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OpenFlow: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

OpenFlow: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
The Knowledge Solution. Stop Searching, Stand Out and Pay Off. The #1 ALL ENCOMPASSING Guide to OpenFlow.

An Important Message for ANYONE who wants to learn about OpenFlow Quickly and Easily...

"Here's Your Chance To Skip The Struggle and Master OpenFlow, With the Least Amount of Effort, In 2 Days Or Less..."

OpenFlow is a communications protocol that gives access to the forwarding plane of a switch or router over the network. In simpler terms, OpenFlow allows the path-of-network-packets-through-the-network-of-switches to be determined by software running on a separate server. This separation of the control from the forwarding allows for more sophisticated traffic management than feasible today using ACLs and routing protocols. OpenFlow is considered an enabler of Software Defined Networking.

Get the edge, learn EVERYTHING you need to know about OpenFlow, and ace any discussion, proposal and implementation with the ultimate book – guaranteed to give you the education that you need, faster than you ever dreamed possible!

The information in this book can show you how to be an expert in the field of OpenFlow.

Are you looking to learn more about OpenFlow? You're about to discover the most spectacular gold mine of OpenFlow materials ever created, this book is a unique collection to help you become a master of OpenFlow.

This book is your ultimate resource for OpenFlow. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about OpenFlow right away. A quick look inside: Openflow Switching Protocol, Web Services for Devices, Communications protocol, Internetwork protocol, List of network protocols, 10PASS-TS, 2BASE-TL, 4in6, 6in4, 9P, Access Stratum, Advanced Message Queuing Protocol, Alcatel Business Communications, Alternating bit protocol, AMX192, Anything In Anything, Apple Filing Protocol, Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy), AppleTalk, Appliance Link Protocol, ARCNET, Art-Net, ATA over Ethernet, ATM adaptation layer, ATM Adaptation Layer 2, ATM Adaptation Layer 5, Automatically switched optical network, Autonegotiation, Available Bit Rate, BACnet, Bandwidth allocation protocol, BBN Report 1822, Bearer Independent Call Control, BEEP, Binary protocol, BIP-8, Bonjour (software), Cache Discovery Protocol, CAIF, CAN Kingdom, CANopen, CcTalk, Cell relay, CIMD, Cisco WAAS, Coloured Book protocols, Common Industrial Protocol, Connection-oriented protocol, Connectionless communication, Connectionless protocol, Constrained Shortest Path First, Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol, Content Vectoring Protocol, ControlNet, Converged Network Adapter, Convergence (telecommunications), CRC-based framing, D54 (protocol), Data Stream Interface, DCE PC, DECnet, Decode-Encode Language, Delay-tolerant networking, Dense multicast, Devices Profile for Web Services, DH 485, DICOM, Digital Audio Access Protocol, Digital Data Communications Message Protocol, Digital Private Network Signalling System, Direct Client-to-Client, DirectAccess, Distributed data flow, Distributed Multi-Link Trunking, Distributed Universal Number Discovery, DMX512, DNET, DNP3, DOCSIS, DREAM (protocol), Dynamic synchronous transfer mode, EMI (protocol), Encapsulation (networking), ERIPAX, Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching, Ethernet over SDH, Ethernet Private Line, Ethernet Virtual Private Line, Fiber Distributed Data Interface, Fibre Channel over Ethernet, Financial Information eXchange, FINS, FLEX (protocol), FlexRay, FMIPv6...and Much, Much More!

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of OpenFlow. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of OpenFlow with the objectivity of experienced professionals - Grab your copy now, while you still can.
The Knowledge Solution. Stop Searching, Stand Out and Pay Off. The #1 ALL ENCOMPASSING Guide to OpenFlow.

An Important Message for ANYONE who wants to learn about OpenFlow Quickly and Easily...

"Here's Your Chance To Skip The Struggle and Master OpenFlow, With the Least Amount of Effort, In 2 Days Or Less..."

OpenFlow is a communications protocol that gives access to the forwarding plane of a switch or router over the network. In simpler terms, OpenFlow allows the path-of-network-packets-through-the-network-of-switches to be determined by software running on a separate server. This separation of the control from the forwarding allows for more sophisticated traffic management than feasible today using ACLs and routing protocols. OpenFlow is considered an enabler of Software Defined Networking.

Get the edge, learn EVERYTHING you need to know about OpenFlow, and ace any discussion, proposal and implementation with the ultimate book – guaranteed to give you the education that you need, faster than you ever dreamed possible!

The information in this book can show you how to be an expert in the field of OpenFlow.

Are you looking to learn more about OpenFlow? You're about to discover the most spectacular gold mine of OpenFlow materials ever created, this book is a unique collection to help you become a master of OpenFlow.

This book is your ultimate resource for OpenFlow. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about OpenFlow right away. A quick look inside: Openflow Switching Protocol, Web Services for Devices, Communications protocol, Internetwork protocol, List of network protocols, 10PASS-TS, 2BASE-TL, 4in6, 6in4, 9P, Access Stratum, Advanced Message Queuing Protocol, Alcatel Business Communications, Alternating bit protocol, AMX192, Anything In Anything, Apple Filing Protocol, Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy), AppleTalk, Appliance Link Protocol, ARCNET, Art-Net, ATA over Ethernet, ATM adaptation layer, ATM Adaptation Layer 2, ATM Adaptation Layer 5, Automatically switched optical network, Autonegotiation, Available Bit Rate, BACnet, Bandwidth allocation protocol, BBN Report 1822, Bearer Independent Call Control, BEEP, Binary protocol, BIP-8, Bonjour (software), Cache Discovery Protocol, CAIF, CAN Kingdom, CANopen, CcTalk, Cell relay, CIMD, Cisco WAAS, Coloured Book protocols, Common Industrial Protocol, Connection-oriented protocol, Connectionless communication, Connectionless protocol, Constrained Shortest Path First, Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol, Content Vectoring Protocol, ControlNet, Converged Network Adapter, Convergence (telecommunications), CRC-based framing, D54 (protocol), Data Stream Interface, DCE PC, DECnet, Decode-Encode Language, Delay-tolerant networking, Dense multicast, Devices Profile for Web Services, DH 485, DICOM, Digital Audio Access Protocol, Digital Data Communications Message Protocol, Digital Private Network Signalling System, Direct Client-to-Client, DirectAccess, Distributed data flow, Distributed Multi-Link Trunking, Distributed Universal Number Discovery, DMX512, DNET, DNP3, DOCSIS, DREAM (protocol), Dynamic synchronous transfer mode, EMI (protocol), Encapsulation (networking), ERIPAX, Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching, Ethernet over SDH, Ethernet Private Line, Ethernet Virtual Private Line, Fiber Distributed Data Interface, Fibre Channel over Ethernet, Financial Information eXchange, FINS, FLEX (protocol), FlexRay, FMIPv6...and Much, Much More!

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of OpenFlow. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of OpenFlow with the objectivity of experienced professionals - Grab your copy now, while you still can.

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10/31/2014

OpenFlow

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Openflow Switching Protocol Web Services for Devices Communications protocol Internetwork protocol List of network protocols 10PASS-TS 2BASE-TL 4in6 6in4 9P Access Stratum Advanced Message Queuing Protocol Alcatel Business Communications Alternating bit protocol AMX192 Anything In Anything Apple Filing Protocol Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy) AppleTalk Appliance Link Protocol ARCNET Art-Net ATA over Ethernet ATM adaptation layer ATM Adaptation Layer 2 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Automatically switched optical network Autonegotiation Available Bit Rate BACnet Bandwidth allocation protocol BBN Report 1822 Bearer Independent Call Control BEEP 1 2 2 18 20 24 25 26 26 27 29 30 36 37 37 38 40 43 45 51 52 55 56 59 60 64 66 68 73 74 77 77 78 79

Binary protocol BIP-8 Bonjour (software) Cache Discovery Protocol CAIF CAN Kingdom CANopen ccTalk Cell relay CIMD Cisco WAAS Coloured Book protocols Common Industrial Protocol Connection-oriented protocol Connectionless communication Connectionless protocol Constrained Shortest Path First Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol Content Vectoring Protocol ControlNet Converged Network Adapter Convergence (telecommunications) CRC-based framing D54 (protocol) Data Stream Interface DCE/RPC DECnet Decode-Encode Language Delay-tolerant networking Dense multicast Devices Profile for Web Services DH 485 DICOM Digital Audio Access Protocol Digital Data Communications Message Protocol Digital Private Network Signalling System Direct Client-to-Client DirectAccess

80 80 81 85 85 86 87 93 94 95 96 97 99 99 100 101 102 103 103 104 105 107 109 110 112 115 117 120 120 124 124 126 126 134 137 137 139 144

Distributed data flow Distributed Multi-Link Trunking Distributed Universal Number Discovery DMX512 DNET DNP3 DOCSIS DREAM (protocol) Dynamic synchronous transfer mode EMI (protocol) Encapsulation (networking) ERIPAX Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching Ethernet over SDH Ethernet Private Line Ethernet Virtual Private Line Fiber Distributed Data Interface Fibre Channel over Ethernet Financial Information eXchange FINS FLEX (protocol) FlexRay FMIPv6 Forward-confirmed reverse DNS Frame Relay Free protocol FRF.12 FUDI G.9963 G.9970 G.9972 G.hn Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching GPRS Tunnelling Protocol H4 (protocol) Handshaking Header Error Control Heartbeat message

146 148 149 150 157 160 162 167 167 169 170 171 171 172 173 174 174 176 178 182 182 183 186 187 189 194 194 195 196 197 198 199 209 210 216 216 217 217

Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol Higig Hop-by-hop transport HTTP body data HTTP Live Streaming HyperSCSI IBM Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking IBM Advanced Program-to-Program Communication IBM LU6.2 IBM Network Control Program IBM Systems Network Architecture IF-MAP IL (network protocol) Inter-server Internet Data Exchange Internet Fibre Channel Protocol Internet Gateway Device Protocol Internet Listing Display Internet Printing Protocol Internet Protocol Device Control Internet Storage Name Service InterPlaNet InterStream Transit Protocol Irsc ISO 11783 JXTA Kinetics Internet Protocol Label Distribution Protocol Lantastic Lightweight protocol Line Printer Daemon protocol Link Layer Discovery Protocol Link Layer Topology Discovery Link-local Multicast Name Resolution List of network protocol stacks List of P2P protocols List of software using Digital Audio Access Protocol Live distributed object 218 220 221 222 223 226 227 228 229 230 230 235 237 238 238 239 240 241 242 244 244 246 246 247 247 248 251 251 252 253 253 254 257 258 259 260 261 262 .

Local Area Transport Local Peer Discovery LocalTalk LocalTalk-to-Ethernet bridge Lockstep protocol LonTalk Loose Source Routing Lower layer protocol MambaNet Master/slave (technology) Media Object Server Media Stream Broadcast Medium dependent interface Messaging pattern Microcom Networking Protocol Microsoft Host Integration Server Microsoft RPC Miredo mLAN Mobile IP MPLS-TP Multimedia Exchange Network over Satellite (MENOS) Multiwavelength optical networking NAK (protocol message) NAT Port Mapping Protocol NAT traversal National Information Standards Organization Circulation Interchange Protocol Netatalk NetBIOS NetBIOS Frames protocol NetBIOS over TCP/IP NetWare Core Protocol NetWare Link Services Protocol Network Control Program Network Device Control Protocol Next generation network Next Hop Resolution Protocol NMEA 0183 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 272 275 276 277 277 279 281 285 286 288 289 290 293 296 296 297 297 299 301 302 303 307 310 312 313 313 314 315 318 318 .

Non Access Stratum Non-broadcast multiple-access network NWLink Object storage device OFTP OpenLLDP OpenWire (binary protocol) Optical burst switching Optical mesh network Overlay multicast Packet over SONET/SDH Packet-switched network Packetized Ensemble Protocol Parallel Redundancy Protocol PAROLI Peer Distributed Transfer Protocol Peer Name Resolution Protocol Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) Photuris (protocol) Picture Transfer Protocol PIM Dense Mode PIM Sparse Mode PL-3 PL-4 PME Aggregation Function Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Private IP Proprietary protocol Protected Streaming Protocol implementation conformance statement Protocol pipelining Protocol stack Protocol versioning Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol Proxy Mobile IP PTMP Precision Time Protocol Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering 322 323 324 325 327 328 329 329 331 336 337 338 345 345 346 348 349 350 352 352 354 355 357 358 359 361 363 363 364 366 366 367 368 368 369 371 371 378 .

QuickFIX R-SMLT RANAP Real Estate Transaction Standard Real Time Messaging Protocol Really Simple Discovery RelayNet Reliability (computer networking) Remote Audio Output Protocol Request-response Retransmission (data networks) Ring latency RNSAP Router alert label Routing in delay-tolerant networking Routing Table Maintenance Protocol RP-570 RSM-A RTPS protocol Secure multicast Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol Security service (telecommunication) Segmentation and Reassembly Server Message Block Service Advertising Protocol Session (computer science) Session ID Short message peer-to-peer protocol Signaling protocol Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol Simple Network Paging Protocol Simple Sensor Interface protocol Simple Service Discovery Protocol Simple Update Protocol Singulation Skypix SNDCP Sockets Direct Protocol 380 380 382 382 383 391 393 394 395 396 397 398 398 398 399 404 404 405 406 406 407 409 414 414 422 422 424 425 427 428 428 429 432 433 433 435 436 437 .

Sorcerer's Apprentice Syndrome Source-specific multicast Spanning Tree Protocol SPI-3 SPI-4.2 Split multi-link trunking Protocol spoofing STAMP Standard Interchange Protocol Stateless protocol Stimulus protocol Store and forward Structured Stream Transport SWIFTNet InterAct Realtime SWIFTNet InterAct Store and Forward Switch56 Synchronous Ethernet Synchronous optical networking System Packet Interface T-MPLS TDMoIP Telecommunications Management Network Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol Terminal Identifier – Address Resolution Protocol Third Party Control Protocol TransferJet Transparent Network Substrate Transport Driver Interface Transport Sample Protocol Traversal Using Relay NAT Triangular routing Trillium digital systems Tunnel Setup Protocol TV Network Protocol TZSP UniPro UniPro protocol stack 438 439 440 449 450 451 454 456 456 457 458 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 474 476 478 481 483 483 484 484 485 487 487 488 488 490 490 499 500 501 504 510 .

5 Waffle (BBS software) WAN optimization Windows Rally Wireless Internet Protocol X. Licenses and Contributors 565 577 Article Licenses License 579 .PC XCAST Xebra (medical imaging software) Xerox Network Systems XOT Zero configuration networking Zeta Instrument Processor Interface 520 520 521 529 529 530 534 535 536 538 538 539 540 543 544 545 546 546 549 551 552 552 554 555 557 557 562 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.Unitary controller Universal Communication Format Universal Plug and Play Upper layer protocol User Location Service UUCP Variant object Verse protocol Virtual circuit Virtual Interface Adapter Virtual Leased Line Virtual Link Aggregation Control Protocol Virtual Private LAN Service Virtual Rendezvous VoFR VT1.

al (2010-10-04). This separation of the control from the forwarding allows for more sophisticated traffic management than feasible today using ACLs and routing protocols. OpenFlow is considered an enabler of Software Defined Networking[2] . [7] http:/ / incntre. com/ biotech/ 22120/ ). In simpler terms. References [1] Nick McKeown et al.Openflow Switching Protocol 1 Openflow Switching Protocol OpenFlow is a communications protocol that gives access to the forwarding plane of a switch or router over the network[1] . openflowswitch. . Hewlett-Packard. [4] Teemu Koponen et. 2011.0 which was released on February 28. org/ events/ osdi10/ tech/ tech. "Onix: A Distributed Control Platform for Large-scale Production Networks" (http:/ / www. 2011-03-2011. Juniper Networks. org/ [6] "Open Networking Foundation Press Release" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (2008-04). OpenFlow allows the path-of-network-packets-through-the-network-of-switches to be determined by software running on a separate server. . cfm?id=1355734. acm. html). Network World. IBM. Similarly. Retrieved 2009-11-02. The standard [5] specification is currently maintained by the OpenFlow Switch Consortium at Stanford University. org/ ?p=7). OpenFlow has been implemented by a number of network switch and router vendors including Arista Networks. MIT Technology Review. however it has been announced that the Open Networking Foundation is taking over development of the standard in the future [6] Indiana University in May of 2011 launched the SDN Interoperability Lab [7] in conjunction with the Open Networking Foundation to test how well different vendors' Software-Defined Networking and OpenFlow products work together. Retrieved 2009-11-02. 1355746). [3] Tim Greene (2008-10-29). org/ citation. edu/ initiatives/ sdnlab/ index. "OpenFlow: Enabling innovation in campus networks" (http:/ / portal. . "TR10: Software-Defined Networking" (http:/ / www. technologyreview. "Researchers show off advanced network control technology" (http:/ / www. [2] Kate Greene (2009-04). [5] http:/ / www. opennetworkingfoundation. com/ news/ 2008/ 102908-openflow. . USENIX OSDI 2010. and NEC[3] . html). usenix. networkworld. iu. . The current version of the OpenFlow protocol is 1. ACM Communications Review. Retrieved 2010-10-01. recent network control plane implementations use the protocol to manage the network forwarding elements[4] . php .1.

communications protocols are structured using a layering scheme as a basis. . In computer science the word algorithm is a synonym for the word procedure so a protocol is to communications what an algorithm is to mathematics. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware or software or both. Obviously the number of layers of a layering scheme and the way the layers are defined can have a drastic impact on the protocols involved. Protocols may include signaling. The actual protocols are collectively called the Internet protocol suite. microsoft. The group responsible for this design is called the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging messages. because the designers of TCP/IP employed the same techniques used to conquer the complexity of Figure 2. com/ en-us/ library/ bb821811. the specified behaviour is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. aspx) at msdn. and synchronization of communication.[1] References [1] Web Services on Devices Reference (http:/ / msdn. Introduction While there is no generally accepted formal definition of "protocol" in computer science. Instead of using a single universal protocol to handle all transmission tasks. semantics. based on the previous. A protocol definition defines the syntax. so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications what programming languages are to computations. semantics. A protocol may have a formal description. authentication and error detection and correction capabilities.[1] The communications protocols in use on the Internet are designed to function in very complex and diverse settings. Each message has an exact meaning intended to provoke a defined response of the receiver. Communications protocol A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. is a Microsoft standard for connectivity to web service enabled devices.[2] The layering scheme in use on the Internet is called the TCP/IP model. A programming language describes the same for computations. an informal definition. a set of cooperating protocols fitting the layering scheme is used. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.com.microsoft. and synchronization of communication. A protocol therefore describes the syntax. To ease design.Web Services for Devices 2 Web Services for Devices Web Services for Devices or Web Services on Devices (WSD). could be "a set of procedures to be followed when communicating". This is where the analogies come into play for the TCP/IP model.

a protocol has to be selected from each layer. so the header area contains the fields with more relevance to the protocol.[7] This gave rise to the concept of layered protocols which nowadays forms the basis of protocol design. the rules can be expressed by algorithms and data structures. Expressing the algorithms in a portable programming language. layering was applied to the protocols as well.Communications protocol programming language compilers (design by analogy) in the implementation of its protocols and its layering scheme. In general. internet. The selection of the next protocol is accomplished by extending the message with a protocolselector for each layer. Addresses are used to identify both the sender and the intended receiver(s). The nature of the communication. Digital message bitstrings are exchanged. Conceptually the bitstring is divided into two parts called the header area and the data area. because there is no common memory. allowing the receivers to determine whether the bitstrings are intended for themselves and should be processed or should be ignored. The addresses are stored in the header area of the bitstrings. transport-.[4] [5] In contrast. In digital computing systems.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX. To implement a networking protocol. The functionalities are mapped onto the layers. AppleTalk and TCP/IP. much of the following should be addressed:[12] • Data formats for data exchange. The protocols can be arranged based on functionality in groups. Transmission is not necessarily reliable and can involve different hardware and operating systems on different systems.[6] The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. These protocols can be embedded in the process code itself as small additional code fragments. The bitstrings are divided in fields and each field carries information relevant to the protocol. This communication is governed by well-understood protocols. the actual data exchanged and any state-dependent behaviors are defined by the specification. Bitstrings longer than the maximum transmission unit (MTU) are divided in pieces of appropriate size. sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.25. This framework implements the networking functionality of the operating system. Protocols should therefore specify rules governing the transmission. for instance there is a group of transport protocols. the protocol software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system. X. communicating systems have to communicate with each other using shared transmission media.[11] Basic requirements of protocols Messages are sent and received on communicating systems to establish communications. for instance: application-.[13] • Address formats for data exchange. 3 Communicating systems The information exchanged between devices on a network or other communications medium is governed by rules or conventions that can be set out in a technical specification called a communication protocol standard. To reach agreement a protocol is developed into a technical standard. layering had proven to be a successful design approach for both compiler and operating system design and. AX. so some sort of multiplexing/demultiplexing takes place.[3] Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.and network interface-functions. given the similarities between programming languages and communication protocols. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols. At the time the Internet was developed.[8] Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. A connection between a . makes the protocol software operating system independent. Operating systems are usually conceived of as consisting of a set of cooperating processes that manipulate a shared store (on the system itself) to communicate with each other.[10] To transmit a message. The actual message is stored in the data area. each layer solving a distinct class of problems relating to.25.

Arrangements have to be made to accommodate the case when two parties want to gain control at the same time. Exceeding the retry limit is considered an error.[22] Formal ways for describing the syntax of the communications are Abstract Syntax Notation One (a ISO standard) or Augmented Backus-Naur form (a IETF standard). An all-1s address could be taken to mean an addressing of all stations on the network. under some protocols. We have seen that long bitstrings are divided in pieces.[14] Address mapping. The rules describing the meanings of the address value are collectively called an addressing scheme. and then sent on the network individually. By marking the pieces with sequence information at the sender.Communications protocol sender and a receiver can be identified using an address pair (sender address. These kind of rules are said to express the semantics of the communications. On timeouts. The data received has to be evaluated in the context of the progress of the conversation. This is known as Media Access Control.[17] Loss of information . On the Internet. Acknowledgements are sent from receivers back to their respective senders.[15] Routing. receiver address). Flow control can be implemented by messaging from receiver to sender. the retransmission has no effect so the number of retransmissions is limited. CRCs of the data area are added to the end of packets.[19] • Sequence control. This is referred to as address mapping.[16] Acknowledgements of correct reception of packets is required for connection oriented communication. To cope with this. Sometimes protocols need to map addresses of one scheme on addresses of another scheme. Other rules determine whether the data is meaningful for the context in which the exchange takes place. the networks are connected using routers. so a protocol has to specify rules describing the context. When systems are not directly connected. ask for necessary retransmissions and reassemble the original message. Both intuitive descriptions as well as more formal specifications in the form of finite state machine models are used to describe the expected interactions of the protocol. In case of a permanently broken link. intermediary systems along the route to the intended receiver(s) need to forward messages on behalf of the sender. Usually some address values have special meanings. This way of connecting networks is called internetworking. The receiver rejects the packets on CRC differences and arranges somehow for retransmission. the receiver can determine what was lost or duplicated. Retransmissions can result duplicate pieces. . The pieces may get lost or delayed or take different routes to their destination on some types of networks. In a common approach. As a result pieces may arrive out of sequence. the sender must assume the packet was not received and retransmit it.[18] 4 • • • • • • Direction of information flow needs to be addressed if transmissions can only occur in one direction at a time as on half-duplex links.[21] Getting the data across a network is only part of the problem for a protocol. For instance to translate a logical IP address specified by the application to an Ethernet hardware address.timeouts and retries. a sender may expect an acknowledgement of correct reception from the receiver within a certain amount of time.[20] • Flow control is needed when the sender transmits faster than the receiver or intermediate network equipment can process the transmissions. so sending to this address would result in a broadcast on the local network. Packets may be lost on the network or suffer from long delays. making it possible for the receiver to detect differences caused by errors. These kind of rules are said to express the syntax of the communications. Detection of transmission errors is necessary on networks which cannot guarantee error-free operation.

In programming languages the association of identifiers to a value is termed a definition. hardly differing from this universal networking protocol. message values are transferred using transmission media. Program text is structured using block constructs and definitions can be local to a block. A valid assignment in a protocol (as an analog of programming language) could be Ethernet:='message' . the IETF decided to reduce complexity by assuming a relatively simple network architecture allowing decomposition of the single universal networking protocol into two generic protocols. One has to consider the fact that algorithms. So. Operating systems provide reliable communication and synchronization facilities for communicating objects confined to the same system by means of system libraries.Communications protocol 5 Protocols and programming languages Protocols are to communications what algorithms or programming languages are to computations. in the same way. A familiar example of a protocolling language is the HTML language used to describe web pages which are the actual web protocols. development of protocol standards using a consensus model (the agreement of a group of experts) might be a viable way to coordinate protocol design efforts. A programmer using a general purpose programming language (like C or ADA) can use the routines in the libraries to implement a protocol. In this (networking) context a protocol is a language. Tanenbaum in Computer Networks [27] Despite their numbers. and the store. which is used as a record of the effects of assignments.[26] By extending the assignment statement of an existing programming language with the semantics described. By analogy. perhaps just enough to specify some parameters or optional modes of operation. a protocolling language could easily be imagined. assuming the existence of a universal networking protocol. Instead. Universal protocols The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from. —Andrew S. programs and protocols are just different ways of describing expected behaviour of interacting objects. because its virtual machine would have incorporated all possible principles and concepts making the virtual machine itself a universal protocol. On a transmission medium there can be many receivers. used as a record of identifier bindings. Networking protocols operate in very heterogeneous environments consisting of very different network technologies and a (possibly) very rich set of applications. because all networking protocols use the same underlying principles and concepts. the assignment ethernet[mac-address]:=message value could therefore make sense. networking protocols show little variety. instead of using a dedicated protocolling language. meaning a message is to be broadcast on the local ethernet. the use of a general purpose programming language would yield a large number of applications only differing in the details. TCP and . The protocolling language would have some syntax and a lot of semantics describing this universal protocol and would therefore in effect be a protocol. instead of a collection of memory locations. For instance a mac-address identifies an ether network card on the transmission medium (the 'ether'). the equivalent of a store would be a collection of transmission media. The localized association of an identifier to a value established by a definition is termed a binding and the region of program text in which a binding is effective is known as its scope. so a single universal protocol would be very hard to design and implement correctly.[24] The computational state is kept using two components: the environment. In our imaginary protocol. The notion of a universal networking protocol provides a rationale for standardization of networking protocols.[23] [1] This analogy has important consequences for both the design and the development of protocols.[28] A suitably defined (dedicated) protocolling language would therefore have little syntax.[25] In communications.

allowing other network architectures. used to store data or access-restricted procedures. The programming tools and techniques for dealing with parallel processes are collectively called concurrent programming. cooperating protocols. Specifications of concurrent programs can be . An example of the latter case is the HTML language. The basic primitive for synchronization is the semaphore. The goal of the abstraction is to prove correctness of the program assuming the existence of some basic synchronization or data exchange mechanisms provided by the operating system (or other software) or hardware. The mechanisms are complex. A section manipulating shared resources is called a critical section. to standardize protocols. reentrant mutexes. so more convenient higher level primitives are implemented with these mechanisms. Correctness of the concurrent program can only be shown using a mathematical argument. High-level protocols with relatively large complexity could however merit the implementation of language interpreters. All other primitives (locks. one dealing with the low-level network details and one dealing with the high-level details of common network applications (remote login.[30] A mathematical approach to the study of concurrency and communication is referred to as Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). For the Internet protocols. Concurrent programming only deals with the synchronization of communication. so they can be coded with relative ease. Most third generation operating systems implement separate processes that use special instructions to ensure only one process can execute the restricted procedures. Concurrent programming has traditionally been a topic in operating systems theorie texts. The execution sequences are divided into sections. monitors. The syntax and semantics of the communication governed by a low-level protocol usually have modest complexity. this meant a basis for protocol design was needed to allow decomposition of protocols into much simpler. so it is important to keep things simple.[4] Conceptually.[32] This kind of design can be a bit of a challenge to say the least.[29] Formal verification seems indispensable. and two classes of specific protocols. email and web browsing). ISO choose a similar but more general path. For correct operation of the program. 6 Protocol design Communicating systems operate in parallel. The interleaving scheme makes no timing assumptions other than that no process halts in its critical section and that ready processes are eventually scheduled for execution.and Moore machines. The code fragments determine whether the critical sections of two communicating processes should execute in parallel (rendezvous of processes) or should be executed sequentially (mutual exclusion of processes). message passing. which we encounter in the form of hardware used in telecommunications or electronic devices in general. tuple space) can be defined using semaphores. In this case the processes simply have to wait for each other (synchronization by rendezvous) before exchanging data. the concurrent program consists of several sequential processes whose execution sequences are interleaved. semaphores. A concurrent program is correct if it does not violate some safety property such as mutual exclusion or rendezvous of critical sections and does not suffer of liveness properties such as deadlock or lockout. because concurrent programs are notorious for the hidden and sophisticated bugs they contain. Concurrent programming A concurrent program is an abstraction of cooperating processes suitable for formal treatment and study.[31] Concurrency can also be modelled using finite state machines like Mealy. file transfer. or the sending/receiving of signals (message passing) using a shared transmission medium.and Moore machines are in use as design tools in digital electronics systems. The semaphore is sufficiently elementary to be successfully studied by formal methods. in particular and in retrospect. the critical sections of the processes need to be properly sequenced and synchronized. On distributed systems there is no common central memory so the communications are always by means of message passing. The primitives are used to construct the concurrent program.Communications protocol IP. This is achieved using small code fragments (protocols) at the start and the end of the critical sections. Mealy.[33] In order to synchronize or exchange data the processes must communicate by means of either a shared memory.

Layering Many communications protocols can be viewed as layered protocols where each layer gives a service to the protocol of the layers above and requires service from layers below.[5] Mutual exclusion is extensively studied in the mutual exclusion problem. internet. the layers make up a layering scheme or model. .[8] It allows the decomposition of single. In literature there are numerous references to the analogies between computer communication and programming.[9] To cooperate the protocols have to communicate with each other. communications problems. The dining philosophers problem is a classical problem sufficiently difficult to expose many of the potential pitfalls of newly proposed primitives. and in communications. for example the internet protocol can be tunnelled across an ATM network protocol to provide connectivity by layering the internet protocol on top of the ATM protocol transport layer. it is repeatedly stated that protocols are to computer communication what programming [35] [36] languages are to computation. a (best-effort) hardware delivery mechanism layer is used to build a connectionless packet delivery system on top of which a reliable transport layer is built. on top of which is the application software.[37] Protocol layering Protocol layering now forms the basis of protocol design. called a protocol [2] The protocol layers each solve a distinct class of layer. Furthermore. The readers-writers problem is a generalization of the mutual exclusion problem. we have algorithms and data. complex protocols into simpler. By analogy we could say that the aforementioned 'xfer-mechanism' is comparable to a cpu. Layers below and above these can be defined. Also note that software is needed to implement both the 'xfer-mechanism' and a protocol (no protocol. because each protocol belongs to a functional class. and protocols are very often stacked to give tunnelling. transport-.and network interface-functions.[10] Together. Message flows using a protocol suite. The Internet protocol suite consists of the following layers: application-. The delivery system is defined by the IP protocol and the transport system by the TCP protocol. we have protocols and messages. sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite. The rendezvous is studied in the producer-consumer problem in which a producer process only produces data if and only if the consumer process is ready to consume the data.[23] To visualize Figure 3. In computations. Typically. but it is also a functional decomposition. a 'xfer-mechanism' performs communications and a cpu performs computations and the 'framework' introduces something that allows the protocols to be designed independent of one and another by providing separate execution environments for the protocols. cooperating protocols. Lamport's bakery algorithm). Incorrectness can be shown using execution scenarios. Although both problems only involve two processes. so the analog of a data flow diagram would be some kind of message flow diagram.Communications protocol formulated using formal logics (like CSP) which make it possible to prove properties of the programs. their solutions require rather complex algorithms (Dekker's algorithm. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols. no communication). so some kind of conceptual framework is needed to make this communication possible.[34] 7 A basis for protocol design Systems do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission.

The pieces contain a header area and a data area.Header3. The vertical protocols are not layered because they don't obey the protocol layering principle which states that a layered protocol is designed so that layer n at the destination receives exactly the same object sent by layer n at the source. The term host is misleading in that an individual computer can have multiple network interfaces each having its own Internet address. The horizontal protocols are layered protocols and all belong to the protocol suite. The vertical flows (and protocols) are in system and the horizontal message flows (and protocols) are between systems. Layered protocols allow the protocol designer to concentrate on one layer at a time.data' and in the top layer: 'Header3. An Internet Address identifies a connection to the network.Communications protocol protocol layering and protocol suites. The mapping is called address resolution. data length.[41] Some of the more important features in this respect of the Internet architecture and the network services it provides are described next. and a timestamp.[44] • Network technology independence is achieved using the low-level address resolution protocol (ARP) which is used to map Internet addresses to physical addresses. a diagram of the message flows in and between two systems. All the interconnected physical networks appear to the user as a single large network. but they have to satisfy some minimal assumptions to ensure the protocol layering principle holds for the layered protocols. a message or a stream of data is divided into small pieces.data' and in the layer directly above it: 'Header2. To ensure both sides use the same protocol. called messages or streams. A and B. the pieces also carry data identifying the protocol in their header. The data in the header area identifies the source and the destination on the network of the packet. IP datagrams or network frames depending on the layer in which the pieces are to be transmitted. so one cannot be designed without the other. This interconnection scheme is called an internetwork or internet.[36] The vertical protocols neednot be the same protocols on both systems. This way physical addresses are only used by the protocols of the network interface layer.[42] • Conceptually. Each computer is identified by an address on the Internet. The netid identifies a network and the hostid identifies a host.[43] The netid is used by routers to decide where to send a packet.[45] The TCP/IP protocols can make use of almost any underlying communication technology. and dataformats specified by protocols.data'. so for this reason some message flows are coloured red in figure 3. without worrying about how other layers perform.[38] Usually. both on the sending and receiving side. The blue lines therefore mark the boundaries of the (horizontal) protocol layers. This rule therefore ensures that the protocol layering principle holds and effectively virtualizes all but the lowest transmission lines. • The Internet offers universal interconnection. The result is that at the lowest level the piece looks like this: 'Header1.Header2. The message flows are governed by rules. This can be achieved using a technique called Encapsulation.[46] 8 . which means that any pair of computers connected to the Internet is allowed to communicate. not an individual computer. an Internet addresses consists of a netid and a hostid. The systems both make use of the same protocol suite. the protocol. The design of the protocol layering and the network (or Internet) architecture are interrelated. packets. and other data meaningful to the protocol like CRC's of the data to be send.[39] [40] The rule enforced by the vertical protocols is that the pieces for transmission are to be encapsulated in the data area of all lower protocols on the sending side and the reverse is to happen on the receiving side.Header3. is shown in figure 3.

Connection oriented systems build up virtual circuits (paths for exclusive use) between senders and receivers.25 networks and ATM networks. Once build up the IP datagrams are send as if they were data through the virtual circuits and forwarded (as data) to the IP protocol modules. Unreliability arises only when resources are exhausted or underlying networks fail. Connectionless delivery means that the messages or streams are divided in pieces that are multiplexed separately on the high speed intermachine connections allowing the connections to be used concurrently. because it adapts well to different hardware. a WAN or a point-to-point link between two computers are all considered as one network. called tunneling. Routers forward packets between interconnected networks making it possible for hosts to reach hosts on other physical networks. including best-effort delivery mechanisms like the ethernet.Communications protocol Physical networks are interconnected by routers. can make use of TCP.[52] It is also possible to use TCP/IP protocols on connection oriented systems. Datagrams are passed from router to router until a router is reached that can deliver the datagram on a physically attached network (called direct delivery).[53] • A reliable stream transport service using the unreliable connectionless packet delivery service is defined by the transmission control protocol (TCP).[50] • A Connectionless packet delivery (or packet-switched) system (or service) is offered by the Internet.[55] 9 . because packets may be lost. duplicated. This technique. The message flows between two communicating system A and B in the presence of a router R are illustrated in figure 4.[49] • All networks are treated equal. The protocol also specifies the routing function. which chooses a path over which data will be send. A LAN.[47] To decide whether a datagram is to be delivered directly or is to be send to a router closer to the destination. delayed or delivered out of order without notice to the sender or receiver. a table called the IP routing table is consulted. called the application services. The services are layered as well and the application programs residing in the layer above it. The delivery of packets is said to be unreliable. The path can be an indication that the datagram should be delivered directly or it can be the address of a router known to be closer to the destination.[51] The unreliable connectionless delivery system is defined by the Internet Protocol (IP). Message flows in the presence of a router networks. The table consists of pairs of networkids and the paths to be taken to reach known Figure 4.[48] A special entry can specify that a default router is chosen when there are no known paths. can be used on X. Each piece carries information identifying the destination.[54] Programs wishing to interact with the packet delivery system itself can do so using the user datagram protocol (UDP).

) the message gets delivered in its original form to the topmodule of [56] system B. The application program passes data to the transport layer for delivery. At the highest layer. A routing algorithm is used to determine if the datagram should be delivered directly or send to a router. To send a message on system A. the top module interacts with the module directly below it and hands over the message to be encapsulated.[57] The division of the message or stream of data into pieces and the subsequent reassembly are handled in the layer that introduced the division/reassembly. The (top two horizontal) red arrows are virtual. the services available across a TCP/IP internet are accessed by application programs. This module reacts by encapsulating the message in its own data area and filling in its header data in accordance with the protocol it implements and interacts with the module below it by handing over this newly formed Figure 5: Protocol and software layering message whenever appropriate. ensuring that data arrives without error and in sequence. a receiving module discards the piece it has received and reports back the error condition to the original source of the piece on the same layer by handing the error message down or in case of the bottom module sending it across. The packets are encapsulated in IP datagrams and the datagram headers are filled. The software modules implementing the protocols are represented by cubes.[58] TCP/IP software is organized in four layers. The bottom module directly interacts with the bottom module of system B. A network interface may consist of a device driver or a complex subsystem that 10 . If the datagram is addressed to the local machine. The stream of data is divided into packets by the module and each packet is passed along with a destination address to the next layer for transmission. The network interface layer is responsible for accepting IP datagrams and transmitting them over a specific network. Incoming datagrams are checked for validity and the routing algorithm is used to decide whether the datagram should be processed locally or forwarded. The layer must accept data from many applications concurrently and therefore also includes codes in the packet header to identify the sending and receiving application program. the datagram header is deleted and the appropriate transport protocol for the packet is chosen. The application chooses the style of transport to be used which can be a sequence of individual messages or a continuous stream of bytes. ICMP error and control messages are handled as well in this layer. so the message is send across. the protocol designer can now resume with the software design. so ultimately (and assuming there were no transmission errors or protocol violations etc.[59] • Application layer. To do so. The Internet layer handles the communication between machines. The transport layer may regulate flow of information and provide reliable transport. The reassembly is done at the destination (i. On protocol errors. not on any intermediate routers). • Transport layer. The information flow between the modules is represented by arrows.Communications protocol Software layering Having established the protocol layering and the protocols. On the receiving system B the reverse happens. • Internet layer. The blue lines mark the layer boundaries. The software has a layered organization and its relationship with protocol layering is visualized in figure 5. Packets to be send are accepted from the transport layer along with an identification of the receiving machine. The datagram is passed to the appropriate network interface for transmission. the receiving side sends back acknowledgments and the sending side retransmits lost pieces called packets.e. The transport layer provides communication from one application to another. • Network interface layer.

The designers of the TCP/IP protocol suite were keen on imposing the same layering on the software framework. Furthermore. Recall that in digital computing systems.[3] The network interface layer uses physical addresses and all the other layers only use IP addresses. The sourcecode could be considered a protocol specification. This form of specification.Communications protocol uses its own data link protocol. that when adhered to and published. in other words some of the protocols behave in ways not described by the model.[62] Strict layering. implementers are free to do it their way. perhaps be split up into two protocols. The members of the standards organization agree to adhere to the standard on a . perhaps more important point can be shown by considering the fact that some of the protocols in the Internet Protocol Suite cannot be expressed using the TCP/IP model. To show just how closely the analogy fits. This is referred to as source independency. As a result. but there is a hidden caveat.[63] Another. can have a serious impact on the performance of the implementation. assembler. proprietary software producers would not accept this. By specifying the algorithms on paper and detailing hardware dependencies in an unambiguous way. The boundary between network interface layer and Internet layer is called the high-level protocol address boundary. a practice known as strict layering. By describing the software interfaces of the modules on paper and agreeing on the interfaces. We see the same thing happening in protocol software where multiple protocols define the datarepresentations of the data passed between the software modules. Program translation has been divided into four subproblems: compiler. This activity is referred to as protocol development. an offending protocol could. however is not suitable for the parties involved. a paper draft is created. makes the protocolsoftware operating system independent. To get the approval the paper draft needs to enter and successfully complete the standardization process. Program translation forms a linear sequence. the translation software is layered as well. This can be seen in the TCP/IP layering by considering the translation of a pascal program (message) that is compiled (function of the application layer) into an assembler program that is assembled (function of the transport layer) to object code (pieces) that is linked (function of the Internet layer) together with library object code (routing table) by the link editor. is not always the best approach to networking. this would enforce a source on all parties and for another. the translation process involves multiple data representations. Passing data between these modules is much less expensive than passing data between an application program and the transport layer. Expressing the algorithms in a portable programming language. ensures interoperability between software and hardware. at the cost of one or two extra layers.[61] Strict layering Strictly adhering to a layered model. For one thing. The boundary between application layer and transport layer is called the operating system boundary.[64] To improve on the model. producing relocatable machine code (datagram) that is passed to the loader which fills in the memory locations (ethernet addresses) to produce executeable code (network frame) to be loaded (function of the network interface layer) into physical memory (transmission medium). because the model is also used to provide a conceptual view on the suite for the intended users.[65] 11 Protocol development For communication to take place. because each layer's output is passed as input to the next layer. link editor. and loader. protocols have to be agreed upon. Such a paper draft can be developed into a protocol standard by getting the approval of a standards organization.[60] The modules below the application layer are generally considered part of the operating system. so there is at least a trade-off between simplicity and performance. Noting that the ways to conquer the complexity of program translation could readily be applied to protocols because of the analogy between programming languages and protocols. the rules can be expressed by algorithms and datastructures. There is a trade-off to be made here between preciseness for the designer and clarity for the intended user. raising the opportunity of hardware independency. allowing the software layers to be designed independently. the terms between parentheses in the previous sentence denote the relevant analogs and the terms written cursively denote data representations.

The IETF maintains the protocols in use on the Internet. The IEEE controls many software and hardware protocols in the electronics industry for commercial and consumer devices. The workgroup issues working drafts and discussion documents to interested parties (including other standards bodies) in order to provoke discussion and comments. standards are enforced by law or the government. The draft proposal is discussed by the member countries' standard bodies and other organizations within each country. much discussion and usually some disagreement on what the standard should provide and if it can satisfy all needs (usually not). . creating incompatible versions on their networks. Standards organizations Some of the standards organizations of relevance for communications protocols are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). For marine electronics the NMEA standards are used. Standardization is therefore not the only solution for open systems interconnection. This will generate a lot of questions. Such protocols are referred to as de facto standards. because they are thought to serve an important public interest. Positive exceptions exist. this was deliberately done to discourage users from using equipment from other manufacturers. thus inviting competition.[6] In some cases. It should be noted though that in some cases protocol standards are not sufficient to gain widespread acceptance i. There are more than 50 variants of the original bi-sync protocol. and compromise the proposal reaches the status of a draft international standard.e. De facto standards are common on emerging markets. standardization should be seen as a measure to counteract the ill-effects of de facto standards. BSC is an early link-level protocol used to connect two separate nodes. the standards organizations mentioned. If rejected.[66] The standardization process The standardization process starts off with ISO commissioning a sub-committee workgroup. Comments and suggestions are collated and national views will be formulated. so getting approval can be very important for the protocol. before the members of ISO vote on the proposal. but doing so revealed several deficiencies of the protocol. as well as many radio communication systems. the draft proposal has to consider the objections and counter-proposals to create a new draft proposal for another vote. that a standard would have prevented at least some of this from happening. protocols gain market dominance without going through a standardization process. In practice. One can assume. niche markets. often by way of compromise. or markets that are monopolized (or oligopolized). In some cases. It was originally not intended to be used in a multinode network. sometimes the sourcecode needs to be disclosed enforced by law or the government in the interest of the public. They can hold a market in a very negative grip. to progress to a draft proposal of the working group. because the sources are published and maintained in an open way. The ITU is an umbrella organization of telecommunications engineers designing the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Often the members are in control of large market-shares relevant to the protocol and in many cases. modification. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 12 The need for protocol standards The need for protocol standards can be shown by looking at what happened to the bi-sync protocol (BSC) invented by IBM. Standards organizations also do research and development for standards of the future. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) produces protocols and standards for Web technologies. In the absence of standardization. and ultimately an international standard. All conflicting views should be taken into account. manufacturers and organizations felt free to 'enhance' the protocol. cooperate closely with each other.Communications protocol voluntary basis. a 'de facto standard' operating system like GNU/Linux does not have this negative grip on its market. especially when used to scare away competition. and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). After a lot of feedback. From a historical perspective. International standards organizations are supposed to be more impartial than local organizations with a national or commercial self-interest to consider.

two peer entities at a given layer use a (n)-protocol. communicating systems are assumed to be connected by an underlying physical medium providing a basic (and unspecified) transmission mechanism. • Parameters that are left undefined or allowed to take on values of a defined set at the discretion of the implementor. An address uniquely identifies a service access point. data transfer. character sets and data structures). because protocols also need a framework to operate. establishment of the necessary authority to communicate. The address naming domains need not be restricted to one layer. agreement on privacy mechanisms for the communication. In the original version of RM/OSI.[67] 13 Future of standardization (OSI) A lesson learned from ARPANET (the predecessor of the Internet) is that standardization of protocols is not enough. To communicate. The layers above it are numbered (from one to seven). but could not reach agreement on how this should be done in the available time. The original paper draft created by the designer will differ substantially from the standard. Corresponding layers at each system are called peer entities. which is used as a framework for the design of standard protocols and services conforming to the various layer specifications. • Parameters reserved for future use. a quarantine service which allows the sending presentation entity to instruct the receiving session entity not to release data to its presentation entity without . data compression and data encryption). agreement on responsibility for error recovery and procedures for ensuring data integrity. • Various inconsistencies and ambiguities will inevitably be found when implementing the standard. International standards are reissued periodically to handle the deficiencies and reflect changing views on the subject. This would prevent protocol standards with overlapping functionality and would allow clear definition of the responsibilities of a protocol at the different levels (layers).g. and service standards defining how a given layer communcates with the layer above it. because the parties could not reach consensus on the optimum packet size. The layers communicate with each other by means of an interface. so it is possible to use just one naming domain for all layers. the layers and their functionality are (from highest to lowest layer): • The application layer may provide the following services to the application processes: identification of the intended communication partners.[68] This gave rise to the ISO Open Systems Interconnection reference model (RM/OSI). the nth layer is referred to as (n)-layer. including required logon and logoff procedures. determination of cost and acceptable quality of service. synchronization between cooperating application processes. for example to allow for setup of different packet sizes at startup time. identification of any constraints on syntax (e. intermediate peer entities (called relays) are used. selection of the dialogue discipline. which is implemented by using services of the (n-1)-layer. formatting and special purpose transformations (e. negotiation of the syntax to be used between the application layers. any necessary syntax transformations.[69] In the OSI model. determination of availability and authentication of the partners.[72] • The session layer may provide the following services to the presentation layer: establishment and release of session connections. When systems are not directly connected.Communications protocol The process normally takes several years to complete. and will contain some of the following 'features': • Various optional modes of operation. This often reflects conflicting views of some of the members. Each layer provides service to the layer above it (or at the top to the application process) using the services of the layer immediately below it. future-proof framework suitable for structured protocols (such as layered protocols) and their standardization.[70] For each layer there are two types of standards: protocol standards defining how peer entities at a given layer communicate. called a service access point. reflecting that the members agreed the facility should be provided.[71] • The presentation layer may provide the following services to the application layer: a request for the establishment of a session. normal and expedited data exchange.g. It is therefore important to develop a general purpose.

reporting of unrecoverable exceptions to the presentation entity. both TCP and IP could be developed into international standards. it is a common practice to compare the two by relating common protocols to the layers of the two schemes. maintenance and release of network paths between transport peer entities. Connection oriented networks are more suitable for wide area networks and connectionless networks are more suitable for local area networks. Despite the fact that the underlying assumptions of the layering schemes are different enough to warrant distinguishing the two. connection-oriented protocols and connectionless protocols are used on connection-oriented networks and connectionless networks respectively. . Using connections to communicate implies some form of session and (virtual) circuits. maintenance and release of data link connections. As a result the IETF developed its own standardization process based on "rough consensus and running code". interaction management so presentation entities can control whose turn it is to perform certain control functions. As an example of domain of use. hence the (in the TCP/IP model lacking) session layer.[73] The transport layer provides reliable and transparent data transfer in a cost effective way as required by the selected quality of service. the IETF has become a standards organization for the protocols in use on the Internet. resynchronization of a session connection. The quality of service is negotiated between network and transport entities at the time the connection is setup. the IETF networks and connectionless networks were only mentioned in an addendum to RM/OSI. Taxonomies Classification schemes for protocols usually focus on domain of use and function. A layering scheme combines both function and domain of use. The layering scheme from ISO is called the OSI model or ISO layering. so development of RM/OSI concentrated on connection oriented [78] At the time.[77] 14 • • • • In contrast to the TCP/IP layering scheme. When relays are needed. Errors occurring in the physical layer are detected and may be corrected.[79] The standardization process is described by RFC2026 [80]. the transmission techniques used. The exchange of data link units (including flow control) is defined by this layer. which is used to encapsulate packets in a high-level protocol. For an example of function consider a tunneling protocol. It may support the multiplexing of several transport connections on to one network connection or split one transport connection into several network connections.[76] The physical layer describes details like the electrical characteristics of the physical connection. The layering scheme from the IETF is called Internet layering or TCP/IP layering. so the packets can be passed across a transport system using the high-level protocol. Errors are reported to the network layer. The functionality of the layers has been described in the section on software layering and an overview of protocols using this scheme is given in the article on Internet protocols. RM/OSI assumed a connection oriented network. The functionality of the layers has been described in the section on the future of standardization and an overview of protocols using this scheme is given in the article on OSI protocols. The dominant layering schemes are the ones proposed by the IETF and by ISO. This layer is also responsible for (network) congestion control. maintenance and clearing of physical connections. and the setup.[75] The data link layer does the setup. routing and relay functions are provided by this layer. Nowadays. had to cope with this and the fact that the Internet needed protocols which simple were not there.[81] For an example of this practice see: List of network protocols. The constituent members of ISO were mostly concerned with wide area networks.[74] The network layer does the setup. which assumes a connectionless network.Communications protocol permission. RM/OSI has extended its model to include connectionless services and because of this.

10 . 133. [7] Comer 2000. explains the advantages of backward error correction.The Need For Multiple Protocols. linker. p. the semantics of blocks and definitions are described using environments and stores.15. Chapter 4 . p. 11. p. [13] Comer 2000. assembler. p.2 . 34-35.Classful Internet Addresses. [19] Marsden 1986.7.Flow control. 64-67. states the same.4 .4 . 33-34.11 . 3.Layering concepts and general definitions. Sect. 1.The Need For Multiple Protocols. Section 3. p.3 . 11. Sect.Loss of information .Acknowledgement. states: layering forms the basis for protocol design. Chapter 3 . 26-42.Communications protocol 15 Common types of protocols The Internet Protocol is used in concert with other protocols within the Internet Protocol Suite. 27. defines scope and binding.Sequence control. "They (protocols) are to communication what programming languages are to computation" [2] Comer 2000. 11. p. [3] Comer 2000. [4] Ben-Ari 1982. Sect.6 .Internet Services.16. term protocol. 11. 192. 4 . 35-36. Section 3. [21] Marsden 1986.Summary.2 . Ch. p. explains address mapping. Section 14. Network MTU.Why are standards necessary?. [20] Marsden 1986. 64-65.7 . p. 11. states the same.71. p.The Need For Multiple Protocols. [18] Marsden 1986. 178. 11.2 . Sect. Section 2.2 . Prominent members of which include: • • • • • • • • • • • • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Post Office Protocol (POP3) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) IIOP RMI DCOM DDE SOAP Other instances of high level interaction protocols are: Notes [1] Comer 2000.1 .1 .The Disadvantage Of Layering. 104. p. Glossary of Internetworking Terms and Abbreviations. states the same. [10] Comer 2000. In the introduction: a communication is an event described by a pair c.The Basic Idea Behind Multiplexing And Demultiplexing.The Conceptual Layers Of Protocol Software. 28-33. Sect.v where c is the name of the communication channel and v is the value of the message. and Fragmentation. explains this by drawing analogies between computer communication and programming languages. [8] Sect. 7. 178.5 .3.2 . [22] [23] [24] [25] Comer 2000. "Protocols are to communication what algorithms are to computation" Tennent 1981.The concurrent programming abstraction. Section 3. Tennent 1981. Section 3. p. 36-38. Section 6.3 . chapter 2 . p. 27. Sect.timeouts and retries. explains similarities protocol software and compiler. 177.7 . Sect. 187. Section 2. summarizes the concurrent programming abstraction. [16] Marsden 1986. introduces the decomposition in layers. Section 3. p. 192. 177. [17] Marsden 1986. 704. [15] Marsden 1986. p. . Comer 2000.Communication. Section 3.Direction of information flow. 177.3 . explains how packets get lost and how sequencing solves this.3. loader. p. explains the advantages of positive only acknowledgement and mentions datagram protocols as exceptions. 177. p.2 Environments and stores. p. uses BSC as an example to show the need for both standard protocols and a standard framework.3 . p.Fundamental protocol concepts and problem areas. p.The need for multiple protocols. 18-19.Detection and transmission errors. 11. "Each layer takes responsibility for handling one part of the problem.Definitions. p. [9] Comer 2000. 11. p." [11] Comer 2000.The Need For Multiple Protocols. explains master/slave and the negotiations to gain control. [5] Ben-Ari 1982. [12] Marsden 1986. [26] Hoare (1985). Sect. p. p. explains much of the following.2 . [14] Comer 2000. p. p.Datagram Size. Section 2. Sect. p. Explains fragmentation and the effect on the header of the fragments. [6] Marsden 1986.

and naming are quite similar in any protocol suite. p. Section 4.Next-Hop Routing. 30. p.7. 2nd paragraph. p.4 . 46-47. Prentice Hall Professional.10 .6 . p. 15. 16 [49] Comer 2000. 15.Reassembly Of Fragments. 2.Introduction. [75] Marsden 1986. the first two paragraphs describe the sending of a message through successive layers. p. Marsden 1986. netid and routing.3. [30] Ben-Ari 1982. 2.2 .Organization. Sect.Organization.7 . 86. 181. NPTEL courses:::: Electronics & Communication Engineering :: Digital Circuits and Systems. Marsden 1986. 192.7 . explains the rendezvous variant in the absence of common memory. Sect. Sect. 12. 67. 177. [64] IETF 1989. [28] Comer 2000. 4. 120.11 . [77] Marsden 1986. Sect. introduces TCP. p.Internet Architecture And Philosophy. Sect. 235. p. 12.". Section 14. Comer 2000.1 . Comer 2000. p. Sect.9. Sect. Sect.1 . Chapter 4 . [76] Marsden 1986. 9. Marsden 1986. (2003). 2. ISBN 9780130661029. Marsden 1986. states the same. [37] Comer 2000.Purposes Of The Internet Protocol. 2nd paragraph: many design choices involve creative "breaking" of strict layering.Network-Level Interconnection. ac. Andrew S.3 .Some problems with standardisation. Ethernet frames are used as an example for administrative data for the protocol itself. states the same.4 . Describes the transformations of messages or streams that can be observed in the protocol layers.9 . [50] Comer 2000. Sect. p. Sect. follows HDLC to illustrate the process.3. [36] Comer 2000. 188. Glossary of Internetworking terms. 190. p.The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model. [31] Hoare 1985. 15.6 . 66-67. p. Sect 1. [29] Ben-Ari 1982. p.The producer-consumer problem. Sect. layering.High-Level Protocol Boundary.4.10 .2 . p. explains this. [53] Comer 2000. 183-185. [70] Marsden 1986. [60] Comer 2000. 46. [34] Ben-Ari 1982.Connectionless Delivery System. 184. Section 7.5 . p. p. [63] Comer 2000. 7. explains UDP. Sect. p. states: This layerist organization was chosen for simplicity and clarity. explains this. 179.686: term encapsulation. 11.3 . p. Sect. com/ books?id=Pd-z64SJRBAC& pg=PA235).3. p. [52] Comer 2000. describes service layering.Error Reporting vs. p.Ethernet Frame Format. p. explaining why "strict layering is an imperfect model" [65] IETF 1989.Operating System Boundary. p. Marsden 1986. 104. explains terminology. 56. describes the ICMP protocol that is used to handle datagram errors.3 . p. Section 14. Section 6. Sect. [62] IETF 1989.Foreword To The First Edition By The Late Jon Postel. 8. 11. p.Organization. 194. Sect. describes reassembly of datagrams. 11.1 . p.Layering concepts and general definitions. 11.8 . 11. [57] Comer 2000. [32] S. Section 14.Addresses Specify Network Connections. Section 6.5. 192. Sect. 11. Comer 2000. 7. p. 96. p. xiii. iitm. p. [54] Comer 2000. p.The network layer. 184.7 . [51] Comer 2000. Retrieved 22 June 2011. Srinivasan.The presentation layer. explains tunneling X. [43] Comer 2000.1 . 3. 189.3 . p. 5. 86. 191.4 .3 . explains universal interconnection and internetworking.3. 64. [55] Comer 2000. explains this. p. . explains layered protocols. [42] Comer 2000.1 . Section 14. 206. Section 1. 11. states the same. states the same about the software organization. p. in his preface. Computer networks (http:/ / books. p. Sect. p. explains lessons learned from ARPANET.Default Routes.An overview of the book.Summary.10 . 8. [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Comer 2000. 187. Section 14. [39] Comer 2000.3 . explains this. describes the operating system boundary. p. describes the boundary.13 . p.3 . explains this. p. in his preface. states the same.Communications protocol [27] Tanenbaum. encapsulation. Marsden 1986. 59. explains the address scheme.Other Technologies Over Which TCP/IP Has Been Used. states the same. p.Why are standards necessary?.1 . explains this. 55. Error Correction. xxv.3 . p. deals with communication. p. [58] Comer 2000.The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model.The Protocol Layering Principle. p.5. 65.5 . xiv. 181.Indirect Delivery.10 . Sect. 4.4 . explains this.1 . p. p.Functionality Of The Layers.Communication.1 . Sect. google. 7.6 .11. gives details on the routing table. Sect. "The principles of architecture. explains ARP. Section 14. explains default routing and its use. 118.5 . 121. p. Sect 1. states the same. using other analogies.1 .X25NET And Tunnels. 11. explains why "strict layering can be extremely inefficient" giving examples of optimizations.The Conceptual Layers Of Protocol Software.1 . 133. [38] Comer 2000. php?courseId=1005& p=3 [33] Ben-Ari 1982. Comer 2000.The session layer. [59] Comer 2000. 131. p. explains functionality of the layers. 3.The Disadvantage Of Layering. Sect 1. explains this. explains the delivery system. routing.9. Sect. though of course.Introduction. 191. 97. Marsden 1986. p. [40] Comer 2000. available online: http:/ / nptel.Summary.Advantages of standardisation. in/ video. [61] Comer 2000. 97.The data link layer. Section 6. p. Sect. p. Section 14.25 and mentions ATM. 209. Sect. Sect. [56] Comer 2000. states more or less the same. introduces OSI.The transport layer. Section 14. addressing and address mapping. 192. Section 14. 195. . [66] [67] [68] [69] [71] [72] [73] [74] Marsden 1986. Sect.The Original Classful Addressing Scheme.5 . p.The application layer. [41] Comer 2000. Sect. multiplexing.The Need For Multiple Protocols. [35] Comer 2000. 11. 13.1 .The physical layer. different in detail. 8. p.All Networks Are Equal.8 .

2nd Edition. In particular Ch.9 .informit. Prentice Hall. Available online at http://tools. Also has a RFC guide and a Glossary of Internetworking Terms and Abbreviations. org/ html/ rfc2026 [81] Comer 2000. 195. 12.Describes TCP/IP to the implementors of protocolsoftware.A. Addison-Wesley 1999. html) • List of Data Communication Protocols (http://www. Comer (2000). p. In particular the introduction gives an overview of the design goals of the suite. • Brian W Marsden (1986): Communication network protocols 2nd Edition.html) • Network Protocol Index (http://www.de/protocols_en. Also available online at http://spinroot. p. 183. In particular Ch. ISBN 0-86238-106-1. • C.com/protocolsuite.Internet Protocols And Standardization. External links • Javvin's Protocol Dictionary (http://www. ISBN 0-13-854605-3.11 Protocol layering.ietf. Hoare (1985): Communicating sequential processes 10th Print. [79] Comer 2000. Tanenbaum (1984): Structured computer organization 10th Print. [80] http:/ / tools. Section 14. Requirements for Internet Hosts -Communication Layers.com/protocolsuite. Tennent (1981): Principles of programming languages 10th Print. Prentice Hall International. 1991. ISBN 0-13-701078-8. Routers. 18 on "network design folklore".networkdictionary. IETF (1989): RFC1122.Braden (ed.html • Douglas E.usingcsp. Holzmann: Design and Validation of Computer Protocols. Sect. R.pdf) ltg:Datu puorlaidis protokols . ISBN 0-13-539925-4.com/elements/misc/ WP_encapsulation_chart. Chartwell Bratt.R. Protocols and Architecture (4th ed.5. states the same.1 . which is also available online at http://www.Principles. ISBN 0-13-018380-6.com/spin/Doc/Book91.org/html/rfc1122. • Andrew S.).com/articles/article.Communications protocol [78] Marsden 1986.The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model. Prentice Hall International. mentions this. p.html) • PDF-Chart showing the Protocols and the OSI reference layer (http://www. 11. ietf. ISBN 0-201-63448-1.ipcomm. • M. explains why the IETF did not use existing protocols. Prentice Hall International. Switches. ISBN 0-13-153271-5. Section 1.wildpackets.com/protocols/) • Overview of protocols in telecontrol field with OSI Reference Model (http://www.com • R.).11 . Internetworking with TCP/IP . Prentice Hall.D.aspx?p=20482 • Gerard J. Available online via http://www. 17 References • Radia Perlman: Interconnections: Bridges. Ben-Ari (1982): Principles of concurrent programming 10th Print. ISBN 0-13-709873-1. Prentice Hall International.Connectionless mode and RM/OSI. and Internetworking Protocols. • Internet Engineering Task Force abbr.zframez.javvin.

which can be applied to any protocol. (Note: this is an over-simplification: . each of which accomplishes a particular sub-task. For example. messages are divided into packets. and the IEEE. but not including the failed packet. keeping each design relatively simple. not just the OSI protocols. Error detection and correction It is a truism that communication media are always faulty.Internetwork protocol 18 Internetwork protocol In networking. (with a V. The ITU-T handles telecommunications protocols and formats for the PSTN. in TCP (the internet's Transmission Control Protocol). The terms are often intermingled. the sender sees that too much time has elapsed without an acknowledgement. The reference model usually used for layering is the OSI seven layer model. protocols are "layered".42 modem. in case the packet loss was caused by saturation of the path between sender and receiver. Layering allows the parts of a protocol to be designed and tested without a combinatorial explosion of cases. Eventually. while 10-5 bit per bit or more should be dealt with by routine maintenance (they can be heard). Network protocol design principles Systems engineering principles have been applied to create a set of common network protocol design principles. and interacts with the other parts of the protocol only in a small number of well-defined ways. Most recent protocols are assigned by the IETF for Internet communications. When a checksum is bad (meaning the checksum on the receiver does not match the checksum on the sender). the mail protocol above can be adapted to send messages to aircraft. people may use the term "protocol" to refer to a software implementation. For example. with the point-to-point protocol). For example. the sender backs off its rate of sending. while another may detect and retry errors (with the Internet's transmission control protocol). for example). a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. When a packet is lost. so it resends all of the packets that have not been acknowledged. Communication systems correct errors by selectively resending bad parts of a message. or use "protocol stack" to refer to the specification. As the PSTN and Internet converge. one layer might describe how to encode text (with ASCII. Layering also permits familiar protocols to be adapted to unusual circumstances. for example). This has the wonderful feature of being a dimensionless figure of merit that can be compared across any speed or type of communication media. A group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol suite. and another handles the electrical encoding of the bits. when implemented in software they are a protocol stack. the Internet Protocol can be analysed using the OSI model. the two sets of standards are also being driven towards convergence. the packet is discarded. Multiple protocols often describe different aspects of a single communication. failure rates of 10-4 bit per bit are faulty (they interfere with telephone conversations). while another describes how to inquire for messages (with the Internet's simple mail transfer protocol. In telephony. or the ISO organizations for other types. another handles the encapsulation of that data into a stream of bits (for example. Protocol layering In modern protocol design. the receiver acknowledges all of the packets up to. another handles addressing (say with IP. At the same time. The conventional measure of quality is the number of failed bits per bit transmitted. the Internet Protocol).42 modem protocol to the INMARS LAPD data protocol used by the international marine radio satellites. Layering is a design principle which divides the protocol design into a number of smaller parts. each of which has a checksum. In particular. Just change the V. say).

Addison-Wesley 1999. For this reason. html . ISBN 0-13-539925-4. due to the need to resend packets repeatedly. javvin. when "sync is lost". com/ protocolsuite. In phones. Also available online at http://spinroot. These connections typically have uncorrected bit error rates of 10-9 to 10-12. the equivalent functions are performed using router update messages to detect loss of connectivity. 19 Resiliency Another form of network failure is topological failure. ensuring high TCP/IP performance. fail-safe mechanisms reroute the signals around the failing equipment. ISBN 0-201-63448-1. • Gerard J.com/spin/Doc/Book91. Holzmann. or over a lower-level protocol with added error-detection and correction features (such as modem links with ARQ). Interconnections: Bridges. Design and Validation of Computer Protocols. Prentice Hall. In particular Ch. In phone systems. 1991. Protocol families Various protocol stacks or families: • • • • • • • PUP Internet protocol suite AppleTalk DECnet IPX/SPX Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Further reading • Radia Perlman. the performance of TCP is severely degraded in conditions of high packet loss (more than 0.html External links • Javvin's Protocol Dictionary [1] References [1] http:/ / www. in which a communications link is cut. Routers. TCP/IP connections are typically either run on highly reliable fiber networks. Switches. 18 on "network design folklore". a framing bit is sent every 24 bits on T1 lines. In packet switched networks. Most modern communication protocols periodically send messages to test a link. and Internetworking Protocols (2nd Edition). or degrades below usable quality.Internetwork protocol see TCP and congestion collapse for more detail) In general.1%).

Media Endpoint Discovery PPP Point-to-Point Protocol PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Q. however. Layer 1+2 protocols (Physical) • Ethernet • GFP ITU-T G.7041 Generic Framing Procedure • OTN ITU-T G. Many of these protocols.11 WiFi IEEE 802.hn Data Link Layer HDLC High-Level Data Link Control IEEE 802. categorized by their nearest Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model layers.709 Optical Transport Network also called Optical Channel Wrapper or Digital Wrapper Technology Layer 2 protocols (Data Link Layer) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ARCnet Attached Resource Computer NETwork ARP Address Resolution Protocol RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol DCAP Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol Distributed Multi-Link Trunking Distributed Split Multi-Link Trunking Dynamic Trunking Protocol Econet FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Frame Relay ITU-T G. are originally based on the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and other models and they often do not fit neatly into OSI layers.710 Simplified Message Transfer Part Multi-link trunking Protocol RPR IEEE 802.16 WiMAX LattisNet LocalTalk L2F Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol LAPD Link Access Procedures on the D channel LLDP Link Layer Discovery Protocol LLDP-MED Link Layer Discovery Protocol .List of network protocols 20 List of network protocols This is a list of network protocols.17 Resilient Packet Ring SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol (obsolete) StarLAN STP Spanning Tree Protocol Split multi-link trunking Protocol Token ring is not a protocol but is a topology VTP VLAN Trunking Protocol .

List of network protocols 21 Layer 2+3 protocols • • • • • ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode Frame relay.25 welcome MPLS Multi-protocol label switching SPB Shortest Path Bridging X. a simplified version of X.25 Layer 1+2+3 protocols • MTP Message Transfer Part • NSP Network Service Part Layer 3 protocols (Network Layer) • • • • • • • • • • • • • CLNP Connectionless Networking Protocol EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 IPSec Internet Protocol Security IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange Routed-SMLT SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part AppleTalk DDP Layer 3 protocols (Network Layer management) • • • • • • • • • IS-IS Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System OSPF Open Shortest Path First BGP Border Gateway Protocol RIP Routing Information Protocol ICMP Router Discovery Protocol: Implementation of RFC 1256 NDP Neighbor Discovery Protocol Gateway Discovery Protocol (GDP) is a Cisco protocol similar to IRDP\ IGRP EIGRP .

A peer-to-peer file sharing protocol AFP. A peer-to-peer file sharing protocol BOOTP.List of network protocols 22 Layer 3. authorization and accounting protocol DICOM includes a network protocol definition DICT. Dictionary protocol DNS. Apple Filing Protocol BACnet. Domain Name System . an SS7 protocol tool for the home operator Diameter. Bootstrap Protocol CAMEL.5 protocols • HIP Host Identity Protocol Layer 3+4 protocol suites • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/SPX Internet Protocol Suite Xerox Network Systems Layer 4 protocols (Transport Layer) • • • • • • • • • • AH Authentication Header over IP or IPSec ESP Encapsulating Security Payload over IP or IPSec GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation for tunneling IL Originally developed as transport layer for 9P SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol Sinec H1 for telecontrol SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange TCP Transmission Control Protocol UDP User Datagram Protocol DCCP Datagram Congestion Control Protocol Layer 5 protocols (Session Layer) • • • • • 9P Distributed file system protocol developed originally as part of Plan 9 NCP NetWare Core Protocol NFS Network File System SMB Server Message Block SOCKS "SOCKetS" Ok Other protocols • Controller Area Network (CAN) Layer 7 protocols (Application Layer) • • • • • • • • • • ADC. an authentication. Building Automation and Control Network protocol BitTorrent.

authorization and accounting protocol RDP. A peer-to-peer file sharing protocol FTP. File Sharing and Name Resolution protocol .List of network protocols • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • DSM-CC Digital Storage Media Command and Control DHCP. Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning XMPP. Microsoft Notification Protocol (used by Windows Live Messenger) MAP. Secure Shell SISNAPI. Network News Transfer Protocol NTP. a UNIX remote login protocol rsync. Hypertext Transfer Protocol IMAP. a signaling protocol SMTP. Simple Network Management Protocol SOAP. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SNMP. Telephone User Part Telnet. Real-time Transport Streaming Protocol SSH. Microsoft Server Message Block Protocol STUN. which gives user profile information Gnutella. Simple Object Access Protocol SMB. Remote Desktop Protocol Rlogin. an authentication. a remote terminal access protocol TCAP. Session Initiation Protocol. Real-time Transport Protocol RTSP. Transaction Capabilities Application Part TFTP. a peer-to-peer file-swapping protocol Gopher. National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 RADIUS. a simple file transfer protocol WebDAV. File Transfer Protocol Finger. ISDN User Part LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol MIME. a file transfer protocol for backups. Internet Message Access Protocol Internet Relay Chat (IRC) ISUP. Trivial File Transfer Protocol. an instant-messaging protocol 23 . copying and mirroring RTP. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ED2K. a hierarchical hyperlinkable protocol HTTP. Mobile Application Part NetBIOS. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MSNP. Network Time Protocol NTCIP. Siebel Internet Session Network API SIP.the basis of file sharing with Windows. Session Traversal Utilities for NAT TUP. NNTP.

such as length. used in Ethernet in the first mile applications. 10PASS-TS PHYs deliver a minimum of 10 Mbit/s over distances of up to 750 metres (2460 ft). using ITU-T G. called PME Aggregation Function (PAF). Details Unlike other Ethernet physical layers that provide a single rate such as 10.1) • Abstract Syntax Notation Two (ASN. com/ elements/ misc/ WP_encapsulation_chart. but connection data rates deteriorate quickly as the line distance increases. Javvin Technologies. pdf [3] http:/ / www. wildpackets. wire diameter (gauge). 2005.993.A PDF file illustrating the relationship between common protocols and the OSI Reference Model. com/ tag/ network_protocol 10PASS-TS 10PASS-TS is an IEEE 802.2) Further reading • Network Protocols Handbook [1]. External links • Protocol Encapsulation Chart [2] .1 (VDSL) technology over a single copper pair. google. depending on the copper channel characteristics. 100 or 1000 Mbit/s. com/ books?id=D_GrQa2ZcLwC [2] http:/ / www.list of network protocols with abbreviations order by index. However. ISBN 9780974094526. the number of pairs if the link is aggregated and other factors. or potentially to distribute internet access services over voice-grade wiring in MDU buildings. because it requires fibre backhaul to connect with a carrier network over greater distance. wiring quality. .3-2008 Physical Layer (PHY) specification for a full-duplex short reach point-to-point Ethernet link over voice-grade copper wiring. • Network Protocols Acronyms and Abbreviations [3] . This has led to VDSL being referred to as a "Fibre to the curb" technology. VDSL2 has already proven to be a versatile and faster standard with greater reach than VDSL. References [1] http:/ / books. These PHYs may also support an optional aggregation or bonding of multiple copper pairs. 10PASS-TS link rate can vary. VDSL Ethernet in the first mile services using may be a useful way to standardise functionality on Metro Ethernet networks.List of network protocols 24 Protocol description languages • Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. VDSL is a short range technology designed to provide broadband over distances less than 1km of voice-grade copper twisted pair line. all-acronyms.

7 kilometres (8900 ft).3-2008 Physical Layer (PHY) specification for a full-duplex long reach point-to-point Ethernet link over voice-grade copper wiring. amount of crosstalk between the pairs.).991.ikanos. desired link parameters (such as desired SNR margin.com) 10PASS-TS Chip Vendors • Broadcom (http://www.lantiq. 100BASE-T and 1000BASE-T PHYs. html [2] http:/ / www. 3. org/ getieee802/ 802.5 mm wire with 3 dB noise margin and no spectral limitations.Specific requirements . • IEEE 802. Rates and Distances Unlike 10BASE-T. November 2008. These PHYs may also support an optional aggregation or bonding of multiple copper pairs. and regional spectral limitations. At 6 kilometres (20000 ft) the max achievable bitrate is about 850 kbit/s.[1] .SHDSL. both factors depend on packet size. etc. IEEE Std 802.Local and metropolitan area networks .com) • Ikanos (http://www. due to 64/65-octet encoding and PAF overhead. 2BASE-TL link rate can vary. using ITU-T G.3-2008.Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications". ieee802. the max bitrate can be achieved over distances of up to 1 kilometre (3300 ft). For a single pair. org/ 3/ ah/ 2BASE-TL 2BASE-TL is an IEEE 802.2 (G.3ah [2] . 2BASE-TL is used in Ethernet in the first mile applications."IEEE Standard for Information technology . providing a single rate of 10.). called PME Aggregation Function (PAF).extremecopper. 100 or 1000 Mbit/s respectively. 2BASE-TL PHYs deliver a minimum of 2 Mbit/s over distances of up to 2. On a 0. ieee. the minimum possible link bitrate is 192 kbit/s (3 x 64 kbit/s) and the maximum bitrate is 5. number of pairs if the link is aggregated.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .7 Mbit/s (89 x 64 kbit/s). (http://www.3 [1] .bis) technology over a single copper pair.10PASS-TS 25 External links • Get IEEE 802. wire diameter or gauge.Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force archive 10PASS-TS Equipment Manufacturers • Extreme Copper.broadcom. Inc.com) References [1] http:/ / standards. Power Back-Off.com) • Lantiq (http://www. etc. The throughput of a 2BASE-TL link is lower than the link's bitrate by an average 5%. depending on the copper media characteristics (such as length.

ISBN 0849334233. A. 4in6 uses tunneling to encapsulate IPv4 traffic over configured IPv6 tunnels as defined in RFC 2473. one can in some cases still make use of the DMZ feature of a NAT router.org/3/ah/) . which describe a different mechanism. The 6in4 traffic is sent over the IPv4 Internet inside IPv4 packets whose IP headers have the IP protocol number set to 41. Table 13. Although 6in4 tunnels are generally manually configured.org/) 4in6 4in6 refers to tunneling of IPv4 in IPv6. These kind of tunnels are generally called 'proto-41 heartbeat' tunnels. namely 6to4 or 6over4. the IPv4 packet header is immediately followed by the IPv6 packet being carried. thus making the tunnel work. for example the utility AICCU can configure tunnel parameters automatically after retrieving information from a Tunnel Information and Control Protocol (TIC) server. in effect making the endpoint dynamic while still using the 6in4 protocol.Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force archive • Metro Ethernet Forum (http://www. This protocol number is specifically designated for IPv6 encapsulation. It is an Internet interoperation mechanism allowing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to be used in an IPv6 only network. 6in4 tunneling is also referred to as proto-41 static because the endpoints are configured statically. The heartbeat protocol signals the other side of the tunnel with its current endpoint location. the endpoint IPv4 address information is derived from the IPv6 addresses within the IPv6 packet header. 6in4 uses tunneling to encapsulate IPv6 traffic over explicitly-configured IPv4 links as defined in RFC 4213 (obsoletes RFC 2893 and RFC 1933).ieee802.metroethernetforum. Conta and S. With an Ethernet Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of 1500 bytes. but instead of static configuration of the endpoints. The method 6to4 makes use of proto-41 too.3ah (http://www. Auerbach Publications 2008. . with the help of for example the heartbeat protocol[2] one can still have dynamic tunnel endpoints.[1] In 6in4. There are similarly named methods.6. The NAT router will then forward all incoming proto-41 packets to the configured host. This means that the encapsulation overhead is simply the size of the IPv4 header of 20 bytes. one can thus send IPv6 packets of 1480 bytes without fragmentation. A tool such as AICCU can then update the endpoints. Some NAT devices even allow transparent operation of 6in4. External links • IEEE 802. Dynamic 6in4 tunnels and heartbeat Even though 6in4 tunnels are static in nature. Generic Packet Tunneling in IPv6 Specification. References • RFC 2473. Deering 1998 6in4 6in4 is an Internet transition mechanism for migrating from Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to IPv6. Network address translators (NAT) When an endpoint of a 6in4 tunnel is behind a NAT. 4in6 tunnels are usually manually configured but they can be automated using protocols such as TSP to allow easy connection to a tunnel broker.2BASE-TL 26 References [1] Implementation and Applications of DSL Technology (book).

plumber: interprocess communication wikifs: a wiki . iana. L. org/ assignments/ protocol-numbers/ protocol-numbers. Files are key objects in Plan 9. Di Battista. References • RFC 1933. sixxs. G. such [1] as the Styx on a Brick project . This problem can partially be solved by implementing network ingress filtering or with IPsec. net/ tools/ heartbeat/ ). Gilligan and E.sixxs. 1996 [1] "Protocol Numbers" (http:/ / www. [2] Heartbeat Protocol (http:/ / www. Another solution is to use a secure protocol such as AYIYA or other tunneling methods that compute digital signatures for each packet thus facilitating verification of packet authenticity. and M. J. A server implementation of 9P for Unix.bell-labs.net/faq/connectivity/ ?faq=ossetup) • 6in4 and other tunnel setups on Debian (http://wiki. The latest version of the Inferno operating system also uses 9P2000.6in4 27 Security issues The 6in4 protocol has no security features. but technically it has always been a variant of 9P. Nordmark. R. Unlike NFS. Noteworthy examples include: • • • • acme: a user interface for programmers rio: the Plan 9 windowing system. 9P encourages caching and also serving of synthetic files (e. and almost anything else available in the operating system. 9P and its derivatives have also found application in embedded environments. Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers. 9P was revised for the 4th edition of Plan 9 under the name 9P2000 that contained various fundamental improvements.org/DebianIPv6) • 6in4 setup on Plan9 OS (http://www. processes.com/magic/man2html/8/6in4) 9P 9P (or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol or Styx) is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 from Bell Labs distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system. uniroma3. They represent windows. xml). A kernel client driver for Linux is part of the v9fs project. dia.g.cs. .debian. it/ ~compunet/ tunneldiscovery). thus one can easily inject IPv6 packets by spoofing the source IPv4 address of a tunnel endpoint and sending it to the other endpoint. Massar and P. van Pelt [3] IPv6 Tunnel Discovery (http:/ / www. The Inferno file protocol was originally called Styx. Server applications Many of Plan 9's applications take the form of 9P servers. Colitti. The mentioned packet injection loophole of 6in4 was exploited for a research benefit in a method called IPv6 Tunnel [3] Discovery which allowed the researchers to discover operating IPv6 tunnels around the world. Patrignani External links • How do I configure my machine to setup an IPv6 in IPv4 tunnel (http://www. /proc to represent processes). network connections. called u9fs. is included in the Plan 9 distribution.

9P 28 Implementation 9P sends the following messages between clients and servers. org/ plan_9/ 5/ open [9] http:/ / man. org/ plan_9/ 5/ remove [12] http:/ / man. cat-v. cat-v. cat-v. version Negotiate protocol version error Return an error [4] flush Abort a message auth. open Prepare a fid for I/O on an existing or new file [8] read. write Transfer data from and to a file [9] clunk Forget about a fid [10] remove Remove a file from a server [11] stat. cat-v. org/ plan_9/ 5/ flush [6] http:/ / man. org/ plan_9/ 5/ read [10] http:/ / man. cat-v. org/ inferno/ 4th_edition/ styx-on-a-brick/ [2] 9p protocol (http:/ / man. cat-v. org/ plan_9/ 5/ stat . cat-v. cat-v. org/ plan_9/ 5/ walk [8] http:/ / man. wstat Inquire or change file attributes [12] [6] [5] [3] References [1] http:/ / doc. org/ plan_9/ 5/ version [4] http:/ / man. org/ plan_9/ 5/ attach [7] http:/ / man. cat-v. cat-v. cat-v. cat-v. org/ plan_9/ 5/ error [5] http:/ / man. org/ plan_9/ 5/ intro) [3] http:/ / man. org/ plan_9/ 5/ clunk [11] http:/ / man. attach Messages to establish a connection walk Descend a directory hierarchy [7] create.[2] These messages correspond to the entry points in the Plan 9 vfs layer that any 9P server must implement.

-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +.... Access Stratum Access Stratum (AS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Radio Network and User Equipment..| HTTP +..-+ | Link Layer | +.....| Channels +....org/inferno/4th_edition/styx) by Rob Pike and Dennis Ritchie.org...-+ | Physical | +...9P 29 External links • 9P Resources (http://9p......-+ | Application | +.| AS +......-+ | Network Layer| +..cat-v..cat-v..cat-v.-+ | Internet | +.-+ | Transport | +..-+ .. • The Styx Architecture for Distributed Systems (http://doc..org/plan_9/5/intro)........| IP +.... • 9P Manual (http://man.cat-v. The radio network is also called access network... • The Organization of Networks in Plan 9 (http://doc. +...| TCP +....| NAS +..org/) page at cat-v....org/plan_9/4th_edition/papers/net/) by Dave Presotto and Phil Winterbottom....

g. In addition the specification outlines a message queuing model and services that an implementation must provide. The defining features of AMQP are message orientation. which store them on behalf of recipients. one-to-one-of-N (like a queue for the next open checkout). AMQP is a wire-level protocol. FTP. AMQP is middleware to provide a point of rendezvous between back-end systems (data stores and services) and front end systems such as end user applications. routing (including point-to-point and publish-and-subscribe).Publish and Basic. and various implementations can achieve various quality of service. and so on. Previous attempts to standardize middleware have happened at the API level (e. AMQP lets system architects build common messaging patterns out of a simpler underlying model.g. Exchanges implement a range of message routing techniques: one-to-one message passing (like email to one recipient). AMQP mandates the behaviour of the messaging provider and client to the extent that implementations from different vendors are truly interoperable. etc. AMQP can easily be used to move messages between organizations. reliability and security[1] . publish-and-subscribe. in which information is distributed to a set of recipients according to various subscription criteria. The queuing model of AMQP provides for a wide range of messaging use-cases and further refines the functions of the clients and brokers. These commands are asynchronous so that conditions that arise from a .Advanced Message Queuing Protocol 30 Advanced Message Queuing Protocol The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open standard application layer protocol for message-oriented middleware. in which messages are sent to or from specific recipients. Realistic applications combine these.g. can range from very simple (pass everything into this message queue) to procedural inspections of message content. which merely defines an API. For example a slow but tornado-proof message queue would keep redundant copies in multiple geographic regions while a fast but fragile message queue might keep everything in a single process's RAM. JMS) and this did not create interoperability[2] . of any size. you can state what you need when asking a message queue broker implementation to create a new queue. queuing. The standard AMQP exchanges have no semantics for storing messages. A wire-level protocol is a description of the format of the data that is sent across the network as a stream of octets. Since all exchanges accept messages from N senders.e. HTTP. generate.Deliver. interoperable across multiple vendors) protocol for managing the flow of messages across an enterprise's business systems. The protocol specification defines a binary wire protocol used between a client and server (also known as a broker). AMQP allows arbitrary exchange semantics through custom exchanges (which can queue. AMQP allows all one-to-any routing to be N-to-any. known as bindings. and route messages in any way desired by the implementation). Messages are passed between brokers and clients using the protocol commands Basic. one-to-N (like an email list). The function of brokers can be usefully broken into two kinds: exchanges and message queues. Typical messaging patterns are: request-response. Though originally used inside of enterprises. The rules that configure an exchange. Consequently any tool that can create and interpret messages that conform to this data format can interoperate with any other compliant tool irrespective of implementation language. Unlike JMS. consume. e. The first applications were for trading desks in the financial industry. and round-robin. where real time order and market data are transmitted. To help improve interoperability some of these aspects of the message queues are specified in the protocol. Overview AMQP was originally designed to provide a vendor-neutral (i. AMQP message contents are opaque binary blobs. Message queues store messages. e. in the same way as SMTP. round-robin for distributing work plus request-response for sending back responses. in which tasks are distributed fairly among a set of recipients. Messages consist of an envelope of properties used in routing and by applications and a content. have created interoperable systems. They route them to queues.

