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Microsoft Excel 2007

Microsoft Excel 2007

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Excel 2007

Table of Contents
Table of Contents....................................................................................................... 1 Excel 2007 Lesson 1: Navigate the Excel Screen.......................................................2 Excel 2007 Lesson 2: Configure Excel to Suit Your Working Needs............................6 Excel 2007 Lesson 3: Create Spreadsheets and Enter Data.....................................15 Excel 2007 Lesson 4: Format Worksheets................................................................20 Excel 2007 Lesson 5: Add Graphics and Drawings to Worksheets............................27 Excel 2007 Lesson 6: Perform Calculations with Functions......................................32 Excel 2007 Lesson 7: Create Formulas to Perform Custom Calculations..................36 Excel 2007 Lesson 8: Organize Data with Excel Databases......................................41 Excel 2007 Lesson 9: Analyze Data using PivotTables and PivotCharts...................47 Excel 2007 Lesson 10: Solve Problems by Performing What-If Analysis...................53 Excel 2007 Lesson 11: Create Effective Charts to Present Data Visually..................58 Excel 2007 Lesson 12: Use Excel with the Other Office Applications.......................62

Excel 2007 Lesson 1: Navigate the Excel Screen
Objectives: 1. Start Excel and Understand the Excel Screen 2. Understand Worksheets and Workbooks; Open an Existing Workbook 3. Navigate in Workbooks and Worksheets; Select Objects 4. Get Help with Excel Excel is a spreadsheet application for organizing, calculating, summarizing and presenting data. Excel 2007 is significantly different from earlier versions, however, but similar to Word and PowerPoint 2007. When you start Excel, you'll see a new blank workbook containing three worksheets. See below for the main elements of the Excel Screen: Quick Access Toolbar Office Button Ribbon Reference Area Select All Row Headings Formula Bar Column Headings

Active Cell

Worksheet Tabs

View buttons, Zoom

There are still some task panes, for example, Clip Art, Research and the Clipboard, and you can undock and move them and/or close them when you are done working with them.

Understand Worksheets and Workbooks; Open an Existing Workbook A worksheet is Excel's basic unit and is a grid in which you enter data. There are 16,384 columns and 1,048,576 rows in each worksheet (more than the 256 columns and 65,536 rows in earlier versions), and the intersection of each row and columns is a cell – so there are now 17,179,869,184 cells instead of only 16,777,216! Columns are letters A to Z then AA to AZ, BA to BZ and so on; then after ZZ come AAA, until the last column XFD. Rows are numbered 1 to 1048576; thus the first cell address is A1 and the last is XFD1048576. Excel saves worksheets in workbook files in the .xlsx file format. Workbooks can contain one or more worksheets; by default, there are three worksheets but a workbook can contain up to 255 worksheets. Worksheets are named Sheet 1, Sheet 2 and so on, but you can change the name by right-clicking the worksheet tab and choosing rename. You might want to put data on different sheets and then link the sheets using formulas – more to come. You can open existing Excel files in a number of different ways: the Office button menu, the Open dialog box, a Windows Explorer window or on the Desktop. If you click the Office button, you'll see the most recently used files listed, and you can click the "pin" to keep that the file on the menu or unpin it by clicking the pushed-in pin again. To change the number of files listed here, go to Excel Options – Advanced category; in the display area, change the Show This Number of Recent Documents list setting, OK. Using the Open dialog box, click the Office button and choose Open to navigate to the folder that contains the workbook. The Open dialog box also enables you to open the workshop as a read-only, copy or repair – just drop the Open arrow down. To open a workbook from Windows Explorer (ex. in My Documents) or on your desktop, just double-click the file's icon – this is probably the fastest way. When you open a workbook created in an earlier version of Excel, Excel displays the words "[Compatibility Mode]" in the title bar after the workbook's name to remind you that the workshop isn't in Excel's preferred .xlsx format. To update the workbook to 2007, click the office button and choose Convert. Select the Do not ask me again about converting workbooks check box (unless you want to see it again), OK. You will be prompted to close and reopen the workbook in order to use the new features; click Yes to close/reopen or No to continue working in the workbook. Navigate in Workbooks and Worksheets; Select Objects You can navigate a worksheet using the mouse and/or the keyboard. Click the worksheet's tab (use the scroll buttons to make the tab appear if you have many worksheets in the workbook. Here are some keyboard shortcuts for navigating worksheets: Ctrl+PageDown (move to next worksheet), Ctrl+PageUp (move to previous worksheet), Ctrl+Shift+PageDown (select current and next worksheets), Ctrl+Shift+PageUp (select current and previous worksheets). Click a cell to access it, and use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars to scroll to different areas of the worksheet. You can also use the arrow keys (up, down, left, right), Home (first cell in row), Ctrl+Home (first cell used in worksheet), Ctrl+End (last cell used in worksheet), Page Down (one screen), Page Up (one

screen), Alt+Page Down (right one screen), Alt+Page Up (left one screen), Ctrl+Backspace (scroll workbook to display active cell). You can also navigate to a specific cell by typing the cell name (upper or lower case) in the Name box then press Enter. You can select cells and ranges of cells, that is, contiguous (ex. C3:E5) or noncontiguous cells (ex. B3, B5, B7, B9) to work with them. To select a cell, click it or use the arrows keys to move the active cell outline to it. Or you can click the corner cell and drag in any direction to select contiguous (a block) of cells. For multiple cell selections (noncontiguous), make your first selection then hold down the Ctrl key. To select all the cells in the active sheet, click the Select All button – that's the unmarked button at the intersection of column and row headings. You can assign a name to a range so it's easier to Go To, apply formatting, or use in calculations; follow these steps: • Select the cell range, click the Formulas tab, Define Names group; click Define Name button for dialog box • Type the name in the Name textbox (No Spaces); in Scope drop-down, choose the scope – workbook is the default and the best choice. • Verify that Refers to is the range of cells you want; if not, click Collapse dialog box to re-select the cells in the worksheet, the click Collapse Dialog box button again; click OK • To delete a range name from a workbook, click the Formulas tab, Defined Names group then click Name Manager button for dialog box; select the name in the list box, click Delete button and get confirmation; OK and Close. Note that you can also use Go To or Go To Special in Find & Select on the Home ribbon to select ranges, too. To select worksheets in a workbook, click the worksheet's tab, Shift+click another worksheet's tab to select all the worksheets between the currently selected one and the one you clicked. Ctrl+click another worksheet's tab to add that worksheet to the selection or Ctrl+click a selected worksheet's tab to remove it from the selection. When multiple worksheets are selected, Excel displays [Group] in the title bar to remind you. Press Ctrl+Shift+Page Down to select the current and next worksheets (can extend select by pressing again);

press Ctrl+Shift+Page Up to select current and previous worksheets (can extend by pressing again). Get Help with Excel Press F1 or click the MS Office Excel Help icon at the right end of the Ribbon (question mark icon). See what topics are available and click the links in the Browse Excel Help list. You can also click in the Search box and type one or more keywords then click Search button (online or offline or both). Click Keep On top button if you want the Help window to appear on top of other windows; Close when you are finished.

Excel 2007 Lesson 2: Configure Excel to Suit Your Working Needs
Objectives: 1. Improve Your View with Splits, Extra Windows 2. Set Options to Make Excel Easier to Use 3. Load and Unload Add-Ins 4. Configure AutoCorrect to Save Time and Effort Improve Your View with Splits, Extra Windows, Hiding, Zooming, and Freezing You can split a worksheet window into two or four panes so you can see separate parts of the worksheet at once. The easiest way to apply a two-pane split is to grad the horizontal split box or the vertical split box to where you want the split to be. To split the window into four panes at once, position the active cell in the row above and the column to the left of which you want to split the window. Then choose View – Window – Split to split the window both ways. Drag the horizontal or vertical split bar to adjust or drag where they cross for both split bars at once. Excel shows shaded lines to indicate where the spilt will fall when you release the mouse. To remove the split, double-click the split bar or drag it

out of the worksheet window. To remove all splitting, double-click the split bars where they cross or choose View – Window – Split. To open two or more windows containing the same worksheet or workbook, choose View – Window – New Window. Excel names extra windows containing the same workbook by adding a colon and a number after the filename. You can easily switch from window to window by clicking in the target window or by choosing View – Window- Switch Windows then selecting the window from the drop-down menu. You can also Zoom each window independently – more later. You can arrange workbook windows by using standard techniques to resize and position windows: maximize, restore down, minimize or drag edges/corners of non-maximized windows to resize. Drag windows by the title bar to position where you want them, too. To arrange non-minimized windows, choose View – Window – Arrange All for the dialog box. Select tiled, horizontal, vertical or cascade; check Windows of active workbook (or not), OK. When all the open windows are minimized, you can choose View – Window – Arrange All. Use the Arrange Windows dialog box to position two windows alongside each other to compare their contents – and you can synchronize scrolling or not. Activate one of the windows, choose View – Window – View Side By Side If you have only two windows open, Excel knows what to do; however, if you have more than two windows open, Excel displays the Compare Side By Side dialog box with the list from which you select the second window, OK. At this point, you can click synchronous scrolling (just below View Side By Side button); when you’ve finished comparing windows, click View Side By Side to toggle off. You can Hide and Unhide a window, too: View – Window – Hide/Unhide – the latter gives you a dialog box to select the window you want to redisplay, OK. To Zoom in and out from 10% – 400% in increments of 10%, click the Zoom In (+) or Zoom Out (-) buttons on the Zoom slider in the right end of the status bar, or you can drag it. To zoom to the largest size at which a particular range of cells fits in the window, select the range then choose View – Zoom – Zoom to Selection. You can also zoom to a preset or custom percentage: View –Zoom – Zoom for the dialog box, select option that you want select Custom and enter the exact percentage in the textbox, OK. If your worksheet contains more data than will fit on your screen, you’ll often scroll up or down, back or forth to refer to labels and headings. To reduce scrolling, you can freeze specific rows and columns so Excel keeps displaying them even though other rows and columns scroll. To freeze just the top row in the window, choose View – Window – Freeze Panes – Freeze Top Row. To freeze just the leftmost column, choose View – Window – Freeze Panes = Freeze First Column. These are new commands for Excel 2007! To freeze rows and columns, select the cell to the right of the column and below the row you want to freeze then choose View – Window – Freeze Panes – Freeze Panes; Excel displays a heavier line along the gridlines to show where the frozen section is, and the

frozen section remains in place when you scroll the rest of the worksheet. To remove freezing, choose View – Window – Freeze Panes – Unfreeze Panes.

