry Directrix (h, k) (h, k + FL) x=h y = k - FL

( y−k )2 ( x−h)2 − =1 a2 b2
Center Foci Vertices Transverse axis Conjugate axis Asymptotes (h, k) (h, k ± c) (h, k ± a) x =h y=k

CIRCLES

(x− h)2+( y− k )2 =r 2
Points are as same as an ellipse. Divide by r2 to find a and b.

y− k= ±a ( x−h) b

CONIC ROTATION

ABC

c 2 =a2 −b 2

c 2 =a2 +b 2

ECCENTRICITY
for the form

B tan 2Θ= A−C

Ax + Bxy+Cy + Dx +Ey +F =0 ; A≠0

2

2

c e>1 → Hyperbola e=1 → Parabola e<1 → Ellipse a e=0 → Circle e=