In order to change the properties of such an entity it must be deleted prior to a re-declaration (with changed properties). JPMorgan Chase Bank Inc. Any attempt to declare a named entity with different properties than it was declared before will result in an error. AMQP also provides a synchronous message delivery command. The naming must be unique within the scope of the entity and its broker. Credit Suisse. WS02 and 29West Inc. Rabbit Technologies Ltd.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol command's evaluation are signalled by sending additional commands back on the channel that carried the command originally. it has general applicability to a broad range of middleware problems. Entities in the AMQP model used for message transfer . and iMatix Corporation who also developed implementations in C/C++ and Java. the working group consists of Bank of America. or signalling that a message queue declined to accept a message (say because it was full). such as FpML or more generically as a reliable transport for SOAP. using TCP/IP or SCTP. As of November 2009. N. From a connection perspective the relevant ones are: • Message broker: a server to which AMQ clients connect using the AMQ protocol. Red Hat. may or may not be authorized to connect to a broker. Novell. and iMatix documented the protocol as an interoperable specification and assigned to a working group that included Red Hat.. Message brokers may be configured to handle exceptions in different ways. Progress Software. Whilst AMQP originated in the financial services industry. For example. Basic. 31 Development AMQP was developed from mid-2004 to mid-2006 by JPMorgan Chase & Co.Get/Get-Ok... Some of these entities are named. The entities used for the actual sending and receiving of messages are all declared on a channel. Cisco Systems. • Connection: a physical connection e. iMatix Corporation. by providing credentials in form of a password. Message brokers can run in a cluster but these details are implementation specific and are not covered by the specification. Since clients usually (at least no such operations are defined in the AMQP specification) do not have the means to get a list of all available named entities. routing the associated message to a dead letter queue or even bringing the broker to a hard stop. Barclays. Cisco Systems. Envoy Technologies. Microsoft Corporation.. Hence communication over a channel is stateful. Clients that perform concurrent operations on a connection should maintain a distinct channel for each of those. Examples of error conditions include signalling by an exchange that it could not route a message because no route was found. JPMorgan Chase & Co. Solace Systems. A notable design goal of AMQP was to enable the creation of open standard protocol stacks for business messaging both within and between firms by combining AMQP with one of the many open standards describing business transactions. • Channel: a logical connection that is tied to a connection. the knowledge of an entity name is what allows the client to perform operations on it. TWIST. The AMQP model AMQP defines a number of entities. Deutsche Börse Systems. and iMatix. Inc. • User: a user is an entity that.g. IONA Technologies. A declaration assures the issuing client that the entity exists (or was previously declared by another client).A. Tervela Inc. A connection is bound to a user. Inc. Goldman Sachs. TWIST Process Innovations ltd. Clients that use a threaded model of concurrency can for example encapsulate the channel declaration in a thread-local variable.

must be between 1 and 255 characters in length and must start with a digit. Messages Messages are unnamed and are published to an exchange. Alternatively clients can pop (pull) messages from the queue as they see fit. Messages are guaranteed to be delivered in the order that they were first delivered to a queue. • priority: an indicator (a range between 0 and 9) that a message has higher precedence than others. • durable: the queue will survive a broker restart. Queues Queues are the entities which receive messages. unless certain kinds of rerouting operations (e. in case of errors) it might deliver a message more than once. They are named and have a type as well as properties such as: • passive: the exchange will not get declared but an error will be thrown if it does not exist. • delivery-mode: indicates that a message might need persistence. They consist of a header and a content body. • immediate: the message will get handled as unroutable if at least one of the queues which would receive the message has no subscription on it. . due to failures) occur. its messages get routed to this exchange and get removed from the queue. • expiration: the duration in milliseconds before the broker may handle the message as unroutable. While the body is opaque data the header contains a number of optional properties: • routing-key: this field is used in ways dependent on the type of the exchange.0. • exclusive: there can only be one client for this specific queue. Exchanges to which queues have never been bound will never get auto deleted. Note that queues are scheduled to replace exchanges in AMQP/1.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol Names are encoded in UTF-8. Non persistent delivery modes do not show this kind of behavior. a letter or an underscore character. 32 Exchanges Exchanges are the entities to which messages are sent. An exclusive queue however will always get auto-deleted when the client terminates its session.g. Only for such messages the broker makes a best-effort to prevent a loss of the message before consumption. • passive: the queue will not get declared but an error will be thrown if it does not exist. This shares the same constraint as the auto-delete property for exchanges: if no subscription has been ever active on the queue it will not get auto-deleted. • durable: the exchange will survive a broker restart.g. If there is uncertainty on the broker's end about the successful delivery of a message (e. The properties of queues are: • alternate-exchange: when messages are rejected by a subscriber or orphaned by queue deletion. They are named and have properties but not a type. • auto-delete: the queue will get deleted as soon as no more subscriptions are active on it. Clients can subscribe to queues to the effect that the message broker delivers (pushes) the contents of the queue to the client. • auto-delete: the exchange will get deleted as soon as there are no more queues bound to it.

Or multiple consumers can share the name of a queue and bind to it with the same parameters and will therefore get only message that the other consumers did not consume. Other e. • a headers exchange matches on the presence of keys as well as key–value pairs which can be concatenated with logical and–or connections in a messages header. What constitutes a match however is solely dependent on the type of an exchange: • a direct exchange matches when the routing key property of a message and the key of the binding are identical.N words. The key to understand how a message is passed to a queue lies in the relationship between the type of an exchange and the resulting interpretation of the routing key.the binding has one property.# matches the routing keys usd. possible to bind a single queue with multiple bindings to the same or to different exchanges.stock and eur. for instance. which matches 1 word and the #.the binding has a table of properties.stock. Two additional characters are also valid: the *. using logical ANDs or ORs to combine matches. the arguments and requests all messages whose headers match these arguments. • Conditional on a fixed string . An exchange will deliver up to one copy of a message to a queue if the routing key in the message matches a binding (subsequent semantically identical bindings will not lead to duplicate copies). • Conditional on a pattern match . Or multiple consumers can declare independent queues but share the bindings and get all the message every other consumer would get on the bound exchange with these bindings. The binding properties match the routing algorithm used in exchanges.db but not stock.the binding specifies arbitrary criteria that are resolved by inspection of the actual message content.g.the binding has a table of properties.stock. • Conditional on content inspection . which matches 0. • a topic exchange matches the routing key property of a message on binding key words. The concept of binding named queues to named exchanges has powerful properties (with binding making those two entities independent of each other). AMQP implements topic matching. • Conditional on algorithmic comparison . vendor-specific exchanges are explicitly permitted in the specification. the routing key and requests all messages that have an identical routing key. Not all these are implemented as standard. the arguments and requests all messages whose headers match these arguments. the routing key and requests all messages that match the routing key using a pattern-matching algorithm. Bindings (and exchange algorithms) can be placed on a curve of increasing complexity: • Unconditional . It is. or by all implementations. even on bindings without a key. Neither does the binding carry a single routing key but special format which contains header keys and / or key-value-pairs which match on the header key being present or the header key being present and the value being the same respectively. Words are strings which are separated by dots. using a pattern matching algorithm and logical combinations.the binding has no properties and requests "all" messages from the exchange. Arbitrary pattern syntaxes could be used.nasdaq. Exchange types and the effect of bindings These four entities form the basic model of the AMQP.the binding has one property. • a fanout exchange always matches.. • Conditional on multiple fixed strings . . • Conditional on multiple patterns .Advanced Message Queuing Protocol 33 Bindings A binding is a relationship between one queue and one exchange that specifies how messages flow from the exchange to the queue. In this case the routing key is not a criterion for matching that is considered by the exchange. Example: *.the binding has an algorithmic expression (like an SQL SELECT WHERE clause) and requests all messages whose headers match that expression.

and allows for the publication of service location records using the DNS.0 specification changes the AMQP model illustrated above by removing the concepts of exchanges and bindings. • RabbitMQ. optionally resulting in further modifications. APIs in C/C++ and Java JMS.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol 34 Specification revisions and the future of AMQP The following specifications of the AMQ protocol have been published. it is voted to be the 1. AIX. in chronological order: • • • • • 0-8 in June 2006 0-9 in December 2006 0-10 (documents are undated) 0-9-1 in November 2008 [3] 1. • Red Hat Enterprise MRG [9] implements the latest version of AMQP 0-10 providing rich set of features like full management. • StormMQ. The server is written in Erlang. Producer flow control is challenging . When there are no substantive changes to the PR. OpenVMS. an independent open-source implementation bought by VMware in 2010. The process of bringing the 1.0 simply to solve an operational problem of slow consumers causing memory build up in brokers. This change aims to remedy two problems with the previous approach: 1. JPMorganChase and RedHat introduced links into AMQP/1. Bindings to many languages without the use of DLLs. a project in the Apache Foundation. It is offered as a commercial managed service. • Apache Qpid. the Recommendation is voted to be 1. a Recommendation spec has been produced and is waiting for two or more implementations proven to interoperate[6] . one empty and the other nearly full. Runs on Linux. currently the only hosted message queuing service using AMQP. Other changes include the introduction of a queue addressing schema similar to E-mail and XMPP. 2. Implementations These are the known publicly available AMQP implementations: • OpenAMQ [7]. written in C by iMatix.0 Recommendation. federation. adds a web console and many enterprise features.if an Exchange is routing a message to 2 different queues.0 Standard[5] . and replacing these with queues and links. what flow control information should be relayed to the producer and how would that be determined? According to John O'Hara[4] however. then the release of a "public review" spec (PR) which should be reviewed and asked for comments. Also available in the latest 3 versions of Fedora as AMQP Infrastructure [10]. Active-Active clustering using Apache Qpid as upstream.0 Specification to a Standard involves a requirement elicitation phase. . an open-source implementation of AMQP.0 draft in May 2010 The draft 1. As of 29 December 2010. Solaris. When there are at least two implementations that pass a special test coverage. Discontinued by iMatix[8] after their switching to ØMQ. This raises addresses to first-class entities. Windows. The publisher needs to know too much about the receivers topology (what exchanges and exchange types are available).

JMS and the OpenWire as used by ActiveMQ. openamq. org [13] http:/ / www. setf. an HTTP-based message routing and queuing protocol that provides AMQP interoperability through • RestMS an optional profile. In theory AMQP provides interoperability as different AMQP-compliant software can be deployed on the client and server sides. amqp [12] http:/ / libamqp. za/ 2009/ 04/ 19/ to-amqp-or-to-xmpp-that-is-the-question/ . (2007). .116. org/ confluence/ display/ AMQP/ AMQP+ Specification [7] http:/ / www. com/ open/ news/ item/ iMatix-to-drop-OpenAMQ-support-by-2011-968262. pdf). • DE. However. JMS. Ieee Internet Computing 10: 87–89. is often compared to AMQP. doi:10. redhat. amqp.1255424. JMS does not guarantee interoperability between implementations. "Advanced Message Queuing Protocol" (http:/ / steve. [13] . org/ [8] http:/ / www. org/ confluence/ display/ AMQP/ Process+ SIG [6] http:/ / www. (2006). restms. proprietary specifications includes those by the Amazon Simple Queue Service. uses the JMS-like semantics of 'destination'. amqp. com/ mrg [10] http:/ / fedoraproject. like HTTP and XMPP.1145/1255421. com/ lisp/ de.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol 35 Clients There are many clients. There are also vendor specific. net/ pdf/ IEEE-Advanced_Message_Queuing_Protocol. vinoski. including: [11] . pdf). and the JMS-compliant messaging system in use may need to be deployed on both client and server. On the other hand. html [9] http:/ / www. Note that. AMQP does not have a standard API. JMS is an API specification (part of the Java EE specification) that defines how message producers and consumers are implemented. opensourcery. amqp. org/ acmqueue/ digital/ Queuevol5no4_May2007. There has not as yet been a formal comparison of these and other protocols in the same space. IBM WebSphere MQ. [3] http:/ / www. a Common Lisp client library for AMQP. co. . J. org/ wiki/ Features/ AMQP_Infrastructure [11] http:/ / github. org/ pipermail/ amqp-pmc/ 2010-May/ 001319. S.AMQP [12] • libamqp a C client for AMQP 1. Microsoft Message Queuing. a text-based pub-sub protocol developed at Codehaus. acm. Acm Queue 5: 48–55. org/ confluence/ download/ attachments/ 4489238/ amqp-1-0-recommendation-draft. html [5] http:/ / www. doi:10. "Toward a commodity enterprise middleware" (http:/ / www.SETF. AMQP is a wire-level protocol specification. h-online. pdf?version=1& modificationDate=1274281100000 [4] http:/ / lists. amqp.2006. [2] Vinoski. the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. although an informal comparison of XMPP and AMQP may be found here [14].0.1109/MIC. References [1] O'Hara. org/ [14] http:/ / www. Comparative specifications These are the known open specifications that cover the same or similar space as AMQP: • Stomp. the Java Messaging service. • XMPP.

ABC is supported over a variety of network types: IP. References • Alcatel-Lucent OmniPCX 4400 Specifications [1] • Alcatel-Lucent OmniPCX 4400 Networking [2] References [1] http:/ / www1. com/ industry_analysts/ pdf/ pcx_spec.org/news/meetings/workshops/ RT-2007/04-3_Pardo-Castellote-revised.slideshare. It is used to inform the whole network about configuration changes and provides centralized alarms.omg.amqp. • ABC-M: Management. alcatel-lucent.com/alexisrichardson/AMQP+client) Alcatel Business Communications Alcatel Business Communications (ABC) is a proprietary communications protocol written by Alcatel-Lucent that is based on QSIG. pdf [2] http:/ / www.com/2008/09/ rabbitmq-tech-talk-at-google-london. PSTN. ro/ docs/ net. • ABC-A: Applications. pentagon.delicious.com/articles:whats-wrong-with-amqp) — iMatix secession reasons • List of AMQP clients (http://www. break-out.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol 36 External links • AMQP Website (http://www. features available in a single system are available across the entire network. The ABC protocol is based on four modules and offers the following services: • ABC-F: Telephone Features. Offers network-wide applications as both centralized and distributed solutions. Designed to use: least-cost routing. frame relay.org/doc:amqp-background) • OMG Analysis of AMQP and comparison with DDS-RTPS (http://www. about RabbitMQ (http://google-ukdev.org/) • Original background whitepaper (http://www. or leased line. and link optimization on transfer. ATM. forced on-net.net/pieterh/ fosdem-2009) • What is wrong with AMQP (and how to fix it) (http://www. • ABC-R: Routing.pdf) • Google Tech Talk.blogspot. pdf . An adaptive routing mechanism that optimizes the size of network links and improves security.html) • Presentation of AMQP and RestMS messaging at FOSDEM 2009 (http://www. ISDN. automatic route selection. with video and slides.openamq.imatix. Guarantees consistency of databases among all Alcatel OmniPCXs. break-in. Provides telephone feature transparency.

Originally. History The name AMX192 is derived from an acronym of Analog MultipleXing and the maximum number of controllable lighting channels (192).Alternating bit protocol 37 Alternating bit protocol Alternating bit protocol (ABP) is a simple network protocol operating at the data link layer that retransmits lost or corrupted messages. Assume that the channel from A to B is initialized and that there are no messages in transit. D54 was developed in the United Kingdom. This means that A may still receive ACK0 when it is already transmitting messages with sequence number one. Each message from A to B contains a data part and a one-bit sequence number. and differed from AMX192 in that it used an embedded clocking scheme. with the same sequence number. A complements (flips) the sequence number and starts transmitting the next message. The protocol may be initialized by sending bogus messages and acks with sequence number 1. etc. i. Then it starts sending ACK1. AMX192 used a separate differential clock with a driver circuit similar to RS485. but current limited on each leg with 100Ω resistors. until it receives an acknowledgment from B that contains the same sequence number. B has two acknowledge characters that it can send to A: ACK0 and ACK1. The simplest behaviour is to ignore them all and continue transmitting. When that happens. and is typically only found in legacy hardware. When A sends a message. References This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. it starts sending ACK0 and keeps doing so until it receives a valid message with number 1. In the late 1970s the AMX192 serial analogue multiplexing standard was developed in the US. It was developed by Strand Century in the late 1970s. Messages are sent from transmitter A to receiver B.e. AMX was developed to address a significant problems in controlling dimmers. AMX192 AMX192 (often referred to simply as AMX) is an analog lighting communications protocol used to control stage lighting. which is licensed under the GFDL. a value that is 0 or 1. At about the same time. the only method was to provide a dedicated wire from the control unit to each dimmer (analogue control) where the voltage present on the wire was varied by the control unit to set the output level of the dimmer. for many years. In order to send a control signal from a lighting control unit to the dimmer units. it resends it continuously. (And vice-versa. Later. multiple AMX192 streams were supported by some lighting desks. .. AMX192 was only capable of controlling 192 discrete channels of lighting.) It treats such messages as negative-acknowledge characters (NAKs). The first message with sequence number 0 is a real message. AMX192 has now all but been replaced in favour of DMX. When B receives a message that is not corrupted and has sequence number 0. permitting one cable to control several dimmers.

An example could be IPv6-in-UDP-in-IPv4. co. This problem can be solved by tunneling the IPv6 packets over either UDP. it could also directly setup a tunnel with the mobile host. .The tunneled packets should not be spoofable or replayable NAT awareness . source addresses of the transporting protocol on the fly while still being identifiable as the same endpoint. There might also be cases when multiple endpoints are behind the same NAT. the keys.Strand Archive [2] References [1] http:/ / www. when multiple NATs are used. The following diagram illustrates this. Taking into consideration that multiple separate endpoints could be behind the same NAT and/or that the public endpoint can change on the fly. The protocol described in this document is independent of the transport and payload's protocol. thus acting as a normal tunnel situation and for the Remote Host it seems the communication is happening directly. uk/ Anything In Anything Anything In Anything or AYIYA is a tunneling protocol for connecting islands of IP traffic with each other. or when the user has no control at all over the NAT setup. which was meant to solve the problem of the disturbance in end to end communications caused by NATs.This is where the name is derived from Security . which were created because of limited address space in the first place. When the Remote Host does support AYIYA. The protocol addresses the following problems: • • • • Tunneling of any protocol in any protocol . strandarchive.The endpoint of at least one of the two hosts should be able to change The draft itself covers the deep details on how this is accomplished and how the protocol works in detail. needing to be available. com/ [2] http:/ / www. this is impossible as the NAT cannot be configured to forward protocol 41 to a specific host.The tunnel should work over a NAT Mobility . The Remote Host can determine if a host supports AYIYA by looking up properties in DNS and use a Public/Private Key algorithm to authenticate the packets without prior information. strandlight. Using AYIYA for tunnel brokers Many users are currently located behind NATs which prohibit[1] [2] the usage of protocol 41 tunnels (IPv6 tunnelled in IPv4. TCP or even SCTP. there is also a need to identify the endpoint that certain packets are coming from and endpoints need to be able to change e. e. In this case the remote host doesn't need to support AYIYA. Below are some scenarios on how this protocol can be used to solve some problems. This is an undesired situation as it limits the deployment of IPv6.g.g. In some cases. Using AYIYA for mobility AYIYA could be used in a mobility situation for tunneling its Home Address back to the Home Agent.AMX192 38 External links • Strand Lighting Corporate [1] • University of Exeter . circumventing that traffic is sent over the Home Agent. which is a typical setup that can be used by IPv6 tunnel brokers. either RFC 4213 or RFC 3056) unless they manually reconfigure their NAT setup.

31 Identity Length Identity Type Signature Length Hash Method Authentication Method Operation Code Next Header Epoch Time Identity Signature For IPv6 over IPv4-UDP operation.3 0 32 4-7 8 . net/ tools/ ayiya/ ) [2] RFC 4891 External links • SixXS (http://www. as in general use. [1] Implementations The following implementations are available: AICCU References [1] AYIYA (http:/ / www.23 24 . This allows an MTU of 1428 over Ethernet (MTU : 1500).Anything In Anything 39 Using AYIYA to provide IPv6 for an endhost is in effect already providing mobility for that endhost as it can take its IPv6 address along anywhere it wants to go as it signals the Home Agent when the tunnel endpoint changes so that the Home Agent knows where to send new packets. the Identity is the IPv6 Address of the endpoint (16 bytes) and the signature is an SHA1 hash (20 bytes). Packet format Bits 0 .19 20 .net) .11 12 .15 16 . The header is then a total of 8 + 16 + 20 = 52 bytes. More details on the SixXS site. and of course in the draft.sixxs. sixxs.

0 was introduced in Mac OS X Server 10.0 and later is required for network home directories. Compatibility AFP versions 3. Computers using original Mac OS can connect to AFP 3. AFP 3. Version 3.x family supports both TCP/IP (using Data Stream Interface) and AppleTalk for communication and service discovery. The maximum share point and file size increased to 8 tebibytes with Mac OS X Server 10.x.x servers.1.x. Network File System (NFS). named extended attributes. In client operating systems. It was the first version to use the UNIX-style POSIX permissions model and Unicode UTF-8 file name encodings. with some limitations. This was the first version to offer transport connections using TCP/IP as well as AppleTalk.2. installation of the AppleShare client 3.0 represent major advances in the protocol.x" releases of Mac OS X Server. Other literature may refer to AFP as "AppleShare.2. and advanced file locking.[3] (Note that the maximum file size changed from version 2. Mac OS X v10. File Transfer Protocol (FTP).0.8. In Mac OS X.[1] although the maximum file size that could be stored remained at two gibibytes due to limitations in the original Mac OS. 2. Still earlier versions rely exclusively on AppleTalk.x of the protocol. AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB). AppleShare IP 5. the maximum file size in Mac OS 8 is 2 gigabytes.Apple Filing Protocol 40 Apple Filing Protocol The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) is a network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and original Mac OS. and in early "1.1 or later is recommended for connecting to AFP 3.0 supported a maximum share point and file size of two tebibytes. For example.x servers. NFS resharing.[1] These AFP implementations relied on version 1. since Mac OS X requires POSIX permissions on user home directories. and secure AFP connections via Secure Shell (SSH).4 and later eliminates support for AFP servers that rely solely on AppleTalk for communication. supporting AppleTalk only as a service discovery protocol. AFP 3. Notable changes included support for Kerberos authentication.[2] Changes made in AFP since version 3.x.) Before AFP 3. thereby supporting AppleTalk as a connection method.[3] [4] and then to 16 tebibytes . Single sign-on using Kerberos requires AFP 3.0. History Early implementations of AFP server software were available in Mac OS starting with System 6. It also increased the maximum share point size from four gibibytes to two tebibytes. POSIX and access control list permissions." the name of the Mac OS 9 (and earlier) AFP client. AFP was called "Personal File Sharing".2. for versions of original Mac OS prior to 9. and the "1.x or 2.2. For this reason. and WebDAV.8 is required.0 and greater rely exclusively on TCP/IP (port 548 or 427) for establishing communication. in AppleShare and AppleShare IP. 6. resource forks. In Mac OS 9 and earlier.1. and was used through Mac OS X Server 10. Notable current compatibility topics are: 1. However.5.x" releases of Mac OS X Server introduced AFP version 2. automatic client reconnect. AFP was the primary protocol for file services. described above. AFP 3. Typically. AFP currently supports Unicode file names. Mac OS 9. like the AppleShare client in original Mac OS. the AFP client in Mac OS X continues to support type and creator codes. and supported up to ten simultaneous connections.3.1.2. Many third-party AFP implementations use AFP 2. 3.1 was introduced in Mac OS X Server version 10. The AFP 2. along with filename extensions. introducing features designed specifically for Mac OS X clients. the maximum file size and volume size for Mac OS X until version 10. 31 bytes was the maximum length of a filename sent over AFP. some older literature refers to AFP as "AppleTalk Filing Protocol".

Adaptec's Snap Server [16] (AFP 3.Apple Filing Protocol with Mac OS X Server 10. Exanet's ExaStore (AFP 3.2 server support as an option in some versions of Windows (NT. and <share> is the name of the share point. Windows NT Server (3 and 4) only supported AppleTalk.4. 2000 & 2003).x support.x). • Novell's NetWare supports AFP. . Services for Macintosh (SFM). Iomega's Home Media Network Hard Drive [17].[3] [5] AFP 3. • Microsoft includes AFP 2.2 adds support for Access Control Lists and extended attributes in Mac OS X Server 10.1). AFP 3. • The open source Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE [7]) and command-line client implementation afpfs-ng [8] for Linux and Unix-like operating systems • ExtremeZ-IP (AFP 3.4. that has been a main stay on Solaris (on Sparc only) and Irix platforms for the last decade.3 mandates support for Replay Cache functionality (required for Time Machine). users can connect to AFP servers by browsing for them in the Network globe or entering an AFP Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into the Connect to Server dialog.2 [12]).2+ was introduced in Mac OS X Leopard and adds case sensitivity support and improves support for Time Machine (synchronization. In Mac OS X 10. • Xinet [20] has a product. although Apple has not published a limits document for Mac OS X Server 10. an asterisk (*) would be substituted for the zone name. lock stealing. 2000 added AppleShare over IP.1). a URL of the form afp://<server>/<share>/<path> can be used to mount a subdirectory underneath a share point.x). Thecus [15] (AFP 3. Domain Name System (DNS) name. AFP shares are displayed in the Finder side-bar. users can share the contents of their Public folders by checking Personal File Sharing in the Sharing section of System Preferences. and Apple's Time Capsule (AFP 3.3. was removed from Windows Server 2008 onwards. • Jaffer [19] is a Java implementation of Appletalk File Protocol v3.2) [18] being commercial examples and FreeNAS (which uses Netatalk) being a free software example. Mac OS X also offers Personal File Sharing. • Novell Open Enterprise Server supports AFP. • An open source AFP server called Netatalk (AFP 3. [6] • HELIOS UB+ supports AFP on a whole array of different Unix based platforms. In Snow Leopard. Synology's Disk Stations [14] (AFP 3. or Bonjour name.1. AFP URLs take the form: afp://<server>/<share>. AFP URLs for AppleTalk servers took the form: afp:/at/<AppleTalk name>:<AppleTalk zone>.3) and MacServerIP [9] for Windows offer AFP 3. where <server> is the server's IP address.3) is available for Unix-like operating systems. QNAP [13] (AFP 3. For networks without AppleTalk zones.3) NETGEAR's ReadyNAS [11] (AFP 3. In OS X Leopard. [10] . and sleep notifications). a "light" implementation of the current version of AFP. ka-share. • A few NAS solutions support AFP mostly by means of Netatalk: LaCie EtherNet Disk & 12big (AFP 3. Maximum share point size is at least 16 tebibytes.1). • Columbia AppleTalk Protocol (CAP) was an open source implementation of AFP and AppleTalk from Columbia University that has been discontinued and has fallen out of use. 41 The Mac OS X client In Mac OS X Tiger.4 client. Third-party implementations Third party server implementations of AFP are available from a number of companies. AFP 3.

[4] "Mac OS X Server 10.apple.apple.htm) • NewsFactor Network article. xhtml?story_title=How_Secure_Is_OS_X_&story_id=23467) • Macintosh: File System Specifications and Terms (http://docs. cyansoftware. net [8] http:/ / sourceforge.html) • Apple Filing Protocol Reference (http://developer.apple.com/ article.info.newsfactor. htm [10] http:/ / www. [3] "Mac OS X: Mac OS Extended Format . Retrieved 2011-07-23. [6] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-23. netgear. com/ timecapsule/ [19] http:/ / giantlaser.4 (http://manuals.com/MacOs/opentransport/docs/dev/Inside_AppleTalk. snapserver.accsystems. html?artnum=24601).2: Tested and theoretical maximums (limits)" (http:/ / docs. com/ jaffer/ [20] http:/ / www. apple.com/en/File_Services_v10. info. html?artnum=15460).com/glossary.pdf) • Glossary of Networking Terms (http://www. info. info. com/ products_index. Retrieved 2011-07-23. com/ article. . com/ en-us/ products/ network-storage-desktop/ home-network-hard-drives/ home-media/ [18] http:/ / www. com/ article.info. [2] "Mac OS 8.html?artnum=107326) • Inside AppleTalk . de [7] http:/ / fuse.com/mac/library/documentation/Networking/ Reference/AFP_Reference/Reference/reference.info.com/mac/library/documentation/ Networking/Conceptual/AFP/Introduction/Introduction. A (http://www.Volume and File Limits" (http:/ / docs. apple. php?set_language=english [16] http:/ / www.html) . synology. . com/ article.4. com/ MacServerIP. info.apple. readynas. iomega. 9: Mac OS Extended Format . . com/ • File Services Manual for Mac OS X Server 10. [5] "Mac OS X Server 10.pdf) • Apple Filing Protocol Programming Guide (http://developer. com [12] http:/ / www. html?artnum=107684). apple. . thecus.apple. sourceforge. apple.com/article. . htm?id=10007 [11] http:/ / www. com/ Products. com/ us/ products/ range. net/ projects/ afpfs-ng [9] http:/ / www.html?artnum=8647) • Apple Technical Note TN1150 on the HFS Plus Volume Format (http://developer.3: Tested and theoretical maximums (limits)" (http:/ / docs. com/ [15] http:/ / www.html) • Mac OS X: Some Mac OS X Applications and Services Require AFP 3. apple. Retrieved 2011-07-23. com/ [17] http:/ / go.Apple Filing Protocol 42 References [1] "AppleShare & AppleShare IP File Sharing: Chart of All Limitations" (http:/ / docs. info. asp [14] http:/ / www.0 or Later (http://docs. com/ article. apple.Volume and File Limits" (http:/ / docs. helios.original specification for the AppleTalk protocol stack including AFP (http://developer. html?artnum=107323). com/ ?p=4662 [13] http:/ / qnap. xinet.com/story. apple.apple. html?artnum=25557). Retrieved 2011-07-23. lacie.com/technotes/tn/ tn1150. com/ article.

describes the service as Bonjour Sleep Proxy in their support documents. the Sleep Proxy Server sends a special wake-up-packet ("magic packet") to the low-power-mode device. and will automatically wake when someone wishes to browse the iTunes library from a different PC.[2] Apple Inc.Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy) 43 Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy) The Apple Sleep Proxy Service is an open source[1] component of zero configuration networking. without waking it up. communication parameters are updated via Multicast DNS and normal communications proceed. the host can be put back to sleep using the command line instruction: pmset sleepnow. but will wake when needed to service a print job being sent from a different computer. The wireless hardware must be updated enough to include WMM support. Some examples of supported services are:[3] • File sharing: a host supporting the sleep proxy service."[2] This may appear confusing to network administrators who are not expecting the behaviour of changing MAC addresses. • Desktop sharing: similar to above examples.[4] Details Address resolution protocol The sleep proxy service responds to address resolution protocol requests on behalf of the low-power-mode device: "When a Sleep Proxy sees an IPv4 ARP or IPv6 ND Request for one of the sleeping device's addresses.[4] . On Darwin or Macintosh computers. Wireless magic packet In case the low-power-mode device is communicating via Wi-Fi. This was not possible in previous implementations of Wake on LAN (WoL). first offered in Mac OS X Snow Leopard. the wake-up-packet is sent via Wireless Multimedia Extensions (WMM). designed to assist in reducing power consumption of networked electronic devices. • iTunes library sharing: the computer hosting the iTunes library may go to sleep. may go to sleep as needed. while the host computer sleeps. it answers on behalf of the sleeping device. which offers file services.[3] The service supports the Wake on Demand feature. When someone needs to access shared files. giving its own MAC address as the current (temporary) owner of that address. Apple provides instructions for checking compatibility with this feature for Macintosh computers. the host will wake up automatically. . • SSH: a computer offering SSH access may go to sleep. The computer can go to sleep when not in use.[2] A device acting as a sleep proxy server will respond to Multicast DNS queries for another. and awaken via the sleep proxy service when an SSH login is initiated. • Printer sharing: a printer may be connected and shared from a computer supporting sleep proxy service. compatible device which has gone into low power mode.[4] . Finally.[3] Supported services and examples The sleep proxy service is able to advertise any Bonjour-supported services. The low-power-mode device remains asleep while the Sleep Proxy Server responds to any Multicast DNS queries.[2] When the Sleep Proxy Server sees a query which requires the low-power-mode device to wake up.

see Mosaics tab for figures • US 7330986 (http://v3. "How it works". "Energy Saver preference pane" [5] Apple Inc.1 or 7.espacenet. Session 508.2 Apple AirPort Extreme with firmware version 7.com: Snow Leopard und 2009er Macs: Wake on WLAN (German.2) Apple Time Capsule[3] Computers running Mac OS X Snow Leopard act as a Bonjour sleep proxy server when Internet sharing is enabled.html) • Macrumors. Apple. which includes a full implementation of the DNS-SD/mDNS Sleep Proxy Service. available under the Apache 2. "Wake on Demand lets Snow Leopard sleep with one eye open" (http:/ / www. pdf) External links • US 7107442 (http://v3.org. apple.6: About Wake on Demand (Apple Article HT3774)" (http:/ / support. .com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US7107442). . (http:/ / tools. Macworld. see Mosaics tab for figures • US 7447757 (http://v3. ietf.edu/yuvraj/research/documents/Agarwal-Usenix10-SleepServers. com/ kb/ HT3774) (in several languages).fscklog. Retrieved 2009-09-15. • • • • • Apple AirPort Express with firmware version 7. Zero Configuration Networking Using Bonjour (http:/ / devimages. [3] "Mac OS X v10.com/apps/pubs/default. html). Usenix 2010.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US7447757).com/ 2009/08/snow-leopard-und-2009er-macs-wake-on-wlan.microsoft. • Microsoft Research: Sleepless In Seattle No Longer (http://research. .com: A Closer Look at Snow Leopard's Wake on Demand Feature (http://www. macworld.. Deutsch) (http://www. Apple Inc. Retrieved 2010-05-30.com. Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) 2009. apple. "Setting up a Bonjour Sleep Proxy" [4] Glenn Fleishman (2009-08-28).4.[5] [3] References [1] Note: see mDNSResponder source code at www. "Internet Draft: draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-11" (http:/ / tools.1 or 7.apple.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US7330986).0. Usenix 2010.4. pdf) 22 June 2010.com/source/mDNSResponder/mDNSResponder-212.macrumors.espacenet.com/ 2009/08/28/a-closer-look-at-snow-leopards-wake-on-demand-feature/) • opensource. org/ html/ draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns) [2] Marc Krochmal (2010-03-23). com/ article/ 142468/ 2009/ 08/ wake_on_demand. "Setting up Wake on Demand". org/ html/ draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns). see Mosaics tab for figures • Fscklog. This list is incomplete. com/ products/ video/ wwdc09/ wwdc09iphonesessionlist. aspx?id=131390) 22 June 2010.4.2[3] Legacy AppleTVs (confirmed for version 3.espacenet.1/mDNSMacOSX/) • UC San Diego: SleepServer: A Software-Only Approach for Reducing the Energy Consumption of PCs within Enterprise Environments (http://mesl. opensource. 2009-08-27.apple.ucsd.Apple Sleep Proxy Service (Bonjour Sleep Proxy) 44 Implementations Implementations on a local area network can be seen with Bonjour Browser.4. Retrieved 2009-09-15.macosforge. ietf.com: Open-source mDNS implementation including the sleep proxy service (http://www.0 Open Source license. .

Design The AppleTalk design rigorously followed the OSI model of protocol layering. many portions of the AppleTalk system have direct analogs in XNS." Together AARP and NBP made AppleTalk an easy-to-use networking system. Banyan VINES for instance. On larger networks where AARP could cause problems as new nodes searched for free addresses. but is now unsupported as of the release of Mac OS X v10. although AppleTalk was supported for backwards compatibility at first. Both AARP and NBP had defined ways to allow "controller" devices to override the default mechanisms. This consisted of a two-byte network number. New machines were added to the network by plugging them and optionally giving them a name. Internet-based protocols were used as the defaults. History AppleTalk was intended to be part of a project known as Macintosh Office. Despite this. Apart from these. For socket numbers. users could not be expected to access services by specifying their address. The concept was to allow routers to provide the information or "hardwire" the system to known addresses and names. Because of this dynamism. for networking computers. and a one-byte socket number.6 in 2009[1] in favor of TCP/IP networking. AARP)[2] which handled contention between different nodes accidentally choosing the same number.[1] Addressing An AppleTalk address was a 4-byte quantity. according to a protocol (originally the LocalTalk Link Access Protocol LLAP and later the AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol. However this project was canceled in 1986. being obtained from a router. being chosen by humans. which would consist of a host machine providing routing. and it did not have 48-bit addresses to route. Instead. Apple later released an AppleTalk server suite known as AppleShare. all services had names which. divided into classes such as file-servers and printers. Nevertheless.5 was the last Apple OS to support AppleTalk. printer sharing and file sharing. a few well-known numbers were reserved for special purposes specific to the AppleTalk protocol itself. AppleTalk was largely displaced. The AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP) allowed AppleTalk hosts to automatically generate their own network addresses. AppleTalk's Datagram Delivery Protocol corresponds closely to the Network layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model. the LaserWriter included built-in AppleTalk. It was included in the original Macintosh released in 1984. AppleTalk was not built using the archetypal Xerox XNS system. Mac OS X v10. nothing like NBP has existed until recently. With the introduction of Mac OS X. Unlike most of the early LAN systems. Although systems similar to AARP existed in other systems. Of these. and included basic AppleTalk features as the default network protocol in later releases of "classic" Mac OS (System). The NBP lists were examined and displayed by a program known as the Chooser which would display a list of machines on the local network. Each node dynamically chose its own node number.AppleTalk 45 AppleTalk AppleTalk is a proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple Inc. all application-level protocols were expected to use dynamically-assigned socket numbers at both the client and server end. could be expected to be meaningful to users. and the Name Binding Protocol (NBP) was a dynamic system for mapping network addresses to user-readable names. a one-byte node number. The intended target was not Ethernet. only the network number required any configuration. One key differentiation for AppleTalk was it contained three protocols aimed at making the system completely self-configuring. the addition of a router could reduce "chattiness. and also could be .

e. Thus. so long as they kept the same service name. there was no need for users to do anything different to continue accessing the service. And the same machine could host any number of instances of services of the same type. done when it became clear that a TCP-style reliable connection-oriented transport was needed. which is much closer to the AppleTalk model. even though most other AppleTalk protocols have been deprecated. which was entirely separate from the name of the machine itself. 0.AppleTalk sufficiently long enough to minimize the chance of conflicts. but there is no way of guaranteeing that users will follow such a convention. their access will break when the service is moved to a different machine. Built on top of AppleTalk Session Protocol (for legacy AFP over DDP) or the Data Stream Interface (for AFP over TCP).) 46 Protocols AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol AARP resolves AppleTalk addresses to physical layer. so for performance purposes the successful address is "written down" in NVRAM and used as the default address in the future. AARP is a fairly simple system. AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol This was a comparatively late addition to the AppleTalk protocol suite. is the protocol for communicating with AppleShare file servers. It is functionally equivalent to ARP. where a name translates only to a machine address. because a name translated to an address. On a network with many machines it may take several tries before a free address is found. and keep trying until it finds a free one. This means that in most real-world setups where machines are added a few at a time. . services could be moved to a different machine and. (Some newer protocols. which included a socket number as well as a node number. a name in AppleTalk mapped directly to a service being provided by a machine. It then broadcasts another packet saying "I am selecting this address". Contrast this with A records in the DNS. AFP is still in use in Mac OS X. and then waits to see if anyone else on the network complains. it provides services for authenticating users (extensible to different authentication methods including two-way random-number exchange) and for performing operations specific to the Macintosh HFS filesystem. addresses. Apple Filing Protocol The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP). it will pick another address. not including the port number that might be providing a service. such as Kerberos and Active Directory use DNS SRV records to identify services by name. only one or two tries are needed before the address effectively become constant. formerly AppleTalk Filing Protocol. This can be mitigated somewhat by insistence on using CNAME records indicating service rather than actual machine names to refer to the service. the whole connection would be closed (i. an AppleTalk machine broadcasts an AARP probe packet asking for a network address. if people are accustomed to using a particular machine name to access a particular service. Note that. without any network connection conflicts. If another machine has that address.. If no address is provided. Significant differences from TCP were: • a connection attempt could be rejected • there were no "half-open" connections. ADSP is full-duplex. once one end initiated a tear-down of the connection. intending to hear back from controllers such as routers. When powered on. Thus. not dual simplex). usually MAC. one is picked at random from the "base subnet".

Even while it was busy servicing a print job from one client. the responder kept a copy of the response buffers in memory until successful receipt of a release packet from the requestor. it registered a name for itself on that machine. without performing the actual operation again. built on top of ATP. AppleTalk Transaction Protocol ATP was the original reliable transport-level protocol for AppleTalk. Exactly-once mode was essential for operations which were not idempotent. when a client wanted to access that service. All application-level protocols. or until a timeout elapsed. At the time it was being developed. each end sent the other an ATP request which basically meant "send me more data". NBP provided browseability ("what are the names of all the services available?") as well as the ability to find a service with a particular name. Name Binding Protocol NBP was a dynamic. handled by separate ATP transactions. with no need to set up or tear down connections. containing spaces. as chosen by a human administrator. It also allowed the server to send asynchronous attention messages to the client. reliable connection-oriented protocol like TCP was considered to be too expensive to implement for most of the intended uses of AppleTalk. Names were human readable. a PAP server could continue to respond to status requests from any number of other clients. When a PAP connection was opened. Then later. It provided a datagram service with no guarantees of delivery. RTMP and ZIP. ATP was a simple request/response exchange. Thus. which in turn was the foundation of AFP. a full. it could respond to duplicate requests with the same transaction ID by resending the same response data. PAP also provided for out-of-band status queries. upper and lower case letters. Printer Access Protocol PAP was the standard way of communicating with PostScript printers. The requestor then sent an acknowledgement packet containing a bit mask indicating which of the response packets it received. An ATP request packet could be answered by up to eight response packets. and what the job was that it was busy with. ATP could operate in either "at-least-once" mode or "exactly-once" mode.** Datagram Delivery Protocol DDP was the lowest-level data-link-independent transport protocol. and including support for searching. This use of ATP provided automatic flow control. built on top of DDP. NBP provided a system for checking that no other machine had already registered the same name. When a service started up on a machine. so the responder could retransmit the remainder. . distributed system for managing AppleTalk names. in this mode. it used NBP to query machines to find that service. were built on top of DDP. It was built on top of ATP. The client's response to the server was to send a block of PostScript code. At this point.AppleTalk 47 AppleTalk Session Protocol ASP was an intermediate protocol. after which another "send-more-data" request was sent. while the server could respond with any diagnostic messages that might be generated as a result. including the infrastructure protocols NBP. It provided basic services for requesting responses to arbitrary commands and performing out-of-band status queries. This way. This allowed other Macintoshes on the LAN that were waiting to print to display status messages indicating that the printer was busy. each end could only send data to the other end if there was an outstanding ATP request to respond to.

and IPX. a 3rd party solution (from a company called Farallon. but at the time the additional cost and complexity of networking on PC machines was such that it was common that Macs were the only networked personal computers in an office. each router had to send out a list of all the network numbers it knew about and how far away it thought they were. The system was slow by today's standards. Ethernet and Token Ring was also supported. EtherTalk in particular gradually became the dominant implementation method for AppleTalk as Ethernet became generally popular in the PC industry throughout the 1990s. but while a network number had to be assigned to a topologically-contiguous section of the network. known as EtherTalk and TokenTalk respectively.AppleTalk 48 Routing Table Maintenance Protocol RTMP was the protocol by which routers kept each other informed about the topology of the network. LocalTalk used a splitter box in the RS-422 port to provide an upstream and downstream cable from a single port. Besides AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other physical implementations were also available. a zone could include several different discontiguous portions of the network. One common replacement for LocalTalk was PhoneNet.4 kbit/s. This was the only part of AppleTalk that required periodic unsolicited broadcasts: every 10 seconds. A zone was a subdivision of the network that made sense to humans (for example. any Ethernet network could also simultaneously carry other protocols such as DECnet. such as UNIX or VAX workstations. Physical implementation The initial default hardware implementation for AppleTalk was a high-speed serial protocol known as LocalTalk that used the Macintosh's built-in RS-422 ports at 230. up to the maximum of 32 permitted on any LocalTalk segment. NetBEUI. would commonly be networked via Ethernet. Networking model . but ran over the two unused wires in standard four-wire phone cabling. "Accounting Department"). now called Netopia) that also used the RS-422 port and was indistinguishable from LocalTalk as far as Apple's LocalTalk port drivers were concerned. Zone Information Protocol ZIP was the protocol by which AppleTalk network numbers were associated with zone names. The topology was a bus: cables were daisy-chained from each connected machine to the next. PhoneNet was considerably less expensive to install and maintain. Other larger computers.

2 System 7.12 System 7.3 60.3 60.6 Mac OS X 10. drive and printer sharing.1.1 3. it allowed communication between PCs and Macs with TOPS software installed.0.0a6 3.3 Notes Cross-platform solutions When AppleTalk was first introduced the dominant office computing platform was the PC compatible running MS-DOS.0.0 System 7.0. but the DOS software was relatively simple to use in DOS terms.3 Mac OS X v10.4 Open Transport 1.0 3. and was robust. it comprised an AppleTalk interface card for the PC and a suite of networking software allowing such functions as file.1 58. (Macs without TOPS installed could use the same network but only to communicate with other Apple machines. As well as allowing the construction of a PC-only AppleTalk network.3 Open Transport 2. The BSD and Linux operating systems support AppleTalk through an open source project called Netatalk. The "TOPS Teleconnector"[3] system enabled MS-DOS PCs to communicate over AppleTalk network hardware. which implements the complete protocol suite and allows them to both act as native file or print servers for Macintosh .AppleTalk 49 OSI Model Corresponding AppleTalk layers Application Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) Presentation Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) Session Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) Transport AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP) Name Binding Protocol (NBP) Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) Network Data link Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) EtherTalk Link Access Protocol (ELAP) LocalTalk Link Access Protocol (LLAP) TokenTalk Link Access Protocol (TLAP) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical LocalTalk driver Ethernet driver Token Ring driver FDDI driver Versions AppleTalk version 56 57.6.1.1.5 Mac OS 7.3 Mac OS X v10.1 Mac OS 8.4 58.) The Mac TOPS software did not match the quality of Apple's own either in ease of use or in robustness and freedom from crashes.2 Apple Filing Protocol Corresponds to System 7.

143.0.0.0.143. The Windows Server operating systems supported AppleTalk starting with Windows NT and ending after Windows Server 2003.AppleTalk computers.0/16 -p tcp --dport 427 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128.0/16 -p tcp --dport 204 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.0.143. and print to LocalTalk printers over the network.143.143. This is essentially a File and Print Server suite that runs on a whole range of different platforms.0/16 -p tcp --dport 206 -j ACCEPT # Multiport variant of the netatalk ports above.201.0/16 -p tcp --dport 548 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.54. Miramar included AppleTalk in its PC MacLAN product which was discontinued by CA in 2007.143.54.0/16 -p tcp --dport 202 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.0/16 -p tcp --dport 548 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128. as part of their HELIOS UB2 server.0.0/16 -p udp --dport 427 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.0/16 -p tcp --dport 206 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.204.143. Columbia University released the Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP) which implemented the protocol suite for various Unix flavors including Ultrix.0/16 -p tcp --dport 201 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128.0. # I'm not quite sure why 427 is missing.0/16 -p udp --dport 427 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128.54. 50 Ports Used Sample [5] iptables rules to allow Netatalk access # Netatalk needs a flock of ports.54.54.54.0.0. -A UVAfw -m multiport -s 128. SunOS. # This is the one-line-per-port example.0. This package is no longer actively maintained.0. *BSD and IRIX. Group Logic continues to bundle its AppleTalk protocol with its ExtremeZ-IP server software for Macintosh-Windows integration which supports Windows 2008 Server and Windows Vista as well prior versions.0/16 -p tcp --dport 201 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.0.202.0/16 -p tcp --dport 202 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128.0.0.0. In addition.143. HELIOS Software GmbH [4] offers a proprietary implementation of the AppleTalk protocol stack.206 -j ACCEPT .0/16 -p tcp --dport 427 -j ACCEPT #-A UVAfw -s 137.0/16 -p tcp --dport 204 -j ACCEPT -A UVAfw -s 128. and should work with # older versions of iptables. -A UVAfw -s 128.0/16 -p tcp --dports 548.54.0.

2 / srwc-2. [2] Sidhu. com [5] http:/ / defindit. com/ news/ tops_unveils_interface_to_link_ms_dos_micros_to_appletalk_networks_1) MS-DOS networking system over AppleTalk [4] http:/ / www. pp.x: AppleTalk and ADSP Versions (http://docs. . The software bundle is often referred to as SRS (Sun Ray Software). Gursharan. binary protocol The client tells the server via the Session Protocol which UDP port (c) to use. com/ readme_files/ iptables. Details about ALP can be found there as well. com/ kb/ HT3771). 1–1ff. Rick Andrews and Alan Oppenheimer (1990). Mass.html) • System 7. ALP consists of several components: Session Protocol (ALSP) Client -> Server TCP port 7009 ASCII/text based Render Protocol (ALRP) GFX: Server UDP port g <-> Client UDP port c AUDIO: Server UDP port a <-> Client UDP port c random ports (g.info. A different set of packet sequence numbers are used for the GFX and AUDIO commands.2).html?artnum=10151& coll=ap) Appliance Link Protocol The Appliance Link Protocol (ALP) is used by Sun Ray ultra thin clients to talk to Sun Ray servers. Retrieved on 2009-09-02. cbronline. apple.com/article. Reading. Look at SoftRay for an open (work in progress) implementation in Java. c). if the ray server and client are communicating unencrypted (man utpolicy).: Addison Wesley. Inside AppleTalk. helios.6: Mac 101 – Printing" (http:/ / support. Suns client is limited to connect from Windows and Mac OS X (can work from Linux via Wine) to a SRS5 server only.apple. Device Protocol (ALDP) Client -> Server TCP port 7011 The protocol can be seen with a network scanner. The closed source implementation of the Sun Ray Server Software (srss) is developed and distributed by Sun Microsystems. Second Edition.x.AppleTalk 51 References [1] "Mac OS X v10. [3] TOPS Teleconnector (http:/ / www. Sun has released a (closed source) client in SRS5 (Sun Ray Software 5: srss-4. ISBN 0-201-55021-0.com/network/apt. html a External links • AppleTalk – Directory & Informational Resource (http://softtechinfo. a.

and Datapoint had become a Fortune 500 company. combined with the greater raw speed of Ethernet (10 Mbit/s. The move to non-proprietary. ARCNET remained proprietary until the early-to-mid 1980s. making no assumptions about the type of computers that would be connected. The token-passing bus protocol of that I/O device-sharing network was subsequently applied to allowing processing nodes to communicate with each other for file-serving and computing scalability purposes. and introduced in 1992. When the number of users outgrew the capacity of the original computer. ARCNET was eventually standardized as ANSI ARCNET 878. notably Standard Microsystems who produced systems based on a single VLSI chip. Intel and Xerox (the DIX consortium) published an open standard for Ethernet that was soon adopted as the basis of standardization by the IEEE and the ISO. ARCnet Plus ran at 20 Mbit/s. where certain features of the protocol are especially useful. more flexible.[1] It was the first loosely-coupled LAN-based clustering solution. It appears this was when the name changed from ARCnet to ARCNET. As a result. and was backward compatible with original ARCnet equipment. Easier cabling. a new standard called ARCnet Plus was developed by Datapoint. mainly by Datapoint. running the same applications and accessing the same data.1. very few ARCnet Plus products were ever produced. Those that were built. where a homogeneous group of similar or proprietary computers were connected as a cluster. When Ethernet moved from co-axial cable to twisted pair and an "interconnected stars" cabling topology based on active hubs. This did not cause concern at the time. In response to greater bandwidth needs. open systems began as a response to the dominance of International Business Machines (IBM) and its Systems Network Architecture (SNA). Datapoint eventually found itself in financial trouble and eventually moved into . However. well-proven and reliable ARCNET was also offered as an inexpensive LAN for these machines. Digital. in 1980. originally developed as custom LSI for Datapoint. Other companies entered the market. and by the late 1980s it had a market share about equal to that of Ethernet. Ethernet had captured the majority of the network market. Then. and hard to find.ARCNET 52 ARCNET ARCNET (also CamelCased as ARCnet. and there was little incentive for users to move back to ARCnet. it became much more attractive. ARCNET was less expensive than either. more reliable. additional 'compute' resource computers could be attached via ARCNET. and as more companies entered the market the price of Ethernet started to fall—and ARCNET (and Token Ring) volumes tapered off. were expensive. History ARCNET was developed by principal development engineer John Murphy at Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977. As microcomputers took over the industry. Datapoint's proprietary COBOL-like language and deployed on a single computer with dumb terminals. an acronym from Attached Resource Computer NETwork) is a local area network (LAN) protocol. as compared with 2. This was in contrast to contemporary larger and more expensive computer systems such as DECnet or SNA. An application could be developed in DATABUS. ARCNET was the first widely available networking system for microcomputers and became popular in the 1980s for office automation tasks. additional disk resource computers could also be attached. This incremental approach broke new ground and by the end of the 1970s (before the first cassette-based IBM PC was announced in 1981) over ten thousand ARCnet LAN installations were in commercial use around the world. It has since gained a following in the embedded systems market. by the time ARCnet Plus products were ready for the market. and the challenge of Ethernet. the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model) was published. as most network architectures were proprietary. but later made available by Standard Microsystems to other customers. If more storage was needed. similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. In 1979. IBM responded by proposing Token Ring as an alternative to Ethernet but kept such tight control over standardization that competitors were wary of using it.5 Mbit/s for ARCnet) helped to increase Ethernet demand.

Another was cable distance – ARCNET coax cable runs could extend 610 m (2000ft) between active hubs or between an active hub and an end node. One was the star-wired bus. and Ethernet costs dropped.ARCNET video conferencing and (later) custom programming in the embedded market. ARCNET. sends its message. At the time of its greatest popularity ARCNET enjoyed two major advantages over Ethernet. ARCNET ultimately gave way to Ethernet as improved processor speeds reduced the impact of collisions on overall throughput. it waits to receive the token. the "interconnected stars" cabling topology made it easy to add and remove nodes without taking the whole network down. 53 Description Original ARCNET used RG-62/U coax cable of 93 Ω impedance and either passive or active hubs in a star-wired bus topology. Passive hubs limited the distance between node and active hub to 30 m (100ft). and when a new node joins the network a "reconfig" occurs. like Token Ring. but was much more predictable. but the ARCNET passive hubs were very inexpensive. while the RG-58 (50Ω) ‘thin’ Ethernet most widely used at that time was limited to a maximum run of 183 m (600ft) from end to end. In the early 1980s ARCNET was much cheaper than Ethernet. rather than the carrier sense multiple access approach of Ethernet. each node is assigned an 8 bit address (usually via DIP switches). More importantly. in particular for PCs. . permitting much faster fault recovery within the higher level protocols (rather than having to wait for a timeout on the expected replies). For example in 1985 SMC sold ARCNET cards for around 300 USD whilst an Ungermann-Bass Ethernet card plus transceiver could cost 500 USD. An Ethernet network could collapse when too busy due to excessive collisions. wherein each node learns the address of the node immediately above it. this was much easier to build and expand (and was more readily maintainable) than the clumsy linear bus Ethernet of the time. since an initial inquiry (done at hardware level) establishes that the recipient is able and ready to receive the larger message before it is sent across the bus. there are still a few references left in common. and no peer is allowed to use the bus unless it has the token. ARCNET required either an active or passive hub between nodes if there were more than two nodes in the network. The token is then passed directly from one node to the next. the general case was equivalent and the worst case was dramatically better. Historically. including ARCNET. ARCNET also has the advantage that it achieved its best aggregate performance under the highest loading. An ARCNET would keep on going at normal (or even better) throughput. approaching asymptotically its maximum throughput. Of course. but Ethernet's performance degraded drastically if too many peers attempted to broadcast at the same time. each approach had its advantages: ARCNET added a small delay on an inactive network as a sending station waited to receive the token. Although 2. a single "token" message is passed around the network from machine to machine. Because ARCNET is implemented as a distributed star. To mediate access to the bus. Instead. and much easier to diagnose and isolate failures within a complex LAN. When you fast forward to 00:48:20 you can see that ARCNET is being used. and then passes the token on to the next station. uses a token passing scheme.5 Mbit/s ARCNET could at one time outperform a 10 Mbit/s Ethernet in a busy office on slow processors. while thin Ethernet allowed nodes to be spaced anywhere along the linear coax cable. ARCnet also doesn't waste network time transmitting to a node not ready to receive the message. Throughput on a multi-node collision-based Ethernet was limited to between 40% and 60% of bandwidth usage (depending on source). Another significant difference is that ARCNET provides the sender with a concrete acknowledgment (or not) of successful delivery at the receiving end before the token passes on to the next node. While the best case performance was less than Ethernet. due to the time required for the slower processors of the day to process and recover from collisions. The American movie Hackers (1995) for example still uses some old computer protocols. Even though ARCNET is not used anymore. When peers are inactive. If a particular peer wishes to send a message. ARCNET had slightly lower best-case performance (viewed by a single stream). the token cannot be passed machine to machine around a ring.

which also supported RG-62. 54 References [1] "History". In the early 90s. This made ARCNET an ideal real-time networking system.ARCNET One further advantage that ARCNET enjoyed over collision-based Ethernet is that it guarantees equitable access to the bus by everyone on the network. com/ abtarc. twisted-pair. ARCNET Trade Association (http:/ / www.fundinguniverse. but is much more expensive to implement than ARCNET. Although it might take a short time to get the token depending on the number of nodes and the size of the messages currently being sent about. TCNS enjoyed some success until the availability of lower-cost 100 Mbit/s Ethernet put an end to the general deployment of ARCNET. thus it is deterministic.5 Mbit/s). At ARCNET's lower speeds (2.html) . but later added support for twisted-pair and fibre media. far beyond anything Ethernet could do on any kind of copper cable. htm#history) External links • ARCNET Trade Association (http://www. including ARCnet / ARCnet Plus Development (http://www. Some ARCNET twisted-pair products supported cable runs over 2000' on standard Cat-3 cable. Thomas-Conrad Corporation developed a 100 Mbit/s topology called TCNS based on the ARCNET protocol. you will always receive it within a predictable maximum time.com/ company-histories/Datapoint-Corporation-Company-History. In spite of ARCNET's deterministic operation and historic suitability for real-time environments such as process control. At first the system was deployed using RG-62/U coax cable (commonly used in IBM mainframe environments to connect 3270 terminals and controllers).arcnet. Token Ring has similar qualities. which explains its use in the embedded systems and process control markets. and fiber optic media. the general availability of switched gigabit Ethernet and Quality of service capabilities in Ethernet switches has all but eliminated ARCNET today. arcnet. Cat-3 cable is good enough to run ARCNET.com/) • History of Datapoint.

Technical Art-Net is a "broadcast" protocol in which messages are broadcast to all connected devices. See Also • Architecture for Control Networks. Protocol revision Q works around this problem by adding the 10. Up to sixteen DMX512 universes can be accessed through one IP subnet. .0.0. [2] http:/ / www. the protocol operates on the 2. com/ WebSiteMaster/ User%20Guides/ art-net.Art-Net 55 Art-Net Art-Net is a proprietary protocol for transmitting DMX512-A (with RDM) over UDP/IP.0. By default. This network address is problematic when used in LANs [1] having Internet gateways. pdf . because it falls within the range of IP addresses allocated for public networks. iana.0. Artistic Licence (UK) Ltd. a network protocol for theatrical control over UDP/IP • Protocol for Stage Illumination (PSI). secondary addressing scheme. artisticlicence. The protocol was developed by Wayne Howell and his company.0/8 network.0/8 private network as an optional. org/ assignments/ ipv4-address-space/ ). an open protocol for native communication over IP networks External links • Art-Net protocol specification [2] References [1] "IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry" (http:/ / www.

11+) Third-party Third-party Third-party Third-party Third-party Native (4. designed for simple. qaoed[15]. Hardware support The Coraid [16] company offers an array of AoE SAN appliances under the EtherDrive brand. ggaoed[14]. The miniSAN product family offers standard AoE server functions plus other management features that targets PC. Operating system support The following operating systems provide ATA over Ethernet (AoE) support: OS Linux Windows Mac OS X 10. a userspace daemon that is part of the aoetools package.5 and 10. kvblade[13].6. and WinVBlock [5] Third-party drivers StarWind Software AoE Initiator 2DegreesFrost [6] [7] Small Tree Communications Coraid Coraid [8] [9] (outdated) Linux target support Linux can function as an AoE target using one of these independently-developed implementations: • • • • vblade[12]. along with diskless gateways that add network-attached storage functionality.5-current) Third-party [11] Native Coraid [10] Coraid [2] [3] . It is used to build storage area networks (SANs) with low-cost. a multithreaded userspace daemon. . a userspace daemon that takes advantage of Linux-specific performance features. standard technologies. to one or more AoE appliances. high-performance access of SATA storage devices over Ethernet networks. In 2007 LayerWalker[17] announced the world's first single-chip AoE hardware solution called miniSAN[18] running at both Fast and Gigabit Ethernet grades. using the NFS or SMB protocols. a Linux kernel module. WinAoE [4] .ATA over Ethernet 56 ATA over Ethernet ATA over Ethernet (AoE) is a network protocol developed by the Brantley Coile Company[1] .4 and up Mac OS X 10.6 Solaris FreeBSD OpenBSD VMware Plan 9 from Bell Labs Support Native (2. consumer and SMB markets.

This approach makes AoE more lightweight (with less load on the host). this is fine. The encapsulation of ATA provided by AoE is simple and low-level. an intruder can't connect through a router—they must physically plug into the local Ethernet switch where Ethernet frame tunneling over routed networks is not in use). AoE encapsulates those commands inside Ethernet frames and lets them travel over an Ethernet network instead of a SATA or 40-pin ribbon cable. When more than one AoE initiator is using an AoE target they must communicate to avoid interfering with one another as they read and write the config string data on the shared AoE device. The AoE specification is 12 pages compared with [19] iSCSI's 257 pages. AoE does not use internet protocol (IP). it cannot be accessed over the Internet or other IP networks. write. One option provided by AoE is to use the storage device itself as the mechanism for determining specific host [20] . provides a [1] layer of inherent security. allowing the translation to happen either at high performance or inside a small. support access lists ("masks") allowing connections only from specific MAC addresses (which can be spoofed). Without this cooperation file-system corruption and data loss is likely. a set of computers connected to the same switch or in the same VLAN). this means that routers cannot be used to route a packet across disparate networks (such as the Internet). The other host is informed of the conflict. as well as access. The config string can record who is using the device. This is the AoE "config string" feature other information. only one succeeds. there are no AoE-specific mechanisms for password verification or encryption. such as read. or both. Certain AoE targets such as Coraid Storage appliances. instead of an intermediate protocol such as TCP/IP. Security The non-routability of AoE is the only security mechanism (ie.ATA over Ethernet 57 Protocol description AoE runs on layer 2 Ethernet. unless access is strictly read-only or a cluster file system is used). and status. This reduces the significant CPU overhead of TCP/IP. vblade and GGAOED. makes it easier to implement. There are more serious concerns for a larger/enterprise environment. and offers higher performance. embedded device. From a home-use perspective. Config string The AoE protocol provides a mechanism for host-based cooperative locking. ATA encapsulation SATA (and older PATA) hard drives use the Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) protocol to issue commands. Instead. In this regard it is more comparable to Fibre Channel over Ethernet than iSCSI. the host operating system is able to access a remote disk as if it were directly attached. However. However. If more than one host tries to set the config string simultaneously. Routability AoE runs directly on top of Ethernet. By using an AoE driver. AoE packets can travel within a single local Ethernet storage area network (eg. .

It is easier to reallocate storage capacity. Leffler and Robert S. com/ documents/ AoEr11. Hopkins. Joy. Such filesystems may be used.The Mac Network Experts (http:/ / www. coraid. Berkeley. and placed on the network. Direct connection. org/ ): A bootable. can also be used. Instead. Cloud. boot-land. University of California. Linux Support for EtherDrive (R) Storage (http:/ / support. 2degreesfrost. Samuel J. unlike a SATA or SCSI disk a SAN hard drive may be accessed by multiple machines. coraid. However. file-backed disks and RAM disks created with MEMDISK and GRUB4DOS [6] Home (http:/ / www. [2] [3] [4] [5] [1] S. Coile (2009-02). . com/ ) [8] Coraid Solaris Support (http:/ / support. coraid. Traditional filesystems (such as FAT or ext3) are designed to be accessed by a single host. Technical Report The Brantley Coile Company. Hopkins. Technical Report Computer Systems Research Group.. and will cause unpredictable behavior if accessed by multiple machines. B. Additionally. A SAN interface is similar in principle to non-networked interfaces such as SATA or SCSI. To understand and evaluate these storage scenarios. open source AoE initiator WinVBlock Driver (http:/ / www. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. net/ projects/ aoetools/ kvblade [14] http:/ / code. bell-labs. These filesystems can be used to allow multiple machines access to the same AoE target without an intermediate server or filesystem (and at higher performance). References • S. txt). Storage area networks A SAN allows the physical hard drive to be removed from the server that uses it. it opens up a complex realm of storage possibilities. and Enterprise Storage (http:/ / www. Data may be shared. coraid. Berkeley. com/ support/ solaris/ ) [9] FreeBSD Support (http:/ / support. Coile. Fabry. they will connect to a server that uses a SAN disk instead of a local disk.ATA over Ethernet 58 Related concepts Although AoE is a simple network protocol. net/ projects/ aoetools/ vblade [13] http:/ / sourceforge. William N. com/ ) [17] LayerWalker Technology. Inc. starwindsoftware. com/ ) [7] Small Tree . and AoE provides mechanisms whereby an AoE target can be guarded against simultaneous access (see: Config String). This is a source of both danger and opportunity. Retrieved 2011-01-23. ATA over Ethernet Specification [21]. A Fast File System for UNIX [22] . Shared disk file systems allow multiple machines to use a single hard disk safely by coordinating simultaneous access to individual files. com/ download/ miniSAN-brief-1. com/ support/ freebsd/ ) [10] CORAID Support . php?showtopic=8168): A WinAoE fork capable of booting AoE targets. small-tree.AoE Experts (http:/ / www. layerwalker. . com/ plan9/ ) [12] http:/ / sourceforge. it helps to be familiar with a few concepts. "AoE (ATA over Ethernet)" (http:/ / support. com/ support/ esx/ ) [11] Plan 9 from Bell Labs (http:/ / cm. com/ p/ ggaoed/ [15] http:/ / code. 0. the host must format it with a filesystem. google. net/ forums/ index. there are several potential advantages over a local disk: • • • • It is easier to add storage capacity and the amount of storage is practically unlimited. When using a SAN network to access storage. google. coraid.EtherDrive ESX HBA Driver (http:/ / support. B. coraid. however. com/ aoe-ataoverethernet-initiator) WinAoE Driver (http:/ / winaoe. compared to other forms of networked storage. com/ support/ linux/ ) StarWind Free AoE Initiator for Microsoft Windows (http:/ / www. Inc. com/ p/ qaoed/ [16] CORAID EtherDrive: Ethernet SAN for Virtualization. pdf . Most users will not use a SAN interface directly. • Marshall Kirk McKusick. SANs are low-level and high performance Utilizing storage area networks To utilize a SAN disk. Computer Science Division. com/ ) [18] http:/ / www. CA 94720. layerwalker.

com/ documents/ AoEr11.g. which are not based on ATM. asynchronous traffic (e.com (23 June 2004) • The ATA over Ethernet (AoE) Protocol (http://www.com/article/8149) — Linux Journal (28 April 2005) • ATA-over-Ethernet enables low-cost Linux-oriented SAN (http://linuxdevices.com/news/NS3189760067.pdf) Coraid. Examples include T1 (DS1). Erik. connection oriented traffic.coraid.Linux man page" (http:/ / linux.net. The classification is based on whether a timing relationship must be maintained between source and destination. synchronous.com/documents/AoEr11. This adaptation layer defines how to segment and reassemble higher-layer packets into ATM cells.[1] It is meant that these AALs will meet a variety of needs. edu/ ~brewer/ cs262/ FFS. • AAL Type 1 supports constant bit rate (CBR). X.pdf) (PDF file) • AoE protocol specification (http://support. Examples include Voice over ATM. [21] http:/ / support. html) — LinuxDevices. . SMDS traffic) with an additional 4-byte header in the information payload of the . die.coraid.25 data) or connectionless packet data (e. IP.g. • AAL Type 3/4 supports VBR.com/documents/AoEr11. and whether the transfer is connection oriented or connectionless.ATA over Ethernet [19] http:/ / www.linuxjournal. 2005) • The ATA over Ethernet Protocol Official Document from Coraid (http://support. Frame Relay. • AAL Type 2 supports time-dependent Variable Bit Rate (VBR-RT) of connection-oriented.com (01 June 2009) • Protocol: • AoE protocol specification (http://support. whether the application requires a constant bit rate. org/ rfc/ rfc3720. txt [20] Quanstrom.linux-mag. "aoecfg(8) . UMTS/Wireless. AAL2 is also widely used in wireless applications due to the capability of multiplexing voice packets from different users on a single ATM connection.com/pdfs/ documentation/AoEDescription. The main services provided by AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer) are: • • • • Segmentation and reassembly Handling of transmission errors Handling of lost and misinserted cell conditions Timing and flow control The following ATM Adaptation Layer protocols (AALs) have been defined by the ITU-T. E1.howtoforge. SONET/SDH. die.com/id/2028/) — Linux Magazine (June 15. cs. Retrieved 5 July 2011. pdf 59 External links • Articles: • ATA Over Ethernet: Putting Hard Drives on the LAN (http://www. net/ man/ 8/ aoecfg). txt [22] http:/ / www. etc. connection-oriented.coraid. berkeley. ietf.txt) • HowTos: • Using ATA Over Ethernet On Debian Etch (http://www. coraid. data traffic. Examples of services that need adaptations are Gigabit Ethernet. synchronous traffic.com/ata_over_ethernet_debian_etch) ATM adaptation layer The use of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology and services creates the need for an adaptation layer in order to support information transfer protocols. and x64 kbit/s emulation. and how to handle various transmission aspects in the ATM layer.

and is also used for transporting digital voice. is to pack lots of small packets efficiently into one standard-sized ATM cell (53 bytes). you don't have an overhead ratio of 52/53 (i. Examples of services that use AAL 5 are classic IP over ATM. AAL2 is further separated into two sub-layers that helps with the mapping from upper layer services to ATM cells: the Service Specific Convergence Sub-layer (SSCS) and the Common Part Sub-layer (CPS). AAL 5 was introduced to: • reduce protocol processing overhead. connection-oriented asynchronous traffic or connectionless packet data supported by AAL 3/4. SMDS. for example.e. Like other ATM adaptation layers. What is AAL2? AAL2 is a variable bitrate. used primarily in telecommunications. • AAL Type 5 is similar to AAL 3/4 with a simplified information header scheme.1. The AAL 5 was designed to accommodate the same variable bit rate. This way. • reduce transmission overhead. low latency service originally intended to adapt voice for transmission over ATM.com/) • International Telecommunication Union (http://www. This protocol was intended to provide a streamlined transport facility for higher-layer protocols that are connection oriented.25. as compared to other ATM Adaptation Layers.ATM adaptation layer cell. External links • ATM forum (http://www. in this case packets of data containing voice and control information. too. it is used for the Iu interfaces in the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. This AAL assumes that the data is sequential from the end user and uses the Payload Type Indicator (PTI) bit to indicate the last cell in a transmission. but without the segment tracking and error correction requirements. there can be a mixture of other CPS packet sizes with other CIDs. connection-oriented. Accessed 2011-06-01. com/ univercd/ cc/ td/ doc/ product/ atm/ c8540/ 12_1/ pereg_1/ atm_tech/ techgd. 60 References [1] Cisco Systems Guide to ATM Technology (http:/ / www.int/) ATM Adaptation Layer 2 ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) is an ATM adaptation layer for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The standard specifications related to AAL2 are ITU standards I. i.e.e. Examples include Frame Relay and X. there can be a total of 11 CPS packets (plus 3/4 of a 12th CPS packet) squeezed into a single cell. Of course. STM-1/OC-3 or higher) or copper cable (PDH. The transport networks for ATM are well standardized fiber optic (SDH/Sonet. • ensure adaptability to existing transport protocols. and LAN Emulation (LANE).2 and I366. With this smallest packet size of 1 byte. 98%). the CPS packets are all multiplexed together into a single cell which is then transported over existing standard ATM network infrastructure. the purpose of AAL2 is to define how to segment and reassemble higher-layer packets into ATM cells. cisco. pdf) (2000). The objective of the AAL2 protocol.itu. i. Section "Service-dependent ATM Adaptation Layers".363. if you have a one-byte packet. Ethernet Over ATM. AAL 5 is a widely used ATM adaptation layer protocol. E1/T1/JT1 or higher bandwidth fixed lines) based synchronous networks with built-in redundancy and OAM-related network features which Ethernet networks never had originally (in order to keep things simple) but are sorely missed . and when the transmission is ready.atmforum.

In this case. [where byte 0 is the location of the STF itself] would be the remaining straddled portion of the previous ATM cell's final CPS packet. Most computer chips do not have AAL2 support in them. or too much overhead (i. AAL2u One common adaptation of AAL2 is known as AAL2u which doesn't use the STF field at all. then the first byte of the cell after the STF is also the location of the start of the first CPS packet. i. the 1 byte of STF) from the internal system point of view. as a general standard for Layer 2 protocols. if the ATM cell has less CPS packet data than 47 bytes..ATM Adaptation Layer 2 in metro Ethernet standard networks.e. that needs to be done for standard AAL2 is either too strenuous. Values of greater than 47 are not allowed. and UMTS RNCs and media gateways (MGWs) (Iu-CS). Efforts to improve Ethernet networks are in a sense trying to reinvent the wheel à la ATM.. UMTS RNCs and UMTS Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSNs) (Iu-PS).P (parity) OSF This is the Offset Field and carries the binary value of the offset in octets between the end of the P bit and the start of the CPCS-PDU Payload. whereas with Ethernet. A CPS packet is an unanchored unit of data. there will be one single CPS packet which is aligned to the beginning of the cell.e.SN (sequence number) • 1 bit . Additionally. AAL2 is the standard layer 2 protocol used in all Iu interfaces. (STF+1). there is a minimum payload size of 48 bytes vs a 1-byte minimum size for an AAL2 CPS packet. And therefore stripping this layer away makes it easier to interwork between the ATM interface and the rest of the network equipment computer system. AAL2 is one example of a useful benefit of ATM. The STF tells which byte index into the ATM cell (of 48 bytes) the first CPS packet in this cell begins. The format for the 1 byte STF at the beginning of the ATM cell is the following: • 6 bits . P This is a Parity bit used to detect error in the OSF and SN fields.OSF (offset field) • 1 bit . and starts from any location within the payload of the ATM cell. that can cross ATM cells. . SN This is a Sequence Number used to number the stream of CPCS-PDUs. the remainder of the ATM cell will be filled by padding.[1] 61 AAL2 and the ATM Cell The basic component of AAL2 is the CPS packet. etc. but rather in proprietary equipment implementations where the multiplexing/demultiplexing. AAL2u is not used in standardized interfaces. other than the STF (start field) which is the first byte of the 48 byte ATM payload. The data from byte 1 . the interfaces between UMTS base stations and UMTS Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) (Iu-B). unsupported. This is because ATM/AAL2 handles small packets efficiently. inter-RNCs (Iu-R). If the STF is 0.

It conveys specific information transparently between the users. LI This is a Length Indicator that indicates the length of the CPCS information field between 1 and 45 (default) or 1 and 64 octets. The AAL2 channel is a bi-directional channel and the same value of channel identification is used for both directions. in SSSAR. .CID (channel identifier) 6 bits . There is also a 64 octet mode defined by the standard. UUI is used to indicate that this is the final CPS packet for the SSSAR PDU. For a given CID all channels must be of the same maximum length (either 45 or 64 octets) UUI This is User to User Indication. but it is not commonly used in real 3G networks. The 3 byte CPS header has following fields • • • • 8 bits .UUI (user to user indication) 5 bits .LI (length indicator) 5 bits .HEC (header error control) CID This is a Channel Identifier which identifies the user of the channel.ATM Adaptation Layer 2 62 ATM AAL2 Cell Diagram The following is diagram of the AAL2 ATM cell: AAL2 and the CPS Packet A CPS packet has a 3 byte header and a 1-45 octet payload. For example.

ATM Adaptation Layer 2 63 HEC This is Header Error Control and checks for errors in the CID. Szilveszter Nádas.ATM Forum Technical Specifications (http://broadband-forum. . External links • Broadband Forum .2/en) . The generator polynomial for the CPS HEC is the following: ATM AAL2 CPS Packet Diagram The following is diagram of the CPS packet: References [1] Bo Karlander.org/technical/atmtechspec. ericsson. php) • AAL2 ITU Standard (http://www.int/rec/T-REC-I. pdf) (PDF). LI and UUI fields.363. Ericsson Review (Ericsson) (03). "AAL2 switching in the WCDMA radio access network" (http:/ / www. Sandor Rácz. Jonas Reinius (2002). com/ ericsson/ corpinfo/ publications/ review/ 2002_03/ files/ 2002033.itu.

and passes the resulting block of data to the host software. which minimises the . AAL5 reassembles incoming cells into a packet. The former scheme.. The last cell contains padding to ensure that the entire packet is a multiple of 48 octets long. a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and two 8-bit fields labeled UU and CPI that are currently unused. which place control information in the header. other ATM adaptation layer protocols are free to use other convergence mechanisms. It has the advantage of not requiring additional information in a packet. Thus. On the receiving end of the connection. Unlike most network frames.g.g. in which the hosts agree on the high-level protocol for a given circuit. the receiving AAL5 collects incoming cells until it finds one with an end-of-packet bit set. The AAL5 on the receiving side knows how many cells comprise a packet because the sending AAL5 uses the low-order bit of the "PAYLOAD TYPE" field of the ATM cell header to mark the final cell in a packet. or the two hosts at the ends of a virtual circuit must agree a priori that some octets of the data area will be reserved for use as a type field to distinguish packets containing one protocol's data from packets containing another protocol's data. describes two encapsulation mechanisms for network traffic. RFC 2684. the final cell is identified by a bit in the ATM header (see below). Each AAL5 packet is divided into an integral number of ATM cells and reassembled into a packet before delivery to the receiving host. Thus. checks the CRC to ensure that all pieces arrived correctly.ATM Adaptation Layer 5 64 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) is an ATM adaptation layer used to send variable-length packets up to 65. This means that either the two hosts at the ends of a virtual circuit must agree a priori that the circuit will be used for one specific protocol (e. The ATM cell transfer layer is classified as "machine-to-machine" because the layering principle applies from one machine to the next (e. In other words. between a host and a switch or between two switches). The AAL5 trailer contains a 16-bit length field. Convergence.. and reassembly When an application sends data over an ATM connection using AAL5. The final cell contains up to 40 octets of data. is referred to in RFC 2684 as "VC Multiplexing". AAL5 generates a trailer. the host delivers a block of data to the AAL5 interface. and transfers each piece across the ATM network in a single cell. ATM standards use the term "convergence" to describe mechanisms that recognize the end of a packet. Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM. The AAL5 layer is classified as "end-to-end" because the layering principle applies from the source to the destination . the circuit will only be used to send IP datagrams). one of which implements the former scheme and one of which implements the latter scheme. segmentation. and the trailer is always in the last 8 octets of that cell. Packet type and multiplexing The AAL5 trailer does not include a type field. This process is known as Segmentation and Reassembly (see below). AAL5 places control information in an 8-octet trailer at the end of the packet.AAL5 presents the receiving software with data in exactly the same size blocks as the application passed to the AAL5 on the sending end. This final cell header can be thought of as an "end-to-end bit".535 octets in size across an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network. divides the information into 48-octet pieces. an AAL5 frame is not identifying its content. By separating the functions of segmentation and reassembly from cell transport. AAL5 places the trailer in the last 8 octets of the final cell where it can be found without knowing the length of the packet. The process of dividing a block of data into cells and regrouping them is known as ATM segmentation and reassembly (SAR). followed by padding bytes and the 8-octet trailer. AAL5 follows the layering principle. Although AAL5 uses a single bit in the cell header for convergence.

nothing needs to be sent besides the datagram and the AAL5 trailer. References • "ITU-T Recommendation I. but the disadvantage of requiring each packet to contain octets that identify the protocol type. checks the CRC to verify that no bits were lost or corrupted. To transfer a datagram. 5-199608-I!!PDF-E& type=items . which adds overhead. to transfer datagrams across an ATM network. the sender passes it to AAL5 along with the VPI/VCI identifying the circuit. Because most carriers charge for each virtual circuit. Before data can be sent.5 (08/96). asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-I. AAL5 generates a trailer. itu. AAL5 uses a 16-bit length field. Both the sender and receiver must agree on how the circuit will be used.535 (2^16-1) octets in a single packet. a virtual circuit (PVC or SVC) must be in place to the destination host and both ends must agree to use AAL5 on the circuit.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) header. However. so. Retrieved 2007-12-09. int/ rec/ dologin_pub. RFC 2684 specifies that hosts can choose between the two methods of using AAL5. extracts the datagram. making it possible to send 65. 363. is referred to in RFC 2684 as "LLC Encapsulation". as specified in RFC 2225. and transfers the cells across the network. if the hosts agree to transfer IP. AAL5 reassembles the cells. 65 Datagram encapsulation and IP MTU size Internet Protocol (IP) can use AAL5. unless the hosts on both ends of the virtual circuit negotiate a larger MTU. and passes it to the IP layer. IP datagrams larger than 9180 octets will be fragmented. B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification: Type 5 AAL" [1]. combined with one of the encapsulation schemes described in RFC 2684.ATM Adaptation Layer 5 overhead. The standards suggest that hosts should use a standard IEEE 802. followed by a Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) header if necessary. divides the datagram into cells. the agreement may involve manual configuration. RFC 2225 specifies a default MTU of 9180 octets per datagram.363. This scheme has the advantage of allowing all traffic over the same circuit. References [1] http:/ / www. customers try to avoid using multiple circuits because it adds unnecessary cost. The chief disadvantage of such a scheme lies in duplication of virtual circuits: a host must create a separate virtual circuit for each high-level protocol if more than one protocol is used. The scheme also has the disadvantage that packets from all protocols travel with the same delay and priority. For example. in which the hosts use a single virtual circuit for multiple protocols. At the receiving end. a sender can pass each datagram directly to AAL5 to transfer. The latter scheme.

These OCCs have the following functions: • • • • • • [3] Logical Architecture of ASON Network topology discovery (resource discovery) Signaling. Transport resource in Control Plane and Policy. The service provider must then manually plan and configure the route in the network. It also . To Whom?]. Its responsibilities include Configuration Management of the Control Plane Resources. It consists of a series of OCC (Optical Connection Controllers). there is a request for a new connection[By whom?. The Control Plane is responsible for the actual resource and connection management within an ASN network. The IETF defines ASON as an alternative/supplement to NMS based connection management. ) Logical Architecture of An ASON The logical architecture of an ASON can be divided into 3 planes: • Transport Plane • Control Plane • Management Plane The Transport Plane contains a number of switches (optical or otherwise) responsible for transporting user data via connections. [1] Its aim is to automate the resource and connection management within the network. Routing Areas. whenever a user requires more bandwidth. but optimized for IP Dynamic set up of connections Support of Optical Virtual Private Networks (OVPNs) • Support of different levels of quality of service ( These requirements are not restricted to optical networks and can be applied to any transport network (including [3] SDH Networks).Automatically switched optical network 66 Automatically switched optical network ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network) is a concept for the evolution of transport networks which allows for dynamic policy-driven control of an optical or SDH network based on signaling between a user and components of the network. Bandwidth is increasingly becoming a precious resource and expectations from future optical networks are that they should be able to efficiently handle resources as quickly as possible. but also wastes bandwidth if the user sparingly uses the connection. interconnected via NNIs (Network to Network Interfaces). These switches are connected to each other via PI (Physical Interface). This is not only time consuming. address assignment Connection set-up/tear-down Connection protection/restoration Traffic engineering Wavelength assignment The Management Plane is responsible for managing the Control plane. routing. ASON fulfills some of the requirements of optical networks such as: • • • • • Fast and automatic end-to-end provisioning Fast and efficient re-routing Support of different clients. [2] The Need for ASON In an optical network without ASON.

1304.874. Performance Management.2931 • G.693. while it communicates with the Control plane via a UNI ( User Network Interface). The traffic from user connected to an ASON network contains data for both Transport and Control Plane.1704. Accounting and Security Management functions.1704. [3] 67 The Role of IETF While ITU has worked on the requirements and architecture of ASON based on the requirements on its members. has been tasked with the development of new protocols in response to general industry requirement. • G. it is explicitly aiming to avoid the development of new protocols. DCM signalling mechanism using PNNI/Q.1/Y. Description methodology and generic functionality.1. Therefore.874. IETF has been developing GMPLS as a second option protocol to be used in the Control Plane for signalling.1331.1. Optical interfaces for intra-office systems • G. GMPLS (Generalized MPLS) uses IP to communicate between different components in the Control Plane.1704. Architecture of optical transport networks • G.959. Requirements for automatic switched transport networks (ASTN) Call and Connection Management • G.65x. Characteristics of transport equipment . Optical transport network (OTN) management information model for the network element view • G. The user is connected to Transport plane via a PI (Physical Interface).7041/Y.1705. Interface for the optical transport network (OTN) • G.2/Y.1708. [4] The Management Plane contains the Network Management Entity which is connected to an OCC in Control Plane via the NMI-A ( Network Management Interface for ASON Control Plane) and to one of the switches via NMI-T ( Network Management Interface for the Transport Network).7717/Y. Generalized automatic discovery techniques • G. Architecture and specification of data communication network.7716/Y.875. Other Related Recommendations • G. Common equipment management function requirements • G.2.7713. Optical transport network (OTN) protocolneutral management information model for the network element view.1706.1302.1305.872. DCM signalling mechanism using GMPLS CR-LDP Discovery and Link Management • G.7712/Y. on the other hand .8080/Y.807/Y.7710/Y.7042/Y. Architecture and requirements of routing for automatic switched transport network • G. DCM signalling mechanism using GMPLS RSVP-TE • G.1. Optical transport network physical layer interfaces • G. when existing ones will work fine.1707.[6] ITU-T documentation for ASON standardization The following is a list and description of architecture and requirements as published by ITU-T • G. while ITU already include the PNNI protocol for signaling in the Control plane.7713/Y.709/Y. Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) for virtual concatenated signals • G.3.1701.1704. The IETF. [5] As a product of IETF. ASTN connection admission control.7714/Y.7713.7713. . Architecture and requirements of link resource management for automatically switched transport networks • G.Automatically switched optical network provides Fault Management. [1] • G. series on optical fibre cables and test methods • G. Distributed call and connection management (DCM) • G.1703. Architecture for the automatically switched optical network (ASON) • G.3/Y.7715/Y.806.1303. Generic framing procedure (GFP) • G. Management aspects of the optical transport network element • G.

htm) Autonegotiation Autonegotiation is an Ethernet procedure by which two connected devices choose common transmission parameters. different duplex modes (half duplex and full duplex). itu. The protocol was significantly extended in the gigabit Ethernet standard. by H. com/ network/ download/ whitepapers/ asongmpls. This happens if the other device does not support autonegotiation or autonegotiation is administratively disabled. ietf. duplex mode. . and is mandatory for 1000BASE-T gigabit Ethernet over copper. int/ itudoc/ gs/ promo/ tsb/ 80686. Kam LAM. In the OSI model. and the master-slave seed bit otherwise). The standards for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-TX require autonegotiation to be always present and enabled. autonegotiation is used to communicate the port type (single port or multiport) and the master-slave parameters (whether it is manually configured or not. dataconnection. org/ proceedings/ 01dec/ slides/ plenary-2/ sld002. org/ proceedings/ 01dec/ slides/ plenary-2/ sld006. a standard was released to allow connected network adapters to negotiate the best possible shared mode of operation. and the best mode is chosen from those shared by them.Automatically switched optical network 68 References [1] ITU-T Promotional Document (http:/ / www. whether the device is master or slave if this is the case. In this condition. the connected devices first share their capabilities regarding these parameters and then choose the highest performance transmission mode they both support. 2nd Eurescom WDM Hungarian Workshop Budapest. In this process. Each device declares its technology abilities. eurescom. that is. the device that is capable of autonegotiation can determine and match speed with the other device. Nick Larkin. autonegotiation resides in the physical layer. and full duplex preferred over half duplex at the same speed. Data Connection Ltd. pdf) [2] Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS. so half duplex is always assumed. Autonegotiation can be used by devices that are capable of different transmission rates. pdf) [5] ASON AND GMPLS . de/ ~projects-workspace/ P1000-series/ P1012/ presentations/ pdf/ 2nd Hungarian WDM workshop.Slide 6 (http:/ / www. This procedure cannot determine the presence of full duplex. int/ ITU-T/ worksem/ ngn/ 200604/ presentation/ s4_lam. itu. with higher speed preferred over lower.[1] Overview In 1995. Other than speed and duplex mode. and flow control. It is backwards compatible with 10BASE-T. and/or different standards at the same speed (though in practice only one standard at each speed is widely supported). 20-21 April 2006 (http:/ / www. such as speed. its possible modes of operation. pdf) [6] Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Route into Common Future .Slide 2 (http:/ / www." Route into Common Future" . The initial autonegotiation standard contained a mechanism for detecting the speed but not the duplex setting of Ethernet peers that did not use autonegotiation. htm) [3] Automatic Switched Optical Networks: functionality and architectural components. March 27th 2001 (http:/ / www. Autonegotiation was originally defined as an optional component in the fast Ethernet standard. ITU-T Workshop “NGN and its Transport Networks“ Kobe. ietf. Parallel detection is used when a device that is capable of autonegotiation is connected to one that is not.THE BATTLE OF THE OPTICAL CONTROL PLANE. pdf) [4] Management of ASON-capable Network and its Control Plane. Whitepaper (http:/ / www. Roberto Clemente and Giuseppe Ferraris .