Set Options to Make Excel Easier to Use Click Office Button – Excel Options to make changes to Excel’s look and feel. The top options (Popular) are the following: 1. Show Mini Toolbar on selection (yes) 2. Enable Live Preview (yes) 3. Show Developer Tab in the Ribbon (for VBA, creating macros – more in second semester) 4. Color Scheme 5. Screen Tip style 6. Create lists for use in sorts and fill sequence (lesson 3) When creating new workbooks, you can define the following: 1. Use this font 2. Font size 3. Default view for new sheets 4. Include this many sheets Your username shows, and you can also set your primary language preference for editing. Click the Formulas category to control how Excel performs calculations, displays and uses formulas and check for errors. Calculations:

The default is Automatic, and unless you have very complex worksheets, this is the best. Working with Formulas: 1. R1C1 reference style (most use column/row rather than Row/Column so uncheck) 2. Formula AutoComplete 3. Use table names in formulas 4. Use GetPivotData functions for PivtoTable references (more on Pivot Tables later) More on Error Checking in lesson 8

Spelling Options in Proofing

When correcting spelling in MS Office programs: 1. Ignore Words in UPPERCASE (yes) 2. Ignore Words that contain numbers (yes) 3. Ignore Internet and file addresses (yes) 4. Flag repeated words (yes) 5. Enforce accented uppercase in French 6. Suggest from main dictionary only Choose Save Options Save workbooks: 1. Save files in this format (drop down list) 2. Save AutoRecover information every X minutes (default is 10) 3. AutoRecover file location 4. Default file location (My Documents) AutoRecover Exceptions for option – this is only really for workbooks that are so large that recovery them would take a disruptively long time.

Advanced Editing Options: • After pressing Enter, move selection • Automatically insert a decimal point (no) • Enable fill handle and cell drag-anddrop • Allow editing directly in cells • Extend data range formats and formulas • Enable automatic percent entry • Enable AutoComplete for cell values • Zoom on roll with IntelliMouse (no) • Alert the user when a potential time consuming operation occurs • Use system separators (checked by default) Cut, copy, and paste (yes to all): • Show Paste Options buttons • Show Insert Options buttons • Cut, copy, and sort inserted objects with their parent cells Display Options: • Number of document in the Recent Documents list • Ruler units • Show all windows in the taskbar • Show formula bar • Show function screen tips • Show chart element names on hover

Show data point values on hover For cells with comments, show (choose Indicators only, and comments on hover) Display Options for this workbook (choose all of these): • Show horizontal scroll bar • Show vertical scroll bar • Show sheet tabs • Group dates in the AutoFilter menu • For objects, show (choose All) Display Options for this worksheet: • Show row and column headers (yes) • Show formulas in cells instead of their calculated results (no) • Show page breaks (can be useful or distracting) • Show a zero in cells that have zero value (yes) • Show outline symbols if an outline is applies (yes) • Show gridlines (yes) • Gridline color Formulas: Enable multithreaded calculations (yes, use defaults) When calculating this workbook: • Update links to other documents (yes) • Set precision as displayed (no) • Use 1904 date system (no unless for Mac) • Save external link values (yes) General: only check Scale content for A4 or 8.5x11” paper sizes

• •

Load and Unload Add-Ins Once load add-ins when you need them (ex. Solver Add-in) since they take memory and slow down your computer – so unload them when you are finished. To load or unload an add-in, click the Office button – Excel Options – Add-Ins category; click the Manage dropdown and select Excel Add-Ins, then click the Go button for the dialog box (see right). Select the checkbox for each add-in that you want to load; clear checkbox for any loaded add-in that you want to unload. Browse for an add-in that doesn’t appear in the list, OK. The add-in features usually are implemented as extra groups or tabs on the Ribbon. Configure AutoCorrect to Save Time and Effort To open the AutoCorrect dialog box, click the Office button – Excel Options, Proofing category. Click the AutoCorrect Options button. In AutoCorrect, check the settings: • Show AutoCorrect options buttons • Correct Two Initial Capitals • Capitalize first letter of sentences • Capitalize names of days • Correct accidental use of caPS LOCK key • Replace text as you type You can create and delete AutoCorrect entries in this screen, too. In AutoFormat As You Type (all checked by default): • Internet and network paths with hyperlinks • Include new rows and columns in table • Fill formulas in tables to create calculated

columns In Smart Tags: Not necessary to use any of these features.

Excel 2007 Lesson 3: Create Spreadsheets and Enter Data
Objectives: 1. Create a Workbook 2. Save a Workbook 3. Create and Save a Template 4. Enter Data in Worksheets 5. Use AutoFill to Enter Data Series Quickly 6. Use Find and Replace 7. Recover Your Work in Excel Crashes Create a New Workbook Each workbook is based on a template – either Excel's default "blank workbook" with basic settings or more complex designs. To create a new blank workbook in Excel, press Ctrl+N or Office Button – New for the dialog box; see the templates panel on the left and Blank and recent in the middle then select the one you want and click Create. If you want to create a new workbook based on a previously created one select New from existing in the New Workbook dialog box (navigate to that file, select it and click Create New button). You can also open the original file and Save As to save a copy under a different name or create a template – more to come. To create a new workbook based on a template, click the Office button – New for the dialog box and click My Templates (for your own templates) or Installed Templates; select the icon for the template (see preview), OK or Create. There are also templates online that you can download from Microsoft. I've never been able to get this feature to

work, however, here's the site for all MS Office templates: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates/default.aspx?ofcresset=1 Scroll down to the Search (by keyword) and Product (ex. Excel). Save a Workbook It's a good idea to save your work as soon as you've made changes that you wouldn't want to lose. When you save a file for the first time, give the file a name, choose which folder you want to save it in, and choose the appropriate format (Save As Type drop down). After that, you can use the Save command (Ctrl+S or F12) or click the Save button on the Quick Access toolbar or Office button – Save. It's useful to make a copy of an Excel file by saving under a different name in case you overwrite the original file with the changes that you've made – and do a Save As under a different name for Read only files, too. If you are working in 2007 but need to share a file with someone who has 2003, save the workbook in 97-2003 format. It's often helpful to enter information about the file in Properties: go to Office button – Prepare – Properties (see below). For further properties, click the Document Properties drop down for the dialog box (see right). The Summary tab has the most helpful areas for identifying a file. Click the X in the right corner of document properties to close.

Create Your Own Templates A template is the same as a workbook file except that it uses the .xltx extension instead of .xlsx. You can base a new workbook on an existing one, so there really isn't any need to create a template except that it's cleaner and easier than using an existing file and having to replace and change things – lots of chance for mistakes. Excel comes with application templates and stores the ones that you create or download. All you have to do to create a template from a file is click the Office button – Save As for the dialog box, then drop the Save As Type arrow down and select the Excel Template entry. By default, Excel changes the location to your Templates folder. Type a name in the File Name textbox; if you want to save a preview picture of the template, select the Save Thumbnail checkbox then click Save. Enter Data in Worksheets

There are three ways to enter data in worksheets: by typing the data in manually, buy using drag and drop to move(four-way arrows) or copy (Ctrl+drag and drop) existing data and by pasting existing copied data. To enter data manually, select a cell, type the entry and press Enter or click Enter on the formula bar (see right). Pressing Enter moves the active cell to the next cell in the specified direction as set in Excel Options – Advanced category (default is down). You can also click into a cell, use the arrow keys to navigate, or tab to move right, shift+tab to move left or Shift+Enter to move the opposition way from Enter. When entering data, you can either work in the cell itself or in the Formula bar – that's easiest when you are editing a cell. Tips: To enter the same data in each cell in a range, select the range, type the entry then press Ctrl+Enter. To enter data in multiple worksheets at the same time, Ctrl-click the worksheet tabs to select then enter the data. To delete existing content of a cell or range, select then press Delete – and to replace, just overwrite. Double-click the cell to edit or move to the cell and press F2 – or click into the Formula bar. Once you are editing the contents of a cell, use the left and right arrow keys to move the insertion point then press or click Enter or tab to move to the next cell. Press ESC or click Cancel button on the Formula bar to cancel changes you've made. You can also press Ctrl+Z or click Undo on the Quick Access toolbar. Click the drop-down button to undo multiple actions. Press Ctrl+Y to Redo, or click the Redo button on the Quick Access toolbar – multiple actions available, too! Tip: If drag and drop doesn't work, check Excel Options – Advanced category and select Enable Fill handle and Cell Drag-And-Drop, OK. You can also enter data with copy (flashing border) and paste – Excel will keep the copied select available to paste again until his press ESC or edit a cell. Use the Paste Smart Tag to display a menu of paste options: keep source formatting, use destination theme, match destination formatting, values and number formatting, keep source column widths, formatting only, link cells. You can also use Paste Special dialog box (click Paste drop down in Clipboard group of Home ribbon) for more options (see right). Excel also lets you link data across worksheets or even across workbooks. Open the source and destination workbooks, or if you are linking one sheet to another in the same workbook, just open that workbook. In the source workbook copy the relevant cell or range then display the destination sheet and click the Paste drop down to select Past Link. Excel updates links with the same workbook automatically and immediately when you change the data in the source. If the link is between different workbooks and the source workbook isn't open but contains changes, Excel will prompt you (by default) to update automatic links when you open the destination workbook. If you want link

updates to happen without prompting, clear the Ask To Update Automatic Links checkbox in the General section of the Advanced category in Excel Options. Use AutoFill to Enter Data Series Quickly Select one, two or more cells that contain the basis for a series then drag the AutoFill handle – that's the black square at the lower right corner of the last cell selected. AutoFill analyzes the starting cells, determines what the contents of the other cells should be and enter the information automatically. Try using AutoFill with the months of the year: type January in A1 and AutoFill to D1; type 0 in A2 and 5 in A3 then select those cells and drag the AutoFill handle down – see the sequence of numbers (Excel adds 5 each time)? AutoFill even works for multiple series of data as long as the series is in a separate column or row (ex. column A has months, column B has numbers – select both and drag the AutoFill handle to extend both series at the same time.) Type Monday ia cell B2 then press Ctrl+B to bold it; right-drag the AutoFill handle across to H2 and release. The AutoFill options Smart Tag displays a context menu for options (see left). You can create your own AutoFill lists: click the Office button – Excel Options, Popular category; click the Edit Custom Lists button for the dialog box. Select NEW LIST in Custom lists then type your list in the List entries textbox (one to a line) and click Add. You can also delete a list by selecting it and clicking Delete. Click OK when you are done adding and/or deleting your custom lists. Use Find and Replace To find items, choose Home – Editing – Find & Select or press Ctrl+F (Ctrl+H for replace) for the dialog box. This basically functions much the same way as the other Office applications except for the Options (see left). The Format button lets you search for or replace specific types of formatting that you define using the Format Cells dialog box. Recover Your Work If Excel Crashes After you save a file for the first time, by default, AutoRecover saves every 10 minutes. You can change this interval in Excel Options – Save category. Use the Task Manager (right-click the notification area or open space on the Taskbar and choose Task Manager) to see if the program is hang up (no responding). End Task then restart Excel; you will probably lose changes since the last save or

auto-save but check the file(s) listed in the Document Recovery task pane. Hover your mouse over each entry to display a drop-down for the menu for options: Open, Save As, Delete (AutoRecover versions only), Show Repairs. Once you have decided which recovered file to keep, Save As with a different name than the original file – in case the recovered file has problems that the original file does not. Close the Document Recovery task pane; if there are more recovered files displayed, you will be prompted to make a decision about them: view the next time you start Excel or remove, OK.

Excel 2007 Lesson 4: Format Worksheets
Objectives: 1. Add, Delete and Manipulate Worksheets 2. Format Cell and Ranges Add, Delete and Manipulate Worksheets To add a worksheet, just click the Insert Worksheet button that appears after the last worksheet tab and drag it to whatever position you wish. Alternatively, you can right-click a worksheet tab and choose Insert for the dialog box; select Worksheet on the General tab, OK. If you want to use the Ribbon, select a worksheet tab and go to Home – Cells – Insert – Sheet.

To delete a sheet, right-click its tab and choose Delete or select it and go to Home – Cells – Delete – Sheet. If the sheet contains data, you will be prompted to Delete or Cancel. You can hide a worksheet by right-clicking the tab, too, and to unhide, right-click any worksheet tab and choose Unhide for the dialog box. Select the sheet, OK. Right-click a worksheet tab to Move or Copy; Rename or Tab Color are also choices – press Enter to click away when you are done. Format Cells and Ranges A cell can have one of four values: text, numerical, formula or blank – and all can be formatted in a variety of ways, such as, alignment, background color and gridlines. The most basic formatting controls the way in which Excel displays the data of the cell. For example, Excel usually displays the literal contents of a cell by default except with formulas when the result of the formula is usually displayed. Make the cell active and see what it actually contains by looking in the Formula bar; when you edit, both the cell and the Formula bar display the literal contents of the cell. Also, Excel may change the contents of a cell for display purposes, for instance, rounding a long number to fit into a cell – but the underlying long number remains unaffected. There are two Mini Toolbars available in Excel: the smaller one displays when you select text, and the larger one displays when you right-click a cell or selection. Note the additional features of Excel's larger Mini toolbar: Accounting Number Format ($), Percent Style (%), Comma Style (,), Merge and Center, Decrease and Increase Decimal, Fill Color and Borders. The Home Ribbon contains many formatting options in the Font, Alignment and Number groups:

The Format Cells dialog box includes the full range of cell formatting on six tabs; to access press Ctrl+1 or right-click a cell or selection and choose Format Cells or click the dialog box launcher for either Font, Alignment or Number groups on the Home tab of the Ribbon. If you prefer to work with the Ribbon minimized, you can put the commands you need on the Quick Access toolbar. To make Excel display the contents of a cell in the way you intend, apply the appropriate number format. You can apply manually, but Excel also applies number formats automatically when you enter text that matches one of Excel's triggers. The Number group on the Home tab of the Ribbon contains button for the most widely used number formats and a drop-down list that lets you access the other number formats (and you can also apply number formats from the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box (see above). There are 12 categories of built-in formats: 1. General Number Format is the default format for all cells on a new worksheet; displays up to 11 digits per cell and doesn't use thousands separators. 2. Number Formats let you specify the number of decimal places to display (0-30 with 2 as default) whether to display a thousands separator, and how to represent negative numbers. 3. Currency Formats (ex. $) let you specify the number of decimal places to display (like Number), which currency symbol to display (if any) and how to represent negative numbers. 4. Accounting Formats let you specify the number of decimal places to display and which currency symbol to display (if any). The currency symbol appears flush left with the cell border, separated from the figures. Accounting formats represent negative numbers with parentheses around them. You can apply this format by clicking the Currency Style button. 5. Date Formats offer a variety of date formats based on the locale you choose. It's easiest to use Excel conventional formats; Excel will automatically convert to dates any entry that contains a hyphen (-) or forward slash (/). If you don't specify the year, Excel assumes that you mean the current year. 6. Time Formats offer a variety of time formats based on 12-hour and 24hour clocks. You can make Excel automatically format an entry with a time format by entering a number that contains a color (ex. 12:00) or a number followed by a space and an uppercase or lowercase a or p (ex. 1 P or 11 a). 7. Percentage Format displays the value in the cell with a percent sign and with your choice of number of decimal places (default is 2). You can make Excel automatically format an entry with the Percent format by entering a percent sign after the number. 8. Fraction Format: Excel stores fractions as their decimal equivalents (ex. ¼ as 0.25) so make sure that you specify Fraction format if that's what you

want. Also, be careful not to enter fractions in a way that Excel will confuse for dates. 9. Scientific format displays numbers in an exponential form; you can make Excel apply this format by entering a number that contains an e in any position except the ends. 10.Text format is for values that you want to force Excel to treat as text so as to avoid having Excel automatically apply another format (ex. entry that starts with 0). Excel left-aligns text-formatted entries, and you can make Excel format a numeric entry with Text format by entering a space before the number. 11.Special formats provide a locale-specific range of formatting choices, ex. zip code, phone number, social security number. Once formatted, Excel will automatically apply the formatting, ex. if you type 987654321 in a cell with Social Security Number format, Excel will display 987-65-4321. 12.Custom Format enables you to define your own formats for needs that none of the built-in formats cover. There are several options for applying formatting to worksheets to make them more readable: • Apply a Theme: a suite of formatting applied to an entire workbook rather than to individual worksheets, ranges or cells. To change the "look and feel", check out the 12 colors (4 for text and backgrounds, 6 accent colors for graphics, and 2 for hyperlinks), 2 fonts (heading and body), and graphical effects (ex. for AutoShapes). See the Themes group on the Page Layout tab of the Ribbon. Hover your mouse over the panels for live previews. You can create new theme colors and new theme fonts (see buttons at bottom of panels). • Font Formatting (Home tab of Ribbon or on Mini Toolbars) allows you to quickly change fonts, font size, font style (regular, bold, italic, bold italic), underline, and color. For more options, see the Font tab of the Format Cells dialog box. • Text Alignment (horizontal, vertical, indentation) and Orientation can be adjusted on the Alignment tab of the Format Cells dialog box. Text control (wrap text, shrink to fit and merge cells) are also useful, but be careful of Shrink to Fit since it can resize the display of some cells to make contents fit the column but leaves other cells at full size – better to resize columns or fonts. • Border Formatting on the Mini toolbar and Font panel of the Home tab let you quickly apply standard borders. For more options including many choices of border weights and colors, work on the Border tab of the Format Cells dialog box. Tip: Use Format Painter to copy formatting from one range to another. • Fill Formatting lets you apply solid shades of color or colored patterns to add emphasis or create a design. Use the Fill tab on the Format Cells dialog box.

Protection Formatting enables you to lock or hide particular cells.

In most worksheets, you need to change some columns from their standard widths to widths better suited to the data entered in their cells – and similarly for row height. The fastest way to change width of column or height of row is by using Excel's AutoFit feature which resizes a column to just wider than its widest entry and resizes a row to just high enough for its tallest character or object. Double-click the right border bar of a column header or bottom border bar of a row header, or you can select the column or widest cell and choose Home – Cells – Format – AutoFit Columns Width (or Row Height). You can also change column width and row height manually by dragging the appropriate column or row border bars. Excel displays a ScreenTip showing the size to which you've currently dragged. Use the Cells group Format drop down (see right) to hide or unhide columns or rows – or you can just right-click the column or row headings. Excel also has Conditional Formatting, that is, formatting that Excel uses only when specified conditions are met. You can use this formatting to draw attention to missing data, highlight values that are atypical or to pick out the top 10 or bottom 10 scores in a list. Select the item (range of cells, worksheet, table) you want to affect by making it active, then choose Home – Styles – Conditional Formatting to display the panel. Choose the category you want (ex. Top/Bottom Rules) then select the item you want (ex. Top 10 Items) for the dialog box. Use the controls in the dialog box to specify the condition and how to format the cells that meet it, OK. You can also create a rule (click New Rule for dialog box): select the item you want to edit, use the controls to change the rule (change colors, types, values of cells) – then repeat until you have defined the rule as necessary, OK. If you apply multiple rules to the same cells, you might be confused and need to find out which conditional formatting rules have been applied. Select the cells you want to affect then choose Home – Styles – Conditional Formatting – Manage Rules. Examine the rules in the main list box and change them as needed: change order, delete, edit, create new rule, etc., OK. You can also clear Conditional Formatting Rules from a range or worksheet by choosing that option on the Conditional Formatting drop down. Excel also offers preset formatting options for tables: go to the Format As Table drop-down panel in the Styles group on the Home tab – more on table formatting in lesson 8.

Like Word, Excel workbooks and templates include many built-in styles that you can use to apply predefined sets of formatting quickly and easily. And you can modify the styles and create styles of you own, even copy styles from one workbook to template to another. In the Cell Styles panel, there are • Good, Bad, Neutral (conditional format) • Data and Model • Titles and Headings • Themed Cell Styles (for emphasis) • Number Format (5 number styles as discussed earlier in this lesson)

To create a style, apply formatting to a cell then select that cell and click the Cell Styles button and choose New Cell Style for the dialog box. Type the name of the new style then clear any check boxes you don't want to include in the style. Click the Format button and work in the Format Cells dialog box then click Ok, OK. To modify the style, display the Styles panel again and right-click your style and choose Modify to display the Style dialog box again. If you no longer need a style, you can delete it – just display the Cell Styles panel and right-click the style – Delete. You can delete any style except Normal – that's the default that Excel protects. To merge styles from one workbook to another, open the source workbook or template and the destination workbook or template. Activate the destination workbook (click in it) then choose Home – Styles – Cell Styles – Merge Styles for the dialog box. Select the source workbook and click OK. Excel closes the Merge Styles dialog box and merges the styles into the destination workbook.

Excel 2007 Lesson 5: Add Graphics and Drawings to Worksheets
Objectives: 1. Understand How Excel Handles Graphical Objects 2. Insert Clip Art, Photographs, Movies and Sounds in Worksheets 3. Work with Shapes, AutoShapes and WordArt 4. Add Pictures to Worksheets 5. Add SmartArt to Worksheets Understand How Excel Handles Graphical Objects To give worksheets more visual impact or to make them more comprehensible, you often need to add pictures, shapes, diagrams or other objects. Excel worksheets appear to be flat but essentially have two layers: text (containing cells contents) and drawing. The layers are transparent until you start to work with them, and then you can change the order or group objects. On the drawing layer, you can create as many sub-layers as you wish and arrange them separately or overlapping. Remember that when you work with graphics, contextual tab of the Ribbon will display with tools to help you design and format objects. Insert Clip Art, Photographs, Movies and Sounds in Worksheets To insert clip art, photographs, movies and sounds to worksheets, try to use restraint since these objects, especially clip art, can be clichés. Select the cell at whose upper-left corner you want to position the upper-left corner of the item (you can move the object later.) Choose Insert – Illustrations – Clip Art to display the task pane. Use the Search For box, Search In drop-down list and Results Should Be dropdown list then click Go. View the thumbnail matches and click the drop-down button of the one you want. Choose one of the actions: Insert, Copy are the more common choices. You can also organize your clips (adding clips and entering/editing keywords for search) by clicking that feature at the bottom of the task pane. Work with Shapes, AutoShapes and WordArt Excel provides two types of tools for creating drawing objects: Shapes (simple and complex) and WordArt (pictures made by applying effects to text). To add shapes, choose Insert – Illustrations – Shapes to display the panel. Click the one you want (mouse pointer changes to crosshair) and draw (click and drag) on the worksheet starting at one corner to the size that you wish then release the mouse. If you want to center the shape, hold down the Ctrl as you click and drag; to constrain it (ex. rectangle as square or ellipse as circle), hold down the Shift key – or hold down both to both features! To create multiple shapes of the same type, right-click the tool then choose Lock Drawing Mode; when you release the mouse after creating a shape, the tool remains active so you can create another shape of the same type. Press ESC to toggle the tool off or click another tool. WordArt is an Office applet for creating text-based designs such as logos or decorations. Choose Insert – Text – WordArt to display the panel; type the text you