The presence of a valid link is signaled by the receipt of a valid frame or two consecutive link integrity test pulses. • 14: acknowledgement: the device sets this to one to indicate the correct reception of the base link code word from the other party. the absence a logical 0. This word is called a link code word (LCW). The presence of a data pulse represents a logical 1. where bit 0 corresponds to the first possible pulse in time and bit 15 to the last. As a result.3. with a maximum pulse width of 200 ns. The time interval between the start of each burst is the same as the distance between normal link pulses. They are unipolar positive-only electrical pulses of a duration of 100 ns nominally. but each one is replaced by a train of between 17 and 33 pulses. For IEEE 802. a data pulse may or may not be present. every burst represents a logical word of 16 bits. These pulses are called link integrity test (LIT) pulses in the 10BASE-T terminology. that is. The technology ability field is composed of eight bits. and of the duration of 100 ns. capabilities. positive-only.9. A sequence of normal link pulses. A device detects the failure of a link (which can be due to a failure of the transmission medium or a failure of the other device) if neither a packet nor one of the pulses is received for 50-150 ms. these are as follows: • bit 0: device supports 10BASE-T • bit 1: device supports 10BASE-T in full duplex . devices send link integrity test pulses even when not receiving any. Between each set of two consecutive clock pulses. and its bits are used as follows: • 0–4: selector field: it indicates which standard is used between IEEE 802. and are referred to as normal link pulses (NLP) in the autonegotiation specification.[2] generated at intervals of 16 ms (with a tolerance of 8 ms). How a link code word (a 16 bit word) is encoded in a fast link pulse burst The base link code word Every fast link pulse burst transmits a word of 16 bits known as a link code word. • 5–12: technology ability field: this is a sequence of bits that encode the possible modes of operations among the 100BASE-T and 10BASE-T modes. For this to work.Autonegotiation 69 Electrical signals Autonegotiation is based on pulses similar to those used by 10BASE-T devices to detect the presence of a connection to another device. The bits of the link code word are numbered from 0 to 15.3 and IEEE 802. used by autonegotiating devices to declare their Autonegotiation uses similar pulses. These are still unipolar. 16 ms with a tolerance of 8 ms. These pulses are sent by a device when it is not sending or receiving any data. used by 10BASE-T devices to establish link integrity. • 15: next page: this bit is used to indicate the intention of sending other link code words after the base link code word. this is detected by the reception of at least three identical base code words. Three trains of fast link pulses. Each such train is called a fast link pulse (FLP) burst. • 13: remote fault: this is set to one when the device is detecting a link failure. The first such word is known as a base link code word. The fast link pulse burst is made as follows: there are 17 clock pulses at a distance of 125 µs (with a tolerance of 14 µs).

This corresponds to having received three identical copies of the base code word. the device sends a link code word with the acknowledge bit set to one from six times to eight times. called a master-slave seed value. 8. 2. These pages are sent if both devices have sent base pages with a next page bit set to one. Their first eleven bits are data. The message page contains: • • • • half duplex capability whether the device is single port or multiport whether master/slave is manually configured or not whether the device is manually configured as master or slave The unformatted page contains a 10-bit word. followed by a single unformatted page. Upon receiving these three identical copies. The priority among modes specified in the 2002 edition of 802.3 is as follows: 1. The next page bit of the base page is 1 when the device intends to send other pages. For gigabit Ethernet. The 1000BASE-T supported modes and master-slave data (which is used to decide which of the two devices acts as the master. The additional pages are still encoded as link code words (using 17 clock pulses and up to 16 bit pulses). 4. both devices decide the best possible mode of operation supported by both devices. . 1000BASE-T full duplex 1000BASE-T half duplex 100BASE-T2 full duplex 100BASE-TX full duplex 100BASE-T2 half duplex 100BASE-T4 100BASE-TX half duplex 10BASE-T full duplex 10BASE-T half duplex In other words. Message and unformatted next page The base page (the base link code word) is sufficient for devices to advertise which ones among the 10BASE-T. among the modes that are supported by both devices. 7. Priority Upon receipt of the technology abilities of the other device. 9. These additional pages are sent only if both devices have sent base pages with a next page bit set to 1. two other pages are required. The last bit of each page indicates the presence of an additional page. 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-T4 modes they support. each device chooses the one that is the topmost in this list. The link code words are also called pages. These pages are still 16-bit words encoded as pulses in the same way as the base page.Autonegotiation • • • • • • bit 2: device supports 100BASE-TX bit 3: device supports 100BASE-TX in full duplex bit 4: device supports 100BASE-T4 bit 5: pause bit 6: asymmetric pause for full duplex bit 7: reserved 70 The acknowledgement bit is used to signal the correct reception of the base code word. while their second-to-last bit indicates whether the page is a message page or an unformatted page. 6. which can be used to communicate other abilities. and which one acts as the slave) are sent using a single message page. The base link code word is therefore called a base page. The additional pages are of two kinds: message pages and unformatted pages. 5. 3.

will report frame check sequence errors. [4] In some large installations that have had to deal with negotiation issues. including network giant Cisco. Depending on timing the half duplex device may sense a late collision. This packet loss happens when both devices are transmitting at the same time. it sets the correct speed but starts using the half duplex mode. however. implemented it in a different way. As a result. network staff may believe that "autonegotiation doesn't work". This may happen for example if one is configured for autonegotiation while the other one has a fixed mode of operation that is full duplex (no autonegotiation). even if actual data is sent in one direction only. A TCP stream requires all packets sent to be acknowledged by the receiving device. the full duplex device does not detect any collision and does not resend the frame. Cisco also recommends that you check back with them yearly for any potential changes in their recommendation as this has caused much confusion over the years. However. This may happen even when the link is used. a full duplex device may transmit data while it is receiving.once autonegotiation is turned off. This combination of late collisions reported at the half-duplex end and FCS errors reported by the full duplex end can be used as an indication that a duplex mismatch is present. This led many network administrators to not depend on autonegotiation and instead manually set the speed and duplex mode of each network interface card. it will not work by definition. However. all network equipment manufacturers—including Cisco —recommend to use autonegotiation on all access ports.3. in one direction only. in particular when two connected devices are: • One manually set to half duplex and one manually set to full duplex • One set to autonegotiation and one manually set to full duplex • Both sides manually set to full duplex where one side still expects an autonegotiating link partner and the other side has autonegotiation completely disabled (the side that expects an autonegotiating link partner will fall back to half duplex because it does not detect a partner capable of full duplex) Duplex mismatch problems are difficult to diagnose because the network is apparently working. even if the other device has discarded it as corrupted by collision. On the other hand. Still. was open to different interpretations.3u. This is because data can be sent in both directions at the same time in full duplex mode.3ab in 1999.Autonegotiation 71 Interoperability problems The first version of the autonegotiation specification. creating a self-enforcing problem. it does not expect to receive data (because it is currently sending). This should be avoided . the connection works at a very low speed if both devices attempt to send frames at the same time. Autonegotiation between devices that implemented it differently failed. This was later followed by the release of IEEE 802. the network is much slower than expected. the full duplex device. Although most manufacturers implemented this standard in one way. it senses a collision and attempts to resend the frame it was sending. As a result. the use of manually set configuration often led to duplex mismatches. the autonegotiation device correctly detects the speed of operation. and simple programs used for network tests such as ping report a valid connection. In such conditions. The new standard specified that gigabit Ethernet over copper [3] wiring requires autonegotiation. collision may be . Even Cisco recommended its customers not to use autonegotiation. As a result. therefore. When a device is operating in full duplex while the other one operates in half duplex. Currently. and consider turning it off a best-practice. which it will interpret as a hard error rather than a normal consequence of CSMA/CD and will not attempt to resend the frame. from the user's perspective. not expecting incoming frames to be truncated by collision detection. but only in one direction at a time in half duplex mode. if the other device is working in half duplex. some others. IEEE 802. Duplex mismatch A duplex mismatch occurs when two connected devices are configured in different duplex modes. The debatable portions of the autonegotiation specifications were eliminated by the 1998 release of 802. but is unable to correctly detect the duplex mode.

ieee.[5] Another company has since bought the rights to that patent.116 E [10].html#wp1080632) . http:/ / www. Cisco.174 [8]. com/ patents?vid=5. "NWay/IEEE Standard Patent License Offer | Negotiated Data Solutions LLC" (http:/ / www. 57. com/ files/ Grant_Letter_060794.pdf)) • What is autonegotiation? (http://www. "Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and Physical Layer specifications" (http:/ / standards. Japanese Patent No. 12. negotiateddata.116 External links • Ethernet Autonegotiation Best Practices (http://www. SECTION TWO: This section includes Clause21 through Clause 33 and Annex 22A through Annex 33E. . Korean Patent Applications SN 22995/93. Applications SN H5-274147. 3705610.com [3] "Catalyst 2970 Switch Software Configuration Guide. google.617.687.cisco. Retrieved 2010-02-18. com/ patents?vid=RE39.com/ethernet/pdf/ dell-auto-neg. 098359. 2_18_se/ configuration/ guide/ swint. [5] http:/ / www.018 (filed 1992-11-02). Korean Patent No.617.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2970/software/ release/12.S.sun. com/ files/ NWay_Specification_041094.418 [8] http:/ / www. References [1] IEEE.174 [9] http:/ / www.. . Patent 5. Retrieved 2009-03-13.S. google. E U. com/ en/ US/ docs/ switches/ lan/ catalyst2970/ software/ release/ 12.pdf) • Gigabit Ethernet autonegotiation (http://www. E U. 430.687.Cisco Systems" (http:/ / www. U. cisco.aspx/power/en/ ps1q01_hernan?c=us&cs=555&l=en&s=biz) ( PDF version (http://www. cisco.com. Taiwanese Patent Applications SN 83104531. Taiwanese Patent No. google. [2] "IEEE Link Task Force Autodetect. Negotiateddata.ethermanage. Patent RE39. FR. shtml#auto_neg.2(18)SE .143 (filed 1995-04-26) [6] European Patent Applications SN 93308568. 72 History The protocol that became IEEE 802.405 E [9].418 [7]. 286791.729 (filed 1993-11-01).unh. 100615 negotiateddata. [4] "Best Practices for Catalyst 4500/4000.[6] Patents Autonegotiation is covered by the US patents U.S.2_18_se/configuration/guide/swint.php) • Cisco Catalyst Config Guide (http://www. p.405 [10] http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=RE39. . html#wp1080632).dell. negotiateddata. pdf). Japanese Patent 4234.com.com/content/topics/global. 5500/5000. 3-2008_section2.S. org/ getieee802/ download/ 802. IT.com/blueprints/0704/817-7526. pdf [6] Negotiated Data Solutions LLC. pdf). com/ patents?vid=5. Specification for NWay Autodetect" (http:/ / www. The company gave a letter of assurance for anyone to use their system for a one time license fee. Patent RE39. Patent 5. com/ node/ 2).iol. . negotiateddata. NL). com/ en/ US/ products/ hw/ switches/ ps663/ products_tech_note09186a0080094713.3 clause 28 was developed from a patented technology by National Semiconductor known as NWay.edu/training/ge/1000BASE-T/ANEG_brief. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 971. GB. 146. and 6500/6000 Series Switches Running CatOS Configuration and Management".Configuring Interface Characteristics [Cisco Catalyst 2970 Series Switches] .Autonegotiation generated with acknowledgement packets traveling in the other direction.0 (DE. [7] http:/ / www.

ABR Network Architecture Service Model Bandwidth Internet ATM ATM ATM ATM best effort CBR VBR ABR UBR none constant rate guarantee rate Guarantee ? Loss Order Timing no yes yes no yes yes yes yes no yes yes no no no (inferred via loss) no congestion no congestion yes no Congestion Feedback guarantee minimum no none no Available Bit Rate (ABR) is a service used in ATM networks when source and destination don't need to be synchronized. The newly calculated rates are then being sent to the sources using Resource Management records (RM-cells). External links • Understanding the Available Bit Rate (ABR) Service Category for ATM VCs [1] References [1] http:/ / www. cells are dropped. Many implementers consider ABR to be overly complex. When transfers exceed the PCR. ABR mechanisms allow the network to allocate the available bandwidth fairly over the present ABR sources. RM-cells are generated by the source and travel along the data path to the destination and sent back. ABR sets a Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) and a Peak Cell Rate (PCR).Available Bit Rate 73 Available Bit Rate See also Traffic contract . com/ en/ US/ tech/ tk39/ tk51/ technologies_tech_note09186a00800fbc76. ABR is one of five service categories defined by the ATM Forum for use in an ATM Network. and its adoption has been modest. ABR does not guarantee against delay or data loss. cisco. The network switches use locally available information to determine the explicit allowable rates or relative rate (increase/decrease) for the source. shtml .

I-Am. and fire detection systems and their associated equipment.[1] at the inaugural meeting of the Standard Project Committee (SPC). which are used for Device and Object discovery. The working groups focused on specific areas and provided information and recommendations to the main committee. The first three working groups were the Data Type and Attribute Working Group. BACnet had an almost immediate impact on the HVAC controls industry. Analog Value. Michael (Mike) Newman. In January 2006 the BACnet Manufacturers Association and the BACnet Interest Group of North America combined their operation in a new organization called BACnet International [4]. Multi-State Input. Program. Services such as Read-Property and Write-Property are used for data sharing. Loop.k. 17 years after the first BACnet meeting and back in Nashville. Protocol Overview The BACnet protocol defines a number of services that are used to communicate between building devices. The Method of Test for Conformance to BACnet was published in 2003 as BSR/ASHRAE Standard 135. 1987. and ISO standard protocol. Schedule. The 2001 version featured. "BACnet Bill") from Alerton began his four-year stint as committee chair. pursuing areas such as support for lighting. ventilating. Multi-State Output. I-Have. and air-conditioning control. in 2001 and 2004. BACnet became ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 135 in 1995. in Nashville. The BACnet protocol provides mechanisms for computerized building automation devices to exchange information. Command. in Salt Lake City. when he was succeeded by his vice-chair of 13 years. lighting control. access control. and Device. regardless of the particular building service they perform. Binary Input. Group. each time with new capabilities added to the standard. ANSI. energy utility/building integration and wireless communications. Primitive Data Format Working Group. History The development of the BACnet protocol began in June. Those vendor identifiers can be viewed at the BACnet website . from the operator's workstation down to small VAV controllers. Binary Value. During his term the number of committee working groups grew to 11. The BACnet protocol defines a number of Objects that are acted upon by the services. Dave Robin from Automated Logic Corporation took over the reins as the new committee chair after serving 4 years as vice chair. File. The protocol services include Who-Is. Calendar. and ISO 16484-5 [2] in 2003. Notification-Class. Steven (Steve) Bushby from NIST. served as the BACnet committee chairman until June. 515 Vendor IDs have [3] been issued and are distributed internationally. . Automated Logic Corporation and Delta Controls soon followed suit.BACnet 74 BACnet BACnet is a communications protocol for building automation and control networks. Binary Output. access control. and the Application Services Working Group. BACnet was designed to allow communication of building automation and control systems for applications such as heating. The objects include Analog Input. In 1996 Alerton announced a complete BACnet product line for HVAC controls. The committee worked at reaching consensus using working groups to divide up the task of creating a standard. Event-Enrollment. Analog Output. Manager of the Computer Section of the Utilities and Energy Management Department at Cornell University. Who-Has.1. As of May 30. It is an ASHRAE. extensions to support fire / life-safety systems. BACnet is under continuous maintenance by the ASHRAE Standing Standard Project Committee 135. H. 2004. 2011. 2000.a. William (Bill) Swan (a. During Steve Bushby's four-year term as committee chair the BACnet standard was republished twice. In June 2008. In June. among other things. Tennessee.

Off.Sensor input Analog Output . Group . Point-To-Point over RS-232.Represents the desired state of a multiple-state process (such as It's Time to Cool.control system parameter Calendar .Provides standardized access to a "PID control loop". Ethernet.Describes an event that might be an error condition (e.Allows a program running in the device to be started. . such as day-mode to night-mode. Can use a Calendar object for the exceptions. Master-Slave/Token-Passing over RS-485. including ARCNET. firmware revision. Device . It can directly tell one device or use a Notification Class object to tell multiple devices. Event Enrollment . or emergency mode.Properties tell what objects and services the device supports.Represents the status of a multiple-state process. Loop . File . Schedule .Provides access to multiple properties of multiple objects in a read single operation. such as a refrigerator's On.Switch input Binary Output . 75 BACnet Objects The standard specifies 49 types of objects Access Credential Access Zone Averaging Calendar Access Door Accumulator Binary Input Command Access Point Analog Input Binary Output Access Rights Analog Output Binary Value Access User Analog Value Bit String Value Date Value Event Log Large Analog Value Multi-state Input Octet String Value Structured-View Character String Value Date Pattern Value Event Enrollment Integer Value Loop Notification Class Schedule Trend Log Multiple Date Time Pattern Value Date Time Value Device File Life Safety Point Multi-state Output Positive Integer Value Time Pattern Value Global Group Life Safety Zone Group Load Control Multi-state Value Network Security Program Time Value Pulse Converter Trend Log • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analog Input .Writes multiple values to multiple objects in multiple devices to accomplish a specific purpose. Program .Relay output Binary Value .Allows read and write access to data files supported by the device.BACnet The BACnet protocol defines a number of data link / physical layers. BACnet/IP.Contains a list of devices to be informed if an Event Enrollment object determines that a warning or alarm message needs to be sent. for scheduling. Multi-state Output . and reports the present status of the program.a list of dates. etc. loaded and unloaded. and Defrost cycles. Command .Setpoint or other analog control system parameter Binary Input .Defines a weekly schedule of operations (performed by writing to specified list of objects with exceptions such as holidays. Notification Class . "Input out of range") or an alarm that other devices to know about. and LonTalk.. Multi-state Input . It's Cold Enough and it's Time to Defrost).g. such as holidays or special events. stopped. and other device-specific information such as vendor.Control output Analog Value .

automation. bacnet. The general activities of the BTL are: • • • • • Publish the BTL Implementation Guidelines document Certifying the products as per BACnet guidelines Support the activities of the BTL-WG. SoftDEL is headquartered in Pune. ashraetcs. in Nashville. org/ pdf/ tc14-04a. php) "SoftDEL BACnet Testing Laboratory achieves ISO accreditation. iso.org) . com/ article/ 179148-New_BACnet_Test_Lab_Established. Tennessee (http:/ / tc14. org/ "BACnet test lab at SoftDEL" 4 April 2006 (http:/ / www. com/ content/ softdel-bacnet-testing-laboratory-achieves-iso-accreditation) External links • BACnet website (http://www. 1987. csemag.bacnet. The BTL Manager and BTL working group of BACnet International will administer the test lab. BACnet International and BTL [5] have reached an agreement with SoftDEL Systems to establish and maintain a test lab for BACnet products. India where the test facility operates BTL.bacnetinternational.BACnet 76 BACnet Testing BACnet Testing Laboratories was established by BACnet International to test products as per BACnet standard and support compliance testing and interoperability testing activities and consists of BTL Manager and the BTL-WG.org) • BACnet International (http://www. bacnetinternational. htm http:/ / www. org/ VendorID/ BACnet%20Vendor%20IDs. pdf) http:/ / www. htm?csnumber=37298 http:/ / www. This BACnet lab is ISO 17025 accredited [6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] BACnet protocol June. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. Maintaining the BTL test packages for technical support for use of pre-testing Approves Testing Laboratories for BTL Testing The BTL also provides testing services through its managed BACnet laboratory." 6 Apr 2010 (http:/ / www.

it is accurate to say that the 1822 protocol incorporates the physical layer. References [1] http:/ / www. htm) BBN Report 1822 BBN Report 1822 specifies the method for connecting a host computer to an ARPANET router. org/ rfc/ rfc2125. and Newman. . • Hubert Zimmermann (April 1980). References [1] BBN Report 1822. Bolt. is used to add and remove links in a multilink bundle over PPP. pdf) Further reading • Frank Heart. Interface Message Processor -. com/ univercd/ cc/ td/ doc/ product/ software/ ios112/ pppbacp. 36. Severo Ornstein. If the message could not be delivered. of which the first 96 were reserved for the header ("leader"). William Crowther.Bandwidth allocation protocol 77 Bandwidth allocation protocol The Bandwidth Allocation Protocol. The interface visible to the host system passes network layer addresses directly to a physical layer device.1980. "The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer Network". pp. BBN Report 1822. 1822 does not map cleanly into the OSI layers.comsoc.1094702. AFIPS. "OSI Reference Model—The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection" (http://www. 1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference. Proc. Inc. the data link layer. including in Cisco IOS [2] . 1822 messages were guaranteed to be transmitted reliably to the addressed destination. the report number. In practice. The protocol was originally conceived by Craig Richards and Kevin Smith of Shiva Corporation and Ascend Communications respectively in 1997[1] and has since been implemented on a number of routers. and the network layer. ietf. 551–567.1109/TCOM. the IMP sent the originating host a message indicating that the delivery failed.Specifications for the Interconnection of a Host and an IMP.pdf) (PDF). This connection and protocol is generally referred to as 1822. the host constructs a message containing the numeric address of another host on the network (similar to an IP address on the Internet) and a data field. along with its control protocol. • BBN (May 1978). David Walden (1970). or under which the IMP could report a message as lost when it had in fact been received. The IMP routes the message to the destination host using protocols that were eventually adopted by Internet routers. there were (rare) conditions under which the host could miss a report of a message being lost. However. the Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol. txt [2] Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (http:/ / www. doi:10. IEEE Transactions on Communications 28 (4): 425–432. The initial version of the 1822 protocol was developed in 1969: since it predates the OSI model by a decade. Beranek. Messages could store a total length of 8159 Bits.org/livepubs/50_journals/pdf/RightsManagement_eid=136833. and specifying which peer is responsible for making decisions regarding bandwidth management. called an Interface Message Processor (IMP). cisco. To transmit data. and transmits the message across the 1822 interface to the IMP. Specifications for the interconnection of a host and a IMP (http:/ / www. org/ pdf/ bbn/ imp/ BBN1822_Jan1976.. Robert Kahn. however.[1] While packets transmitted across the Internet are assumed to be unreliable. bitsavers.

1902.1900 series to Bearer Independent CS Network architecture.1901 [1] : Bearer Independent Call Control protocol • ITU-T Recommendation Q. int/ rec/ T-REC-Q. the main difference being that the narrowband Circuit Identification Code (CIC) has been removed from the header. The BICC architecture consists of interconnected Serving Nodes that provide the Call Service Function and the Bearer Control Function. 3gpp. Stage 3--------------------------- References [1] http:/ / www. itu.205 [5] : Application of Q. int/ rec/ T-REC-Q. Transport links are most commonly TDM.1950) and is responsible for setup and teardown of bearer paths on a set of physical transport links. itu. 1950-200212-I/ en [4] http:/ / www. 1/ en [3] http:/ / www. 1901/ en [2] http:/ / www.1901. org/ FTP/ Specs/ html-info/ 29205. int/ rec/ T-REC-Q. The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has included BICC CS 2 in the Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) release 4. int/ newsarchive/ press_releases/ 2001/ 13. htm . html [5] http:/ / www. References • ITU-T Recommendation Q. BICC signaling messages are nearly identical to those in ISUP. The Bearer Control Function receives directives from the Call Service Function via BICC Bearer Control Protocol (ITU-T recommendation Q. itu. The Call Service Function uses BICC signaling for call setup and may also interwork with ISUP.1 [2] : Bearer Independent Call Control protocol (Capability Set 2): Functional description • ITU-T Recommendation Q.1950 [3] : Bearer independent call bearer control protocol • ITU-T Press Release [4] : Agreement on BICC protocols: a historic step for evolution towards next-generation server-based networks • 3GPP TS 29. the completion of the BICC protocols is a historic step toward broadband multimedia networks because it enables the seamless migration from circuit-switched TDM networks to high-capacity broadband multimedia networks. itu. BICC is specified in ITU-T recommendation Q.Bearer Independent Call Control 78 Bearer Independent Call Control The Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC) is a signaling protocol based on N-ISUP that is used for supporting narrowband ISDN service over a broadband backbone network. According to the ITU.1902. ATM or IP. BICC is designed to interwork with existing transport technologies.

javvin. BEEP (Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol) is a framework for creating network application protocols. com/ protocolBEEP.com RFC 3080 The Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol Core RFC 3081 Mapping the BEEP Core onto TCP RFC 3117 On the Design of Application Protocols. External links • • • • • Official website (http://http://beepcore. .org) Introduction to BEEP (http://www-128. networkworld. Retrieved 2010-03-01.BEEP 79 BEEP In computer networking. BEEP also includes facilities for encryption and authentication.ibm. html). Network World. and can be used both for binary and text messages within the context of a single application user identity. html). either end of the connection can send a frame at any time. Unlike HTTP (and similar protocols). . : Javvin network management and security. who also worked on the POP3. and is highly extensible.[1] BEEP is intended to abstract-out the common features that have traditionally been duplicated in each protocol implementation. com/ news/ 2000/ 0626bxxp. and SNMP protocols.com/developerworks/webservices/library/x-beep/) at IBM. design considerations of the BXXP protocol as told by its creators . "'HTTP on steroids' to ease protocol work" (http:/ / www. [2] Carolyn Duffy Marsan (2000-06-26). [2] References [1] "BEEP: Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-12-18. BEEP (formerly called BXXP) typically runs on top of TCP and allows the exchange of messages called 'frames'. SMTP. and 'questions' and 'replies' can be interleaved easily. It includes an application protocol kernel for connection-oriented asynchronous interactions. BEEP was designed by Marshall Rose.

org/ weblog/ mark_little/ soap_for_the_masses A representative discussion of text and binary protocol debate.org/~esr/writings/taoup/html/ch05s01. as opposed to a plain text protocol such as IRC.Binary protocol 80 Binary protocol A binary protocol is a protocol which is intended or expected to be read by a machine rather than a human being. html . or binary collaboration have been used in the terminology of standards such as EbXML [2] [3] and EDOC . An interface in the UML may also be considered a binary protocol. Binary protocols have the advantage of terseness. which translates into speed of transmission and interpretation. its. Binary protocol is also used in the context of a protocol between exactly two parties. the text based camp has been gaining significant ground . htm EDOC [3] http:/ / www. BIP-8 bits are set such that the overall data stream. BIP-8 has no error-correcting functionality: like the CRC-6 bits in the much older extended superframe format. or HTTP. There has always been tension between two software development camps that believe new protocols should preferably be text based or binary.XML-based systems are nearly ubiquitous but the debate continues[1] . BIP8) is an abbreviation for bit-interleaved parity 8. omg. has even parity. webservices. gov/ projects/ devglossary/ _bit_interleaved_parity_n. SMTP. Binary protocol. html) champions textual formats over binary protocols. In recent years. with the ready availability of network bandwidth and mass storage. References [1] http:/ / www. including the BIP-8 byte.catb. uml. org/ technology/ documents/ formal/ edoc. BIP-8 consists of a parity byte calculated bit-wise across a large number of bytes in a transmission transport frame. by Mark Little [2] http:/ / www. in contrast to a multi-party protocol.[1] BIP-8 is used in the SONET and Optical Transport Network standards. bldrdoc. References [1] http:/ / www. it merely provides an approximate method for monitoring link quality at the bit error level. BIP-8 BIP-8 (alternatively. org/ Unified Modeling Language External links • Chapter 5 of "The Tao of Unix Programming" (http://www. respectively. as well as in some older PDH framing schemes such as DS3 and E3.

and Elgato EyeTV to share local recordings with multiple clients. Adobe Systems Creative Suite 3. which is usually a small area. Skype. a service discovery protocol. it was renamed in 2005 to Bonjour because of a trademark issue. Bonjour locates devices such as printers. and events information. Bonjour can be installed onto computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems. and allows users to set up a network without any configuration. Bonjour for Windows and AirPort Base Stations may be configured to use Wide Area Bonjour which allows for wide area service discovery via an appropriately configured DNS server.[5] Bonjour only works within a single broadcast domain. portions under the Apache license [1] In computing. and Things & OmniFocus to synchronize projects and tasks across the Mac desktop and the iPad. Fire. Microsoft Windows. Bonjour is Apple Inc. other computers. Mac OS X. though developers and software companies who wish to redistribute it as part of a software package or use the Bonjour logo may need a licensing agreement.[3] [4] Overview Bonjour provides a general method to discover services on a local area network. . Although Mac OS X provides various Bonjour services. rather than in the operating system. Apple has . both for Mac OS X. and by Asterisk to advertise telephone services along with configuration parameters to VoIP phones and dialers. and the services that those devices offer on a local network using multicast Domain Name System service records. The software comes built-in with Apple's Mac OS X operating system and iOS for iPhone. SubEthaEdit and e to find document collaborators. Linux. Adium. Operating system Mac OS X. can be used to view all services declared by these applications.Proprietary Freeware. iOS Type License Website Zeroconf Apple Inc. Applications generally implement Bonjour services using standard TCP/IP calls. Bonjour also works on other operating systems. Contactizer to find and share contacts. iTunes uses Bonjour to find shared music. the Gizmo5 to find other users on the local network. and iPad. iPod touch. Software such as Bonjour Browser or iStumbler. TiVo Desktop to find digital video recorders and shared-media libraries. tasks. Apple's "Remote" application for iPhone and iPod Touch also uses Bonjour to establish connection to iTunes libraries via Wi-Fi. iChat. Bonjour is released under a terms-of-limited-use license by Apple. iPhone or iPod touch.'s trade name for its implementation of Zeroconf. Vine Server.2 as Rendezvous. without special DNS configuration.[2] After its introduction in 2002 with Mac OS X v10. The software is widely used throughout Mac OS X. Pidgin. It is freeware for clients. As of 2010 it is used to find printers and file-sharing servers.Bonjour (software) 81 Bonjour (software) Bonjour Developer(s) Apple Inc. It is used by Safari to find local web servers and configuration pages for local devices. The source code for mDNSResponder is available under the Apache License. or Zeroconf Neighborhood Explorer for Windows. iPhoto to find shared photos. Proteus. Bonjour components may also be included within other software such as iTunes.

It modifies Windows system-registry entries related to internal network configuration and operation. Solaris. Not all components are included when installed as part of a third-party application or as a component of other Apple software such as iTunes. works with Windows 2000. Mac OS X.[10] Certain installations of Bonjour for Windows lack an uninstaller and do not display a human-readable entry in the Windows services listing. iTunes. including Mac OS 9. Communications across the network take place over UDP port 5353. and the network communication services. Bonjour for Windows also adds Zeroconf capabilities to Internet Explorer. A number of Windows programs use Zeroconf. the core component of service discovery. 2010. which may require reconfiguring some personal or corporate firewalls that block Bonjour packets.[11] Browsers A number of browsers allow an end-user to graphically explore the devices found using Bonjour. released on February 24.exe. some features such as iChat allow for communication between the Mac OS and MS Windows. and thus it runs from startup. The open-source IM clients Pidgin and Kopete support the Bonjour IM protocol. VxWorks. such as Adobe's Photoshop CS3 suite. XP. In September 2008. two security vulnerabilities were found in Bonjour for Windows. Ruckus Music Player from Ruckus Network. available as a Darwin open source project. Bonjour runs as mDNSResponder. Installers on Windows systems normally place Bonjour files in a folder called "Bonjour" within the "Program Files" folder. A full installation of Bonjour for Windows will include a plug-in for Internet Explorer. The project provides source code to build the responder daemon for a wide range of platforms.0. *BSD. Some VPN clients are configured so that local network services are unavailable to a computer when VPN software is active and connected. as does the non-GPL Trillian client. Apple also provides a user-installable set of services called Bonjour for Windows [6] and Java libraries.[7] Systems use it primarily to facilitate the installation. configuration.[7] [8] Bonjour also comes bundled with some third-party applications. 82 Microsoft Windows implementation Bonjour version 2. Bonjour Browser . and Windows.Bonjour (software) made the source code of the Bonjour multicast DNS responder.[9] to take advantage of Zeroconf technology. 2003. a printer wizard. including Adobe Systems Creative Suite 3. Vista. and Windows 7. Cerulean Studios' Trillian Pro 3. and use of network printers. and the text editor e. Linux. When Bonjour is fully implemented on MS Windows.[7] In such a case no local Zeroconf services are available to Bonjour or any other Zeroconf implementation. and provides a Zeroconf implementation to Java VMs.

It requires Apple's Bonjour Java library to run. Bonjour Browser was recommended for service discovery in MacAddict #123.com [12] Bonjour Browser is a Creative Commons licensed Mac OS X application that displays all services declared using Bonjour. Bonjour Browser for Windows [14] is offered for free by Hobbyist Software and HandyDev Software Naming Apple originally introduced the Bonjour software in August 2002 as part of Mac OS X v10. The program was originally called "Rendezvous Browser". 1. 2003 Tibco Software Inc announced that it had filed a law suit for trademark infringement. For certain protocols. but changed its name in version 1. In July 2004 Apple Computer and Tibco reached an out-of-court settlement. Bonjour Browser for Windows A windows project to offer similar functionality to Bonjour Browser for Mac OS as a native Windows application. JBonjourBrowser A student research project at Columbia University produced a Java-based system to match the functionality of Bonjour Browser.6 is the first universal binary version. Future versions will allow users to completely define a service. JBonjourBrowser is open-source and available under the GPL. On August 27.4 after Apple changed the protocol's name to Bonjour. Developer(s) Stable release Operating system Type License Website Kevin Ballard 1.6 Mac OS X Bonjour browser Creative Commons by 1.0 www. and at the same time work on multiple platforms.5.5.2 under the name "Rendezvous".tildesoft.Bonjour (software) 83 Bonjour Browser Bonjour Browser Showing 21 services in the local network.[15] Tibco had an enterprise application integration product called TIBCO Rendezvous on the market since 1994 and stated that it had tried to come to an agreement with Apple Computer. instead of relying on the author to do so. double clicking a list item will launch the associated helper. .5.[16] specifics of the settlement were not released to the public. called JBonjourBrowser [13]. JBonjourBrowser was built to emulate the functionality of Bonjour Browser.

Jeffrey Sharkey. [8] Apple Inc.macosforge. "Leopard Sneak Peek .html) . tildesoft. cs. Retrieved 2009-02-07. html [5] "Android DACP Remote Control" (http:/ / dacp. eWeek. Press release. apple. apple.oreillynet..com/2007/07/18/bonjour-for-windowsyes-no/) An article about how Bonjour services are currently implemented into Windows • Understanding Zeroconf and Multicast DNS (http://www. com/ archives/ rendezvous-dev/ 2005/ Apr/ msg00001. Amarjeet Rai. html).An introduction to zero configuration networking. com/ dictionary/ BONJOUR). "Rendezvous is changing to. .com. Apple Inc.html) . Retrieved 2009-02-23. jsp). apple. Retrieved 2009-02-07. . . html). appleinsider.dns-sd.Bonjour (software) On April 12.org/ServiceTypes. appointment".00. html) on 2006-11-27. Renames Rendezvous" (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. • Zeroconf (http://zeroconf.org/): The official Bonjour site on Mac OS Forge. September 15. . Sues Apple Computer.com/pub/wlg/3137) • Bonjour for Windows.Developer resources from Apple • Bonjour (http://bonjour..General information from Apple • Bonjour developer website (http://developer. com/ [13] http:/ / wiki. Retrieved 2006-10-11. 2008. "TIBCO Software Inc. . com/ jnack/ 2007/ 01/ cs3_doesnt_inst.1626397. com/ networking/ bonjour/ download/ ). adobe.. tibco.iChat" (http:/ / web.Networking. Apple announced the renaming of Rendezvous to "Bonjour".apple. .com/pub/a/wireless/2002/12/20/ zeroconf. html). [4] http:/ / www.List of officially registered Bonjour service types • Bonjour .exe. oreillynet. . com/ bonjour/ [7] "Bonjour Downloads" (http:/ / developer.[3] The greeting bonjour is French for "good day" and "rendezvous" comes from the French word for "meeting. com/ macosx/ leopard/ ichat. 2010-03-08. [11] "Completly Uninstall and Remove Bonjour Service and Files (mDNSResponder. com/ kb/ HT2990)." (http:/ / lists. [6] http:/ / www.dll) for Windows" (http:/ / arai.5" (http:/ / support.wordpress. 2005. January 4. including a comparison between Bonjour/Zeroconf and Universal Plug 'n' Play . Android DACP Remote Control.com/macosx/features/bonjour/) . apple. 2010. apple.com/videoplay?docid=-7398680103951126462) by Stuart Cheshire on Google Video about Bonjour and Zeroconf • Stuart Cheshire and Rendezvous mentioned on Daniel Smith's weblog on the O'Reilly Network (http://www. Retrieved 2006-10-11. com/ company/ news/ releases/ 2003/ press580.site with myriad useful links maintained by Stuart Cheshire • Hour-long talk (http://video. [16] Daniel Drew Turner (2004-07-22). apple. com/ macosx/ leopard/ ichat. wordpress. for Trademark Infringement" (http:/ / www. com/ opensource/ [2] "Bonjour Downloads" (http:/ / developer. Retrieved 2010-03-08.. com/ 2008/ 02/ 11/ completly-uninstall-and-remove-bonjour-service-and-files-mdnsresponderexe-and-mdnsnspdll/ ).. Retrieved 2009-05-27.com/networking/bonjour/) . Inc. org/ web/ 20061127235645/ http:/ / www. www. asp). [9] "CS3 Doesn't Install Spyware" (http:/ / blogs.[17] 84 References [1] http:/ / developer. Retrieved 2009-07-05.org) . archive. .0. 2007.apple. Retrieved 2006-10-11.1759. Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2006-11-28. External links • DNS SRV (RFC 2782) Service Types (http://www. simplified (http://www. February 11. File 'LICENSE' within each Bonjour source code download. 2008. edu:8080/ display/ res/ JBonjourBrowser [14] http:/ / hobbyistsoftware. rendezvous-dev mailing list. Apple Inc.. "Apple Settles TIBCO Suit. com/ bonjourBrowser [15] TIBCO Software (2003-08-27). . com/ articles/ 05/ 02/ 18/ apple_to_rename_rendezvous_technology_bonjour.google.merriam-webster. org/ ). [10] "About the security content of Bonjour for Windows 1.Yes? No? (http://clibra. eweek. mdnsNSP. [17] "bonjour" (http:/ / www. com/ article2/ 0. columbia. com/ networking/ bonjour/ download/ ). . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Apple Computer. Apple. jsharkey. [12] http:/ / www. Retrieved July 28. . Developer Connection. Merriam-Webster. apple. [3] Marc Krochmal (2005-04-12). apple.

html#BonjourBrowser) 85 Cache Discovery Protocol The Cache Discovery Protocol (CDP) is an extension to the BitTorrent file-distribution system. Inc. to date no specification has been made publicly available. It is the primary protocol used to communicate between ST-Ericsson cellular modems and the external host system.6.Bonjour (software) • Bonjour Browser website (http://www. It supports GPRS. Kernelnewbies. html CAIF CAIF is packet-based connection-oriented MUX protocol developed by ST-Ericsson.tildesoft. committed by Sjur Braendeland of ST-Ericsson. Retrieved 2011-03-02. The Cache Discovery Protocol was originally developed jointly by BitTorrent. released June 22. . either high-bandwidth or low-latency for the link layer.com/Programs.org. It is designed to support the discovery and utilisation of local data caches by BitTorrent peers. . However. External links • Slyck. org/ Linux_2_6_35#head-9d25abee6a4472c2a13cb86bd3ff7aad9cea2dd1). typically set up by ISPs wishing to minimise the impact of BitTorrent traffic on their network.35 [1] . and CacheLogic and first implemented in version 4. It was merged into Linux kernel 2. Device can be managed by RTNL. References [1] "Linux 2 6 35 .20 of the official BitTorrent client. com/ story1231. CAIF socket is connection-oriented implementing the SOCK_SEQPACKET and the SOCK_STREAM interface with supporting blocking and non-blocking mode.com coverage of the 4. There are two device profiles. despite claims that the details of the protocol would be published.Linux Kernel Newbies" (http:/ / kernelnewbies.20 release [1] References [1] http:/ / www. slyck. The protocol family is PF_CAIF and the address family is AF_CAIF. 2006.

• It provides event driven. • It allows runtime mapping of CAN identifiers with an optional second level of indirection. "daisy chain". • It provides a mechanism to set message filters.CAN Kingdom 86 CAN Kingdom CAN Kingdom is a communications protocol running on top of CAN. In CAN Kingdom parlance this is known as "document pagination". • It provides a specification for packed bit fields. it makes no attempt to follow the OSI model. A major design philosophy behind CAN Kingdom is that the system designer is fully aware of the capabilities of the nodes. . • It provides a mechanism for clock synchronization. • • • • • • • • • Page : a CAN data payload Envelope : a CAN identifier Letter : a CAN frame Form : a specification for fixed format data presented in a page Document : a set of forms or pages (depending on context) Folder : maps a single document to a set of envelopes City/Mayor : a node and its controller Capital/King : the single master controlling node City Founder : the (human) module designer • Kingdom Founder : the (human) network designer Capabilities CAN Kingdom provides the following capabilities over bare CAN. on the other hand. CAN Kingdom uses lay-friendly names. from CAN identifier to "folder" must be mapped by the King. Terminology In order to make network terminology friendly to non systems designers. • It allows point to point transfer of data streams. and synchronous messaging. Because messages can be remapped at runtime. The network is mostly distributed. It is designed as a fieldbus. can optionally be fixed by the node designer. and it is up to the system designer to activate a node's services or not through runtime configuration. a system designer can configure the system to coexist with nodes on the system which may be using a different high level protocol like CANopen or DeviceNet. • It provides an infrastructure for transmitting fixed format data that runs over a single CAN packet payload length. The first level. The second level. • The King configures which nodes will receive and transmit which messages. "folder" to "document". needs to know nothing about the other nodes: a node merely provides services to the network. A node designer. through the "Block Transfer" mechanism. as the nodes may run autonomously except that a "King" or master controller is needed to configure the network. Unlike other CAN high level protocols.

The value in subindex 0 of an array or record indicates the number of elements in the data structure. CANopen implements the layers above and including the network layer. contain measurement data. Pre-operational. and is of type UNSIGNED8. gives the datatype of the variable Attribute. several small communication protocols and an application layer defined by a device profile. • The object dictionary is an array of variables with a 16-bit index. The variables can be used to configure the device and reflect its environment. a string describing the entry Type. It must contain the states Initialization. the device communication parameters. after the state machine is set to the operational state.0x1FFF ("communication profile area"). records and strings. The transitions between states are made by issuing a network management (NMT) communication object to the device. device monitoring and communication between nodes. and are specified in numerous other standards released by CAN in Automation. The first few entries in this area are as . record. i. The application is configured by variables in the object dictionary and the data is sent and received through the communication layer. as well as composite datatypes such as arrays. The lower level protocol implementing the data link and physical layers is usually Controller Area Network (CAN). this can be read/write.e. An entry in the object dictionary is defined by: • • • • • Index. Operational and Stopped. In terms of the OSI model. For example. which is used for configuration and non-realtime communication with the device. although devices using some other means of communication (such as Ethernet Powerlink. standardized in the basic device profile CiA 301CiA301 are mapped in the index range 0x1000 . read-only. such as an array. a symbolic type of the object in the entry. Device model Every CANopen device has to implement certain standard features in its controlling software.CANopen 87 CANopen CANopen is a communication protocol and device profile specification for embedded systems used in automation. The communication protocols have support for network management. each variable can have an 8-bit subindex. which gives information on the access rights for this entry. Object dictionary CANopen devices must have an object dictionary. write-only or read only constant • The Mandatory/Optional field defines whether a device conforming to the device specification has to implement this object or not The basic datatypes for object dictionary values such as Booleans. including a simple transport layer for message segmentation/desegmentation. The CANopen standard consists of an addressing scheme. or simple variable Name. • A Communication unit implements the protocols for messaging with the other nodes in the network • Starting and resetting the device is controlled via a state machine. • The application part of the device actually performs the desired function of the device. the 16-bit address of the object in the dictionary Object name. The basic CANopen device and communication profiles are given in the CiA 301 specification released by CAN in Automation. The composite datatypes can be subindexed with an 8-bit index. such as CiA 401CiA401 for I/O-modules and CiA 402CiA402 for motion control.CiA301 Profiles for more specialized devices are built on top of this basic profile. Additionally. EtherCAT) can also implement the CANopen device profile. integers and floats are defined in the standard.

An extension to the CANbus standard (CAN 2.. or COB-ID. but in practice CANopen networks big enough to need the extended id range are rarely seen.. In a master/slave relationship. The NMT protocol is an example of a master/slave communication model. This limits the number of devices in a CANopen network to 127. UNSIGNED32 ro UNSIGNED8 ro Given suitable tools. can only transmit short packages consisting of an 11-bit id. where the SDO client sends data (the object dictionary index and subindex) to an SDO server.. which replies with one or more SDO packages containing the requested data (the contents of the object dictionary at the given index). Since in CANopen frames the first 4 bits of the frame id are reserved to the function code. which sends or requests data from the slaves. there is an upcoming XML-style format. In the push-model of producer/consumer. A producer/consumer model is used in the Heartbeat and Node Guarding protocols. but can be configured for other uses later. In case of a transmission collision..0 B) allows extended frame ids of 29 bits. The format of the EDS-file according to CiA306CiA306 is INI file. A client/server relationship is implemented in the SDO protocol. the physical layer of CANopen. giving a low code number for time critical functions ensures the lowest possible delay. Contents of a standard CANopen frame: Function code Length 4 bits Node ID 7 bits RTR 1 bit Data length 4 bits Data 0-8 bytes The standard reserves certain COB-IDs to network management and SDO transfers. 6(1991) manufacturer device name Vis-String const O Type Attribute M/O M M 88 0x1000 VAR 0x1001 VAR . whereas in the pull model. 0x1008 VAR .CANopen follows: Index Object name Name device type error register tributed in jan. remote transmission request (RTR) bit and 0 to 8 bytes of data. the bus arbitration used in the CANbus allows the frame with the smallest id to be transmitted first and without a delay. In CANopen the 11-bit id of a CAN-frame is known as communication object identifier. the producer sends data to the consumer without a specific request. Some function codes and COB-IDs have to be mapped to standard functionality after device initialization. the consumer has to request the data from the producer. The CANopen standard divides the 11-bit CAN frame id into a 4-bit function code and 7-bit CANopen node id. one CANopen node is designated as the master. that is described in CiA311CiA311. Communication Communication objects CANbus. . Communication models Different kinds of communication models are used in the messaging between CANopen nodes. the object dictionary of a device can be configured by editing an electronic data sheet (EDS) file and uploading the variable values to the device.

The actual node id. Similarly. communication is viewed from the SDO server. However the pre-defined connection set defines an SDO channel which can be used even just after bootup (in the Pre-operational state) to configure the device. The data part of the frame contains a byte indicating the node status. which means that every node in the network will process this message. The COB IDs of the respective SDO transfer messages from client to server and server to client can be set in the object dictionary.0x12FF. The heartbeat consumer reads these messages. to which the command is meant to.CANopen 89 Protocols Network management (NMT) protocols The NMT protocols are used to issue state machine change commands (e. In CANopen terminology. the SDO client connections of the device can be configured with variables at 0x1280 . The SDO block transfer is a newer addition to standard. to start and stop the devices). Service Data Object (SDO) protocol The SDO protocol is used to set and read values from the object dictionary of a remote device. If the messages fail to arrive within a certain time limit (defined in the object dictionary of the devices) the consumer can take action to. The communication is always initiated by the SDO client. Up to 127 SDO servers can be set up in the object dictionary addresses 0x1200 . the SDO client sends the following data in a CAN message with the 'receive' COB ID of the SDO channel: 3 bits ccs=1 1 bit 2 bits 1 bit e 1 bit s 2 bytes index 1 byte 4 bytes reserved(=0) n subindex data . reset the device or indicate an error. The Module control protocol is used by the NMT master to change the state of the devices. The device whose object dictionary is accessed is the SDO server and the device accessing the remote device is the SDO client. there are two of these protocols: SDO download/upload and SDO Block download/upload. a single heartbeat message is sent to the bus. Frame format is : COBID Data Byte 0 0x700 + NodeID State CANopen devices are required to make the transition from the state Initializing to Pre-operational automatically during bootup.0x127F. meaning that it has a function code 0 and node id 0. is given in the data part of the message. so that a read from an object dictionary results in an SDO upload and a write to dictionary is an SDO download. for example. This is the bootup protocol. A response/reply-style (pull model) protocol for slave monitoring called Node guarding protocol exists. which allows large amounts of data to be transferred with slightly less protocol overhead. The CAN-frame COB-ID of this protocol is always 0. This can also be 0. The Heartbeat protocol is used to monitor the nodes in the network and verify that they are alive. To initiate a download.g. (see talk page for "upload/download" ambiguity) As the object dictionary values can be larger than the 8 byte limit of a CAN frame. meaning that all the devices in the bus should go to the indicated state. Actually. A heartbeat producer (usually a slave device) periodically sends a message with binary function code of 1110 and its node id (COB ID = 0x700 + node id). The COB IDs of this channel are 0x600 + node id for receiving and 0x580 + node id for transmitting. the SDO protocol implements segmentation and desegmentation of longer messages. detect remote device bootups and error conditions. When this transition is made.

Synchronization Object (SYNC) protocol The Sync-Producer provides the synchronization-signal for the Sync-Consumer. indicates that the data size is specified in n (if e is set) or in the data part of the message • index is the object dictionary index of the data to be accessed • subindex is the subindex of the object dictionary variable • data contains the data to be uploaded in the case of an expedited transfer (e is set). There are two kinds of PDOs: transmit and receive PDOs (TPDO and RPDO).CANopen • ccs is the client command specifier of the SDO transfer. 1984. The former is for data coming from the device and the latter is for data going to the device. you can make a request to a device to transmit TPDO that contains data you need by sending empty TPDO with RTR flag (if the device is configured to accept TPDO requests). In general the fixing of the transmission time of synchronous PDO messages coupled with the periodicity of transmission of the Sync Object guarantees that sensor devices may arrange to sample process variables and that actuator devices may apply their actuation in a coordinated fashion. 1 for initiating download. Synchronous PDOs are sent after the SYNC message whereas asynchronous messages are sent after internal or external trigger. One PDO can contain multiple object dictionary entries and the objects within one PDO is configurable using the mapping and parameter object dictionary entries. if set. With configuration 512 PDOs are possible. this is 0 for SDO segment download. for example. It is configured by mapping the high resolution time-stamp (object 1013h) into a PDO. 2 for initiating upload. ie. In the pre-defined connection set there are identifiers for four (4) TPDOs and four (4) RPDOs available. With RPDOs you can. Some time critical applications especially in large networks with reduced transmission rates require very accurate synchronization. For example. only valid if e and s are set • e. • s. The high-resolution time-stamp is encoded as unsigned32 with a resolution of 1 microsecond which means that the time counter restarts every 72 minutes. 90 . i. This is a bit sequence of length 48 (6 byte). 3 for SDO segment upload and 4 for aborting an SDO transfer • n is the number of bytes in the data part of the message which do not contain data. indicates an expedited transfer . You only need to map the same RPDO into two or more different device and make sure those RPDOs are mapped with the same COB ID. This is achieved by using the optional high resolution synchronization protocol which employs a special form of time stamp message to adjust the inevitable drift of the local clocks. all data exchanged are contained within the message. e is not set) Process Data Object (PDO) protocol Process Data Object protocol is used to process real time data among various nodes. If this bit is cleared then the message is a segmented transfer where the data does not fit into one message and multiple messages are used. or the size of the data to be uploaded (s is set. The identifier of the Sync Object is available at index 1005h. it may be necessary to synchronize the local clocks with an accuracy in the order of microseconds. When the Sync-Consumer receive the signal they start carrying out their synchronous tasks.e. start two devices simultaneously. with RPDO you can send data to the device and with TPDO you can read data from the device. if set. Time Stamp Object (TIME) protocol Usually the Time-Stamp object represents an absolute time in ms after midnight and the number of days since January 1. PDOs can be sent synchronously or asynchronously. You can transfer up to 8 bytes (64bits) data per one PDO either from or to the device.

baud rate. This makes them suitable for interrupt type error alerts. the error register and device specific additional information are specified in the device profiles. This and an open platform for discussion and support is available at https://canopen-forum.Inputs and outputs.Configuration settings. possibly NODE ID. that describes the communication behaviour and the object dictionary entries of a device. defined in CiA306. EDS .CAN Identifier. gain etc. CAN ID 0x0 0x80 0x181 0x182 DATA LENGTH 2 0 4 4 DATA 10 Description Master puts bus into operational mode Master sends a SYNC message. By means of CANopen Communication Profile defined emergency error codes. This is modified EDS with settings for node ID and baud rate. configuration tools. Since end of 2007 a new XML based format called XDD is defined in CiA311. 91 Initialization Sample trace of communications between a master and 2 pressure transducer slaves configured for id 1 and node id 2. Values of type RPM. Glossary of CANopen Terms PDO Process Data Object .CANopen Emergency Object (EMCY) protocol Emergency messages are triggered by the occurrence of a device internal fatal error situation and are transmitted from the concerned application device to the other devices with high priority. Hz.com/ [1]. For both formats a free editor is available. which triggers devices to send data CD 82 01 00 Node at ID 1 (CID-0x180). COB-ID . V. development tools. DCF . i. This allows tools such as service tools. XDD is conformant to ISO Standard 15745. reading pressure of 0x0182CD(99021) pascals E5 83 01 00 Node at ID 2 (CID-0x181). and others to handle the devices properly. This is an INI style resp. the emergency messages must not be repeated.Electronic data sheet.e. . Those EDS files are mandatory for passing the CiA CANopen Conformance Test. reading pressure of 0x0183E5(99301) pascals Electronic Device Description The EDS file is a file format. As long as no new errors occur on a device no further emergency message must be sent. This is the 11 bit CAN message identifier which is at the beginning of every CAN message on the bus. mAmps etc.CAN Object Identifiers CAN ID . An Emergency Telegram may be sent only once per ‘error event’. A free EDS checker is CANchkEDS [1]. called CANeds. SDO Service Data Object .Device configuration file. XML style formatted file. offset.

4. info/ CanOpen [10] http:/ / www. can-cia. can-wiki. available from CAN in Automation [2] CiA Draft Standard 306 CiA Draft Standard 311 CiA Draft Standard 401 CiA Draft Standard 402 External links • • • • • • • • • • • • About CANopen (canopensolutions. canopensolutions. com/ canopen_fundamentals_en. html . com/ CANinfo. com/ english/ about_canopen/ about_canopen. cannewsletter. 5. can-cia. php?id=171 [7] http:/ / www. htm?category=& [11] http:/ / www. thaiio. shtml [4] http:/ / www. html [12] http:/ / en. org/ index. org/ [5] http:/ / www.canopen-solutions. CiA Draft Standard 301. jhtml?articleID=192200423 [6] http:/ / www. softing. 2. esacademy. canopen-solutions. com/ home/ en/ industrial-automation/ products/ can-bus/ more-can-open/ communication/ reference-model. canfestival.com) [3] CanFestival . com/ myacademy/ classes/ CANopenIntro/ CANopenIntro_files/ frame. org [3] http:/ / www. com [8] http:/ / www. php [9] http:/ / www.An open source CANopen multiplatform framework [4] CANopen: An Introduction [5] CANopen overview [6] CANnewsletter-Information on CAN.com) [11] Wiki of the CANopen-Lift Community [12] Open discussion platform for questions around EDS and XDD [1] CAN Informations for industry [13] References [1] https:/ / canopen-forum. com/ showArticle. com/ [2] http:/ / www. industrialcontroldesignline. CANopen and J1939 [7] CANopen educational pages [8] CANopen-Page in the CAN-wiki [9] CANopen Introduction [10] Introduction to CANopen Fundamentals (in www. canopen-lift. 3.CANopen 92 References 1. org/ [13] http:/ / www.

It operates at TTL voltages and is ‘multi-drop’ i. Peripherals such as coin acceptors. amusement machines and retail cash management use ccTalk to talk to the host controller. Each peripheral on the ccTalk bus must have a unique address. payphones. The protocol uses an asynchronous transfer of character frames in a similar manner to RS232. a simple-to-understand packet structure. on the outskirts of Manchester in north-west England mainly by Engineer Andy Barson.ccTalk 93 ccTalk ccTalk (pronounced see-see-talk) is a serial protocol in widespread use throughout the money transaction industry. DES encryption was added to certain commands so that it could be made more resilient against attacks on the bus. . RX data = 001 013 002 000 067 111 105 110 032 065 099 099 101 112 116 111 114 022 • • • • • • 001 = destination address 013 = 13 data bytes 002 = source address 000 = reply header 067…114 = ASCII for ‘Coin Acceptor’ 022 = checksum ( sum of all packet bytes is zero ) The reply from address 2 back to address 1 identifies it as a coin acceptor. now Money Controls. The protocol was developed at a company called Coin Controls (hence coin-controls-talk). peripherals can be connected to a common bus and are logically separated by a device address. Low cost bridge chips are now available from a number of manufacturers to allow ccTalk to run over USB at baud rates of at least 1 Mbit/s. The original protocol operated at 4800 baud with subsequent releases standardising on 9600 baud.e. In 2010. The main difference is that it uses a single Two-way communication data line for half-duplex communication rather than separate transmit and receives lines. The protocol supports all standard operations for electronic devices such as flash upgrading of firmware. secure transfer of data and detailed diagnostic information. bill validators and hoppers found in a diverse range of automatic payment equipment such as transportation. An Example ccTalk Message Packet TX data = 002 000 001 245 008 _____ • • • • • 002 = destination address 000 = zero data bytes 001 = source address 245 = command header ‘Request equipment category id’ 008 = checksum ( 002 + 000 + 001 + 245 + 008 = 256 = 0 mod 256 ) This is a message from address 1 ( the host ) to peripheral address 2 to find out what it is. The first release of the protocol was in 1996. an easily expandable command interface and no licensing requirements. ticketing. The latter affords the protocol a good deal of popularity in a crowded and highly competitive field similar to open-source software. ccTalk protocol stacks have been implemented on a range of devices from tiny Microchip microcontrollers with 512 bytes of ROM to powerful ARM7 32-bit processors. Advantages of ccTalk include low cost UART technology.

are information-content independent.6 switched multi-megabit data service (SMDS). Frame length is fixed in hardware. with the country.ccTalk 94 Coin and Note Naming A number of associated standards have emerged over the years from within the ccTalk specification. that add addressing and verification information. is most commonly used for home DSL connections. and correspond only to layers one and two of the OSI Reference Model.g. This is a form of statistical time division multiplexing. cell relay refers to a method of statistically multiplexing small fixed-length packets. Cell relay can be used for delay. Cell relay is an implementation of fast packet-switching technology that is used in connection-oriented broadband integrated services digital networks (B-ISDN. connection-oriented packet switched data communications protocol. a particularly popular form of cell relay. by breaking it into streams of cells. e. called "cells".org Cell relay In computer networking. Cell relay systems break variable-length user packets into groups of fixed-length cells. and for high-speed backbone connections (OC-3 and faster). based on time delay and user packet-length considerations.g. and its better-known supporting technology ATM) and connectionless IEEE 802. usually x100. . with a lightweight synchronization and clock recovery shim. The issue code is assigned to different issue dates or special mint variations of the same coin.cctalk. Cell relay transmission rates usually are between 56 kbit/s and several gigabits per second. Cell relay protocols have neither flow control nor error correction capability. • US0001A United States $1 • GB0020A Great Britain £20 • EU0005A Euro 5€ External links • http://www. For example. e. the global tags to identify the world’s forever changing coins and notes. One user data message may be segmented over many cells. Thus cell relay systems may potentially carry any combination of stream-based and packet-based data.and jitter-sensitive traffic such as voice and video. ATM. Cell relay statems may also carry bitstream-based data such as PDH traffic. It is an unreliable.544 Mbit/s (DS1). which often runs between 128 kbit/s and 1. to transport data between computers or kinds of network equipment. • US025A United States 25c • GB010B Great Britain 10p • EU200A Euro 2€ Bank notes follow the same pattern but 4 characters are allocated to the value and there is an associated scaling factor. In ccTalk a coin has a 6 character identifier <2-letter country code><3-letter value><1-letter issue code> The country code conforms to ISO 3166.

the operation code 03 means submit message. Syntax An example CIMD exchange looks like the following: <STX>03:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>033:hello<TAB><ETX> <STX>53:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>060:971107131212<TAB><ETX> Each packet starts with STX (hex 02) and ends with ETX (hex 03). nokia. pdf [2] http:/ / sw. The number after the operation code is the sequence number used to match an operation to its response. org . Field 021 defines the destination address (telephone number). the SMSC would reply with field 900 (error code) instead. Response code 53 with a field 060 time stamp indicates that the message was accepted. with field 033 is the user data (content) of the message.0 [2] Software • Kannel [3]. References [1] http:/ / sw. You can fire SMS from message center with the help of CIMD client tools.3 and CIMD 2. com/ id/ 7a27b9e7-7cdd-4456-b630-3d7c35f30a4f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC80. Note that the last field must also be terminated with a TAB before the ETX. The content of the packet consists of fields separated by TAB (hex 09). consists of a parameter type. Two-digit parameter types are operation codes and each message must have exactly one. In the example above. A good number of supporting software to implement CIMD is available from Nokia's Web site to build CIMD client. The response code (acknowledgement) of the message is equal to the operation code plus 50. a colon (:).0 [1] • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v8. if the message failed. CIMD Computer Interface to Message Distribution (CIMD) is a proprietary short message service centre protocol developed by Nokia for their SMSC (now: Nokia Siemens Networks). pdf [3] http:/ / www. nokia. External links • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v7.Cell relay 95 References •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration. Each field. kannel. com/ id/ a58b0133-4ffa-4e17-8b3b-77877688660f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC70.0 support. in turn. and the parameter value. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with CIMD 1.

Cisco was the first to provide a WAN optimization system that was transparent to the network. and monitoring end-to-end transactions because they tend to cause problems for most network monitoring devices and tools. visibility. Since then Cisco has been busy integrating the technology and making several extensions. also known as deduplication) and application protocol acceleration in a single a network-attached appliance or router-integrated module form factor. Latest Release Cisco's latest WAAS software release. WAAS delivers a combination of TCP optimization. WAN Optimization “confuses” performance monitoring systems [1] [2] by changing packet header data. Notably. WAAS combines WAN optimization. This was accomplished by preserving IP packet header details. which have been deemed important for intermediary devices and services to function properly. Examples of devices that could be impacted by packet header obfuscation include firewalls. intrusion detection and prevention systems. Alternatives Open Source • Traffic Squeezer [3] • WANProxy [4] Commercial • • • • • Riverbed Steelhead Blue Coat ProxySG Silver Peak NX. WAN optimization appliances have traditionally limited IT when it comes to maintaining functions such as security. and TCP port numbers. optimization of the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). announced at the 2010 Cisco Networkers conference.Cisco WAAS 96 Cisco WAAS Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS) is technology that optimizes the performance of TCP-based applications operating in a Wide Area Network (WAN) environment while preserving and strengthening branch security. and general quality of service (QoS) techniques. including standalone appliances and network modules (NME) for the Cisco Integrated Services Routers (ISRs). Quality of Service. including IP addresses. The distributed ADS market was about 4 years old in 2004 when Cisco acquired Actona Technologies. is version 4. routers.3. The acquisition gave Cisco basic wide-area file services (WAFS) techniques. Other providers of this technology have consequently provided solutions to solving this problem as well.1. Cisco calls the resulting software Wide Area Application Services (WAAS). VX & VRX Juniper WXC Citrix Branch Repeater . and byte-level and file caching. Data Redundancy Elimination (DRE. By design. proxy services. It runs on Wide Area Application Engine (WAE) hardware platforms.

html) • NetQoS partners with Cisco WAAS to develop application response time reporting for WAN optimization (http:/ /www. and the TS29 protocol modelled on Triple-X PAD. • The Orange Book defined protocols for transport over local networks using the Cambridge Ring. but [1] X.com/supp/2007/ndc4/ 061807-cisco-app-optimization. html) • Making your apps faster. It was developed by Post Office Telecommunications. NIFTP was intended for batch mode rather than interactive usage.cisco.com/2006/12/ waas_up_with_ciscos_wan_optimi_1. It was developed by the Data Communications Protocols Unit of the Department of Industry in the late 1970s. org/ References • Cisco WAAS product page (http://www. Protocols The standards were: • The Pink Book defined protocols for transport over Ethernet. and for the output to be returned to the originating (or another) . analogous to Internet FTP.com/ netqos-partners-cisco-waas-to-develop-application-response-time-reporting-for-wan-optimization-review299-8.25. • The Grey Book defined protocols for e-mail transfer (not file transfer as is sometimes claimed).pcdistrict.html?nlhtc=0618ciscoalert1&) • WAAS up with Cisco's WAN Optimization Initiative? (http://www. networkperformancedaily. • The Red Book defined the Job Transfer and Manipulation Protocol (JTMP). html) [2] Tracking the optimized WAN (http:/ / www.Cisco WAAS 97 Notes [1] The impact of WAN Optimization on TCP Applications (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 07/ tracking_the_optimized_wan_net_1. running over Blue Book FTP. The name originated with each protocol being identified by the colour of the cover of its specification document. html#more) [3] http:/ / www. • The Yellow Book defined the Yellow Book Transport Service (YBTS) protocol. Cisco-style (http://www. they were operated simultaneously for a while. These protocols are similar in functionality to TELNET. networkperformancedaily.networkperformancedaily. running over YBTS. org/ [4] http:/ / wanproxy. • The Green Book defined two protocols to connect terminals across a network: an early version of what became Triple-X PAD running over X. trafficsqueezer. which was mainly run over X. Unlike Internet FTP. The protocol was basically X.com/en/US/products/ps5680/Products_Sub_Category_Home. but running over YBTS. After 1992.networkworld. a mechanism for jobs to be transferred from one computer to another. html) Coloured Book protocols The Coloured Book protocols were a set computer network protocols used on the SERCnet and JANET X.25 support was phased out entirely by August 1997.25 level 3 running over LLC2. • The Fawn Book defined the Simple Screen Management Protocol (SSMP) • The Blue Book defined the Network-Independent File Transfer Protocol (NIFTP). com/ 2007/ 07/ whiteboard_series_the_impact_o. Internet protocols were adopted on JANET instead.25.25 packet-switched academic networks in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1992.

computers: "What is the British Grey Book protocol?" (http://neil.25(1980) revision. see JANET NRS.ac. net/ services/ publications/ archive/ reports/ quarterly/ autumn-97.folklore. It really occupies the top of the Network layer. as it does not fulfill the Transport role in the OSI 7-layer model. JANET webarchive.uk.AC. For example.ch/Usenet/alt. Retrieved 2008-04-16.v. 98 Notes [1] "JANET(UK) Quarterly Report to the JANET Community: July 1997 to September 1997" (http:/ / www.pdf).HATFIELD. computers/20020906_What_is_the_British_Grey_Book_protocol) . For more information. 2004.STAR instead of acc@star.25's lack of NSAP addressing at the time (which didn't appear until the X. 1). webarchive. Jim (2007-04-03). Oxford University Press. One famous quirk of Coloured Book was that components of hostnames were backwards compared to the Internet standard.com/uknof7/Reid-History. "coloured book" • Reid. "The Good Old Days: Networking in UK Academia ~25 Years Ago" (http://www. and wasn't available in implementations for some years afterwards).Coloured Book protocols computer. . 1997. html#4. running over Blue Book FTP. s. UKNOF7. The Yellow Book Transport Service was somewhat misnamed. an address might be acc@UK. Manchester. References • A Dictionary of Computing.franklin.hatfield. ja. uknof. External links • alt. making up for X. YBTS used Source routing addressing between YBTS nodes—there was no global addressing scheme at that time.folklore.

viii.org. Hence. Odva.Common Industrial Protocol 99 Common Industrial Protocol The Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) is an industrial protocol for industrial automation applications. unreliable protocol. DeviceNet.odva. as with MPLS. The impact is so great. These also currently include major application extensions to CIP: CIP Safety. Connection-oriented protocols are not necessarily reliable protocols. References [1] "Identity Guidelines" (http:/ / odva. aspx). It is supported by hundreds of vendors around the world. Retrieved 2011-03-13. Sect. for example).g.org) Connection-oriented protocol A connection-oriented networking protocol is one that establishes a communication session. and reliable-connectionless is uncommon in commercial and academic networks. in fact. configuration and information. . 2. It is supported by ODVA. In the latter case. where the motto "bandwidth is cheap" fails to deliver on its promise. ATM and Frame Relay. isochronous traffic streams. which is why ATM has yet to be replaced with Ethernet for carrying real-time. There are also reliable connectionless protocols as well. But this combination is rare. It may be a circuit switched connection. External links • ODVA website (http://www. CompoNet and ControlNet. [2] "Member Roster" (http:/ / odva. especially in heavily aggregated networks like backbones. . or a virtual circuit connection in a packet switched network. and are trivial to implement in hardware). Connection-oriented protocols handle real-time traffic substantially more efficiently than connectionless protocols. p. safety. then delivers a stream of data in the same order as it was sent. for example. are both examples of a connection-oriented.[2] and is truly media-independent. are being tagged with connection-oriented header prefixes (e. It allows users to integrate these manufacturing applications with enterprise-level Ethernet networks and the Internet. (10-)gigabit Ethernet is not expected to replace ATM at this time. aspx). Example of a connection-oriented protocol at the transport layer is the TCP protocol. it identifies traffic flows by some connection identifier rather than by explicitly listing source and destination addresses. 24 for ATM.. motion. org/ Home/ ABOUTODVA/ PressRoom/ IdentityGuidelines/ tabid/ 211/ lng/ en-US/ language/ en-US/ Default. This makes network switches substantially faster (as routing tables are just simple look-up tables. such as IP traffic. this connection identifier is a small integer (10 bits for Frame Relay. The Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) is used in EtherNet/IP. such as AX. synchronization. ODVA.[1] CIP encompasses a comprehensive suite of messages and services for the collection of manufacturing automation applications – control. Typically.b.25 when it passes data in I-frames. Experience has also shown that over-provisioning bandwidth does not resolve all quality of service issues. that even characteristically connectionless protocols. ODVA is the organization that supports network technologies built on the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). . or IPv6's built-in Flow ID field). CIP provides a unified communication architecture throughout the manufacturing enterprise. org/ Home/ ABOUTODVA/ TheODVACommunity/ MemberRoster/ tabid/ 115/ lng/ en-US/ language/ en-US/ Default. CIP Motion and CIP Sync. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Previously known as Control and Information Protocol.

The distinction between connectionless and connection-oriented transmission may take place at several layers of the OSI Reference Model: • At the Transport Layer: TCP is a connection-oriented transport protocol. Retrieved 2008-05-19. .2 protocol at the Logical Link Control sublayer of the data link layer may provide both connectionless and connection-oriented services. In connection-oriented communication the communicating peers must first establish a logical or physical data channel or connection in a dialog preceding the exchange of user data. In contrast. The connectionless communication mode has the advantage over a connection-oriented mode in that it has low overhead. • At the Network Layer. misdelivery. It also allows for multicast and broadcast operations. bridges) along the network path would be able to pre-compute (and hence cache) routing-related information.[1] 100 List of connection-oriented protocols • • • • • • • • TCP DCCP Connection-oriented Ethernet ATM Frame Relay TIPC SCTP IPX/SPX References [1] Ramos-Escano et al. a video download. In fact. UDP is connectionless. A packet transmitted in a connectionless mode is frequently called a datagram. a connection is always unicast (point-to-point). CL-mode[1] or connectionless communication is a data transmission method in which each data packet carries information in a header record that contains a destination address sufficient to permit the independent delivery of the packet to its destination via the network. google. Connectionless communication In packet switching networks. the service provider usually cannot guarantee that there will be no loss. in connectionless mode transmission of a packet. • At the Data Link Layer: The IEEE 802. avoiding re-computation for every packet. or out-of-sequence delivery of the packet. error insertion. the risk of these hazards may be reduced by providing a reliable transmission service at a higher protocol layer of the OSI Reference Model. which may save even more network resources when the same data needs to be transmitted to several recipients. "US Patent Application Publication 2005/0117529 A1" (http:/ / www. (2005-06-02). Unfortunately. By establishing a connection at the beginning of such a data exchange the components (routers.) Another drawback of the connectionless mode is that no optimisations are possible when sending several frames between the same two peers. com/ patents?id=hzKUAAAAEBAJ).Connection-oriented protocol Some connection-oriented protocols have been designed or altered to accommodate both connection-oriented and connectionless data. duplication.g. Network components could also reserve capacity for the transfer of the subsequent frames of e. some network protocols (such as SNA's . (However.

without first ensuring that the recipient is available and ready to receive the data.) 101 References [1] Information Processing Systems . Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are connectionless protocols. List of connectionless protocols • • • • • • • Hypertext Transfer Protocol IP (internet layer. International Standard 8072/AD 1. Some protocols allow for error correction by requested retransmission. December 1986. •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.Connectionless communication Path Control in its early stages) require a connection-oriented data link layer. Connectionless protocol In telecommunications.Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission". International Organization for Standardization. Connectionless protocols are also described as stateless because the endpoints have no protocol-defined way to remember where they are in a "conversation" of message exchanges. "Transport Service Definition .Open Systems Interconnection. Others (like IP) do not. The device at one end of the communication transmits data addressed to the other. connectionless describes communication between two network end points in which a message can be sent from one end point to another without prior arrangement. can also be used for connections) UDP ICMP IPX TIPC NetBEUI . (After the appearance of APPN. SNA could operate on a connectionless data link service as well.

The routing using CSPF is known as Constraint Based Routing (CBR). CSPF may accordingly An Example network determine a different path. suppose that as before. hop count is used as link cost for all links but 1 → 2 and 2 → 3. The path computed using CSPF could be exactly same as that of computed from OSPF and IS-IS. VDM Verlag Dr. For example. A constraint could be minimum bandwidth required per link (also known as bandwidth guaranteed constraint). for which the cost is 4. maximum number of links traversed. In all of these cases OSPF and IS-IS will result in path 1 → 2 → 3. Müller.e. where a route has to be computed from router-1 to the router-3 satisfying bandwidth constrained of x. If x = 55 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 4 → 5 → 3.units. or it could be completely different depending on the set of constraints to be met. If x = 90 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 4 → 5 → 6 → 3.Constrained Shortest Path First 102 Constrained Shortest Path First Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF) is an extension of shortest path algorithms. info/ 987067745 . The path computed using CSPF is a shortest path fulfilling a set of constraints. Mark (2007). and link cost for each link is based on hop-count (i. Constrained Network Optimization [1] . end-to-end delay. However. If x = 55 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 4 → 5 → 3. include/exclude nodes. If x = 90 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 4 → 5 → 6 → 3. In this case: If x = 50 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 2 → 3. If x = 50 units then CSPF will give path 1 → 2 → 3. It simply means that it runs shortest path algorithm after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints. Constrained Shortest Path and Related Problems. Example with bandwidth constraint Consider the network to the right. References [1] http:/ / d-nb. if the link costs in this topology are different. CSPF is widely used in MPLS Traffic Engineering. References • Ziegelmann. ISBN 978-3-8364-4633-4.. 1).

quality of service constraints. Other uses for CR-LSPs include MPLS-based virtual private networks. one of the protocols in the Multiprotocol Label Switching architecture. Constraint-based routing (CR) is a mechanism used to meet traffic engineering requirements. Content Vectoring Protocol Content Vectoring Protocol (CVP) is a protocol for filtering data that is crossing a firewall into an external scanning device. An example of this is where all HTTP traffic is virus-scanned before being sent out to the user. the IETF MPLS working group deprecated CR-LDP and decided to focus purely on RSVP-TE. It is not known whether this is just a re-working of another protocol that has been re-branded by Checkpoint or if this is a generic Internet protocol. As of February 2003. This protocol is identified as part of the Checkpoint training as being one of the benefits of their products. It is an extension of the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP). but it contains some extra TLVs which basically set up the constraint-based LSP. CR-LDP contains extensions for LDP to extend its capabilities such as setup paths beyond what is available for the routing protocol. CR-LDP is almost same as basic LDP. For instance. Its default is to use TCP port 18181. It is used separately by few servers implemeting Firewall to inspect the http content. and other constraints.Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol 103 Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol Constraint-based Routing Label Distribution Protocol (CR-LDP) is a control protocol used in some computer networks. . The administrator can direct the whole of the internet traffic to the CVP or specific content coming from specific source to be inspected by CVP. a Label Switched Path can be set up based on explicit route constraints. It may or may not inspect the whole of the content which is entirely based on the administrator managing the firewall. in packet structure. These requirements are met by extending LDP for support of constraint-based routed label switched paths (CR-LSPs).

where NUT stands for Network Update Time. Features which set ControlNet apart from other fieldbuses include the built-in support for fully redundant cables and the fact that communication on ControlNet can be strictly scheduled and highly deterministic. The media is checked with a handheld device known as a "Network Checker" in conjunction with a DSO running at 100 MHz or higher. ControlNet can operate with a single RG-6 coaxial cable bus. However. Each processor has a "scanlist configuration" which shows its connections to remote racks. also known as a fieldbus. A break in the media invariably causes a SNAFU. analog cards can be assigned block transfers. By opening this program the network is scanned and a graphical screen is populated with each node on the network. In Rockwell PLC systems the network is configured via RSNetworx For ControlNet. In the I/O configuration table of Logix. ControlNet was earlier supported by ControlNet International. Architecture Physical Layer RG-6 coaxial cable with BNC connectors. ControlNet also supports a star topology if used with the appropriate hardware. common network sniffers such as Wireshark cannot be used to sniff ControlNet packets. The network topology is a bus structure with short taps. There is no guarantee that every node will get an opportunity to transmit in every unscheduled phase. where all nodes with scheduled data are guaranteed a transmission opportunity. Due to the unique physical layer. ControlNet was designed after Allen-Bradley's PLC-5 was released. Each NUT has two phases. Link Layer ControlNet is a scheduled communication network designed for cyclic data exchange. The maximum size of a scheduled or unscheduled ControlNet data frame is 510 Bytes. and any other devices that communicate with it. Rockwell Automation provides ControlNet Traffic Analyzer software to sniff and analyze ControlNet packets. This program performs for remote racks essentially the same functions as the I/O configuration in the local rack. An End User's Experiences ControlNet's scheduled message system requires that the media be robustly designed and meticulously maintained. or a dual RG-6 coaxial cable bus for cable redundancy. which now manages all protocols in the Common Industrial Protocol family. known as NUTs. The end of each NUT is marked by the transmission of a moderator frame by the node with the lowest MAC-ID on the network. so the PLC-5 system has some inherent troubles using it. there is a tradeoff between number of devices on the bus and total cable length.ControlNet 104 ControlNet Introduction ControlNet is an open industrial network protocol for industrial automation applications. The second phase is dedicated to unscheduled traffic. The physical layer signaling uses Manchester code at 5 Mbit/s. Maximum cable length without repeaters is 1000m and maximum number of nodes on the bus is 99. Application Layer The ControlNet application layer protocol is based on the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) layer which is also used in DeviceNet and EtherNet/IP. though optical fiber is sometimes used for long distances. Repeaters can be used to further extend the cable length. the first phase is dedicated to scheduled traffic. but in 2008 support and management of ControlNet was transferred to ODVA. In RSNetworx. The protocol operates in cycles. Both the scheduled and unscheduled phase use an implicit token ring media access method. frequency drives. ControlNet analog cards .

105 External links • ODVA website [1] • ControlNet International website [2] • ControlNet Networks and Communications from Allen-Bradley [3] References [1] http:/ / www. Their intended customers are the larger builders of server-systems such as Dell and HP.ControlNet in remote racks are assigned scheduled messages in blocks of words. via a mezzanine card in blade servers or as PCI extension-card. org [3] http:/ / www. Brocade Brocade Communications Systems offers two types of CNA's. combining Fibre Channel over Ethernet with 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Broadcom offers their CNAs under their own brandname but also sell the ASICs and required other chips to others. but can be consumed by many. may be 50 words.[2] . Data in this manner can only be produced by one source. for example. Processors communicate with each other via "produce" and "consume" tags. This block will be broadcast for any other processor to consume. Likewise. is a computer input/output device that combines the functionality of a Host Bus Adaptor to a storage area network with a network interface controller for a general-purpose computer network. The only difference between the two models are the number of interfaces on the cards: one or two. the same processor may consume 50 words from another processor. controlnet. The two port model will allow connection to two different switches to create a redundant configuration without having to use two PCI slots. com/ networks/ controlnet/ Converged Network Adapter A converged network adapter (CNA). Later products used the marketing term converged network adapter (CNA). also called a converged network interface controller (C-NIC). both as PCI Express inteface of the 2nd generation. org [2] http:/ / www. ab.[1] Broadcom In 2009 Broadcom entered the CNA market. for instance. A processor's produce tag. These vendors can then include the 10Gb CNA with their servers: as embedded interface on the motherboard (LOM or LAN on Montherboard). odva. Support Some products were marketed around 2005 with the term C-NIC which combined iSCSI storage functionality with Gigabit Ethernet.

They offer single and dual port PCI cards with copper or optical fibre interfaces. qlogic. December 2009.[3] QLogic CNA's are available under the QLogic brandname and as OEM cards. For the M-series. visited 31 July. 2011 . com/ NewsAndEvents/ Documents/ QLogic Dell FCoE Win. page). visited 31 July. visited: 31 Julu. january 2011. 2010.[6] Cisco Cisco Systems offered FibreChannel over Ethernet marketed as their Unified Computing System via their UCS [7] 81KR Virtual Interface Card CNA. com/ Documents/ Industry2010007 . com/ 8100_Launch_Video_datasheet_v4_2.[4] Hewlett-Packard HP claims that their BL460c G7 was the first blade-server that offers FCoE via a LOM (Lan on Motherboard) instead of using a PCI-slot or mezzanine-card. downloaded: 31 July. EMC and IBM. 2011 [2] Frenk Berry Blog on Network Computing: Broadcom unveils CNA (http:/ / www. networkcomputing. Deni Connor. 2011 [4] EMC joins QLogix CNA club (http:/ / wikibon. html).Converged Network Adapter 106 QLogic Qlogic offers CNAs via their QLogic 8100 series adapters. The QME CNA and drivers were supported by Citrix. NetApp.[5] Dell Dell uses the QLogic 8100 series in theire PowerEdge servers. 2011 [5] ITBrand Pulse HP embeds 10Gb CNA (http:/ / itbrandpulse. visited 31 July. com/ en/ US/ prod/ collateral/ ps10265/ ps10280/ data_sheet_c78-525049. 2011 [3] QLogic website: QLogic launches 8100 CNA (http:/ / streaming. last visited 30 July. org/ wiki/ v/ EMC_Joins_QLogic's_FCoE_Converged_Network_Adapter_(CNA)_Club). pdf). visited: 31 July.and rackservers Dell offers an OEM version of the standard QME 8152 is marketed. html). cisco. 2011 [7] Cisco website Cisco UCS M81KR Virtual Interface Card (http:/ / www.HP Embeds 10Gb CNA v6. 2011 [6] Storage Stategies Now report (republished on Qlogic website): Dell chooses QLogic (http:/ / www. brocade. blade-servers for the M1000e enclosure a specially made dual-port mezzanine card QME8142 is designed. References [1] Brocade website: Specifications of 1010 and 1020 CNA's (http:/ / www. November 2010. php). com/ data-networking-management/ broadcom-unveils-converged-network-adapter. com/ products/ all/ adapters/ product-details/ 1010-1020-cna/ specifications. 29 Januari. pdf). qlogic. For the normal tower.

Technology implications Convergent solutions include both fixed-line and mobile technologies. telephony and on-line computer services evolved on different platforms: TV and radio sets. Communication media including data communications. Many service providers now offer turnkey converged network solutions tailored to the small to medium enterprise market. and network architecture used to migrate multiple communications services into a single network. network convergence or simply convergence are broad terms used to describe emerging telecommunications technologies. It is a concept dating to AT&T in 1928. Benefits Enterprises who transition to a converged network often do so to realize savings in information technology (IT) operational costs. and relative easy transition has driven many enterprises to adapt converged network solutions. Different media were each regulated differently by different regulators. Telecommunication convergence is a disruptive technology. these were sold and serviced independently. and to integrate their business IT systems. Even when the same organization marketed both products. although the term properly applies only from the point in marketing history when fixed and mobile telephony began to be offered by operators as joined products. low capital expenditure. Broadcasting. This recent availability of service.[2] History The historical roots of convergence can be traced back to the emergence of mobile telephony and the Internet. telephones and computer and were managed by different business support systems. for most of the 1990s.[1] Specifically this involves the converging of previously distinct media such as telephony and data communications into common interfaces on single devices. Such offerings require far less capital expenditure than a comparable separate. Telecom media convergence is about merging these multiple industries. Convergent technologies include: • IP Multimedia Subsystem • Session Initiation Protocol • IPTV . legacy voice and data solutions. telecommunications and broadcast originally developed as business operations providing distinct services. Recent examples of new. Data and statistics in a call center utilizing a converged network may now be integrated directly into an enterprise resource planning system. convergent services include: • • • • • • Using the Internet for voice telephony Video on demand Fixed-mobile convergence Mobile-to-mobile convergence Location-based services Integrated products and bundles Convergent technologies can integrate the fixed-line with mobile to deliver convergent solutions. independent companies. Fixed and mobile operators were.Convergence (telecommunications) 107 Convergence (telecommunications) Telecommunications convergence. Moving voice and data services to a common network allows enterprises to more readily access to data. but has evolved in the 21st century to dominate the market positioning of telecoms operators.

tmforum.. html). techtarget.com .39160234. [3] "O2 goes IT" (http:/ / management.Convergence (telecommunications) • Voice over IP • Voice call continuity • Digital video broadcasting . As convergent solutions involve multiple billing and provisioning systems so too must convergent solutions provide unified and enhanced customer support[3] Usability and quality of service The maturity of convergent solutions beyond early adoption models depends upon the usability and quality of service provided by convergent solutions. . As part of a convergent single view of customer network policy. com/ sDefinition/ 0. The integration of multiple services as convergent solutions requires the network operator to examine the interests and the value adding opportunities of extending base products. and voice and media transmission are eroded. . PacketCable Multimedia is an example of an application-independent Quality of Service architecture for real-time IP based services. html) [2] "TR136. com/ itdirector/ 0. com/ primer/ ).39024673. silicon. Retrieved 2011-03-29.com • http://www. Release 1. Telecom Media Convergence. External links • http://www.arissoftware.0" (http:/ / www. regulators are faced with the task of how best to classify the converging segments of the telecommunication sector. htm). org/ TechnicalReports/ TR136TelecomMedia/ 33016/ article. As the lines between data transmission. 2007-05-07.handheld 108 Single view of customer Convergent solutions integrate with marketing and customer relationship management in order to target bundled offerings at specific user groups.00.00. . TMForum. servers must control access to content and services delivered by multiple providers. Convergence regulation Convergence has also raised several debates about classification of certain telecommunications services.sid100_gci1310061. [4] "Packetcable Primer" (http:/ / www.televerge. Retrieved 2011-05-03.[4] Policy based security and authorization Both fixed-line and mobile operators use policy servers as part of a policy-based network that provides authorization services and control of network systems. packetcable. Retrieved 2011-05-03. References [1] Network convergence definition (http:/ / searchnetworkingchannel.

The first bit of each frame carries one bit out of a special pattern.7041 Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). the benefit of using 24 byte frames became a liability. A hysteresis function is applied to keep the receiver in lock in the presence of a moderate error rate. but the basic idea of using short. fixed length cells was identical. StrataCom's first product had T1 (1. this field is known as the Header Error Control/Check (HEC) field. which itself is used in several packet link protocols. An offset to the next valid header is present in a fixed position relative to the CRC/HEC. Brian Holden. Using this same CRC/HEC field for the second purpose of link framing provided a significant improvement in link efficiency over what other methods of framing. In the design review. This was highly inefficient because HDLC has a heavy and data-dependent overhead. This device found the 193 bit long TDM frame and put out the 24 bytes in a form that could be used effectively. Length/HEC-Based Framing An advanced. A receiver finds this special pattern by sequentially looking for the bit position in the receive data where a bit from this pattern shows up every 193rd byte. The receiver looks for a position in the receive data stream following the rules that the header CRC/HEC is correct and the byte offset correctly points to the next valid header CRC/HEC.CRC-based framing 109 CRC-based framing The concept of CRC-based framing was developed by StrataCom. The receiver then declares that it has found the frame. This factor may have ruined the economics of product for the European market.544 Mbit/s) based links which included a 5 bit header CRC. The header CRC/HEC is needed for another purpose within an ATM system.7041 GFP links where it is known as Length/HEC-based framing. It was convenient for [1] because a useful T1 framer StrataCom to make the length of one cell equal to the length of one T1 frame Integrated Circuit from Rockwell was on the market. Invention of CRC-based framing The story behind the invention of CRC-based framing is as follows: StrataCom produced the first (pre-standard) ATM commercial product. everyone was lamenting what a bad solution HDLC was for the problem. T1 is a time-division multiplexing (TDM) protocol with 24 byte payloads carried in a 193 bit frame. In ATM. When it came time to produce a European product. The development team's first proposal used the HDLC protocol to encapsulate a sequence of 24 byte cells into a byte stream collected from the 30 byte E1 payloads. who was one of the reviewers present. and the field definitions were slightly different. because no additional bits were required for this second purpose. Overview of CRC-based framing The method of CRC-Based framing re-uses the header cyclic redundancy check (CRC). The European T-carrier (E1) format has a 32 byte frame of which 30 bytes could carry data. the IPX. A receiver utilizing CRC-based framing bit-shifts along the received bit stream until it finds a bit position where the header CRC is correct for a number of times. variable frame size version of CRC-Based framing is used in ITU-T SG15 G. then uttered . the receiver need only byte-shift (rather than of bit-shifting) along the receive data stream to find lock. in order to improve the efficiency of a pre-standard Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) link protocol. The IPX used 24 byte cells instead of ATM's 53 byte cells. which is present in ATM and other similar protocols. An advanced version of CRC-based framing was used in the ITU-T SG15 G. similar to ATM's 8 bit header CRC. This technology was ultimately used in the principal link protocols of ATM itself and was one of the most significant developments of StrataCom. Inc. to improve the robustness in cell delivery. In links where there is already a byte lock mechanism present such as within an E-carrier or SDH frame. to provide framing on the link with no additional overhead.

D54 was developed in the United Kingdom at approximately the same time as AMX192 (another analog multiplexing protocol) was developed in the United States. Originally developed for use on the Strand Galaxy (1980) and Strand Gemini (1984) control desks. Though more advanced protocols exist such as Digital MultipleX DMX (lighting). com/ patents?id=aAckAAAAEBAJ& dq=5128945) "A data receiver . In about 1976. wikipatents. and is available on the latest Strand 500 series consoles alongside DMX (lighting). and the two protocols remained almost exclusively in those countries. which became the accepted name). com/ patents?id=A9YkAAAAEBAJ& dq=5072449) More error tolerant Stratacom CRC-based framing patent (http:/ / www. google. History One of the significant problems in controlling dimmers is getting the control signal from a lighting control unit to the dimmer units. Instead. Although a claimed expansion capability of 768 dimmers was documented.itu.. D54 is still supported.CRC-based framing the sentence "Why don't you just frame on the CRC?". [3] 110 A related technique was patented in 1984. to detect successive 50-bit frames of data which are transmitted without any pause between frames and with a start bit value of 1 as the only start-of-frame indication. multiple D54 streams were supported by some later consoles.. it is still widely used in larger venues such as London's West End theatres. It was developed by Strand Lighting in the late 70s and originally designed to handle 384 channels. google. com/ 4468770. ." (http:/ / www. [4] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Previous Stratacom patent using DS-1's framing (http:/ / www. and popular amongst technicians because all the levels can be "seen" on an oscilloscope.itu.int/ITU-T/) • List of all ITU-T Recommendations (http://www. The refresh period would also have been slow on such a long dimmer update cycle. and a single 1 bit start-of-frame indicator. to deal with the bulky cable requirements of analog control. For many years this was achieved by providing a dedicated wire from the control unit to each dimmer (analogue control) where the voltage present on the wire was varied by the control unit to set the output level of the dimmer. effectively preventing commercial exploitation.html) D54 (protocol) D54 is an analogue lighting communications protocol used to control stage lighting. early receivers used simple hardware counters that rolled over before reaching 768. google. a 13 bit CRC. com/ patents?id=3W4uAAAAEBAJ& dq=4771425) Original Stratacom CRC-based framing patent (http:/ / www. html) External links • Official ITU-T website (http://www.int/ITU-T/publications/recs. The developers Rick Enns and Paul O'Hare properly got the patent for the development as Brian Holden did just utter the one sentence. That technique uses the CRC to find the start of 50 bit frames composed of a 36 bit data payload. Strand's R&D group in the UK developed an analogue multiplexing control system designated D54 (D54 is the internal standards number. Participating in this design review and uttering this one high-value sentence was Brian's only involvement in this E1 project and the consequent development of CRC-based framing. A circuit was designed which examined the incoming byte stream emerging from the E1 framer device and found a byte position for which the header CRC value was consistently correct. Everyone in the room went "Oh!" as the lightbulb flashed on. This team also went on to create a more error tolerant form of the technique. The project team went on to base the framing of the E1 project on the CRC[2] .

a channel time) followed by a sync pulse then (channel 1) value and so on tell the whole (384 channels) i.000 pF.5 V/µs - Practical remarks (Found while working on a project to interface DMX512 console to Strand EC90 dimmer): 1) The frame starts with a 0 volt for (> 50us i.0 V 5. 2) Every thing works fine when the sync pulse >= 10 us.0 V 5.5 s 768 Analogue Valid Delay Tv Analogue Hold period Th Total Dimmer period Total Cycle period Analogue Gate Delay Number of Dimmers Slew Rate Td Tc Tg N - 45 µs 70 µs 1 0 40 ms - 2.0 V -2.0 V 0.5 s 20 µs 384 Min 35 µs 0. Temporal Parameters Parameter Abr. Transmitting Receiving Max Transmitting Impedance Receiving Impedance Termination per dimmer Termination capacitor3 Sync Level 2 1 Min -4.5 V 5. this first 0 valued channel acts as a start code.9 V 0.0 V 4. so the below data is unverified and provided 'as is'.0 V 0. .1 V - Nominal Max -5.e. e. 24 dimmers use 1 kΩ.1 V Vf Vo Vm +/-10 V - 1) Outputs to be short-circuit proof to 0 V to unlimited periods. 2) The termination resistor is paralleled for multiple dimmers received.g. you send a 0 valued channel then the 384 channel values.5 s 6 µs 50 µs 70 µs 0 1 2 V/µs Nominal Max 8 µs 40 ms 0.9 V 0. Electrical Parameters Parameter Abr. Transmitting Receiving Max End of Frame pulse Inter-Frame period Sync Pulse Te Ti Ts 0.5 s Min Nominal 30 µs 10 µs - 15 µs 3 µs 20 µs Td 0. Ct = 1.1 V 0. for Rt = 1k.0 V Sync Detector Threshold Vst Full Level Off Level Safe Input Levels 4 -3.D54 (protocol) 111 Protocol Article Authors Note : Little information is available regarding this protocol.0 V 5.1 V 4.1 V - 30 kΩ 20 kΩ +25% -25% - -2.5 s 0. 3) The termination capacitor is set to give a 1 µs time-constant. e.0 V - Min 90 kΩ Nominal 100 kΩ 24 kΩ Ro Ri Rt Ct Vs 10 Ω -6.5 s 0.g.e. 4) Full Level may be adjusted at the control system.5 s 15 µs 10 µs 15 µs Td 0.1 V 0.

php?module=Freaks%20Academy& func=viewItem& item_id=2866& item_type=project Data Stream Interface The Data Stream Interface (DSI) is a session layer used to carry Apple Filing Protocol traffic over Transmission Control Protocol. de/ uwe/ projekte/ stagelightning/ d54-dmx/ [3] http:/ / www. call-n-deal. strandarchive. of channels you use. co.x. They introduced AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) and DSI for TCP coincidentally with AFP 2.Strand Archive [1] DIY D54 to DMX512 for Strand ACTION Consoles [2] (In German) DMX512 to D54 Converter [3] References [1] http:/ / www. uk/ control/ d54/ d54. DSI is implemented directly into AFP clients such as in Mac OS and afpfs-ng.D54 (protocol) 3) Unlike DMX512 you cannot shorten the frame to the no. html [2] http:/ / www. avrfreaks. Overview When Apple introduced TCP with MacTCP and Open Transport in System 7 in the 1990s. All DSI communication contains the following DSI header: Packet structure . the whole 384 channels + the start 0 valued channel must be sent. Again these remarks are gained from a practical project with Strand EC90 dimmer. 112 Signal/Timing diagram for Strand D54 dimmer control protocol External links • • • • Strand Lighting Corporate [1] University of Exeter . net/ index. they needed their file sharing protocol (AFP) to run on both TCP and AppleTalk. Protocol DSI is spoken between a client and an AFP server.

• For replies. . • Total data length: the entire length of data after the DSI header • Reserved: for future expansion • Payload: this is where limited DSI data or more commonly AFP header is placed Commands There are seven possible commands[2] : DSI Commands Name Code Direction Both Description Closes an established session DSICloseSession 1 DSICommand DSIGetStatus 2 3 From client Attached payload contains an AFP command From client Get information about the server From client Establish a new session Both Ensure the connection is active DSIOpenSession 4 DSITickle DSIWrite DSIAttention 5 6 8 From client Write data to the server From server Get the attention of the client Requests and replies Upon receiving most DSI requests. the data payload itself following the DSI header. except when using the DSIWrite command. This reply contains: • • • • • the flags field set to 0x01 (reply) the command field set to the same value as the request's command field the same request ID sent in the request (used for the client to find the request being acknowledged) totalDataLength set to the payload length (if applicable).Data Stream Interface 113 DSI Header[1] Bit offset 0 32 64 96 128 Bits 0–7 Flags 8-15 Command 15-23 24-31 Request ID Error code/ enclosed data offset Total data length Reserved Payload The fields are: • • • • Flags: whether the packet is a request (0x00) or a reply (0x01) Command: one of 7 possible commands (see below) Request ID: a sequential identifier set on the request and copied in the reply Error code/ enclosed data offset: • For requests. the client or server sends a reply message.) The DSITickle and DSICloseSession commands do not trigger a reply. this is left as 0. where applicable. (See the individual command for details. this is an error code.

The request to a DSIGetStatus request will cause the server to respond with the following information: • • • • • • • • flags for basic server characteristics server name (7-bit ASCII and UTF-8) signature: used to uniquely identify the server for other AFP transactions server type: typically "Macintosh" or "Netatalk" a list of strings describing AFP versions spoken (e. A significant source of information in understanding DSI can be found by analyzing communication between AFP clients and servers using a packet sniffer. and is sufficiently simple and static that older references are suitable for modern implementations. Further research DSI is never documented separately. Similarly. typically 1024 bytes). The concepts of DSI are identical to AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP). It is used by a client to get information from a server it isn't logged into. "DHX2") a 64x64 pixel icon directory server list [4] DSIGetStatus reply format is identical to AFP's FPGetSrvrInfo and is used for ASPGetStatus. The most succinct guide is the "AFP over TCP" [6] chapter of Apple Filing Protocol Programming Guide [7]. . Maintaining the connection is done by tickling. DSI provides a mechanism for ensuring that client and server know that the other is still active. The server acknowledges the request and returns the size of its data receive buffer (typically 256k on Mac OS X Leopard). the server sends a tickle request to the client. The client may also disconnect if a request is in flight and neither a response nor tickle is received within 60 seconds (in Mac OS X v. Error codes The error codes returned are AFP result codes[5] . Every 30 seconds of inactivity. the client also sends its own tickle. "AFP3. which will include the size of the receive buffer the client has for packets (called the request quantum.g.g. maintenance and teardown A session is set up by the client sending a DSIOpenSession. The data elements are organized in the packet with a catalog of indices pointing to structured data[3] . Second Edition can be helpful. Getting server information with GetStatus This DSI command encapsulates an FPGetSrvrInfo packet. . and the overview in Inside AppleTalk. (This is NOT a response packet. The sender does not need to wait for a reply and should immediately close the session after sending the message.2") UAM list: a list of strings describing User Authentication Methods (e.2 and later).10. Session closure can be initiated by either side by sending DSICloseSession.) Either the client or server can terminate the DSI session if they fail to hear from the other for 120 seconds.Data Stream Interface 114 Session creation.

com/DOCUMENTATION/Networking/Reference/ AFP_Reference/AFP_Reference. apple. apple. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Conceptual/ AFP/ AFPOverTCP/ AFPOverTCP. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Conceptual/ AFP/ index. ncacn_np (SMB Named Pipes transport). html#/ / apple_ref/ doc/ uid/ TP40003548-CH6-SW1) [6] http:/ / developer.1_2. who brought in NCA . Alan B.. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Reference/ AFP_Reference/ Reference/ reference.pdf) • Inside AppleTalk Sidhu. without having to worry about the underlying network code. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Reference/ AFP_Reference/ Reference/ reference.g. short for "Distributed Computing Environment / Remote Procedure Calls". apple. DCE/RPC's history is such that it's sometimes cited as an example of design by committee.apple. html#/ / apple_ref/ c/ func/ DSIGetStatus) [5] "Result Codes" in "Apple Filing Protocol Reference" (http:/ / developer.com/~jwa/hacks/security/asip/ ASAppleTalkFiling2. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Reference/ AFP_Reference/ Reference/ reference.1 and 2.jammed.2. html#/ / apple_ref/ c/ func/ FPGetSrvrInfo) [4] "DSIGetStatus" in "Apple Filing Protocol Reference" (http:/ / developer."Network Computing Architecture" which became Network Computing System (NCS) and then a major part of DCE/RPC itself. e. html#/ / apple_ref/ doc/ uid/ TP40000854-CH228-SW10) [3] "FPGetSrvrInfo" in "Apple Filing Protocol Reference" (http:/ / developer. apple. is the remote procedure call system developed for the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). ISBN 0-201-55021-0 • Apple Filing Protocol Programming Guide (http://developer. Gurharan S. ncacn_tcp (DCE/RPC over TCP/IP) and ncacn_http to name a small number. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Reference/ AFP_Reference/ Reference/ reference. History DCE/RPC was commissioned by the Open Software Foundation in a "Request for Technology" (1993 David Chappell). apple.. Andrews. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Networking/ Conceptual/ AFP/ AFPOverTCP/ AFPOverTCP. however this complexity is often a result of features that target large distributed systems and which are often unmatched by more recent RPC implementations such as SOAP. This system allows programmers to write distributed software as if it were all working on the same computer.Data Stream Interface 115 Footnotes [1] "DSIHeader" in "Apple Filing Protocol Reference" (http:/ / developer. Second Edition. It is also frequently noted for its complexity.apple. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. apple. Richard F. html#/ / apple_ref/ doc/ uid/ TP40000854-CH228-SW1 [7] http:/ / developer. (May 1990).com/DOCUMENTATION/Networking/ Conceptual/AFP/AFP3_1. html References • AppleTalk Filing Protocol Version 2. .pdf) DCE/RPC DCE/RPC. The naming convention for transports that can be designed (as architectural plugins) and then made available to DCE/RPC echoes these origins. Inc. apple. One of the key companies that contributed was Apollo Computer.2 (http://www.pdf) • Apple Filing Protocol Reference (http://developer. Oppenheimer. Inside AppleTalk. html#/ / apple_ref/ c/ tag/ DSIHeader) [2] "DSI Commands" in "Apple Filing Protocol Programming Guide" (http:/ / developer..

It is not network-interoperable with MSRPC.see http://support. Uses It was used in the UK's National Insurance Recording System (NIRS/2).) The Open Group has stated it will work with the DCE community to make DCE available to the open source [1] development community.DCE/RPC 116 Software License Previously.asp • Microsoft's version of DCE/RPC. • In 2008. Alternate versions and implementations • FreeDCE is the DCE 1. is integrated into Windows NT. As of January 12.1) was previously available under the BSD-compatible (Free Software) OSF/1. It is currently used by OpenNMS for retrieving WMI data for system monitoring. DCE is also still available under the previous non open-source license terms from the Open Group website. AIX and VMS.2 source code and ported it to Win32. This library can be used on any Non-Windows platform and without using Java Native Interface (JNI) to provide COM access. making small clouds to decide on a host or lobby migration. The release consists of about 100 ".tar. 2005. • Samba contains an implementation of MSRPC that is intended to be network-interoperable and IDL-interoperable with MSRPC. eLion. it is available under a recognized open source license (LGPL) permits a broader community to work on the source to expand its features and keep it current.1 reference. creating a product called PC/DCE . and is still available for at least Solaris.1 reference implementation. called "MSRPC". HP Openview Operations is the largest selling systems and applications management product. It is used by Microsoft Exchange/Outlook.[2] It is used in Pennsylvania State University's student information portal. DCE/RPC's reference implementation (version 1.1 reference implementation ported to Linux. for example. the DCE source was only available under a proprietary license. • Jarapac [4] .gz" files that take up 170 Megabytes. • J-Interop [3] is a working MSRPC implementation in Java. It is used by Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 for Multiplayer lobbies. as well as continuing to offer the source through The Open Group’s web site.2. It is not binary-interoperable with MSRPC. • Entegrity Solutions licensed the OSF's entire DCE 1. • The Wine Project contains an implementation of MSRPC that is intended to be binary-interoperable and IDL-interoperable with MSRPC.0 license. The source may be downloaded over the web.DCE/RPC in Java . supports 64-bit platforms. (Note that they include the PostScript of all the documentation. MSRPC is derived from the DCE 1. and is autoconf'd to make porting to further platforms much easier: a Win32 port is underway. It is used by the older version of HP Openview Operations for Unix/Windows Agents.entegrity. Likewise Software released an implementation of the DCE 1.com/private/pcdce32.

opengroup. The DIGITAL Network Architecture is essentially a set of documents which define the network architecture in general. DIGITAL published its first DNA specification at about the same time that IBM announced its Systems Network Architecture (SNA). 2010[2] Brief overview of the evolution of DECnet DECnet refers to a specific set of hardware and software networking products which implement the DIGITAL Network Architecture (DNA).2 source released under the old license (http://www. org/ comm/ press/ 05-01-12.org/dce/ download/) • DCE/RPC 1. different implementations which could interoperate with each other. task-to-task programming interfaces .2 source from The Open Group. TOPS-10 and TOPS-20 with communications between processors still limited to point-to-point links only.org/dce/download/old_license. Initially built with four layers. remote file access using Data Access Protocol (DAP). and describe the protocols which operate within each layer. sourceforge. LAST/LAD are not DECnet protocols and are not part of the DIGITAL Network Architecture. Winter 1996 [3] http:/ / www. non-routed DIGITAL protocols such as LAT. strictly speaking. it later (1982) evolved into a seven-layer OSI-compliant networking protocol. state the specifications for each layer of the architecture. an open-source version has been developed for GNU/Linux . Since that time. AMDS.opengroup. DECnet was built right into the DEC flagship operating system VMS since its inception. Later Digital ported it to Ultrix. opengroup. The beginnings of DNA were in the early 1970s.DCE/RPC 117 Books "DCE/RPC over SMB: Samba and Windows NT Domain Internals" by Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton ISBN 1578701503 References [1] (http:/ / www. htm) DECnet DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation. Introduction of file transfer using File Access Listener (FAL). released under the LGPL (http://www. It evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures. originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers. SCS. To trace the evolution of DECnet is to trace the development of DNA. CASE STUDY : NIRS2 (http:/ / www. Although network protocol analyzer tools tend to categorize all protocols from DIGITAL as "DECnet". allowing these systems to connect to DECnet networks of VAX machines as terminal nodes. with communication over point-to-point (DDCMP) links between nodes. development of DNA has evolved through the following phases: Phase I (1974) Support limited to two PDP-11s running the RSX-11 operating system only. thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the 1980s.2. as well as Apple Macintosh and IBM PC running variants of DOS and Microsoft Windows under the name DEC Pathworks.2. DECnet code in the Linux kernel was marked as orphaned on February 18. More [1] recently. opengroup. j-interop. htm) [2] The Open Group. Implementations expanded to included RSTS. Phase II (1976) Support for networks of up to 32 nodes with multiple. org/ comm/ case-studies/ nirs2. net/ External links • DCE/RPC 1. org/ [4] http:/ / jarapac. htm).

Since the OSI standards were not yet fully developed at the time.DECnet and network management features.. later this expanded to virtually every operating system DIGITAL ever shipped with the notable exception of RT-11.. and 16 and 32 bit Microsoft Windows platforms (all the way through to Windows Server 2003). and more commonly known as the PATHWORKS 32 client. Phase IV was released initially to RSX-11 and VMS systems. performing the same function that Telnet does in the TCP/IP protocol stack. though many DECserver LAT terminal servers did use MOP for the server image download and related bootstrap processing. although systems running this protocol remained completely interoperable with DECnet Phase IV systems.25. ULTRIX. Introduction of adaptive routing capability. At the same time that DECnet Phase IV was released.449 nodes (63 areas of 1023 nodes). Support for very large (architecturally unlimited) networks. . however. Enhancements made to DECnet Phase IV eventually became known as DECnet Phase IV+. The initial implementations released were for VMS and RSX-11. Support for networks of up to 255 nodes over point-to point and multi-drop links. TOPS-10. the company also released a proprietary protocol called LAT for serial terminal access via Terminal servers. Token ring. that implemented much of DECnet Phase IV for DOS. FDDI. a new network management model. Token ring.. Support for networks of up to 64. . local or distributed name service. Digital also released a product called the PATHWORKS client. VMScluster support (cluster alias) and host services (CTERM). record access.. Phase III (1980). DECnet stacks are found on Linux. expanded adaptive routing capability to include hierarchical routing (areas. Move from a . HDLC. Physical Ethernet. improved performance over Phase IV. LAT is entirely separate from DECnet. Phase V and Phase V+ (1987). level 1 and level 2 routers). downline loading (MOP). Network Management Session Transport Network Data link Phase IV and Phase IV+ (1982). Phase IV implemented an 8 layer architecture similar to the OSI (7 layer) model especially at the lower levels (see diagram). SunOS and other platforms. Full DECnet Phase IV specifications are available. datalink capabilities expanded beyond DDCMP to include Ethernet local area network support as the datalink of choice. VAXELN. and gateways to other types of networks including IBM’s SNA and CCITT Recommendation X. a network management architecture. many of the Phase IV protocols remained proprietary. FDDI. This allowed ARP-less LAN operation because the LAN address could be deduced from the DECnet address. and Cisco and other network vendors offer products that can cooperate with and operate within DECnet networks. The Ethernet implementation was unusual in that the software changed the physical address of the Ethernet interface on the network to AA-00-04-00-xx-yy where xx-yy reflected the DECnet network address of the host. 118 DECnet Phase IV protocol suite Application DAP: Data Access Protocol CTERM: Command Terminal NICE: Network Information (and) Control Exchange MOP: Maintenance Operation Protocol SCP: Session Control Protocol NSP: Network Service Protocol DRP: DECnet Routing Protocol DDCMP: Digital Data Communications Message Protocol Ethernet. This precluded connecting two NICs from the same DECnet node onto the same LAN segment. later TOPS-20. and RSTS/E gained support. CTERM allowed a user on one computer to log into another computer remotely.

DAP. net/ ) [2] Linux Kernel Changelog. But starting with DECnet Phase II. org/ pub/ linux/ kernel/ v2. se/ ~bqt/ hecnet. html [4] http:/ / decnet.com/wizard/decnet/(the originals are mirrored at DECnet for Linux (http://linux-decnet. 6/ ChangeLog-2. Orphan DECnet http:/ / www. these Phase IV manuals are archived on OpenVMS Freeware V5. Digital Press. at http://www. the protocol specifications were published.hp.DECnet proprietary network to an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) by integration of ISO standards to provide multi-vendor connectivity and compatibility with DNA Phase IV. It was later renamed DECnet/OSI to emphasize its OSI interconnectibility.com/go/openvms/doc/ • DECnet Phase IV OpenVMS manuals for DECnet Phase IV. at http:/ /h71000. 1991. 2010-02-18. . • DECnet-Plus manuals for OpenVMS are available at http://www. 6.net/docs/doc_index.com/go/openvms/freeware and other sites. including one for Linux.0 distribution. ISBN 0-442-00375-7.www7. MOP. Analyzing DECnet/OSI Phase V. update. Christine Caulfield. uu. net • Carl Malamud. sourceforge. the last two features resulted in a hybrid network architecture (DNA and OSI) with separate “towers” sharing an integrated transport layer. NSP. 33 [3] http:/ / www.hp. and subsequently DECnet-Plus as TCP/IP protocols were incorporated. Van Hostrand Reinhold. routing). ipv7. sourceforge. Joe Leben. ISBN 1-55580-769-0. And indeed several implementations were developed outside DEC. Transparent transport level links to TCP/IP were added via the IETF RFC 1006 (OSI over IP) and RFC 1859 (NSP over IP) standards (see diagram). 1992. • DECnet Phase IV architecture manuals (including DDCMP. NICE.html)). kernel. They were open standards in the sense that anyone could freely implement them. CTERM. • James Martin. 119 Availability The design of the DECnet protocols was done entirely by Digital Equipment Corporation.hp. DECnet Phase V: An OSI Implementation. Hobbyist DECnet networks • HECnet [3] • Italian Retro DECnet [4] References [1] Linux-DECnet (http:/ / linux-decnet.

Kevin Fall started to adapt some of the ideas in the IPN design to terrestrial networks and coined the term delay-tolerant networking and the DTN acronym. resulting in a lack of instantaneous end-to-end paths. reliability. relating to the necessity of networking technologies that can cope with the significant delays and packet corruption of deep-space communications. which has funded many DTN projects. In these challenging environments. Concurrently with (but separate from) the MANET activities. However. researchers began developing technology for routing between non-fixed locations of computers. Disruption may occur because of the limits of wireless radio range. Delay and disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs). In 2002. popular ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV[2] and DSR[3] fail to establish routes. and receive display information from remote terminals. A paper [1] published in 2003 SIGCOMM conference gives the motivation for DTNs.Decode-Encode Language 120 Decode-Encode Language The Decode-Encode Language (DEL) is a networking protocol designed by Jeff Rulifson to transmit user input from consoles or terminals. Recently. DARPA had funded NASA. Internet pioneer Vint Cerf and others developed the initial IPN architecture. attack. including a growing number of academic conferences on delay and disruption-tolerant networking. and other areas of research that are well understood in traditional computer networking. Routing Further information: Routing in delay-tolerant networking The ability to transport. energy resources. verifiability. data from a source to a destination is a fundamental ability all communication networks must have. the widespread use of wireless protocols reinvigorated the field in the 1990s as mobile ad-hoc networking (MANET) and vehicular ad-hoc networking became areas of increasing interest. spurred by the micronization of computing. and growing interest in combining work from sensor networks and MANETs with the work on DTN. and noise.txt Delay-tolerant networking Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) is an approach to computer network architecture that seeks to address the technical issues in heterogeneous networks that may lack continuous network connectivity. sparsity of mobile nodes. when instantaneous end-to-end paths are difficult or impossible to establish. the term disruption-tolerant networking has gained currency in the United States due to support from DARPA. The mid-2000s brought about increased interest in DTNs. forward the actual data. routing protocols must take to a "store and forward" . MITRE and others to develop a proposal for the Interplanetary Internet (IPN).ietf. History Further information: History of delay-tolerant networking In the 1970s. are characterized by their lack of connectivity. or planned networks in space. after the route has been established. or route. This field saw many optimizations on classic ad-hoc and delay-tolerant networking algorithms and began to examine factors such as security.org/rfc/rfc0005. This is due to these protocols trying to first establish a complete route and then. External links • http://www. Examples of such networks are those operating in mobile or extreme terrestrial environments. While the field of ad-hoc routing was inactive throughout the 1980s.

121 Other concerns Bundle protocols In efforts to provide a shared framework for algorithm and application development in DTNs.Delay-tolerant networking approach. Bundles are routed in a store and forward manner between participating nodes over varied network transport technologies (including both IP and non-IP based transports). where data is incrementally moved and stored throughout the network in hopes that it will eventually reach its destination. and each device must identify other intermittently-visible devices. Bundle protocols collect application data into bundles that can be sent across heterogeneous network configurations with high-level service guarantees. or without variation in packet delay.[4] [5] [6] A common technique used to maximize the probability of a message being successfully transferred is to replicate many copies of the message in the hope that one will succeed in reaching its destination. and the RFC 5050 Bundle Protocol specification includes 'bulk'. where available storage and internode throughput opportunities are more tightly constrained. In many common problem spaces.[12] . such as the use of distributed certificate authorities[10] and PKI schemes. this protocol defines a series of contiguous data blocks as a bundle—where each bundle contains enough semantic information to allow the application to make progress where an individual block may not. and 'expedited' markings. quickly. For example. network scheduling can be influenced if application data must be received in its entirety. Security concerns for delay-tolerant networks vary depending on the environment and application. Commonly known as the Bundle Protocol. though authentication and privacy are often critical. The bundle architecture therefore operates as an overlay network. Protocols using bundling must leverage application-level preferences for sending bundles across a network. The transport layers carrying the bundles across their local networks are called bundle convergence layers.[7] This is feasible only on networks with large amounts of local storage and internode bandwidth relative to the expected traffic. providing a new naming architecture based on Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) and coarse-grained class of service offerings. Due to the store and forward nature of delay-tolerant protocols. These security guarantees are difficult to establish in a network without persistent connectivity because the network hinders complicated cryptographic protocols. which allows nodes to receive information encrypted with their public identifier. hinders key exchange. routing solutions for delay-tolerant networks can benefit from exposure to application-layer information. RFC 4838 and RFC 5050 were published in 2007 to define a common abstraction to software running on disrupted networks. Original solutions from the delay-tolerant research community include: 1) the use of identity-based encryption.[8] [9] Solutions have typically been modified from mobile ad hoc network and distributed security research. The service guarantees are generally set by the application level. In others. Security Addressing security issues has been a major focus of the bundle protocol.[11] and 2) the use of tamper-evident tables with a gossiping protocol. this inefficiency is outweighed by the increased efficiency and shortened delivery times made possible by taking maximum advantage of available unscheduled forwarding opportunities. a more discriminate algorithm is required. 'normal'.

which provide computational/communications platforms. The DieselNet [17] research project at the University of Massachusetts. and U. "Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing". David Jensen. April 2006. Some research efforts look at DTN for the Interplanetary Internet by examining use of the Bundle Protocol in space: • The Saratoga [30] project at the University of Surrey. The Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications [3] Johnson. 2002. Brian Gallagher. Amin. MaxProp: Routing for vehicle-based disruption-tolerant networks. sigcomm. The ResiliNets Research Initiative [18] at the University of Kansas and Lancaster University. The N4C [20] EU/FP7 research project. to implement the DTN protocol. edu/ [15] http:/ / www. 153–181 [4] John Burgess. Maltz. ACM Ubicomp 2008 [13] http:/ / www. The SARAH [24] project. Christophe Diot. SIGCOMM. [7] Vahdat. one of the first payload developers to adopt the DTN technology. uk/ staff/ D. and Brian Neil Levine. funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR [25]). Kate. 36(5):96–107. cs. Impact of human mobility on opportunistic forwarding algorithms. ch/ record/ 54941/ files/ 01542053. org/ [14] http:/ / tier. Energy-efficient computing for wildlife tracking: design tradeoffs and early experiences with zebranet. "Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks". (1996). Fall. The development of the DoDWAN platform [26] at the University of South Brittany [27]. pdf) [11] "Practical security for disconnected nodes" Seth. Becker. berkeley.. SIGOPS Oper. Technical Report CS-2000-06. Syst. which was the first to test the bundle protocol in space on the UK-DMC Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite in 2008.[31] [32] [33] • NASA JPL's Deep Impact Networking (DINET) Experiment on board the Deep Impact/EPOXI spacecraft. pp. has utilized their CGBA (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus) payloads onboard the ISS. E. Li Shiuan Peh. ucl. D. David (2000). (1999). pdf). funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR [25]). KTH [16] The KioskNet research project at the University of Waterloo. G. The WNaN [21] DARPA project.. kth. epfl. 6(6):606–620.Delay-tolerant networking 122 Research efforts Various research efforts are currently investigating the issues involved with DTN: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • [13] . [12] MobiRate: Making Mobile Raters Stick to their Word (http:/ / www. Zaverucha. tslab.. [5] Philo Juang. 2007. The EMMA [22] project at TU Braunschweig The DTN networking [23] at Helsinki University of Technology. cs. A. Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology [10] DICTATE: DIstributed CerTification Authority with probabilisTic frEshness for Ad Hoc Networks (http:/ / infoscience. K. IEEE INFOCOM. [2] Perkins. 3rd International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks (SecureComm 2007) [9] "Security Considerations in Space and Delay-Tolerant Networks" S.[36] [37] [38] References [1] A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged Internets (http:/ / conferences. 1st IEEE ICNP Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec).[34] [35] • BioServe Space Technologies. Hidekazu Oki. Kluwer Academic. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. Amherst. Keshav. The Haggle [19] EU research project. se/ csd/ projects/ 092106/ . Jon Crowcroft. Yong Wang. Margaret Martonosi. org/ sigcomm/ 2003/ papers. D. dtnrg. The CROWD [28] project. Richard Gass. The The Delay-Tolerant Networking Research Group The Technology and Infrastructure for Developing Regions [14] project at UC Berkeley The Bytewalla [15] research project at the Royal Institute of Technology. 2005. html#p27-fall). Duke University [8] "Anonymity and security in delay-tolerant networks" A. ac. S. Hengartner. "Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks". Mobile Computing. The PodNet [29] project at KTH Stockholm and ETH Zurich. Pan Hui. Cahill. and James Scott. ssvl. Quercia/ publications/ quercia08mobirate. and Daniel Rubenstein. [6] Augustin Chaintreau. Royer. August 2003. In Proc. Farrell and V. C. Rev.

colorado.] [38] The Automation Group at BioServe Space Technologies (http:/ / bioserve. com/ communications/ 21601/ ?a=f).Delay-tolerant networking [16] http:/ / vm-199. html). Glasgow. Holbrook. univ-ubs. html).." (http:/ / www-bioserve. ittc. Sebastian. technologyreview. Nichols. fi/ u/ jo/ dtn/ index. 11 September 2008. Wood et al. surrey. co. cs. [34] A Better Network for Outer Space (http:/ / www. Andrew. eu [21] http:/ / www. September 2008. nasa. edu/ wp2/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 05/ DTN-Initial-Flight-Tests-Results-v0. 035. pdf) American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. fr/ CASA/ DoDWAN 123 [27] http:/ / www-valoria. [32] UK-DMC satellite first to transfer sensor data from space using 'bundle' protocol (http:/ / www. (2010). colorado. Wood/ publications/ ). Holbrook. NASA press release 08-298. Kuzminsky. ee. Robin Wolstenholme. Kelvin. gov/ home/ hqnews/ 2008/ nov/ HQ_08-298_Deep_space_internet. Mark. uk/ Personal/ L. "Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networking: Flight Test Results from the International Space Station. html http:/ / www-valoria. ee. MIT Technology Review. kth. Jenkins. fr [28] http:/ / anr-crowd. Conference paper IAC-08-B2. Lee. univ-ubs. ac. html [22] http:/ / www. [36] Jenkins. Nichols. mil/ STO/ strategic/ wireless. Pitts. uk/ Personal/ L.3. umass. fr/ [29] http:/ / podnet. Boulder. 59th International Astronautical Congress. edu) University of Colorado. colorado. ssvl. tu-bs. edu/ wp2/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 09/ AIAA-2010-2173-810. Sebastian. fr/ http:/ / www-valoria. Kelvin. . L. Gifford. univ-ubs. edu/ resilinets [19] http:/ / haggleproject. ethz. press release. [35] NASA Successfully Tests First Deep Space Internet (http:/ / www. surrey. cs. ac. Brittany Sauser. (2010). 14 November 2008. se/ csdlive/ content/ projects [17] http:/ / prisms. agence-nationale-recherche. 18 November 2008. netlab.10. org [20] http:/ / www.. engineeringbritain. [37] Gifford. Lee. Kuzminsky. ee. [33] CLEO Orbital Internet earns Time Magazine award (http:/ / www. Andrew.. fr/ SARAH http:/ / www. ibr. ku. 27 October 2008. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd space blog. Kevin K. Mark. ch/ [30] http:/ / personal. edu/ dome/ umassdieselnet [18] http:/ / wiki. Wood/ saratoga/ [31] Use of the Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol from Space (http:/ / info. Kevin K. pdf) IEEE Aerospace Conference. darpa. sstl. de/ projects/ emma/ [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. Pitts. "DTN Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station." (http:/ / www-bioserve. uk/ News_and_Events/ Latest_News/ ?story=1254). lip6. com/ space/ archives/ 190-CLEO-Orbital-Internet-earns-Time-Magazine-award. n4c. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. xen. hut.

using a Prune message. DPWS specifies a set of built-in services: • Discovery services: used by a device connected to a network to advertise itself and to discover other devices. description. An example would be the initial orientation video for new employees. This difference shows up in the initial behavior and mechanisms of the two protocols. I think of the Prune message as one router telling another "we don't need that multicast over here right now". and thus every node. Dense mode is ideal for groups where many of the nodes will subscribe to receive the multicast packets. • Publish/subscribe eventing services: allowing other devices to subscribe to asynchronous event messages produced by a given service. DPWS 1. so that most of the routers must receive and forward these packets (groups of a high density). Devices Profile for Web Services The Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) defines a minimal set of implementation constraints to enable secure Web Service messaging. Then each node that does not wish to receive packets destined for that group will send a prune message to its router. and play an important part in the device discovery process. the router will also be pruned. DPWS Standardization The DPWS specification was initially published in May 2004 and was submitted for standardization to OASIS in July 2008. Hosted services are mostly functional and depend on their hosting device for discovery. DPWS defines an architecture in which devices run two types of services: hosting services and hosted services. In addition to these hosted services. If every interface on a router is pruned. It is the opposite of sparse multicast. and then stopping it each link where it is not needed. the router will modify its state so that it will not forward those packets out that interface. An example of this might be a company presentation by the CEO or President of a company. DPWS is fully aligned with Web Services technology and includes numerous extension points allowing for seamless integration of device-provided services in enterprise-wide application scenarios.1 on June 30 2009. PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) uses a fairly simple approach to handle IP multicast routing. the routers will use reverse-path forwarding to ensure that there are no loops for packet forwarding among routers that wish to receive multicast packets. Upon receiving a prune message. The basic assumption behind PIM-DM is that the multicast packet stream has receivers at most locations. Its objectives are similar to those of Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) but. and eventing on resource-constrained devices. PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) assumes relatively fewer receivers. discovery. Whereas PIM-DM starts by flooding the multicast traffic. Additionally." • Metadata exchange services: provide dynamic access to a device’s hosted services and to their metadata. By way of contrast. . PIM-SM only sends multicasts when requested to do so. Hosting services are directly associated to a device.Dense multicast 124 Dense multicast Dense mode multicast is one mode that multicast can use to construct a tree for sending packets to the multicast subscribers.1 was approved as OASIS Standard together with WS-Discovery 1. The source initially broadcasts to every router.1 and SOAP-over-UDP 1. in addition. Support of discovery has led some to dub DPWS as "the USB for Ethernet.

Research Projects driving DPWS adoption Within the SIRENA project. washers and dryers.2. The show demonstrated tremendous consumer interest in the prospect of bringing controllable devices into the same environment as digital entertainment. a new European research project from ITEA. SOAP 1. Also stemming from the SIRENA project. from which the DPWS stack (both C and Java versions) and its add-ons (like WS-Management and WS-Security implementations) can be freely downloaded. including Java ME. a “Next Gen” home was highlighted by an automation system.org) Website provides information. XML Schema.1. motorized shades. while the Kitchen and Bath Show (KBIS) saw two major appliance manufacturers demonstrating washers and dryers that communicated using DPWS. downloads and news about three DPWS implementations: one C implementation integrating gSOAP. one Java implementation using Axis. The EU Research Project SOCRADES composed by heavyweights like ABB. went further into the development and implementation of an embedded DPWS stack for devices and associated tools. SAP. and Siemens. its application to automation environments is clear. At the International Security Controls (ISC) trade show. and manufacturers are taking notice. Following the SIRENA project. For many manufacturers.Devices Profile for Web Services DPWS builds on the following core Web Services standards: WSDL 1. WS-Discovery and WS-Eventing. the "Web Services for Devices" (WS4D.e. At least 117 automation and AV products from 37 different vendors currently support DPWS either natively or through a bridge. the first step towards DPWS adoption is the creation of a small “device bridge” between their native. included as part of the Windows Rally technologies. WS-Transfer. and further comprises WS-MetadataExchange. and another Java implementation that can use different Java editions. Life|ware from Exceptional Innovation. Schneider Electric. mainly providing an implementation for this Java framework. audio distribution system. code and Web Services. security cameras. i. and a motorized television mount. under the auspices of the European research initiative ITEA. Support for OSGi is on the way. are focusing on implementing. that uses DPWS to communicate with a lighting system. security system. WS-Addressing. . Microsoft's Windows Vista and Windows Embedded CE6R2 platforms natively integrate DPWS with a stack called WSDAPI. Schneider Electric produced an early DPWS implementation targeted at embedded devices. There are several proposals and/or projects having worked on an integration of DPWS with OSGi. The package uses automation software and controllable devices that leverage DPWS for communications. WS-Policy. named SODA (Service Oriented Device and Delivery Architecture). A communicative oven has been demonstrated at the International Building Show for the past two years. usually proprietary. a major security company demonstrated a security system that supported DPWS. thermostats. WS-Security. 125 Use Cases Because DPWS supports dynamic discovery. Home automation package offered by US retailer Best Buy.org [1] (SOA for Devices) Website. This implementation was open-sourced through the SOA4D. At the 2007 Consumer Electronics Show. An even greater sign of the drive towards market acceptance of DPWS is the recent ConnectedLife. testing and piloting prototypes of DPWS-enabled devices in the industrial automation domain. and is part of the evolving vision of distributed applications that leverage WS-* standards.

.[1] It was developed by the DICOM Standards Committee.[1] References [1] "DH-485 Industrial Local Area Network Overview" (http:/ / www. storing. soa4d. oasis-open.6: Data Dictionary PDF (7. DICOM DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) is a standard for handling. DICOM is known as NEMA standard PS3. Retrieved 10 September 2010. The communication protocol is an application protocol that uses TCP/IP to communicate between systems.96 MB) PS 3. whose members[2] are also partly members of NEMA.3: Information Object Definitions [8]PDF (6. Utilizing a series of dedicated interface devices.07 MB) [10] PDF (1.2: Conformance [7]PDF (6. com/ en/ epub/ catalogs/ 12762/ 2181376/ 214372/ 1535907/ 3404063/ ). printers. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) holds the copyright to this standard. org/ ws-dd/ ns/ dpws/ 2009/ 01 [3] http:/ / www. and as ISO standard 12052:2006 "Health informatics -. • • • • PS 3.Devices Profile for Web Services 126 External links • The DPWS Specification [2] • OASIS Web Services Discovery and Web Services Devices Profile (WS-DD) Technical Committee [3] References [1] http:/ / www.Digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) including workflow and data management". It includes a file format definition and a network communications protocol. it allows PCs and industrial controllers to communicate in a local area network using an RS-485 physical medium utilizing a token passing medium access control. and network hardware from multiple manufacturers into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). ab.1: Introduction and Overview [6]PDF (241 KB) PS 3. workstations.4: Service Class Specifications [9]PDF (1.46 MB) PS 3. printing. org [2] http:/ / docs. servers. DICOM files can be exchanged between two entities that are capable of receiving image and patient data in DICOM format. Parts of the DICOM Standard The DICOM standard is divided into related but independent parts:[4] The links below are to the 2009 version published in January 2010.[3] DICOM enables the integration of scanners. Additions to the standard (Supplements and Change Proposals) since that publication are available through the DICOM Web site [5].32 MB) . php?wg_abbrev=ws-dd DH 485 DH 485 is a proprietary communications protocol used by Allen-Bradley in their line of industrial control units. DICOM has been widely adopted by hospitals and is making inroads in smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices. The different devices come with DICOM conformance statements which clearly state the DICOM classes they support. oasis-open.43 MB) • PS 3. Rockwell Automation. and transmitting information in medical imaging.5: Data Structure and Encoding [11] • PS 3. org/ committees/ tc_home.

8: Network Communication Support for Message Exchange [13]PDF (901 KB) PS 3. In the beginning of the 1980s it was almost impossible for anyone other than manufacturers of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging devices to decode the images that the machines generated. Radiologists and medical physicists wanted to use the images for dose-planning for radiation therapy.7: Message Exchange [12]PDF (1. Detrick.00 MB) PS 3.0 was presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in 1990 by these same vendors.97 MB) PS 3.16: Content Mapping Resource [19]PDF (3. Their first standard.15: Security and System Management Profiles [18]PDF (1. 1990. DeJarnette Research Systems and Merge Technologies provided the modality gateway interfaces from third party imaging modalities to the Siemens SPI network.12: Storage Functions and Media Formats for Data Interchange [16]PDF (593 KB) PS 3. Several extensions to ACR/NEMA 2. ACR/NEMA 300. Very soon after its release.0 interconnectivity technology was held at Georgetown University.9: Retired (formerly Point-to-Point Communication Support for Message Exchange) PS 3.10: Media Storage and File Format for Data Interchange [14]PDF (406 KB) PS 3. version 1. Many soon realized that the second version also needed improvement. General Electric Medical Systems. Merge Technologies.11: Media Storage Application Profiles [15]PDF (1. The first which was released in 1985 demonstration of ACR/NEMA V2. over a dedicated 25 differential (EIA-485) pair cable.13: Retired (formerly Print Management Point-to-Point Communication Support) PS 3.08 MB) PS 3. The first large scale deployment of ACR/NEMA technology was made in 1992 by the US Army and Air Force as [22] program run out of Ft.0 were created. it became clear that improvements were needed. Six companies participated in this event. In 1988 the second version was released.88 MB) PS 3. (Standard Product Interconnect. ACR and NEMA joined forces and formed a standard committee in 1983. May 21–23.14: Grayscale Standard Display Function [17]PDF (2. . driven by Siemens Medical Systems and Philips Medical Systems).14 MB) PS 3.17: Explanatory Information [20]PDF (3. Siemens Medical Systems. The text was vague and had internal contradictions. was released in 1985.18: Web Access to DICOM Persistent Objects (WADO) [21]PDF (291 KB) 127 History DICOM is the third version of a standard developed by American College of Radiology (ACR) and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). DeJarnette Research Systems.0. The Veterans Administration and the Navy also purchased systems off this contract. The image transmission was specified as Front page of ACR/NEMA 300. Switzerland) and SPI. This version gained more acceptance among vendors. Vortech (acquired by Kodak that same year) and 3M. Commercial equipment supporting ACR/NEMA 2. Maryland.28 MB) PS 3.DICOM • • • • • • • • • • • • PS 3. Loral part of the MDIS (Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support) Aerospace and Siemens Medical Systems led a consortium of companies in deploying the first US military PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) at all major Army and Air Force medical treatment facilities and teleradiology nodes at a large number of US military clinics. like Papyrus (developed by the University Hospital of Geneva.

so that the image can never be separated from this information by mistake. and Run-length encoding (RLE). actually contains the patient ID within the file. But note that the attribute may contain multiple "frames". the latest version of the standard is still 3.0. data formats in that it groups information into data sets. Another example is NM data. or UN. UT. While the DICOM standard has achieved a near universal level of acceptance amongst medical imaging equipment vendors and healthcare IT organizations. but not all. In these cases three. including items such as name. however.or four-dimensional data can be encapsulated in a single DICOM object. Officially. allowing storage of cine loops or other multi-frame data. for VRs that are not OB. like "the 2007 version of DICOM". including JPEG. usually a true "header" (containing copies of a few key attributes and details of the application which wrote it) is added. OW. network support added and the Conformance Statement was introduced.DICOM In 1993 the third version of the standard was released. For many modalities. but when written to a file. was established in 2004 as a [23] way for nondestructive testing manufacturers and users to share image data.[24] DICOM Data Format DICOM differs from some. it has been constantly updated and extended since 1993. where an NM image by definition is a multi-dimensional multi-frame image. including the pixel data). and also one special attribute containing the image pixel data (i. for example. This is similar to the way that image formats such as JPEG can also have embedded tags to identify and otherwise describe the image. logically. That means that a file of a chest X-Ray image. Its name was then changed to DICOM so as to improve the possibility of international acceptance as a standard. . the format for each Data Element is: GROUP (2 bytes) ELEMENT (2 bytes) VR (2 bytes) LengthInByte (2 bytes) Data (variable length). DICOM uses three different Data Element encoding schemes.e. LZW (zip) compression can be used for the whole data set (not just the pixel data) but this is rarely implemented. OF. Instead of using the version number the standard is often version-numbered using the release year. A single DICOM object can only contain one attribute containing pixel data. SQ. RSNA's Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative layered on top of DICOM (and HL-7) provides this final piece of the medical imaging interoperability puzzle. • DICOS .1 of Part 5 of the DICOM Standard. With Explicit Value Representation (VR) Data Elements. A DICOM data object consists of a number of attributes. etc. JPEG Lossless. the standard has its limitations.Digital Imaging and Communication in Security was established in 2009 to be used for image sharing in airport security. This includes • DICONDE .Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation.. Pixel data can be compressed using a variety of standards. this corresponds to a single image. DICOM is a standard directed at addressing technical interoperability issues in medical imaging. New service classes were defined. 128 Derivations There are some derivations from the DICOM standard into other application areas. including network and file usage. For the other Explicit Data Elements or Implicit Data Elements. see section 7. The same basic format is used for all applications. JPEG 2000. It is not a framework or architecture for achieving a useful clinical workflow. ID. the main object has no "header" as such: merely a list of attributes.

each attribute also has a Value Multiplicity to indicate the number of data elements contained in the attribute.2 of • PS 3.5: Data Structure and Encoding [25] PDF (1. . For character string value representations. if more than one data element is being encoded. the successive data elements are separated by the backslash character "\".43 MiB) Description Application Entity Age String Attribute Tag Code String Date Decimal String Date/Time Floating Point Single (4 bytes) Floating Point Double (8 bytes) Integer String Long String Long Text Other Byte Other Float Other Word Person Name Short String Signed Long Sequence of Items Signed Short Short Text Time Unique Identifier Unsigned Long Unknown Unsigned Short Unlimited Text Value Representation AE AS AT CS DA DS DT FL FD IS LO LT OB OF OW PN SH SL SQ SS ST TM UI UL UN US UT In addition to a Value Representation.DICOM 129 DICOM Value Representations Extracted from Chapter 6.

This is a common source of problems with media created by developers who did not read the specifications carefully. Query/Retrieve This enables a workstation to find lists of images or other such objects and then retrieve them from a PACS.2). to make sure that it is safe to delete the images locally.3. Printing The DICOM Printing service is used to send images to a DICOM Printer. etc. It helps give the radiology department a more precise handle on resource (acquisition station) use. the DICOMDIR file. . Off-line Media (DICOM Files) The off-line media files correspond to Part 10 of the DICOM standard.. Also known as MPPS. e. uses the confirmation from the Service Class Provider (SCP: similar to a server).DICOM 130 DICOM Services DICOM consists of many different services. This is a historical requirement to maintain compatibility with older existing systems. an image and demography. so there is less need for meaningful file names. and the file format below is a later and relatively minor addition to the standard. most of which involve transmission of data over a network. It describes how to store medical imaging information on removable media. DICOM restricts the filenames on DICOM media to 8 characters (some systems wrongly use 8. beginning time. including hard copy printout. this service allows a modality to better coordinate with image storage servers by giving the server a list of objects to send before or while actually sending such objects. end time. which provides index and summary information for all the DICOM files on the media.10 Section 6. No information must be extracted from these names (PS3.g. etc.2. a modality or workstation. this enables the modality to send a report about a performed examination including data about the images acquired. Storage Commitment The DICOM storage commitment service is used to confirm that an image has been permanently stored by a device (either on redundant disks or on backup media. for example. it's also mandatory to include the File Meta Information. but this does not conform to the standard). Modality Worklist This enables a piece of imaging equipment (a modality) to obtain details of patients and scheduled examinations electronically.) to a PACS or workstation. dose delivered. an archive station for instance. Except for the data set containing. Modality Performed Procedure Step A complementary service to Modality Worklist. normally to print an "X-Ray" film. Store The DICOM Store service is used to send images or other persistent objects (structured reports. burnt to a CD). There is a standard calibration (defined in DICOM Part 14) to help ensure consistency between various display devices. The DICOMDIR information provides substantially greater information about each file than any filename could. It also mandates the presence of a media directory.3. etc. avoiding the need to type such information multiple times (and the mistakes caused by retyping). and duration of a study. The Service Class User (SCU: similar to a client).

There is also an ongoing media exchange test and "connectathon" process for CD media and network operation that is organized by the IHE organization. The MIME type for DICOM files is defined by RFC 3240 as application/dicom.DICOM DICOM files typically have a .dicom. The Uniform Type Identifier type for DICOM files is org. 131 Application areas Modality BI CD CR CT DD DG DX EC EM ES GM LS MA MG MR MS NM OT PT RF RG RT SC SM ST TG US VL XA XC Description Modality of type Biomagnetic Imaging Modality of type Color Flow Doppler-Retired 2008 Modality of type Computed Radiography Modality of type Computed Tomography Modality of type Duplex Doppler-Retired 2008 Modality of type Diaphanography Modality of type Digital Radiography Modality of type Echo cardiography (retired) Modality of type Electron Microscope Modality of type Endoscopy Modality of type General Microscopy Modality of type Laser Surface Scan Modality of type Magnetic Resonance Angiography (retired) Modality of type Mammography Modality of type Magnetic Resonance Modality of type Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (retired) Modality of type Nuclear Medicine Modality of type Other Modality of type Positron Emission Tomography Modality of type Radio Fluoroscopy Modality of type Radiographic Imaging (conventional film screen) Modality of type Radiation Therapy Modality of type Secondary Capture Modality of type Slide Microscopy Modality of type Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (retired 2008) Modality of type Thermography Modality of type Ultra Sound Modality of type Visible Light Modality of type X-Ray Angiography Modality of type External Camera (Photography) .dcm file extension if they are not part of a DICOM media (which requires them to be without extension).nema.

RP) = Radiotherapy Plan RTSTRUCT (a. RS) = Radiotherapy Structure Set SR = Structured Reporting ST = Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Retired TG = Thermography US = Ultrasound VF = Videofluorography (retired) XA = X-Ray Angiography XC = eXternal Camera ECG = Electrocardiograms 132 .a.a.k. RD) = Radiotherapy Dose RTIMAGE = Radiotherapy Image RTPLAN (a.a.DICOM Examples of Modalities supported in DICOM are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AS = Angioscopy-Retired BI = Biomagnetic Imaging CD = Color Flow Doppler-Retired CF = Cinefluorography (retired) CP = Colposcopy Retired CR = Computed Radiography CS = CystoscopyRetired CT = Computed Tomography DD = Duplex Doppler Retired DF = Digital Fluoroscopy (retired) DG = Diaphanography DM = Digital Microscopy (retired) DS = Digital Subtraction Angiography Retired DX = Digital radiography EC = Echocardiography Retired ES = Endoscopy FA = Fluorescein Angiography Retired FS = Fundoscopy Retired HC = Hard Copy LP = Laparoscopy Retired LS = Laser Surface Scan MA = Magnetic resonance angiography Retired MG = Mammography MR = Magnetic Resonance MS = Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Retired NM = Nuclear Medicine OT = Other PT = Positron Emission Tomography (PET) RF = Radio Fluoroscopy RG = Radiographic Imaging (conventional film screen) RTDOSE (a.k.k.

Standard formats including DICOM. nema. nema. pdf) [3] NEMA Members (http:/ / www. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 08_01pu. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_05pu3.cabiatl. nema. 2006. cfm) [25] http:/ / medical. then Pervasive.org/medical/dicom/2009/) • DICOM Standard Status (approved and proposed changes) (http://www. nema. Since 104 is in the reserved subset. nih. nema. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_10pu. org: If a Picture Is Worth 1. nema. astm.com/dicom-status/status. pdf [20] ftp:/ / medical.html) . . html) • Brief introduction to DICOM (http://www. open communication over TCP or UDP The standard recommends but does not require the use of these port numbers. pp. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_15pu. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_16pu. pdf [22] http:/ / www.html) • Introduction to DICOM using OsiriX (http://www. 11. nema. nema. nema.DICOM 133 DICOM transmission protocol port numbers over IP DICOM have reserved the following TCP and UDP port numbers by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): • 104 well-known port for DICOM over TCP or UDP. astm.000 Words.nema. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Part 1: Introduction and Overview. Ubiquitous Imaging Is Priceless (http:/ / www. nema. pdf [7] ftp:/ / medical. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_11pu. nlm.1 DIMSE Services" (ftp:/ / medical. pdf [10] ftp:/ / medical.com/Saravanan/ Articles_On_Software/Entries/2010/2/10_Introduction_to_the_DICOM_Standard. .com/mricro/dicom/index. pdf [8] ftp:/ / medical. nema. gov/ pubmed/ 7612705?dopt=Abstract [23] http:/ / www.dclunie. pdf). [5] http:/ / dicom. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_18pu. nema. nema. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_08pu. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_04pu.Contains a long list DICOM software. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_03pu3. pdf [21] ftp:/ / medical. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_14pu. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_07pu2. nema. nema. many operating systems require special privileges to use it. nema. pdf [16] ftp:/ / medical. • Medical Image FAQ part 8 (http://www. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_17pu.saravanansubramanian. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_02pu.html) . org/ dicom/ geninfo/ Brochure. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_12pu. org/ prod/ security/ indust-Img.dclunie. org/ SNEWS/ OCTOBER_2003/ voelker_oct03. pdf [18] ftp:/ / medical. References [1] DICOM brochure (http:/ / medical. nema. pdf [14] ftp:/ / medical. pdf [17] ftp:/ / medical. nema. org: Industrial Imaging and Communications Section (http:/ / www. pdf [11] ftp:/ / medical. ncbi. pdf [12] ftp:/ / medical. pdf) [2] MEMBERS of the DICOM STANDARDS COMMITTEE (http:/ / medical.dclunie.com/medical-image-faq/html/part2. nema. nema. pdf [15] ftp:/ / medical. nema. org/ members. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_01pu. org/ about/ members/ ) [4] "6. pdf External links • The latest DICOM specification (ftp://medical. org/ medical/ dicom/ 2009/ 09_06pu3. nema. pdf [19] ftp:/ / medical. nema. pdf [9] ftp:/ / medical. org/ dicom/ 2007/ 07_05pu. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. html) [24] http:/ / www.com/medical-image-faq/html/part8. pdf [13] ftp:/ / medical. org [6] ftp:/ / medical. nema.html) • Medical Image FAQ part 2 (http://www. • 2761 registered port for DICOM using Integrated Secure Communication Layer (ISCL) over TCP or UDP • 2762 registered port for DICOM using Transport Layer Security (TLS) over TCP or UDP • 11112 registered port for DICOM using standard.

x. in recent versions only computers on the same subnet can share music (workarounds such as port tunneling are possible). Digital Photo Access Protocol (DPAP). It sends a list of songs and it streams requested songs to clients. Songbird (with a plugin). but all current DAAP clients (including official iTunes before iTunes 7.[2] A DAAP server is a specialized HTTP server. Both authentication methods were successfully reverse engineered within months of release.html) • Example of an applet based DICOM Viewer (http://legeneraliste. so no third-party application can stream from iTunes 7.[7] .de/main/lp/ sample_dicom_images. but it has been reverse-engineered to a sufficient degree that reimplementations of the protocol for non-iTunes platforms have been possible. however. and WiFiTunes.0) will fail to connect to an iTunes 7. Amarok.5 to use a custom hashing algorithm. The other. As of June 2010. is used by iPhoto for sharing images.x servers.0. Requests are sent to the server by the client in form of URLs and are responded to with data in application/x-dmap-tagged mime-type. This does not affect third-party DAAP servers. Early versions of iTunes allowed users to connect to shares across the Internet. The DAAP service uses TCP port 3689 by default.0 DAAP authentication still hasn't been reverse engineered.2.DICOM • Collection of DICOM images (clinical images and technical testpatterns) (http://www. meaning that the only clients that could connect to iTunes servers were other instances of iTunes.x .0 server. Description The DAAP protocol was originally introduced in iTunes version 4. Rhythmbox. There are also provisions to notify the client of changes to the server. Apple did not officially release a protocol description. The Register [4] speculates that Apple made this move in response to pressure from the record labels. DAAP has also been implemented in other non-iTunes media applications such as Banshee. which can be converted to XML by the client.0 server. receiving a '403 Forbidden' HTTP error. 9. a new 'Client-DAAP-Validation' header hash is needed when connecting to an iTunes 7. They both rely on an underlying protocol.aycan. Apple introduced authentication to DAAP sharing.0. which performs two functions. rather than the standard MD5 function used previously. Exaile (with a plugin).[5] With iTunes 7. This was further modified in iTunes 4. iTunes uses the ZeroConf (also known as Bonjour) service to announce and discover DAAP shares on a local subnet. Apple has begun to license the protocol specification for commercial implementations. 8. the iTunes 7. DAAP authentication Beginning with iTunes 4. DAAP addresses the same problems for Apple as the UPnP AV standards address for members of the Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA).x or 10.perso. Digital Media Access Protocol (DMAP). The iTunes 7.sfr.fr/?p=dicom_eng) 134 Digital Audio Access Protocol The Digital Audio Access Protocol (DAAP) is the proprietary protocol introduced by Apple in its iTunes software to share media across a local network.0 authentication traffic analysis [6] seem to indicate that a certificate exchange is performed to calculate the hash sent in the 'Client-DAAP-Validation' header. More recent versions of iTunes also limit the number of clients to 5 unique IP addresses within a 24-hour period.[1] Initially. however.[3] DAAP is one of two media sharing schemes that Apple has currently released. Recently.

Mac. Android Independent (uses Java) Any Java supported platform Mac and Windows Windows. via plugin [15] Active Active Active Active SoundBox Silverplay [16] [17] [18] Windows and Mac * (only Silverlight req) iPhone Windows.Digital Audio Access Protocol 135 DAAP clients Name Platform Development status Active Active Active Active Active Dormant Native Active Dormant Active Dormant Amarok Banshee Crossfire [8] [9] Windows. IE and Chrome. Mac. Mac. Opera. Mac OS X Active . and Linux A cross-platform Ajax-based Firefly client with multiple browser support for iPhone (Safari). FreeBSD Mac OS X. Linux (unsupported) Dormant Active. and Linux [12] Any Java supported platform Linux Device DAAP Client FireflyClient [10] [11] Get it together iTunes LimeWire One2OhMyGod Rhythmbox Roku Soundbridge and [13] Radio WiFiTunes Songbird [14] PocketPC Windows. Mac. and Linux Windows. Windows. Nokia. Mac. Windows Development status Active Active [20] Linux. Mac OS X Dormant Linux. Linux. Windows. Apple TV and XBMC Live Simple DAAP Client XBMC DAAP servers Name forked-daapd iTunes mt-daapd/Firefly DAAP Media Server Tangerine [21] [19] Platform Linux.

sourceforge. iana. net/ daap/ ) by Daniel Garcia. google. Firefly DAAP Media Server (http://fireflymediaserver. a rewritten version of Firefly Media Server for Linux currently under development. co. htm [7] "daap with itunes 7 doesn't work correctly" (https:/ / bugs.net/). iTunes 7. com/ [9] http:/ / code.edu/mroth/tunes/login.net/programs/itunes/libopendaap.flyn. slashdot.org/projects/dmapd/). net/ tangerine/ [14] http:/ / www. forked-daapd (http://blog. shtml). sourceforge. org/ assignments/ port-numbers) by IANA. com/ rw/ applications/ wifitunes/ External links • • • • • • • • • • • OpenDAAP forum (http://www. retrieved December 2. retrieved December 2. Linux. net/ projects/ fireflyclient http:/ / getittogether.org/).org/projects/libdmapsharing/).html). launchpad. codeware-consultancy.and libsoup-based library that supports server. info/ silverplay-latest http:/ / itunes. DPAP and DACP. implementation of the DAAP protocol (both video and audio) for Windows. org/ apple/ 04/ 04/ 29/ 1554231.technologeek.5 Authentication Cracked" (http:/ / apple. 2006 "Open DAAP forum" (http:/ / www. theregister. retrieved August 31. 2006. Launchpad bug tracker. technologeek.org/2009/06/12/217).Digital Audio Access Protocol 136 Notes and references [1] [2] [3] [4] "Unofficial DAAP protocol documentation" (http:/ / tapjam. opendaap.and client-side DAAP. No longer maintained.webpages. dmapd (http://www.net/tangerine/) is a DAAP server. (no longer developed) libopendaap (http://crazney. retrieved March 12. ttu. songbirdnest. com/ http:/ / addons. com/ us/ app/ simple-daap-client/ id369605270?mt=8 http:/ / blog. org/ https:/ / launchpad. ch/ downloads/ soundbox/ http:/ / www. retrieved December 2.sourceforge. May 28. Windows. com/ addon/ 1355 http:/ / swissmediaportal. webpages.htm) Tangerine (https://launchpad. 2006 "Well Known Port Numbers" (http:/ / www. 2003. uk/ 2003/ 05/ 28/ apple_halts_itunes_internet_sharing/ ) by Tony Smith.net/daap/) DAAP (http://daap. Open source server that supports DAAP and DPAP. The Register. org/ 2009/ 06/ 12/ 217 http:/ / fireflymediaserver. . and Mac OS X. com/ p/ daap-client/ [10] [11] [12] [13] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] http:/ / sourceforge. 2006-09-28. nystedberry. net/ http:/ / soundbridge.flyn. libdmapsharing (http://www. roku.ttu.opendaap. 2006 "Apple halts iTunes' Internet sharing ability" (http:/ / www. 2007 [6] http:/ / www. another implementation of DAAP on Unix. apple. org/ ).de/projekte/daap/daapd/). 2004. edu/ mroth/ tunes/ login. April 29. Mac OS X and Mobile OS X (iPod touch and iPhone). .org/) Unofficial DAAP protocol documentation (http://tapjam. [8] http:/ / crossfire. net/ http:/ / one2ohmygod. It runs on Linux.deleet. Open source GObject. 2006 [5] " iTunes 4. net/ banshee/ + bug/ 62842). aspecto-software.0 traffic analysis (http://www. a C implementation of DAAP DAAPD (http://www. November 30. a C++ implementation of DAAP.

BT and some of the UK manufacturers championed DPNSS into ECMA and CCITT (ITU) but it was eventually deprecated by the standards bodies in favour of Q931 and QSig. The support for DPNSS as BT's own signaling protocol also differentiated BT's private circuit’s services from those of its emerging rival Mercury Communications. htm [2] http:/ / telecom. Digital (PCM-based) PBXs were just starting to come into the marketplace with the ROLM/Northern Telecom SL1. Post Office Telecommunications in recognition that the emerging Digital Private Circuit Primary Rate product 'Megastream' had to address the market for both data and voice. and Plessey PDX. It was retained and extended for later versions of the DECnet protocol. At the time. It may seem odd now that BT would invest in the development of a signaling protocol for PBXs in which it had a minority interest and in competition with its PSTN services. txt Digital Private Network Signalling System The Digital Private Network Signalling System (DPNSS) is a network protocol used on digital trunk lines for connecting two PABX. The protocol uses full or half duplex synchronous and asynchronous links and allowed errors introduced in transmission to be detected and corrected. Under the liberalization rules of the day (1979). References • Overview of the protocol [1] • Protocol specification [2] (courtesy of DEC) References [1] http:/ / telecom. Nevertheless. 'CAS' inter node signaling was slow and inter-register signaling MF5. was complex and would not support sufficient features. the latter being significantly greater because of the market for PBXs. the elegance of the protocol and its compatibility with PBX features ensured the adoption DPNSS actually grew in Europe. History DPNSS was developed in the early 1980s by BT. the last version of DPNSS to be released 6 in 1995 included compatibility with ISDN features released in V5. Version 1 of BTNR188 (DPNSS) was issued in 1983. developed for the PSTN.Digital Data Communications Message Protocol 137 Digital Data Communications Message Protocol Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (DDCMP) is a communications protocol devised by Digital Equipment Corporation in 1974 to allow communication over point-to-point network links for the company's DECnet Phase I network protocol. DPNSS was possibly a backroom development by a couple of guys at BT's research labs whose efforts accidentally found a market and official support. DPNSS was originally defined by British Telecom. It supports a defined set of inter-networking facilities. In practice. net/ ddcmp. or its forerunner. selling or supplying PBXs of more than 200 extensions. The specification for the protocol is defined in BTNR188. net/ ddcmp. compared to the much slower take-up of Qsig. tbi. BT was barred from manufacturing. it was recognised that corporate customers would wish to network these systems across the country. . The specification currently comes under the Network Interoperability Consultative Committee. tbi. A lightweight version of DPNSS 'APNSS' was developed using analogue trunks (Sometimes compressed) and a modem to support D channel signalling.

often Nortel DMS100 and customers PBX nodes.Sig. The remaining levels are allocated to telephony features. a single call establishment message will have access to the full 64Kbs (allowing for overheads). It is also sometimes mistakenly believed that DPNSS is semi proprietary and that it is only possible to connect PBXs from the same manufacturer. DPNSS and VoIP For a protocol that began life in the 1980s. of which 0 is used for alignment of the frames and 16 is (by convention only) allocated to common channel signaling. has interconnected successfully to many PBX types available in the UK. . DPNSS will work over a 2Mbs link running without proper synchonisation (plesiochronously) and over poor quality connections (including badly terminated connectors). supplementary services or to administrative features. Criticisms Some critics of DPNSS suggest that it is too loosely defined and allows too much latitude in its interpretation of message formats and timers. 64Kbs operates as HDLC LAPB. Note that HDLC operates as a statistical multiplexing system. Siemens will connect to Siemens. DPNSS is a compelled protocol in that each instruction issued must be met with an appropriate response from the other PBX otherwise the message is re-transmitted (until timer expiry).048 Mbs sent across the link. Note that it is also possible to tunnel DPNSS and its associated PCM (G711) over an IP network. When setting up PBXs to run a DPNSS connection one end must be defined as the primary or 'A' end. The functionality is divided into Levels (confusingly nothing to do with OSI layers. However. This can be point to point where the IP network carries packetised voice N x 64 Kbs speech and a separate IP signalling channel to carry the notional 64 Kbs of DPNSS signalling.Digital Private Network Signalling System 138 Overview of the Protocol Layer 1(CCITT) ITU-G703 defines the physical and electrical interface. A more sophisticated solution uses intelligence on the edge of the IP network to route voice to the correct node. This is a protocol requirement and has nothing to do with link synchronisation. DPNSS is a layer 3 protocol functioning as common channel signaling. at maximum operation. G704 defines the Frame structure of the 2. Practical Considerations As HDLC can operate successfully in quite poor (errored) data environments. DPNSS is natively a long way from VoIP. Where they do not. Layer 2 Timeslot 16. Some levels are interdependent but a PBX may omit support of some levels (above 6) and support others. many of the hybrid VoIP PBXs available from manufacturers worldwide provide on-board DPNSS trunk cards.e. Therefore. When traffic deltas are low.) Levels 1-6 deal with simple call establishment (make call/break call) and are the minimum requirements by which a PBX can be said to be DPNSS compatible. Commercially available equipment offers the ability to convert from DPNSS to Q. a protocol converter is necessary. Note that support of 'levels' by a PBX is not necessarily incremental. each potential traffic channel can have two simultaneous data channels available for messages. Speech is carried as G711. to support up to 60 PVCs or DLCs (data link connections) as the specification describes them. i. This means that when interworking two PBXs features invoked on PBX A must be acknowledged by PBX B even if that feature is not supported. This is a [VoIP (voice)VPN] [1] Note that this should not be confused with the pre-VOIP 'Voice VPN' deployed by routing calls intelligently in a TDM switching platform. Experience indicates that this is not the case and BT's FeatureNet platform (Nortel's DMS100) running DPNSS. G732 defines the allocation of that frame structure into the 32 discrete 64Kbit 'channels'. It is therefore much easier to interpret in its native form than Q931/Qsig or H323/H450 and a pre-cursor to the plain language format of SIP. DPNSS carries its protocol messages as short strings of IA5 text. Mitel to Mitel etc.

due to the lack of flood control. wikipedia.Digital Private Network Signalling System 139 External links • The DPNSS specification at NICC [2] References [1] http:/ / en. pdf Direct Client-to-Client Direct Client-to-Client (DCC) is an IRC-related sub-protocol enabling peers to interconnect using an IRC server for handshaking in order to exchange files or perform non-relayed chats. a typical DCC session runs independently from the IRC server. the message is still in plaintext). org. the protocol used for DCC CHAT is very simple: users exchange CRLF-terminated messages. When compared to sending messages normally. Messages that begin with an ASCII 001 (control-A. The user wishing to establish the connection sends the following CTCP to the target: DCC CHAT <protocol> <ip> <port> <ip> and <port> are those of the sender. Common DCC applications DCC CHAT The CHAT service enables users to chat with each other over a DCC connection. Once established. this reduces IRC network load. and are expressed as integers. niccstandards. The CTCP is sent from one user. also known as DCC SCHAT supports encrypted connections. A variation of the DCC protocol called SDCC (Secure Direct Client-to-Client). over the IRC network. Originally designed to be used with ircII it is now supported by many IRC clients. and not over the IRC network. and are terminated by another ASCII 001. to another user. no traffic will go across the IRC network (the parties involved do not need to be connected to an IRC network in order to DCC). are interpreted as emotes: ^AACTION waves goodbye^A . • Another way to initiate a DCC session is for the client to connect directly to the DCC server. org/ wiki/ Voice_VPN [2] http:/ / www. represented below by ^A) and the word "ACTION". <protocol> is "chat" for standard DCC CHAT. The receiving party can then connect to the given port and address. allows sending of larger amounts of text at once. The traffic will go directly between the users. uk/ files/ current/ nd1301_2001_03. DCC CHAT is normally initiated using a CTCP handshake. Using this method. Once a connection is established. and makes the communication more secure by not exposing the message to the IRC servers (however. DCC connections can be initiated in two different ways: • The most common way is to use CTCP to initiate a DCC session.

a variant buffer overflow error in mIRC triggered by filenames longer [1] than 14 characters and an input validation error in some routers manufactured by Netgear. or allow the two clients to negotiate a set of features. DCC SEND exploit The DCC send exploit can refer to two bugs. a third alternative is to ask the sender to skip part of the file by sending the CTCP reply: DCC RESUME <filename> <port> <position> If the sending client supports DCC RESUME. but requires a slightly modified handshake and is not widely supported. later versions use the word SEND but append a "T" after the handshake. TDCC. which the client must acknowledge by sending sizes of incoming data blocks as 32-bit network byte order integers. or ignore the request. or turbo DCC. many of which have become widely supported. The original handshake consisted of the sender sending the following CTCP to the receiver: DCC SEND <filename> <ip> <port> As with DCC CHAT. Data is sent in blocks. The send-ahead extension relieves this problem somewhat by not waiting for the acknowledgements. making this version of TSEND compatible with other clients (as long as they can parse the modified handshake).[2] [3] The router exploit. while others cause lines to be drawn on the user's whiteboard surface. the two clients exchange CRLF-terminated messages. it will reply with: DCC ACCEPT <filename> <port> <position> and the receiver can connect to the given address and port and listen for data to append to an already existing file. D-Link and Linksys. the original specification had the receiver either connect to the given address and port and wait for data. DCC Whiteboard is initiated with a handshake similar to DCC CHAT. Another extension. It is common practice to add the file size as a last argument: DCC SEND <filename> <ip> <port> <file size> At this point. triggered by the use of port 0. Older versions of TDCC replaced the word SEND in the handshake with TSEND. in particular. it is not solved completely. This slows down connections. allowing simple drawing commands to be sent as well as lines of text. with the protocol "chat" replaced by "wboard": DCC CHAT wboard <ip> <port> Once the connection is established. may be triggered when the phrase 'DCC SEND ' followed by at least 6 characters without spaces or newlines appears anywhere in a TCP stream on port 6667. but for clients supporting the DCC RESUME extension. removes the acknowledgements. Some clients enclose filenames with spaces in double quotes.Direct Client-to-Client DCC Whiteboard This is an extension to DCC CHAT. 140 DCC SEND The SEND service allows users to send files to one another. in case the sender expects them. Messages that begin (and optionally end) with ASCII 001 are interpreted as special commands. and is redundant because such behavior is already implemented by TCP. The original specification for the handshake did not allow the receiver to know the total file size nor to resume a transfer. <ip> and <port> are the ip address and port where the sending machine will be listening for an incoming connection. but since the receiver still has to send them for every block it receives. the command ACTION represents an emote. . This has made clients introduce their own extensions to the handshake. not just when an actual DCC SEND request has been made.

While faster than SEND. Presumably based on the modification time of the local file. send a 32-bit time t in network byte order. This is accomplished by the receiving client acting as a server (hence the name) listening (usually on port 59) for a handshake from the sender. the initiator might not be able to act as a server. Unlike standard DCC SEND. <ip> can be in the additional forms of standard dotted notation for IPv4. The XMIT handshake differs somewhat from the SEND handshake. an offset which the server should seek to when sending the file. the initiator sends: . Furthermore. For a CHAT. In the case of the "clear" protocol. or the size of the local file if the client wishes to resume a previous download. or either hexadecimal or mixed notation for IPv6. it will connect to the given address and port. the initiator sends: 100 <initiator nick> The target then replies with: 101 <target nick> and the rest proceeds according to standard DCC CHAT protocol. the client will then send another network byte order long. What happens then depends on the protocol used. you can not resume a file past the two gigabyte mark due to the 32-bit offset. but is not standard on all clients (see comparison of IRC clients). Passive DCC In a normal DCC connection the initiator acts as the server. without the need of an IRC server. If the receiver is willing and capable of receiving the file. unless its size is specified in the CTCP negotiation or known beforehand.Direct Client-to-Client 141 DCC XMIT The XMIT service is a modified version of DCC SEND that allows for resuming files and cuts down on wasteful traffic from the ACK longs. Because of widespread firewalling and reduction of end-to-end transparency because of NAT. but still supply a later one. and the target is the client. If the receiver does not implement the protocol used. it sends the following CTCP reply: ERRMSG DCC CHAT <protocol> declined Other errors are reported in the same fashion. only "clear" is defined presently. For a SEND. XMIT is not widely supported. <protocol> is the protocol to use for the transfer. it will send back a CTCP reply of the format: ERRMSG DCC CHAT <protocol> unavailable CHAT is used here to maintain compatibility with the error messages sent by the extended DCC CHAT. DCC Server has moderate support. This should be set to zero if the whole file is wanted. If the receiver declines the transfer. Various ways of asking the target to act as the server have been devised: DCC Server This extension to normal DCC SEND and CHAT was introduced by the IRC client mIRC. XMIT carries one of the same limitations in that it is impossible to tell how big the file is. It allows the initiation of a DCC connection by IP address. the earlier one can be specified as "-". representing the file's modification time. upon receiving a connection. To leave an early parameter empty. The sender sends a CTCP offering a file to the receiver: DCC XMIT <protocol> <ip> <port>[ <name>[ <size> [<MIME-type>]]] Square brackets here enclose optional parts. the XMIT server will.