want and resize by dragging one of the corner handles. To slant the text, drag the pink slant handle to the left or right and stop when you get the effect you want. To rotate, move the mouse pointer over the green rotation handle then drag left for counterclockwise or right for clockwise. Try this: to format some of the text with a different style, select that text by dragging through it then click Quick Style button on the Format tab of the Drawing Tool section of the Ribbon. Choose the style in the Applies To Selected Text area. To apply a fill, outline or effect to the text, click the appropriate buttons: Text Fill, Text Outline or Text Effects. If you want to adjust further, click the Format Text Effects button (dialog box launcher for WordArt Styles – see right). To add text to a shape, right-click the shapes and choose Edit Text (insertion point in shape). Type the text in the AutoShape and apply formatting (lesson 4). Click elsewhere or right-click and choose Exit Edit Text when you are done. You can format a selected drawing object by using the controls on the Format tab of the Drawing Tools section of the Ribbon or by using the Format dialog box for the shape – generally, the Format tab is better for makes major changes while the dialog box is best for fine adjustments. To display the dialog box, right-click the object and click the Format command (for pictures, shape, etc.) The best way to start is to give the drawing object a style then adjust fill, outline and effects. Select the drawing object (Drawing Tools tab of the Ribbon displays) and select the Format tab. Click the Shape Styles drop-down button and choose a style either from the panel or from Other Theme Fills panel. In the Shape Styles group, use the Shape Fill, Shape Outline and/or Shape Effects buttons for further formatting. You can also apply WordArt style to any text inside the shape by selecting the style from the WordArt Styles group. Resize a drawing object by dragging the sizing handles, selecting the object and using the Height and Width control in the Size group on the Format tab or click the Size dialog box launcher. Work on the Size tab of the dialog box, and remember to Lock Aspect Ratio so object's height and width changes correspond rather than

distort. Crop From and Reset button will only work for objects such as pictures. When you position an object in a worksheet, Excel positions it relate to cells; so if you move or resize cells, Excel moves or resizes the object to match. If you want to prevent this, use the Properties tab of the dialog box to set Object positioning, Print Object (or not), Lock (or not) and/or Lock text (or not). There is also an Alt (alternative) Text tab to specify what will be displayed while a web browser is loading the picture. To position drawing objects, drag, nudge (use arrow keys), or use the Size and Properties dialog; use Picture Tools – Format – Arrange to set alignment (snap to grid, snap to shape, view gridlines). To align an object relative to another, select the object then hold down the Shift key and click to select the other objects. Choose Picture Tools – Format – Arrange – Align for center, middle, horizontal, vertical, etc. You can also group objects by Shift or Ctrl clicking then choosing the Picture Tools – Format – Arrange – Group command or right-click one of the objects and choose Group – Group. Similarly, you can ungroup or regroup. To adjust the layer order in which drawing objects appear, click the object that you want to affect then click the Format tab of the Drawing Tools section or Picture Tools tab of the Ribbon. In the Arrange group, choose the action you want, for example, bring to front, bring forward, send to back, send backward. You can also right-click an object for these commands. It might be hard to select objects that are partly or wholly overlaid by others, so click the Selection Pane button in the Arrange group then click the object in the Selection And Visibility pane and use the Reorder buttons to move an object up or down the stack of objects or clear the box next to the object to hide it temporarily – and you can also Hide All then Show All. Remember that you can wrap text in a cell, but increasing the depth of a cell increases the entire row. A textbox might give you more flexibility. Choose Insert – Text – Text Box (mouse pointer changes to downwardpointing arrow). Click the worksheet where you want to place one corner of the textbox then drag diagonally to the size you want. Excel displays the textbox as a blank area surrounded by a dotted border and sizing handles with a green rotation handle above. Type the text creating paragraphs by pressing Enter – or you can paste text from another source; format the text if you wish using the Font group of the Home tab of the Ribbon or right-click and choose Font for the dialog box (see upper left). To apply paragraph formatting, right-click the paragraph you want to affect and choose Paragraph (see lower left). Use the options in the Shape Styles group on the Format tab to choose style, fill, outline or any effects – but be careful about

readability. To format internal margins or alignment in a textbox, right-click and choose Format Shape for the dialog box, then click Text box (see below). You can even set up columns within a textbox! Add Pictures to Worksheets To insert a picture, select the cell where you want the upper-left corner of the picture to appear then choose Insert – Illustrations – Picture for the dialog box. Navigate to the picture you want, select it and click Insert. With the picture selected, use the Format tab on the Picture Tools tab of the Ribbon to crop (in Size group) using handles at each corner and at midpoints; Shift-drag a corner handle to crop proportionally, Ctrl-drag a crop handle to crop from both sides simultaneously and Ctrl+Shift-drag to crop proportionally from both sides. You can also choose Format – Size – Size and Properties to use the Crop From controls on the Size tab of the dialog box for more precision. You can also format a picture using the Picture Tools tab: change the brightness, contrast, colors using those panels – and click the Reset Picture button to restore the picture to its original state if you don't like the effect. Click Change Picture to choose another picture but retain the picture's position, size and formatting – or delete and start from scratch. Remember to compress your pictures to reduce file size: click Compress Pictures button in the Adjust group on the Format tab for the dialog box. Click the Options button to select the Automatically Perform Basic Compression On Save and Delete Cropped Areas of Pictures – and for Target Output, choose Print, Ok, OK. Add SmartArt to Worksheets For diagrams and organizational charts, click the cell in which you want to place the upper-left corner of the graphic (you can move later) then choose Insert – Illustrations – SmartArt for the dialog box for choices (see left). In the left panel, choose the category that you want then click the diagram that you want (see preview on right), OK. Excel inserts the diagram and displays the SmartArt Tools section of the Ribbon containing both design and format tabs. The Text pane contains paragraph that map to the shapes of the SmartArt and lets you work on the text separately from the layout (see below left). Enter text by clicking a paragraph in the Text pane then typing the text. To add a shape to the diagram, click the paragraph or shape to which the new item will be related and click

Add Shape button in Create Graphic group then choose, ex. Add Shape After, Before, Above, Below, etc. You can change the layout of the diagram, too, without losing the data you've entered, although you might need to rearrange it to suit the new layout. Format the SmartArt diagram on the Format tab. Change the shape of an individual shape in the diagram (click the shape, click Change Shape button in Shapes group then choose from the panel.) Change the size of an individual shape using larger and/or smaller buttons in the Shapes group. Click the Shape Styles drop-down to choose a graphical style from the panel, and/or use the Shape Fill, Outline and/or Effects panels. You can also apply WordArt style to the text in SmartArt shapes by using the controls in the WordArt Styles group – but again, watch readability. To change the size of your diagram, either drag the sizing handle or use the Height and Width controls in the Size group.

Excel 2007 Lesson 6: Perform Calculations with Functions
Objectives: 1. Understand Functions 2. Understand the Components of a Function 3. Enter Functions in Worksheets 4. Nest One Function Inside Another Function 5. Edit a Function in a Worksheet 6. Monitor Calculations with the Watch Window 7. Examples of Functions in Action Understand Functions To manipulate data and perform calculations with Excel, you use formulas (lesson 7) and functions. A formula is a set of instructions for performing a calculation; a function is a predefined formula for a standard calculation. Excel includes a large number of functions ranging from everyday to highly specialized. Understand the Components of a Function Each function has a name entered in capitals and followed by a pair of parentheses, ex. SUM(). Almost all functions have one or more arguments which specify the elements and type of information you give them in order to get a valid result. Some functions, ex. =Now(), require no arguments, but these are exceptions. The rules that govern the types of information a function needs are called syntax. Excel shows required arguments in boldface, optional arguments in regular font and an ellipsis to indicate where you can use further arguments of the same type; for example, SUM(number1,number2,…) In this case, number 1 is a required argument – you can't have a sum without a number; number 2 is an optional argument (there might be a second number or there might not be); and the ellipsis (…) indicates that you can use further arguments (number3, number4…) as necessary to tell the function to include further numbers in the calculation. Enter Functions in Worksheets You can enter a function in the active cell in four ways: 1. Type a function directly into a cell 2. Click the Σ drop down in the Editing group on the Home tab of the Ribbon (more functions for the Insert Function dialog box) 3. Choose a function from one of the drop-down panels in the Function Library group on the Formulas tab of the Ribbon (then use the Function Arguments dialog box to specify any arguments the function needs) 4. Click the Insert Function button in the Function Library group then use the Insert Function dialog box. The most straightforward way to enter a function is to type it and its arguments into the cells – and once you've entered enough of the function, Excel displays a ScreenTip to show you the syntax then tracks your progress. Ex: type 34 in cell A1, type 66 in A2; in cell A3 type =s (see ScreenTip with s possibilities) then

finish typing sum( and again you'll be prompted with the ScreenTip to remind you of the syntax for the function that Excel now recognizes. (=SUM(number1, [number2]…) Type A1 after the open parenthesis (Excel recognizes and applies blue outline to the cell to help you make sure that it's the correct cell) then type , (a comma, and Excel removes boldface from number1 and applies it to number2). Click cell A2 to enter it as the second argument in the function (Excel applies marching ants to the cell and enters address in green. Type closing parenthesis for the function then click the Enter button (button with check mark) in the Formula bar. Excel enters the function in the cell and displays its result. Let's look at the Function Library drop-downs (either in Editing group of Home tab or in the Function Library group on the Formulas tab.) Here you can do the following: • Insert a common function (AutoSum, Sum, Average, Count, Max, Min and More Functions) • Insert a function you've used recently (Recently used drop-down containing last 10 functions that you've used) • Pick a function by category (ex. Date & Time then choose function from the panel) Just select the cell in which you want to enter the function, click the Σ (AutoSum) button if you want to enter the SUM() function or click the drop-down button and select another. Enter enters the function in the active cell, and if Excel detects numeric entries in the cells above or to the left of the active cell, it selects the cells as a suggestion for what you want to enter in the function. Edit the selection as necessary (you can drag to correct or select another range, or you can type the start and enter cell address into the function) then press Enter. For any of the other categories in the Function Library group (Recently Used, Financial, Logical, Text, Date & Time, Lookup & Reference, Math and Trig, More Functions), click to display the panel then click the function you want for the Function Arguments dialog box showing the arguments required by the function (remember My First Car?). Enter each required argument (click the collapse dialog button to select the correct cell then click it again to open the dialog box fully), OK.

To use the Insert Function Dialog Box, select the cell in which you want to enter the function then click The Insert Function button (fx button on Formula bar) to display the dialog box. Select the function you want (search and/or select a category then click the function – and check the description), OK. Enter the data in each argument box, OK. Nest One Function Inside Another Function You can also nest on function inside another function - Excel supports up to 64 functions. Usually, when you use multiple functions in sequence, you'll enter a function I one cell then use another function in another cell to work on the result of that function.

Edit a Function in a Worksheet; Monitor To edit a function, select the cell that contains the formula then click the Insert Function button o the Formula boar to display the Function Arguments dialog box again. Calculations with the Watch Window To monitor calculations, use the Watch Window: Formulas – Formula Auditing – Watch Window. Click the Add Watch button for the dialog box and type the address or name of the cell (or click Collapse Dialog button, select the cell, then click Collapse Dialog button again). Click Add button to add the watch item to the Watch window – and you can delete a watch cell here, too, then close. Examples of Functions in Action Excel has 11 categories of built-in functions: Cube, Database, Data & Time, Engineering, Financial, Logical, Information, Lookup & Reference, Math & Trig, Statistical, and Text. Access all of these in the Function Library group (including More Functions for Statistical, Engineering, Cube, Information). Take a look at each of these categories and their functions, then check out a few of them by reading their descriptions – isn't it amazing what you can do?!