It is not widely supported. it sends the CTCP reply: DCC REVERSE <key> <start> <ip> <port> Here <start> is the position in the file from which to start sending. RDCC is a handshake mechanism for DCC Server. and a normal DCC SEND follows. which the client might not be able to find otherwise because of host masking. as one of the sides may not be a human. similar to the one used by DCC SEND. The sender offers a file to the receiver by sending the CTCP message: DCC REVERSE <filename> <filesize> <key> <key> is a 1 to 50 characters long string of ASCII characters in the range 33 to 126. This is not widely implemented. so this has to be negotiated manually. The sender then connects to the ip address and port indicated by the receiver. where the handshake is handled over a direct IP connection. DCC REVERSE has a normal CTCP handshake. <ip> is the IP address of the receiver in standard dotted notation for IPv4. RDCC DCC Server provides no way specifying the port to use. and a DCC Server handshake follows. 's' for send and 'f' for file server. or hexadecimal notation for IPv6. which is not always possible. Both the sender and receiver can cancel the handshake by sending the CTCP reply: DCC REJECT REVERSE <key> 142 . The target may then CTCP reply with: RDCC 0 <ip> <port> where <ip> and <port> have the same meanings as for normal DCC SEND and CHAT. After this the initiator connects to the ip and port. If the receiver accepts. The initiator requests the port the target is listening on by sending the CTCP query: RDCC <function> <comment> where <function> is 'c' for chat. From here the transfer proceeds as a normal DCC SEND.Direct Client-to-Client 120 <initiator nick> <filesize> <filename> The target replies with: 121 <target nick> <resume position> where <resume position> is the offset in the file from which to start. which in addition to the port also provides the IP address of the server. and acts as an identifier for the transfer. DCC Server also supports mIRC-style file servers and DCC GET. DCC REVERSE Unlike DCC Server.

com/ bid/ 8880). [3] "'DCC Send' vulnerability on Linksys routers" (http:/ / cve. References [1] "SecurityFocus exploit information" (http:/ / www. <token> is a unique integer. The number 0 is sent instead of a valid port. . and waits for the receiver to close the socket when the file is finished. except the <ip> and <port> identify the socket where the receiver is listening. expressed as a single integer (as in standard DCC). DMDirc. if TSEND is being used (by a client that supports it).) The sender then connects to the receiver's socket. letting the receiver know it doesn't need to send acknowledgements. the sequence of commands becomes (with '>>' indicating an outgoing message on the initiating side and '<<' response by its peer): >> DCC SEND <filename> <ip> 0 <filesize> <token> << DCC RESUME <filename> 0 <position> <token> >> DCC ACCEPT <filename> 0 <position> <token> << DCC SEND <filename> <peer-ip> <port> <filesize> <token> After which the protocol proceeds as normal (i. Klient. The sender offers a file by sending the CTCP message: DCC SEND <filename> <ip> 0 <filesize> <token> <ip> is the IP address of the sender in network byte order. . The receiver can accept the file by opening a listening socket and responding with the CTCP message: DCC SEND <filename> <ip> <port> <filesize> <token> This is identical to the original Reverse DCC message. Typically. XChat. the sender connects to the receiver's socket). and PhibianIRC. read and download files located on a DCC server. cgi?name=CVE-2006-1068).e. The files are sent over DCC SEND or DCC XMIT. Reverse / Firewall DCC This passive DCC mechanism is supported by at least mIRC. When the RESUME extension to the SEND protocol is used. (Since this message follows the same format as a regular DCC send request. [2] "'DCC Send' vulnerability on Netgear routers" (http:/ / cve. The sender offers a file by sending the CTCP: DCC RSEND <filename> <filesize> The receiver can then accept by CTCP replying with: DCC RECV <filename> <ip> <port> <start> and the sender connects to the receiver and sends as during a normal DCC SEND. securityfocus. KVIrc. mitre. signaling that this is a Reverse DCC request. . Konversation. org/ cgi-bin/ cvename. or file server. the letter "T" is appended to the token. letting the sender know which request is being accepted. some servers which filter DCC requests may require the sender to add the receiver to his or her "DCC allow" list. There are many implementations of DCC file servers. . mitre.Direct Client-to-Client DCC RSEND This is the KVIrc client's alternative to DCC REVERSE. lets a user browse. cgi?name=CVE-2006-1067). sends the content of the file. 143 File servers (FSERVs) A DCC fserve. org/ cgi-bin/ cvename. Visual IRC. <token> is the same as in the original request. this is implemented with a DCC CHAT session (which presents the user with a command prompt) or special CTCP commands to request a file. among them is the FSERV command in the popular mIRC client.

and a second that is connected to the intranet. a client that is connected to the internet directly will use 6to4. Technology DirectAccess establishes IPSec tunnels from the client to the DirectAccess server. at least two consecutive. such as centralized management.Direct Client-to-Client 144 External links • A description of the DCC protocol (http://www. which must be initiated and terminated by explicit user action.php) DirectAccess DirectAccess is a new feature in Windows 7 (Ultimate and Enterprise editions only) and Windows Server 2008 R2 that provides seamless intranet connectivity to DirectAccess client computers when they are connected to the Internet.org/)) • DCC negotiation and connection (http://www. • public key infrastructure (PKI) to issue computer certificates. . The client can use 6to4.de/docu/doc_dcc_connection.php) • A description of the DCC Whiteboard protocol (http://www. allowing you to provide DirectAccess clients with access to IPv4-only resources on your network.kvirc. which still relies on IPv4 traffic. A successor to DCC (DCC2) is currently being formalized by DCC2. and uses IPv6 to reach intranet resources or other DirectAccess clients. it will use Teredo instead.net/tech-tdcc. which simplifies[1] [2] [3] the deployment of DirectAccess. Unlike most traditional VPN connections.dcc2. A DirectAccess client can use one of several tunnelling technologies. Requirements DirectAccess requires: • one or more DirectAccess servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 with two network adapters: one that is connected directly to the Internet. provided the server is configured correctly to be able to use them. • on the DirectAccess server. • DirectAccess clients running Windows 7 (Ultimate and Enterprise editions only).visualirc. While DirectAccess is based on Microsoft technology. high availability. This technology encapsulates the IPv6 traffic over IPv4 to be able to reach the intranet over the Internet.org/irchelp/rfc/dccspec.html) • A description of the Turbo DCC protocol (http://www. In 2010.net/tech-wboard. • at least one domain controller and Domain Name System (DNS) server running Windows Server 2008 SP2 or Windows Server 2008 R2. Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway was released. no configuration of firewalls or proxies should be required[5] . public IPv4 addresses assigned to the network adapter that is connected to the Internet. All traffic to the intranet is encrypted using SSL and sent through the standard HTTPS port (443). and enhanced security (UAG contains a EAL4+ Certified firewall.irchelp. DirectAccess in UAG provides enterprise features for a DirectAccess solution. but if it is inside a NATed network.org (http://www. For example. depending on the configuration of the network the client is connected to. so it can be used on the edge of your network). which means that in most cases. DirectAccess connections is designed to connect automatically as soon as the computer connects to the internet.html) (note: Most IRC-clients and networks have implemented extensions to the DCC protocol. and includes additional components that make it easier to integrate without the need to deploy IPv6 on the network. Teredo tunneling.visualirc. UAG also provides a NAT64 and DNS64. or IP-HTTPS. third-party solutions exist for accessing UNIX and Linux servers through DirectAccess[4] . The DCC commonly used today has evolved quite a bit from what this document describes.

com/ Forums/ en-US/ whsvailbeta/ thread/ fdcaae11-0f3e-4b6f-95ab-53bcd4046fe0). centrify. com/ UAG) Windows Server Division WebLog (http:/ / blogs. The motivation for this is the steep requirements on the client computers operating systems. microsoft. aspx) Portcullis Systems UAG DirectAccess Appliance (http:/ / www.com/servers/directaccess. microsoft. com/ microsoft/ ?p=5063& tag=content.mspx) • Microsoft's DirectAccess TechNet page (http://technet. com/ articles/ DirectAccess-Microsofts-Newest-VPN-Solution-Part1. windowsecurity. "Early version of Windows Home Server 'Vail' leaks to the Web" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ en-us/ library/ dd637797(WS.uk/blog/2009/07/23/ directaccess-ipv6-and-ipv4-networks/) .DirectAccess Smart card certificates. External links • Microsoft's DirectAccess Getting Started page (http://www. aspx) Foley. Further on the server is also required to have two NICs while a typical Windows Home Server only has one.Integrating Windows 7 DirectAccess with UNIX and Linux Systems (http:/ / www. Mary Jo (27 January 2010). Daniel.[6] 145 Support for Windows Home Server The latest version of Windows Home Server called Windows Home Server 2011 is based on the Windows Server 2008 R2 code base[7] . Sean (03 May 2010). Retrieved 10 April 2011.aspx) • MS-IPHTTPS on MSDN (http://msdn.microsoft. Remote access to the users home computers and resources are one of the key features of the Windows Home Server edition.Part 1: Overview of Current Remote Access Solutions (http:/ / www. com/ windowsserver/ archive/ 2009/ 07/ 15/ got-directaccess-get-uag. microsoft. Even though Windows Home Server 2011 is based on Windows Server 2008 R2 no support for DirectAccess is implemented.aspx): includes PDF with specification. Microsoft. as only Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise is supported.microsoft. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway 2010 (http:/ / www.com/en-us/network/dd420463. A third-party NAT64 device may be used to provide access to IPv4-only resources to DirectAccess clients. com/ directsecure/ window-7-directaccess-integration-for-unix-linux. . html) DirectAccess Requirements (http:/ / technet. asp) DirectAccess: Microsoft's Newest VPN Solution . technet. 10).microsoft. and health certificates for Network Access Protection may be used along with PKI.co. com) Centrify DirectSecure . . Retrieved 2 February 2010.com/en-us/library/dd358571(PROT. "Any chance of a light version of DirectAccess for WHS Vail" (http:/ / social. portcullissystems. ZDNet. • Blogger's posting on DirectAccess (http://refraction.col1).13). However in future versions of Windows Home Server Microsoft hopes to deliver a simplified version of DirectAccess for home usage[8] .

in general. one can always point to the point in time at which the flow originated.v). and distributed. a set of events that includes multicast requests made by different applications to different multicast protocols would not be considered a distributed flow. asynchronous method invocation or other form of explicit or implicit message passing between two layers or software components. For example. and over a finite or infinite period of time. all events must flow in the same direction (i. and the other always consumes the events). where x is the location (e. such flow would include events that occur on all nodes participating in the given multicast protocol. On the other hand. at any point in time. application layer to an underlying multicast protocol. events in a distributed flow are distributed both in space (they occur at different nodes) and in time (they occur at different times). we represent each event in a distributed flow as a quadruple of the form (x. in such case. all the arguments passed in a method call). and neither would be a set of events that represent multicast requests as well as acknowledgments and error notifications. and are related to one-another. The flow usually includes all events that flow between the two layers of software.g. we require that they represent method calls or message exchanges between instances of the same functional layers.e. one-way. • Concurrent. For example. and carry the same type of a payload. and uniform. . unidirectional. Each event represents a single instance of a non-blocking.k. but perhaps on different nodes within a computer network. the flow of multicast requests would include all such requests made by instances of the given application on different nodes. the network address of a physical node) at which the event occurs. • For any finite point in time t. All events in the distributed flow serve the same functional and logical purpose. Each distributed flow is a (possibly infinite) set of such quadruples that satisfies the following three formal properties. eventually a new event will appear in the flow.. This implies that in which flow.. a set of events that includes all multicast requests issued by the same application layer to the same multicast protocol is a distributed flow. there can be only finitely many events in the flow that occur at time t or earlier. The requirement that events are one-way and asynchronous is important. A flow.g. t is the time at which this happens. simultaneously at different locations. and another flow that represents responses. generally. and v is a value that represents the event payload (e. one type of a layer or component always produces. Formally. and one-way. in which all events occur at the same node would be considered degenerate. each event might represent a single request to multicast a packet. continuous. Invocations of methods that may return results would normally be represented as two separate flows: one flow that represents the requests. The flow itself can be infinite. or instances of the same components. or a sequence number identifying the particular event.. non-blocking.t. Furthermore. Thus. • Homogeneous. k is a version.Distributed data flow 146 Distributed data flow Distributed data flow (also abbreviated as distributed flow) refers to a set of events in a distributed application or protocol that satisfies the following informal properties: • Asynchronous. For example. normally. issued by an An illustration of the basic concepts involved in the definition of a distributed data flow.

D. pdf [2] Ostrowski. if the two events have the same version numbers. pdf . cs.[3] 147 References [1] Ostrowski. http:/ / www. Dolev. and Dolev. cs. • For any pair of events e_1 and e_2 that occur at the same location. K. cornell. (2009). then e_1 must carry a smaller value than e_2. "Implementing Reliable Event Streams in Large Systems via Distributed Data Flows and Recursive Delegation". which represent a unit of state that resides in a single location.. pdf [3] Ostrowski. "Distributed Data Flow Language for Multi-Party Protocols". • Consistency. "Programming Live Distributed Objects with Distributed Data Flows". TN. A distributed flow is said to be weakly monotonic if for any pair of events e_1 and e_2 that occur at the same location. Distributed data flows serve a purpose analogous to variables or method parameters in programming languages such as Java. cornell. In addition to the above.. K.. in that they can represent state that is stored or communicated by a layer of software. Weakly monotonic flows may or may not be consistent. K. (2009). Dolev. if e_1 occurs at an earlier time than e_2. Consistent flows typically represent various sorts of global decisions made by the protocol or application. October 11. http:/ / www. they must also have the same values. They typically represent various sorts of irreversible decisions.. Nashville. Unlike variables or parameters. Birman. Birman. C. K. A distributed flow is said to be consistent if events with the same version always have the same value. distributed flows are a more natural way of modeling the semantics and inner workings of certain classes of distributed systems. 2009. USA. even if they occur at different locations. • Monotonicity. In particular. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_plos2009. 3rd ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems (DEBS 2009). flows can have a number of additional properties. A distributed flow is said to be strongly monotonic (or simply monotonic) if this is true even for pairs of events e_1 and e_2 that occur at different locations.Distributed data flow • For any pair of events e_1 and e_2 that occur at the same location. D. D. As such. then the version number in e_1 must also be smaller than that of e_2. Systems.. MT. Strongly monotonic flows are always consistent. Big Sky. USA. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_oopsla2009. the distributed data flow abstraction has been used as a convenient way of expressing the high-level logical relationships between parts of distributed protocols [1] [2] . K. 2009. cornell. Birman.. distributed flows are dynamic and distributed: they simultaneously appear in multiple locations within the network at the same time. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_debs2009.. K. Submitted to the International Conference on Object Oriented Programming. Languages and Applications (OOPSLA 2009). and Sakoda. cs. July 6–9. 5th ACM SIGOPS Workshop on Programming Languages and Operating Systems (PLOS 2009). (2009). if e_1 has a smaller version than e_2. http:/ / www.

The protocol is an enhancement to the Multi-Link Trunking (MLT) protocol. Patent United States Patent 6496502 .Distributed Multi-Link Trunking 148 Distributed Multi-Link Trunking Avaya Distributed Multi-Link Trunking DMLT between 2 stacked 5530 switches to an ERS 8600 switch Distributed Multi-Link Trunking (DMLT) or Distributed MLT is a computer networking protocol designed by Avaya used to load balance the network traffic across connections and also across multiple switches or modules in a chassis. preventing network outages when one switch in a stack fails or a card in a chassis fails. DMLT allows the ports in a trunk (MLT) to span multiple units of a stack of switches or to span multiple cards in a chassis.

Each advertised extension (this can also be a range of extensions) has its own priority.]HSZw (this changes periodically) The address of this PBX is 192. they are called peers. The protocol was invented by Mark Spencer who also made the PBX-system called Asterisk.168.164 number(s). the involved peers will cache the lookups they see. Because the used keys may become invalid after some period. DUNDi allows peered nodes to share dialplan information with each other. so it is no guarantee the extension can be reached. but rather provides addressing information. The context-name is "priv". Some sort of P2P phonebook. Peers For DUNDi to work. you can advertise these. each .Distributed Universal Number Discovery 149 Distributed Universal Number Discovery Distributed Universal Number Discovery (DUNDi) is a VoIP routing protocol that provides directory services similar to what is provided by ENUM. 0 IAX2/priv:ByWFbOGKgGmZbM43BJHSZw@192. Since these DUNDi clients belong to the same network.g. In the DUNDi configuration one can limit the number of consecutive lookups between peers by setting the TTL.2 (or some domainname. • A TTL of n means that the peer you ask for a lookup can redirect your lookup to the peers it knows. each DUNDi client has to know at least one other DUNDi client. In simple terms. which can redirect you to extension 301 is ByW[. Advertising extensions Each DUNDi peer can advertise its own extensions and their context. expires in 3600 s DUNDi lookup completed in 113 ms The above DUNDi lookup tells the PBX to ask the known peers if they know how to reach extension 301 in the "priv" network. The answer consists of 6 parts: • • • • • The used protocol to communicate is IAX2. The secret key of the PBX. only with a TTL of n-1.1.2/301 (EXISTS) from 00:0c:29:d2:d8:ec.1. asterisk1*CLI> dundi lookup 301@priv bypass 1. It is possible the PBX advertises a lot more extensions than really are connected.. Example In the Asterisk CLI one can do a lookup by hand to test if a DUNDi configuration works. Low values represent a high priority and must be chosen first when more than one answer is received from a lookup. e. if you can connect some local E. should be reachable by the calling party) The extension to call is 301 (this can be different from what you asked for. It does not actually carry any calls.168. Also at least one of the reachable peers must know how to reach the wanted extension. when calls from the outside are not allowed directly to an internal extension) • "EXISTS" tells us the PBX is advertising this number. E. In order to prevent the network from overloading and at the same time keep the responses as quick as possible. it is like asking your neighbouring peer whether he knows how to reach a certain phone-extension or VoIP client. • A TTL of 1 means you only can ask the peers you know and they cannot ask further. Therefore the syntax of the output of a DUNDi-lookup can be directly used in the dial commands in an Asterisk Dial Plan..g.

you have to peer with at least one other peer in the E164 trust group. which. txt http:/ / voipandenum. voip-info. dundi. It is unidirectional and does not include automatic error checking and correction. DUNDi defaults to the E. DMX512 has been used at scales ranging from strings of Christmas lights to electronic billboards. The Netherlands) In order to do so.Distributed Universal Number Discovery lookup has some expiry date. com/ 2004/ 10/ fall-von-2004-day-4-highlights-since. com/ http:/ / www. where audience or performers safety could be at risk. . org/ wiki/ view/ DUNDi+ Enterprise+ Configuration+ SIP+ with+ no+ passwords DMX512 DMX512 (For "Digital Multiplex with 512 pieces of information [1] ) is a standard for digital communication networks that are commonly used to control stage lighting and effects. but also more advanced fixtures and special effects devices such as fog machines and moving lights. However. A DMX splitter/buffer. in conjunction with a variable-size. It was originally intended as a standardized method for controlling light dimmers. it soon became the primary method for linking not only controllers and dimmers. like 0031201234567 (some bogus number in Amsterdam. Consequently.org [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / dundi. prior to DMX512. This defaults to one hour. DMX512 employs EIA-485 differential signaling at its physical layer. and has also expanded to uses in non-theatrical interior and architectural lighting. The peers in this group are bound to the Digium GPA (Digium General Peering Agreement) [1] (PDF) 150 External links • • • • DUNDi Home Page [2] Internet-Draft that expired in 2005 [3] VoIP and ENUM [4] DUNDi Enterprise SIP configuration article on Voip-Info. blogspot. packet based communication protocol. This means you are looking for normal (international) phone-numbers. It allows many devices that are controlled by DMX to be plugged into one controller. like a lighting console. pdf http:/ / www. dundi. proprietary protocols. it might not be recommended for use in safety-critical applications such as controlling pyrotechnics or laser lighting displays.164 context. com/ dundi. html http:/ / www. had employed various incompatible. com/ PEERING. When no context is given with a lookup.

[2] Large control desks (operator consoles) may have the capacity to control multiple universes. with a termination resistor at the end of the cable furthest from the controller to absorb signal reflections. this document is controlling as far as this Standard is concerned.11 (DMX512 2004) electrical specification addresses the connection of DMX512 signal common to Earth ground. A terminator is a stand-alone male connector with a built-in resistor. it is considered good practice always to use a terminator at the end of the daisy chain. However.e. with not more than 32 devices on a single bus. the standard recommends that transmitter ports (DMX512 controller OUT port) have a low . in most cases. Each slave device has a DMX512 "IN" connector and. Some DMX devices have built-in terminators that can be manually activated with a mechanical switch or by software.2008. is connected across the primary data signal pair. Physical layer Network topology A DMX512 network employs a multi-drop bus topology with nodes strung together in what is commonly called a daisy chain. USITT DMX512-A". If more than 32 devices need to communicate. The final. the standard was created in 1986. and so on. The controller. Specifically. quoting from E1. i." DMX512 is a bus network no more than 1200 metres (3900 ft) long.11 .. A network consists of a single DMX512 controller — which is the sole master of the network — and one or more slave devices. The E1. is connected via a DMX512 cable to the IN connector of the first slave. The resulting revised standard. or by automatically sensing the absence of a connected cable. may work reliably without a terminator. For example. DMX512-A In 1998 the Entertainment Services and Technology Association (ESTA) began a revision process to develop the standard as an ANSI standard. which has only an OUT connector. a lighting console is frequently employed as the controller for a network of slave devices such as dimmers. was approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in November 2004. known officially as "Entertainment Technology — USITT DMX512-A — Asynchronous Serial Digital Data Transmission Standard for Controlling Lighting Equipment and Accessories". Network wiring consists of a shielded twisted pair.DMX512 151 History DMX512 Developed by the Engineering Commission of United States Institute for Theatre Technology (USITT). OUT or THRU connector of the last slave on the daisy chain should have a terminator plugged into it. A second cable then links the OUT or THRU connector of the first slave to the IN connector of the next slave in the chain. Although simple systems. fog machines and intelligent moving lights. a DMX512 "OUT" connector (sometimes marked "THRU") as well. empty. with an OUT connector provided for each universe. It was revised again in 2008.11. with a characteristic impedance of 120 Ohms. then another termination resistor is connected across it as well. If a secondary data pair is used. except where specifically stated in this document. Electrical DMX512 data are sent using EIA-485 voltage levels. the network can be expanded across parallel buses using DMX splitters. or just "DMX512-A". Each DMX network is called a "DMX universe". and is maintained by ESTA. with subsequent revisions in 1990 leading to USITT DMX512/1990. Where a conflict between EIA-485-A and this document exists. The resistor — typically 120 Ω to match the cable characteristic impedance. "The electrical specifications of this Standard are those of EIA-485-A. systems having few devices and short cable runs. and is the current standard known as "E1.

152 Connectors DMX512 1990 specifies that where connectors are used.DMX512 impedance connection between signal common and ground. are fitted with 3-pin XLR connectors exactly like the ones used in audio signal chains. There may be a risk of equipment damage if XLR 3-pin carrying DMX signal is plugged into an audio signal chain. some equipment users and manufacturers have disregarded the formal topology rules. DMX512-A (E1. unless there is insufficient physical space on the device. The standard also allows for isolated transmitter ports. but nevertheless. Systems with the transmitter port and all receiver ports isolated are fairly common.(Optional Secondary Data Link) 5. devices are sometimes fitted with four-pin connectors when both communications and power are sent through a common cable. in any price range. However. in order to avoid the formation of disruptive ground loops. Data 2+ (Optional Secondary Data Link) . eventually. Data 1. DMX512-A (E1. Data 2. following the specification for termination and correct cable impedance becomes of vital importance.(Primary Data Link) 3. Data 13. The standard allows for non-isolated receivers. Several possible grounding configurations which are commonly used with EIA485 are specifically disallowed by E1. Some DMX512 equipment manufacturers at the dawn of the DMX era employed non-compliant or proprietary connectors and pinouts. Data 1+ 2. Data 27. Good practice dictates that systems ground the signal common at only one point. At short distances. Signal Common 2.(Primary Data Link) 3. with female connectors used on transmitting (OUT) ports and male connectors on receiving ports. As the cable length and/or number of devices increases however. such ports are referred to as grounded. Not Assigned 6. For short cable runs of less than about 45 metres (148 ft) with only a few devices. Also. since the electrical specification currently only defines a purpose for a single wire pair. Signal Common (0 V) for Data 1 8. the most common of these became the already common three-pin XLR connector (also called cannon jack in some countries). Data 1+ (Primary Data Link) RJ-45 pinout 1. the data link shall use five-pin XLR style electrical connectors (XLR-5). Data 1. Data 2+ 4.11) requires the use of an XLR-5 connector. Signal Common (0 V) for Data 2 XLR-5 pinout 1. Note also that non-theatrical uses of DMX512 such as architectural lighting often use non-standard connectors. it is sometimes possible to operate without termination. Grounded receivers that have a hard connection between signal common and ground are permitted but their use is strongly discouraged. cables with higher capacitance and different characteristic impedance such as microphone cable can be used. XLR-3 pinout 1.11. Signal Common 2. the trend caught on and nowadays the vast majority of DMX lighting products. Data 1+ (Primary Data Link) 4. in which case an XLR-5 adapter shall be supplied. Not Assigned 5. It is further recommended that receivers have a high impedance connection between signal common and ground. such ports are referred to as isolated.11-2008) allows the use of eight-pin modular (RJ-45) connectors for fixed installations where regular plugging and unplugging of equipment is not required.

Other start codes are used for Text packets (0x17). The break. female jack and the female connector plugs into the receiving. and telecommunications.[4] All slots following the start code contain control settings for slave devices. The first slot is reserved for a "Start Code" that specifies the type of data in the packet. Protocol At the datalink layer. A start code of 0x00 (hexadecimal zero) is the standard value used for all DMX512 compatible devices. microphone and line level audio cables lack the requisite electrical characteristics and thus are not suitable for DMX512 cabling. two stop bits and no parity. The electrical characteristics of DMX512 cable are specified in terms of impedance and capacitance. The avoidance of pins 4 and 5 helps to prevent equipment damage. has been tested by ESTA for use with DMX512A. This resolved issues arising from the differences in requirements for cables used in touring shows versus those used for permanent infrastructure. Also. Multi-byte data values are conveyed in little endian format in adjacent slots. cables designed for EIA485 typically meet the DMX512 electrical specifications. The data format is fixed at one start bit. commonly used for networking Cable built to the DMX-512A specification. 153 Cabling The cable has a male connector on one end and a female connector on the other end. ESTA maintains a database of alternate start codes. one for portable DMX512 cables (ANSI E1. Cat5 cable. Cabling for DMX512 was removed from the standard and a separate [3] . Cable types that are appropriate for DMX512 usage will have a nominal characteristic impedance of 120 ohms.DMX512 The RJ-45 connector pinout matches the conductor pairing scheme used by Category 5 (Cat5) twisted pair patch cables. causes receivers to start reception and also serves as a frame (position reference) for data bytes within the packet. Following the break. and various proprietary systems. which signals the end of one packet and the start of another. Two cabling cabling standards project was started in 2003 standards have been developed. System Information Packets (0xCF). which in turn can cause irregular operation or intermittent errors that are difficult to identify and correct. which includes most lighting fixtures and dimmers. Framed data bytes are known as slots. although there are often mechanical and other considerations that must be considered as well. Conversely. The start of a packet is signified by a break followed by a "mark" (a logical one). if the cabling is accidentally plugged into a single-line public switched telephone network phone jack. a DMX512 controller transmits asynchronous serial data at 250 kbaud.27-1 .2006) and one for permanent installations (draft standard BSR E1. The significantly lower impedance and higher capacitance of these cables distort the DMX512 digital waveforms. A slot's position within the packet determines the device and function to be controlled. while its data value specifies the control setpoint. male jack. for the RDM extension to DMX (0xCC). The male connector plugs into the transmitting.27-2). known as the "Mark After Break" (MAB). . up to 513 slots are sent. eight data bits.

MAB. the timing specification of the original 1986 standard was changed in 1990. More information on the DMX Packet is well described here [6].DMX512 154 Timing DMX512 timing parameters are allowed to vary over a wide range. The standard does not specify the minimum number of slots that can be sent in a packet.11).1 NULL START code A NULL START Code identifies subsequent data slots as a block of un-typed sequential 8-bit information. if necessary) or by stretching parameters such as the BREAK. the first pack would start at address 1 and the second pack at address 7. -Transmitted Min Break (μs) 92 Min MAB (μs) 12 8 Receiver recognize 88 Maximum times are not specified because as long as a packet is sent at least once per second. However. it does require that packets be transmitted so that the leading edges of any two sequential BREAKs must be separated by at least 1204 μs. was changed to 8 μs. Addressing and data encoding Most data is sent with the default Null Start Code of 00h. this version recognizes this fact. For higher refresh rates. Typically a dimmer has a starting address that represents the lowest numbered dimmer in that pack. corresponding to a maximum refresh rate of about 44 Hz. it was difficult to design receivers that operated over the entire timing range.[5] The minimum break-to-break transmit time can be achieved by sending packets that contain at least 24 slots (by adding extra padding bytes. . which has 512 channels (slots following the start code). Dimmer packs or racks use a group of slots to determine the levels for their dimmers.5. In practice NULL START Code packets have been used by a wide variety of devices. As an example. minimum. Earlier versions of this standard assumed that only dimmer class data would be sent using NULL START Code packets. Interslot. Each slot in the DMX512 packet corresponds to one dimmer. takes approximately 23 ms to send.11 (2004) standard relaxed the transmitter and receiver timing specifications. and receivers must be able to handle packets with break-to-break times a short as 1196 μs. the BREAK. Packets identified by a NULL START Code are the default packets sent on DMX512 networks. The E1. and the addressing increases from there to the highest numbered dimmer. inter-slot time. The device using data from the packet must know the position of that data within the packet. however. which was originally fixed at 4 μs. Quoting from the standard: 8. Each NULL START Code packet contains no formal data or addressing structure. The original authors specified the standard this way to provide the greatest design flexibility. Specifically. the MAB. a significant number of legacy devices still employ transmit timing near the minimum end of the range. or Interpacket times. and the mark between the last slot of the packet and the break (MBB) can be as long as desired. Because of this. for two packs of six dimmers each. A maximum-sized packet. however. This relaxed the timing requirements for systems using controllers built to DMX512-A (E1. As a result of this difficulty. packets having fewer than 512 channels can be sent. MAB.

Consequently the standard practice is now to send additional universes on separate connectors and leave the secondary data link pins unused.007° (446°/65536). even though DMX512-A specifies that the connector must be a five-pin XLR connector. This gives a 16-bit value range of 65536. although cable faults can occasionally lead to intermittent problems such as random triggering. For example. most wireless DMX512 links are limited to a maximum distance of 1000–1500 feet (300–460 m) to ensure reliable operation. although FHSS systems tend to disturb other types of wireless communication systems such as WiFi/WLAN. The cable can be abused without any loss of function in ways that would render Ethernet or other high speed data cables useless. standard DMX512 devices on the network. Early wireless DMX512 systems typically used WLAN technology. especially in architectural lighting installations where cable lengths can be prohibitively long. with strategically placed receivers near the fixtures to convert the wireless signal back to conventional DMX512 wired network signals. 155 DMX in practice DMX512's popularity is partly due to its robustness. This has been solved in newer wireless DMX systems by using adaptive frequency hopping and cognitive coexistence. Unexpected fixture behavior is caused by addressing errors. the phantom power sent along the cable could potentially damage the DMX512 equipment. Later generations used frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology to attain more reliable data transfers. a technique to [7] detect and avoid surrounding wireless systems. Although wireless DMX512 networks can function over distances exceeding 3000 feet (910 m) under ideal conditions. Secondary data link Although the two secondary link pins of the five-pin XLR connector were originally intended to support a second DMX512 universe. some fixtures use two channels each for pan and tilt. or incorrect data from the controller. to avoid transmitting on occupied frequencies. .DMX512 8-bit versus 16-bit DMX does not mandate a method of 16-bit encoding for Null Start Code packets. many other proprietary uses have been implemented for these pins. To control position more accurately. If a DMX512 controller or device were to be accidentally connected to a sound board that is generating 48 volt phantom power. Such networks typically employ a wireless transmitter at the controller. wireless DMX512 adapters have become popular. Some manufacturers made units with three-pin connectors because of their lower cost. permitting accuracies for each axis down to 0. some DMX512 equipment manufacturers used these pins to carry power (typically 24 volts DC) for their proprietary equipment. There is good reason for this rule: a three-pin XLR can easily be connected to a sound board. The Singapore Flyer uses wireless DMX to control the lighting on the pods and rim. even though this violated the DMX512 specification and would potentially damage other. however many moving lights make use of encoding larger than 8 bit numbers. Wireless operation Recently. cable faults.

2009 Entertainment Technology – Lightweight streaming protocol for transport of DMX512 using ACN. The 2004 DMX512-A revision added a System Information Packet (SIP).2004.11 .org/tsp) from ESTA USITT (http://www. Generally a logic analyzer or bus analyzer is not required. 19. a cross platform. These boxes then output the conventional DMX512 signal.google. and Art Net are two public domain protocols used to achieve this.net (http://www. com/ packt. p. crmxnova. and they are very valuable for developers. examination of hardware signals can be very important.com/heisters/ rdmx/tree/master) from GitHub • • • • . These DMX 512 testers provide format. [3] "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in English). esta. [Entertainment Services and Technology Association ]. the unidirectional signal. ANSI E1. However. References [1] United States Institute for Theatre Technology DMX512 FAQ (http:/ / www. [4] http:/ / www.usitt. LumenRadio AB.com/p/linux-lighting/) from Google Code • Rdmx. and the lack of inherent error detection. RDM was approved by ANSI in 2006 and is rapidly gaining popularity. This packet can be interleaved with Null packets. com/ technology. multi language. External links Technical Standards Program (http://www. DMX framework (http://code.31 . However. 2009. plasa.org/) OpenDMX. One feature of SIPs is they allow check sums to be sent for DMX Null data.opendmx. An Ethernet based protocol can distribute multiple DMX universes through a single cable from a control location to breakout boxes closer to fixtures. SIPs have rarely been implemented. php).DMX512 156 Development Many alternatives to DMX512 have been proposed to address perceived limitations such as the maximum slot count of 512 per universe. html [7] CRMX Nova . php [5] ESTA (2004). org/ tsp/ working_groups/ CP/ DMXAlternateCodes. Development tools When developing and/or troubleshooting the DMX512 bus. Retrieved on 29 March 2010. They also provide general user level testing. pdf. org/ DMX512FAQ. p. Recommended Practice for DMX512.Technology (http:/ / www. an open source DMX implementation for the Ruby programming language (http://github. several companies sell DMX512 verification units. 89: PLASA.net/) OLA. [6] http:/ / www.esta. pg. RDM allows for diagnostic feedback from fixtures to the controller by extending the DMX512 standard to encompass bidirectional communication between the lighting controller and lighting fixtures. American National Standard E1. ISBN 978-0-9557035-2-2. aspx#a1) [2] Bennette. published May 4. usitt. The 2004 DMX512-A revision of DMX512 also lays the foundation for the RDM (Remote Device Management) protocol through the definition of Enhanced Functionality. timing verification. http:/ / tsp. dmx512-online. Adam (2006). and scope trigger signals. org/ tsp/ working_groups/ CP/ docs/ CPmin07-2003w.

and would be forked/execed with their connection already established by . Being based on X.these are representative. Client applications would open /netphys/servicename.. and supported a multicast protocol for finding them.) DNET provided named network services. DNET at ISC consisted of the following services: • • • • • • netman (the main networking client/server support handler) raccess (remote file access via /net/machine/path/from/raccess/root. ISC's choice of DNET over TCP/IP was in part due to the relative light weight of the DNET protocol stack. DNET was also auto-configuring so there was no manual configuration of the local network.DNET 157 DNET DNET is a proprietary software suite of network protocols created by DIAB. a Layer 3 protocol stack (called 'serverprot') between themselves and netman.25 protocol handling.25. or transient. for testing or other special purposes. and ported it to run over Ethernet. and the WAN gateway functionality. In that incarnation it was rated at 1 Mbit/s over RS-422. Clients would ask for a named service. in which case they registered their service name(s) with the protocol stack when they were started. netman netman was the main component of DNET.25. (Such a process would be configured to use different Ethertype and handler mount points.25 point-to-point communication links. Simple resident and transient servers consumed a file descriptor per client connection. and was responsible for providing all Layer 2 and Layer 3 X. ISC Systems Corporation (ISC) purchased DNET as part of their purchase of DNIX. allowing them to support up to 4095 client connections through one file descriptor (to netman). Such servers were called complex resident servers. so named in honor of the relatively complicated (though not large) bit of protocol code that had to be included to handle the multiplexing and flow control. This simplicity was advantageous in ISC's market. say.) rx (remote execution) ncu (network login) bootserver (diskless workstation boot service) dmap (ruptime analog) There were many more services than these at a typical DNET installation . (WAN support did require manual configuration of the gateway machines. DNET also supported Wide Area Networks (WAN) using X. It was a DNIX Handler. It was based upon X.) The /usr/lib/net/servtab file was the usual location for the configuration file controlling WAN configuration and transient servers. Transient servers were pre-registered via their entry in servtab. Resident servers would open /netphys/listen/servicename. In the financial community these were all considered advantages over. It was possible to run more than one netman process. In the 80's. DNET was connection-oriented. It also provided the service name registry. and the first respondent (of potentially many) would get the connection. at their instigation.. all that was required was that each machine in a network be given a unique name. which was particularly popular in European telecommunications circles at that time. datagram-based (as opposed to a byte stream). Resident servers could also utilize. It talked to the Ethernet and HDLC device drivers. originally deployed on their Databoard products. in which case a fresh server was forked/execed for each client connection. Servers could either be resident. TCP/IP. this would register their service name with netman. and provided link-down notifications to its clients and servers so that applications did not have to provide their own heartbeats. possibly even on the same machine. allowing it to run more efficiently on the target machinery. either leased line or dialup (see also Data link). at a minimum. supported out-of-band (interrupt) messages. this would normally result in an open connection to a server somewhere. usually mounted on /netphys.

) As with UDP. Reads that were too small to contain an entire datagram would get the part that would fit into the buffer. indicating to the other end that it should not process the data yet as it was incomplete.) The usual application merely wrote an entire datagram at once with a clear M bit. only the buffer allocation and the read(2)/write(2) calls were usually aware of it. this byte was usually accessed at a -1 offset within any application's networking code. 158 . Service name resolution was handled entirely between netman processes. Machine-specific services (such as ncu---network login) would contain the machine name as part of the service name. and possibly involving external X. It was exposed to the applications only insofar as whether the network data reads and writes blocked or not. (Asynchronous I/O reads were usually utilized so that out of band data could be caught at any time. which bypassed all buffering. D. dmap) the first one would be selected for opening a connection. say. M bits would continue to be set on reads until a read contained the end of the original datagram. packet loss was possible. If the buffering were exceeded the request would block until the buffers could satisfy what remained of the request. Any write with the M bit set would propagate to the other end with the M bit set. but the other two were useful. Delivery. namely datagram control. with the M bit set. and delivery confirmation was accomplished via DNIX's ioctl mechanism. was exposed to applications (both client and server) as an extra control byte at the beginning of each read and write through a connection.25.25-ness of connections. In effect it was a single header bit that could be used to mark metadata. but this normally could only happen if it was overutilized.25 M. you could get at most one per read.) The Q bit was a simple marker.25 WAN links) using the usual X. and was coupled with a small read loop to accumulate entire datagrams before delivery to the rest of an application. When there was more than one respondent to the multicast (as was normal for.25. and could be used to mark 'special' datagrams. A client's representative would multicast the desired service name to the network using a MUI [Multicast Unnumbered Information] extension to X.25) to 32 bytes of data. DNET never implemented the D (delivery confirmation) bit. it was possible to lose OOB data. It was limited (per X. (The network was free to coalesce M'd data at its discretion.25 flow control mechanisms internally to avoid ever blocking on their single network file descriptor.) Flow control was accomplished within the network (between netman processes. flow control. This byte contained the X. installation-specific services (such as dmap---a site's machine status servers) would not. Datagrams were never packed together. If a request could be satisfied via the buffering abilities of the netman handler and/or the current state of the connection it would be satisfied immediately without blocking. The M bits were how datagrams were delimited. As was customary in network header processing. Responses indicating server availability would be directed (not multicast) back by potential server representatives. (Though not often required due to automatic fragmentation and reassembly within the protocol stack. particularly the M bit. so the MUI process was conducted up to three times if there was no response. and Qualifier). complex resident servers used the 'serverprot' X.DNET netman. (The lack of a reader waiting for it resulted in OOB data being discarded. Only one server was ever contacted per client service request. this protective loop ensured that allowable exposed fragmentation was never harmful. Any read with a clear M bit indicated that the read result contained an entire datagram and could be safely processed. and Q bits (for More. this was vital considering that the file descriptor was shared by up to 4095 client connections. Also. A byte-stream application could safely ignore them. The X. Out-of-band (OOB) data. Asynchronous I/O could be used to insulate the process from this blocking if it would be a problem. As with all UI-class messages in X. Naturally.25 mechanisms.

domain/path file names.on. (Changing this reference point was one way of providing a facility analogous to chroot jails for network file accesses. in that it was a satellite protocol merely associated with DNET installations. (As was the X. Raccess was a DNIX handler (for its clients).. Rx supported user ID translation and security facilities in a manner analogous to TCP/IP's . It was possible to run more than one raccess process.DNET 159 raccess raccess provided a distributed filesytem. It was a netman client (for passing standard I/O to the remote machine). the broadcast frequency was affected by the current size of the list in order to limit the network messages to an average of one per second. and a DNIX handler (so that remote programs believed themselves to be connected to tty devices). a parent process for hosting the remote process. The usual reference point for remote files was '/'.rhosts file. a netman server (for receiving standard I/O on the remote machine). analogous to TCP/IP's telnet or rlogin protocols. a netman server (for receiving standard I/O on the remote machine). the root of the remote machine's filesystem. a parent process for hosting the remote login procedure. usually mounted on /net. and a DNIX handler (so that remote programs believed themselves to be connected to tty devices). though it could be anything that was required. Dmap clients would contact their nearest dmap server (as determined by who responded first to the service name enquiry) .weekends. connected directly to Ethernet and periodically broadcast (multicast.) Raccess supported user ID translation and security facilities in a manner analogous to TCP/IP's .far.com!tar xf - ncu ncu (networked call unix) was the usual network remote login procedure.25 'safelink' file server protocol used to communicate between these same diskless workstations and their file servers. actually. bootserver The bootserver handled boot and dump requests from the diskless workstations.far. To control the load on the servers. Examples: cat /net/grumpy/usr/adm/errmessages vi /net/sneezy/etc/passwd rm /net/dopey. for testing or other special purposes.) dmap dmap provided a facility analogous to TCP/IP's ruptime facility.away. Some examples: rx machine!who rx machine!vi /etc/passwd tar cf . Like rx. it was a netman client (for passing standard I/O to the remote machine). one per disk-based machine. | rx -luser:pass machine.rhosts file. Dmap servers. so that non-participants never even saw the messages) their presence. Technically not really part of DNET. and a netman server (for executing the requests on the remote machine). It was a simple process that talked directly to the Ethernet driver. a netman client (for packaging up the filesystem requests).com/etc/nologin mv /net/doc/tmp/log /net/doc/tmp/logcd /net/bashful/tmp && ls rx rx provided remote command execution in a manner analogous to TCP/IP's rsh (or remsh) facility. Shell-level applications could access files on remote machines via /net/machine. The same process also collected these broadcasts and (as a server) advertised the availability of the list of senders through netman.

GE-Harris Canada (formerly known as Westronic. which necessitated the split into A. The protocol is designed to allow reliable communications in the adverse environments that electric utility automation systems are subjected to. a 'thick' client in other words. and usually manually. It was developed for communications between various types of data acquisition and control equipment.and B-side programs. the division was made in order to minimize the load on the servers. the Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol. there was a need to create a standard that would allow interoperability between various vendors' SCADA components for the electrical grid. This extended even to minimizing the memory footprint of the transient server. (Unlike most other transient servers. Inc.DNET to get the current list of machines. then would contact each machine in turn (usually maintaining four [configurable] connections in parallel for speed) to get the specific machine status they were interested in. Thus. ICCP. and Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). It is primarily used for communications between a master station and RTUs or IEDs. Its main use is in utilities such as electric and water companies. . being specifically designed to overcome distortion induced by EMI. in 1993. indicating to the process that it was the B-side process and that its standard input file descriptor was a network service connection.) used the partially completed IEC 60870-5 protocol specifications as the basis for an open and immediately implementable protocol that specifically catered to North American requirements. and poor transmission media. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). aging components (their expected lifetimes may stretch into decades). the dmap client program was not also the transient server. In this case because the client was run infrequently. The reason for splitting dmap into Aand B-side programs was the desire to push as much of the processing [such as display formatting] onto the client as possible. where it is used by SCADA Master Stations (aka Control Centers).) 160 DNP3 DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) is a set of communications protocols used between components in process automation systems. The convention for DNET transient servers was that the same program was used for both sides of the link. It plays a crucial role in SCADA systems. History While IEC 60870-5 was still under development and had not been standardized. Usage in other industries is not common. netman automatically passed a -B command-line argument to any transient server it spawned. is used for inter-master station communications.

error checking. The DNP3 protocol supports time synchronization with an RTU. Class 2. but is not identical to the FT3 frame. prioritization. these events can be placed in one of three buffers whose status is reported on every Remote Terminal Unit response. The DNP3 protocol has a substantial library of common point-oriented objects. or 3 data. If there is data in that buffer. at the cost of somewhat higher complexity. The DNP Protocol has time stamped variants of all point data objects so that even with infrequent RTU polling. irrespective of whether it has changed significantly. when it becomes available. or it can be a very large. IEEE 1379-2000. While this protocol is robust. floating point number variants are available. link control. The DNP3 protocol is now compliant with IEC 62351-5. The DNP User Group has established four levels of subsets of the protocol for RTU compliance. which recommends a set of best practices for implementing modern SCADA Master-RTU/IED communication links. It provides multiplexing. as the data points generate events. compatible. DNP3 is. the simplest implementations. simple embedded device. The Remote Terminal Unit is initially interrogated with what DNP3 terms a "Class 0 poll. Then. 2. It makes heavy use of Cyclic redundancy check codes to detect errors. seems more and more elusive as issues emerge from field experience. These include not just encryption but other practices that enhance security against well known intrusion methods. efficient. The focus of this extensive library was to eliminate the need for bit-mapping data over other objects. after a Class 0 poll. Some vendors implement elliptic curve cryptography which the US NSA considers sufficient to protect information as "top secret" with only 384 bits. The improved bandwidth efficiency is accomplished through event oriented data reporting. much work has been done to add Secure Authentication features to the DNP3 protocol. The DNP3 protocol is also referenced in IEEE Std. mostly a layer 2 protocol. the buffer data flag is set." This causes the RTU to send all static point data to the Master station. in standard networking terms. Implementation of ECC over DNP3 is not very widespread yet. The goal of compatibility. complex rack filled with equipment. Technical details The DNP3 protocol has significant features that make it more robust. Because smart grid applications generally assume access by third parties to the same physical networks and underlying IP infrastructure of the grid. While this is partly due to more demanding industrial applications. and secure. it was not designed to be secure from attacks by hackers and other malevolent forces that could potentially wish to disrupt control systems to disable critical infrastructure. it is still possible to receive enough data to reconstruct a sequence of events of what happened in between the polls.DNP3 161 Security Although the protocol was designed to be very reliable. efficient. as is often done in many Modbus installations. For example. all the time. This improves compatibility and eliminates problems such as Endianness. or Class 3. The DNP3 frame strongly resembles. The Master can then see that there should be event data to be retrieved when issuing a poll for Class 1. it is also a reflection that SCADA concepts are not as simple as they might first seem. and self compatible than older protocols such as Modbus. The DNP Users Group has published test procedures for Levels 1 and 2. only significant data changes are sent. so there is no need to map the number on to a pair of 16 bit registers. . A Remote Terminal Unit for the DNP3 protocol can be a very small. This can result in significantly more responsive data retrieval than polling everything. The Remote Terminal Unit can also be configured to spontaneously report Class 1. data fragmentation. and layer 2 addressing services for user data. In other words. it is getting more and more complex and subtle as it ages.

if one has a cable modem that only supports DOCSIS 1. BigBand Networks.1 (adding quality of service (QoS) capabilities) following in April 1999.0 speeds. issued in March 1997. Open source implementations • master/slave/testset [4] licensed under Apache 2. Cisco. Motorola. As of the end of 2011. Cross-version compatibility has been maintained across all versions of DOCSIS. org http:/ / www. ieee. Harmonic. com/ VideoPage. Terayon. Intel. The first specification was version 1.0. This version.0. For example. the fastest deployments in North America are expected to be Shaw Cable's announced 250 Mbit/s download 15 Mbit/s upload.0. with revision 1. IEEE Std 1815 was co-sponsored by the Transmission and Distribution Committee and Substations Committee of the IEEE Power & Energy Society. and the system is running 2. 5518537 http:/ / smartgrid. with the devices falling back to the highest supported version in common between both endpoints: cable modem and cable modem termination system (CMTS). subnet. the connection will be established at DOCSIS 1. Because of increased demand for symmetric services such as IP telephony. aspx http:/ / www. aspx http:/ / code. Netgear. org/ ieee-smartgrid-news/ 89-ieee-delivers-critical-1815-dnp3-standard-in-record-time http:/ / www. google. com/ training/ course-overviews/ course-detail/ dnp3-and-ase2000-test-set-training. org/ 10. Conexant. DOCSIS was revised to enhance upstream transmission speeds. aspx DOCSIS Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) (often pronounced English pronunciation: /ˈdɒksɪs/) is an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high-speed data transfer to an existing cable TV (CATV) system. with additional input from the DNP Users Group [3]. org/ About/ UsersGroup. which will be implemented in phases. It is employed by many cable television operators to provide Internet access (see cable Internet) over their existing hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) infrastructure. com/ p/ dnp3/ http:/ / www. 1109/ IEEESTD. Broadcom. History DOCSIS was developed by CableLabs and contributing companies including ARRIS. was released in August 2006. the specification was revised to significantly increase transmissions speeds (this time both upstream and downstream) and introduce support for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). DOCSIS 3. Technicolor. trianglemicroworks. doi.0 was released in December 2001. and Texas Instruments. and Videotron's 120 Mbit/s download / 20 .DNP3 162 IEEE Standardisation The IEEE adopted DNP3 as IEEE Std 1815-2010 [1] on the 23rd of July 2010[2] . 2010. Most recently. DOCSIS 2.0 External links • DNP Users Group [5] • Web-based DNP3 Protocol Information and Training [6] • Training on DNP3 Protocol [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / dx. Correlant. dnp.0. dnp.

Most recently.222 (J.122 main body corresponds to DOCSIS 2.2 MHz. while some employ a variant of DOCSIS that uses upstream channels that are based on a 9.1 specifies channel widths between 200 kHz and 3.5 Gbit/s and upload of 150 Mbit/s based on DOCSIS3. J. Note: While ITU-T Recommendation J. Of wired technologies. J. DOCSIS 3.112 Annex B corresponds to DOCSIS/EuroDOCSIS 1.83-AnnexB standard for 6 MHz channel operation. and European CATV systems.DOCSIS Mbit/s upload service in Quebec City [1]. Features DOCSIS provides great variety in options available at Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) layers 1 and 2. while DOCSIS certification testing is executed by CableLabs. DOCSIS 2.0/1. the physical and data link layers.4 MHz.112 [4] Annex B (2001).S. while CMTS equipment receives "qualification".24 MHz used in DOCSIS/EuroDOCSIS) resulting in upstream channel widths that are a power-of-two division of 6 MHz (as opposed to 6. DOCSIS standards have been modified for use in Europe.112). The ITU-T Recommendation J.0 was ratified as ITU-T Recommendation J. customer premises equipment receives "certification". J.0.0. Annex C describes a variant of DOCSIS 1. and J. but can use the earlier. Annex A describes an earlier European cable modem system ("DVB EuroModem") based on ATM transmission standards.112 Annex B (1998). providers to make 100 Mbit/s a standard speed available to 100 million households before the end of the decade [2].0 was ratified as ITU-T Recommendation J. DOCSIS 1.222. North America) or 8 MHz channels ("EuroDOCSIS") for downstream transmission. DOCSIS 2.0 also specifies 6.122 Annex F corresponds to EuroDOCSIS 2.222. These modifications were published under the name "EuroDOCSIS".1 which was ratified as ITU-T Recommendation J. narrower channel widths for backward compatibility. and the DVB-C modulation standard for 8 MHz (EuroDOCSIS) operation. utilizing the ITU-T J. In the upstream. The wider bandwidth in EuroDOCSIS architectures permits more bandwidth to be allocated to the downstream data path (toward the user).1 that is designed to operate in Japanese cable systems.222. International standards The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) has approved the various versions of DOCSIS as international standards.122 [5]. Upstream data uses QPSK or 16-level .4 MHz in DOCSIS/EuroDOCSIS).g.0 [6].1.0 was ratified as ITU-T Recommendation J.S. J. • Modulation: All versions of DOCSIS specify that 64-level or 256-level QAM (64-QAM or 256-QAM) be used for modulation of downstream data.3 [9]). followed closely by existing 107 Mbit/s deployments in the USA.122 Annex J describes the Japanese variant of DOCSIS 2. only DOCSIS.1 [7]. The differences between the bandwidths exist because European cable TV conforms to PAL standards of 8 MHz bandwidth and North American cable TV conforms to ATSC standards which specify 6 MHz.0 (analogous to Annex C of J. but it was superseded by DOCSIS 1.0 [3] 163 Regional variants As frequency allocation bandwidth plans differ between U. E-line (advanced powerline networking with bandwidth equivalent to fiber) and Ethernet in the first mile are likely to achieve this speed on large scale in that time frame. FIOS. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) urged U. DOCSIS 1. EuroDOCSIS certification testing is executed by Belgium company Excentis (formerly known as tComLabs).S. In the UK broadband provider Virgin Media has announced on 20 April 2011 to start trials with download speeds of 1. Typically. The U. Physical layer • Channel width: All versions of DOCSIS utilize either 6 MHz channels (e. Most cable systems in Japan and Colombia utilize the North American version of DOCSIS.222.216 MHz master clock (as opposed to 10.2 [8]. Subsequently.

0 3. DOCSIS 2.0 also support 128-QAM with trellis coded modulation in S-CDMA mode (with an effective spectral efficiency equivalent to that of 64-QAM).0.1 and both TDMA and S-CDMA for DOCSIS 2. 64-QAM for DOCSIS 2.DOCSIS QAM (16-QAM) for DOCSIS 1. • The 'DOCSIS 2. . voice over IP. which enables multiple downstream and upstream channels to be used together at the same time by a single subscriber.4 MHz channel. specifically TDMA for DOCSIS 1.88 (38) Mbit/s m × 42.72 (n × 27) Mbit/s 2. 32-QAM. with a limited use of contention for bandwidth requests.[10] Throughput All of these features combined enable a total upstream throughput of 30. [11] • DOCSIS 3.88 (38) Mbit/s 42.0/1.24 (9) Mbit/s 30.0 cable modems (via a firmware upgrade)[12] [13] 164 Speed tables Maximum raw throughput including overhead (maximum usable throughput without overhead) Version Downstream Channel configuration DOCSIS EuroDOCSIS throughput throughput Upstream Channel configuration Throughput Minimum Minimum Selected Maximum selectable number number number number of channels of of of channels channels channels that hardware must be able to support 1.72 (27) Mbit/s n × 30. • For DOCSIS 1. In contrast to the pure contention-based MAC CSMA/CD employed in older Ethernet systems (there is no contention in switched Ethernet).x 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 m 1 1 No maximum defined 42. and it uses QPSK.0 adds management over IPv6.72 Mbit/s per 6.x.0 Common DOCSIS 3. or 55.62 Mbit/s per 8 MHz channel for EuroDOCSIS.62 (50) Mbit/s m × 55. (see table below) Network layer • DOCSIS modems are managed via an IP address.0 speeds are listed in the table below.24 Mbit/s per 3. 8-QAM.0.0 and 3.0 + IPv6' specification also allows support for IPv6 on DOCSIS 2.1 and above the MAC layer also includes extensive quality-of-service (QoS) features that help to efficiently support applications that have specific traffic requirements such as low latency.62 (50) Mbit/s 55.2 MHz channel.0 features channel bonding.g. All three versions of the DOCSIS standard support a downstream throughput with 256-QAM of up to 42. e.62 (m × 50) Mbit/s Minimum Minimum Selected Maximum selectable number number number number of channels of of of channels channels channels that hardware must be able to support 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 n 1 1 No maximum defined 10. or 10.88 Mbit/s per 6 MHz channel. 16-QAM. Data link layer • DOCSIS employs a mixture of deterministic access methods for upstream transmissions.0 & 3.0 & 3. DOCSIS systems experience few collisions. • DOCSIS 3.88 (m × 38) Mbit/s 55.

there are generally more upstream ports than downstream ports on a CMTS. Thus. Because of the noise in the return (upstream) path. it is typical for the CMTS to have separate F connectors for downstream and for upstream communication.0 is also used over microwave frequencies (10 GHz) in Ireland by Digiweb. the amount of available bandwidth in each direction. e. chances are high that DOCSIS 1. The CPE are connected to the cable modem. by implementing the return path over regular phone lines. This allows flexibility for the cable operator. "plain old telephone service" (POTS). using dedicated wireless links rather than HFC network. A typical CMTS is a device which hosts downstream and upstream ports (it is functionally similar to the DSLAM used in DSL systems). At each subscriber premises the ordinary CM is connected to an antenna box which converts to/from microwave frequencies and transmits/receives on 10 GHz. and connect to a single F connector on the cable modem. the width of the channels selected in the upstream direction. Before a cable company can deploy DOCSIS 1. and a cable modem termination system (CMTS) located at the CATV headend.0 standard still allows use of data over cable system. ).96 (400) Mbit/s 122. Note that the maximum upstream speed on all versions of DOCSIS depends on the version of DOCSIS used and the number of upstream channels used if DOCSIS 3. it must upgrade its Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network to support a return path for upstream traffic.DOCSIS 165 Channel configuration Number of downstream channels 4 8 Number of upstream channels 4 4 Downstream throughput DOCSIS EuroDOCSIS Upstream throughput 171. which is in turn connected through the HFC network to the CMTS.1 or above.88 (108) Mbit/s Note that the number of channels a cable system can support is dependent on how the cable system is set up. and hardware constraints constrain the maximum amount of channels in each direction. While downstream and upstream communications travel on a shared coax line in the customer premises. Using the CMTS.MSO) exercises full control over the cable modem's configuration. Fiber optic lines bring digital signals to nodes in the system where they are converted into RF channels and modem signals on coaxial trunk lines. DOCSIS 2. A typical CMTS has 4 or 6 upstream ports per downstream port.88 (108) Mbit/s 122.g. whereas a downstream port is usually shared across a small number of neighborhoods. an upstream port is usually connected to a single neighborhood (fiber node). Without a return path. Cable systems supporting on-demand programming use a hybrid fiber-coaxial system. but the upstream channel widths are independent of whether DOCSIS or EuroDOCSIS is used. For example.04 (304) Mbit/s 444. . the CM configuration is changed to adjust for varying line conditions and customer service requirements. Equipment A DOCSIS architecture includes two primary components: a cable modem (CM) located at the customer premises.52 (152) Mbit/s 222. Each customer has a dedicated link but the transmitter mast must be in line of sight (most sites are hilltop.0 is used. the old DOCSIS 1. the cable operator (or Multiple Service Operators . The CMTS then routes traffic between the HFC and the Internet.48 (200) Mbit/s 343. If the HFC is already 'two-way' or "interactive".1 or higher can be implemented The customer PC and associated peripherals are termed Customer-premises equipment (CPE).

and end user communication to the network infrastructure is denied. itu. cablelabs. html [12] http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www.0. htm http:/ / seekbroadband. 2 [9] http:/ / www. Security in the DOCSIS network is vastly improved when only business critical communications are permitted. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. org/ 2008-IPv6-Summit-Presentations/ Dan%20Torbet%20-%20IPv6andCablev2. All versions provide for periodic key refreshes (at a period configured by the network operator) in order to increase the level of protection. itu." but did not include valid DOCSIS or EuroDOCSIS root certificates.1 modems which were "software upgradeable in the field. int/ rec/ T-REC-J. 222. dailytech. html [11] http:/ / www. BPI+ strengthened the service protection feature by adding digital certificate based authentication with a public key infrastructure to its Key exchange protocol. 222. and the specification was renamed "Security" (SEC). i. int/ rec/ T-REC-J. 222. cablemodem. itu.1 & 2. int/ rec/ T-REC-J.DOCSIS 166 Security DOCSIS includes MAC layer security services in its Baseline Privacy Interface specifications.. com/ focus/ 2011/ 04/ 20/ ispwatch/ virgin-media-ups-broadband-pace-to-1-5gbps/ http:/ / www. int/ rec/ T-REC-J. com/ news/ pr/ 2006/ 06_pr_docsis30_080706. 112/ en http:/ / www. while SEC adds support for 128-bit AES. Most recently. rmv6tf. 1 [8] http:/ / www.e. BPI was later improved with the release of the Baseline Privacy Interface Plus (BPI+) specification used by DOCSIS 1. 3 [10] http:/ / www. html [13] http:/ / www.0. 222. com/ Videotron+ Launches+ 120Mbps+ Broadband+ Service+ in+ Canada/ article19714. 0/ en http:/ / www. com/ FCC+ US+ Needs+ Faster+ Broadband+ Standards+ Aiming+ for+ 100+ Mbps/ article17708.0 utilized the initial Baseline Privacy Interface (BPI) specification. pdf . itu. cablelabs. BPI & BPI+ utilize 56-bit DES encryption. itu. The earlier BPI specification [ANSI/SCTE 22-2] had limited service protection because the underlying Key management protocol did not authenticate cable modems. com/ specifications/ specifications20. The intent of the BPI/SEC specifications is to describe MAC layer security services for DOCSIS CMTS to CM communications. Successful attacks often occur when the CMTS is configured for backwards compatibility with early pre-standard DOCSIS 1. int/ rec/ T-REC-J. 122/ en http:/ / www. DOCSIS 1. a number of enhancements to the Baseline Privacy Interface were added as part of DOCSIS 3. itu. dailytech. It does this by encrypting data flows between the CMTS and the CM. com/ news/ pr/ 2006/ 06_pr_docsis30_080706. int/ rec/ T-REC-J. BPI/SEC security goals are twofold: • provide cable modem users with data privacy across the cable network • provide cable service operators with service protection. prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to the network’s RF MAC services BPI/SEC is intended to prevent cable users from listening to each other.

html) DOCSIS 3. The simplest channel consists of 1 time slot that is repeated each 125 µs.cablemodem. Dynamic synchronous transfer mode Dynamic synchronous transfer mode (DTM) is an optical networking technology standardized by ETSI in specification ETSI ES 201 803-1. International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking. A channel consisting of N time slots thus have a capacity of N x 512 kbit/s.cablemodem.com/specifications/specifications11. Imrich Chlamtac. it is basically a time-division multiplexing (TDM) system.0 Interface Specification (http://www. mobile TV networks.288254. • DOCSIS Tutorial (http://bradyvolpe. Violet R.[1] It is designed to provide a guaranteed quality of service (QoS) for the emerging class of streaming video services. Introduction Basic principle In DTM.cisco. DREAM (protocol) DREAM is an ad hoc location-based routing protocol. I.e. It has its most use in professional media networks. Thus 512 kbit/s is the "granularity" of bandwidth allocation for a service. What sets it apart from other TDM systems is the capability to assign any number of time slots to a channel. pp.com/specifications/specifications10. in content delivery networks and in consumer oriented networks. The capacity of this one slot channel is then 64 bits / 125 µs = 512 kbit/s.com) Most comprehensive DOCSIS tutorial.cablemodem.html) Cisco documentation on Cable Technologies (http://docwiki. The frame is 125 µs long and contains a number of 64 bit time slots. and also varying this number of slots as user traffic demands. capacity is allocated to a channel by assigning a number of time slots to it.1 Interface Specification (http://www. DREAM stands for Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility. such as "triple play" networks.0 Interface Specification (http://www. The basic argument for this technique is that it provides a guaranteed QoS for a service since resources are physically allocated to the channel and traffic from other channels will have no impact on this channel. ISBN 1-58113-035-X. doi:10.DOCSIS 167 External links • • • • • DOCSIS 1. DTM is a time division multiplexing and a circuit-switching network technology that combines switching and transport. digital terrestrial television (DTT) networks. 76–84. .1145/288235. Woodward (1998). A number of these time slots are associated to form a channel. Syrotiuk.0 Interface Specification (http://www.com/specifications/specifications20. but can be used for packet-based services as well.cablemodem. New York: ACM Press.com/specifications/specifications30.html) DOCSIS 1.html) DOCSIS 2. Stefano. References • "A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM)" in Basagni. The time slots belongs to a "DTM frame" that is structured as follows.com/wiki/Cable_Access_Technologies) Technical information about cable TV and DOCSIS. Thus the number of time slots per frame depends on the link bit-rate. Barry A.

This does not exclude IP traffic which can gain from being served by a guaranteed QoS transport.htm) • Paper from the founder of the Topology (in postscript format) (http://www. DTM is thus a circuit switched system. like ATM and unlike DTM. so. especially if the IP traffic contains video/audio.ihs. Real utilization becomes thus more a question of adapting the network topology and link capacities to the actual traffic matrix than to accommodating for QoS.sics. A DTM channel is thus automatically provisioned end-to-end over a general topology network using control signalling. used in conjunction with forward error correction techniques can provide an appropriate transport mechanism with features similar to that of ATM. for which no QoS level is specified.. In DTM network there is no such shared resource allocation. which sets it apart from ordinary transmission techniques. Streaming traffic is not particularly statistical in its nature and is better served by a fixed resource allocated channel end-to-end. However with the increasing demand for streaming media with tight QoS requirements. in which the packets and cells are competing for resources and as a result of this competition may have packets or cells delayed or discarded. Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode (DTM).e. Recent progress in carrier Ethernet technologies such as Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering has made Ethernet suitable for voice and video transmission with SDH/SONET like properties such as hard QoS. deterministic forwarding and sub 50ms protection switching. Why not packet/cell switching? Packet/cell networks are good (actually were designed) to perform statistical multiplexing. implying that a network theoretically can be loaded to 100% and still have guaranteed QoS for its services. ps) . It is to this kind of streaming media services the DTM technology is typically applied. The switches are generally Time-Space switches that also has the guaranteed QoS property. This makes it possible to utilize the outgoing link to a high degree at the cost of varying delays..1.6 (http://electronics.Dynamic synchronous transfer mode 168 Switching The DTM standard also specfies that DTM channels may be switched. as ATM served as the basis of design for MPLS.se/~peter/papers/DTM-GN. This is a great property for best effort traffic. References [1] ETSI ES 201 803-1 V1.1. Indeed there are under-going efforts for adapting IP and Ethernet technologies for streaming media (see for example professional video over IP). This. Alternately. this paradigm falls short. For packet and cell switches this shared resource allocation mechanism imposes a limit to how high the utilization of a network can be before the QoS get un-acceptably low. MPLS-enabled networks still suffer from greater variances in frame jitter and packet loss under heavy congestion conditions.com/collections/mobile/etsi. applying MPLS technology to the carriage network can provide the reliability and determinism required by video and other streaming media. This as opposed to packet or cell based routers/switches. However. such as SDH or SONET. since resources are physically allocated per channel also in the switch. Part 1: System description External links • IHS web page listing for ETSI ES 201 803. This means that when different packet streams in a switch or router arrives to a common outgoing link they are buffered until there are resources free on this link. i. for video or audio services.

In the first line above. In practice default alphabet is GSM-7. The default alphabet . hex 02) and the end with ^C (ETX. . and the fourth is the operation (here 30. The subsequent fields are dependent on the operation. The protocol was developed by CMG Wireless Data Solutions. with number of window bigger than 100). In practice it does not have any impact on delivery throughput. except few characters (for example '_' underline). the third is the operation type (O for operation. "short message transfer"). Syntax A typical EMI/UCP exchange looks like this : ^B01/00045/O/30/66677789///1//////68656C6C6F/CE^C ^B01/00041/R/30/A//66677789:180594141236/F3^C The start of the packet is signaled by ^B (STX. The second line is the response with a matching transaction reference number. • Computer Interface for Message Distribution (CIMD) developed by Nokia External links • • • • LogicaCMG: Downloads for developers [1] (link no longer active as of 2007-12-24) UCP Specification (Vodafone Germany) [2] A more detailed UCP Specification [3] UCP Perl implementation (for developers) [4] • Kannel [3]. hex 03). an extension to Universal Computer Protocol (UCP). Fields within the packet are separated by / characters. The final field is the checksum. this can limit performance. is a protocol primarily used to connect to short message service centres (SMSCs) for mobile telephones. Technical Limitations The two digit transaction reference number means that an entity sending text messages can only have 100 outstanding messages (per session). R for result). '66677789' is the recipient's address (telephone number) and '68656C6C6F' is the content of the message. The first four fields form the mandatory header.interesting is that in EMI UCP documentation default alphabet is IRA (eq ASCII on 7bit). but registration is required. and a timestamp is suffixed to the phone number to show time of delivery. Alternatives • Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) also provides SMS over TCP/IP. The full specification is available on the LogicaCMG website developers' forum. in this case the ASCII string "hello". Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with UCP/EMI 4. calculated simply by summing all bytes in the packet (including slashes) and taking the 8 least significant bits from the result. which is almost the same as ASCII on 7 bit. where 'A' indicates that the message was successfully acknowledged by the SMSC. but only if you have very slow network and incorrectly configure your application on your SMSC (for example one session. now part of Acision.0 support.EMI (protocol) 169 EMI (protocol) External Machine Interface (EMI).

com/ tcp-ip/ how-encapsulation-works-within-the-tcpip-model [2] http:/ / www. UDP adds application or process selection. In discussions of encapsulation. php?cid=1028& protocol=Encapsulation& title=2. visualland. de/ downloadarea/ EmiSpec_43d. pdf http:/ / search. nowsms. i.EMI (protocol) 170 References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Encapsulation is a characteristic feature of most networking models. vodafone. the more abstract layer is often called the upper layer protocol while the more specific layer is called the lower layer protocol. Link encapsulation allows local area networking and IP provides global addressing of individual computers. including the OSI Model and TCP/IP suite of protocols. Encapsulation sequence of user data in the TCP/IP protocol stack. pdf http:/ / www. logicacmg. respectively. Sometimes. however. External links • How Encapsulation In The TCP/IP Model Works [1] • Animation of router encapsulation and decapsulation [2] References [1] http:/ / learn-networking.. cpan. The physical layer is responsible for physical transmission of the data. encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects. %20Router%20encap& ctype=1 . net/ view. com/ discus/ messages/ 1/ EMI_UCP_Specification_40-8156. the port specifies the service such as a Web or TFTP server. com/ Telecoms/ 350234223 http:/ / www. the terms upper layer protocols and lower layer protocols are used to describe the layers above and below IP. org/ ~nemux/ Encapsulation (networking) In computer networking.e.

the devices that detect the failure send a control message to the master. Each domain has a single "master node" and many "transit nodes". Shared port status is verified using health PDUs exchanged by controller and partner. Under normal operation only the primary port on the master node is used to avoid loops (the secondary port is blocked for all non-control traffic). both known to be able to send control traffic to the master node. the configured Controller will open only one segment port for each of the protected VLANs.ERIPAX 171 ERIPAX ERIPAX (ERICSSON Packet Switching Exchange) is a packet switched network that works with X. "Rapid Ring Protection Protocol"[RRPP] by Huawei/H3C. The next packets sent by the network can then be flooded and learned out of the (now enabled) secondary port without any network disruption. The same switch can belong to multiple domains and thus multiple rings. The concentrators were Ericsson. and the rings will be protected by their respective masters. Operation A ring is formed by configuring a Domain. Other implementations include Ethernet Protection Switching Ring (EPSR[1] ) by Allied Telesis. The idea is to provide highly available Ethernet switched rings (commonly used in Metro Ethernet). Each node will have a primary port and a secondary port. When a shared link goes down. However. Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching (EAPS) is used to create a fault tolerant topology by configuring a primary and secondary path for each VLAN. It was invented by Extreme Networks. and the master will then unblock the secondary port and instruct the transits to flush their databases. these act as independent entities and can be controlled individually.25 protocol and is capable of establishing TCP/IP sessions across it. Fail-over times are demonstrably in the region of 50ms. . it is possible to complete this shared link with non-EAPS (but tag-aware) switches between the Controller and Partner. "ZTE Ethernet Switch Ring" (ZESR) by ZTE. This state is maintained as long as the Controller fails to receive the health PDUs over the (broken) shared link. EAPSv2 works using the concept of a controller and partner mechanism. the masters will see their hello packets. Although not supported by Extreme Networks. When the shared link is restored. EAPS v2 EAPSv2 is configured and enabled to avoid the potential of super-loops in environments where multiple EAPS domains share a common link. When there is a link down situation. the Controller can then unblock its ports. keeping all other segment ports in a blocking state.

2. alliedtelesis. • A 1000-Mbit/s (or 1 GigE) Ethernet link is often transported over a VC-3-21v or a VC-4-7v which allows the full bandwidth to be carried for all packets. com/ media/ datasheets/ howto/ config_epsr_sd_a. Up to 256 VC-3 or VC-4 paths can be concatenated together to form a single larger virtually concatenated group. the traffic is processed in the reverse fashion: virtual concatenation path processing to recreate the original synchronous byte stream." ETRI Journal. vol. The same functions are available using SONET (a predominantly North American standard). The bandwidths possible are shown in the table below: . pdf) • Kwang-Koog Lee. and Jeong-dong Ryoo.5. "An Ethernet Ring Protection Method to Minimize Transient Traffic by Selective FDB Advertisement. VC-12 or VC-11 paths.kr/Cyber/Download/ PublishedPaper/3202/etrij. 2009.apr2010.32. pp. no.1342 (http://www. Ethernet frames which are to be sent on the SDH link are sent through an "encapsulation" block (typically Generic Framing Procedure or GFP) to create a synchronous stream of data from the asynchronous Ethernet packets. As this is byte interleaved.184-194 (http://etrij. it provides a better level of security compared to other mechanisms for Ethernet transport. not full 100Mb." ETRI Journal.re.0184. Jeong-dong Ryoo. After traversing SDH paths. where <pathType> is VC-4. The SDH paths may be VC-4. no. • A 100-Mbit/s Ethernet link is often transported over a VC-3-2v which allows the full bandwidth to be carried when smaller packets are used (< 250 bytes) and Ethernet flow control restricts the rate of traffic for larger packets. A virtually concatenated group is typically referred to by the notation <pathType>-<X>v. VC-3.etri.631-633 (http:// etrij.pdf) External links • RFC 3619 (EAPS) • ITU-T G.int/rec/T-REC-G. Apr. Up to 64 VC-11 or VC-12 paths can be concatenated together to form a single larger virtually concatenated group. followed by decapsulation to converting the synchronous data stream to an asynchronous stream of Ethernet frames. pp.Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching 172 References [1] How to configure EPSR (http:/ / www.re. But does only give ca.8031-200606-P/en) (Dead Link) Ethernet over SDH Ethernet Over SDH (EoS or EoSDH) or Ethernet over SONET refers to a set of protocols which allow Ethernet traffic to be carried over synchronous digital hierarchy networks in an efficient and flexible way. and Seungwook Min. Oct. "Flush Optimizations to Guarantee Less Transient Traffic in Ethernet Ring Protection.itu. VC-12 or VC-11 and X is the number of members in the group. 2010.etri.8031/Y. The paths within a group are referred to as "members". vol. VC-3. • A 10-Mbit/s Ethernet link is often transported over a VC-12-5v which allows the full bandwidth to be carried for all packet sizes. 97Mbit/s.kr/Cyber/servlet/BrowseAbstract?vol=31&num=5&pg=631) • Kwang-Koog Lee. The synchronous stream of encapsulated data is then passed through a mapping block which typically uses virtual concatenation (VCAT) to route the stream of bits over one or more SDH paths.31.

a.Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2 References [1] http:/ / www.76 (X = 1 to 256) EoS also drops the "idle" packets of the Ethernet frame before encapsulating the Ethernet frame to GFP. with an expectation of low Frame Delay. doc .3x Pause frames. 1.1 [4] DOC (1720 KiB) .Metro Ethernet Services Definitions Phase I • MEF 10. all service frames at the UNI are mapped to a single EVC (a.5-Xv SPE VT-2-Xv SPE STS-1-Xv SPE STS-3c-Xv SPE Type Low Order Low Order Low Order High Order High Order Payload Capacity (Mbit/s) X x 1.600 (X = 1 to 64) X x 2. which is recreated at the other end during decapsulation process. org/ PDF_Documents/ metro-ethernet-services. called link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS). providing a point-to-point Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC) between a pair of dedicated User–network interfaces (UNIs).e. org/ pdfs/ standards/ mef10. where the Service Frame’s header and payload are identical at both the source and destination UNI. pdf [2] http:/ / metroethernetforum. EPL is often used to provide point-to-point Transparent LAN Service (TLS). External links • Metro Ethernet Services . Frame Delay Variation and Frame Loss Ratio. metroethernetforum.384 (X = 1 to 256) X x 149.. Some implementations tunnel most Ethernet Layer 2 Control Protocols (L2CPs) except for some link layer L2CPs such as IEEE 802.A Technical Overview [1] PDF • Carrier Ethernet Services overview [2] PPT (1742 KiB) • MEF 6 [3] DOC (472 KiB) . All-to-one bundling).384 (X = 1 to 256) X x 48. with a high degree of transparency. An additional protocol.176 (X = 1 to 64) X x 48. ppt [3] http:/ / metroethernetforum. i. EPL service is categorized as an E-Line service type. org/ pdfs/ standards/ mef6. doc [4] http:/ / metroethernetforum. EPL is implemented using a point-to-point (EVC) with no Service Multiplexing at each UNI (physical interface). Ethernet Private Line Ethernet Private Line (EPL) is a data service defined by the Metro Ethernet Forum.Ethernet over SDH 173 Container (SDH) VC-11-Xv VC-12-Xv VC-3-Xv VC-3-Xv VC-4-Xv Container (SONET) VT-1. org/ PPT_Documents/ Carrier_Ethernet_Services_Overview. Due to a high degree of transparency. allows the two endpoints of the SDH paths to negotiate which paths are working and can carry traffic versus which paths should not be used to carry traffic.k. Hence this provide a better throughput compared to native Ethernet transport.

The single ring can extend the maximum distance. The other difference between the EVPL and EPL is the degree of transparency . providing a point-to-point Ethernet connection between a pair of User–network interfaces (UNIs). adds the capability to add circuit-switched service to the network so that it can also handle voice and video signals. counter-rotating token ring topology and a Single-Attached Station (SAS). .352 bytes) than standard 100 Mbit/s Ethernet which only supports a maximum-frame size of 1. one as a secondary backup in case the primary ring fails. extending capacity to 200 Mbit/s. and ubiquity. via a point-to-point Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC). a version of FDDI. since 1998. very similar to a Ethernet Private Line (EPL) service. but at a much lower cost and. In addition to covering large geographical areas.5 token ring protocol as its basis. i.Ethernet Virtual Private Line 174 Ethernet Virtual Private Line Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) is a data service defined by the Metro Ethernet Forum. allowing better throughput. a dual ring can extend 100 km (62 miles). Although FDDI logical topology is a ring-based token network. Dual-attach FDDI Board FDDI was considered an attractive campus backbone technology in the early to mid 1990s since existing Ethernet networks only offered 10 Mbit/s transfer speeds and Token Ring networks only offered 4 Mbit/s or 16 Mbit/s speeds. FDDI local area networks can support thousands of users. filtering only the Pause frames.5 (now X3T12). token bus passing ring topology.4 token bus timed token protocol. As a standard underlying medium it uses optical fiber..Metro Ethernet Services Definitions Phase I • MEF 10. its protocol is derived from the IEEE 802. EVPL service is specified using an E-Line service type. Work has started to connect FDDI networks to the developing Synchronous Optical Network SONET. unlike EPL.1 [4] DOC (1720 KiB) . However. A FDDI network contains two rings. although it can use copper cable. but FDDI has since been effectively obsolesced by fast Ethernet which offered the same 100 Mbit/s speeds. conforms to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of functional layering of LANs using other protocols. FDDI offers both a Dual-Attached Station (DAS). FDDI. it can also carry data. in which case it may be referred to as CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface). and even lower cost. multiple EVCs or Ethernet services per UNI.Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2 Fiber Distributed Data Interface Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) provides a 100 Mbit/s optical standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles). by Gigabit Ethernet due to its speed. FDDI-II. External links • Carrier Ethernet Services overview [2] [3] PPT (1742 KiB) • MEF 6 DOC (472 KiB) . FDDI has a larger maximum-frame size (4.e. as a product of American National Standards Institute X3T9.500 bytes. When a network has no requirement for the secondary ring to do backup. EVPL allows for Service Multiplexing. it does not use the IEEE 802. EVPL is required to either peer or drop most of the Layer 2 Control Protocols. instead. The primary ring offers up to 100 Mbit/s capacity. Thus it was the preferred choice of that era for a high-speed backbone.while EPL is highly transparent.

Typically. but network engineers consider these unreliable and error-prone. As an alternative to using a dual-attached connection. Devices such as workstations and minicomputers that might not come under the control of the network managers are not suitable for connection to the dual ring.229-1994. One of the connections becomes active while the other one is automatically blocked. which is licensed under the GFDL. . a computer-room contains the whole dual ring. 175 Mitigating failure FDDI requires this network topology because the dual ring actually passes through each connected device and requires each such device to remain continuously operational. If the first connection fails. Physical Layer Protocol (PHY) — also ISO 9314-1 ANSI X3. A small number of devices (typically infrastructure devices such as routers and concentrators rather than host computers) connect to both rings . Station Management (SMT) — also ISO 9314-6 References •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration. The standard actually allows for optical bypasses. the backup link takes over with no perceptible delay. • This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. Media Access Control (MAC) — also ISO 9314-2 ANSI X3. Host computers then connect as single-attached devices to the routers or concentrators. Single Mode Fiber Physical Medium Dependent (SMF-PMD) — also ISO 9314-4 ANSI X3. although some implementations have deployed FDDI as a Metropolitan area network.hence the term "dual-attached". Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) — also ISO 9314-3 ANSI X3.148-1988.Fiber Distributed Data Interface Designers normally construct FDDI rings in the form of a "dual ring of trees" (see network topology). a workstation can obtain the same degree of resilience through a dual-homed connection made simultaneously to two separate devices in the same FDDI ring. Standards FDDI standards include: • • • • • ANSI X3.139-1987.184-1993. The dual ring in its most degenerate form simply collapses into a single device.166-1989.

CNAs have one or more physical Ethernet ports. FCoE was meant to integrate with existing Fibre Channel networks and management software. unlike Fibre Channel. in contrast to iSCSI which runs on top of TCP and IP. however FCoE CNAs offload (from the CPU) the low level frame processing and SCSI protocol functions traditionally performed by Fibre Channel host bus adapters. is part of the International Committee for Information Technology Standards T11 FC-BB-5 standard. Since classical Ethernet had no priority-based flow control. FCoE encapsulation can be done in software with a conventional Ethernet network interface card.Fibre Channel over Ethernet 176 Fibre Channel over Ethernet Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is an encapsulation of Fibre Channel frames over Ethernet networks. Computers connect to FCoE with Converged Network Adapters (CNAs). FCoE operates directly above Ethernet in the network protocol stack.[1] Functionality FCoE maps Fibre Channel directly over Ethernet while being independent of the Ethernet forwarding scheme. This allows Fibre Channel to use 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks (or higher speeds) while preserving the Fibre Channel protocol. which contain both Fibre Channel Host Bus Adapter (HBA) and Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) functionality on the same adapter card. • Extensions to the Ethernet protocol itself to enable an Ethernet fabric in which frames are not routinely lost during periods of congestion. FCoE is not routable at the IP layer. and will not work across routed IP networks. As a consequence. With FCoE. By retaining the native Fibre Channel constructs. Many data centers use Ethernet for TCP/IP networks and Fibre Channel for storage area networks (SANs). supported by a large number of network and storage vendors. alongside Combined storage and local area network traditional Internet Protocol (IP) traffic. • Mapping between Fibre Channel N_port IDs (aka FCIDs) and Ethernet MAC addresses. The FCoE protocol specification replaces the FC0 and FC1 layers [2] of the Fibre Channel stack with Ethernet. FCoE requires enhancements to the Ethernet standard to support a priority-based flow control mechanism (this prevents frame loss). The specification. The IEEE standards body is working on this in the Data Center Bridging Task Group. Fibre Channel becomes another network protocol running on Ethernet. Fibre Channel required three primary extensions to deliver the capabilities of Fibre Channel over Ethernet networks: • Encapsulation of native Fibre Channel frames into Ethernet Frames. "Converged" network adapter .

Its main goal is to discover and initialize FCoE capable entities connected to an Ethernet cloud. The SOF (start of frame) and EOF (end of frame) are encoded as specified in RFC 3643. Retrieved May 5. June 4. any new technology had a hard time getting established. . Retrieved May 5. 2011. cisco.Fibre Channel over Ethernet 177 Application The main application of FCoE is in data center storage area networks (SANs). which announced a switch in April 2008. FIP uses a dedicated Ethertype of 0x8914. [2] http:/ / en. enterprisestorageforum. 2008. Enterprise Storage Forum. .Fibre Channel .[3] An early implementor was Nuova Systems. html). ANSI/INCITS 462-2010. 2011. com/ standards/ INCITS/ 462_2010?product_id=1724386).Backbone . Retrieved May 5. American National Standard for Information Technology International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Group T11.[6] After the Late-2000s financial crisis.5 revision 2. April 8. Press release (Cisco Systems). 2010. wikipedia.[7] [8] References [1] "Fibre Channel: Backbone . as well as in server virtualization applications. t11. org/ ftp/ t11/ pub/ fc/ bb-5/ 09-056v5. Official standard. a subsidiary of Cisco Systems. [5] "Cisco Announces Intent to Acquire Remaining Interest in Nuova Systems" (http:/ / newsroom. [4] Paul Shread (April 10. the frame header is retained so as to allow connecting to a storage network by passing on the Fibre Channel frame directly after de-encapsulation. 2009. techstreet. com/ dlls/ 2008/ prod_040808b. .00" (http:/ / www. htm). The FIP (FCoE Initialization Protocol) is an integral part of FCoE. 0x8906.[1] The FC-BB-5 standard was published in May 2010 as ANSI/INCITS 462-2010. This consolidation can: • reduce the number of network interface cards required to connect to disparate storage and IP networks • reduce the number of cables and switches • reduce power and cooling costs Frame Format FCoE is encapsulated over Ethernet with the use of a dedicated Ethertype. . 2008). Reserved bits are present to guarantee that the FCoE frame meets the minimum length requirement of Ethernet. With FCoE. "Cisco Buys Nuova as FCoE Heats Up" (http:/ / www. php/ 3739991/ Cisco-Buys-Nuova-as-FCoE-Heats-Up. . 2011. network (IP) and storage (SAN) data traffic can be consolidated using a single network. May 13. which often require many physical I/O connections per server. A single 4-bit field (version) satisfies the IEEE sub-type requirements. Inside the encapsulated Fibre Channel frame.5 (FC-BB-5)" (http:/ / www. FCoE has particular application in data centers due to the cabling reduction it makes possible. The FCoE technology was defined as part of the INCITS T11 FC-BB-5 standard that was forwarded to ANSI for publication in June 2009. FCoE Frame Format Timeline The FCoE standardization activity started in April 2007. however. org/ wiki/ Fibre_Channel_Protocol#Layers [3] "Information technology . pdf) (PDF). InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (formerly NCITS).[4] [5] Brocade Communications Systems also announced support in 2008. com/ ipstorage/ news/ article.

2011). "FCoE Gets Lost in Vendor Stupidity" (http:/ / www. com/ article. enterprisestorageforum. FC. php/ 3929431). 2009). FCoE. Retrieved May 5. Brocade See One Big Happy Fabric" (http:/ / www. 2011. Financial Information eXchange The Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol is an electronic communications protocol initiated in 1992 for international real-time exchange of information related to the securities transactions and markets. Enterprise Storage Forum. Youtube video. as well as continuing to expand into foreign exchange. With trillions of dollars traded annually on the NASDAQ alone. [7] Drew Robb (March 29. [8] Henry Newman (April 25. fixed income and derivatives markets. . php/ 3735351). 2011. 2011.com/ watch?v=EZWaOda8mVY). com/ features/ article. • Jon Tate (March 18. History The FIX Protocol specification was originally authored in 1992 by Chris Morstatt and Robert "Bob" Lamoureux to enable electronic communication of equity trading data between Fidelity Investments and Salomon Brothers. Enterprise Storage Forum.redbooks. enterprisestorageforum.[1] .org/fcoe) Free Windows FCoE implementation (http://www.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp4493.org/) (Linux standard. includes iSCSI.com/ fcoe-fibrechannel-over-ethernet-initiator) • A site that tracks FCoE development (http://www. financial service entities are investing heavily in optimizing electronic trading and employing Direct Market Access (DMA) to increase their speed to financial markets. . and is expanding into the post-trade space to support Straight Through Processing.org/) Project's homepage (http://www. . "An Introduction to Fibre Channel over Ethernet.open-fcoe. FIX has become the de facto messaging standard for pre-trade and trade communication in the global equity markets. php/ 3931681/ FCoE-Gets-Lost-in-Vendor-Stupidity. Retrieved May 5. Retrieved May 5. Managing the delivery of trading applications and keeping latency low increasingly requires an understanding of the FIX protocol. "FCoE Struggles to Gain Traction" (http:/ / www. htm). "Intro to FCoE video" (http://www. 2011).linux-iscsi. 2011. enterprisestorageforum.t11. Enterprise Storage Forum.ibm. "Cisco. EMC Corporation. 2008).starwindsoftware.Fibre Channel over Ethernet [6] Dave Rowell (March 19. Retrieved May 5.pdf). 178 External links • • • • LIO Unified Target (http://www.youtube.com/) • Join Stuart Miniman (December 15. 2008). com/ sans/ features/ article. IB) Implementation for the Linux operating system (http://www.fcoe. Retrieved May 5. 2011. and Fibre Channel over Convergence Enhanced Ethernet" (http://www.

Financial Information eXchange 179 FIX Protocol Limited FIX Protocol. FIX Message Checksum. It maintains the specification. investment banks. MsgType).5. Ltd [2]. 10=002).1.4. bond. derivatives and FX-transactions are also possible. 49 (SenderCompID). an open source FIX implementation) Body Order / Trade Details Info Trailer Security Check thru Signature and CheckSum. The body of the message is entirely dependent on the message type defined in the header (TAG 35. in every market. The last field of the message is TAG 10. Although it is mainly used for equity transactions in the front office area. 35 (MsgType). Up to FIX. 9 (BodyLength). Header+Body+Trailer : FIX Content Example of a FIX message : Execution Report (Pipe character is used to represent SOH character) 8=FIX. From FIXT. 9 (BodyLength). They are composed of a header. today. while keeping it in the public domain. is extending FIX into block-trade allocation and other phases of the trading process. the header contained three fields: 8 (BeginString). a body.2 | 9=178 | 35=8 | 49=PHLX | 56=PERS | 52=20071123-05:30:00.000 | 11=ATOMNOCCC9990900 | 20=3 | 150=E | 39=E | 55=MSFT | 167=CS | 54=1 | 38=15 | 40=2 | 44=15 | 58=PHLX EQUITY TESTING | 59=0 | 47=C | 32=0 | 31=0 | 151=15 | 14=0 | 6=0 | 10=128 | (In the above FIXMessage Body length 9 is correct and checksum 10 was checked out by using the source available from QuickFIX. the membership of FIX Protocol Ltd. and 35 (MsgType) tags. Users FIX is widely used by both the buy side (institutions) as well as the sell side (brokers/dealers) of the financial markets. the header contains five mandatory fields and one optional field: 8 (BeginString). It is always expressed as a three digit number (e.1 / FIX. 56 (TargetCompID) and 1128 (ApplVerID . FIX is the standard for front office messaging. Among its users are mutual funds. is the company established for the purpose of ownership and maintenance of the specification. See FIX Protocol Organization [3] for an extensive list of major FIX users. stock exchanges and ECNs.if present must be in 6th position). FIX has become the standard electronic protocol for pre-trade communications and trade execution. brokers.4.4. for virtually every asset class. One could say that whereas SWIFT is the standard for back office messaging. FIX message format layout The message fields are delimited using the ASCII 01 <start of header> character. However. and a trailer.0. .g.

The values may be in plain text or encoded as pure binary (in which case the value is preceded by a length field). SOH separators do count in the body length. to be used for FIX message transport other than traditional FIX over TCP.Financial Information eXchange 180 Technical specification The FIX protocol is a technical specification for electronic communication of trade-related messages. a string that identifies the security. FIX is more popular than FIXML in Securities Trading because FIXML messages are much larger in size due to XML tags. Fields must remain within the correct section and within each section the position may be important as fields can act as delimiters that stop one message from running into the next .the final field in any FIX message is TAG 10 (checksum). Transport Independence also paves the way for different transport protocols like Message Queues. The TAG is a string representation of an integer that indicates the meaning of the field.1 and higher). FIX messages are formed from a number of fields.1. Body length The Body length is the byte count starting at tag 35 (included) all the way to tag 10 (excluded). The application messages deal with the sending and receiving of trade-related information such as an order request or information on the current state and subsequent execution of that order. The FIX protocol also defines sets of fields that make a particular message. The FIX protocol defines meanings for most TAGs. each field is a tag value pairing that is separated from the next field by a delimiter SOH (0x01).g. TAG 48 is securityID. Latest developments in FIX protocol The latest version of FIX Protocol implements "Transport Independence" by permitting multiple versions of application messages to be carried over a single version of Transport Independent FIX Session (FIXT. FIX now supports Algorithmic Trading by use of FIX Algorithmic Trading Definition Language FIXatdl . an integer that indicates the identifier class being used). The message is broken into three distinct sections: the head. however repeating groups are preceded by a count and encrypted fields are preceded by their length. It is a self-describing protocol in many ways similar to other self-describing protocols such as the newer XML. There are two main groups of messages . For Example: (Pipe character is used to represent SOH character) 8=FIX. The ordering of fields within the message is generally unimportant. within the set of fields some will be mandatory and others optional. body and tail.4. Web Services etc. The admin messages handle the basics of a FIX session. FIX Session is layered on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).2|9=65|35=A|49=SERVER|56=CLIENT|34=177|52=20090107-18:15:16|98=0|108=30|10=062| Has a Body length of 65 with the following breakdown. XML representation of Business content of FIX messages is known as FIXML but FIXML is not widely deployed. The value is an array of bytes that hold a specific meaning for the particular TAG (e. but leaves a range of TAGs reserved for private use between consenting parties. TAG 22 is IDSource. They allow for a session to be started and terminated and for recovery of missed messages.admin and application. length(tag#) 5(35) + 10(49) + 10(56) + 7(34) + 21(52) + 5(98) + 7(108) The SOH delimiter at the end of a Tag=Value belongs to the Tag Checksum The checksum algorithm of FIX consists of summing up the decimal value of the ASCII representation all the bytes up to the checksum field (which is last) and return the value modulo 256.

1/msgs_by_msg_type.com/fixopaedia/fixdic44/) 5.com/fixopaedia/fixdic40/) 4.1 (http:// onixs. FIX Protocol Organization (http://www.fixprotocol.biz/fixdictionary/4. 4. .fixprotocol.2 (http://onixs.4 (http://www.org/specifications/fix4.org/specifications/fix4. FIXForge FIX Dictionary: 4.2 (http://b2bits. 2009. [2] http:/ / fixprotocol.3 (http://b2bits.this official FIX website also includes a comprehensive list of closed-source and open-source FIX implementations (http://www. June 8. fixprotocol.1 (http:// b2bits.0fiximate/) 4. 2fiximate/) 4. FIXimate FIX Dictionary 4.com/fixopaedia/fixdic43/) 4. shtml).fixprotocol. org/specifications/fix4.1 (http://b2bits.0 (http://onixs.2/ .com/fixopaedia/fixdic50/) FIXT 1.fixprotocol.0 (http://www.com/fixopaedia/ fixdic41/) 4.4 (http://b2bits.4fiximate/) 3. FIXopaedia FIX Dictionary 4.2 (http://www. fixprotocol. FAST is used for sending Multicast market data 181 Diagrammatic representation of FIX system Notes [1] "What is FIX?" (http:/ / www.org/) .fixprotocol. Contains much of the FIX specification. FIXwiki (http://fixwiki. org/ adopters/ External links 1.0/msgs_by_msg_type.1 (http://www.org/specifications/fix4. fixprotocol.fixprotocol.3 (http://www. org/ what-is-fix. org [3] http:/ / www.Financial Information eXchange FIX Protocol Limited has released FAST protocol which stands for FIX Adapted for Streaming.org/specifications/fix4. 2.org/ products/).a Wiki dedicated to FIX.com/fixopaedia/fixdict11/) 5.1fiximate/) 4.biz/fixdictionary/4.org/) .0 (http://b2bits.3fiximate/) 4.biz/fixdictionary/4.html) 4.com/fixopaedia/fixdic42/) 4.html) 4.0 (http://b2bits.

3/msgs_by_name.Free FIX engine and Java object model 182 FINS FINS is a network protocol used by Omron PLCs. etc.biz/fixdictionary/4. The data blocks contain 256. Each frame contains a sync followed by 10 data blocks.an open-source FIX engine implemented in C++ 7.. this is a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 bits per second.3 (http://onixs.html) 4. A BCH type ECC is used to improve the integrity of the data.a 100% Java implementation of the C++ QuickFIX engine 8.org) .marvisan. .quickfixj.4/msgs_by_name.quickfixengine. HadesFIX (http://www. The standard has been designed to allow the pager's receiver to be turned off for a high percentage of the time and therefore save on battery usage. ValidFIX (http://www.html) 5. FLEX (protocol) FLEX is a communications protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. QuickFIX (http://www.4 (http://onixs.com) .jsp) 9. SES.transacttools.com/index.biz/ fixdictionary/4. At 3200/4.validfix.php?page=free_fix_engine) .biz/fixdictionary/5.html) 6. but a related protocol called ReFLEX provides two-way messaging.Free web-based services to analyze any FIX message.Financial Information eXchange msgs_by_name. Security Since data transmission over FLEX is unencrypted and insecure. 3200/4. news organizations. 3200 or 6400 bits per second respectively.0/msgs_by_msg_type.html) 4.). All modes use FSK modulation. QuickFIX/J (http://www.0 (http://onixs.ullink. 512 or 1024 bits for 1600. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 symbols per second. At 3200/2. The traffic on this network can be monitored via several websites. transmitting private information over it should be done with caution. 3200/2. Data is transmitted in a set of 128 frames that takes 4 minutes to complete. In The Netherlands the emergency services use the Flex-protocol in the nationwide P2000 network for pagers. 10. FLEX provides one-way communication only (from the provider to the pager device).com/) . this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 symbols per second or 6400 bits per second. At 1600/2 this is on a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 bits per second. At 6400/4. There have been reported instances of individuals actively listening to pager traffic (private investigators.a free FIX engine 12. DeviceNet and RS-232C.NET open-source FIX engine implemented in C# 11. UL FIX (http://www. or 6400/4.org) . In South Australia the State's SAGRN network for the Emergency Services paging system (CFS. Controller Link. Transmission of message data occurs in one of four modes: 1600/2. VersaFix (http://sourceforge. Each 4 level symbol represents two bits for a bit rate of 3200 bits per second. MFS and SAAS) is run on the FLEX 1600 protocol. Transact Tools Data Dictionary (http://www.net/projects/versafix/) .net/ttportal/datadict/browser. over different physical networks like Ethernet. and can be monitored through several websites.

the world's first production vehicle to fully utilize the FlexRay system. the consortium disbanded. At the end of 2009. there were 28 premium associate members and more than 60 associate members. net/ FLEX_Technologies. Full use of FlexRay was introduced in 2008 in the new BMW 7 Series (F01). html FlexRay FlexRay is an automotive network communications protocol developed by the FlexRay Consortium [1]. Features FlexRay's prominent features are: • • • • • High data rates (up to 20 Mbit/s) Time. The FlexRay consortium disbanded in 2009. but is also more expensive. Vehicles • • • • • Audi A8[2] Bentley Mulsanne BMW X5 BMW 7-Series BMW 5 Series Gran Turismo . By September 2009.FLEX (protocol) 183 External links • FLEX Technology: Paging Protocol [1] References [1] http:/ / www. but the specifications are still available for download at the FlexRay website. nettwerked. It is designed to be faster and more reliable than CAN and TTP. Where used The first series production vehicle with FlexRay was at the end of 2006 in the BMW X5. enabling a new and fast adaptive damping system.and event-triggered behavior Redundancy Fault-tolerance Deterministic Consortium The FlexRay Consortium was made up of the following core members: • • • • • • • BMW Volkswagen Daimler AG General Motors Robert Bosch GmbH NXP Semiconductors Freescale There were also Premium Associate and Associate members of FlexRay consortium.

only one ECU writes to the bus.bit 0 • Frame Start Signal (FSS) .bit 1 • times: • Byte Start Signal 0 (BSS0) . and during transmission the clock is synchronized more than once every 300 cycles). and the clock is synchronized frequently enough for the drift to be small. packed . The clocks are resynchronized frequently enough to assure that this causes no problems. and uses the majority of the last 5 samples as the input signal.bit 1 . so the difference between the slowest and the fastest clock in the system is no greater than 0.15% from the reference clock. Bits on the bus 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Correct averaging in case of no errors.3%. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Errors near the middle of 8-cycle region are canceled. Frame All the communication is sent in the form of frames. Sampled bits The value of the bit is sampled in the middle of the 8-bit region. The errors are moved to the extreme cycles. but will not affect cycles in the middle of the 8-cycle region. At each time. if ECU-s is a sender and ECU-r is a receiver. The signal is merely delayed by 2 cycles. This means that. Each bit to be sent is held on the bus for 8 sample clock cycles. or ECUs). The message consists of bytes in the following way: • Transmission Start Signal (TSS) . The receiver keeps a buffer of the last 5 samples. 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Errors near the boundary of 8-cycle region may affect the boundary bit. The clock drift must be no more than 0.FlexRay • BMW 5-Series • Rolls-Royce Ghost 184 Details Clock FlexRay system consists of a bus and processors (Electronic control unit. Single-cycle transmission errors may affect results near the boundary of the bits. Each ECU has an independent clock. then for every 300 cycles of the sender there will be between 299 and 301 cycles of the receiver. (Drift is smaller than 1 cycle per 300 cycles.

The green cells are sampling points. FES and TES . so receiver missed one cycle (marked X). the bus is held in state 1 (high voltage). the communication was received correctly. Despite so many errors. small transmission errors during synchronization that affect the boundary bits may skew the synchronization no more than 1 cycle. As there are at most 88 cycles between synchronization (BSS1. 8 bits of the last byte.bit 0 • 0-th bit of i-th byte • 1-st bit of i-th byte • 2-nd bit of i-th byte • . Also note that BSS0 has value 1. and the clock drift is no larger than 1 per 300 cycles.bit 0 • Transmission End Signal (TES) .FlexRay • Byte Start Signal 1 (BSS1) . and BSS1 has value 0. As synchronization is done on the voted signal. Here's an example of a particularly bad case . 185 Clock synchronization Clocks are resynchronized when the voted signal changes from 1 to 0. a lost cycle due to clock drift and error in transmission. So the clock is synchronized when the transmission starts and between BSS0 and BSS1.. The receiver knows when the message is complete by checking whether BSS0 (1) or FES (0) was received.. This will not happen again before the next synchronization due to limits on maximum allowable clock drift. 16 for BSS0 and BSS1 and 64 for its bits. • 7-th bit of i-th byte • Frame End Signal (FES) .11 bits of 8 cycles each). if the receiver was in either idle state or expecting BSS1. • Because of a single-bit error during transmission. All except the first are synchronized by the 1->0 edge in the transmission fragment shown. So in the worst case the two middle bits are correct. so every receiver knows that the communication started when the voltage drops to 0. Errors that happened in the example • Because of a single-bit error during synchronization. the synchronization was delayed by 1 cycle • Receiver clock was slower than sender clock. Each byte takes 80 cycles to transfer. and thus the sampled value is correct. Small transmission errors during the receiving may affect only the boundary bits. a bit was voted wrongly near the result. the drift may skew the clock no more than 1 cycle.error during synchronization. Signal to be sent Signal sent On the bus 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 X 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Received 5-maj voted . Note that 8-cycle per bit has nothing to do with bytes.bit 1 If nothing is being communicated.

OpenSource implementation of FMIPv6 for GNU/Linux References [1] http:/ / www.FlexRay 186 Development tools When developing and/or troubleshooting the FlexRay bus. . decode. html). analyze. External links • FlexRay (http://www. fmipv6.org [1] . Retrieved 18 February 2010.com/shop/index. examination of hardware signals can be very important. com/ audi/ a8/ 2011/ 2011-audi-a8-4-2-fsi-first-drive. store signals so people can view the high-speed waveforms at their leisure. org .com) FlexRay Consortium • FlexRay Starter Kit (http://duxsolutions. External links • RFC 4068 .de/) Samtec FlexRay product FMIPv6 Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 is described in IETF RFC 4068. References [1] http:/ / www.Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 • fmipv6.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=1& products_id=1) Low cost FlexRay Starter Kit with the BOSCH E-Ray controller from DuxSolutions • FlexRay Overview (http://zone. com [2] "2011 Audi A8 4. flexray.2 FSI First Drive" (http:/ / www. insideline.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/3352) Technical Overview of FlexRay by National Instruments • Flexray Products (http://www. Logic analyzers and bus analyzers are tools which collect.ni.flexray.samtec.

or full-circle reverse DNS. A FCrDNS verification can also establish that the network owner and the domain owner both have at least a very basic understanding of the RFCs and can correctly configure things. First a reverse DNS lookup (PTR query) is performed on the IP address.com" --> returns A-record=192. zombie computers infected with spambots will not be able to fake the reverse DNS to make it match. but correlation does not imply causation and many network owners simply can not configure the rDNS because their upstream providers either can't or won't delegate the rDNS. underwritten and justified by supporting RFCs.4 (1 result) Matches original IP address. That is. . While weak. Example: DNS query type PTR on 192. is a situation where a given IP address has forward (name-to-address) and reverse (address-to-name) DNS entries that match each other. It is considered good practice in general that all rDNS should be forward confirmed. especially section 2. and if there is a match. this authentication is strong enough that it can be used for whitelisting purposes because spammers and phishers can not usually by-pass this verification when they use zombie computers to forge the domains.example. "Make sure your PTR and A records match." Those ISPs that will not or cannot configure reverse DNS will generate problems for hosts on their networks.2. Missing or Bad Data". a regular 'forward' DNS lookup (type A query) is then performed on that domain name. and thus this check is very effective in controlling spam. The process of checking this is as follows (outlined in RFC 1912.com" (1 result) DNS query type A on "hostname. Any A or AAAA record returned by the query is then compared against the original IP address. then the FCrDNS check passes.. There is a statistical correlation between machines that send spam and machines that fail FCrDNS checks. 2. under the heading "Inconsistent. by virtue of RFCs being contravened when communicating with hosts that do follow the RFC guidelines. For each domain name returned in the PTR query results. However. which returns a list of zero or more PTR records.2. ISPs that cannot or will not provide reverse DNS ultimately will be limiting the ability of their client base to use internet services they provide effectively and securely. Common DNS misconfigurations are outlined in RFC 1912. The main reason behind the correlation between spamming machines and failing FCrDNS is that it generally cannot be faked or overridden by a spambot infested machine.0.4 --> returns PTR-record="hostname. From a technical perspective reverse DNS is trivial to implement correctly and there is no reason not to implement it for hosts providing regular internet services. they have followed the instructions in RFC 1033 on "Adding a host". 3. or forward-confirmed reverse DNS.example.0.1 that states.Forward-confirmed reverse DNS 187 Forward-confirmed reverse DNS FCrDNS. therefore check passes Network verity A FCrDNS verification can create a weak form of authentication that there is a valid relationship between the owner of a domain name and the owner of the network that has been given an IP address. This is especially true for the IP addresses used by email servers to help prevent outgoing email from being wrongly rejected as spam.1): 1. of particular note is section 2.

junkemailfilter. org/ html/ draft-ietf-dnsop-reverse-mapping-considerations http:/ / ipadmin. [1] [2] • Some FTP. which sometimes causes problems for SpamCop users who are also customers of internet service providers who do not provide properly matching DNS and rDNS records for their mail servers. • The Sender Policy Framework e-mail anti-forgery system uses a FCrDNS check in its "ptr:" mechanism. put it into the "Received:" trace header field. External links • Considerations for the use of DNS Reverse Mapping [3] (Internet draft) • Forward Confirmed RDNS testing tool [4] • IPv4/IPv6 FCrDNS check tool [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / forum. org/ . spamcop. This can violate RFC 2821 and so e-mail is usually not rejected by default.Forward-confirmed reverse DNS 188 Uses • Most e-mail mail transfer agents (server software) use a FCrDNS verification and if there is a valid domain name. • Some e-mail spam filters will use FCrDNS checks to try to detect forged domain names or for whitelisting purposes. net/ forums/ index. php?act=findpost& pid=36027 http:/ / forum. php?act=findpost& pid=41615 http:/ / tools. net/ forums/ index. Telnet and TCP Wrapper servers will perform FCrDNS checks. valli. com/ rdns. • Some IRC Servers perform FCrDNS checks to prevent abuse. for example. • SpamCop uses the FCrDNS check. • Some e-mail mail transfer agents will perform FCrDNS verification on the domain name given on the SMTP HELO and EHLO commands. spamcop. ietf. php http:/ / multirbl. RFC 5451.

Frame Relay can run on fractional T-1 or full T-carrier system carriers. Its cheapness (compared to leased lines) provided one reason for its popularity. For most services. Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a Frame Relay node. the network provides a permanent virtual circuit (PVC). With the advent of Ethernet over fiber optics. The Frame Relay network handles the transmission over a frequently-changing path transparent to all end-users. used between local area networks (LANs) over a wide area network (WAN). the end may loom for the Frame Relay protocol and encapsulation. In such cases the least expensive type of non-dial-up connection remains a 64-kbit/s frame-relay line. Frame Relay complements and provides a mid-range service between basic rate ISDN. The extreme simplicity of configuring user equipment in a Frame Relay network offers another reason for Frame Relay's popularity. Technical description The designers of Frame Relay aimed to a telecommunication service for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between local area networks (LANs) and between end-points in a wide area network (WAN). Frame Relay puts data in variable-size units called "frames" and leaves any necessary error-correction (such as re-transmission of data) up to the end-points. which offers bandwidth at 128 kbit/s. This speeds up overall data transmission.prioritizing some frames and making others less important.520 Mbit/s to 622. for instance. may use Frame Relay for connecting rural stores into their corporate WAN. Thus a retail chain. . However many rural areas remain lacking DSL and cable modem services. Frame Relay has become one of the most extensively-used WAN protocols.080 Mbit/s. which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame Relay but at speeds from 155. and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Network providers commonly implement Frame Relay for voice (VoFR) and data as an encapsulation technique. which means that the customer sees a continuous. Originally designed for transport across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) infrastructure. VPN and dedicated broadband services such as cable modem and DSL. it may be used today in the context of many other network interfaces. MPLS.Frame Relay 189 Frame Relay Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. An enterprise can select a level of service quality . dedicated connection without having to pay for a full-time leased line. while A basic Frame Relay network the service-provider figures out the route each frame travels to its destination and can charge based on usage.

BECN.e. The DLCI serves to identify the virtual connection so that the receiving end knows which information connection a frame belongs to. The end points have the responsibility for detecting and retransmitting dropped frames. and the carrier switch. Since one cannot completely ignore the bit error-rate of the medium. which means that the protocol does not attempt to correct errors.Frame Relay Frame Relay has its technical base in the older X. it simply drops that frame. Information Field.25. to function. Since end-to-end protocols typically operate on the basis of larger information units. 2. The technology has become a stand-alone and cost-effective means of creating a WAN. depending on the range of the address in use. whose designers expected analog signals. 2. FECN. Frame-relay frame structure essentially mirrors almost exactly that defined for LAP-D. bit stuffing and destuffing procedures are used. octet 2 to 4. DE bits. Without a firm understanding of Frame Relay. Frame Relay offers a fast packet technology. both of which require a steady flow of transmissions.) Frame Relay often serves to connect local area networks (LANs) with major backbones as well as on public wide-area networks (WANs) and also in private network environments with leased lines over T-1 lines. The Frame Relay network exists between a LAN border device. A system parameter defines the maximum number of data bytes that a host can pack into a frame. digital networks offer an incidence of error extraordinarily small relative to that of analog networks. (However. 190 Protocol data unit Each Frame Relay Protocol data unit (PDU) consists of the following fields: 1. The flag is used to perform high-level data link synchronization which indicates the beginning and end of the frame with the unique pattern 01111110.25 packet-switching technology. Each address field may occupy either octet 2 to 3. However. The technology used by the carrier to transport data between the switches is variable and may differ among carriers (i. Frame Relay does not provide an ideal path for voice or video transmission. Its designers aimed to enable a packet-switched network to transport the circuit-switched technology. under certain circumstances. A two-octet address field comprises the EA=ADDRESS FIELD EXTENSION BITS and the C/R=COMMAND/RESPONSE BIT. The sophistication of the technology requires a thorough understanding of the terms used to describe how Frame Relay works. a practical Frame Relay implementation need not rely solely on its own transportation mechanism). The standard specifies the maximum information field size (supportable by any network) as at least 262 octets. Hosts may negotiate the actual maximum frame length at call set-up time. Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field. These bits report congestion: • FECN=Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit • BECN=Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit • DE=Discard Eligibility bit 3. Note that this DLCI has only local significance. designed for transmitting data on analog voice lines. Frame Relay originated as an extension of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). To ensure that the 01111110 pattern does not appear somewhere inside the frame. Unlike X. it is difficult to troubleshoot its performance. DLCI-Data Link Connection Identifier Bits. Traffic analysis can distinguish Frame Relay format from LAP-D by its lack of a control field. A single physical channel can multiplex several different virtual connections. 4. usually a router. 1. Flag Field. Frame Relay switches create virtual circuits to connect remote LANs to a WAN. Frame Relay recommends that the network support the maximum value of at least 1600 octets in order to avoid the need for segmentation and reassembling by end-users. each switching node needs to implement error detection to avoid wasting bandwidth due to the transmission of erred . voice and video transmission do use Frame Relay. or octet 2 to 5. It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period. Address Field. When a Frame Relay network detects an error in a frame.

The basic idea is to avoid data accumulation inside the network. Excess Burst Size (BE). 4. and which characterizes the connection's statistical properties. It also serves generally to achieve high network performance. The traffic descriptor consists of three elements: 2. The maximum number of information units transmittable during the interval T. Frame Relay was designed for use on links with error-rates far lower than available when X. The average rate (in bit/s) at which the network guarantees to transfer information units over a measurement interval T. This provides the principal mechanism used in Frame Relay to ensure the guarantee of resource requirement once accepted. The frames in Frame Relay contain an expanded link layer address field that enables Frame Relay nodes to direct frames to their destinations with minimal processing.25 X. This T interval is defined as: T = Bc/CIR. As a result. whereas. 191 Congestion control The Frame Relay network uses a simplified protocol at each switching node. Explicit congestion notification is proposed as the congestion avoidance policy. The FECN bit can be set to 1 to indicate that congestion was experienced in the direction of the frame transmission. Frame Relay was designed to relay data as quickly as possible over low error networks. special congestion control bits have been incorporated into the address field of the Frame Relay: FECN and BECN.25 allows Frame Relay to move data more quickly. Therefore. The maximum number of uncommitted information units (in bits) that the network will attempt to carry during the interval. The BECN bit can be set to 1 to indicate that congestion was experienced in the network in the direction opposite of the frame transmission. while Frame Relay prepares and sends frames. temporary overload at some Frame Relay nodes causes a collapse in network throughput.25 was designed. . so it informs the destination that congestion has occurred. 3. so it informs the sender that congestion has occurred.25 provides quality of service and error-free delivery. Frame Relay versus X. It tries to keep the network operating at its desired equilibrium point so that a certain Quality of Service (QoS) for the network can be met. It achieves simplicity by omitting link-by-link flow-control. the offered load has largely determined the performance of Frame Relay networks. The traffic descriptor consists of a set of parameters communicated to the switching nodes at call set-up time or at service-subscription time. Committed Burst Size (BC). X. The network decides whether to accept a new connection request. Congestion control in frame-relay networks includes the following elements: 1. To do so. Frame Relay eliminates a number of the higher-level procedures and fields used in X. X. most of which are not used by Frame Relay. When offered load is high. due to the bursts in some services. FECN means Forward Explicit Congestion Notification.25.Frame Relay frames. BECN means Backwards Explicit Congestion Notification.25 prepares and sends packets. based on the relation of the requested traffic descriptor and the network's residual capacity. Admission Control. Frame Relay defines some restrictions on the user's information rate. Once the network has established a connection. The elimination of functions and fields over X. Committed Information Rate (CIR). but leaves more room for errors and larger delays should data need to be retransmitted.25 packets contain several fields used for error checking and flow control. frame-relay networks require some effective mechanisms to control the congestion. It allows the network to enforce the end user's information rate and discard information when the subscribed access rate is exceeded. the edge node of the Frame Relay network must monitor the connection's traffic flow to ensure that the actual usage of network resources does not exceed this specification. The error detection mechanism used in Frame Relay uses the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) as its basis.

Frame Relay uses the concept of shared-access and relies on a technique referred to as "best-effort".25 packet switched networks typically allocated a fixed bandwidth through the network for each X. for example. Frame Relay provides an industry-standard encapsulation utilizing the strengths of high-speed. regardless of the current load.25 access. LMI virtual circuit status messages provide communication and synchronization between Frame Relay DTE and DCE devices. Local Management Interface (LMI) Initial proposals for Frame Relay were presented to the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph (CCITT) in 1984. Northern Telecom. Frame Relay origins Frame Relay began as a stripped-down version of the X. Frame Relay networks can dynamically allocate bandwidth at both the physical and logical channel level. They produced a protocol that provided additional capabilities for complex inter-networking environments. They are only locally significant. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Datalink connection identifiers (DLCIs) are numbers that refer to paths through the Frame Relay network. can be identified by using standard address-resolution and discovery techniques. This resource allocation approach. Lack of interoperability and standardization. releasing itself from the error-correcting burden most commonly associated with X. 192 Virtual circuits As a WAN protocol. whereby error-correction practically does not exist and practically no guarantee of reliable data delivery occurs. prevented any significant Frame Relay deployment until 1990 when Cisco. which means that when device-A sends data to device-B it will most-likely use a different DLCI than device-B would use to reply.25. while apt for applications that require guaranteed quality of service. When Frame Relay detects an error. The LMI global addressing extension gives Frame Relay data-link connection identifier (DLCI) values global rather than local significance. Multicasting saves bandwidth by allowing routing updates and address-resolution messages to be sent only to specific groups of routers. DLCI values become DTE addresses that are unique in the Frame Relay WAN.25 protocol. over PVCs that no longer exist). These messages are used to periodically report on the status of PVCs. . which prevents data from being sent into black holes (that is. In addition. packet-switched technology able to service multiple virtual circuits and protocols between connected devices.Frame Relay X. The extension also transmits reports on the status of multicast groups in update messages. The latter are analogous to the circuit-switching concepts of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). such as two routers. These Frame Relay extensions are referred to as the Local Management Interface (LMI). Frame Relay is most commonly implemented at Layer 2 (data link layer) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven layer model. Individual network interfaces and the end nodes attached to them. the entire Frame Relay network appears to be a typical LAN to routers on its periphery. Two types of circuits exist: permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) which are used to form logical end-to-end links mapped over a physical network. The global addressing extension adds functionality and manageability to Frame Relay internetworks. it simply drops the offending packet. The LMI multicasting extension allows multicast groups to be assigned. the global phone network. and StrataCom formed a consortium to focus on its development. Multiple virtual circuits can be active on the same physical end-points (performed by using subinterfaces). and switched virtual circuits (SVCs). is inefficient for applications that are highly dynamic in their load characteristics or which would benefit from a more dynamic resource allocation.

visualland.ipmplsforum. permitting the over-provisioning of data services by telecommunications companies to their customers. All traffic exceeding the CIR is marked discard eligible. In more recent years.com/wiki/Frame_Relay) Frame Relay animation (http://www.PPP in Frame Relay RFC 2427 .net/view. The provider guarantees that the connection will always support the CIR rate. Telcos often sell Frame Relay to businesses looking for a cheaper alternative to dedicated lines. Frame Relay Basics&ctype=2) . and sometimes the EIR rate should there be adequate bandwidth. with local networks in 22 states.cisco. its use in different geographic areas depended greatly on governmental and telecommunication companies' policies. Frame Relay. Market reputation Frame Relay aimed to make more efficient use of existing physical resources.org/) Cisco Frame Relay Tutorial (http://docwiki. and ATM) (http://www. Frames sent in excess of the EIR are dropped immediately.Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay The IP/MPLS Forum (MPLS.Frame Relay 193 Committed information rate (CIR) Frame Relay connections are often given a committed information rate (CIR) and an allowance of burstable bandwidth known as the extended information rate (EIR). References External links • • • • • • RFC 1490 . Some of the early companies to make Frame Relay products included StrataCom (later acquired by Cisco Systems) and Cascade Communications (later acquired by Ascend Communications and then by Lucent Technologies). Frame Relay has acquired a bad reputation in some markets because of excessive bandwidth overbooking.php?cid=1336&protocol=Frame Relay&title=1. As of June 2007 AT&T was the largest Frame Relay service provider in the USA. as clients were unlikely to be utilizing a data service 100 percent of the time. plus national and international networks. Frames that are sent in excess of the CIR are marked as discard eligible (DE) which means they can be dropped should congestion occur within the Frame Relay network.Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay RFC 1973 .

FRF.12 specification describes the method of fragmenting Frame Relay frames into smaller frames.g. Background When multiplexing packet data from different virtual circuits or flows. XMPP is a free protocol. A free software reference implementation must be available. Users may design and use variations that suit their needs. An incoming long packet is broken up into a sequence of shorter packets and enough information is added to reassemble that long frame at the far end. . Fragmentation Fragmentation is a well known method for addressing this. legal or technical) on its use.12 FRF. This is because a frame from one virtual circuit may occupy the line for a long enough period of time to disrupt a service guarantee given to another virtual circuit.12 The FRF.Free protocol 194 Free protocol A free protocol is a protocol whose full specification is freely available and for which there are no restrictions (e.12 is a specification from the Frame Relay Forum which specifies how to perform fragmentation on frame relay traffic in several different scenarios. Quality of Service concerns often arise. FRF. Free protocol are important for interoperability and choice of software. and contribute enhancements for potential incorporation into the next official version of the protocol.

my-slider 12. A newline is just treated as whitespace and not needed for message termination. [netserver] / [netclient] Those are part of maxlib and allow bidirectional connections of multiple clients with one server. They are meant to be used with their counter parts. this\ is\ one\ whole\ atom. Implementations pdsend / pdreceive Those command-line tools are distributed with the software Pure Data. and it's terminated by a semicolon character. A whitespace is either a space (ascii 32). Format FUDI is a packet oriented protocol. . the classes [netsend] / [netreive] of Pd. send. in a line. Example messages test/blah 123. whitespaces inside atoms can be escaped by the backslash (ascii 92) character (see Examples below).FUDI 195 FUDI FUDI is a networking protocol used by the Pure Data patching language invented by Miller Puckette. A semicolon (ascii 59) is mandatory to terminate (and send) a message. can. you. Messages are made up of tokens separated by whitespaces. multiple messages. this message continues in the following line. An atom is a sequence of one or more characters. Each message consists of one or more atoms. a tab (ascii 9) or a newline (ascii 10). separated by one or more whitespace characters. It is a string based protocol in which messages are separated by semicolons.45314. hello this is a message. and numerical tokens are represented as strings. [netsend] / [netreceive] Those classes can be used to transport Pd-messages over a TCP or UDP socket. Both are part of Pd-vanilla. this_atom_contains_a\ newline_character_in_it.

info/en/FUDI G.cx G. aspx?isn=7726). G. HomeGrid Forum.hn/HomeGrid G.hn-MIMO)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 27.9952.hn-mimo".9963 is a home networking standard under development at ITU-T.1 G.9963 G.hn" (http:/ / www. [2] Sheila Lashford (May 3.puredata.9961 G.[1] As part of the family of G.hn standard originally defined in Recommendation G.9960.9970 Recommendation G. G.9963 ITU-T Home networking Recommendations Common Name HomePNA 2.0 HomePNA 3.hn-mimo G. int/ itu-t/ workprog/ wp_item. 2011.9960. . org/ content/ pages. 2011).9954 (02/05) G. . ITU-T Work Programme.9972 G.9951. 2011. . php?pg=news_press_releases_item& rec_id=95). itu.FUDI 196 External links • http://wiki.9963 was endorsed by the HomeGrid Forum.9963 (ex G. G.[2] [1] "G.9954 (01/07) G.hn standards.hnta Recommendations G. Retrieved July 27.0 HomePNA 3. The standard is also known as "G. "HomeGrid Forum Endorses Draft ITU-T MIMO Specification for Extending G. G. homegridforum. It was begun in 2010 by ITU-T to add multiple-input and multiple-output (known as MIMO) capabilities to the G.9953 G.

hn .11n Common name HomePNA 2. 9970/ en) .9970 Home networking standards Common name HomePlug Wi-Fi IEEE standard IEEE 1901 802. References [1] G.0 HomePNA 3. While G.11b 802.11a 802.9960–1 G.9970 addresses Layer 3 (Network Layer) of the home network architecture. 2008 and was Approved on January 13. int/ rec/ T-REC-G.ITU-T website [2] G.hnta) and G.9970 was developed by Study Group 15.G. itu.9960 addresses Layers 1 (Physical Layer) and 2 (Data Link Layer).[1] G.hn/HomeGrid G.9954 G.0 HomePNA 3.hn-mimo G.9970 (G.11g 802.9954 G.9970 received Consent on December 12.9951–3 G. aspx?AAPSeqNo=1828) Relationship between G. G.1 G.9970 (also known as G.9970 197 G.cx ITU-T recommendation G. 2009. G.9970 G. itu.9970 Recommendation (http:/ / www.hnta and G.hnta G.hnta) is a Recommendation developed by ITU-T that describes the generic transport architecture for home networks and their interfaces to a provider's access network.9970 AAP Process Details (http:/ / www. Question1.9960 (G.[2] Relationship with G.hn) are two ITU-T Recommendations that address home networking in a complementary manner.9963 G. int/ itu-t/ aap/ AAPRecDetails.hn G.9972 G.

and 50% are allocated to the in-home network. com/ press-release/ United-Nations-ITU-Ts-Ghn-Approved-as-Global-Standard-for-Wired-Home-Networking-1274797.9963 G. The coexistence mechanism allows G.9954 G. org/ news_events/ pr/ 10_09_09/ ).9972 198 G.11b 802.9960–1 G.1 G. htm) . 2010.9972 Home networking standards Common name HomePlug Wi-Fi IEEE standard IEEE 1901 802.HN STANDARD FOR WIRED HOME NETWORKING (http:/ / www.9972 and operating on the same power line wiring. 2009.hn home networks and Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) access networks: • Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM).[2] G. • Time-division multiplexing (TDM).9972 received consent during the meeting of ITU-T Study Group 15.11n Common name HomePNA 2. homegridforum.11a 802. on October 9. while frequencies above them are reserved for the in-home network.hn-mimo G. HomeGrid Forum Press Release [2] United Nations ITU-T's G.hn devices to coexist with other devices implementing G. in which the available spectrum is divided in two parts: frequencies below 10 or 14 MHz (specific value can be selected by the access network) are reserved for the access network. 50% of time slots are allocated for the access network.hn Approved as Global Standard for Wired Home Networking (http:/ / www.9972 (also known as G. References [1] UNITED NATIONS ITU-T RATIFIES G.hn/HomeGrid G. marketwire.0 HomePNA 3.9954 G.G. June 11.0 HomePNA 3. in which the available channel time is split equally between both networks.[1] and final approval on Coexistence with BPL access networks G.9970 G.11g 802.9972 G.9951–3 G.hnta G.cx) is a Recommendation developed by ITU-T that specifies a coexistence mechanism for networking transceivers capable of operating over electrical power line wiring.9972 specifies two mechanisms for coexistence between G.cx ITU-T recommendation G.

Question 4.hn is a specification for existing-wire home networking.hn may become embedded (such as televisions. phone lines and coaxial cables with data rates up to 1 Gbit/s.[4] specifies the Physical Layer and the architecture of G.9970 G. including some large telephone companies. communication equipment companies.9951.1 G.[7] .9960.[5] The work was done in the ITU-T Telecommunication Standardization Sector.hn specification defines networking over power lines. 2009. and extended signalling distances.9963 G. It is a wired and complementary counterpart to the popular Wi-Fi wireless products. G. This will also facilitate integration with home control and demand side management applications for AC-powered appliances. Unified communication G.hn ITU-T Home networking Recommendations Common Name HomePNA 2.9961) was approved on June 11.hn at ITU-T is under the G. This is the first standards development organization (SDO) to have defined a MIMO technology standard for a powerline application.0 HomePNA 3. Universal Powerline Association (UPA) and HD-PLC over powerline.9952.cx G. Others are pursuing different initiatives. G. higher data rates.9954 (02/05) G. and home networking technology companies. MoCA 2[6] and HomePlug AV2.hn/HomeGrid G. configurations that have at least one power line networking interface are likely to become the most common.hn targets gigabit per second data rates[3] and operation over three types of legacy home wires: telephone wiring.hn 199 G.[3] ITU Recommendation (the ITU's term for standard) G.9954 (01/07) G.9963 standard. G.hn-mimo G. G. residential gateways.[2] The G.[1] and several other organizations. 2010.hn proponents believe it can provide an evolution path from today's incompatible wired home networking technologies including Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA). G.9953 G. coaxial cables and power lines. In February 2009 the key promoters of two of these interfaces [2] united behind the latest version of the standard.hnta Recommendations G. such as IEEE 1901. set-top boxes.1 over coax and phone wires (already an ITU standard G. which received approval on October 9. and HomePlug AV.9954). The ITU-T extended the technology with multiple input.hn is the common name for a home network technology family of standards developed under the International Telecommunication Union's Standardization arm (ITU) and promoted by the HomeGrid Forum. Study Group 15.9960.9972 G. By developing dual mode devices. Over 20 companies participated regularly.hn.0 HomePNA 3.9961 G. multiple output (MIMO) technology. HomePNA 3. As the majority of devices in which G. This aims for more noise robustness. The work on MIMO for G. The Data Link Layer (Recommendation G. personal computers or network-attached storage devices) will be AC-powered.G.

hn Media Access Control is based on a time division multiple access (TDMA) architecture. a series of consecutive CFTS is allocated to a number of devices. • Power levels and frequency bands: G. There are two types of TXOPs: • Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOP). • Shared Transmission Opportunities (STXOP). There are two types of TS: • Contention-Free Time Slots (CFTS). CSMA systems cannot completely avoid collisions. The allocation is performed by the "domain master" and broadcast to all nodes in the network. OFDM systems split the transmitted signal into multiple orthogonal sub-carriers.hn includes media-specific optimizations that ensure that performance is maximized when [11] : operating over each media.82 kHz in phone lines.G. CFTXOP are used for implementing TDMA Channel Access for specific applications that require quality of service (QoS) guarantees.hn's FEC can operate with code rates 1/2. STXOP are divided into Time Slots (TS).hn each one of the sub-carriers is modulated using QAM.hn are common for all three media supported by the standard (power lines. 5/6.hn includes mechanisms to avoid interference with legacy home networking technologies[10] and also with other wireline systems such as VDSL2 or other types of DSL used to access the home. which have a fixed duration and are allocated to a specific pair of transmitter and receiver. In general. The G. 2/3. Although this is not media specific. 24. in which a "domain master" schedules Transmission Opportunities (TXOPs) that can be used by one or more devices in the "domain".31 kHz in coaxial. . • Contention-Based Time Slots (CBTS). Optimization for each medium Although most elements of G. 16/18 and 20/21. phone lines and coaxial cable). it's expected that ARQ-less operation is sometimes appropriate for cleaner media (such as coaxial) while ARQ operation is appropriate for noisy environments such as power lines.hn defines different power masks for each media.hn includes the capability to notch specific frequency bands to avoid interference with amateur radio bands and other licensed radio services. Some benefits of a multi-wire standard might be lower equipment development costs[8] and lower deployment costs for service providers (by allowing customer self-install). which are used for implementing "implicit" token passing Channel Access. As all devices know "who is next". which are used for implementing CSMA/CARP Channel Access. so CBTS are only useful for applications that do not have strict Quality of Service requirements.hn proponents hope one semiconductor device can be used for networking over any home wire.hn. The process of "passing the token" is implicit and ensures that there are no collisions during Channel access.hn supports operation both with and without ARQ (re-transmission). Although these rates are not media specific. which are shared among multiple devices in the network. The maximum QAM constellation supported by G. there is no need to explicitly send a "token" between devices. Some of these media-specific parameters include • OFDM Carrier Spacing: 195.hn is 4096-QAM (12-bit QAM). it's expected that the higher code rates will be used in cleaner media (such as coaxial) while the lower code rates will be used in noisy environments such as power lines. 48. G.[9] Technical specifications Technical overview G. There are pre-defined rules that specify which device can transmit after another device has finished using the channel.hn 200 One device. • FEC Rates: G. G. • Automatic repeat request (ARQ) mechanisms: G.hn specifies a single Physical Layer based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and low-density parity-check code (LDPC) forward error correction (FEC) code. G. In G.41 kHz in power lines. In G. any wire G.

so that devices based on different profiles can interoperate with each other.hn APC Protocol data units (APDUs).[12] G. the data is encrypted in such a way that Mallory cannot decrypt it or modify it. .[14] Examples of G. Profiles are intended to address G.9963 includes provisions for transmitting G. Authentication and key exchange is done following ITU-T Recommendation X.hn specifies the Physical Layer and the Data Link Layer. node Eve (in the same domain as Alice and Bob) will not be able to eavesdrop their communication.hn Physical Layer (Recommendation G. G.9961) is divided into three sub-layers: • The Application Protocol Convergence (APC) Layer. according to the OSI model. which accepts frames (usually in Ethernet format) from the upper layer (Application Entity) and encapsulates them into G. if node Alice sends data to node Bob.hn nodes with significantly different levels of complexity. Security G. For example.hn devices based on high complexity profiles are Residential Gateways or Set-Top Boxes.hn architecture includes the concept of profiles.hn • MIMO support: Recommendation G.hn devices based on low complexity profiles are home automation.hn supports the concept of relays. Relaying provides extended range for large networks. responsible for generating PHY headers. in which one device can receive a message from one node and deliver it to another node further away in the same domain.hn Data Link Layer (Recommendation G. segmentation and Automatic repeat-request. Examples of G. To ensure security in scenarios with relays. aggregation.hn signals over multiple AC wires (phase.hn protocol stack • The Physical Coding Sub-layer (PCS).hn uses the AES encryption algorithm (with a 128-bit key length) using the CCMP protocol to ensure confidentiality and message integrity.hn specifies end-to-end encryption.[13] G. 201 Protocol stack G. which means that if node Alice sends data to node Bob using node Mallory as an intermediate relay. • The Logical Link Control (LLC). home security and Smart Grid devices. Profiles The G. The maximum payload of each APDU is 214 bytes. neutral. if they are physically available.hn specifies point-to-point security inside a domain. • The Medium Access Control (MAC).[11] • The G. which means that each pair of transmitter and receiver uses a unique encryption key which is not shared by other devices in the same domain. • The G.9960) is divided into three sub-layers: G. In G.G. This sub-layer is also responsible for "relaying" of APDUs between nodes that may not be able to communicate through a direct connection.hn the higher complexity profiles are Proper supersets of lower complexity profiles. ground). which schedules Channel Access. which is responsible for encryption.1035.

9961 received Approval on June 11.[15] Recommendation G.hn through technical and marketing efforts. PCS and PMA) are "medium independent". Sigma Designs. Xingtera and LAN S. Best Buy. [21] . University of British Columbia. University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL). [18] In June 2011. and cooperates with complementary industry alliances. phone lines and coaxial cable).hn-compliant chips. The rest of sub-layers (APC.hn was considered to have electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and mitigation techniques that go well beyond those considered essential for protecting radio services". Marvell Semiconductor.hn stack that is "medium dependent" (i. Gigle Networks. IC Plus Corp. four silicon vendors (Lantiq. • The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD).power lines. during a joint Forum held by ITU-T. The interface between the Data Link Layer and the Physical Layer is called Medium Independent Interface (MII).[9] addresses certification and interoperability of G. Telefonica.9960 (Physical Layer) was granted Approval at the October 2009 Study Group 15 plenary meeting. K-Micro. Ikanos Communications. Broadband Forum and ITU.[5] During that meeting. responsible for scrambling and FEC coding/decoding.[20] HomeGrid Forum promotes adoption of G. it was recognized that "ITU-T G. The interface between the Application Entity and the Data Link Layer is called A-interface. The interface between the Physical Layer and the actual transmission medium is called Medium Dependent Interface (MDI).[2] HomeGrid Forum members are Intel. Marvell. Holland Electronics. 202 Status Recommendation G. In June 2011. and that "Non-ITU compliant home network equipment may cause problems".hn • The Physical Medium Attachment (PMA).[16] In October 2010. responsible for bit-loading and OFDM modulation.e.[17] In January 2011. called HNX176 and HNX156. Metanoia and Sigma Designs) announced their participation in an open interoperability plugfest in Geneva. Other changes included in the amendment included a reduction of transmit power to meet regulatory complaints raised at the meeting. Lantiq. called CG5110. Metanoia [22] Polaris Networks .L. Lantiq introduced a family of G. . some parameters may have different values for each media .. Comtrend. 2010. MAC. Panasonic. The PMD sub-layer is the only sub-layer in the G. Sigma Designs announced the first G.hn standard was proposed that eliminated the passband (100 MHz to 200 MHz) and reduced the baseband operational spectrum (from 100 MHz to 80 MHz).hn-compliant chipset. concerns about regulatory conformance were raised and an amendment to the G. ITU-R and other organizations. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI).hn standardization efforts for next-generation home networking.G.[19] Industry Support HomeGrid Forum The HomeGrid Forum is a global. British Telecom. BC Hydro.hn-compliant products. non-profit trade group promoting the International Telecommunication Union’s G. LLC. Aware.R.A. hosted by Homegrid Forum.

” Consumer Electronics On March 2009. 2009.[27] NTT.hn's consent five vendors. and phonelines in the home.] a single networking technology for all three types of existing home wiring will make it easier to expand the market for Intel’s home networking products"). which on July 2009 said "Sigma intends to support the proliferation of G. include British Telecom. Equipment vendors On April 2008..] Best Buy supports the global adoption of the ITU-T’s G. Enable customer self-install Built-in diagnostic information and remote management Multiple silicon and equipment suppliers Other Service Providers that are active contributors to the work being done by ITU-T Study Group 15.[25] Service providers like AT&T will benefit from G.[28] However. powerlines. as part of a HomePNA press release.hn devices. Telenor.. Best Buy (which is the largest retailer of consumer electronics in the United States) joined the board of directors of HomeGrid Forum and expressed its support for G.hn 203 Silicon and IP Vendors Immediately after G. during the first announcement of HomeGrid Forum. Question 4. microprocessor manufacturer Intel (which on June 2009 said "[. Echostar. one of the largest manufacturers of consumer electronics. to date only AT&T and BT have expressed public interest in potentially deploying G. DS2.” ” Panasonic. . is also a contributor member of HomeGrid Forum. CopperGate. vice president of sales. Aware.hn.hn next-generation technology as the single wired standard for connecting devices together over coax. AT&T (which makes extensive use of wireline home networking as part of its U-Verse IPTV service) expressed support for the work developed by ITU-T creating standards for home networking.[24] Service providers On February 26.hn for several reasons[26] : • • • • Connect to any room no matter what the wiring type may be. One standard to transfer HD video over a home’s cable or power lines will make installations much easier for service providers. EchoStar. Ikanos and TangoTec announced support for the new G.hn standard.[23] and SoC vendor Sigma Designs...hn technology as the single standard for wired home networks:[30] “ “One of the greatest challenges facing consumers today is the many incompatible technologies that exist for wired networking in the home. Telefonica.hn include DSL vendors Lantiq and Metanoia [21].hn-based products starting with reference platforms that will power the next-generation of home content delivery". a manufacturer of set-top boxes for the service provider market. Other silicon vendors actively involved in the development of G.G." explained Michael Hawkey. expressed its support for the unified standard:[29] “ "EchoStar is eager to see HomeGrid Forum accomplish its goals. including G. Portugal Telecom and China Telecom.[. Qwest.

Principal Analyst at market research firm In-Stat.” On December 2008. announced that they had agreed to work with Homegrid Forum to promote G. and the fast rate at which the process is moving to achieve a standard.. if G.hn provides the next-generation standard for networking over customer-owned wiring. coaxial cable.[34] On July 2009. said[33] : "G. coax and phoneline) will provide a roadmap for next-generation service provider deployments." Other organizations On February 25. that would ultimately benefit from the move towards a single MAC/PHY for multiple media in the home" [..G. their promotion of product conformance and interoperability. Joyce Putscher. semiconductor and equipment vendors.hn sees integration into carrier devices by 2010.. 2009.hn as the single next-generation standard for wired home networking.. unified technology for multimedia networks over power lines.hn. residential gateways and other service provider CPE hardware.hn 204 Industry Analysts On June 2008. [. in devices such as set-top boxes. the Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA) and HomeGrid Forum signed a liaison agreement to support HomeGrid Forum’s efforts in conjunction with ITU-T G. It is destined to become the first universal standard for home networking. and help expedite the total time to market for HomeGrid Forum Certified products.[37] .hn meets that requirement and it seems clear that with significant industry backing from service providers.[36] On May 2011.] G. “While it is still early.hn products. ABI Research sees promise in the efforts by ITU G.hn technology. said:[32] “A single. easy-to-use means of networking devices in the home [. director at ABI Research said:[31] “ “ “ “ “We at ABI Research see several applications.” says Wolf. Broadband Forum and HomeGrid Forum signed an agreement to deliver a global compliance and interoperability testing program for products using G. three home networking organizations that promoted previously incompatible technologies (CEPCA.” ” ” ” ” On December 2008.hn plugfest.hn-compliant nodes will ship into the market. HomeGrid Forum and DLNA signed a liaison agreement "setting the stage for collaboration between the two organizations and the approval of G. Steve Rago.] The effort to build a higher-speed single specification for the three primary in-home wiring types (powerline.] We believe ITU’s work is an important step towards eliminating fragmentation in the industry and in achieving the vision of a networked home.[2] On October 2008. The Broadband Forum will support HomeGrid Forum's validation of G. and to work to ensure coexistence with existing products in the market. “Ultimately.[35] On June 2010. we expect that in 2013 some 42 million G. principal analyst at market researcher iSuppli. G. both organizations jointly announced the first open G.hn nodes will grow at a CAGR of 257% between 2010 and 2013. Michael Wolf. Kurt Scherf. we will see first equipment by 2010. such as multi-room high-definition video.hn to make it easy for consumers worldwide to connect devices and enjoy innovative applications using existing home wiring.. HomePNA and the Universal Powerline Association). said:[32] “Service operators have been looking for an international standard that encompasses multiple existing-wire mediums for video distribution.” On December 2008.hn as a DLNA-recognized Physical Layer technology". and phone lines has the potential to enable a simple. analyst with market research firm Parks Associates..

hn will also become the dominant wired networking standard for other markets such as the PC and CE industries. IPTV Home Networks One of the problems faced by most providers of IPTV services is that in many customers' homes the Residential gateway that provides connectivity with the Broadband access network is not located in close proximity to the IPTV Set-top box.G.hn. Many products not traditionally associated with computer use (such as TVs or Hi-Fi equipment) now provide options to connect to the Internet or to a computer using a home network to provide access to digital content. voice and data service offering (such as AT&T's U-Verse)).[38] Smart Grid applications like home automation or demand side management can also be targeted by G. G.hn is intended to provide high-speed connectivity to CE products capable of displaying High definition (HD). G. It's usual for many CE products to include Internet connectivity using technologies such as Wi-Fi. and don't need to use 802. Because G. due to limited range of wireless signals). G. thus reducing the cost to the service provider.hnta and G. or is not desired (due to security concerns) or is not feasible (for example. The coexistence mechanism would allow G.cx) is a Recommendation developed by ITU-T that specifies a coexistence mechanism for home networking transceivers capable of operating over power line wiring. end users will often be able to install the IPTV home network by themselves. This scenario becomes very common as service providers start to offer service packages with multiple Set-Top Boxes per subscriber.hn is also intended for use in this application. G.9972 and operating on the same power line wiring. Integrating the power connection and the data connection provides potential energy savings in CE devices.hn solves the problem of connecting the Residential Gateway to one or more Set-top boxes.9972 to coexist with other devices implementing G. ITU G.9972 (also known as G. Consumer Electronics devices A recent trend in many types of Consumer Electronics (CE) is connectivity. by using the existing home wiring.hn-compliant devices that implement low-complexity profiles. Bluetooth or Ethernet. Given that CE devices (such as Home theater receivers) very often run on standby or "vampire power".hn IPTV (especially IPTV offered by a service provider as part of a triple play service. they represent major savings to homeowners if their power connection is also their data connection .hn supports any kind of home wiring.hn devices which implement G. which usually don't provide the Quality of Service and Security required for IPTV.hn is an adequate solution for consumers in situations in which using wireless is not needed (for example. IPTV service providers don't need to install new Ethernet wires.the device could reliably be . to connect a stationary device like a TV or a NAS device). it is expected that G. Using G.11 wireless networks.[8] Consumer Home Networks Although Wi-Fi technology is today the most popular choice for consumer home networks.9970 (also known as G.hn 205 Related standards ITU G. Potential Applications Although the major driver for wired home networking technologies has been Relationship between G.hnta) is a Recommendation developed by ITU-T that describes the generic architecture for home networks and their interfaces to the operators' broadband access networks.

Critics argue that G. There are millions of deployed devices in the market that are based on these two standards and future G.G. On September 2009. Some claim that the G. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Home Area [41] Networks.300 pages.hn. The broad concept of Smart Grid includes applications with overlapping scopes such as Demand side management (DSM). Because G. Critics say that the G.for the service providers that have chosen them.[39] In January 2010 this "strong stakeholder consensus" collapsed when G. The HomePlug AV and IEEE1901 standards contain very detailed technical specifications and range to about 1. “The bottom line is that MoCA and HomePlug work -.hn effort will fully succeed until they take into account HomePlug and build in some compatibility with it. is convinced that HomePlug has strong backing from that industry."[45] .hn standard is too general and that the wide technical latitude it affords could cause multi-vendor interoperability issues whenever products are deployed.hn with the Smart Grid are mentioned in the NIST report. after recent conversations with European service providers. Criticism of the G.hn will be outperformed by [43] HomePlug proponents point out that G. A comprehensive Smart Grid system requires reaching into every AC outlet in a home or building so that all devices can participate in energy conserving strategies.[40] Additional standards which are relevant to integrating G.[42] Well-known network management protocols like SNMP can be used to manage large-scale IP networks including G. They'd be very reluctant to make a wholesale move to a technology that's not proven in large field deployments. commercial and industrial environments. 206 Smart Grid Because G. "I do not think that the G.hn is incompatible with the established technologies in the market. notably MoCA and HomePlug technologies.hn-based products will not interoperate with any of these. G.hn as one of the "Standards Identified for Implementation" for the Smart Grid "for which it believed there was strong stakeholder consensus". Opponents also believe that a single standard for the three different wired mediums will result in a lowest common denominator solution that offers lower performance on all of the wires as compared to current wireline standards that optimize communications for the specific wired environment (i. of gigabit-level powerline performance were and are made based on the most optimistic of theoretical calculations and do not take into account the realities of actual powerline networking that must conform to various regulatory restrictions. MoCA for coax)." Scherf is quoted to have said.hn effort has been criticized by most proponents of other wired technologies. Criticism G. NIST included G. Parks Associates analyst Kurt Scherf. Some industry analysts have questioned the potential adoption of G. it can provide the communication infrastructure required for Smart Grid applications in residential.hn opponents believe that this standard has a major deficiency in that it won’t interoperate with legacy wireline standards such as HomePlug for powerline and Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) for coaxial cable.hn specification is not sufficient as a next generation technology and that G. Energy conservation measures (ECM).hn was removed from the final version of the "Standards Identified for Implementation". including HomePlug AV and MoCA.and seem to work well -.hn standard also includes the general nature of the document which totals about 300 pages. IPv4 and IPv6. The G.hn devices.hn turned off when it is not displaying any source.[44] In a June 15 article bylined by Stephen Lawson of IDG News Service. HomePlug AV and IEEE1901 for powerline. Scherf is quoted as saying.e.hn-based Smart Grid networks can easily be integrated with IP-based networks.hn can operate over any type of wire (including AC and DC power lines). as part of an early draft of the "NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards".hn claims backwards-compatible technologies developed by these groups.hn natively supports popular protocols like Ethernet.

hn Global Wired Home Networking Standard [26] HomeGrid Forum Webinar: A Service Provider's Perspective on G. the Online Reporter [7] HomePlug Alliance hits some milestones. metanoia.hn security (http:/ / blog. com/ article. hn+ Webinar+ -+ New). ds2. com/ 2009/ 01/ 07/ homeplug-alliance-hits-some-milestones-rallies-the-troops-at-ce/ ). doc). org/ resource_library/ rl_requests?document_id=84790d56bb43fc725a31fa8e3b630b0660669ec4& document_title=In-Stat's+ Perspective+ on+ Integrated. com. net [23] Intel publishes white-paper on G.hn would not be adopted as a powerline technology "With DS2's demise.hn will face an uphill climb to gain industry adoption.HN STANDARD FOR WIRED HOME NETWORKING (http:/ / www. (ITU membership required) [15] UNITED NATIONS ITU-T RATIFIES G. com/ press-release/ United-Nations-ITU-Ts-Ghn-Approved-as-Global-Standard-for-Wired-Home-Networking-1274797. HomePNA. org/ news_events/ pr/ 02_25_09/ ). com/ homegrid_forum/ 2009/ 04/ new-whitepaper-on-coexistance.hn Standard for Home Networking Applications (http:/ / www. marketwire.hn faces up to de facto standardization reality and incorporates HomePlug AV into its specifications instead. com/ news/ press/ 161-ghn-standard-for-home-networking-applications/ ) [19] G. pdf) [18] Lantiq Introduces Family of Chips Supporting Global ITU-T G. html) [14] Updated Issues List for G. org) [2] Technology Organizations Align to Support United Nations' ITU-T G. html). (registration required) [12] Top Ten Things You Need to Know About the New G.G. lantiq. sigmadesigns. homegridforum. org/ resource_library/ rl_requests?document_id=f00f2ab4c8d967a2786750d72f90fade73130c2b& document_title=G. unless G. HomeGrid Forum Blog [11] HomeGrid Forum .hn standard (http:/ / blog. ds2. Tom Starr. itu. html). aspx) [17] Sigma Designs Unveils Industry’s First G.hn be? (http:/ / blog. homegridforum. html). org/ news_events/ pr/ 10_09_09/ ) [16] Forum highlights radio interference fears (http:/ / www. ds2. php?pg=news_press_releases_item& rec_id=102) [20] ITU-T G. org/ news_events/ pr/ 12_15_08/ ). homegridforum. org/ resource_library/ rl_requests?document_id=dd75664df15a78233cb5cccf7e0fe68057089afb& document_title=A+ Service+ Provider's+ Perspective+ on+ G. com/ uploads/ library/ press_releases/ 101025."[46] Other analysts and vendors in 2010 believed that G. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 05/ top-ten-things-about-ghn-standard. AT&T [27] BT Joins HomeGrid Forum Board of Directors (http:/ / www. com/ homegrid_forum/ 2008/ 10/ why-do-we-need-a-unified-standard-at-all-1.hn Chipset (http:/ / www. the press noted "the complexity of handling three types of networks. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 04/ how-fast. plus the small size of many of the early vendors in this space. homegridforum. homegridforum. onlinereporter. partly caused the slow movement". Significant Progress Towards Unified Standard for Home Networking Endorsed by HomeGrid Forum [21] http:/ / www.hn standards group.hn EDN Analyst Brian Dipert for instance believed that G. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 09/ introduction-ghn-security. rallies the troops at CES (http:/ / www.hn Standard (http:/ / www. html) [13] An introduction to G. int/ newsroom/ press_releases/ 2009/ 46. aspx?guid={C8E4BB07-375A-41E5-8B05-2E33222E44C2}& dist=msr_9). and UPA Unite with HomeGrid Forum to Promote Next-Generation Home Networking Technology [3] DS2 Blog: How fast can G. itu.hn Technology Overview (http:/ / www. if the rumors are correct. homegridforum. org/ news_events/ pr/ 05_27_09/ ) . com/ news/ story/ homepna-homegrid-sign-liaison-agreement/ story. HomeGrid Forum Blog [9] HomeGrid Forum Webinar: In-Stat's Perspective on Integrated. homegridforum. ch/ ties/ Mtgs09/ 2009-05-Geneva/ 09GS-U12R2. html) [4] New ITU standard opens doors for unified ‘smart home’ network (http:/ / www. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 06/ intel-publishes-whitepaper-on-ghn-standard.hn Specification Achieves Key Milestone with Successful Consent at Geneva ITU-T Meeting (http:/ / www. html) [24] SIGMA DESIGNS JOINS HOMEGRID FORUM BOARD OF DIRECTORS (http:/ / www.G. engadget.hn (http:/ / www.hn Moves from Specification to Reality (http:/ / www. marketwatch. Segregated & Next-Generation Wired In-Home Networks (http:/ / www. org/ content/ pages. hn+ Technology+ Overview+ -+ NEW). itu. seemingly also go the powerline portions of the ITU's G. ITU Press Release [5] United Nations ITU-T's G. php?article_id=16634).hn .+ Segregated+ & + Next-Generation+ Wired+ In-Home+ Networks+ -+ NEW) [10] HomeGrid Forum White-paper: G. tw/ [22] http:/ / polarisnetworks. CEPCA. homegridforum. Groups Work to Promote New ITU G. That is. int/ net/ pressoffice/ press_releases/ 2011/ 18. org/ news_events/ pr/ 07_07_09/ ) [25] HomePNA and HomeGrid Sign Liaison Agreement (http:/ / www.[49] 207 References [1] HomeGrid Forum (http:/ / www.Geneva May 2009 (http:/ / q4sg15.hn Approved as Global Standard for Wired Home Networking (http:/ / www. homegridforum. homegridforum. ds2.hn Standard (http:/ / blog. typepad.hn Compatibility with Existing Home Networking Technologies (http:/ / homegridforum. Engadget [8] "Why do we need a unified standard at all?" (http:/ / homegridforum. NXP Unveil MoCA-Ready Design for Networked DVRs (http:/ / www.[47] [48] By May 2011. htm) [6] Entropic. typepad.

Internet Tv Reporter. com/ article. gov/ public_affairs/ releases/ smartgrid_092409. Your Definitive Source for All Things G. A forum for discussion of ITU-T G.Geneva December 2008 (http:/ / www. html).typepad.G. Consumer Electronics Retailer to Help Drive G. int/ md/ meetingdoc. cgi?f=/ g/ a/ 2010/ 06/ 15/ urnidgns002570F3005978D800257743006180DF.int/rec/T-REC-G/e) The HomePNA Blog contains general information about home networking and G.translate.itu.itu. DTL) [46] CES 2010: Powerline Networking Updates And Prognostications (http:/ / www. 208 External links • • • • • ITU-T Study Group 15 Question 4 (http://q4sg15. com/ prod-toc/ hn-Faces-Uphill-R104-41338/ ).hn standard (http:/ / homegridforum. homegridforum. "G.hn • Everywire (http://www.hn (http:/ / www.9961 (http://www. org/ news_events/ pr/ 10_27_08/ ) [35] HOMEGRID FORUM SIGNS LIAISON AGREEMENT WITH DIGITAL LIVING NETWORK ALLIANCE (http:/ / www. pdf) [38] Multiple industries converging around the G. org/ news_events/ pr/ 04_29_08/ ) [30] HomeGrid Forum Adds New Members. edn. HomeGrid Forum Blog [39] Commerce Secretary Unveils Plan for Smart Grid Interoperability (http:/ / www. hn+ Home+ Networking+ Standard+ Has+ Significant+ Potential). 3 May 2010. nist. com/ businesscenter/ article/ 173779/ ghn_home_network_standard_progresses.a translated report from Tom's Networking Guide Germany .de/content/reports/j2008a/report_powerline_zukunft/index.com/) • The HomeGrid Forum Blog (http://homegridforum. html) [45] Lawson. int/ ITU-T/ newslog/ New+ Global+ Standard+ For+ Fully+ Networked+ Home. . org/ news/ download/ pressreleeases/ 2011/ HomeGridBBF.9961/en) ITU-T Recommendations: Series G (http://www. Business. aspx) [33] CopperGate Communications Commits to G. [49] Stephen Lawson (17 May 2011). ds2. org/ news_events/ pr/ 03_09_09).hn [28] ITU-T SG15 Q4 .com/translate?prev=hp&hl=de&u=http:// www. homegridforum.itu.hn home-network backers plan tests next week" (http:/ / www. com/ cgi-bin/ article. sfgate. asp?lang=en& parent=T09-SG15-081201-C& question=Q4/ 15) [29] Industry Creates HomeGrid Forum to Develop Technology for Enjoying Multimedia Anywhere in the Home (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 400000040/ post/ 1820051982. broadband-forum.hn Will Be" (http:/ / internettvreporter. marketwire.com/). Retrieved 27 July 2011. com/ ArticleDetails/ tabid/ 3321/ ArticleID/ 8135/ Default. com/ report/ backissues/ Report0903_4. blogspot. php?article_id=555). html?nid=2679) [47] International Data Corporation (March 2010)." San Francisco Bay Area — News. com/ news_events/ press_releases/ ?release=46) [34] HomeGrid Forum and CABA Ink Liaison Agreement to Promote Development and Deployment of Advanced Intelligent Home Networks (http:/ / www.hn Products (http:/ / www. . (http:/ / www. "G.com/). pcworld. homegridforum. itu. html) [41] Demand-Side Management: Now More than Ever (http:/ / www.hn Faces an Uphill Climb" (http:/ / www. html) [43] G. typepad.html&sl=de&tl=en& swap=1) .everywire. aspx) [42] Why the Smart Grid must be based on IP standards (http:/ / blog. 15 June 2010. networkworld.int/) ITU-T Recommendation G. html) [44] G. "More Home Networking Standards Advance.hn Chipset Interoperability Plugfest (http:/ / www. itu. buildings.int/rec/T-REC-G. Stephen. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 05/ why-smart-grid-must-use-ip-standards. com/ press/ 1150-New+ G.9960 (http://www. htm) [37] HomeGrid Forum and Broadband Forum Announce First Open G. abiresearch.hn Home Networking Standard Has Significant Potential (http:/ / www.hn (http://homepnablog. homegridforum. com/ press-release/ Broadband-Forum-HomeGrid-Forum-Reach-Definitive-Collaboration-Agreement-With-Aim-Enabling-1276073. com/ 2010/ 01/ nist-smart-grid-interoperability.tomsnetworking. html) [40] NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap (http:/ / hanfan2. ABI Research [32] New global standard for fully networked home (http:/ / www.hn Home Network Standard Progresses (http:/ / www. (Pay site) [48] "Atheros: HomePlug Better Now Than G. typepad. Sports.itu.hn Skeptics: "Nobody Needs Another Incompatible Standard" (http:/ / www. org/ news_events/ pr/ 07_13_09/ ) [36] Broadband Forum and HomeGrid Forum Reach Definitive Collaboration Agreement With the Aim of Enabling Conformance and Interoperability of G. broadbandhomecentral. com/ news/ 2011/ 051711-ghn-home-network-backers-plan-tests. com/ homegrid_forum/ 2009/ 03/ multiple-home-networking-organizations-working-with-homegrid-forum-to-promote-ghn-technology.hn • Bluehelmets care for homenetworks (http://www. Entertainment.google. Retrieved 27 July 2011.9960/en) ITU-T Recommendation G. Network World. html). Classifieds: SFGate. Web.hn Technology [31] New G. copper-gate. 14 July 2010.. mindbranch. . Best Buy Joins Board Of Directors (http:/ / www.int/rec/T-REC-G.

RFC 3945. T. Berger. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description". "GMPLS: architecture and applications". RFC 4204. wavelength switch and fiber-switch.[5] [6] • Link Management Protocol (LMP). Igor Bryskin. 2003. "Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2 Architecture". IETF. Kompella and Y. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions". Oct. L. IETF.[3] [4] • Open Shortest Path First with Traffic Engineering extensions (OSPF-TE) routing protocol.[7] References [1] E. IETF. [4] L. "Link Management Protocol (LMP)". . Sep. Yeung. RFC 3471. GMPLS offers the additional support for TDM. "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels". Gan.org/wg/ccamp/charter/). Jan. Srinivasan. D. The Generalized Label can also carry a label that represents a generic MPLS label. Oct. and fiber switching[2] How GMPLS works GMPLS is based on Generalized Labels. ISBN: 978-0-12-088422-3 External links • IETF Working Group: ccamp charter (http://datatracker. "OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)". The Generalized Label is a label that can represent either (a) a single fiber in a bundle. IETF. layer-2 switch. Lang. Kompella. or an ATM label. and D. [6] K. Differences between MPLS and GMPLS GMPLS differs from MPLS as it supports multiple types of switching. Katz.Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching 209 Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching The Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)[1] is a protocol suite extending MPLS to manage further classes of interfaces and switching technologies other than packet interfaces and switching. or (d) a set of time-slots within a wavelength (or fiber). and G. 2004. K. 2005. [5] D. V. Li. a Frame Relay label. 2005. RFC 4203. [2] L. Jan. RFC 3209. Swallow. Berger. [7] J. In particular. such as time division multiplex.ietf. IETF. IETF. 2003. GMPLS is composed of three main protocols: • Resource Reservation Protocol with Traffic Engineering extensions (RSVP-TE) signaling protocol. Further reading • Adrian Farrel. Oct. wavelength. "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) architecture". Awduche. Mannie. Berger. 2003. (b) a single waveband within fiber. (c) a single wavelength within a waveband (or fiber). IETF. RFC 3630. Dic. [3] D. Rekhter. 2001. RFC 3473.

IPv6. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4. this has a value of 1. GTP-C. to deactivate the same session. In most cases. UDP is either recommended or mandatory. to adjust quality of service parameters. except for tunnelling X. GTP-U is used for carrying user data within the GPRS Core Network and between the Radio Access Network and the core network.GPRS Tunnelling Protocol 210 GPRS Tunnelling Protocol GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) is a group of IP-based communications protocols used to carry General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) within GSM. It can be used for carrying charging data from the Charging Data Function (CDF) of the GSM or UMTS network to the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). Header GTP version 1 GTPv1 headers contain the following fields:[1] + Bit 0-2 3 4 5 6 7 8-15 16-23 24-31 0 Version Protocol type Reserved Extension Header Sequence Number N-PDU Number Flag Flag Flag TEID Sequence number Message Type Total length 32 64 N-PDU number Next extension header type Version It is a 3-bit field. GTP' (GTP prime) uses the same message structure as GTP-C and GTP-U. GTP version one is used only on UDP. GGSNs and CGFs within 3GPP networks. GTP-C is used within the GPRS core network for signaling between Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) and Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN). The structure of the messages is the same.25 in version 0. SGSNs. GPRS mobile stations (MSs) are connected to a SGSN without being aware of GTP. or to update a session for a subscriber who has just arrived from another SGSN. GTP can be decomposed into separate protocols. Protocol Type (PT) a 1-bit value that differentiates GTP (value 1) from GTP' (value 0). but has an independent function. General features All variants of GTP have certain features in common. Reserved a 1-bit reserved field (must be 0). or PPP formats. GTP can be used with UDP or TCP. . GTP-U and GTP'. This allows the SGSN to activate a session on a user's behalf (PDP context activation). UMTS and LTE networks. Different GTP variants are implemented by RNCs. with a GTP header following the UDP/TCP header. For GTPv1. this should mean from many individual network elements such as the GGSNs to a centralized computer that delivers the charging data more conveniently to the network operator's billing center.

. Length a 16-bit field that indicates the length of the payload in bytes (rest of the packet following the mandatory 8-byte GTP header). Tunnel endpoint identifier (TEID) A 32-bit(4-octet) field used to multiplex different connections in the same GTP tunnel.GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Extension header flag(E) a 1-bit value that states whether there is an extension header optional field. Sequence number flag(S) a 1-bit value that states whether there is a Sequence Number optional field. Contents extension header contents. This field exists if any of the E.. . It states the type of the next extension... Next extension header an 8-bit field. This field states the length of this extension header. Next Extension Headers are as follows: + 0 . . The field must be interpreted only if the S bit is on.. The length must be a multiple of 4. or PN bits are on. Contents Bits 1-7 Total length . in 4-octet units. The field must be interpreted only if the PN bit is on. or PN bits are on. The field must be interpreted only if the E bit is on. including the length. Message Type an 8-bit field that indicates the type of GTP message. N-PDU number flag(PN) a 1-bit value that states whether there is a N-PDU number optional field. S. or PN bits are on. Includes the optional fields. This field exists if any of the E. and the next extension header field. the contents. This field exists if any of the E. N-PDU number an (optional) 8-bit field. Next extension header 8-23 24-31 Contents 211 Length an 8-bit field. This permits chaining several next extension headers. S. S. Sequence number an (optional) 16-bit field. or 0 if no next extension exists. Next extension header type an (optional) 8-bit field..

GTP control The GTP-C protocol is the control section of the GTP standard. There are restrictions as to what type of message can be piggybacked depending on what the toplevel GTP-C message is. they effectively form three completely separate protocols.GPRS Tunnelling Protocol GTP version 2 GTPv2 headers contain the following fields: + 0 32 64 (32 if TEID not present) Bit 0-2 [2] 3 4 5-7 8-15 16-23 24-31 212 Version Piggybacking flag (P) TEID flag (T) Spare Message Type TEID (only present if T=1) Sequence number Total length Spare Piggybacking flag If this bit is set to 1 then another GTP-C message with its own header shall be present at the end of the current message. tunnel management and mobility management. GTP-C . there are no other messages common across all GTP variants[3] meaning that. When a subscriber requests a PDP context. SRNS context and creating forward tunnels during inter LTE handovers. maintaining and deleting tunnels on multiple Sx interfaces. If the other end does not respond it can be treated as down and active connections to it deleted. a GSN can send an echo request to every other GSN with which it has an active connection. • echo request • echo response As often as every 60 seconds. Connectivity mechanisms Apart from the common message structure. The GGSN will then respond with a create PDP context response GTP-C message which will either give details of the PDP context actually activated or will indicate a failure and give a reason for that failure. This is a UDP message on port 2123. TEID flag If this bit is set to 1 then the TEID field will be present between the message length and the sequence number. . It is used for the control plane path management. This uses two messages. All messages except Echo and Echo reply require TEID to be present. Apart from the two messages previously mentioned. It also controls forwarding relocation messages. for the most part. The eGTP-C protocol is responsible for creating. there is also a common mechanism for verifying connectivity from one GSN to another GSN. the SGSN will send a create PDP context request GTP-C message to the GGSN giving details of the subscriber's request.

. GGSNs and SGSNs (collectively known as GSNs) listen for GTP-C messages on UDP port 2123 and for GTP-U messages on port 2152. The separate tunnels are identified by a TEID (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier) in the GTP-U messages. Three forms of GTP are used by the GPRS core network. Within the GPRS core network GTP is the primary protocol used in the GPRS core network. including user data should be sent within secure private networks.GTP user data tunneling GTP-U is. It does this by carrying the subscriber's data from the subscriber's current SGSN to the GGSN which is handling the subscriber's session. the requirement of the 3GPP standard is that all GTP traffic. It is the protocol which allows end users of a GSM or UMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connect to the Internet as if from one location at the GGSN. each subscriber will have one or more tunnel. then it will provide a measure of security against certain attacks. The Charging Gateway Function (CGF) listens to GTP' messages sent from the GSNs on TCP/UDP port 3386. use proprietary encoding or even an entirely proprietary system. • GTP' for transfer of charging data from GSNs to the charging function. e. The core network sends charging information to the CGF. possibly separate tunnels for specific connections with different quality of service requirements. The eGTP-U protocol is used to exchange user data over GTP tunnels across the Sx interfaces. one for each PDP context they have active plus. probably across a GPRS roaming exchange (GRX). GTP' .. as subscribers move from one SGSN to another. not directly connected to the Internet. If this random number is of cryptographic quality.charging transfer The GTP' protocol is used to transfer charging data to the Charging Gateway Function. However. this communication which occurs within one network is less standardized and may. This communication happens within a single network or may. typically including PDP context activation times and the quantity of data which the end user has transferred. An IP packet for a UE is encapsulated in an EPC-specific protocol eGTPU and tunneled between the P-GW and the eNodeB for transmission with respect to a UE over S1-U and S5/S8 interfaces. in the case of international roaming.GPRS Tunnelling Protocol 213 GTP-U . Even so. in effect a relatively simple IP based tunneling protocol which permits many tunnels between each set of end points. When used in the UMTS. happen internationally. GTP' uses TCP/UDP port 3386. This happens on UDP port 2152. which should be a dynamically allocated random number. depending on the vendor and configuration options. • GTP-U for transfer of user data in separated tunnels for each PDP context • GTP-C for control reasons including: • setup and deletion of PDP contexts • verification of GSN reachability • updates.g.

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol

214

Use on the IuPS interface
GTP-U is used on the IuPS between the GPRS core network and the RAN, however the GTP-C protocol is not used. In this case, RANAP is used as a control protocol and establishes GTP-U tunnels between the SGSN and the radio network controller (RNC).

Protocol stack ???? IP (user) GTP UDP IP Layer 2 (e.g., WAN or Ethernet) GTP-U protocol stack
GTP can be used with UDP or TCP. GTP version one is used only on UDP. As of 2004 there are two versions defined, version 0 and version 1. Version 0 and version 1 differ considerably in structure. In version 0, the signalling protocol (the protocol which sets up the tunnels by activating the PDP context) is combined with the tunneling protocol on one port. Version 1 is actually effectively two protocols, one for control (called GTP-C) and one for user data tunneling (called GTP-U). GTP-U is also used to transport user data from the RNC to the SGSN in UMTS networks. However, in this case signalling is done using RANAP instead of GTP-C.

Historical GTP versions
The original version of GTP (version 0) had considerable differences from the current version (version 1): • • • • • the tunnel identification was non-random; options were provided for transporting X.25; the fixed port number 3386 was used for all functions (not just charging as in GTPv1); TCP was allowed as a transport option instead of UDP, but support for this was optional; subscription-related fields such as quality of service were more limited.

The non-random TEID in version 0 represented a security problem if an attacker had access to any roaming partner's network, or could find some other way to remotely send packets to the GPRS backbone. Version 0 is going out of use and being replaced by version 1 in almost all networks. Even so, the standard for the newer version states that the older version must be supported by the GSN. Fortunately, however the use of different port numbers allows easy blocking of version 0 through simple IP access lists.

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol

215

GTP standardization
GTP was originally standardized within ETSI (GSM standard 09.60). With the creation of the UMTS standards this was moved over to the 3GPP which, as of 2005 maintains it as 3GPP standard 29.060. GTP' uses the same message format, but its special uses are covered in standard 32.295 along with the standardized formats for the charging data it transfers. Later versions of TS 29.060 deprecate GTPv1/v0 interworking such that there is no fallback in the event that the GSN does not support the higher version. GTPv2 (for evolved packet services) went into draft in early 2008 and was released in December of that year. GTPv2 offers fallback to GTPv1 via the earlier "Version Not Supported" mechanism but explicitly offers no support for fallback to GTPv0.

Notes
[1] 3GPP TS 29.060 section 6 [2] 3GPP TS 29.274 section 5 [3] 3GPP TS 29.060 section 7

References
• GSM standard 09.60, ETSI, 1996-98, this standard covers the original version 0 of GTP. • 3GPP TS 29.060 V6.9.0 (2005-06), 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne - FRANCE, 2005-06. This is the primary standard defining all of the GTP variants for GTP version 1. • 3GPP TS 32.295 V6.1.0 (2005-06), 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne - FRANCE, 2005-06. This standard covers using GTP for charging. • 3GPP TS 29.274 V8.1.0 (2009-03), 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne - FRANCE, 2009-03. GTPv2 for evolved GPRS.

External links
• The 3GPP web site, home of the GTP standard (http://www.3gpp.org) • Free and open source implementation of GPRS Tunneling Protocol version 2 (GTPv2) or Evolved GTP (eGTP) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/nwgtpv2)

H4 (protocol)

216

H4 (protocol)
H4 is a transport protocol for Bluetooth HCI packets over UART. While the protocol doesn't have an official name, it is widely known as H4 because it was originally presented in the Bluetooth specification's appendix H4.

References

Handshaking
In information technology, telecommunications, and related fields, handshaking is an automated process of negotiation that dynamically sets parameters of a communications channel established between two entities before normal communication over the channel begins. It follows the physical establishment of the channel and precedes normal information transfer. It is usually a process that takes place when a computer is about to communicate with a foreign device to establish rules for communication. When a computer communicates with another device like a modem, printer, or network server, it needs to handshake with it to establish a connection. Handshaking can be used to negotiate parameters that are acceptable to equipment and systems at both ends of the communication channel, including, but not limited to, information transfer rate, coding alphabet, parity, interrupt procedure, and other protocol or hardware features. Handshaking is technique of communication between two entities. Handshaking makes it possible to connect relatively heterogeneous systems or equipment over a communication channel without the need for human intervention to set parameters. One classic example of handshaking is that of modems, which typically negotiate communication parameters for a brief period when a connection is first established, and thereafter use those parameters to provide optimal information transfer over the channel as a function of its quality and capacity. The "squealing" (which is actually a sound that changes in pitch 100 times every second) noises made by some modems with speaker output immediately after a connection is established are in fact the sounds of modems at both ends engaging in a handshaking procedure; once the procedure is completed, the speaker might be silenced, depending on the settings of operating system or the application controlling the modem.

Examples
The TLS Handshake Protocol is used to negotiate the secure attributes of a session. (RFC 5246, p.37)[1]

References
[1] "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol, version 1.2" (http:/ / tools. ietf. org/ html/ rfc5246). IEFT. .

ltg:Sasauksme

Header Error Control

217

Header Error Control
This is a bit error detection and correction mechanism used in data transmitter and receiver. The Header Error Control (HEC) is the last field in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode cell consisting of an 8-bit CRC of the cell's header only. It consists of the remainder of the division of the 32 bits of the header by the polynomial added 01010101 value is called a coset. This scheme is able to correct single-bit errors and detect many multiple-bit errors. For a tutorial and an example of computing the CRC see the Mathematics of CRCs page. pattern 01010101 is XORed with the 8-bit remainder before being inserted in the last octet of the header.
[1]

. The This

References
[1] "ATM User-Network Interface Specification V3.0" (http:/ / www. ipmplsforum. org/ ftp/ pub/ approved-specs/ af-uni-0010. 001. rtf). . Retrieved 2007-09-17.

Heartbeat message
A heartbeat message is a message sent from an originator to a destination that enables the destination to identify if and when the originator fails or is no longer available.[1] Heartbeat messages are typically sent non-stop on a periodic or recurring basis from the originator's start-up until the originator's shutdown. When the destination identifies a lack of heartbeat messages during an anticipated arrival period, the destination may determine that the originator has failed, shutdown, or is generally no longer available. Heartbeat messages may be used for high-availability and fault tolerance purposes.

References
[1] Brown et al. (1987-12-01). "US Patent 4,710,926" (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents/ about?id=gVQ3AAAAEBAJ). . Retrieved 2009-12-10.

Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol

218

Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol
HART Protocol Information Type of Network Physical Media Device Bus (Process Automation) Legacy 4-20 mA analog instrumentation wiring or 2.4GHz Wireless

Network Topology One-on-One, Multidrop, Wireless Mesh Maximum Devices 15 in multidrop Maximum Speed Depends on Physical Layer employed HART Communication Foundation www.hartcomm.org
[1]

Device Addressing Hardware/Software Governing Body Website

The HART Communications Protocol (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol) is an early implementation of Fieldbus, a digital industrial automation protocol. Its most notable advantage is that it can communicate over legacy 4-20 mA analog instrumentation wiring, sharing the pair of wires used by the older system. According to Emerson[2] , due to the huge installed base of 4-20 mA systems throughout the world, the HART Protocol was one of the most popular industrial protocols today. HART protocol made a good transition protocol for users who were comfortable using the legacy 4-20 mA signals, but wanted to implement a "smart" protocol. Industries seem to be using Profibus DP/PA and Foundation fieldbus (also by Rosemount) more as users become familiar with later technology and look to take advantage of the enhanced diagnostics they can provide. The protocol was developed by Rosemount Inc., built off the Bell 202 early communications standard, in the mid-1980s as proprietary digital communication protocol for their smart field instruments. Soon it evolved into HART. In 1986, it was made an open protocol. Since then, the capabilities of the protocol have been enhanced by successive revisions to the specification.