Excel 2007 Lesson 7: Create Formulas to Perform Custom Calculations
Objectives: 1. Understand Formula Components 2. Understand How Excel Handles Numbers 3. Refer to Cells and Ranges in Formulas 4. Refer to Other Worksheets and Other Workbooks in Formulas 5. Try Entering a Formula 6. Use Range Names and Table Names in Formulas 7. Use Absolute, Relative and Mixed References in Formulas 8. Work with Array Formulas 9. Display Formulas in a Worksheet 10. Hide Formulas from Other Users 11. Troubleshoot Formulas Understand Formula Components Excel's functions are great for performing a wide variety of standard calculations, but sometimes you need to calculate something that functions don't cover. Thus, you create custom formulas. A formula is a set of instructions for performing a calculation. In a formula, you use operands to tell Excel which items to use and operators to specify which operation or operations to perform on them. A formula can contain up to 64 nested levels of functions, enough for highly complex calculations! Each formula begins with an equal sign, so the standard way to start a formula is to type an equal sign. When you start a formula by typing a + or -, however, Excel automatically enters the equal sign. Operands in a formula specify the data you want to calculate; it can be a constant value entered into a formula (ex. =8*12) or in a cell (ex. =B1*8) OR a cell or range address or range name OR a worksheet function. Operators in a formula specify the operation you want to perform on the operands: • Arithmetic + - * / % ^ (exponentiation) • Comparison = <> > >= < <= • Reference : (range of contiguous cells A1:C16) , (range of noncontiguous cells A1, B2) • Text & (joins specified values, ex. A1 contains 50 and A2 contains 50, =A1&A2 returns 5050 When a formula contains two or more different operators, Excel performs them in this order: negation, percentage, exponential, multiplication/division, addition/subtraction, concatenation (&), comparison. If the operations are together (ex. addition/subtraction), Excel evaluates the operators from left to right. You can change the operator precedence by using parentheses to indicate which items you want to calculate first, ex. =(1000-100)*5 – Excel subtracts then multiples. When you nest multiple items, Excel evaluates the most deeply nested item first, ex. =(100-(10*5))/20, Excel evaluates 10*5 first – so if you forget the order of operator

precedence, just use parentheses. When you are editing a formula, Excel displays differently nested parentheses in different colors to help you keep track of which parenthesis is paired with which. When you use and  to move through a formula, Excel flashes the paired parenthesis for each move; if you omit a parenthesis in a formula, Excel warns you and tries to identify where the missing parenthesis should go. Tips: If you prefer, break complex calculations down into a sequence f steps that you perform in separate cells. Also, if you don't want automatic calculations (to slow down the process), go to Excel Options, Formulas category; in the Calculations Options area, select the Manuel option button and make sure Recalculate Workbook Before Saving checkbox is selected. If this feature is turned off, Excel displays Calculate near the left end of the status bar when the workbook contains uncalculated calculations. To force calculation manually for a worksheet, press Shift+F9 or choose Formulas – Calculation – Calculate Sheet; to force calculation for a workbook, press F9 or choose Formulas – Calculation – Calculate Now. Understand How Excel Handles Numbers Numbers can be up to 15 digits long; these 15 digits can appear on either side of the decimal point. Beyond the 15th digit, Excel changes all digits to 0 Refer to Cells and Ranges in Formulas Enter the cell or range address by typing or using the mouse. When you use the mouse, Excel displays marching ants around the border to indicate the selected cell or range. When a formula includes two or more ranges, Excel uses different-colored borders to help you keep them straight. To refer to an entire column, specify the letter as the beginning and end of the range, ex. =C:C. Similarly, to refer to an entire row, specify its number as the beginning and end of the range, ex. 4:4. Refer to a set of columns, ex. A:D or refer to a set of rows, ex. 1:2. Refer to Other Worksheets and Other Workbooks in Formulas To refer to another worksheet in the same workbook in a formula, enter the worksheet name (in single quotes if the name includes one or more spaces) and an exclamation point (!) before the cell address or range address. You can type the name, but most find it easier to click the worksheet tab then select the cell or range with the mouse. Ex. ='My First Car'!F12 Note: If you rename a worksheet, Excel automatically changes the sheet name in all formulas with that references. A formula can also refer to a worksheet in another workbook, but be careful not to move the referenced workbook or the formula will stop working unless you revise that formula, too. Try Entering a Formula 1. Enter 2000 in cell A1, 4000 in cell A2, 2 in cell B1. 2. Select cell B2 and type =( 3. Click cell A1, type + then click cell A2 4. Type )/ then click cell B1 and press Enter or click the Enter button. Did you get 3000 as your result? Remember, you can copy a formula by using Copy/Paste or Ctrl-drag and drop or Home – Editing – Fill panel or by dragging the AutoFill handle.

Use Range Names and Table Names in Formulas Remember lesson 1: an easy way to refer to a cell or range is to define a name for it. You can then use the range name in formulas instead of specifying the cell or range address. This is especially helpful when you are referring to cells and ranges on other worksheets in a workbook. Be careful about deleting range names, however, since any formula that references the deleted range will display a #NAME? error. If you create a table (see next lesson), you can refer to all or part of it by name; and if you change the table (add or delete rows or columns), Excel adjusts accordingly.

Use Absolute, Relative, and Mixed References in Formulas An absolute reference always refers to the same cell, even if you move or copy the formula to another cell. A dollar sign before a column designation means that the column is absolute - otherwise (no dollar sign), the column is relative (see below). A dollar sign before a row number means that the row is absolute – otherwise (no dollar sign), the row is relative. A relative reference refers to a cell's position relative to the cell that contains the formula. This is the default. A mixed reference is a mixture of an absolute reference and a relative reference. Examples (Remember Laptop Camp, M&M's percentages?) • $A$1 is absolute • A1 is relative • $A1 is mixed (column absolute) • A$1 is mixed (row absolute) Work with Array Formulas An array (range of cells) formula performs multiple calculations that generate either a single or multiple results. To enter an array formula, create the formula; then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter so Excel displays braces {} around the array formula. Excel has to do this – you can't achieve the same effect by typing the braces manually. Ex: The formula {=SUM(IF($B$2:B8=B8,$C$2:C8))} Display Formulas in a Worksheet When editing or troubleshooting the formulas, you may benefit from displaying the formulas themselves rather than their results in the cells that contain them. To toggle the display between formula results and formulas, press Ctrl+` (that's a slanted accent not an apostrophe). You can also change the default to show formulas in Excel Options, Advanced category, Display Options For This Worksheet area. Hide Formulas from Other Users You can prevent other users from examining or editing your formulas by formatting the relevant cells as hidden then protecting the worksheet(s). Select the cell or range that contain formulas, choose Home – Cells – Format – Format Cells (or right-click the selection – Format Cells) for the dialog box (left), Protection tab. Select Hidden checkbox (make sure Locked is also checked – that's the default), OK. Choose Home – Cells – Format – Protect Sheet for the dialog box above right. Make sure

that Protect worksheet and contents of locked cells is checked; type the password for protecting the worksheet, OK. Excel closes the dialog box an displays the Confirm password dialog box. Type the password again, OK. Be careful – if you forget the password, you won't be able to make any changes to the items that you protected! Troubleshoot Formulas If you make a mistake while entering a formula, Excel displays a dialog box (The formula you typed contains an error.) Click the Help button to display information about correcting the problem(s). If you click the OK button instead, Excel displays the formula for editing but won't enter it in the cell until you've fixed the problem. Below are the most common errors: • #### (need widen the cell) • #NAME? (formula has misspelled function name or name of nonexistent range • #N/A (no valid value) • #REF! (formula has invalid cell or range reference) • #DIV/0! (formula is attempting to divide by zero) • #VALUE! (formula has invalid argument, ex. text instead of number) • #NULL! (specified two ranges have no intersection) • #NUM! (number isn't valid for function or formula) Another thing to check is cell formatting, ex. the result cell is formatted to display no decimal places so 2/3 gives you a result of 1 – Excel rounded 0.6667 to 1! Another thing to check: changes to ranges to which the formula refers. Excel's Formula AutoCorrect features watches as you enter formulas and tries to identify errors if you create them, ex. B3;G3 instead of B3:G3 (see right). Click Yes to accept the suggestion and No to return to the cell to edit manually. Configure error-checking in Excel Options, Formulas category (see below). When Excel identifies an error that contravenes a rule that's selected, it displays a green triangle in the upper-left corner of the affected cell. Select the cell to display the Smart Tag then click it to display a menu that explains the problem and offers possible solutions.

Excel 2007 Lesson 8: Organize Data with Excel Databases
Objectives: 1. Understand What an Excel Table Is 2. Create a Table 3. Rename a Table 4. Choose Table Styles and Style Options 5. Enter Data in a Table 6. Sort a Table 7. Remove Duplicates from a Table 8. Find and Replace Data in a Table 9. Filter a Table to Find Records That Match Criteria 10. Use Conditional Formatting with Tables 11. Convert a Table Back to a Range Understand What an Excel Table Is A table in Excel is an organized collection of data. Each row is a data record and each column is a field. Enter the names of the fields in the header row (so you can filter) and make each label unique so Excel can distinguish each field from the others. Keep column labels concise for viewing ease, and MOST important: make sure the table area doesn't contain any blank rows or columns because these can interfere with Excel's sorting and searching. Create a Table Type the headings for the table along with at least one row of data. Select the range that you want to turn into a table then choose Insert – Tables – Table for the dialog box. Check Where is the data for your table to confirm cell address, and make sure My table

has headers is checked, OK. Excel creates the table, gives it an automatic name, creates headers and applies banded shading – then displays Table Tools on the Ribbon. The top row of the table are headers that you can use to sort the data. The shading colors come from the theme applied to the workbook – you can change the shading especially if it's hard to read. Also, once you've created a table, Excel keeps the headings visible even when you scroll down so you don't need to freeze the panes.