Modes
There are two main operational modes of HART instruments: analog/digital mode, and multidrop mode. In peer-to-peer mode (analog/digital) the digital signals are overlaid on the 4-20 mA loop current. Both the 4-20 mA current and the digital signal are valid output values from the instrument. The polling address of the instrument is set to "0". Only one instrument can be put on each instrument cable signal pair. One signal, generally specified by the user, is specified to be the 4-20mA signal. Other signals are sent digitally on top of the 4-20mA signal. For example, pressure can be sent as 4-20mA, representing a range of pressures, and temperature can be sent digitally over the same wires. In multi-drop mode (digital) only the digital signals are used. The analog loop current is fixed at 4 mA. In multidrop mode it is possible to have up to 15 instruments on one signal cable. The polling addresses of the instruments will be in the range 1-15. Each meter needs to have a unique address.

which limited the number of devices to 16 including the master.. .Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol 219 Packet Structure The HART Packet has the following structure Field Name Preamble Start Byte Address Command Length (Bytes) 5-20 1 1-5 1 Purpose Synchronization and Carrier Detect Specifies Master Number Specifies slave. Master communication to a new devices starts with the maximum preamble length (20 bytes) and is later reduced once the preamble size for the current device is determined. The newer scheme utilizes 38 bits to specify the device address.. Address Specifies the destination address as implemented in one of the HART schemes. The original addressing scheme used only 4 bits to specify the device address. since anything greater reduces the communication speed. This field is used by the slave to inform the master whether it completed the task and what its current health status is. Command 0 and Command 11 are used to request the device number Number of Data Bytes Specifies the number of communication data bytes to follow Status The status field is absent for the master and is 2 bytes for the slave. Start Delimiter This byte contains the Master number and specifies the communication packet is starting. or Command 11 Command This is a 1 byte numerical value representing which command is to be executed. masters are responsible for backwards support. This address is requested from the device using either Command 0. Specifies Master and Indicates Burst Mode Numerical Value for the command to be executed Indicates the size of the Data Field Number of Data Bytes 1 Status Data Checksum Master (0) Slave (2) Execution and Health Reply 0-253 1 Data associated with the command XOR of all bytes from Start Byte to Last byte of Data Preamble Currently all the newer devices implement 5 byte preamble. However.

including those bytes. four differential pairs for receive and transmit (SerDes). The physical signaling across the interface is XAUI. hartcomm.125 Gbit/s. The HiGig protocol supports various switching functions like Quality-of-Service (QoS). com/ corporate/ newscenter/ newsletters/ newsjune2007/ bridgingsolutionsforswitc. cfm . waveforms. automation. each operating at 3. HiGig+ is a higher rate version of HiGig.fieldata. HiGig can be compared to the Interlaken (networking) protocol. etc (http://www.hartcomm.com/Hart-Tools/UsingHartInExcel/ ExcelUsingHart. com/ content/ emerson-proves-advancements-in-eddl-electronic-device-description-language-technology''. External references SPI4.Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol 220 Data Data contained in this field depends on the command to be executed.org) • Detailed HART protocol description.analogservices. and others. link aggregation.pdf) • Hart Technology (Español) (http://www. latticesemi. Checksum Checksum is composed of an XOR of all the bytes starting from the Start Byte and Ending with the last byte of the data field. 2009-09-09 External links • HART Communications Foundation (http://www.com/ about_part0) • Example of using Hart even in Microsoft Excel (http://borst-automation.2 to XAUI/HiGig/HiGig+ Bridging Solutions with LatticeSCM FPGAs [1] References [1] http:/ / www. org/ [2] Emerson http:/ / www. rev. message structure.cl) Higig HiGig is a proprietary protocol that is implemented by Broadcom. References [1] http:/ / www.

which limits its scalability.11 MANETs [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / dx. 382568 http:/ / dx. 1109/ VETECS. hop-by-hop transport can achieve substantial performance gains. acm.Hop-by-hop transport 221 Hop-by-hop transport Hop-by-hop transport is a principle of controlling the flow of data in a network. 2006. doi. With hop-by-hop transport. External links • • • • On Leveraging Partial Paths in Partially-Connected Networks [1] End-to-end vs. However. 1109/ COMSWA. but rather some or all of the intermediate nodes as well. org/ citation. 5061906 http:/ / portal. org/ 10. org/ 10. Moreover. as under such conditions. cfm?id=1365589 http:/ / dx. hop-by-hop transport requires per-flow state information at intermediate nodes. doi. doi. hop-by-hop transport under intermittent connectivity [2] The Transport Layer Revisited [3] CAT: Contention Aware Transport Protocol for IEEE 802. it allows data to be forwarded even if the path between source and destination is not permanently connected during communication. 2009. org/ 10. chunks of data are forwarded from node to node in a store-and-forward manner. 1682879 . 1109/ INFCOM. the End-to-end principle claims that transport control should be implemented end-to-end unless implementing hop-by-hop transport achieves considerably better performance. Current research in the area of sparse mobile networks is considering hop-by-hop transport for application scenarios where end-to-end connectivity is only available intermittently. 2007. This is one of the reasons why almost all communication today is controlled by end-to-end transport protocols such as TCP. As hop-by-hop transport involves not only the source and destination node.

1 or Status line. such as HTTP/1.2.8 OpenSSL/0.8g Last-Modified: Sun. Response example This could be a response from the web server: HTTP/1.gif HTTP/1.9 [1] no headers are transmitted). Headers An empty line Optional HTTP message body data The request/status line and headers must all end with <CR><LF> (that is.2.HTTP body data 222 HTTP body data HTTP Persistence · Compression · HTTPS Request methods OPTIONS · GET · HEAD · POST · PUT · DELETE · TRACE · CONNECT Header fields Cookie · ETag · Location · Referer X-Forwarded-For Status codes 301 Moved permanently 302 Found 303 See Other 403 Forbidden 404 Not Found HTTP Body Data is the data bytes transmitted in an HTTP transaction message immediately following the headers if there is any (in the case of HTTP/0.9.8 (Ubuntu) mod_ssl/2.1 200 OK. 10 Oct 2010 23:26:07 GMT Server: Apache/2. HTTP message The request/response message consists of the following: • • • • Request line. such as GET /logo. The "optional HTTP message body data" is what this article defines. The empty line must consist of only <CR><LF> and no other whitespace. 26 Sep 2010 22:04:35 GMT ETag: "45b6-834-49130cc1182c0" Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 13 Connection: close Content-Type: text/html Hello world! . a carriage return followed by a line feed).1 200 OK Date: Sun.

[7] • Google added HTTP Live Streaming support in Android 3. iPad and iPod. and Al Jazeera English. the client may select from a number of different alternate streams containing the same material encoded at a variety of data rates. as part of their QuickTime X and iPhone software systems. Since its requests use only standard HTTP transactions.[6] • Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in IIS Media Services 4. Apple has documented HTTP Live Streaming as an Internet-Draft.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H. At the start of the streaming session. 2010 to stream their iPod Keynote event live over the internet. HTTP Live Streaming is capable of traversing any firewall or proxy server that lets through standard HTTP traffic. the first stage in the process of submitting it to the IETF as a proposed Internet standard. iPad and iPod. html HTTP Live Streaming HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based media streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. it downloads an extended M3U playlist containing the metadata for the various sub-streams which are available. while Apple has submitted occasional minor updates [1] to the draft. used this on September 1.2[4] • Netris iStream Video Server [5] supports HTTP Live streaming for live and on-demand streaming Usage • Adobe Systems demonstrated an update to its Adobe Flash Media Server product supporting HTTP Live Streaming at the NAB Show in April 2011 • Apple Inc. 2010 to stream their 'Back to the Mac' Keynote event live over the internet. • VLC Media Player will support HTTP Live Streaming for serving live and on-demand streams in version 1. no additional steps appear to have been taken towards IETF standardization. It works by breaking the overall stream into a sequence of small HTTP-based file downloads.[2] Emblaze has filed a patent suit that may be related to this technology. • Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3. and on October 20. Server implementations • TVersity supports HTTP Live streaming in conjunction with on-the-fly transcoding for playback of any video content on iOS devices. allowing the streaming session to adapt to the available data rate. w3.[8] .0. org/ Protocols/ HTTP/ AsImplemented. As the stream is played. • Akamai supports HTTP Dynamic Streaming for live and on-demand streams.0 Honeycomb. However.HTTP body data 223 References [1] http:/ / www. unlike UDP-based protocols such as RTP.264 and AAC content to iPhone. RT. • Wowza Media Server from Wowza Media Systems supports live and on-demand streaming. • VODOBOX Live Server [3] supports HTTP Live Streaming for iPhone. • IIS Media Services from Microsoft supports live and on-demand Smooth Streaming and HTTP Live Streaming. each download loading one short chunk of an overall potentially unbounded transport stream. This also allows a Content delivery network to easily be implemented for any given stream. • LiveStation streams numerous TV channels such as France 24.

Google Android 3.5 1.0 4.0 iOS 3.HTTP Live Streaming 224 Supported players and servers Clients Product Android SilverLive VLC iOS iPhone iPad iPod Touch QuickTime Player Roku Digital Video Player ZiXi player [13] [14] Flash iOS iOS iOS [10] Technology As Of Version 3.2 3.0 ZiXi (free software) apple‑http‑osmf Servers Product VLC IIS Media Services Adobe Flash Media Server TVersity Media Server Helix Universal Server QuickTime Streaming Server Wowza Media Server VODOBOX Live Server GravityLab Multimedia Apache HTTP Server [3] Apple HTTP Live Streaming Content Delivery Network 2011/05/13 [17] Technology As Of Version 1.0 Honeycomb Microsoft SilverLight All 1.9 RealNetworks Apple Wowza Media Systems Vodobox GravityLab Multimedia [18] [20] [17] [19] Apache Software Foundation .6 [12] Apple Apple Apple Apple Apple Roku [9] Vendor Google Fat Attitude [11] note [12] Notes Apple iOS.0 10+ Roku OS / SDK 2.2 [12] Microsoft Adobe [15] TVersity [16] Pro Edition only Vendor Notes [7] 4.2 iOS 3.0 All with iOS 3.

html [10] http:/ / www. "Apple launches HTTP Live Streaming standard in iPhone 3. com/ sdk/ android-3. [3] http:/ / www. 0-highlights. aspx?ArticleID=71108& PageNum=1).com. ru/ en/ products/ 2009-02-24-12-38-43/ ipsoft-istream. wikipedia. VideoLAN Wiki. com/ iphone. com/ [12] https:/ / trac. Ars Technica. netris. . vodobox. fatattitude. • Internet-Draft: HTTP Live Streaming: draft-pantos-http-live-streaming (http://tools.appleinsider. google. [5] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-10. html http:/ / www. livestation.html). org/ vlc/ ticket/ 2943 [13] http:/ / www. [8] "Android 3. org/ wiki/ Apache_Software_Foundation External links • GravityLab Multimedia. com/ index.ars). July 8. com/ http:/ / www. html [4] "Streaming HowTo: Streaming for the iPhone" (http:/ / wiki.com/web/news/2009/07/apple-proposes-http-streaming-feature-as-a-protocol-standard. . Anne van Kesteren.HTTP Live Streaming 225 References [1] http:/ / datatracker. • Chris Foresman (July 9. Retrieved 2009-07-10. "Apple proposes HTTP streaming feature as protocol standard" (http:// arstechnica. videolan.html).0 Platform Highlights" (http:/ / developer.com/Articles/ReadArticle.com/articles/09/07/08/ apple_launches_http_live_streaming_standard_in_iphone_3_0. Apple Insider. Retrieved 30 July 2011. html [6] http:/ / m. php). aspx?ArticleID=71108&PageNum=1). streamingmedia. StreamingMedia. html). [9] http:/ / developer. org/ wiki/ Apache_HTTP_Server http:/ / en. Retrieved 21 May 2011. • Daniel Eran Dilger (Wednesday. nl/ 2010/ 09/ draft-vs-standard). com/releases/http-live-streaming/shoutcast/prweb2972154. com/ http:/ / en. an Apple HTTP Live Streaming Service Provider (http://www. org/ doc/ draft-pantos-http-live-streaming/ history/ [2] "Internet Drafts are not Open Standards" (http:/ / annevankesteren. gravlab.gravlab.com/pr/library/2010/08/ 31alert. us [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] http:/ / code. 0-highlights. 2009). zixi. com/ sdk/ android-3. wikipedia. . Retrieved 30 July 2011.htm) • Apple to Provide Live Video Streaming of September 1 Event (http://www. com/ Articles/ ReadArticle.prweb. aspx [11] http:/ / www. . html?content=home_live_server. videolan. ietf.apple.0" (http://www. com/ channels [7] "First Look: Microsoft IIS Media Services 4" (http:/ / www.com/index.org/html/ draft-pantos-http-live-streaming) • Backbone Networks supports http live streaming in its Internet Radio Automation system (http://www. 2009). fatattitude. com/ on-the-fly-transcoding-for-the-iphoneipad-is-here/ http:/ / tversity.ietf. com/ software/ software-about-silverlive.streamingmedia. android. • "First Look: Microsoft IIS Media Services 4" (http://www. com/ p/ apple-http-osmf/ http:/ / tversity. gravlab. org/ Documentation:Streaming_HowTo/ Streaming_for_the_iPhone). android. .

2007. and all the other problems that the TCP/IP suite addresses. 2003). [3] Gongye Zhou.net/doc/2003/research/soip. doi:10. September 26. reassembly. Peng Chen (July 31.[2] The similar ATA over Ethernet technology was based on a cheap technology. slac. CESNET.L. Architecture. edu. Since HyperSCSI was in direct competition with the older and well established Fibre Channel. "RH-SCSI: A Reliable HyperSCSI Protocol for Networking Storage".byteandswitch. 2007). . edu/ econf/ C0303241/ proc/ papers/ TUDP001. this was meant to give a performance benefit at the cost of IP's flexibility. "Performance comparison between iSCSI and other hardware and software solutions" (http:/ / www. 2011. doi:10.com/document. ISBN 0-7695-2927-5.C.[3] Another version called HS/IP was developed over the Internet Protocol (IP). 2011. Compared to iSCSI. International Conference on Networking. Retrieved May 5.Y. Retrieved May 5. Retrieved May 5. External links • "Research report 2003: Storage over IP (HyperSCSI)" (http://www. Yeo. H. 2011. [2] Mathias Gug (March 24. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Networks (IEEE): 48–52.1109/NAS. Retrieved May 5. Some researchers at Huazhong University of Science and Technology noted the failure to provide any transport layer protocol. 2011.asp?doc_id=40846).ces. Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (La Jolla. ISBN 0-7803-8783-X. including an introduction and features of HyperSCSI. Wang. so implemented a reliability layer in 2007. Chong (November 19. 2004).1409086. Data Storage Institute. a-star. and a comparison with iSCSI • "What the Heck Is HyperSCSI?" (http://www.45.[4] References [1] W. Byte and Switch.N. retransmission. Zhu. stanford. asp?cid=15006& Lid=0).HyperSCSI 226 HyperSCSI HyperSCSI was a computer network protocol for accessing storage by sending and receiving SCSI commands. . dsi. and Storage 2007 (IEEE): 29–31. T. It was developed by researchers at the Data Storage Institute in Singapore in 2000 to 2003.[1] HyperSCSI is unlike iSCSI in that it bypassed the internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) and works directly over Ethernet to form its Storage area network. it was not adopted by commercial vendors.2004. California). It skipped the routing. and the standardized iSCSI. segmentation. .html). PDF). "Network Storage Technology Division: HyperSCSI Overview" (http:/ / www. Czech Academy of Sciences. An independent performance test showed that performance was unstable with network congestion.H. [4] Wang Yonghong. 2003.1109/ICON. Y. "Design and development of Ethernet-based storage area network protocol". sg/ main/ dev/ mainPage.

APPN was meant to complement IBM's Systems Network Architecture. APPN evolved to include a more efficient data routing layer which was called High Performance Routing (HPR). APPN was originally meant to be a "DECNET killer". htm .IBM Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking 227 IBM Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) is an extension to the Systems Network Architecture (SNA). ibm. reconfiguration. in particular in migration situations. Today. a legacy from the mainframe era. and route selection • dynamic definition of network resources • automated resource registration and directory lookup. APPN has been completely superseded by TCP/IP (Internet). References • APPN [1]. but it turned out to be utterly complex. The designation peer-to-peer in the case of APPN refers to its independence from a central point of control. It was designed as a simplification. Note that APPN has nothing to do with controversial peer-to-peer file sharing software such as KaZaa or Napster. com/ app/ aiwhome. networking. IBM References [1] http:/ / www. but DEC actually died before APPN was completed. but today is typically used only within IBM's z/OS environments as a replacement for legacy SNA networks. It seems to be still widely used within UDP tunnels. similar to the way that a FireWire PC connection allows a video camera to talk directly to a disk drive on the FireWire network. this technology is known as Enterprise Extender. of course. HPR was made available across a range of enterprise corporation networking products in the late 1990s. It includes features such as these: • distributed network control • dynamic exchange of network topology information to foster ease of connection.

APPC serves as a translator between application programs and the network.IBM Advanced Program-to-Program Communication 228 IBM Advanced Program-to-Program Communication In computing. com/ abstracts/ GG244485. APPC translates the information back into its original format and passes it to the corresponding partner application.2 ) APPC is to a large extent limited to the IBM operating systems such AS/400. The role. the communication partners in APPC are equal. With the wide success of TCP/IP. When an application on your computer passes information to the APPC software. 'snasvcmg'). Communication of the data is made then by 'data sessions'. their log modes can be determined in detail from the VTAM administrator (e. APPC has declined. Major IBM software products have included support for APPC. APPC was developed as a component of IBM's Systems Network Architecture or SNA. Advanced Program to Program Communication or APPC is a protocol which computer programs can use to communicate over a network. where the APPC software receives the information from the network interface. Several APIs were developed for programming languages such as COBOL or REXX.e. redbooks. such as a LAN adapter card. length of the data blocks. APPC is at the application layer in the OSI model. It is still a major part of "mainframe" (ie IBM 360/370/4300 "Z" systems) communications.g.2 ( Logical unit type 6. at IBM. in which both communication partners always possess a clear role (one is always server. from portables and workstations to midrange and host computers. APPC translates the information and passes it to a network interface. and the number of the parallel sessions between the partners. and others always the client). either as part of the operating system or as a separate software package. it enables communications between programs on different computers. i. everyone can be both servers and clients equally. CIM. The information travels across the network to another computer. html?Open . coding etc. although many IBM systems have translators (such as the iSeries' ANYNET) to allow sending APPC-formatted traffic using Ethernet for the physical connection. ibm. DB2. Unlike TCP/IP. Microsoft also included SNA support in Microsoft's Host Integration Server. External links • IBM APPC [1] • APPN Implementers Workshop [1] References [1] http:/ / www.. WebSphere MQ and MVS. is negotiated over so-called 'CNOS' sessions (Change Number Of Session) with a special log mode (e. APPC software is available for many different IBM and non-IBM operating systems.g. including CICS. APPC is linked with the term LU 6. OS/2 and AIX.).

APPC is the protocol used with LU6. Other vendors also implemented LU6. External links • CPIC Reference Manual [1] References [1] http:/ / publib. LU6.2 are: Microsoft's Host Integration Server. the actual API implementation often varied on each IBM platform which implemented it. and Netware for SAA. terminal or printer). IBM later defined the "Common Programming Interface .2-compliant devices operate as peers within the network and can perform multiple simultaneous transactions over the network.2 features.2 in their own products and with their own APIs.2 definition provides a common API for communicating with and controlling compliant devices. LU6.2 devices can also detect and correct errors. for example. The LU6. A device-independent SNA protocol.2 is an IBM-originated communications protocol specification dating from 1974. LU6.2 Logical Unit 6.2 is used by many of IBM's products. CPIC allowed for the authoring of multi-platform code. it is used for peer-to-peer communications between two systems. Although the concepts were the same on all platforms. or between computers. including Common Programming Interface for Communications Intersystem Communications (CICS ISC). and is part of IBM's Systems Network Architecture.2 architecture.IBM LU6. com/ infocenter/ iseries/ v5r3/ topic/ books/ c2643999. Contrast to LU0. pdf . and Information Management System. boulder. Some examples of a non-IBM product which implemented the SNA stack including LU6. LU2 and LU3 of the IBM Systems Network Architecture.Communications" (CPIC) API which would eventually become widely implemented.2 architecture or to specific LU6. between a computer and a device (e.g.2 229 IBM LU6. ibm. APPC is often used to refer to the LU6.

com/ journal/ sj/ 151/ ibmsj1501E. Polling and addressing of the cluster controllers was performed by the NCP without mainframe intervention. ibm. A robust market of smaller companies continues to provide the 3745/3746. Retrieved 2006-08-26. Further reading • W. features. Instead a connection was made through a local NCP via SNA packet switching. It caused the machine to become an IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Physical Unit Type 4 (PU4). as is the IBM Network Control Program (NCP) required by the 3745/3746 controllers. S. The difficulties included: • A communications line could not be shared by terminals whose users wished to use different types of application. Vol 15.000 of these controllers installed and IBM continues to provide hardware maintenance service and micro code features to support users. . An expansion of interactive terminal based-systems would increase sales of terminals and more importantly of mainframe computers and peripherals . parts and service. The implementation of SNA takes the form of various communications packages. or 3745. 3705. IBM 3725. for example one which ran under the control of CICS and another which ran under TSO. the 3745/3746 communications controller has been withdrawn from marketing by the IBM Corporation. A local NCP connected to a System/370 channel via single address.partly because of the simple increase in the volume of work done by the systems and partly because interactive processing requires more computing power per transaction than batch processing.[1] It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources. Hence SNA aimed to reduce the main non-computer costs and other difficulties in operating large networks using earlier communications protocols. as well as in many government agencies. IBM 3720. one of the primary pieces of hardware. SNA describes the protocol and is. However. most notably Virtual telecommunications access method (VTAM) which is the mainframe package for SNA communications. No 1. NCP provided the link control and Network layer functions of a Wide area network. References [1] http:/ / www. there are an estimated 20. in itself. not actually a program. research. VTAM is also supported by IBM. Hobgood (1976). SNA is still used extensively in banks and other financial transaction networks. pdf IBM Systems Network Architecture Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. A PU4 usually had SDLC links to remote cluster controllers (PU1/PU2) and optional SDLC links to other PU4s. A remote NCP had no direct connection to a mainframe.IBM Network Control Program 230 IBM Network Control Program The IBM Network Control Program (NCP) ran on an IBM 3704. Objectives of SNA IBM in the mid-1970s saw itself mainly as a hardware vendor and hence all its innovations in that period aimed to increase hardware sales. While IBM is still providing support for SNA. The role of the Network Control Program in Systems Network Architecture [1]. IBM Systems Journal. SNA's objective was to reduce the costs of operating large numbers of terminals and thus induce customers to develop or expand interactive terminal based-systems as opposed to batch systems.

under CICS or TSO) from the same location.000 bits per second today on dial-up lines. Every type of terminal had a hard-wired communications card which supported only the operation of one type of terminal without compatibility with other types of terminals on the same line. Thus the number of terminals with which powerful mainframe could otherwise communicate is severely limited. Each CPU could connect to at most 16 "channels" (devices which acted as controllers for peripherals such as tape and disk drives. In purely financial terms SNA's objectives were to increase customers' spending on terminal-based systems and at the same time to increase IBM's share of that spending. • Telecommunications lines at the time were of much lower quality. The communications processors supported only hierarchical networks with a mainframe at the center. unlike modern routers which support peer-to-peer networks in which a machine at the end of the line can be both a client and a server at the same time. it was almost impossible to run a dial-up line at more than 300 bits per second because of the overwhelming error rate. implemented in 3705 communications processors. • It is a multiplexer that connected multiple terminals into one communication line to the CPU. as comparing with 56. of which IBM's SNA and ITU-T's X. Since the launch of SNA IBM has introduced improved communications processors. • The protocols which the primitive communications cards could handle were not efficient. computer components were so expensive and bulky that it was not feasible to include all-purpose communications interface cards in terminals. SNA also aimed to overcome a limitation of the architecture which IBM's System/370 mainframes inherited from System/360. card-readers) and each channel could handle up to 16 peripherals .forwarding data packages to the next node.g. Up to the early 1970s.25 became dominant later.i. printers. acting like modern switch .e. which might be a mainframe. of which the latest is the 3745. For example. a protocol which greatly improved the efficiency of data transfer over a single link:[2] • SDLC included much more powerful error detection and correction codes than earlier protocols. • Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC). A 3705 could support a larger number of lines (352 initially) but only counted as one peripheral by the CPUs and channels. and in the early 1970s few leased lines were run at more than 2400 bits per second (these low speeds are a consequence of Shannon's Law in a relatively low-technology environment). 231 Principal components and technologies Improvements in computer component technology made it feasible to build terminals that included more powerful communications cards which could operate a single standard communications protocol rather than a very stripped-down protocol which suited only a specific type of terminal. The protocol performed two main functions: • It is a packet forwarding protocol.IBM Systems Network Architecture • Often a communications line could not be shared by terminals of different types. As a result running a large number of terminals required a lot more communications lines than the number required today. because at the time they were mostly monopolies and sometimes state-owned. mainly at the expense of the telecommunications companies. as they used different "dialects" of the existing communications protocols. At the time when SNA was designed. each communications line counted as a peripheral. thus relieved the constraints on the maximum number of communication lines per CPU. a terminal or another 3705. The most important elements of SNA include: • IBM Network Control Program (NCP) is a primitive switching protocol. and therefore made it possible to pump data down a line much faster. As a result several multi-layer communications protocols were proposed in the 1970s. These codes often enabled the communications cards to correct minor transmission errors without requesting re-transmission. especially if different types of terminals needed to be supported. Each communications line used more time transmitting data than modern lines do. . or the users wanted to use different types of applications (.e. Telecommunications companies had little incentive to improve line quality or reduce costs. there was maximum of 256 peripherals per CPU.

• Adding communication capability to an application program was much easier because the formidable area of link control software that typically requires interrupt processors and software timers was relegated to system software and NCP.IBM Systems Network Architecture • It enabled terminals and 3705 communications processors to send "frames" of data one after the other without waiting for an acknowledgement of the previous frame . Each computer maintained a list of Nodes that defined the forwarding mechanisms. In the 1980s further software (mainly from third-party vendors) made it possible for a terminal to have simultaneous sessions with different applications or application environments. those connected to the mainframe by telephone lines) and 3705 communications processors would have SDLC-capable communications cards. and slot the re-transmitted frames into the right place in the sequence before forwarding them to the next stage. APPN sessions would route to endpoints through other allowed node types until it found the destination. . A centralized node type known as a Network Node maintained Global tables of all other node types. A terminal user would log-in via VTAM to a specific application or application environment (e.g. • VTAM. routing functionality was the responsibility of the computer as opposed to the router (as with TCP/IP networks). A VTAM device would then route data from that terminal to the appropriate application or application environment until the user logged out and possibly logged in to another application. CICS or TSO). This is the precursor of the so called "packet communication" that eventually evolved into today's IP technology. and SDLC itself evolved into HDLC[4] that is one of the base technology for dedicated telecommunication circuit. leaving the mainframe to deal with any differences in the formatting of the content or in the rules governing dialogs with different types of terminal. The original versions of IBM hardware could only keep one session per terminal. Remote terminals (i. • These frames all had the same type of "envelope" (frame header and trailer)[3] which contained enough information for data packages from different types of terminal to be send along the same communications line.the communications cards had sufficient memory and processing capacity to "remember" the last 7 frames sent or received.e. request re-transmission of only those frames which contained errors that the error detection and correction codes could not repair. 232 Advantages and disadvantages SNA removed link control from the application program and placed it in the NCP. There was a single error reporting system. This was similar to the way that TCP/IP routers function today. APPN stopped the need to maintain APPC routing tables that explicitly defined endpoint to endpoint connectivity. This had the following advantages and disadvantages: Advantages • Localization of problems in the telecommunications network was easier because a relatively small amount of software actually dealt with communication links. session keeping and routing services within the mainframe. a software package to provide log-in. • With the advent of APPN.

LU1 devices are printers. in the finance industry until the late 1980s. APPN added a new dimension to state logic with its concept of differing node types. Conversion between X.IBM Systems Network Architecture 233 Disadvantages • Connection to non-SNA networks was difficult. LU4 devices are batch terminals. • The design of SNA was in the era when the concept of layered communication was not fully adopted by the computer industry. SNA defines several kinds of devices. And SNA IBM 3745 Communications Controllers typically cost over $100K.g. in the early days many shops abandoned it due to issues found in APPN support. provide services to manage a network or subnetwork (typically in the mainframe). That was very common for the products created in that time. Over time. SNA software licences (VTAM) cost as much as $10000 a month for high-end systems. to make it difficult to maintain or manage. screen sizes and layout). called Logical Unit types:[6] • • • • • LU0 provides for undefined devices. which was not supported in the current version of SNA. • Logical Units. there was still a need for manual intervention. . Attempts to reduce SNA network complexity by adding IBM Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking functionality were not really successful. Before IBM included X. without providing much additional value. LU2 devices are dumb IBM 3270 display terminals. • Physical Units. While it was solid when everything was running correctly. • A sheaf of alternate pathways between every pair of nodes in a network had to be predesigned and stored centrally. • SNA's connection based architecture invoked huge state machine logic to "keep track" of everything. as the application must take the functionality of the terminal equipment into account (e. at least initially. TCP/IP was still seen as unfit for commercial applications e. many of the issues were worked out but not before the advent of the Web Browser which was the beginning of the end for SNA. SNA essentially offers transparent communication: equipment specifics don't impose any constraints onto LU-LU communication. a physical device or communications link (relating to boxes). databases and communication functions were mingled into the same protocol or product. An application which needed access to some communication scheme. They are distinguished further as follows:[5] • System Service Control Points. connecting to an X. But eventually it serves a purpose to make a distinction between LU types. an access point to the network (relating to applications or subsystems such as CICS and TSO) or terminals. Applications. but rapidly took over in the 1990s due to its peer-to-peer networking and packet communication technology it deployed. Logical unit types Network Addressable Units in an SNA network are any components that can be assigned an address and can send and receive information. if only because the migration from traditional SNA to SNA/APPN was very complex.g. APPN wasn't without issues. faced obstacles. or build your own protocol. X window system was designed with the same model where communication protocols were embedded into graphic display application. LU3 devices are printers using 3270 protocols. Choice among these pathways by SNA was rigid and did not take advantage of current link loads for optimum speed.25 and SNA protocols could have been provided either by NCP software modifications or by an external protocol converter. Even after TCP/IP was fully developed.25 support (NPSI) in SNA. however. Simple things like watching the Control Point sessions had to be done manually.25 network would have been awkward. • SNA network installation and maintenance are complicated and SNA network products are (or were) expensive.

and LU6. and by System/360 and System/370 and their VTAM and other software such as CICS and IMS. p. p. and the new models of the IBM 3270 display system.2 (an advanced protocol for application to application conversations). The details were later made public by IBM's System Reference Library manuals and IBM Systems Journal. • LU6 provides for protocols between two applications. the IBM 3790 communication system. [5] (Schatt 1991. Bull mainframes are fitted with Mainway for translating DSA to TCP/IP and VIP devices are replaced by TNVIP Terminal Emulations (GLink. 228–229). The 3745 supports up to eight high-speed T1 circuits. 1974. and the 3720 is a remote node that functions as a concentrator and router. 313). p. Competitors The proprietary networking architecture for Honeywell Bull mainframes is Distributed Systems Architecture (DSA). GCOS 8 supports TNVIP SE over TCP/IP. which introduced the IBM 3760 data entry station. p. p. [3] (Pooch 1983. SNA was mainly designed by the IBM Systems Development Division laboratory in Research Triangle Park. 310). Like SNA. 234 Implementation and publication SNA was made public as part of IBM's "Advanced Function for Communications" announcement in September. 191). DSA is also no longer supported for client access. there is the 3270 data stream mainly used by mainframes (zSeries family) and the 5250 data stream mainly used by minicomputers/servers such as the S/36. and AS/400 (now System i). This announcement was followed by another announcement in July. S/38. • LU7 provides for sessions with IBM 5250 terminals. Winsurf). 229). pp. USA. which included the implementation of the SNA/SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) protocols on new communications products: • IBM 3767 communication terminal (printer) • IBM 3770 data communication system They were supported by IBM 3704/3705 communication controllers and their Network Control Program. The term 37xx refers to IBM's family of SNA communications controllers. . 227). LU2. Notes [1] (Schatt 1991. Communications package for DSA is VIP. [6] (Schatt 1991. SNA for client-access is no longer supported. Within SNA there are two types of data stream to connect local terminals and printers. helped by other laboratories that implemented SNA/SDLC.IBM Systems Network Architecture • LU5 has never been defined. [4] (Friend 1988.2 of OS/400. North Carolina. Starting from version 5. 1975. [2] (Pooch 1983. The primary ones in use are LU1. the 3725 is a large-scale node and front-end processor for a host.

Telecommunications and Networking.ibm.[5] smart grid. The 2. Bellamy (1988). ISBN 0-8306-3755-9. Fike.[2] The standard has also been adopted for additional use cases of data-sharing including physical security. Linking LANs: A Micro Manager's Guide. Stan (1991). McGraw-Hill. History The IF-MAP protocol was first published by the TCG on April 28.. Originally. Moss (1983). H.). 2008. External links • Cisco article on SNA (http://www.0 version separated the base protocol from the metadata definitions that standardize how different types of information are represented. a database server acting as a clearinghouse for information about security events and objects.[6] .protocols. to leverage their existing data models within the MAP framework. 2010.[4] Industrial Control Systems. Sams & Company.IBM Systems Network Architecture 235 References • Friend. John C. Greene. Charles Baker. Understanding Data Communications (2nd Edition ed. IF-MAP provides a common interface between the Metadata Access Point (MAP).. William H. Boston: Little.networking.0 of the IF-MAP spec was published on September 13.htm) Architecture Document repository • SNA protocols (http://www.cisco. Indianapolis: Howard W. • Schatt. John L.com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/ IBM-SNA-Protocols. such cloud computing.[3] Version 2. • Pooch.com/app/aiwhome. The goal in separating the base protocol from the metadata definitions within the standard was to allow the standard to be adopted across other technologies.html) • APPN Implementers Workshop (http://www. George E. ISBN 0-672-27270-9.com/pbook/sna. ISBN 0-316-71498-4.[1] The IF-MAP protocol defines a publish/subscribe/search mechanism with a set of identifiers and data types. and other elements of the TNC architecture. Udo W. Gary G.htm) quite technical IF-MAP The Interface for Metadata Access Points (IF-MAP) is an open standard client/server protocol developed by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) as one of the core protocols of the Trusted Network Connect (TNC) open architecture. Brown and Company. the IF-MAP specification was developed to support data sharing across various vendor’s devices and applications for network security.

Insightix [10] BSA Business Security Assurance suite. Infoblox [9] Core Network Services Appliances and Orchestration (IF-MAP) Server. IF-MAP Adoption IF-MAP is supported by a variety of vendors: • • • • • • • • • Great Bay [8] Beacon endpoint profiler. hirschelectronics. LogiSense [13] Billing & OSS / Network Access Control. com/ Articles/ Online_Exclusives/ BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000886666 [4] http:/ / opencloudconsortium. if-map. “Computing Now”. Ellen. IDG Publishing. strongswan. IDG Publishing. securitymagazine. networkworld. com [12] http:/ / www. tofinosecurity. insightix. computer. com [9] http:/ / www.COM [7] is expected to serve as a platform for innovators collaborating and contributing to the IF-MAP world. • Beliles.IF-MAP 236 IF-MAP Community IF-MAP. “Technology for Securing a “Seat” at the Executive Table” [3]. org/ portal/ web/ computingnow/ archive/ news065 [2] http:/ / www. • “IF-MAP Based Intercloud Testbed In Planning” [15] • “Securing SCADA and Control Networks” [5] • Messmer. Lumeta IPsonar network discovery solutions. com [8] http:/ / www. External links • Trusted Computing Group [16] • TNC IF-MAP Binding for SOAP Specification [17] • IF-MAP Developer Resources [18] • omapd Opensource IF-MAP Server [19] References [1] http:/ / www. Brad. logisense. networkworld. • Reed. “Network World Magazine”. infoblox. “Trusted Computing Group eyes cloud security framework” [6]. automation. Robert. com [10] http:/ / www. html [7] http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2008/ 042808-interop-tcg. “New Protocol Improves Interaction among Networked Devices and Applications” [1]. “Network World Magazine”. George. Hirsch Electronics [11] Velocity Physical Access Control System Byres Security’s Tofino [12] industrial security gateways. Launched in December 2010. “NAC group expands its scope” [2]. strongSwan [14] Open Source IPsec VPN Gateway with IF-MAP Interface. org/ 2010/ 02/ 22/ if-map-based-intercloud-testbed [5] http:/ / www. Juniper Networks Unified Access Control (UAC) and SSL VPN appliances (SA). com [13] http:/ / www.com is the meeting place for IF-MAP Community. com/ news/ 2010/ 091310-trusted-computing-group-cloud-security. BNP Media. IF-MAP. com/ content/ securing-scada-and-control-networks [6] https:/ / www. “Security Magazine”. com [11] http:/ / www. com [14] http:/ / wiki. org/ projects/ strongswan/ wiki/ IfMap . References • Lawton. html [3] http:/ / www. greatbaysoftware. IEEE Computer Society.

high performance Adaptive timeouts As of the Fourth Edition of Plan 9. trustedcomputinggroup. bell-labs. It is assigned the Internet Protocol number of 40. org [17] http:/ / www. Its main features are: • • • • • Reliable datagram service In-sequence delivery Internetworking using IP Low complexity. com/ sys/ doc/ release4.[1] External links • Dave Presotto. 2003. Phil Winterbottom. com [19] http:/ / code.IF-MAP [15] http:/ / opencloudconsortium. "The IL protocol" [2]. It is similar to TCP but much simpler. org/ 2010/ 02/ 22/ if-map-based-intercloud-testbed/ [16] http:/ / www. org/ resources/ tnc_ifmap_binding_for_soap_specification [18] http:/ / ifmapdev. google. com/ p/ omapd 237 IL (network protocol) The Internet Link protocol or IL is a connection-based transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs originally as part of the Plan 9 operating system and is used to carry 9P.—The original paper describing IL References [1] http:/ / plan9. IL is deprecated in favor of TCP/IP because it doesn't handle long-distance connections well. trustedcomputinggroup. html [2] http:/ / doc. cat-v. org/ plan_9/ 4th_edition/ papers/ il/ .

Inter-server 238 Inter-server In computer network protocol design. formerly named Jabber). inter-server communication is an extension of the client–server model in which data are exchanged directly between servers. Site users generally gain the benefit of anonymous property searching and review. limiting the data to that which is deemed publicly accessible. The benefits to clients is to save time and refine their targets. A common and standard data exchange protocol for IDX information is the Real Estate Transaction Specification or RETS. The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP. Certain rules apply to the real estate companies' ability to display each detail about a property. and qualify themselves before contacting the realtor. SILC. This system benefits both parties. establish some confidence. SIP. These "display rules" are set by the Multiple Listing Service organization. which uses an inter-server protocol for zone transfers. The benefit to realtors is that users of their IDX web site can search freely. a signaling protocol commonly used for Voice over IP. The IRC. The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). The Inter-Asterisk eXchange (IAX). The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). which generally forms its policy around the recommendations of the National Association of Realtors. a secure Internet conferencing protocol. The Protocol for SYnchronous Conferencing (PSYC). Internet Data Exchange An Internet Data Exchange (IDX) is a real estate property search site which allows the public to conduct searches of approved Multiple Listing Service properties in a certain area. IDX policy is nearing its replacement by a new Internet Listing Display policy being formed by the National Association of Realtors. IDX sites usually provide less detailed information than the full Realtor Multiple Listing Service. InterMUD. In some fields server-to-server (S2S) is used as an alternative. an Internet chat system with an inter-server protocol allowing clients to be distributed across many servers. and the term inter-domain can in some cases be used interchangeably. Protocols that have inter-server functions as well as the regular client–server communications include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • The domain name system (DNS). . allowing file transfer directly between FTP servers. Some of these protocols employ multicast strategies to efficiently deliver information to multiple servers at once. FXP.

A Protocol for Internet Fibre Channel Storage Networking (iFCP) Other Links • iFCP Information Page [1] at the SNIA IP Storage Forum. org/ forums/ ipsf/ programs/ about/ ifcp/ [2] http:/ / www. The method of address translation defined and the protocol permit fibre channel storage devices and host adapters to be attached to an IP-based fabric using transparent gateways. References [1] http:/ / www. realestatehomesomaha. 8 Gbit/s. javvin. Currently the most common comes in 1 Gbit/s.Internet Data Exchange 239 External links • IDX (Internet Data Exchange) Information and Resources [1]. officially ratified by the Internet Engineering Task Force. snia. com/ idx_qanda_wiki. php [3] http:/ / www. • Protocol Summary [3] by javin. org/ tech_activities/ ip_storage/ ifcp/ [3] http:/ / www.com. within which the fibre channel switching and routing infrastructure is replaced by IP components and technology. The iFCP protocol layer's main function is to transport Fibre Channel frame images between Fibre Channel ports attached both locally and remotely. error detection and recovery are provided through the use of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). com Internet Fibre Channel Protocol Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) is a gateway-to-gateway network protocol standard. 2 Gbit/s. Technical overview The iFCP protocol enables the implementation of fibre channel functionality over an IP network. iFCP encapsulates and routes the fibre channel frames that make up each Fibre Channel information unit via a predetermined TCP connection for transport across the IP network when transporting frames to a remote Fibre Channel port. • iFCP Subgroup [2] at the SNIA IP Storage Forum. idxbroker. nsf/ pages/ IDX?OpenDocument [2] http:/ / www. realtor. snia. which provides Fibre Channel fabric functionality to fibre channel devices over an IP network. 4 Gbit/s. org/ MemPolWeb. 10 Gbit/s variants. External links RFCs • RFC 4172 . html . Congestion control. com/ protocoliFCP. The primary objective of iFCP is to allow existing fibre channel devices to be networked and interconnected over an IP based network at wire speeds. National Association of Realtors • What is IDX/Broker Reciprocity? [2] • Sample IDX Website [3] References [1] http:/ / www.

archive. UPnP Forum. microsoft. It is a common method of automatically configuring port forwarding. and remote assistance programs need a way to communicate through home and business gateways. Archived copy [5] Free. org/ specs/ gw/ igd2/ http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20070814012159/ http:/ / www.0" [1]. mspx [6] http:/ / miniupnp. ppt http:/ / www. BSD-licensed ANSI C library to control a Universal Plug and Play Internet Gateway Device or NAT-PMP [6] • Linux implementation of an Internet gateway device server [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / upnp. microsoft. upnp. Retrieved 2011-03-02. "Internet Gateway Device (IGD) V 2. org/ events/ documents/ roe_igdwapupdate. free. IGD makes it easy to do the following: • • • • Learn the public (external) IP address Enumerate existing port mappings Add and remove port mappings Assign lease times to mappings External links • • • • • "Internet Gateway Device (IGD) V 1. com/ technet/ prodtechnol/ winxppro/ support/ upnp01.Internet Gateway Device Protocol 240 Internet Gateway Device Protocol Internet Gateway Device (IGD) Standardized Device Control Protocol is supported by some NAT routers. UPnP Forum. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2011-03-02. multiplayer gaming. 2010-12-09.0" [2]. UPnP Forum Internet Gateway Device presentation [3] Universal Plug and Play NAT Traversal FAQ [4] by Microsoft. org/ specs/ gw/ igd1/ http:/ / upnp. com/ technet/ prodtechnol/ winxppro/ support/ upnp01. mspx http:/ / web. but is not an Internet Engineering Task Force standard. a process which is error prone and time consuming. net/ . Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) comes with a solution for network address translation traversal. sourceforge. fr/ [7] http:/ / linux-igd. Applications using peer-to-peer networks. Without IGD one has to manually configure the gateway to allow traffic through.

S. A Participant that opts out may not display on its ILD site(s) (including by framing any other website). however. realtor. The ILD policy consolidates and replaces both the Virtual Office Website (VOW) and Internet Data Exchange (IDX) policies to create one set of rules. since they must "opt out" from display on all other brokers' sites [1] References [1] (http:/ / www. A decision to opt out may not be revoked for a period of ninety (90) days from the date the decision becomes effective.org/mempolweb. nsf/ pages/ ILDPolicy) NAR's ILD policy: "Unless state law requires prior written consent. The ILD policy is a work in progress created as a result of investigation from the U." • ILD Policy ILD Internet Listing Display policy (http://www. Department of Justice into anti-competitive practices by traditional real estate brokers. the listings of any other MLS Participant provided by the MLS. 2005 . The ILD policy is intended to prevent traditional brokers from solely excluding their property listings from selected discount broker web sites. including but not limited to Realtor.nsf/pages/ILDPolicy) Retrieved November 7.realtor. It may.com. display its listings on public websites of third parties.Internet Listing Display 241 Internet Listing Display Internet Listing Display (ILD) is a set of rules put forth by the National Association of Realtors that regulate how homes and properties can be displayed on internet sites. if any. A Participant that opts out may not permit display of its listings on any ILD site of any other Participant. each Participant’s consent for display of that Participant’s listings on the ILD site of other MLS Participants is presumed unless a Participant affirmatively notifies the MLS in writing that it has withdrawn consent to such display (“opt out”). org/ mempolweb.

Internet Printing Protocol 242 Internet Printing Protocol In computing. and now IPP/2. RFC 3196 [10]. RFC 2911 [9]. either in the traditional always-on mode used by HTTPS or using the HTTP Upgrade extension to HTTP (RFC 2817 [13]. 3.2 representing different categories or classes of printers. RFC 2568 [5] [6] [7] . 4. IPP can run locally or over the Internet to printers hundreds or thousands of miles away.0 was published as a series of experimental documents (RFC 2565 . Work on IPP continues in the PWG with the publication of 12 candidate standards providing extensions to IPP and definition of IPP/2. The result was a draft written by Novell and Xerox called the Lightweight Document Printing Application (LDPA). leading to the creation of the IETF Internet Printing Protocol (ipp) [1] working group. and both HP and Microsoft had started work on new print services for what became Windows 2000. authorization can take place via HTTP's Digest access authentication mechanism. IPP/1. History IPP began as a proposal by Novell for the creation of an Internet printing protocol project in 1996. Unlike other printing protocols. IPP also supports access control. IBM proposed something called the HyperText Printing Protocol (HTPP). RFC 3510 [11]). For example. with a focus on non-traditional platforms such as netbooks and mobile Internet devices. Implementation IPP is implemented using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and inherits all of the HTTP streaming and security features. IPP/2. or via public key certificates. resolution. and encryption. It uses RAW and LPR printing protocols to print over a network. Like all IP-based protocols. The BOF session in December of 2006 showed sufficient interest in developing a printing protocol. Additional extensions to IPP were published as RFCs until 2005 when the IETF IPP working group was concluded. RFC 2567 . Streaming is supported using HTTP chunking. making it a much more capable and secure printing solution than older ones. IPP request messages consist of key/value pairs using a custom binary encoding followed by an "end of attributes" tag and any document data required for the request. A new IPP Everywhere [12] project began in July of 2010 to define an IPP profile and extensions required to support driverless printing. IPP allows a client to: 1. authentication. again using the "application/ipp" MIME media type. the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) provides a standard network protocol for remote printing as well as for managing print jobs. with clients sending IPP request messages with the MIME media type "application/ipp" in HTTP POST requests to an IPP printer. query a printer's capabilities submit print jobs to a printer query the status of a printer query the status of one or more print jobs . 2. media size.0.1. Among other things. At about the same time. and RFC 2639 ) in 1999. RFC 2569 . [2] [3] [4] IPP/1. Each of the companies chose to start a common Internet Printing Protocol project in the Printer Working Group (PWG) and negotiated an IPP birds-of-a-feather (BOF) session with the Application Area Directors in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). and so forth.1 followed as a draft standard in 2000 with support documents in 2001 and 2003 (RFC 2910 [8]. The new project also expands the scope of IPP standards to include printer discovery and standard document formats. The IPP response is send back to the client in the HTTP POST response. IPP uses the traditional client-server model. RFC 2566 . GSSAPI. Encryption is provided using the SSL/TLS protocol-layer.

Retrieved 2009-09-06. IPP implementations such as CUPS also use UDP with port 631 for IPP printer discovery. com/ windowsserver2003/ techinfo/ overview/ internetprint.html) IPP in Microsoft Windows (http://technet. Windows 7. org/ html/ rfc2817 [14] "Effectively Using IPP Printing" (http:/ / www.1: Encoding and Transport (September 2000) [8] RFC 2911 Internet Printing Protocol/1. com/ IPP+ Everywhere [13] http:/ / tools. org/ html/ rfc3510 [12] http:/ / pwg-wiki.cups. ietf. 2003. ietf. ietf. org/ html/ rfc2567 [5] http:/ / tools.aspx#BKMK_How) CUPS Web Site (http://www.microsoft. ietf. ietf. ietf. org/ html/ rfc2568 [6] http:/ / tools. ietf. org/ html/ rfc2910 [9] http:/ / tools.1: Model and Semantics (September 2000) [9] RFC 2567 Design Goals for an Internet Printing Protocol (April 1999) [4] RFC 2568 Rationale for the Structure and Model and Protocol for the Internet Printing Protocol (April 1999) [5] RFC 2569 Mapping between LPD and IPP Protocols (April 1999) [6] References [1] http:/ / www. cancel previously submitted jobs IPP uses TCP with port 631 as its well-known port. org/ html/ rfc2569 [7] http:/ / tools. ietf.0 and IPP/2. org/ html/ rfc2565 [3] http:/ / tools. For reasons speculative Microsoft dropped support of secure IPP via SSL with Windows Server 2008. org/ wg/ concluded/ ipp.Internet Printing Protocol 5. April 8. ietf. org/ html/ rfc2566 [4] http:/ / tools. Microsoft.[14] Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 offer IPP printing via HTTPS. microsoft. and Microsoft Windows. Products using the Internet Printing Protocol include.pwg. starting with Windows 2000. . ietf. among others. ietf.1.com/products/netware/printing/quicklook. mspx).novell. wikispaces. Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2 also support IPP printing over RPC in the "Medium-Low" security zone. org/ html/ rfc2911 [10] http:/ / tools. External links • • • • PWG IPP Work Group (http://www. ietf. org/ html/ rfc3196 [11] http:/ / tools. 243 Standards • • • • • RFC 2910 Internet Printing Protocol/1. html [2] http:/ / tools. Windows Vista.org/) .com/en-us/library/cc731368. CUPS which is part of Mac OS X and many BSD and Linux distributions and is the reference implementation for IPP/2. org/ html/ rfc2639 [8] http:/ / tools. Novell iPrint.org/ipp/) Novell iPrint overview (http://www.

Components The iSNS standard defines four components: The iSNS Protocol iSNSP is a protocol that specifies how iSNS clients and servers communicate. allowing a standard IP network to operate in much the same way that a Fibre Channel storage area network does. a directory-enabled implementation of iSNS. might store client attributes in an LDAP directory. iSNS Databases iSNS databases are the information repositories for iSNS server(s). . while implementations will vary. iSNS clients initiate transactions with iSNS servers using the iSNSP. Because iSNS is able to emulate Fibre Channel fabric services and manage both iSCSI and Fibre Channel devices. developed by Level 3 Communications and a group of other telcos. register device attribute information in a common Discovery Domain (DD). They maintain information about iSNS client attributes. It provides management and integration on a very large scale. Features iSNS provides management services similar to those found in Fibre Channel networks. However.Internet Protocol Device Control 244 Internet Protocol Device Control Internet Protocol Device Control (IPDC) is a specification for controlling hardware devices. iSNS servers initiate iSNSP State Change Notifications and store properly authenticated information submitted by a registration request in an iSNS database. supporting the iSCSI protocol is optional. for example. download information about other registered clients and receive asynchronous notification of events that occur in their DD(s). iSNS Clients iSNS clients are part of iSNSP aware storage devices. Internet Storage Name Service In computing. including switches and targets as well as server hosts. It should not be confused with DVB-IPDC which stands for IP datacasting (data broadcasting) over radio and television broadcasting networks such as DVB-H. It is intended to be used by various platforms. an iSNS server can be used as a consolidated configuration point for an entire storage network. the proposed Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) protocol allows automated discovery. management and configuration of iSCSI and Fibre Channel devices (using iFCP gateways) on a TCP/IP network. iSNS Servers iSNS servers respond to iSNS protocol queries and requests made by iSNS clients using the iSNSP. standards-compliant iSNS implementations are required to support the iFCP protocol. Protocol was designed for communicating between centralized switches and IP-based gateways.

administrators are able to limit the login process of each host to the most appropriate subset of targets registered with the iSNS. and each entity can inquire about other initiators and targets. and each client is expected to respond according to its own requirements and implementation. These mappings may also be made in the opposite direction. iSNS servers are able to store mappings of Fibre Channel devices to proxy iSCSI device images on the IP network. net/ projects/ linuxisns [3] http:/ / hub. State Change Notification The State Change Notification (SCN) service allows an iSNS Server to issue notifications about each event that affects storage nodes on the managed network. a client initiator can obtain information about target devices from an iSNS server. org/ html/ rfc4171 [2] http:/ / sourceforge.Internet Storage Name Service 245 Services An iSNS implementation provides four primary services: • • • • Name Registration and Storage Resource Discovery Discovery Domains and Login Control State Change Notification Bidirectional Mappings Between Fibre Channel and iSCSI Devices Name Registration and Storage Resource Discovery iSNS implementations allow all entities in a storage network to register and query an iSNS database. com/ app/ docs/ doc/ 817-5093/ gdgst?l=en& a=view . opensolaris. org/ bin/ view/ Project+ isns/ [4] http:/ / docs. Such delegation is intended to promote centralized management. which allows the storage network to scale by reducing the number of unnecessary logins and by limiting the amount of time each host spends establishing login relationships. Each target is able to use Login Control to delegate their access control and authorization policies to an iSNS server. Bidirectional mappings between fibre channel and iSCSI devices Because the iSNS database stores naming and discovery information about both Fibre Channel and iSCSI devices. Both targets and initiators can register with the iSNS database. sun. By grouping storage nodes. non-exclusive groups. ietf. Discovery Domains and Login Control Administrators can use the Discovery Domains to divide storage nodes into manageable. For example. References • RFC 4171: Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) [1] External links • iSNS for Linux [2] • iSNS in OpenSolaris [3] • iSNS support in Solaris 10 [4] References [1] http:/ / tools. allowing iSNS servers to store mappings from iSCSI devices to proxy WWNs. Each iSNS client may register for notifications on behalf of its storage nodes.

By default. Portals are designated by a "handle prefix". USA. An overt goal of the protocol has been to fix the pervasive copyright issues surrounding the distribution of video on the Internet. It has been under development by Vint Cerf and NASA since 1998 and a permanent network link to Mars was planned by 2008[1] until the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter was canceled in 2005. 2007. External links • InterPlanetary Internet Special Interest Group (http://www. It includes components which enable Internet Service Providers to obtain incremental revenue from subscribers.ipnsig. or MMS content.pdf InterStream Transit Protocol • Protocol Helper: istp:// • Organization: InterStream Industry Association The InterStream Transit Protocol (ISTP) is a secure protocol that allows Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to offer high bandwidth multimedia services over their networks. com/ content/ view/ 9802/ 1066/ ). Retrieved 2007-10-27. com/ article/ ALeqM5iAXBy5CRzd6F7TWMVxeGmCwcCZKw).org/home. . istp://prefix_name. Indexed rich media objects from the InterStream Media Grid are associated with individual portals. itwire.gsfc. and streaming video providers in exchange for using premium bandwidth services on their networks.[2] ICANN meeting.InterPlaNet 246 InterPlaNet InterPlaNet (IPN).htm) • http://nssdc. Once the content is indexed. Los Angeles. istp:// designates the "default" InterStream portal. AFP. Oct 17. The protocol was expected to be space-qualified and ready for use by around 2010. where traditional protocols such as the Internet Protocol break down. advertisers. [2] "Internet preparing to go into outer space" (http:/ / afp.com. it can be natively referenced by the handle system and streamed over the InterStream [2] Media Grid infrastructure. [1] to index and reference rich media objects on the existing Web.0-Y-17. Adam (21 February 2007). 2007 References [1] Turner. Web Site owners and hosts may embed video from other providers. not to be confused with InterPlanetary Network. Retrieved 2007-02-22. other ISPs. The prefix_name designates a portal for members of the InterStream association.gov/nost/nost/wwwclassic/documents/pdf/CCSDS-B10. . Content is indexed ISTP uses the handle system into the handle system by users with ISTP clients who access existing HTTP. By linking ISTP content. The ISTP application is installed as a new protocol handler into browsers. is a computer networking protocol designed to operate at interplanetary distances.nasa. ISTP as a new MIME subtype [3] and protocol handler enables web site owners to link to the video in the form in which the content owner wishes it to be presented. . "Inter-planetary Internet expands to Mars and beyond" (http:/ / www. google. itwire. RTP.

org/ assignments/ media-types/ video Irsc An IRSC. Mobile data element dictionary. Network management. Tractor ECU. Power train messages. net [2] http:/ / interstream. Network layer. com/ . The work for further parts is ongoing.HomePage this needs citation. The ISOBUS standard specifies a serial data network for control and communications on forestry or agricultural tractors and implements. Implement messages applications layer. iana. ISO 11783 ISO 11783 (or ISO Bus or ISOBUS) is a communication protocol based on the SAE J1939 protocol (which includes CANbus) for the agriculture industry. converts ANSI signaling protocol to ITU signaling protocol. Virtual terminal. File Server. It consists of several parts: General standard for mobile data communication.InterStream Transit Protocol 247 Transport Methods • TCP-Mustang Specifications May be found at: http://interstream.com/PmWiKi/pmwiki. It is managed by the ISOBUS group in VDMA. isobus. Task controller and management information system data interchange.php?n=Main. com/ [3] http:/ / www. Diagnostic. Physical layer. Data link layer. or International Roaming Signaling Converter. ISOBUS plug External links • Official VDMA page for ISOBUS [1] References [1] http:/ / www. no such protocol! References [1] http:/ / handle.

This is performed by using a protocol which can traverse the firewall. like HTTP. it can be implemented in any modern computer language. If the peers are located in different subnets then the network should have at least one Rendezvous peer. As JXTA is based upon a set of open XML protocols. • A Relay peer allows the peers which are behind firewalls or NAT systems to take part in the JXTA network. They usually reside on the border of the Internet. Standard Edition. Each peer has a well defined role in the JXTA peer-to-peer model. In addition. . The C# Version uses the C++/C native bindings and is not a complete re-implementation in its own right. a 160 bit SHA-1 URN in the Java binding. The super-peers can be further divided into rendezvous and relay peers. low bandwidth network connectivity. C/C++. Implementations are currently available for Java SE. each resource is identified by a unique ID. JXTA peers create a virtual overlay network which allows a peer to interact with other peers even when some of the peers and resources are behind firewalls and NATs or use different network transports. hidden behind corporate firewalls or accessing the network through non-dedicated connections. C/C++/Microsoft . kenai. Protocols in JXTA • • • • • • Peer Resolver Protocol Peer Information Protocol Rendezvous Protocol Peer Membership Protocol Pipe Binding Protocol Endpoint Routing Protocol Categories of peers JXTA defines two main categories of peers: edge peers and super-peers. com/ JXTA (Juxtapose) is an open source peer-to-peer protocol specification begun by Sun Microsystems in 2001. • The edge peers are usually defined as peers which have transient. C# and Java ME. Java Platform. JXTA strongly resembles Tapestry. for example.NET Peer-to-peer Based on the Apache License http:/ / jxse. The JXTA protocols are defined as a set of XML messages which allow any device connected to a network to exchange messages and collaborate independently of the underlying network topology. • A Rendezvous peer is a special purpose peer which is in charge of coordinating the peers in the JXTA network and provides the necessary scope to message propagation.JXTA 248 JXTA JXTA Developer(s) Stable release Open source (community developed) 2. so that a peer can change its localization address while keeping a constant identification number. Micro Edition.7 / March 2011 Operating system Cross-platform Platform Type License Website Java Platform.

After that. pipes. the rendezvous applies a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) function so that it can forward the index to another peer in the RPV list. unreliable. but a given peer can be member of many sub-groups at the same time. and unidirectional. . When an edge peer publishes an Advertisement. The lookup process requires the use of the same DHT function to discover the rendezvous peer which is in charge of storing that index. the index of this advertisement is pushed to the rendezvous through a system called Shared Resource Distributed Index (SRDI). There are basically three types of pipes: • Unicast • Unicast Secure • Propagate Peer groups A peer group provides a scope for message propagation and a logical clustering of peers. the RPV list of each peer will converge as each rendezvous peer exchange a random subset of its RPV with other rendezvous peers from time to time. NetPeerGroup. As soon as there is a low churn rate. services. every peer is a member of a default group. or it reaches the limits of the RPV list. This process is called random walk.). Once the rendezvous peer is reached it will forward the query to the edge peer which published the advertisement and this peer will get in touch with the peer which issues the query. groups. This is achieved through the use of a loosely consistent network. Pipes are asynchronous. A peer may play different roles in different groups. etc. so a given RPV can have a temporary or permanent inconsistent view of the other rendezvous peers. the query is aborted. There is not any mechanism to enforce the consistency of all RPVs across the JXTA network. For replication purposes. Each Rendezvous peer maintains a Rendezvous Peer View (RPV). but a rendezvous in another. If the DHT function cannot find a peer which is in charge of the advertisement then the query will be forwarded up and down the RPV list until a match is found. a stable network where peers don't join or leave too frequently. Pipes Pipes are a virtual communication channel used by JXTA to exchange messages and data. a list of known rendezvous peers ordered by the Peer ID. that is. The communication in JXTA can be thought as the exchange of one or more advertisements through the network. it may act as an edge peer in one group. 249 Advertisements An Advertisement is an XML document which describes any resource in a P2P network (peers. In JXTA. it will send this index to the neighbours of the chosen rendezvous peer in the RPV list.JXTA Any peer in a JXTA network can be a rendezvous or relay as soon as they have the necessary credentials or network/storage/memory/CPU requirements. Each group should have at least one rendezvous peer and it is not possible to send messages between two groups. Rendezvous network The Rendezvous peers have an optimized routing mechanism which allows an efficient propagation of messages pushed by edge peers connected to them.

a collaborative peer network application based on JXTA External links • • • • • • Official web site [5] Java implementation of JXTA [6] french site [7] Italian JXTA Developer Community [8] freenode:jxta JXTA Developer IRC Channel Overview of JXTA [9] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / onedrum.a free peer-to-peer client used to exchange EDI messages by companies like Chevron. kenai. kenai. com/ http:/ / sixearch.a proprietary peer-to-peer Universal Content Sharing System • OneDrum [2] . Areva or GE Oil&Gas • Collanos Workplace . org/ http:/ / jxta. com/ java/ other/ article.a collaborative platform for MS Office • b2een [3] . com/ http:/ / b2een.a proprietary peer-to-peer team collaboration based on JXTA • Sixearch [4] .JXTA 250 Applications • BoxCloud [1] . fr http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / jxta. online. wiredreach. com/ http:/ / jxse. developer. php/ 10936_1450221_1 . it http:/ / www. jxta.

2). Literature • Sidhu. Oppenheimer: Inside AppleTalk. The router forwarding information base. Apple Computer adopted the usage of KIP and refer to it as MacIP. It is defined in RFC 1742. html Label Distribution Protocol Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is a protocol in which two Label Edge Routers (LER) exchange label mapping information. LDP session establishment . LDP can be used to distribute the inner label (VC/VPN/service label) and outer label (path label) in MPLS. com/ techpubs/ mac/ Networking/ Networking-15. LDP The Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is a protocol defined by the IETF (RFC 5036) for the purpose of distributing labels in an MPLS environment. is responsible for determining the hop-by-hop path through the network. Unlike traffic engineered paths. For inner label distribution. Chapter 1 . targeted LDP (tLDP) is used.0. or FIB.Introduction to AppleTalk (online version [1]) References [1] http:/ / developer.Kinetics Internet Protocol 251 Kinetics Internet Protocol Kinetics Internet Protocol (KIP) is a network protocol for encapsulation and routing of AppleTalk data packets over IP. Addison-Wesley. LDP is used only for signaling best-effort LSPs. It also controls the routing tables. LDP relies on the underlying routing information provided by an IGP in order to forward label packets. Addison-Wesley. However.: Inside Macintosh: Networking. Andrews. 1999 • Apple Computer Inc. 1994. 2nd. apple. 2nd. During the discovery phase hello packets are sent on UDP port 646 to the 'all routers on this subnet' group multicast address (224. tLDP unicasts the hello packets to the targeted neighbor's address.0. LDP is used to build and maintain LSP databases that are used to forward traffic through Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. The two LERs are called LDP peers and the exchange of information is bi-directional. which use constraints and explicit routes to establish end-to-end Label Switched Paths (LSPs). LDP and tLDP discovery runs on UDP port 646 and the session is built on TCP port 646.

The current (2006) version is LANtastic 8.Official product website [3] References [1] http:/ / www. tLDP may still be used between connected peers if desired. spartacom. References • RFC 5036 Lantastic LANtastic is a peer-to-peer local area network (LAN) operating system for DOS. LANtastic was originally developed by Artisoft Inc. [1] Lantastic and Artisoft's other legacy products were acquired by SpartaCom Technologies in 2000. ARCNET and Token Ring adapters as well as its original twisted-pair adapter at 2 Mbit/s. If signaling is turned off on an SDP.01. LANtastic was especially popular before Windows 95 arrived with built-in networking and was nearly as popular as the market leader at the time.net [3] http:/ / pcmicro.0 (or later) with Windows 3. Its multi-platform support allows a LANtastic client station to access any combination of Windows or DOS operating systems. Lantastic networks use NetBIOS[2] . net/ Training/ NPS/ nps-netbios. CD-ROMs and applications throughout an enterprise. RSVP-TE This method determines a path through the network based on the interior gateway protocol's view of the network.com . without explicit routing. 090912 mcgrew. Following the release of TeleVantage. The IGP at each router is free to select active next hops based on the link state database. automatic ingress and egress labeling (targeted LDP) is enabled by default and ingress and egress “service” labels are signaled over a TLDP connection. A consequence of this is that tLDP can be set up between non-directly connected peers whereas non-targeted LDP peers must be on the same subnet. Arizona. printers. External links • pcmicro. SpartaCom was later acquired by PC Micro. in Tucson. LANtastic supports Ethernet. . If no constraints are applied to the LSP then the routers simply send the request for a path to the active next hop for that destination. Novell. mcgrew.Label Distribution Protocol 252 TLDP Targeted LDP sessions are different because during the discovery phase hellos are unicast to the LDP peer rather than using multicast. Novell NetWare and OS/2. ingress and egress “service” labels must be manually configured when the SDP is bound to a service. It can connect PCs running DOS 5.Fundamentals of NetBIOS and LANtastic Networks" (http:/ / www. htm).x or higher (including Windows XP). and its interconnectivity allows sharing of files. Microsoft Windows. On a router running Timos when an SDP is configured. com/ lantastic/ . com/ [2] "Artisoft .

by bulky metadata) in transmitted on top of the functional data: • • • • • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Lightweight Telephony Protocol Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol Lightweight Presentation Protocol Internet Content Adaptation Protocol Skinny Call Control Protocol OpenLDAP Line Printer Daemon protocol The Line Printer Daemon protocol/Line Printer Remote protocol (or LPD. A printer that supports LPD/LPR is sometimes referred to as a "TCP/IP printer" (TCP/IP is used to establish connections between printers and clients on a network). . which is more common on modern Linux distributions.Lightweight protocol 253 Lightweight protocol A lightweight protocol in computer networking is any of a number of communication protocols that are characterized by a relatively small overhead (caused e. Commercial solutions are available that also leverage Berkeley printing protocol components. The Common Unix Printing System (or CUPS).g. This helps to simplify the setup of the LPD server. followed by the arguments to the request. Others have the option to automatically create a new queue when a print job with a new queue name is received.[1] Usage A server for the LPD protocol listens for requests on TCP port 515. A request begins with a byte containing the request code.[2] Some companies (e. where more robust functionality and performance is necessary than is available from LPR/LPD (or CUPS) alone (such as might be required in large corporate environments). although that term would be equally applicable to a printer that supports the Internet Printing Protocol. An LPD printer is identified by the IP address of the server machine and the queue name on that machine. supports LPD as well as the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). Many different queue names may exist in one LPD server. LPR) is a network protocol for submitting print jobs to a remote printer. the LPRng project also supports that protocol.g. Some modern implementations of LPD on network printers might ignore the case or queue name altogether and send all jobs to the same printer. The LPD Protocol Specification is documented in RFC 1179. and is terminated by an ASCII LF character. Note that the LPD queue name is case sensitive. D-Link in model DP-301P+) have a tradition of calling the queue name “lpt1” or “LPT1”. with each queue having unique settings. The original implementation of LPD was in the Berkeley printing system in the BSD UNIX operating system.

External links • • • • RPM Line Printer Daemon Software (http://www. txt) Line Printer Daemon Protocol. August 1990. McLaughlin III. Accordingly.html) Link Layer Discovery Protocol The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a vendor-neutral Link Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite used by network devices for advertising their identity. The EtherType field is set to 0x88cc. The mandatory TLVs are followed by any number of optional TLVs. 01:80:c2:00:00:03 or 01:80:c2:00:00:00 Station's address 0x88CC Type=1 Type=2 Type=3 Zero or more complete TLVs Type=0. Frame structure LLDP information is sent by devices from each of their interfaces at a fixed interval. za/ )'s InetLPD server documentation. principally wired Ethernet.html) ddrLPD .[1] The protocol is formally referred to by the IEEE as Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery specified in standards document IEEE 802. Each frame contains one Link Layer Discovery Protocol Data Unit (LLDPDU).id/ddrLPD. Each LLDP frame starts with the following mandatory TLVs: Chassis ID. such as Cisco Discovery Protocol. Extreme Discovery Protocol from Extreme Networks.id (http://ddr. rfc-editor. and Microsoft's Link Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD). in the form of an Ethernet frame. org/ rfc/ rfc1179.web.brooksnet.web. an Ethernet frame containing an LLDPDU has the following structure: LLDP Ethernet frame structure Destination MAC Preamble Source MAC Ethertype Chassis ID TLV Port ID TLV Time to live TLV Optional TLVs End of LLDPDU TLV 01:80:c2:00:00:0e. Length=0 Frame check sequence Each of the TLV components has the following basic structure: . and neighbors on a IEEE 802 local area network. The Ethernet frame used in LLDP has its destination MAC address typically set to a special multicast address that 802. edited by L.com/lpr-lpd-protocol. and Time-to-Live.Line Printer Daemon protocol 254 References [1] RFC1179 (http:/ / www. The frame ends with a special TLV.info/line-printer-daemon. capabilities. Each LLDPDU is a sequence of type-length-value (TLV) structures. [2] Winet (http:/ / gpvno. Port ID.html) SDI LPD from SDI (http://sdisw.com/LPD/) Line Printer Daemon / Requester Comparison (http://www. Nortel Discovery Protocol (also known as SONMP).1D-compliant bridges do not forward[3] other multicast and unicast destination addresses are permitted.LPD/LPR server from ddr. co.1AB.[2] LLDP performs functions similar to several proprietary protocols.networkprinting. named end of LLDPDU in which both the type and length fields are 0.

and determine their characteristics (manufacturer.6. The value of a custom TLV starts with a 24-bit organizationally unique identifier and a 1 byte organizationally specific subtype followed by data. Layer 2 Priority and Differentiated services (Diffserv) settings) enabling plug and play networking. The LLDP-MED protocol extension was formally approved and published as the standard ANSI/TIA-1057 by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in April 2006. serial or asset number).) MAC/PHY information • MDI power • Link aggregation Media endpoint discovery extension Media Endpoint Discovery is an enhancement of LLDP.1. The basic format for an organizationally specific TLV is show below: Organizationally specific TLV Type Length Organizationally unique identifier (OUI) 24 bits Organizationally defined subtype 8 bits Organizationally defined information string 0-507 octets 7 bits—127 9 bits According to IEEE Std 802. known as LLDP-MED. Enhanced 911 services. • Inventory management. Information gathered Information gathered with LLDP is stored in the device as a management information database (MIB) and can be queried with the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) as specified in RFC 2922.[4] are supported via a TLV type 127.Link Layer Discovery Protocol 255 TLV structure Type 7 bits Length 9 bits Value 0-510 octets Custom TLVs. that provides the following facilities: • Auto-discovery of LAN policies (such as VLAN. • Extended and automated power management of Power over Ethernet (PoE) end points. in the case of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). routing. etc. software and hardware versions." Each organization is responsible for managing their subtypes. Information that may be retrieved include: • • • • • • System name and description Port name and description VLAN name IP management address System capabilities (switching.3 "The Organizationally Unique Identifier shall contain the organization's OUI as defined in IEEE Std 802-2001.[5] . The topology of an LLDP-enabled network can be discovered by crawling the hosts and querying this database.1AB 9. • Device location discovery to allow creation of location databases and. allowing network administrators to track their network devices.

Intel Corporation.1AB document history (http://www. pdf). ieee802.0" (http:/ / download.Link Layer Discovery Protocol 256 Applications The Link Layer Discovery Protocol may be used as a component in network management and monitoring applications.org/getieee802/download/802. Open Source LLDP Project (http://openlldp.1AB-2005. Retrieved 2009-10-17. ieee.org/1/pages/802.com/design_corner/showArticle.wireshark.cx/lldpd/) ladvd.1ab.commsdesign.sourceforge. [2] "IEEE standard 802. org/ 1/ pages/ dcbridges. .org/LinkLayerDiscoveryProtocol) OpenLLDP. com/ technology/ eedc/ dcb_cep_spec. [4] Termed Organizationally Specific TLVs by IEEE 802.html) The Wireshark Wiki LLDP Page (http://wiki. Cisco.Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery" (http:/ / www.1AB [5] "ANSI/TIA-1057 standard" (http:/ / www.nl/software/ladvd/) Comparison of LLDP daemons (http://www. [6] Data Center Bridging Task Group (http:/ / www. html) [7] Intel. "DCB Capabilities Exchange Protocol Specification. ieee802.ieee.1AB-REV . pdf) (PDF). 1AB-rev.1AB-2009 suggests three such addresses. Open Source LLDP Project (https://trac. org/ 1/ pages/ 802. Open Source LLDP Project (http://blinkenlights.jhtml?articleID=59200019) IEEE standard 802.html) . Rev 1.net/voip/lldp-agents. One such example is its use in data center bridging requirements.1AB (LLDP) Specification (http://standards. intel. 01:80:c2:00:00:0e. tiaonline. html). org/ getieee802/ download/ 802.kempgen.1AB-2005" (http:/ / standards. .[6] The Data Center Bridging Capabilities Exchange Protocol (DCBX) is a discovery and capability exchange protocol that is used for conveying capabilities and configuration of the above features between neighbors to ensure consistent configuration across the network. IEEE.[7] Notes [1] "802. [3] IEEE 802. Nuova Systems. pdf). 01:80:c2:00:00:03 and 01:80:c2:00:00:00. 1AB-2005.pdf) Tutorial on LLDP (http://www.net) LLDPD.ieee802. org/ standards/ technology/ voip/ documents/ ANSI-TIA-1057_final_for_publication. References External links • • • • • • • • IEEE 802. . .luffy.

The LLTD responder for Windows XP only supports reporting of IPv4 addresses. It can be allowed or disallowed for domains. such as MAC address and IP address (both IPv4 and IPv6). microsoft.[2] LLTD is available for download for 32-bit editions of Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (as a publicly released update)[3] and for Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (as a hotfix by request) [4] . com/ hotfix/ KBHotfix. microsoft. microsoft. Icons are labeled with the hostnames (or first component of their fully qualified domain names). clicking on the icon will open a HTTP session to the host. and private and public networks. [6] "Patrice Auffret / Net-Frame-Layer-LLTD" (http:/ / search. Microsoft Download Center.3) or Power line communication[1] ) as well as wireless networks (such as IEEE 802. A royalty free Linux sample implementation of the LLTD responder is available from Microsoft as part of the Windows Rally Development Kit. Microsoft Corporation. ds2. The LLTD protocol operates over both wired (such as Ethernet (IEEE 802. DS2 Corporation (www.. . In addition to illustrating the layout of a network with representative icons for the hosts and interconnecting lines. Link Layer Topology Discovery in Windows Vista consists of two components. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 05/ microsoft-windows-lltd-ds2-powerline. an operation which would require Internet Protocol level routing. [5] "Link Layer Topology Discovery Protocol Specification" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 18 July 2010. to which the computer is connected. using Net::Frame. . There also exists a Perl implementation.ds2. . LLTD operates strictly on a given local network segment. html). 15 March 2007. com/ ?kbid=922120).org). . The LLTD Mapper I/O component is the master module which controls the discovery process and generates the Network Map. If the device has reported the presence of a management Web interface. Retrieved 18 July 2010. Microsoft Corporation. org/ ~gomor/ Net-Frame-Layer-LLTD/ ). Retrieved 21 August 2011. . microsoft. available via CPAN[6] References [1] Marcos. aspx?kbnum=922120& kbln=en-us). 1 July 2010. Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Corporation. "gateway". Retrieved 18 July 2010. LLTD Responder is not released for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. Appropriate permissions for this may be configured with Group Policy settings. It cannot discover devices across routers. [3] "Download details: Link Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD) Responder (KB922120)" (http:/ / www. Jorge (9 May 2009). The second component of LLTD are the LLTD Responders which answer Mapper requests about their host and possibly other discovered network information. Help and Support. 15 September 2006. Windows Hardware Developer Central. . com/ downloads/ details. Retrieved 18 July 2010. but not IPv6. LLTD is included in Windows Vista and Windows 7. 21 November 2006. mspx). The Mapper sends discovery command packets onto the local network segment via a raw network interface socket. DS2 Blog. aspx?displaylang=en& FamilyID=4f01a31d-ee46-481e-ba11-37f485fa34ea). each device icon may be explored to produce a popup information box summarizing important network and host parameters.g. "Supported Operating Systems: Windows XP with Service Pack 2" [4] "Hotfix Request: 922120" (http:/ / support. e. [2] "Network Map in Windows Vista does not display computers that are running Windows XP (Revision 7)" (http:/ / support. cpan. Microsoft developed it as part of the Windows Rally set of technologies. com/ whdc/ connect/ Rally/ LLTD-spec. Microsoft Support.cpan. CPAN (search. Using LLTD specifications requires signing a Microsoft Windows Rally license [5] agreement. Being a Link Layer (or OSI Layer 2) implementation. Retrieved 18 July 2010.Link Layer Topology Discovery 257 Link Layer Topology Discovery Link Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD) is a proprietary Link Layer protocol for network topology discovery and quality of service diagnostics. Windows XP does not contain the LLTD protocol as a standard component and as a result. Windows XP computers do not appear on the Network Map unless the LLTD responder is installed on Windows XP computers. "Using Microsoft Windows LLTD with DS2 powerline networks" (http:/ / blog. It is used by their Network Map feature to display a graphical representation of the local area network (LAN) or wireless LAN (WLAN).es). . or a representative name of the function of the device.11).

0.Response code. MAC address of 01-00-5E-00-00-FC • IPv6 . • TC .FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:3 (this notation can be abbreviated as FF02::1:3) The responders also listen on TCP port 5355 on the unicast address that the host uses to respond to queries.TrunCation.[1] Protocol details In responding to queries. Packet header structure Bit offset 0 16 32 48 64 80 QR Opcode C TC T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ID Z Z Z Z RCODE 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 QDCOUNT ANCOUNT NSCOUNT ARCOUNT • ID .microsoft. . • ANCOUNT .com/whdc/connect/Rally/ LLTD-spec.Tentative.224. Windows Server 2008 and Windows 7.com/downloads/details.mspx) • Download LLTD Responder for Windows XP SP3 (http://x3webworx.com/whdc/connect/Rally/rallykit. • T . This specification defines the behavior of standard queries and responses (opcode value of zero).An unsigned 16-bit integer specifying the number of entries in the question section.mspx) and license • Windows Rally Development Kit (http://www. • OPCODE .An unsigned 16-bit integer specifying the number of resource records in the answer section.Link Layer Topology Discovery 258 External links • Download LLTD Responder for Windows XP (http://www.wordpress.microsoft.com/2008/08/19/ microsoft-makes-you-beg-i-hand-it-to-you-on-a-golden-platter-windowsxp-kb922120-v6-x86-enu-exe/) Link-local Multicast Name Resolution The Link Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) is a protocol based on the Domain Name System (DNS) packet format that allows both IPv4 and IPv6 hosts to perform name resolution for hosts on the same local link.Reserved for future use.A 16-bit identifier assigned by the program that generates any kind of query. • Z . responders listen on UDP port 5355 on the following link-scope Multicast address: • IPv4 .A 4-bit field that specifies the kind of query in this message. aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=4f01a31d-ee46-481e-ba11-37f485fa34ea) • Link Layer Topology Discovery Protocol Specification (http://www. • QR . This value is set by the originator of a query and copied into the response. Future specifications may define the use of other opcodes with LLMNR. • C .Conflict. • RCODE . It is included in Windows Vista.microsoft.252. • QDCOUNT .Query/Response.0.

microsoft. .An unsigned 16-bit integer specifying the number of resource records in the additional records section. com/ technet/ community/ columns/ cableguy/ cg1106. incorporating one or more of: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ARCNET AppleTalk ATM Bluetooth DECnet Ethernet FDDI Frame relay HIPPI IEEE 1394 aka FireWire.25 protocol suite For a list of more see Network protocols and the List of network protocols. microsoft. • ARCOUNT ..mspx) • RFC 4795.An unsigned 16-bit integer specifying the number of name server resource records in the authority records section. 259 References [1] LLMNR: The Cable Guy (http:/ / www. Informational. computer buses or combinations of media and protocol layers. For standards see IEEE 802. iLink IEEE 802. Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) List of network protocol stacks Computer networks may be implemented using a variety of protocol stack architectures.Link-local Multicast Name Resolution • NSCOUNT . mspx) External links • TechNet Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (http://www.com/technet/community/columns/ cableguy/cg1106.11 aka Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi certification) IEEE-488 Internet protocol suite IPX Myrinet OSI protocol suite QsNet RS-232 SPX System Network Architecture Token ring USB X.

) • MANOLITO/MP2PN (Blubster.) • Fasttrack (Grokster. WinMX) Protocols used by only one program • • • • • • • • • • • • 100Bao Aimster Applejuice Freenet GnucleusLAN GoBoogy KuGoo OpenFT (giFT) MUTE Soribada Soulseek Xunlei Programs not also listed as protocols • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BearShare: Gnutella Blubster: MP2PN Gnotella: Gnutella Gnucleus: Gnutella Grokster: Fasttrack GTK-gnutella: Gnutella iMesh: Gnutella. Overnet. RocketItNet) • OpenNAP (Napigator. Shareaza. Azureus. etc. Gnucleus.) • Gnutella (BearShare. etc. mlMac. • Ares (Ares Galaxy. BitSpirit. etc. G3 Torrent. QTorrent. LimeWire. MLdonkey. (?) Morpheus: Fasttrack Piolet: MP2PN RocketItNet: MP2PN Shareaza: Gnutella. Mactella.Net. etc. NeoModus Direct Connect. Warez P2P) • Bittorrent (ABC [Yet Another BitTorrent Client]. µTorrent. Gnotella.List of P2P protocols 260 List of P2P protocols Protocols used by multiple programs Note that the name of the protocol may also be the name of the primary or original program that uses it.) • eDonkey (eMule. HTTP. BitTorrent. DC++. iMesh. FTP WinMX: OpenNAP. Shareaza.) • Direct Connect (BCDC++. BitTornado. Bittorrent. eDonkey. WPNP . Morpheus. GTK-gnutella. BitComet. iMesh. Kazaa. Piolet. Fasttrack Kazaa: Fasttrack Limewire: Gnutella Mactella: Gnutella MXIE: Bittorrent. eDonkey. etc.

Windows. 2003 SE. and GNU GPL Open source GNU GPL Hardware FreeBSD Get It Together iTunes LimeWire OurTunes Rhythmbox Roku SoundBridge Songbird [9] [7] No Yes [6] No Yes [8] Yes [2] Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No Cross-platform: Unix-like. (?) 261 List of software using Digital Audio Access Protocol This is a list of software implementing the Digital Audio Access Protocol. Name Client Server Supports [1] 7. add-ons are OS X proprietary and "are licensed.List of P2P protocols • Vagaa: eDonkey. Mac GNU GPL with restrictions. Windows 2000. Mac GNU GPL OS X Unix Cross-platform: Java Cross-platform: Mac OS X. Windows. dedicated Proprietary free of charge Nagware. Mac OS GNU GPL X 10.0 No No No No No No No No No No Yes [5] Unix-like Cross-platform: Java Unix-like Unix-like Android Unix-like Cross-platform: Java GNU GPL Version 3 GNU GPL GNU GPL MIT Platform Licence Amarok aTunes Banshee daapd DAAP Client Exaile Firefly Client Firefly Media Server FreeNAS [4] [3] [9] Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes [2] Yes No Yes [2] GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Cross-platform: Unix-like. Bittorrent. not sold" Unix-like Cross-platform: Mono Unix-like Pocket PC 2003.5 x86. XP Cross-platform: Java Cross-platform: Java Unix-like Hardware device. Windows Mobile 5 Cross-platform: Xbox. Unix-like Unix-like Unix-like GNU GPL GNU GPL GNU GPL Spydaap No No Yes Yes Yes Yes [2] Tangerine TunesBrowser WiFiTunes XBMC xmms2 dmapd [10] No . Windows.

as an entity that has a distinct identity. net/ spydaap [10] http:/ / www.List of software using Digital Audio Access Protocol 262 Notes [1] There are two distinct implementations of the protocol. by the address of the membership service (the entity that manages the membership of the multicast group). the object's identity is determined by the identifier of the channel or group. there exists a single instance of a distributed protocol running among all computers sending. Thus. qualified with the identity of the distributed system that provides. each executing the distributed protocol code with the same set of essential parameters. [6] Requires version >1. In this case. such as the name of a multicast group. rather. jointly maintaining some distributed state. The proxy or a replica of a live object is one of the software component instances involved in executing the live object's distributed protocol. php) [9] https:/ / launchpad. the identity of the system might be determined. controls. [8] (http:/ / www.0 and above. rokulabs. etc. • Proxies (replicas). forwarding. [2] Supported via a plug-in.0 and above. may encapsulate internal state and threads of execution.7. see Digital Audio Access Protocol for details. The object object. • Identity. and manages the given channel or group. com/ support_sb_dwnld_update. as applied to live distributed objects. The identity of a live distributed object is determined by the same factors that differentiate between instances of the An illustration of the basic concepts involved in the definition of a live distributed same distributed protocol. freenas. [3] http:/ / sourceforge. and coordinating their operations. Clients supporting the older version are unable to connect to iTunes 7. viewed from the object-oriented perspective. are defined as follows. org [5] iTunes versions 7. aspecto-software. [7] This is a hardware device with an embedded client. for example. The object can thus be alternatively defined as a group of proxies engaged in communication. com/ rw/ applications/ wifitunes Live distributed object Definitions The term live distributed object (also abbreviated as live object) refers to a running instance of a distributed multi-party (or peer-to-peer) protocol.0 and other by 7. consists of a group of software components physically executing on some set of physical machines and engaged in mutual communication. One is supported by iTunes versions prior to 7. The key programming language concepts. the identifier of a publish-subscribe topic. The term proxy stresses the fact that a single software component does not in itself constitute an object. net/ projects/ fireflyclient/ [4] http:/ / www. the identity of a membership service. it . and that exhibits a well-defined externally visible behavior. or receiving the data published in the channel or multicast within the group. publish-subscribe channels and multicast groups are examples of live distributed objects: for each channel or group. In the case of multicast. for example.0 and above only.