Rename the Table The default name is Table 1, Table 2, etc, so it's best to rename by clicking anywhere in the table to display Table Tools – Design on the Ribbon and click the Table Name textbox in the Properties group. Type the new name (make sure it's unique, starts with a letter or underscore, NO spaces!) then press Enter. Note that Excel will warn you if you use an invalid name. Choose Table Styles and Style Options You can leave the style that Excel applies to your table or change it by applying Excel's built-in styles or custom styles that you create yourself. Click in the table and choose a style from the Table Styles panel on the Table Tools Design tab: drop the arrow down for Light, Medium, Dark live previews or click New Table Style for the dialog box. Type the name of the style in the Name textbox (this name will appear when you hover your mouse over the style's name in the Table Styles panel). In the Table Element list box, select the element you want to change then click the format button to display a reduced version of the Format Cells dialog box (only Font, Border, Fill tabs); specify the formatting then click OK. Repeat the process for each element that you want to change – see the preview to see how the table will look. The Table Element list box shows the names of items you've changed in boldface; you can remove formatting that you've applied by clicking an element in this list then clicking the Clear button. If you want Excel to apply this table style automatically to new tables that you create, select the Set As Default Table Quick Style For This Document checkbox, OK. To decide which table elements to display, select or clear the checkboxes in the Table Style Options group on the Design tab: Header Row, Total Row, First Column, Last Column, Banded Rows, Banded Columns. Enter Data in a Table Use standard techniques (type directly into cell or use copy/paste, AutoFill, AutoComplete) or enter and edit data with data entry forms. Click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar drop-down button and choose More Commands. In the Choose Commands From drop-down list, select the Commands Not In The Ribbon item. In the left list box, click the Form command then click Add, OK. Click the Forms button on the Quick Access toolbar; Excel generates the data form from the table's column headings and displays the data from the first record in the table. Use the Find Prev and Find Next buttons to navigate to other records. If you make changes to a record, press Enter; click Restore to undo changes to the current record – but this only works before you press Enter. Click New to add a record to the table then press Enter – the new record is added at the end of the table. Click Delete to delete the current record (warning message, OK); note that you will not be able to recover this record (no undo for deletion) unless you close the workbook without saving changes in which case you will lose all changes since the last save. Click the Criteria button to search for records that match specified criteria: Excel clears the data form and displays Criteria above the New button. Specify the criteria in the appropriate boxes and click Find Next or Find Prev buttons. Click the Form button to return to regular form view.

You can resize a table by adding or deleting rows and/or columns – Excel adjusts accordingly. You can also resize manually by dragging the triangle in the lowerright corner of the lower-right cell in the table. If there is an object linked to the table (ex. a chart), Excel will automatically update the object. To select a part of a table, hover your mouse over a column or row to get the black down or rightpointing arrow and select. To select the whole table, hover your mouse over the upper-left corner of the upper-left cell in the table to display an arrow pointing down and to the right then click. Sort a Table After entering data in the table, you'll probably need to sort it so you can view related records together. If you want to return the table to its original form, however, add a column to the table and name it Sort Order then enter the appropriate number in each cell (ex. start with 1 in the first cell then AutoFill down. Once you've done this, you'll b e able to sort the table by this column to restore its records to the original order. The easiest type of sort is a quick sort which sorts data by a single field in ascending order (A to Z, lowest to highest numbers) or descending order (Z to A, highest to lowest numbers). Activate a cell in the column that contains the field you want to sort and choose Sort & Filter in the Editing group of the Home tab of the Ribbon OR Data – Sort & Filter OR right click – Sort. To sort by multiple fields at the same time, choose Data – Sort & Filter – Sort for the dialog box. In the first row of controls, set up the first sort criteria: sort by, sort on, order; click Options button to apply case-sensitive sorting. Click the Add Level icon to add another row of controls. Click Ok when you are done; Excel performs the sort. Remove Duplicates from a Table Click the table (Excel displays Table Tools Design tab), then choose Design Tools – Remove Duplicates for the dialog box. Click Unselect All button to clear all checkboxes, then select only the ones you want. Be careful to search only columns that have unique values so Excel doesn't remove apparent duplicates which are really important data. If this happens, click Undo immediately to recover data before you do anything else! Click OK to start the search and removal; Excel displays a message box telling you what it found, OK. Find and Replace Data in a Table For Find, choose Home – Editing – Find & Select – Find or press Ctrl+F. For Replace, choose Home – Editing – Find & Select – Replace or press Ctrl+H. Be careful using the replace feature if you have large table: mistakes can

make it hard to track down later. More likely, you'll want to identify all records that match criteria: filtering! Filter a Table to Find Records That Match Criteria Filters work by hiding all records that don't match the criteria – you see only the records that do. To perform a quick filter, use Excel's AutoFilter feature. This is good for filtering on the fly, but you can't store the results because once you turn off AutoFilter, the full table is restored. If the filter buttons are not at the top of each column of your table, click in the table then choose Data – Sort & Filter – Filter. Click the drop-down arrow on the column by which you want to filter the table; choose the item by which you want to filter the table: Sort (smallest to largest, largest to smallest, by color), Text OR Number Filters (See left for the ellipsis options. Note: If you choose any of these features, you'll get the Custom AutoFilter dialog box; make your choices then click OK.), Items in the List Box (entries for each unique item column; select the checkboxes of items you want to display), OK. To display all entries again, click the drop-down arrow again and choose clear Filter; to remove all filtering You can create custom filters by using a criteria range - a range of rows outside the table that include the criteria for filtering the table. Note: This example assumes that your table is positioned at the top of the worksheet – that's why you insert the rows for criteria. First, activate the worksheet that contains the table you want to filter and select cells in the top five rows of the table. Choose Home – Cells – Insert – Insert Sheet Rows to insert five new blank rows above the selected rows – these will contain the filtering criteria. Click the row heading for the column headings to select ht row then Copy; click the row heading for row 1 and Paste. In row 2, enter the criteria for the first condition that you want to implement (use AND, OR, text, wildcards, comparisons such as > or <=). Use rows 3 through 5 to specify further conditions if necessary. After entering criteria, select the criteria range (including criteria headers) up to the last row you've used (no blank rows) then choose Formulas – Named Cells – Name A Range to create an easy name for the criteria range (not essential but helpful). Click a cell in the table again (so criteria range isn't selected) then choose Data – Sort & Filter – Advanced for the dialog box. Check the list range then enter the criteria range, check unique records only to suppress duplicate entries in results) then click OK. To remove filtering form the table, choose Data – Sort & Filter – Filter. Use Conditional Formatting with Tables As you remember from lesson 4, Excel can automatically apply formatting to cells that have particular values. Conditional formatting can be especially useful in tables since it lets you quickly identify values. Convert a Table Back to a Range Click anywhere in the table to activate the Table Tools Design tab then choose Design – Tools – Convert To Range to display a confirmation message box. Click Yes, and Excel converts the table back to a range and removes the column headers and removes any table shading that was applied.

Excel 2007 Lesson 9: Analyze Data using PivotTables and PivotCharts
Objectives: 1. Understand PivotTables 2. Create a PivotTable Framework Using the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard 3. Create the PivotTable on the Framework 4. Change, Format and Configure the PivotTable 5. Create PivotCharts from PivotTables 6. Create a Conventional Chart from PivotTable Data Understand PivotTables A PivotTable is a form of report that works by rearranging the fields and records in a table into a different format. You can rotate (pivot) the columns in a PivotTable to display data summarized in different ways, easily sort the table in various ways, filter data, and collapse and expand the level of information displayed. The PivotTable creates a PivotTable field from each field (column) in the table; each PivotTable field contains items that summarize the rows of information that contain a particular entry. PivotTables don’t change the contents or layout of the table, so you can experiment with you data without corrupting or needing to restore the table. Until you start to use a PivotTable, the features and benefits might seem difficult to grasp, but if you've created PivotTables or PivotCharts in earlier versions of Excel and like the Wizard (rather than the Ribbon tab), you'll find the Wizard in the Commands Not In The Ribbon list in the Customize category of Excel Options and add it to your Quick Access toolbar. Create a PivotTable Framework Using the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard • Open the workbook that contains the table or data you want to manipulate and display the worksheet that contains the table or data (in-class assignment will work). Tell Excel which table or data range you want to use: to use a named table, click a cell in the table (Table Tools Design tab displays) or use a data range by selecting that range. • Open the Create PivotTable dialog box; for named table, choose Design – Tools – Summarize With Pivot OR for data ranged, choose Insert – Tables – PivotTable for the dialog box. Make sure that Select a table or range option button is selected and the range is correct. • In Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed, select New Worksheet (although you can locate on existing worksheet, too), OK. A blank PivotTable is created and the PivotTable Field List pane along with a blank framework for the PivotTable are displayed – and the PivotTable Tools Options and Design tabs.

Create the PivotTable on the Framework Create your PivotTable by selecting the appropriate checkboxes in the Choose fields to add to report list in the task pane. When you select a checkbox, excel automatically adds the field to the appropriate area of the PivotTable. You can click and drag fields between Report Filter, Column Labels, Row Labels and/or Values sections. Change, Format and Configure the PivotTable You'll probably want to give your PivotTable a more descriptive name than the default, so click the Options tab – PivotTable group and click the PivotTable name textbox to type a new name then press Enter. You can change a PivotTable by dragging and dropping the fields to different locations, clear a category (uncheck) to remove the field, or clicking the field's drop down for more options (ex. move down, move up, remove field, etc.) To make a PivotTable look the way you want, start by applying a PivotTable style – either built-in or custom then choose options to vary the look within the style. When you create a PivotTable, Excel automatically applies a style for you; to change to another style, choose from the PivotTable Styles group panel on the Design tab (preset Light, Medium,

Dark categories). To create your own style, click any cell in the PivotTable and choose PivotTable Tools Design – PivotTable Styles – New PivotTable Style for the dialog box. Type the name of the style (name will appear when you hover the mouse over the styles name in the panel) then select the element you want to change in the Table Elements list box. Click the Format button to specify font, border and fill for the element, OK. Shading is the most effective formatting feature so work with the Fill tab first. Repeat for each element that you want to change – and you can clear formatting from any element by clicking the Clear button. If you want Excel to apply this PivotTable style automatically to new PivotTables, select Set as default PivotTable quick style for this document, OK. Once you've chosen a PivotTable style, you can use the PivotTable Style Options: Row Headers, Column Headers, Banded Rows, Banded Columns. The Layout group on the Design tab lets you choose whether or not to display subtotals, grand totals, switch among three types of report layouts (compact, outline, tabular) and insert a blank row after each item to make the PivotTable easier to read. In the Show/Hide group on the Options tabs, you can control which parts of the PivotTable Excel displays: Field List (for task pane), +/- Buttons (expand/collapse), Show Field Headers. To change the function used for summarizing the data area in a PivotTable, click in the field itself or data that belongs to a cell containing the field (Active Field textbox in Active Field group shows the field's name), click the Field Settings button for the dialog box. On the Subtotals & Filters tab, select the Custom option button then choose the function in the Select one or more functions list box, OK.

Once you've got your PivotTable looking mostly as you want it to look, you can adjust further using PivotTable options: Options tab – PivotTable group – Options button (not drop-down) for dialog box: • Layout & Format (see right) • Totals & Filters (below) • Display (below)

• •

• Printing (below) Data (below)

To sort a PivotTable, click the field by which you want to sort, go the the Sort group on the Options tab and click the appropriate button: ascending, descending or click the Sort button for any other sort (manual, ascending by, descending by, smallest to largest, largest to smallest). Click More Options for AutoSort, First key sort order and/or Sort By area, OK. To filter items in a PivotTable, use the same techniques described in lesson 8: click one of the field drop-down buttons to produce a panel of ptions. Filter by Label or by Value; select or clear checkboxes in the list box, clear filter to remove. To help identify the data you need to work with in a PivotTable, you can group items: • Numeric field (click numeric field, Options – Group – Group Field for dialog box; enter starging and ending numbers and type how many items you want to group together, OK) • Date or time field (click date or time field, Options – Group – Group Field for dialog box; check starting and ending and enter dates then select a time period, OK) • Selected items (select the items you want to group, Options – Group – Group Selection To upgroup grouped items, select the items then choose Options – Group – Upgroup. You can change the data source for the PivotTabel (Options – Data – Change Date Source for dialog box) or move the PivotTable to another location: click anywhere in the PivotTable then choose Options – PivotTable Options – Move PivotTable for the dialog box, OK. Create PivotCharts from PivotTables The advantage of a PivotChart over a regular chart is that you can drag fields to different locations in the chart layout to display different levels of detail or different views of the data. Create a PivotTable then click anywhere in the PivotTable and choose Options – Tools –PivotChart for the Insert Chart dialog box. Select the chart of PivotChart that you want, OK; Excel creates a Pivotchart as an object in the worksheet with the PivotTable, adds PivotChart Tools (Design, Layout, Format, Analyze) to the Ribbon, and displays the task pane. You can move the PivotChart to its own worksheet (Design – Location – Move Chart) and arrange the data on the PivotChart

so it makes more sense. Drag the field to the appropriate palces in the TivotTable Filed List pane and/or add or remove field to pivot the chart. Create a Conventional Chart from PivotTable Data Select the data in the PivotTable then Copy; select a cell in a blank area of the same or different worksheet, right-click and choose Paste Special. Select the Values option button, OK, then choose Insert – Charts. More on charts in lesson 11.

Excel 2007 Lesson 10: Solve Problems by Performing What-If Analysis
Objectives: 1. Create Data Tables to Assess the Impact of Variable 2. Explore Alternative Data Sets with Scenarios 3. Solve Problems with Goal Seek 4. Use the Solver to Manipulate Two or More Values Create Data Tables to Assess the Impact of Variables If you need to assess the impact of a single variable or two variables on a calculation, the tool to use is a data table: an automated way of entering an array formula in a range of cells to display the results of using different values in one or multiple formulas. The easiest type of data table to create is a singlevariable data table. Layout a single-variable data table so the input values (the values you want to test) either run down a column or across a row (you can't place input values in a range of cells that spans multiple rows AND columns.) Excel feeds input values to a data table through a cell called the input cell. You enter the input cell in the formula (or formulas) in place of one of the values or references for which you want to test the input values. The input cell must be blank (otherwise, Excel uses the cell's value in the formula, which defeats the point of the exercise), and can be anywhere on the worksheet. In most cases, using a cell adjacent to the range that contains the input values is clearest and least confusing. We're going to use the Financial =DB() Function to calculate the depreciation of an asset (like a car) over a specified year in it life by using the fixed-declining balance method. Enter the following data into Excel A1:B4 then leave a blank row and one blank column before the first input value in a row. Entering the input values down a column creates a column-oriented data-table (across a row is row-oriented) – this will be column-oriented.

Initial Cost Salvage Value Asset Life (Years) Period Input Values 1 2 3 4 5 6

$25,000.00 $3,000.00 6 2

Enter the formula in cell B6 (immediately above the first input value in the next column to the right): =db(B1,B2,B3,A5) – this is DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month]). You'll get #NUM! error because the input cell is blank (zero value). Select the range of cells that contains the formula and input values (A6:B12) and choose Data – Data Tools – What-If Analysis – Data Table for the dialog box. For column-oriented data table, enter the cell reference in the Column Input Cell textbox; in this example, center cell reference $A$5 by clicking cell A5, OK. Excel creates the data table, entering the array formula {=TABLE(,A5)} in each results cell; #NUM! error remains but results in range B7:B12 display correctly (format cells as currency). You can use two or more formulas in a single-variable data table; for column-oriented, enter formulas in cells to the right of the first formula and for row-oriented, enter formulas in cells below the first formula. Let's add a second formula, DDB, to the data table – that's depreciation using doubledeclining balance method so resulting data table lets you compare depreciation in each year of the asset's life using each depreciation method. Enter the formula =DDB(B1,B2,B3,A5) in cell C6 then select the range that contains the input range and the two formulas (A6:C12) and choose Data – Data Tools – What-If Analysis – Data Table for the dialog box. Enter the cell reference for the same input cell as for the previous formula (in this case, $A$5) in the Column Input Cell textbox, OK. Excel adds the second formula to the data table and displays the results with array formula {=TABLE(,A5)}. Sometimes you'll need to assess what happens when two pieces of information change, for example, when calculating the depreciation of an asset both over time and also for different salvage values. To create a two-variable data table, enter the second set of input data in the other dimension from the first set: if the first set of input data is in a column, enter the second set of input data in a row across the top of the results area and vice versa. Place the formula at the intersection of the input data row and input data column. Copy A1:B4 to a new worksheet and type Row Input in cell A6 and Column Input in cells A7. Enter the first series of input data (1,2,3,4,5,6) in the range D4:D9 – this range will be linked to the

column input cell. Enter the second series of input data ($1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4,000, $5,000, $6,000) in the range E3:J3 – this range will be linked to the row input cell. Enter the formula =DB(B1,B6,B3,B7) in cell D3 at the intersection of the input column and input row; B6 is the row input cell, and B7 is the column input cell – and you'll get the same error result, of course. Select D3:J6 then choose Data – Data Tools – What-If Analysis – Data Table for the dialog box; enter B6 in Row input Cell textbox and B7 in Column Input Cell textbox, OK. Excel creates the data table entering the array formula {=Table(B6,B7)} in results cell. Once you've created a data table, you can manipulate its contents only by changing the input values or the formula; you can't directly change the contenst of any results cells because Excel implements the data table as an array formula. To change the data table contents, clear the data table: select the range of cells that contains the values then choose Home – Editing – Clear – Clear Contents or press Delete but don't select any formula cells! To clear a data table entirely, select every cell in the range including cells with formulas then choose Home – Editing – Clear – Clear All. You can copy the results of the data table to a different location using Copy/Paste: Excel copies not the array formulas but the results. You can also move a data table using drag and drop; Excel changes the references in the formulas but otherwise leaves the array formulas intact. Explore Alternative Data Sets with Scenarios Excel's scenarios features lets you define and use alternative data sets within the same workbook. Instead of creating a separate version of a workbook and using it to experiment with different values or different formulas, you can use scenarios to experiment more comfortably without damaging your main workbook. Create the worksheet you want to manipulate and define names for the cells whose values will be manipulated in the scenarios. You can open you’re My First Car file from laptop camp and get a general idea of the features. Choose Data – Data Tools – What-If Analysis – Scenario Manager for the dialog box. Click Add for that dialog box, give the scenario a name and select the change cell range – comment is optional but your username and current date is default. Select or clear prevent changes and/or hide, OK for the Scenario Values dialog box. You can create additional scenarios using the Scenario Manager dialog box as well as Edit existing, Delete; to switch scenarios, select the one you want in the list box and click Show to display the scenario in the workbook the close. Note that Merge is for sharing workbooks with colleagues. The Summary button allows you to crate either a summary or PivotTable report from scenarios. Solve Problems with Goal Seek

If you ever find yourself trying to work backwards from the result you want to achieve, Goal Seek is a very helpful feature. Using My First Car, select the cell that contains the formula you're interested in then choose Data – Data Tools – What-If Analysis – Goal Seek for the dialog box. Let's say that you have $500 budgeted for a car payment and want to see how much you can afford to pay for a car. Click the monthly payment cell (set cell), type 500 in To value textbox and in the By changing cell textbox, click the price of the car cell, OK. Goal Seek automatically enters the target value it achieved. Click Ok to accept or cancel to reject. Use the Solver to Manipulate Two or More Values If you need to work backward by manipulating two or more values, you'll need to use Solver instead of Goal Seek. Solver is an Excel add-in rather than a built-in component; click the Office button – Excel Options – Add-Ins category. In the Manage drop-down list, select Excel Add-Ins and click Go for the Add-Ins dialog box. Select Solver Add-in, OK. Note: You must be online for it to install properly. To use Solver, select the cell that contains the formula you've interested in then choose Data – Analysis – Solver for the dialog box (see below). The cell that you select appears in the Set Target Cell box; in the Equal to area, select Max, Min or Value of and type the value you want. In By Changing Cells textbox, enter the references for the cells whose value you want Solver to manipulate. You can also apply constraints using the controls beside the Subject to the Constraints box to add, change or delete constraints. Click the Solver button to start computing the solution; the Solver Results dialog box displays. Select Keep Solver Solution or

Restore Original Values option button, and you can generate one or more reports by select the ones you want in the Reports list (Solver inserts each report on a new worksheet), OK.

Excel 2007 Lesson 11: Create Effective Charts to Present Data Visually
Objectives: 1. Understand the Basics of Excel Charts 2. Create a Chart 3. Layout and Format a Chart 4. Copy Formatting from One Chart to Another 5. Print Charts 6. Create Custom Chart Types for Easy Reuse Understand the Basics of Excel Charts Excel can create two types of charts: 1. Embedded (positioned on a worksheet along with the data) 2. Chart on chart sheet (a separate sheet giving more space to create a detailed chart) You can switch one to the other. All charts typically have the following components: • X-axis (usually horizontal) • Y-axis (series, vertical) • Z-axis (value axis, depth axis of chart for 3-D only) • Axis titles • Chart title • Data series (set or sets of data from which the chart is created) • Data marker (a point in a data series) • Data labels (text that identifies points in the data series) • Legend (color, pattern used to distinguish each data series) • Gridlines (reference lines drawn across the chart from axes to help see values) • Categories (distinct items in data series) • Chart area (area occupied by the entire chart including legend, labels, title, etc.) • Plot area (area occupied by data plotted in the chart) Create a Chart 1. Select the range of data from which you want to create the chart (hold down the Ctrl key to select non-contiguous range) 2. Choose the chart type: Insert – Charts, click drop-downs for Column, Line, Pie, Bar, Area, Scatter, Others – or click the Charts dialog box launcher and hover mouse to see ScreenTip of chart subtype; click the one you want, OK ) 3. Use the Chart Tools controls on the Ribbon (Design, Layout, Format) to format and arrange the chart or you can right-click an individual element for commands.

To give the chart a name (to distinguish it from others), select the chart and choose Layout – Properties – Chart Name; type the name for the chart then press Enter. To change a chart from embedded to being on its own sheet (or vice versa), select the chart then choose Design – Location – Move Chart for the dialog box. Choose the appropriate option button (new sheet or object in), OK. You can move the chart by moving the mouse pointer over an area of the border that's not one of the dotted handles then dragging the chart where you want it. And you can resize the chart by moving the mouse pointer over one of the dotted handles in the chart's border (pointer changes to double-headed arrow) then drag the border to resize in only one dimension. For example, drag the bottom handle down to make the chart deeper without affecting its width; drag a corner handle to resize the chart in both dimensions at once and Shift-drag a corner handle to resize the chart proportionally in both dimensions. You can select objects in a chart by clicking with the mouse easiest for larger objects) or click the Layout tab or Format tab and go to the Current Selection group to open the Chart Elements drop-down list (good for smaller objects). If you're working on a worksheet that contains textboxes, shapes or pictures as well as a chart, you might need to use the Selection And Visibility pane to turn off objects that are in the way. Select the chart then choose Format – Arrange – Selection Pane then choose what you want to do: Select an item, Hide an item, Display an item again, Hide all items, Show all items, Reorder the items in the front-to-back stack.

Layout and Format a Chart You can easily change the chart if you've chosen the wrong type for your data: select the chart and choose Chart Tools Design – Type – Change Chart Type for the dialog box (same as Insert Chart); choose the chart type and subtype, OK. Even when you've chosen the chart type, you may need to change the layout: select the chart and choose Chart Tools Design – Chart Layouts – More (click the down arrow on the right) then click the layout you want. Similarly, you can change the chart's style: select the chart and choose Chart Tools Design – Chart Styles – More to display the panel then click the style you want. If you want to change the Chart's Source data, select the chart and choose Chart Tools Design – Data – Select Data for the dialog box (see right); move it out of the way of your data, drag in the worksheet to select the data range you want to use, OK. You can also switch the rows and columns (choose Design – Data – Switch Row/Column) or include hidden and empty cells: click the

Hidden and Empty Cells button in the Select Data Source dialog box to display that dialog box (see left). Select the appropriate option button for Show empty cells (gaps, zero, connect data points with line) and check Show data in hidden rows and columns if you wish, OK. To change the data series in the chart but not the data source, choose Design – Data – Select Data for the dialog box; in the Legend Entries (Series) list box, select the column you want to affect then click the appropriate button: Add, Edit, Remove, Move Up and Move Down, OK. Tip: If Excel isn't displaying ScreenTips for Chart Elements, check Excel Options – Advanced category, Display section and select Show Chart Elements Names On Hover and Show Data Points Values On Hover checkboxes, OK. Add Labels to a chart to make it easier to read and more visually effective: click the Layout tab to add a Chart title (centered overlay, above chart, etc), Axis titles, Legend (shows color or pattern representing data series), Data labels, even Data table (show data from which the chart is drawn). When you choose More Options from the bottom of the panel, you can work with the resulting Format dialog box to apply border, shadow or 3-D format to many elements (see right for an example). To change the scale of an axis from its default settings, select the chart and choose Chart Tools Layout – Axes – Axes then choose the axis from the panel: Primary Horizontal or Primary Vertical (see left) for options or click More for the Format Axis dialog box. Choose the options you want (these will differ depending on chart type and which axis) then Close. See below left for Horizontal axis example; see below right for Vertical axis example. Note: A text axis is an axis that has the data points evenly spaced out, whereas a data axis is an axis that has the dates arranged in chronological order according to standard intervals (years, months, days). To liven up charts, use fills consisting of colors, gradients, textures or pictures. Select the chart, choose the object which you want to apply the fill (you can also right click to access the Format dialog

box – see example below and not options.) You can also use the features in the Background group of the Layout tab. Use the Analysis group of the Layout tab to apply trendlines (linear, logarithmic, exponential, power, polynomial, moving average), drop lines or high-low lines, up/down bars and error bars (to show margin of error: minus or plus and/or specific error amount).

You can even format different data series using different chart types, for example, a column chart for one data series and a line for the other. You'll want to experiment to see which nets you the most striking and comprehensible results. Create the chart as usual and format it using the chart type that you want to apply to most of the chart. Right-click the data series you want to affect then choose Change Series Chart Type from the context menu for the dialog box. Select the chart type and subtype as usual, OK. You can also use different formatting to a data series, for instance, real figures and projected (future) figures. Copy Formatting from One Chart to Another Once you've applied custom formatting to a chart, you can quickly copy it to another chart: select the chart area of the source chart, Copy, select the destination chart, Paste Special for the dialog box. Select the Formats option button, OK. Print Charts Before printing, always use Print Preview to see how it will look. Note that you can print a chart in draft quality or black and white: Page Layout – Page Setup – Size – More Paper Sizes, Chart tab (see right). Create Custom Chart Types for Easy Reuse Create the chart and apply formatting as needed, select the chart (either the chart sheet tab or the embedded chart), then choose Design – Type – Save As Template for the dialog box. You can save in the Excel Templates\Charts folder (default) or in another folder if you want to keep it separate from Excel. Type the name of the chart template in the file name textbox then click Save.

Excel 2007 Lesson 12: Use Excel with the Other Office Applications
Objectives: 1. Transfer Data using the Clipboard and Office Clipboard 2. Embed and Link Objects 3. Insert Excel Objects in Word Documents 4. Insert Excel Objects in PowerPoint Presentations 5. Insert Word Objects in Worksheets 6. Insert PowerPoint Objects in Worksheets Transfer Data Using the Clipboard and Office Clipboard Office Excel 2007 is thoroughly integrated with the other applications in Office: Word, PowerPoint, Outlook and Access. The Clipboard is an easy way to copy and move data either within an application or between applications. Here are some tips: • The Windows Clipboard can hold several different types of data including text and graphics but can only hole one item of each type at once. Copying an item will overwrite the contents of the Clipboard for that data type. • The Office Clipboard can hold up to 24 items of the same or different types; to display the task pane, choose Home – Clipboard and click the dialog box launcher. • If you choose Home – Clipboard – Paste – Paste Special, the resulting dialog box will allow you to control the format in which the object is pasted. • You can also just use the Paste command and the Smart Tag to change the format. Embed and Link Objects Excel and other Office applications support three different ways of including an object created in one application in a file created in another application: embedding, linking and inserting. An object (ex. Excel chart, Word table, PowerPoint slide) is a component of a file that can be handled separately. Inserting (ex. a graphic) is relatively straightforward: when you insert an object, the file contains neither the information for editing the object in place nor the link to the source file – the object simply appears in the file in the place you specify. Embedding is the basic means of inserting an object created in another application into a file (ex. WordArt, chart in PowerPoint slide). When you embed an object in a file, the file contains a full copy of that object, so embedding can greatly increase the file size. The copy is independent of the original, and you can edit it separately, but you can't update the copy directly from the original – you would have to replace it to update. This is why linking, although a more complex method of inserting an object, might be the better option. When you link an object to a file, the file displays the current information for that object but stores only the link that describes the object including where it's located. Storing this information is more

compact that storing the actual data, so the file size hardly changes. When you need to edit a linked object, you do so at the source. Thus, the advantage of embedding is that the object remains available even if you move the file or if the source file is not longer available. The disadvantages are the increased file size and not easy way to update the object. The advantages of linking is the small impact of the file size and ease of update; the disadvantage is if the source file isn't available, the object doesn't appear. So when deciding whether to embed or link, think about whether you will need to edit (yes, then embed), keep the file size down (yes, then link), will different people need to work on the file (yes, then link). You can't tell immediately by looking at an object in a document if it's linked or embedded, but if you select the object and check the readout in the reference area, embedded objects' readouts start with =EMBED and linked objects' readouts contain reference to a file by name (ex. =Word.Document.12…..) In Word, PowerPoint and Outlook, you can right-click the object and see if Update Link command is on the shortcut menu. The easiest way to embed or link an existing object is to use the Paste Special dialog box. In the object's source application, select the object and Copy. Activate the destination application and select the location where you want to embed or link the object. Choose Home – Clipboard – Paste – Paste Special (click the Paste button down arrow) for the dialog box. Choose the format you want to embed or link the object (choices depend on the type of object you copied and the destination application). Select the paste option mutton to embed the object or the Paste link option button to link the object. If Display as icon checkbox is available, you can select it to make the application display not as the object itself by an icon representing it, OK. You can also embed a new object that you create: in the destination application, position the insertion point or selection where you want the new object to appear then choose Insert – Text – Object for the dialog box. On the Create New tab (left), select the type of object you want to create and embed, OK. Note that by using the Create From File tab of this dialog box (below left), you can embed or link an object that consists of the entire contents of an already existing file: browse and navigate to the file and select then click Insert. Select the Link To file checkbox if you want to link rather than embed, and you can display as icon, too, OK. Note that if you select this option, the Change icon button appears for you to click for more options including caption.

How you edit an embedded object depends on the object type and the application whose document you've embedded it in. Usually, you can right-click the object and select Object – Edit to activate that section of the Ribbon. Remember that editing embedded objects will not change the source object since there is not link between the embedded and source objects. Another caution: in order to edit an embedded object, the application that created the object must be installed on your computer. You edit a linked object in its source rather than in the destination application. Right click the object and issue an Edit command. When you close the object in the source application, the linked object in the destination application is updated.

To work with links in an Excel workbook, choose Data – Connections – Edit Links for the dialog box (right). Here you can Update Values to force an update of the link, Change the source, Open the Source, Break the link, Check the status of the link, or switch between automatic or manual update. You can control whether Excel prompts the user to update links at startup in Excel Options – Advanced category, General area (Ask to update automatic links checkbox). Also, in the Edit Links dialog box, you can click the Startup Prompt button for more choices (below right). If you get a Security Warning (ex. Automatic update of links has been disabled), click the Options button next to the warning and select Enable this content, OK. Insert Excel Objects in Word Documents When you paste an Excel chart into a Word document, the default is to paste it as a chart linked to Excel data. This is usually the best way of handling the chart since you can resize, edit and update easily. Sometimes, you might want to handle it differently; click the Paste Options button for more options (see left). You can also use Paste Special for the options in that dialog box (right). WMF is the standard graphical format for Windows and is the best option; EMF offers more but some

applications don’t support it. Bitmap is also standard and stores details of information contained in each pixel (uncompressed so it takes more file space). PNG (portable network graphics) is a newer format developed for Internet use; it compressed without discarding any of the detail – a good option when available. JPEG (joint photographic experts group) is widely used on the web but compression discards some detail. GIF (graphics interchange format) is also widely used on the web and compression doesn't lose details but file sizes are larger than PNG. You can paste a range of cells from an Excel worksheet into a Word document; by default, Word pastes as a Word table retaining as much formatting as possible. See left for the Paste Options. Again, Paste Special offers more choices (right). You can use an Excel Table as the data source for a Word Mail Merge – we will do this with Excel or Access as data sources using the Word Mail Merge tab/wizard during a tutorial in February.

Insert Excel Objects in PowerPoint Presentations When you paste a chart into a slide, PowerPoint pastes the chart linked to the Excel data. As with pasting into Word, this is a good option because you get a chart that you can edit in PowerPoint, resize and update from the original data in Excel. To change the format, click the Paste Options button (left). Use Paste Special if you want a different graphics format (above right). You can also insert a range of cells in a PowerPoint slide; PowerPoint creates a PowerPoint table using HTML formatting to retain the formatting applied to the range – sometimes this works and sometimes it's a disaster! You can edit the table as a PowerPoint object but not as an Excel object. If it's a mess, Undo and use Paste Special options (right and note that formatted RTF and unformatted text options are also available when you scroll down). Insert Word Objects in Worksheets You might want to insert part or all of a Word document in an Excel worksheet, however, it's NOT best to simply copy/paste since Excel pastes data from Word in HTML format by default rather than creating an embedded object. You can use the Paste Options, but it's better to use Paste Special choices (left). Note that you can use Paste Link, but Paste Special gives you the range of options. Insert PowerPoint Objects in Worksheets The Paste Special dialog box lets you paste or paste-link a slide as a PowerPoint slide object or as a picture in any of the five formats (PNG, JPEG, GIF, EMF, or Bitmap). With the Paste option button selected, the Microsoft PowerPoint Slide Object option inserts the whole slide so you can edit in place. Using the Create from file tab of the Object dialog box, you can insert an entire presentation in to an Excel worksheet so you can run the presentation directly from the worksheet. This might be useful to have the presentation's data saved in the workbook, but, as you can imagine, the file size increases greatly. Double-click the embedded presentation to run.

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