• Behavior. local states of its proxies. on different machines distributed across the network. • References. The different replicas of the object's state may be strongly or only weakly consistent. the reference must specify how this identifier is resolved. • State. Much as it is the case for types in Java-like languages. the set of messages or events that appear on the instances of a live object's endpoint forms a distributed data flow [1] [2] . whereas an instance of a leader election protocol will have a weakly consistent state. If the object is identified by some sort of a gobally unique identifier (as might be the case for publish-subscribe topics or multicast groups). By definition. virtual synchrony. there might exist many very different implementations of the same type. the information contained in a live distributed object's reference cannot be limited to just an address. The behavior of a live distributed object is characterized by the set of possible patterns of external interactions that its proxies can engage in with their local runtime environments. it contains a complete information sufficient to locate the given object and interact with it. and the patterns of events that may occur at the endpoints. and each of the endpoint instances carries events of the same types (or binds to the same type of a graphical display). • Interfaces (endpoints). it materializes as a stream of messages of the form elected(x) concurrently produced by the proxies involved in executing this protocol. to produce a running proxy of the live object. rather than as a particular value located in a given place at a given time. • Types. The state of a live distributed object is defined as the sum of all internal. or state machine replication to achieve strong consistency between the internal states of its replicas. the externally visible state of a leader election object would be defined as the identity of the currently elected leader. To say that a live object exposes a certain endpoint means that each of its proxies exposes an instance of this endpoint to its local environment. type atomic multicast might specify that if an event of the form deliver(x) is generated by one proxy. The identity is not stored at any particular location. the concept of a live distributed object proxy generalizes the notion of a RPC. by recursively embedding a reference to the appropriate name resolution object. The interface of a live distributed object is defined by the types of interfaces exposed by its proxies. a live object reference plays the same role as a Java reference. these may include event channels and various types of graphical user interfaces. For example. 263 . RMI. In this sense. or . Interfaces exposed by the proxies are referred to as the live distributed object's endpoints. For example. and that never cease to execute or are excluded from the protocol. for example.Live distributed object serves as a gateway through which an application can gain access to a certain functionality or behavior that spans across a set of computers. These interactions are modeled as exchanges of explicit events (messages). it is distributed and replicated. rather. and concurrently consumed by instances of the application using this protocol. depending on the protocol semantics: an instance of a consensus protocol will have the state of its replicas strongly consistent. behavior characteristic to atomic multicast might be exhibited by instances of distributed protocols such as virtual synchrony or Paxos. The semantics and behavior of live distributed objects can be characterized in terms of distributed data flows. The term endpoint instance refers to a single specific event channel or user interface exposed by a single specific proxy. a C/C++ pointer. portable instructions for constructing its proxy. it is determined by the types of endpoints and graphical user interfaces exposed by the object's proxies. The state of a live distributed object should be understood as a dynamic notion: as a point (or consistent cut) in a stream of values. The reference to a live object is a complete set of serialized. In this sense. the precise definition might vary). To dereference a reference means to locally parse and follow these instructions on a particular computer. or a web service's WSDL description. Defined this way. a similar event must be eventually generated by all non-faulty proxies (proxies that run on computers that never crash. the term live distributed object generalizes the concept of a replicated object. The type of a live distributed object determines the patterns of external interactions with the object. Since live distributed objects may not reside in any particular place (but rather span across a dynamically changing set of computers). The constraints that the object's type places on event patterns may span across the network. Thus.NET remoting client-side proxy stub. the latter is a specific type of live distributed object that uses a protocol such as Paxos.

K. a more comprehensive discussion of the live object concept in the context of Web development can be found in Krzysztof Ostrowski [9]'s Ph. The first implementation of the live distributed object concept. C. (2009). cs. The term live distributed object was first used informally in a series of presentations given in the fall of 2006 at an [4] [5] [6] [7] ICWS conference . was the Live Distributed Objects [11] platform developed by Krzysztof Ostrowski [9] at Cornell University. The extension of the term has been motivated by the need to model live objects as compositions of conference other objects. Birman.. IL. and Sakoda. K. and to support various types of hosted content such as Google Maps[13] . net/ 1813/ 10881. September 2006. VA. pdf [2] Ostrowski.. Dolev. and then formally defined in 2007. jsp?arnumber=4032049. http:/ / www. The more general definition presented above has been first proposed in 2008. the platform is being actively developed by its creators. Languages and Applications (OOPSLA 2009). As of March 2009. "Implementing Reliable Event Streams in Large Systems via Distributed Data Flows and Recursive Delegation". TN.D. interactive Web content that is not hosted on servers in data centers. K. The platform provided a set of visual. and Birman. cs. and represents current.. the term was used to refer to the types of dynamic. in this sense. 'Extensible Web Services Architecture for Notification in Large-Scale Systems'. STC conference . Originally. cfm?id=1179477. "Live Distributed Objects". The need for uniformity implies that the definition of a live distributed object must unify concepts such as live Web content. read-only. a number of extension have been developed to embed live distributed objects in Microsoft Office documents [12] . and Jini. The word distributed expressed the fact that the information is not hosted. and protocol composition frameworks. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_oopsla2009.. dissertation[3] . and instances of distributed multi-party protocols. K. interactive.. Cornell University. programming language embeddings. acm. http:/ / hdl. http:/ / portal. and connecting them together. and various sorts of mashups could be composed by dragging and dropping components representing user interfaces and protocol instances onto a design form. K. handle. http:/ / www.D. Chicago. in a paper published at the ECOOP [10] . org/ citation. Dolev... K. http:/ / ieeexplore. it is replicated among the end-user computers. and at the MSR labs in Redmond. . Systems.. live content that reflects recent updates made by the users (as opposed to static. cornell. shared desktops. Fairfax. The word live expressed the fact that the displayed information is dynamic. cs. utsa. Dissertation. a comprehensive discussion of the relevant prior work can be found in Krzysztof Ostrowski's Ph. Birman. Visual content such as chat windows. which pioneered the idea that services are objects. K. and Birman. When applied to live distributed objects. (2009). stored at a server in a data center. in an IEEE Internet Computing article[8] . July 6–9. but rather.D. the concept has been inspired by Smalltalk. dating back at least to the actor model developed in the early 1970s. November 2006. and updated in a peer-to-peer fashion through a stream of multicast messages that may be produced directly by the end-users consuming the content. and containing XML-serialized live object references. WA . K. 2009. Nashville. message streams. D.[14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] References [1] Ostrowski. ieee. 'Scalable Group Communication System for Scalable Trust'. K. should also be modeled as live distributed objects. Since the moment of its creation. which pioneered the uniform perspective that everything is an object. 3rd ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems (DEBS 2009). org/ xpls/ abs_all. Ph. dissertation[3] .Live distributed object 264 History Early ideas underlying the concept of a live distributed object have been influenced by a rich body of research on object-oriented environments. which includes instances of distributed multi-party protocols used internally to replicate state. edu/ ~shxu/ stc06/ [6] Ostrowski. cornell. and archival content that has been pre-assembled). and internally powered by instances of reliable multicast protocols. (2008). D. but rather stored on the end-user's client computers. Submitted to the International Conference on Object Oriented Programming. as defined in the ECOOP paper[10] . "Programming Live Distributed Objects with Distributed Data Flows". USA.. [4] Ostrowski. the perspective dictates that their constituent parts. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_debs2009. pdf [3] Ostrowski. fresh. First ACM Workshop on Scalable Trusted Computing (ACM STC 2006). [5] http:/ / www. drag and drop tools for composing hierarchical documents resembling web pages. IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2006).

Birman. (2007). R. cornell. org/ citation. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. cs. cs. edu/ community/ index.. 1428536. [9] http:/ / www. cornell. "Programming with Live Distributed Objects". Berlin. emerged as a global connection between these packet-based Ethernet LANs. S.. cs. edu [12] Ahnn. K. K. July 07 . and Ahnn. D. acm. 700 and DECserver 900 terminal servers and Digital's VAX and Alpha host computers via Ethernet. html [17] Dong. org/ citation. [8] Ostrowski.. 2009. H. (2009).11. 11(6):72-78. the ability to create reverse direction pathways from users to non-traditional RS232 devices (i.. acm. "Distributed Google Earth". K. Companion '08. D. and Zhang. cfm?id=1462735. cs. cornell. html [19] Gupta. Leuven. 2008. WA. http:/ / liveobjects. cs. "ALGE (A Live Google Earth)". (2008). and Birman. UNIX Host TTYS1 operator ports) created an entirely new market for Terminal Servers. aspx?rID=7870& fID=2276. year 2000 and beyond through today. S. Ed.05. cornell. By 1986. and van Renesse. giving communication between those hosts and serial devices such as video terminals and printers. Vitek. Heidelberg. cfm?id=1428508. 2008. K. http:/ / www. a very large number of plug-and-play VT100-class terminals could connect to each host computer system. Subsequently. cornell. Future generations of terminal servers included both LAT and TELNET protocols. Sankar. R. http:/ / portal. 3rd ACM SIGOPS International Workshop on Large Scale Distributed Systems and Middleware (LADIS 2009). The protocol itself was designed in such a manner as to maximize packet efficiency over Ethernet by bundling multiple characters from multiple ports into a single packet for Ethernet transport (Mann. A.. IEEE Internet Computing. "Using live distributed objects for office automation". S. . and Vora. (2008). K. cs. "Live Distributed Objects: Enabling the Active Web". J. Cyprus. http:/ / www. "Goole Earth Live Object". Over time. "Storing and Accessing Live Mashup Content in the Cloud".Live distributed object [7] Ostrowski. http:/ / liveobjects.. ieee. jsp?isnumber=4376216& arnumber=4376231. one of the earliest protocols created to run on a burgeoning TCP/IP based Internet. H. html 265 Local Area Transport Local Area Transport (LAT) is a non-routable (Data Link Layer) networking technology developed by Digital Equipment Corporation [1] to provide connection between the DECserver 90... cornell. edu/ community/ 3/ index.. and Polepalli. 30-35. Birman.. By "virtualizing" the terminal port at the host end. Paphos.e. 463-489. researchchannel. Cisco routers. 200. New York. html [14] Ostrowski.... QuickSilver Scalable Multicast. (2008). "Live Google Earth UI". K. edu/ ~krzys [10] Ostrowski. [11] http:/ / liveobjects. vol. US 4823122 [2]). LAT and VMS drove the initial surge of adoption of "thick-wire" Ethernet by the computer industry. edu/ community/ 7/ index. Big Sky. a single physical terminal could connect via multiple sessions to multiple hosts simultaneously. (2008). cornell. 5142. (2008). These early Ethernet LANs scaled using Ethernet bridges (another DEC invention) as well as DECnet routers. edu/ community/ 2/ index. October 11. Proceedings of the ACM/IFIP/USENIX Middleware '08 Conference Companion. 1462743. "Cornell Yahoo! Live Objects". D. (2008). 100. http:/ / liveobjects. R.. which implemented TCP-IP and DECnet. Ostrowski. html [16] Kashyap. "Integrate Live Objects with Flickr Web Service". cs. http:/ / liveobjects. NY. "Live Maps". Birman. Z. cornell. cs. edu/ community/ 4/ index. pdf [15] Akdogan. cornell. edu/ community/ 5/ index. U. html [20] Mahajan. (2008). X. Additionally.. html [18] Prateek. and Wakankar. Springer-Verlag. [13] http:/ / liveobjects. Dolev. and Dolev. cs.. (2008). http:/ / portal. org/ prog/ displayevent. December 01 . History In 1984. html [21] Wadhwa. cornell. Redmond. the first implementation of the LAT protocol connected a terminal server to a VMS VAX-Cluster in Spit Brook Road. terminal server networks accounted for 10% of Digital's $10 billion revenue.. Additionally. J. Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming. edu/ ~krzys/ krzys_ladis2009. S. cs. K. MT. NH. edu/ community/ 1/ index. November 2006. other host implementations of the LAT protocol appeared allowing communications to a wide range of Unix and other non-Digital operating systems using the LAT protocol. J.. USA. Belgium. K. (2006). cs. Lecture Notes In Computer Science. A. and Nagarajappa. K. Microsoft Research. http:/ / liveobjects. cornell. (2008). November–December 2007. ACM. edu/ community/ 6/ index. 300. Nashua. http:/ / liveobjects. now known as console servers in the mid to late 1990s. http:/ / ieeexplore. and Subramaniyan. http:/ / liveobjects.

libtorrent[5] and its derivatives. Retrieved 2010-05-05. [2] "Announcements » µTorrent 1.0 [6] ) and implementation is very simple. [4] "MonoTorrent 0. php?id=25655). utorrent. . [3] Cisco Systems . Susan: "HLS unveils file servers. net/ news/ show/ 6).An early provider of Terminal Server products. Hughes LAN Systems . Retrieved 2010-06-23. org/ beps/ bep_0014. Retrieved 2009-12-12. com/ viewtopic. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4823122 [3] Breidenbach. html [8] http:/ / bittorrent. [3] "BitTorrent User Manual" (http:/ / www.An early provider of Terminal Server products based in Europe. . 2010-06-15.143:6771 which is an administratively scoped multicast address.Provided LAT on Terminal Servers as early as 1990. Enable_Local_Peer_Discovery). software". Chase Research . [4] "Cisco adds LAT support to TCP/IP terminal servers". Retrieved 2009-12-12. Network World 7. utorrent. Xyplex Corporation . . [6] "Changes : Transmission 2. com/ products/ libtorrent/ features. html).An early provider of Terminal Server products. References [1] Digital Equipment Corporation: VAX/VMS LAT control program reference manual. no formal specification had been created as of December.An early provider of Terminal Server products based in Massachusetts. 2007-06-28.15 (1990): 31.80" (http:/ / projects. [4] Able Computer . com/ wiki/ Changes?version=57). Emulex Corporation .33 (1989): 21. com/ viewtopic. qnetp. References [1] "Protocol Design Discussion » Local Peer Discovery Documentation" (http:/ / forum. Network World 6. aiming to minimize the traffic through the Internet Service Provider's channel and maximize use of higher-bandwidth local networks. com/ btusers/ guides/ bittorrent-user-manual/ appendix-bittorrent-mainline-interface/ preferences/ bittorrent#Basic_BitTorrent_Features.00" (http:/ / trac.192. php?id=63567). Transmission 2.24. It is designed to support the discovery of local BitTorrent peers. Alternative multicast protocol extension is published as BEP 26 [8]. BitTorrent/Mainline[3] . 2009 (although it was supposed to be described in nonexistant BEP 14 [7] by Harrison. . MonoTorrent[4] . Local Peer Discovery The Local Peer Discovery protocol is an extension to the BitTorrent file-distribution system. Retrieved 2009-12-12. espacenet.Provided LAT capability in 1989. While it is implemented in several clients (µTorrent[2] . Retrieved 2009-12-12. .152. rasterbar. 2009-10-30. [7] http:/ / bittorrent. html .7 Release Candidate 6" (http:/ / forum. org/ beps/ bep_0026. . transmissionbt. Local Peer Discovery is implemented[1] with HTTP-like messages on User Datagram Protocol multicast group 239. [2] http:/ / v3.An early provider of Terminal Server products based in California.Local Area Transport 266 Early Terminal Server Vendors • • • • • • • Digital Equipment Corporation . 1984. [5] "libtorrent manual: features" (http:/ / www. Hazel). bittorrent.

and that the RS-422 port and its associated software support was developed largely in secret. 150. These factors led to PhoneNet largely supplanting LocalTalk wiring in low cost networking. When the SCC's internal PLL was used to lock to the clock embedded in the LocalTalk serial data stream (using its FM0 encoding method) a divide-by-16 setting on the PLL yielded the fastest rate available. Each transceiver had two 3-pin Mini-DIN ports. 19200. and packet checksumming in hardware. CSMA/CA was implemented as a random multiple access method. A variation of LocalTalk. because it used the "outer" pair of the modular connector. called PhoneNet. It used standard unshielded side-by-side telephone wire with 6 position modular connectors (same as used in the popular RJ11 telephone connectors) connected to a PhoneNet transceiver. this provided a reasonably high-speed data connection. so the Mac was given expensive RS-422 capable serial ports. 28800. namely 230. running at a rate of 230. Coupled together with the RS422 electrical connections. when the Mac Plus introduced the 8-pin Mini-DIN serial connector.4 kbit/s. Cables were daisy-chained from transceiver to transceiver. 9600. In addition. was chosen (in part) to support the common asynchronous baud rates up to 38. In addition to being lower cost. transceivers were updated as well. . There is a rumor that Steve Jobs was initially opposed to including any sort of networking on the Mac. 1200. 300. bit-stuffing. This clock frequency. rates (110. The 230. 14400. LocalTalk used shielded twisted-pair cable with 3-pin Mini-DIN connectors. 3.4 kbit/s bit rate is the highest in the series of standard serial bit Farallon LocalTalk transceiver. LocalTalk specifies a system of shielded twisted pair cabling.6864 MHz. PhoneNet was also able to use an office's existing phone wire. and a cable to connect to the Mac's DE-9 serial connector.6864 MHz clock after the customary divide-by-16. Networking was envisioned in the Macintosh during planning. allowing for entire floors of computers to be easily networked. The ports were driven by the Zilog SCC which could serve as either a standard UART or handle the much more complicated HDLC protocol which was a packet oriented protocol which incorporated addressing. 115200. Farallon introduced a 12 port hub which made constructing star topology networks of up to 48 devices as easy as adding jacks at the workstations and some jumpers in the phone closet. 4800. was introduced by Farallon Computing.4 kbit/s using the SCC's internal baud-rate generator.LocalTalk 267 LocalTalk LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple Computer. instead of the expensive shielded twisted-pair cable. 600. 38400. Later. 57600. 230400) derived from the 3.4 kbit/s. plugged into self-terminating transceivers. it could travel on many pre-existing phone cables and jacks where just the inner pair was in use for RJ11 telephone service. Originally released as "AppleTalk Personal Network". PhoneNet-wired networks were more reliable due to the connections being more difficult to accidentally disconnect. 2400.

in later years. With the release of the iMac in 1998 the traditional Mac serial port — and thus.LocalTalk The useful life of PhoneNet was extended with the introduction of LocalTalk switching technology by Tribe Computer Works. For older Macintosh computers that did not have built-in Ethernet expansion options. LocalTalk connectors were first released in January 1985 to connect the Laserwriter printer initially with the Macintosh family of computers as an integral part of the newly announced Macintosh Office. RISC Router 3000E Farallon: EtherPrint. This enabled all but the earliest Macintosh models to access a high speed Ethernet network. MultiPort/LT Software in MacTCP era (<1995): • Apple IP Gateway from Apple Computer[1] • SuperBridge/TCP from Sonic Systems . However. LocalTalk remains the only option. EtherMac iPrint Adapter LT Kinetics: FastPath . LocalTalk-to-Ethernet bridges were introduced to allow legacy devices (especially printers) to function on newer networks. Some LocalTalk-to-Ethernet Bridges only performed Appletalk bridging. the ability to use both LocalTalk and PhoneNet — disappeared from new models of Macintosh. Early models of Power Macintosh and the Macintosh Quadra supported 10BASE-T via the Apple Attachment Unit Interface while still supporting LocalTalk-based networking. The widespread availability of Ethernet-based networking in the early 1990s led to the swift disappearance of both LocalTalk and PhoneNet. EtherWave. StarRouter. available from Shiva Networks Sonic Systems: microPrint. the connector's design continued to be used on all of Apple's peripherals and cable connectors as well as influencing the connectors used throughout the industry as a whole. and was particularly popular on PowerBooks. For very old Macintosh computers. the Tribe LocalSwitch was a 16 port packet switch designed to speed up overloaded PhoneNet networks. Introduced in 1990. microBridge TCP/IP Transware: EtherWay Tribe Computer Works: TribeStar Webster Computer Corporation: MultiGate. They remained in use for some time in low-cost applications and applications where Ethernet was not available. well past the move to Ethernet. a high speed SCSI-to-Ethernet adapter was available. 268 Design legacy The LocalTalk connector had the distinction of being the first to use Apple's unified AppleTalk Connector Family design. LocalTalk-to-Ethernet bridge A LocalTalk-to-Ethernet Bridge is a network bridge that joins the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking used by previous generations of Apple Computer products to an Ethernet network. but as Ethernet became universal on the PC most offices were installing it anyway. Others were also able to bridge other protocols. created by Brad Bissell of Frogdesign using Rick Meadows' Apple Icon Family designs. For example: TCP/IP in the form of MacIP Examples Hardware devices: • • • • • • • • • Asante: AsanteTalk Cayman Systems: GatorBox Compatible Systems: Ether Route/TCP.

xml. txt) External links • Oxford University resource regarding DDP-IP Gateways (http://www.1_div. edu/ HyperArchive/ Archive/ info/ sft/ apple-ip-gateway.com/products/CardsAdapters/AsanteTalk.com/article.info. hash value of the action).[1] A client can do so by acting as if he is suffering from high latency.com/article.uk/macintosh/mactcp.1 (http://docs.google.apple2/browse_frm/thread/1c748fa1032249be/ dc11d96f28872330?hl=en#dc11d96f28872330) Lockstep protocol The lockstep protocol is a partial solution to the look-ahead cheating problem in peer-to-peer architecture multiplayer games. the lockstep protocol requires each player to first announce a "commitment" (e.3) • Apple Knowledge Base article on LocalTalk Bridge v2.webstercomputer.ox.sys.1 download (Versiontracker) (http://www.oucs. lcs. and • Easily compares whether an action corresponds with a commitment.ac.com/site/prod_ipr_overview.versiontracker.LocalTalk-to-Ethernet bridge Software in Open Transport era (>1995): • Internet Gateway from Vicomsoft • IPNetRouter from Sustainable Softworks • LocalTalk Bridge from Apple Computer 269 References [1] Apple IP Gateway press release (http:/ / hyperarchive.1 download (Apple) (http://docs.html) • Asante AsanteTalk (http://www. Once all players have received the commitments.sustworks. mit. .g. in which a cheating client delays his own actions to await the messages of other players.apple.asante. which are compared with the [2] corresponding commitments to ensure that the commitment is indeed the sent action.asp) • Usenet post regarding successful use of the AsanteTalk bridge with an Apple IIgs (http://groups. this commitment is a representation of an action that: • Cannot be used to infer the action. html?artnum=17476) • LocalTalk Bridge v2.com/ group/comp.com/dyn/moreinfo/macos/ 353) • Sustainable Softworks IPNetRouter (http://www. the outgoing packet is forged by attaching a time stamp that is prior to the actual moment the packet is sent.html) • Webster MultiPort/LT guide (http://www.com/products/MLTGuide01. ID=body. To avoid this method of cheating.html?artnum=60290) • LocalTalk Bridge v2.apple. they reveal their actions.info.

fiber optics." This mode may be defined by a certain area around a player.Lockstep protocol 270 Drawbacks As all players must wait for all commitments to arrive before sending their actions. see Intelligent building. Jouni Smed and Harri Hakonen [2] "Cheat-Proof Playout for Centralized and Distributed Online Games" (http:/ / prisms. require much faster reactions.Building controls (EU) GB/Z 20177. the game progresses as slowly as the player with the highest latency.Train controls (US) SEMI E54 . Such an interaction can only occur when. edu/ brian/ pubs/ baughman. References [1] Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. pdf). LonWorks LonTalk is part of the technology platform called LonWorks.1-2006 . an asynchronous variant of the protocol exists wherein players advance in time free of any negotiations with other players until interaction between players exists. The LonTalk protocol has been ratified by standards setting bodies in the following industries & regions: • • • • • • ANSI 709. transportation.Semiconductor manufacturing equipment sensors & actuators (US) IFSF . 2001 LonTalk LonTalk is a protocol optimized for control created by Echelon Corporation for networking devices over media such as twisted pair. If no action is sent within this period. such as a sphere.International forecourt standard for EU petrol stations . known as a "lockstep mode. powerlines. the areas of influence surrounding two players intersect. This can be acquired by placing a limit on the time in which a player can announce his action. home automation. other players do not announce their actions to that player and ignore any action that arrives too late.Control networking (US) EN 14908 . cs. and RF. umass. real-time online games.1. and buildings systems such as lighting and HVAC. such as first person shooters. infocom01. in which the game world may be affected by the player. Although this may not be noticeable in a turn-based game. Protocol LonTalk is defined by ANSI Standard ANSI/CEA 709.1 .Control networking and building controls (China) IEEE 1473-L . It is popular for the automation of various functions in industrial control. Baughman and Levine. for example. Asynchronous lockstep protocol To overcome the obvious drawback of the simple lockstep protocol.

echelon.com/) • Global Engineering Documents (purchase the current EIA. aspects of LonTalk have been recognized by international standardization bodies[1] : • • • • ISO/IEC 14908-1 .1 (http://global. specification document for EIA/CEA 709. in which every step of the route is decided in advance when the packet is sent.IP compatibility (tunneling) technology The protocol is only available from the official distribution organizations of each regional standards body or in the form of microprocessors manufactured by companies that have ported the standard to their respective chip designs. This is in contrast with strict source routing. echelon. If the corresponding node stores the LSR options and reverses it.com/). non-ANSI. [2] The name loose source routing comes from the fact that only part of the path is set in advance. com/ company/ press/ 2008/ lonworksISO. Retrieved 2007-12-03.LonTalk 271 Recognition Also recently. The destination of the packet is replaced with the next router the packet must visit.ihs. edu/ ~15-821/ CDROM/ PAPERS/ bhagwat96.Power line signaling technology ISO/IEC 14908-4 . net/ security_center/ advice/ Underground/ Hacking/ Methods/ Technical/ Source_Routing/ default. . it is equivalent to the functionality in mobile IPv6. . [1] Loose source routing uses a source routing option in IP to record the set of routers a packet must visit.com/doc_detail. [2] "Source Routing" (http:/ / www. References [1] "Echelon Announces ISO/IEC Standardization of LonWorks Control Networks" (http:/ / www. iss.Communication protocol ISO/IEC 14908-2 . htm). LSR is also used to implement mobility in IP networks.Twisted pair wire signaling technology ISO/IEC 14908-3 . pdf) (PDF). External links • Echelon Corporation Homepage (http://www. cs. .adeptsystems. Retrieved 2008-02-10. By setting the forwarding agent (FA) to one of the routers that the packet must visit. cmu. References [1] "Network Layer Mobility:An Architecture and Survey" (http:/ / www. LSR is equivalent to tunneling.cfm?item_s_key=00391891&item_key_date=971131&rid=CEA) • Adept Systems (http://www.wrote the C Reference Implementation of the LonTalk protocol Loose Source Routing Loose Source Routing is an IP option which can be used for address translation. . htm).

In practice this brings a question: 'How will all my equipment work together?' The radio studio example shows that in the past. Because the protocol is very new its not yet widespread. and also in current implementations. • Object This represents an element that can be set or triggered by a user. This type of node is allowed to process sensor changes and to sent actuator changes. To trigger an object (think of pushing a button). For modularity its possible to have multiple nodes in a physical device.e. Often you can select a range of products/brands. • Actuator A actuator receives information from the network. The node can send and receive data with this object. which may set a LED or fader etc. computer applications/processes). But some applications required dedicated and direct control via hardware and/or (embedded) software from remote locations. the virtual mixing console. • Sensor A sensor waits for a user action or timeout and sends its information to the network if desired. the term lower layer protocol refers to a more specific protocol when performing encapsulation. • Engine An engine is a special node type. The term contrasts with upper layer protocol which refers to a more abstract protocol. In fact the engine is the part that gives manufacture specific functionality to a device.g. i. This is for example a requirement in the 'live' audio industry (Radio/TV broadcasting studios). In fact.g. where you have a hardwired connection between products. virtual mixing/play out). With the raising amount of functionality its complex make profit of all the functionality in your devices. In discussions of the Internet Protocol Suite. lower layer protocols are usually considered to be protocols below the IP level. This is the point where MambaNet could be very interesting. you can implement a sensor part. Current implementations are done by Broadcast Partners[1] and D&R [2] The functionality which is required. keyboard and mouse. where a lot of audio-storage and processing takes place in 'computers' (e. but there is a high potential. Often there is a lot of (virtual) functionality available. the protocols in the Link Layer. . MambaNet MambaNet is a protocol designed to have hardware controller controlling a virtual device (e. You can access this functionality by a screen. the pieces of audio equipment are connected through remotes (also called GPIO). using the same 'control interface'. To set an object (think of setting a LED/Display). is not delivered by a single company. you can implement an actuator part.Lower layer protocol 272 Lower layer protocol In computer networking. these are TTL or Relais inputs and outputs. But is has multiple nodes that control the engine. The developers of MambaNet have seen that equipment developed with the last available technologies become more and more complex to control. For example the radio studio mixing console has one engine. Definitions • Node A unique identified software process or PCB/hardware.

Ethernet and TCP/IP. All this information makes it possible for engines to 'discover' a device and make use of its objects. • On a node you can have up to 64k custom objects. For local development one ID is left free. Even there is a registration method for the objects. With the reservation of a Manufacture ID a range of 4294836225 Unique numbers is available for this single manufacturer. so a controller at a 'button surface' can immediately contact its functional counterpart. • Signed integer Think of a controller if an offset variable (e. • Auto learning of nodes.V. With this information the protocol will be future proof and its easy use MambaNet enabled products from other manufacturers (Without knowing the device). The limit is determined by the footprint in your controller/application. SNMP) are based on the client-server principle. an LED only has an actuator part) • Unsigned integer Can be a position or speed. • Medium and Transport Layer independent It is required to protocol can run from 8 bits micro controllers till advanced machines.g. This list gives a description and data type/ranges an object works with. That means you are allowed to design your own node with objects and share in a MambaNet network. Data formats There are some primitive data types that can be used in MambaNet: • No data A part of an object is not implemented (e.MambaNet this can be the control surface or any software application.g.1 kHz and 48 kHz • Octet string Is an array of bytes which can be used to set a text string on a display. which is required to implement in a node. Currently MambaNet is implemented over RS232. an encoder) • State For example. to select a samplerate you can have 2 states: 44. 273 Specifications • Multi master Most available control protocols (e. You can send up to 98 bytes per single MambaNet message. • Although to protocol is designed for tiny controllers its still possible to have relative large messages (for an embedded system). [3] they maintain a list of manufacture IDs (The protocol allows 65534 manufactures to get their own ID). CAN.g. . • Object oriented design To simplify to way of thinking. (In the radio studio example this can be very interesting for local and regional broadcast facilities). which means that the physical connections that have to run MambaNet can be different as well. • Open for all manufactures to use The protocol is developed by D&R Electronica Weesp B. Each node contains a list of all available objects. this means end-users can also make their own MambaNet complaint software/hardware. the protocol has an object oriented design. Practical this means the engines are future proof and can use equipment from manufacturers they even do not know about. For MambaNet it is important that its works multi-master.

g.org/technical/nas/) . temperature or dB level). This means MambaNet can run over standard Ethernet networks (e. broadcastpartners.copperlan. Of course you always have to care there is enough bandwidth on your network to do all tasks you require! References [1] [2] [3] [4] Broadcast Partners (http:/ / www.mambanet.g. • Bit string Useful if you want to set several bits (e. d-r.g. axiaaudio. • Error This indicates an error occurred. com/ components/ ) External links • • • • • • MambaNet (http://www. (http:/ / www.net) CopperLAN (http://www. nl) D&R Electronica Weesp B. nl) http:/ / www. d-r. 274 Compatibility MambaNet will run over various physical and transport layers. • Object information The datatype that contains all information to learn objects of a node. this because the addressing scheme makes advanced use of the CAN identifiers.harmanpro.org) AES Network Audio Systems (http://www. • CAN On the CAN network MambaNet can no coexist with other protocols.sourceforge.org) IEC 62379 (http://www.V.org) HiQnet (http://hiqnet. For example its no problem to run MambaNet in combination with Audio over Ethernet protocols like CobraNet or a higher level protocol like LiveWire[4] (based on RTSP) can be a good combination.com) ACN wiki (http://openacn. the text string gives information in 'ASCII'. It will be possible to run MambaNet in parallel with any other Ethernet protocol that runs on Ethernet level 2. • Ethernet MambaNet over Ethernet will adapt the level 2 Ethernet standard (communication by MAC address).MambaNet • Float Makes it possible to set values in the float format (e. status bits or LED bar).iec62379.aes. nl Axia LiveWire (http:/ / www. Currently we have focused on CAN and Ethernet.wiki. your data network).

Joe Sandoval. In some systems a master is elected from a group of eligible devices.Multiple-unit train control. it is the County's expectation that our manufacturers. supplies or services that are provided to County departments do not possess or portray an image that may be construed as offensive or defamatory in nature. so that recording is done in parallel. with the other devices acting in the role of slaves. essentially a disk slave mode. suppliers and contractors make a concentrated effort to ensure that any equipment.[1] [2] [3] Examples • In database replication. the master database is regarded as the authoritative source. "Master" is merely another term for device 0 and "slave" indicates device 1. One such recent example included the manufacturer's labeling of equipment where the words "Master/Slave" appeared to identify the primary and secondary sources. Target Disk Mode allows a computer to operate as an external FireWire hard disk. • Duplication is often done with several cassette tape or compact disc recorders linked together.Master/slave (technology) 275 Master/slave (technology) Master/slave is a model of communication where one device or process has unidirectional control over one or more other devices. this is not an acceptable identification label. [5] [6] On November 2003. supplier and contractor review. As such. and the slave databases are synchronized to it. the County of Los Angeles sent an e-mail to its suppliers asking them not to use these terms: Subject: IDENTIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT SOLD TO LA COUNTY Date: Tue. Some older pre-FireWire Macintoshes had a similar controversial "SCSI Disk Mode". • On the Macintosh platform. • Railway locomotives operating in multiple (for example: to pull loads too heavy for a single locomotive) can be referred to as a master/slave configuration . • In parallel ATA hard drive arrangements. The terms also do not indicate precedence of one drive over the other in most situations. Controversy Sometimes the terms master and slave are deemed offensive. We would request that each manufacturer. Thank you in advance for your cooperation and assistance. • Peripherals connected to a bus in a computer system. See . Operating the controls on the master triggers the same commands on the slaves. Based on the cultural diversity and sensitivity of Los Angeles County.with the operation of all locomotives in the train slaved to the controls of the first locomotive. the terms master and slave are used but neither drive has control over the other. 18 Nov 2003 14:21:16 -0800 From: "Los Angeles County" The County of Los Angeles actively promotes and is committed to ensure a work environment that is free from any discriminatory influence be it actual or perceived. Division Manager Purchasing and Contract Services [4] . identify and remove/change any identification or labeling of equipment or components thereof that could be interpreted as discriminatory or offensive in nature before such equipment is sold or otherwise provided to any County department.

2003. officials say (http:/ / www. November 26. reut/ index. html) (Wednesday. without needing an operator at each CG console. The MOS protocol allows a variety of devices to be controlled from one central device or piece of software.aspx by Rizwan Qureshi .A. com/ inboxer/ outrage/ master. and does not require the use of master/slave terms.com (http:/ / www.Master/slave (technology) Internal Services Department County of Los Angeles Many in the Information Technology field rebuff this claim of discrimination and offence as ridiculous. with SATA replacing older IDE (PATA) drives. com/ sDefinition/ 0. For example. CNN) Media Object Server Media Object Server (MOS) is an XML-based protocol for transferring information between newsroom automation systems and other associated systems such as media servers.com/KB/cs/mosprotocol. snopes.com/ • http://www. noting that the master/slave terminology accurately reflects what is going on inside the device and that this was not intended in any way to be a reference to slavery as it existed in the United States. pl?sid=03/ 11/ 25/ 0014257& mode=thread& tid=103& tid=133& tid=186& tid=99) [6] 'Master' and 'slave' computer labels unacceptable.. microsoft. This limits the need to have operators in multiple locations throughout the studio environment. aspx?scid=KB. External references • http://www. asp) [5] L. County Bans Use Of "Master/Slave" Term from Slashdot (http:/ / slashdot. The designation of hard drives as master/slave may decline in a few years. This standard allows only one drive per connection. 276 References [1] master/slave .sid7_gci783492.) There were rumors of a major push to change the way hardware manufacturers refer to these devices . com/ kb/ 188001) [3] Information on Browser Operation from Microsoft KnowledgeBase (http:/ / support. html) [2] Description of the Microsoft Computer Browser Service from Microsoft KnowledgeBase (http:/ / support. com/ 2003/ TECH/ ptech/ 11/ 26/ master.a searchNetworking definition (http:/ / searchnetworking. term.102878) [4] Urban Legends Reference Pages: Inboxer Rebellion (Master/Slave) from www.00. multiple character generators can be fired from a single control workstation. (See also political correctness. techtarget. microsoft.codeproject.en-us. It has not had much effect on most of the products being produced.snopes.mosprotocol. com/ default. org/ article. cnn.

Media Stream Broadcast 277 Media Stream Broadcast The Media Stream Broadcast (MSB) protocol allows the multicast distribution of Advanced Systems Format (ASF) content over a network for which multicasting is enabled. microsoft. aspx [2] http:/ / www. aspx#Multicast Medium dependent interface A medium dependent interface (MDI) port or an uplink port is an Ethernet port connection typically used on the Network interface controller (NIC) or integrated NIC port on a computer. com/ en-us/ library/ cc236181(PROT. MSB allows clients to "tune in" to a broadcast on a network. External links • Media Stream Broadcast Protocol specification [1] • Firewall Information for Windows Media Services 9 Series [2] References [1] http:/ / msdn. much like television and radio users can tune to a particular station. com/ windows/ windowsmedia/ forpros/ serve/ firewall. 10). Some network hubs or switches have an MDI port (often switchable) in order to connect to other hubs or switches without an Ethernet crossover cable.nsc) file is used for the session description. Hub with four MDIX ports and one switachable port circa 1998 Straight-through MDI to MDI-X connection for 10BASE-T . microsoft. Auto-MDIX ports on newer network interfaces detect if the connection would require a crossover. but with a straight-through cable. Windows Media Station (*. and automatically chooses the MDI or MDIX configuration to properly match the other end of the link. Since inputs on a NIC must go to outputs on the switch or hub these latter devices have their inputs and outputs (transmit and receive signals) reversed in a configuration known as medium dependent interface crossover (MDIX or MDI-X).

or its receiver to each of the twisted pairs used to auto-negotiate the link. . either type of cable can be used. Auto-MDIX To connect two ports of the same configuration (MDI to MDI or MDIX to MDIX). Similarly pins 3 and 6 are receive on an MDI device and transmit on an MDIX device. The other four wires are used but are not crossed since auto-MDIX is mandatory at the higher data rates. For auto-MDIX to operate correctly.[6] Newer routers. so that they are matched at the connector level. MDI to MDI connection with Ethernet crossover cable Auto-MDIX automatically detects the required cable connection type and configures the connection appropriately.Medium dependent interface 278 MDI vs. removing the need for crossover cables to interconnect switches or connecting PCs peer-to-peer. servers and routers used an MDI interface. an ethernet crossover cable was needed to cross over the transmit and receive signals in the cable. which is normal for modern products. and all 1 Gigabit or 10 Gigabit devices in practice) use auto MDIX to automatically switch to the proper configuration once a cable is connected.[5] Subsequently. while all other nodes such as personal computers.[3] [4] When 2 auto-MDIX ports are connected together. or other network device. workstations. Straight through cables connect pins 1 and 2 (transmit) on an MDI device to pins 1 and 2 (receive) on an MDIX device. Some routers and other devices had an [1] uplink/normal switch to go back and forth between MDI and MDIX on a specific port. However. MDIX The terminology generally refers to variants of the Ethernet over twisted pair technology that use a female 8P8C port connection on a computer. The X refers to the fact that transmit wires on an MDI device must be connected to receive wires on an MDIX device. the algorithm resolution time is typically < 500 ms. A pseudo-random number generator decides whether or not a network port will attach its transmitter. Dove promoted auto-MDIX within the 1000BASE-T standard[5] and also develop patented algorithms for "forced mode auto-MDIX" which allows a link to be automatically established even if the port does not auto-negotiate. The confusion of needing two different kinds of cables for anything but hierarchical star network topologies prompted a more automatic solution. Auto-MDIX was developed by Hewlett-Packard engineers Daniel Joseph Dove and Bruce W.4 second asynchronous timer is used to resolve the extremely rare case (with a probability of less than 1 in 1021) of a loop where each end keeps switching. the data rate on the interface and duplex setting must be set [2] to "auto". a ~1. The general convention was for network hubs and switches to use the MDIX configuration. Melvin. As long as it is enabled on either end of a link. hubs and switches (including some 10/100.

3. 802. .com/kb/HT2274/). . the provider responds with a message or fault and the consumer responds with a status. [3] Daniel J. com/ patents?id=WhMGAAAAEBA).078 filed October 18. [6] Daniel Joseph Dove. October 22. In telecommunications. US Patent 7. ieee802.460.3 "1000BASE-T Automatic Crossover Algorithm" (http:/ / www. Melvin. "Apparatus for automatically configuring network media connections" (http:/ / www. 2008.com/pshelp/cross.[1] [2] SOAP MEP types include: 1. Melvin. 1989 and issued January 16. Retrieved June 17. A standard two-way message exchange where the consumer initiates with a message.transition. 2011. US Patent 6. Out-Only Robust Out-Only Out-In Out-Optional-In . . and a one-way pattern. • Diagram of non-automatic connections between MDI and MDIX devices (http://encyclopedia2.com/MDI+port) Messaging pattern In software architecture. If the response is a status. Retrieved June 17. pdf). google. 5. google. In-Out: This is equivalent to request-response. Presentation to IEEE 802. A standard one-way messaging exchange where the consumer sends a message to the provider that provides only a status response.3ab working group. google. the consumer must respond with a status. Dove and Bruce W.865 filed November 12. com/ hpinfo/ abouthp/ iplicensing/ automdix. com/ files/ en104tp106108ints. 802. html).175. the TCP is a request-response pattern protocol. 7. 2011.apple. 2011. 5. org/ 3/ ab/ public/ feb98/ ddmdix1. "Apparatus for automatically configuring media connectors of a node interface" (http:/ / www. External links • MDI/MDIX Auto Cross (http://www. [4] Daniel J. . 4. There are two major message exchange patterns — a request-response pattern. com/ patents?id=_pcLAAAAEBAJ). 2000 and issued October 1.771 filed March 12. [2] "HP Auto-MDIX technology" (http:/ / www. "Apparatus & method for automatically switching media connections when operating in forced speed and duplex mode" (http:/ / www. Robust In-Only: This pattern is for reliable one-way message exchanges. 2011. 2002 and issued April 29. For example. and the UDP has a one-way pattern. [5] Daniel Dove (February 1998). netgear. thefreedictionary. 1998. 8. Hewlett-Packard web site. com/ patents?id=g-qqAAAAEBAJ). pdf). the exchange is complete. . SOAP The term "Message Exchange Pattern" has a specific meaning within the SOAP protocol. p. hp. August 3. 2001. 2008. Retrieved June 18. 6. The consumer initiates with a message to which the provider responds with status. Retrieved June 17. 3.Medium dependent interface 279 References [1] Netgear Model EN104tp EN106tp EN108tp Ethernet Hub Installation Guide (ftp:/ / downloads. Dove and Bruce W. but if the response is a fault. Apple support web site. In Optional-Out: A standard two-way message exchange where the provider's response is optional.html) • "Apple products that require and Ethernet cable" (http://support. Bay Networks. a messaging pattern is a network-oriented architectural pattern which describes how two different parts of a message passing system connect and communicate with each other. a message exchange pattern (MEP) describes the pattern of messages required by a communications protocol to establish or use a communication channel. US Patent 6. 2. 2002.366. In-Only: This is equivalent to one-way.

com/ hits) External links • Messaging Patterns in Service-Oriented Architecture (http://msdn. publish-subscribe defines "data distribution tree".com/en-us/library/aa480027. org/ TR/ soap12-part1/ #soapmep SOAP MEPs in SOAP W3C Recommendation v1. advanced use cases. All the patterns are deliberately designed in such a way as to be infinitely scalable and thus usable on Internet scale. and are particularly optimized for that kind of patterns.html) . • Push-pull connects nodes in a fan-out / fan-in pattern that can have multiple steps. This is a remote procedure call and task distribution pattern. w3.0: Additional MEPs (http:/ / www.Pattern Catalog (http://www.2 Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Version 2. • Publish-subscribe connects a set of publishers to a set of subscribers. [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.Messaging pattern 280 ØMQ The ØMQ message queueing library provides a so-called sockets (a kind of generalization over the traditional IP and Unix sockets) which require to indicate a messaging pattern to be used. • Exclusive pair connects two sockets in an exclusive pair. This is a parallel task distribution and collection pattern. and loops. org/ docs:user-guide) Scalability Layer Hits the Internet Stack (http:/ / www.microsoft. zeromq. Each pattern defines a particular network topology. org/ TR/ wsdl20-additional-meps/ ) ØMQ User Guide (http:/ / www.eaipatterns. aspx) • Enterprise Integration Patterns .com/toc. This is a data distribution pattern. Request-reply defines so-called "service bus". This is a low-level pattern for specific. The basic ØMQ patterns are:[3] • Request-reply connects a set of clients to a set of services. 250bpm. w3. push-pull defines "parallelised pipeline".

which were retained only for backward-compatibility reasons. newer protocols use a system known as "sliding windows". the protocol was later openly licensed and used by most of the modem industry. A more serious concern is the time needed for the receiver to examine the packet. a small numbers of errors can be accepted without causing too many problems. even one error can "destroy" the entire file.32bis modems in the early 1990s. Each class generally improved performance over earlier versions. allowing the sender to move onto the next packet without receiving an ACK message. signaling the sender to send the next packet. Originally developed for use on Microcom's own family of modems. After connection to the remote modem. Error correction basics Modems are. This also meant that devices with no processor. which was used almost universally on the first v. and then send the ACK back to the sender.42bis. The packet is then sent to the remote system. can easily mimic the sounds used by the modems to transmit data. all data being transferred would be error corrected. In general. thereby introducing errors that are difficult to notice. above 2400 bit/s these errors are quite common. however. For one. MNP was later supplanted by v. not just file transfers. compare it to the CRC. is added to each packet to indicate what it originally contained. normally a checksum or CRC. a common occurrence. This process introduces "overhead" into the transfer. The original protocol was extremely simple and rather inefficient.Microcom Networking Protocol 281 Microcom Networking Protocol The MNP (Microcom Networking Protocol) family of error-correcting protocols were commonly used on early high-speed (2400 bit/s and higher) modems. USRobotics and Hayes. . [1] To deal with this problem. Noise on the telephone line. Telebit. If there was any problem. a number of file transfer protocols were introduced and implemented in various programs. like reading or writing simple text. Some sort of additional data. which pulls the data out and checks it against the CRC to see if it was received properly. error-prone devices. like dumb terminals. these protocols break down a file into a series of packets containing a number of bytes from the original file. To address this problem. This is a minor concern. For some tasks. MNP "classes" Microcom's idea was to move the file-transfer protocol out of the host computer and place it in the modem instead. notably the "big three". if a proper tone was received in reply. If it was. the receiver sends back an ACK (acknowledgement) message. For other tasks. could enjoy an error-free link. In doing so. leading to a variety of improved protocols referred to as "classes". As modems increase in speed by using up more of the available bandwidth. by their nature. it instead sends a NAK (not-acknowledged) message. Microcom modems played a special tone into the line and listened for a response. like file transfers. only if the ACK does not arrive for some time will it re-send the damaged packet. unless the packets are very small (which they are in UUCP for instance). the additional checksum or CRC uses up time in the channel that could otherwise be used to send additional data. the chance that random noise would introduce errors also increases. but the amount of data that could be sent in that time grows as the speed increases. the latency of the phone line is a constant. This delay grows in relative terms as the speed of the modem increases. and the sender re-sends the damaged packet. the modems entered their error-correcting state. MNP supports its own form of error control called Echoplex.

Unfortunately this sort of clock decoding does not work unless there are at least some transitions between 1 and 0 in the data. With MNP 4 operation the two modems constantly monitor the line for dropped packets. This eliminated the pause while the modem waited for the ACK to be returned. retroactively known as MNP Class 1. along with MNP 3's lack of byte-framing. adding the requirement that the system needed some memory to track whether or not an ACK was received within a given amount of time. Since the data can arrive at any time. like the ones Microcom sold. a mode of operation known as "asynchronous". The combination of these features. more than enough to keep the clocks locked. On "clean" lines. which explains its simplicity. improving overall efficiency – that is. making it impossible to know where the data for any particular byte starts. This means that when a packet is dropped. Since the inter-packet delay was reduced.[2] MNP 3 In normal use. additional framing bits are added to either end of every byte. By turning off these framing bits when operating on an error-corrected link. as the CRC remains a fixed size. This system was created primarily to be as easy as possible to implement in limited hardware. This is precisely what MNP 3 did. The packets will always send a continuous stream of data. adding a variable packet size system they referred to as Adaptive Packet Assembly. and "locking" its clock to the speed of bits being received. The modem can determine the speed of the sender's data by listening to the bits being sent to it. However. MNP 4 MNP 4 was a further improvement on MNP 3. or simply MNP 1. a long stream of 0s or 1s has no transitions in it. leading to better throughput. using larger packets means that the overhead of the CRC is reduced. these bits also expand every 8 bits of data (one byte) to 10 bits. an overhead of 20%. Lacking sliding window support.Microcom Networking Protocol 282 MNP 1 and 2 The first MNP standard. After negotiating and realizing that both modems supported MNP 3. In order to avoid this problem. throughput would be limited to about 1690 bit/s when MNP 1 was in use. so the clock cannot "drift" in the same way that it could for data being sent by a user typing on a keyboard. the amount of data that has to be re-sent is smaller. a simple change to the protocol that allowed some of the packet-framing information to be dropped after the link was set up. . and if a certain threshold is crossed (selected by the user). that 20% overhead can be eliminated. With low-cost processing power improving. This guarantees at least one 1-to-0 transition for every byte. MNP 4 also introduced Data Phase Optimization. When using a file transfer protocol. allowed for a further increase in throughput efficiency. improving throughput to about 84%. a modem can send or receive data at any point in time. Packets could be between 64 and 256 bytes. That meant that on a 2400 bit/s modem. was a simple half-duplex protocol similar to XModem in nature. a full-duplex version of MNP 1 that allowed the ACK messages to be returned while the next outbound packet was already starting. the framing bits were turned off. the clock may have to be re-adjusted for pauses as the user stops typing (for instance). only the overhead of the CRC remained. a user can expect to get very close to the ideal 2400 bit/s throughput (versus 1900 bit/s) by eliminating the overhead. when using MNP 3. at about 70%. the modem "drops back" to a smaller packet size. throughput efficiency was fairly low. Microcom introduced MNP 2. further reducing protocol overhead. the packets themselves offer their own framing. and allowed the user to force it to a particular size if they wished. typically one bit on either side known as the "start and stop bits". there is no precise timing.

200 bit/s. For instance. notably v. by this point in time they were extremely rare.42bis and commodity parts. To further differentiate themselves from what was becoming a commodity market (although not truly so until the introduction of the v. a huge number of low-cost modems with even better performance that Microcom's were soon available. for a total of 19200 bit/s. if that failed after a time. The introduction of the greatly improved LAPM compression system in the v. 2400 and finally 1200 bit/s. instead of leaving it fixed at 9600 both ways.6:1 was typical. This dramatic increase in throughput allowed Microcom modems to remain somewhat competitive with models from other companies that were otherwise nominally much faster. MNP 6 simply allowed more or less of that bandwidth to be given to one side or the other.32 and later additions. but in general terms about 1. This did not actually require any changes to the modulation system: normally a 9600 bit/s modem had a full 9600 bit/s channel in both directions. although thanks to licensing to Rockwell Semiconductor. ULN avoided this delay by always negotiating the link at 2400 bit/s with no error-correction turned on. the delay grew over 10 seconds. it would try 9600. Microcom generally produced 1200 and 2400 bit/s modems using commodity parts.Microcom Networking Protocol 283 MNP 5 An even more radical change was made for MNP 5. making "real" Microcom modems more attractive. Although this eliminated compatibility with older 1200 bit/s modems. which could dedicate more or less of the bandwidth to one side or the other of the modem link.32 led to a number of standard 9600 bit/s modems. Microcom's "proprietary" modems were less interesting that models from other companies that offered much higher "real world" throughputs. offering one-way bandwidth up to 19. That made the system only really attractive for sites installing the modems at both ends of the links. diluting the value of a "real" Microcom model almost to zero. With the introduction of additional modulation modes. As a result a 2400 bit/s modem would appear to transfer text at ~4000 bit/s. and then passed into the MNP 4 packetizing system for transmission. Microcom created MNP 6. this improvement in performance was only available if modems on both ends supported MNP. For instance. the modems on either end of the link had to spend an increasing amount of time negotiating a common standard. if not used. even though the modem was still running at the same 600 baud * 4 bits per symbol rate. In this case the modems would give as much of the channel as possible to the sender. at least on text. However. newer standards with improved performance would offer even better performance when there was a Microcom modem at both ends of the link. Although Microcom continued to introduce newer standards. the ACK and NAK messages. almost all of which offered MNP 5. the other end would only send back a small amount of information. starting with MNP 5 they took the radical step of licensing the entire MNP suite for free.42bis standard outpaced Microcom's own advancements. the data received from the computer are first compressed with a simple algorithm.4 link. For instance. a v. A similar system was used in Hayes's Express 96 protocol. On best-case data the system offered about 2:1 compression. In order to create a market for Microcom modems. Once the . Even in the cases where the user was in control of both ends of the link. With MNP 5. introducing on-the-fly data compression in the modem. MNP 10 support become universal. if one machine was sending a large file. MNP 6 The introduction of the v. Moreover. The idea was that this would dramatically increase the number of modems with MNP installed. while companies like USRobotics and Telebit offered models with speeds up to 19200 bit/s. A less notable addition to MNP 6 was Universal Link Negotiation.32bis SupraFax 14400 in 1991).32bis modem would first send tones into the line to try to get a 14. Unfortunately the plan backfired. they were basically ignored and Microcom basically disappeared. Since each of these standards defined a minimum period of time to "try" for a link. for dial-up services like bulletin board systems (BBS) there was no compelling reason to use a Microcom device when the end-user was unlikely to have one. MNP 6's main feature was Statistical Duplexing. Using v.

Unlike earlier versions like MNP 4. as the cell networks turned to a variety of all-digital systems that no longer required a modem to connect to a computer. MNP 10EC was particularly attractive in the cellular role due to the inclusion of the ULN link-negotiation method originally introduced in MNP 6 (and improved in MNP 9). Mike Chapple. However.everything series modems. [2] Durda. MNP 10 was later expanded to MNP 10EC. Since almost all modems with the exception of USR's models used the Rockwell chipset from about 1995. the faster setup saved money. but was otherwise identical to MNP 7. google. and the link speed remains higher. these pauses are correctly identified as "not errors". ISBN 0782144438. which would normally be interpreted as errors in the line. MNP 9 MNP 9 (there was apparently no 8 released) improved the Universal Link Detection to add newer high-speed modes. by the time MNP 7 was introduced. 9780782144437. ETC) to their V. . effectively making it universal. MNP 10 constantly monitored line quality and adjusted packet size back up if conditions improved. 2005. References [1] James Michael Stewart. pp. Ed Tittel. 284 MNP 7 MNP 7 introduced new compression algorithms with a claimed improvement to 3:1 compression on text files. Both modems then examined the string and selected the fastest common mode. MNP 10EC had a limited life span. The caller then re-negotiated once at that higher speed. which occurred quickly. MNP 10 became fairly widely deployed (if not used). Using MNP 10EC. Wiley_Default. both modems sent a small identification string to the remote modem. 105. This was a series of modifications that allowed MNP 10 to deal with the transmission pauses when a cell phone moves from one cell to another. On a cellular network where all air-time is billed. . MNP 10 MNP 10 introduced a new error-correction protocol designed specifically to work well on the noisy phone lines widely used in eastern Europe. USR eventually added MNP 10 (and its AT&T Paradyne-created competitor. Frank. CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional (http:/ / books. the "EC" standing for "Extended Cellular". In 1991 Microcom licensed MNP 10 to Rockwell International for use in their extremely popular modem chip sets. com/ books?id=r7bwQG33aTUC& pg=PA105& lpg=PA105& dq=echoplex+ microcom+ networking+ protocol& source=web& ots=6w4AVb1fRM& sig=5IPGKbqMhPQOqU9pL7M3kUN3t0o& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result). the v.Microcom Networking Protocol connection was made.42bis standard was offering 4:1 compression.

and cross-protocol access to DB2 databases on IBM platforms.11 SNA Server 3. 3270 (standard and Telnet 3270 TN3270E).microsoft. mspx). External links • "Microsoft Host Integration Server site" (http://www. and other IBM protocols. and was one of the first add-on products available for the fledgling Windows NT.Microsoft Host Integration Server 285 Microsoft Host Integration Server Microsoft Host Integration Server (a. network adapters supporting ESCON and Twinax connectivity) and software[1] .g. HIS) is a gateway application providing connectivity between Microsoft Windows networks and IBM mainframe and AS/400 systems. com/ hiserver/ partners/ default.a. ran on Novell NetWare) and IBM Communications Manager/2 (defunct. Retrieved 2008-05-20. References [1] "Microsoft Host Integration Server: Partners" (http:/ / www. Support is also provided for advanced integration with Windows networks and software. . 5250 (standard and Telnet 5250). Version History • • • • • • • • • • SNA Server 1. HIS is the successor to Microsoft SNA Server.1 (September 1994) SNA Server 2.mspx). Support is provided for SNA. microsoft. APPC. Microsoft Corporation. ran on OS/2). binding Microsoft DTC transactions with CICS.k. SNA Server was released in 1994.com/hiserver/default. Similar gateway products are NetWare for SAA (defunct. CICS.0 Host Integration Server 2000 (August 2000) Host Integration Server 2004 Host Integration Server 2006 Host Integration Server 2009 (MSDN March 2009) Host Integration Server 2010 (September 2010) Third-Party Support HIS has an active ecosystem of third party hardware (e.0 SNA Server 2. Retrieved 2008-05-20. Microsoft Corporation.0 SNA Server 4. . such as linking Microsoft Message Queuing applications to IBM WebSphere MQ.

DCE/RPC over SMB: Samba and Windows NT Domain Internals [3]. External links • MSRPC at TechNet [4] • [5]. ISBN 1-56592-070-8. Rosenberry. DCE/RPC was originally commissioned by the Open Software Foundation. None of the Unix vendors (now represented by the Open Group). or possibly "size_is(len-1)". wanted to use the complex DCE or such components as DCE/RPC at the time. Example The DCE 1. Open [2] Book .0 reference implementation only allows such constructs as "size_is(len)". The Microsoft proprietary technology. Casson Leighton (1999).NET Framework. Ward (1995). and provides the communication substrate under Microsoft's COM+ application server infrastructure. John. History MSRPC is derived from the Distributed Computing Environment 1.2 reference implementation from the Open Software Foundation. Luke Kenneth. Microsoft RPC programming guide [1]. DCOM. Sams. a chapter on MSRPC from a technical article by Jean-Baptiste Marchand. the Windows Server domains protocols are entirely MSRPC based.1)" and even "length_is ((max & ~0x7) + 0x7)" which is one quite common expression in DCOM IDL files. ISBN 1-57870-150-3. O'Reilly & Associates. Additions include support for Unicode strings. The technology used by Microsoft in MSRPC is now deprecated and replaced by MPI References Shirley. and its MAPI was made more secure by "proxying" MAPI over a set of simple MSRPC functions that enable encryption at the MSRPC layer without involving the MAPI protocol. which originally was called "Network OLE".and technology-neutral open standards for computing infrastructure. but has been copyrighted by Microsoft. It has been deprecated in favor of Microsoft . with very little effort. Use MSRPC was used by Microsoft to seamlessly create a client/server model in Windows NT. Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is for software components distributed across several networked computers to communicate with each other. .5's administrative front-ends are all MSRPC client/server applications. Inc. For example. inheritance of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM). extends Microsoft's COM. an industry consortium to set vendor. MSRPC allows much more complex constructs such as "size_is(len / 2 . Microsoft Exchange Server 5. Microsoft donated DCOM to the Open Group.Microsoft RPC 286 Microsoft RPC Microsoft RPC (Microsoft Remote Procedure Call) is a modified version of DCE/RPC. as is Microsoft's DNS administrative tool. The "D" was added to COM because of extensive use of DCE/RPC. and complex calculations in the variable-length string and structure paradigms already present in DCE/RPC. implicit handles.

hsc. fr/ ressources/ articles/ win_net_srv/ chap_msrpc. html . com/ openbook/ http:/ / www. aspx http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ cc759499. org/ details/ microsoftrpc00shirmiss http:/ / oreilly. com/ DCE-RPC-over-SMB-Internals/ dp/ 1578701503 http:/ / technet. amazon. microsoft.Microsoft RPC 287 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. archive.

miredo" (http:/ / packages. "The FreeBSD Ports Archive" (http:/ / www. . net/ miredo/ . html). debian. "The NetBSD Packages Collection: net/miredo" (ftp:/ / ftp. remlab. "Teredo for MacOS X" (http:/ / www. org/ m/ miredo.2. html).Miredo 288 Miredo Miredo Developer(s) Stable release Rémi Denis-Courmont 1. . netbsd. .miredo" (https:/ / admin. 2011 Development status Active Written in Available in Type License Website C Multilingual Tunneling GNU General Public License http:/ / www. fedoraproject. html).[5] It includes working implementations of: • a Teredo client. freebsdsoftware. • a Teredo relay and • a Teredo server. qa. External links • Official website [6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Debian Package Tracking System . remlab. org/ pub/ pkgsrc/ current/ pkgsrc/ net/ miredo/ README. "Fedora Package Database -. . . com/ miredo-osx/ ). org/ net/ miredo. [6] http:/ / www.4 / July 7. org/ pkgdb/ acls/ name/ miredo). deepdarc. net/ miredo/ Miredo is an open-source Teredo IPv6 tunneling software included in many Linux[1] [2] and BSD[3] [4] operating systems and is also available for recent versions of Mac OS X.

to afford isochronous transfer and intelligent connection management. Yamaha Motif ES. Yamaha Motif XS Other important mLAN devices include Yamaha 01X digital mixing hub and Yamaha i88x audio/MIDI interface.[3] Versions Version 1 operates on the S200 type connection. For example. is a protocol for synchronized transmission and management of multi-channel digital audio. The latter version supports synchronized streaming of digital audio at up to 24 bit word length and 192 kHz sample rate. It exploits several features of the IEEE 1394 standard. Version 2 on the S400 type.[2] The transport layers of mLAN have been standardized as IEC 61883. Yamaha S90 ES. As of early 2008.mLAN 289 mLAN mLAN. video. being a Firewire bus protocol of its own. Yamaha has had no indication of new releases of mLAN hardware or updates to the software in several years and mention of mLAN is notably absent from new product announcements and driver updates over the last few years. also known as FireWire. a digital audio workstation may interact with mLAN-compliant hardware via any OHCI-compliant FireWire port. As of 2005. With the proper software. making the mixing of mLAN and non-mLAN devices on the same Firewire bus impossible. and publicly introduced in January 2000. Caveats and Product End mLAN. It effectively took over the bus with a proprietary management system that was incompatible with standard Firewire bus devices. optical drives or other sound devices on the same Firewire bus when mLAN Manager software was running. The protocol was originally developed by Yamaha Corporation. over 100 manufacturers are part of the mLAN Alliance. control signals and multi-port MIDI over a network. consumed an entire Firewire bus' bandwidth. upon which it is based. Interconnects are made with standard IEEE 1394 cables. Supporting products • Yamaha Motif.[1] It is now available under a royalty-free license to anyone interested in utilizing the technology. it was not possible to use hard drives. mLAN appeared to have reached the end of its product life. . short for Music Local Area Network. MIDI and wordclock at a bitrate up to 400 Megabits per second. The third party developers previously mentioned have since discontinued or retracted their mLAN supporting products from the market as has Yamaha itself.

is described in RFC 6275. com/ encyclopedia/ defineterm. Examples of use are in roaming between overlapping wireless systems.mLAN 290 References [1] Harmony Central: Yamaha Utilizes "Firewire" for Audio and MIDI: Reduces Need For Cables (http:/ / aes. a mobile node is associated with a care-of address which identifies its current location and its home address is associated with the local endpoint of a tunnel to its home agent. e. html) [2] Audio Interface Manufacturers' Round Table (http:/ / www.com/) • Save Mlan on the Mac (http://www.com) Mobile IP Mobile IP (or IP mobility) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address. the IP mobility implementation for the next generation of the Internet Protocol. VoIP).. Mobile IPv6. com/ sos/ dec05/ articles/ pcmusician. Each mobile node is identified by its home address disregarding its current location in the Internet. VPN.01xray. Mobile IP specifies how a mobile node registers with its home agent and how the home agent routes datagrams to the mobile node through the tunnel. WLAN.. htm) [3] mLAN Definition: TechEncyclopedia from TechWeb (http:/ / www. Applications In many applications (e. Mobile IP for IPv4 is described in IETF RFC 3344. jhtml?term=mLAN) External links • mLAN Central (http://www. Mobile ip protocol was designed to support seamless and continuous Internet connectivity.christianmccormick. Introduction The Mobile IP protocol allows location-independent routing of IP datagrams on the Internet. While away from its home network. However.g. since these systems provide their own data link layer handover and roaming mechanisms. Mobile IP is not required within cellular systems such as 3G. it is often used in 3G systems to allow seamless IP mobility between different packet data serving node (PDSN) domains. harmony-central. christianmccormick. to provide transparency when Internet users migrate between cellular towers.mlancentral. IP over DVB.g. and updates are added in IETF RFC 4721. sudden changes in network connectivity and IP address can cause problems. . soundonsound.com/) • 01xray (http://www. Mobile IP is most often found in wired and wireless environments where users need to carry their mobile devices across multiple LAN subnets. WiMAX and BWA. com/ Newp/ 2000/ mLAN.com/mlansite) hosted by Chrismcc (http://www. techweb. IPv6.

One such example is Interactive Protocol for Mobile Networking (IPMN) supporting mobility on a regular IP network just from the network edges by intelligent signalling between IP at end-points and application layer module with improved quality of service. which is associated with the network the mobile node is visiting. Instead of forwarding these packets to a destination that is physically in the same network as the home agent. Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 and their Combination) is available at. One such example is Network Mobility (NEMO) Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol [8] by the IETF Network Mobility Working Group [9] which supports mobility for entire Mobile Networks that move and to attach to different points in the Internet. which are used by Mobile IP. the mobile device has to take care of getting an address and advertising that address by its own means. . the foreign agent could employ reverse tunneling by tunneling the mobile node's packets to the home agent. Performance A performance evaluation of Mobile IPv6 can be found in. normal IP routing mechanisms forward these packets to the home agent.a permanent home address and a care-of address (CoA). If needed. a performance comparison between Mobile IPv6 and some of its proposed enhancements (Hierarchical Mobile IPv6. the home agent redirects these packets towards the remote address through an IP tunnel by encapsulating the datagram with a new IP header using the care of address of the mobile node.[2] Development Enhancements to the Mobile IP technique. Two kinds of entities comprise a Mobile IP implementation: • A home agent stores information about mobile nodes whose permanent home address is in the home agent's network. Researchers are also working to create support for mobile networking between entire subnets with support from Mobile IPv6. If there is no foreign agent in the host network.Mobile IP 291 Operational principles A mobile node has two addresses . which in turn forwards them to the communicating node. a mobile node sends packets directly to the other communicating node. This is known as triangular routing. Because the home address logically belongs to the network associated with the home agent. without sending the packets through the home agent. This is needed in networks whose gateway routers check that the source IP address of the mobile host belongs to their subnet or discard the packet otherwise. When acting as transmitter. • A foreign agent stores information about mobile nodes visiting its network.[1] Additionally. such as Mobile IPv6[3] and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) defined in RFC 5380 [4]. A node wanting to communicate with the mobile node uses the permanent home address of the mobile node as the destination address to send packets to.[5] are being developed to improve mobile communications in certain circumstances by making the processes more secure and more efficient. Researchers create support for mobile networking without requiring any pre-deployed infrastructure as it currently is [7] which promises required by MIP. Foreign agents also advertise care-of addresses. The protocol is an extension of Mobile IPv6 and allows session continuity for every node in the Mobile Network as the network moves. HMIPv6 explanation can be found at Hierarchical-Mobile-IPv6 [6]. using its permanent home address as the source address for the IP packets.

cfm?id=604022. September 2002. acm. de/ medien/ publication-confs/ perez-itc03-simulation-study.Torrent-Moreno and H. txt [9] http:/ / tools. 604035& coll=& dl=ACM) Elsevier Computer Networks Journal.Hartenstein.Pérez-Costa. kent.Hartenstein. special issue on The New Internet Architecture. Foreign agent A foreign agent is a router that stores information about mobile nodes visiting its network. [3] X. Care-of address The care-of address of a mobile device is the network-native IP address of the device when operating in a foreign network. com/ definition/ Hierarchical-Mobile-IPv6 [7] http:/ / medianet. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Mobile IPv6 in a WLAN-Based Cellular Network (http:/ / portal. Foreign network A foreign network is the network in which a mobile node is operating when away from its home network.Torrent-Moreno and H. acm.Mobile IP 292 Changes in IPv6 for Mobile IPv6 • • • • A set of mobility options to include in mobility messages A new Home Address option for the Destination Options header A new Type 2 Routing header New Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) messages to discover the set of home agents and to obtain the prefix of the home link • Changes to router discovery messages and options and additional Neighbor Discovery options Definition of terms Home network The home network of a mobile device is the network within which the device receives its identifying IP address (home address). techtarget. pdf) In Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress (ITC). A Simulation Study on the Performance of Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (http:/ / dsn. org/ citation. cfm?id=965736) ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R). M.Pérez-Costa and H. org/ citation. [6] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. special issue on The New Internet Architecture. 2003. Binding A binding is the association of the home address with a care-of address.Pérez-Costa. html [8] http:/ / www. August 2003. rfc-editor. Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 and their Combination.Hartenstein. ietf. (http:/ / portal. ietf. Home agent A home agent is a router on a mobile node’s home network which tunnels datagrams for delivery to the mobile node when it is away from home. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6. org/ rfc/ rfc3963. tm. uka. acm. October. org/ html/ rfc5380 [5] X. (http:/ / portal. edu/ ipmn/ main. org/ citation. Germany. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Mobile IPv6 in a WLAN-Based Cellular Network. M. It maintains current location (IP address) information for the mobile node.Hartenstein. Foreign agents also advertise care-of-addresses which are used by Mobile IP. Issue 4. It is used with one or more foreign agents. Home address The home address of a mobile device is the IP address assigned to the device within its home network. A Performance Comparison of Mobile IPv6.Pérez-Costa and H. Berlin. [2] X. September 2002 [4] http:/ / tools. Volume 7. References [1] X. 604035& coll=& dl=ACM) Elsevier Computer Networks Journal (CNJ). org/ wg/ nemo/ . cfm?id=604022.

Arkko. as T-MPLS. Using IPsec to Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and Home Agents (http://www. end-to-end OA&M and protection switching. C.cmu.html) Mobility Extensions for IPv6 (mext) IETF Working Group Web site (http://ietf.Mobile IP 293 External links • • • • • • • • • • • • RFC 6275 -Mobility support for IPv6 RFC 5944 .Mobile IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions RFC 3024 . [1] In February 2008 the ITU-T and IETF agreed to work jointly on the design of MPLS-TP. RFC 3776.IP Mobility Support for IPv4.html) Mobile IPv6 -. specifically SG15. It will be designed for use as a network layer technology in transport networks.monarch. Arkko.org/rfc/rfc3776.hznet.com/dept/mobile/184406240) Protocols for Adaptive Mobile and Wireless Networking (http://www. SONET and OTN. Dupont. June 2004 MPLS-TP MPLS-TP or MPLS Transport Profile is a profile of MPLS whose definition has been commenced by the IETF. The required protocol extensions to MPLS being designed by the IETF based on requirements provided by service providers.tml. ITU-T in turn will update the existing T-MPLS standards[2] based on the MPLS-TP related RFCs listed below. MPLS-TP is to be based on the same architectural principles of layered networking that are used in longstanding transport network technologies like SDH. Its design will be a continuation of the work started by the transport network experts of the ITU-T. Perkins. It will offer a dedicated MPLS implementation by removing features that are not relevant to CO-PS applications and adding mechanisms that provide support of critical transport functionality. Since 2008 the work is progressed in a cooperation between ITU-T and IETF. RFC 6275. It will be a connection-oriented packet-switched (CO-PS) application.550/1999/Esitelmat/MobileIP/ Mobip.charters/ mext-charter. J.ddj.edu/) Mobile IP explained (a tutorial) (http://www.txt). and thus is expected to align with current organizational processes and large-scale work procedures similar to other packet transport technologies. Service providers have already developed management processes and work procedures based on these principles. Based on this agreement IETF and ITU-T experts will jointly work out the requirements and solutions. Revised RFC 4721 .tkk.org/HOWTO/Mobile-IPv6-HOWTO/) on the Linux Documentation Project D. Johnson. Mobility Support in IPv6 (http://tools. MPLS-TP will provide service providers with a reliable packet-based technology that is based upon circuit-based transport networking. .A short introduction (http://www.org/html/rfc6275).Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP Inside Mobile IP (http://www. F.de/ipv6/mipv6-intro. Devarapalli. MPLS-TP is expected to be a low cost L2 technology (if the limited profile to be specified is implemented in isolation) that will provide QoS.ietf.fi/Opinnot/Tik-111. June 2011 J.ietf. V.org/html.pdf) by Holger Zuleger Linux Mobile IPv6 HOWTO (http://tldp.cs.

Defines GAL/G-ACH RFC 5462 "EXP field" renamed to "Traffic Class field" Loopback [10] (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP Terminology [11] (IETF Draft) MPLS-TP ACH TLV [12] (IETF Draft) Proactive continuity and connectivity verification [13] (Individual Draft) OAM Acronyms [8] (IETF Draft) MPLS-TP OAM based on Y.: • • • • • • • • • • • • RFC 5718 An In-Band Data Communication Network For the MPLS Transport Profile RFC 5586 MPLS Generic Associated Channel.1731 [14] (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP Performance monitoring (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP Fault Management (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP Linear Protection [15] (IETF Draft) .MPLS-TP 294 RFC or drafts The following IETF RFCs or drafts exist for MPLS-TP: RFC RFC 5317 RFC 5654 RFC 5921 RFC 5860 RFC 5960 tbd tbd RFC 5586 tbd RFC 5951 RFC 5950 tbd tbd RFC 6291 Title Joint Working Team (JWT) Report on MPLS Architectural Considerations for a Transport Profile MPLS-TP Requirements A Framework for MPLS in Transport Networks Requirements for OAM in MPLS Transport Networks MPLS Transport Profile Data Plane Architecture MPLS-TP OAM Framework and Overview MPLS-TP OAM Analysis Assignment of the Generic Associated Channel Header Label (GAL) MPLS-TP ACH TLV's MPLS TP Network Management Requirements MPLS-TP Network Management Framework MPLS-TP Survivability Framework A Thesaurus for the Terminology used in MPLS-TP drafts/RFCs and ITU-T's Transport Network Recommendations. Guidelines for the Use of the "OAM" Acronym in the IETF Draft draft-bryant-mpls-tp-jwt-report draft-ietf-mpls-tp-requirements draft-ietf-mpls-tp-framework draft-ietf-mpls-tp-oam-requirements draft-ietf-mpls-tp-data-plane [3] draft-ietf-mpls-tp-oam-framework draft-ietf-mpls-tp-oam-analysis draft-ietf-mpls-tp-gach-gal [5] [4] draft-ietf-mpls-tp-ach-tlv draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-req draft-ietf-mpls-tp-nm-framework [6] [7] draft-ietf-mpls-tp-survive-fwk draft-ietf-mpls-tp-rosetta-stone draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def [8] Solutions The solutions for the above requirements and framework are as mentioned below and is under development[9] .

ietf. ietf.ietf.int/rec/T-REC-G/e) IETF MPLS Charter (http://www.org/misc/mpls-tp/) . ietf.org/mail-archive/web/mpls-tp/current/maillist. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-oam-analysis/ http:/ / tools.charters/mpls-charter.tools. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-ach-tlv/ http:/ / tools. ITU-T Study Group 15. org/ html/ draft-umansky-mpls-tp-ring-protection-switching External links • • • • ITU-T series G recommendations (http://www. itu.ietf. org/ html/ draft-boutros-mpls-tp-loopback [11] http:/ / tools.ietf. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-oam-framework/ http:/ / tools. ietf. ietf.itu. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-survive-fwk/ [7] http:/ / tools.html) MPLS-TP Mailing list archives (http://www. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-rosetta-stone [12] http:/ / tools. int/ oth/ T0906000001/ en [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / tools. org/ misc/ mpls-tp/ [10] http:/ / tools.html) Latest list of MPLS-TP standards (http://wiki. ietf. ietf. [2] http:/ / www. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-linear-protection [16] http:/ / tools. ietf. int/ ITU-T/ e-flash/ 035-may08. html#003) (HTML). itu. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-rosetta-stone/ [8] http:/ / tools. org/ html/ draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def [9] http:/ / wiki. org/ html/ draft-ietf-mpls-tp-ach-tlv [13] http:/ / tools. org/ html/ draft-fhbs-mpls-tp-cv-proactive [14] http:/ / tools. ietf. ietf. ietf. ietf. org/ html/ draft-bhh-mpls-tp-oam-y1731 [15] http:/ / tools. ietf.org/html. tools. org/ html/ draft-zulr-mpls-tp-linear-protection-switching [17] http:/ / tools.MPLS-TP • • • • • • • Linear Protection Switching in MPLS-TP [16] (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP P2MP traffic protection (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP OAM Alarm suppression (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP & IP/MPLS Interworking (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP Ring Protection [17] (Individual Draft) MPLS-TP LDP extension: No work MPLS-TP RSVP-TE extensions: No work 295 References [1] "ITU-T/IETF interoperability issues addressed" (http:/ / www. ietf. . ietf.

com/ st/ headlines/ MENOS-Expansion-Announced_33469. com/ Public/ pdf/ MENOS-brochure-and-leaflets. Retrieved 31 March 2010. com/ cgi-bin/ story. MONET optical networks provide an even greater bandwidth capacity. 2008.Multimedia Exchange Network over Satellite (MENOS) 296 Multimedia Exchange Network over Satellite (MENOS) Multimedia Exchange Network over Satellite (MENOS) is a communications protocol for exchanging multimedia content using communications satellites. cgi?number=713427336). com/ project/ MONET/ [2] http:/ / www. [1] "MENOS Multimedia Exchange Network over Satellite" (http:/ / www. June 14. Satnews Daily. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. amazon. First developed by the secretive National Security Agency as author James Bamford points out in his book. pdf) (PDF).. References • • • • Multiwavelength Optical Networking Consortium [1] Multiwavelength Optical Networks . 1996 [4] References [1] http:/ / www. jsp?tp=& arnumber=568597& isnumber=12345 . com/ dp/ 0385499086 [4] http:/ / ieeexplore. Arabsat. This new method employs Wave division multiplexing (WDM) technology for transporting large amounts of telephone and data traffic and allow for interoperability between equipment from different vendors. arabsat. It was also discussed at the 1996 Military Communications Conference. satellitetoday. ieee. The method provides the next level of communication networks after SONET optical networks. 2010. February 25. "Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency". bell-labs. Multiwavelength optical networking Multiwavelength optical networking (MONET). com/ dp/ 020130967X [3] http:/ / www. Satellite Today..[1] [2] [3] MENOS Key Advantages References [2] "Newtec — An Honor-Filled Evening. most commonly used by professional broadcasters. March 4. amazon." (http:/ / www. . 2010. . [3] "MENOS Expansion Announced" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 31 March 2010. html).A layered Approach [2] by Thomas E. satnews. is a method for communicating digital information using lasers over optical fiber. Retrieved 2010-03-31. Stern and Krishna Bala Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency [3] by James Bamford Military Communications Conference. .

a BitTorrent file-sharing client. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. FreeSWITCH. NAT-PMP runs over UDP. Examples include most reliable multicast protocols which send a NAK when the receiver detects missing packets. It essentially automates the process of port forwarding. Included in the protocol is a method for retrieving the public IP address of a NAT gateway. Deluge. an Internet Relay Chat client. an offsite backup program. meaning that they only respond to messages if there is a problem. This protocol is implemented in the applications listed below. an open source telephony platform. TCP is an example of an ACK-based protocol. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. Vuze. Colloquy. Other protocols are NAK-based. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. a remote file access application for OS X. Mac OS X 10. Many protocols are ACK-based. a music streaming program. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. Frostwire. Bitcomet. [2] Port Map . Nicecast. Crashplan. meaning that they positively acknowledge receipt of messages. Transmission. Limewire. Still other protocols make use of both NAKs and ACKs. RetroShare . FarFinder [1]. thus allowing a client to make this public IP address and port number known to peers that may wish to communicate with it. NAT-PMP allows a computer in a private network (behind a NAT router) to automatically configure the router to allow parties outside the private network to contact it. Folx. or to indicate some kind of error. µTorrent. Applications supporting NAT-PMP This list is incomplete. a manual port mapping configuration software for OS X. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. a downloader for Mac. NAT Port Mapping Protocol NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Draft. qBittorrent. a BitTorrent file-sharing client. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BitTorrent. used for torrents or normal downloads.4 and above. It was introduced in June 2005. Bisync and Adaptive Link Rate (for Energy Efficient Ethernet) is an example. A special case of the NAK protocol message is the negative-acknowledge character.NAK (protocol message) 297 NAK (protocol message) The NAK (or NACK) protocol message is sent in many communications protocols to negatively acknowledge or reject a previously received message. introduced by Apple Computer as an alternative to the more common Internet Gateway Device (IGD) Standardized Device Control Protocol implemented in many network address translation (NAT) routers. a Gnutella file-sharing client.

fr/ nat-pmp. Manufacturer and model .au/stallone/ • ShareTool. library that supports UPnP and NAT-PMP transversal (client and server) References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / flyingmac.24 or higher.id.09 or higher. a software implementation of NAT-PMP for linux/iptables: http://tedp. 298 Routers supporting NAT-PMP This list is incomplete.0 Tarifa (firmware) [4] (Linksys WRT54G/GL/GS) Time Capsule Tomato Firmware v1. net/ http:/ / tools. free. codingmonkeys. org/ html/ draft-cheshire-nat-pmp http:/ / developer.Router firmware version tested • • • • • • • • • AirPort Express AirPort Extreme DD-WRT OpenWrt v8. an automated VPN program for OS X. (Linksys WRT54G/GL/GS and many more) Peplink Balance External links • • • • NAT-PMP Specification Draft [5] Bonjour Protocol Specifications [6] another NAT-PMP explanation [7] MiniUPnP [6] ANSI C. html . de/ portmap/ http:/ / pfsense. com/ farfinder/ http:/ / www. BSD-licenced. • MobileMe. Apple Inc's mobile device synchronization service. apple. org/ http:/ / tarifa. ietf. com/ networking/ bonjour/ specs. with MiniUPnP daemon pfSense [3] v2. html http:/ / miniupnp.NAT Port Mapping Protocol • Stallone. sourceforge.

as incoming requests cannot be easily correlated to the proper internal host. In home or small office settings. especially peer-to-peer and Voice over IP (VoIP) deployments. VoIP services and the online services of current generation video game consoles require clients to be servers as well. which adds bandwidth costs and increases latency. because of a rare and controversial security issue .UDP port 4500 Often this is accomplished on home routers by enabling "IPsec Passthrough". The internal network devices communicate with hosts on the external network by changing the source address of outgoing requests to that of the NAT device and relaying replies back to the originating device. has been disabled by default for the case when [1] the VPN server is also behind a NAT device. Most NAT behavior-based techniques bypass enterprise security policies. in case of NAT-T: • IKE . thereby posing a problem for users behind NAT devices. as the NAT device has no automatic method of determining the internal host for which incoming packets are destined. IPsec NAT-T . This leaves the internal network ill-suited to host servers. while others are based on relaying all data through it. Many NAT traversal techniques require assistance from a server at a publicly-routable IP address.NAT traversal 299 NAT traversal NAT traversal is a general term for techniques that establish and maintain Internet protocol connections traversing network address translation (NAT) gateways. but in XP with SP2. This is not a problem for home users behind NAT devices doing general web access and e-mail. the oldest NAT traversal protocol. NAT-T is enabled by default. potentially requiring substitution or special traversal techniques for NAT traversal. Furthermore many of these types of services carry IP address and port number information in the application data. allowing NAT traversal while still enabling marshalling at the NAT to enforce enterprise security policies. Intercepting and modifying traffic can only be performed transparently in the absence of secure encryption and authentication. Some methods use the server only when establishing the connection. is still widely available. detrimental to real-time voice and video communications. Network address translation breaks end-to-end connectivity. the most promising IETF standards are Realm-Specific IP (RSIP) and Middlebox Communications (MIDCOM). applications such as peer-to-peer file sharing.UDP port 500 • IPsec NAT-T . eg. but no single method works in every situation since NAT behavior is not standardized.IP protocol number 50 • Authentication Header (AH) . NAT traversal and IPsec In order for IPsec to work through a NAT. Many techniques exist.User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 500 • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) . From this point of view. the LAN router: • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) . NAT-T is commonly used by IPsec virtual private network clients in order to have Encapsulating Security Payload packets traverse NAT. However. the following protocols need to be allowed through the NAT interface(s). Enterprise security experts prefer techniques that explicitly cooperate with NAT and firewalls. Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is supported by most small NAT gateways.IP protocol number 51 or. NAT traversal techniques are typically required for client-to-client networking applications. SOCKS. In Windows XP. The NAT traversal problem NAT devices are installed to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion by allowing the use of private IP addresses on home and corporate networks behind routers with a single public IP address facing the public Internet.

NAT-T allows systems behind NATs to request and establish secure connections on demand.IPsec-Network Address Translation (NAT) Compatibility RFC 3947 . One usage of NAT-T and IPsec is to enable opportunistic encryption between systems.heise-online.Security Model with Tunnel-mode IPsec for NAT Domains RFC 2993 .Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator (NAT) RFC 3235 .co.net. microsoft.State of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Communication across Network Address Translators (NATs) References [1] "IPSec NAT-T is not recommended for Windows Server 2003 computers that are behind network address translators" (http:/ / support.Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in the IKE RFC 5128 . External links • NAT-Traversal Test (http://nattest.de) • How Skype & Co.IP Network Address Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations RFC 2709 . Microsoft knowledge base #885348.in.NAT traversal patches are also available for Windows 2000. com/ kb/ 885348/ en-us).tum.uk/security/ How-Skype-Co-get-round-firewalls--/features/82481) . 300 IETF references • • • • • • • • • • RFC 1579 .Architectural Implications of NAT RFC 3022 .Network Address Translator (NAT)-Friendly Application Design Guidelines RFC 3715 .Firewall Friendly FTP RFC 2663 .Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT) RFC 3027 . . Windows NT and Windows 98. get round firewalls (http://www.

and to facilitate co-operative management of these functions. to provide controlled access to electronic resources. 2002.83-2002 or NCIP is a "NISO Draft Standard for Trial Use. niso. and/or access that is essential to successful conclusion of the function. Released in May 2001 and approved on October 17. html . org/ ncip." This protocol defines a repertoire of messages and associated rules of syntax and semantics for use by applications: to perform the functions necessary to lend items. info/ [2] http:/ / www. coverpages. org/ kst/ reports/ standards?step=2& gid=& project_key=ecdd6e885fae676a7ce6528173b56015621b0c46 [3] http:/ / xml. External links • NCIP Implementation Group [1] • NCIP information at NISO [2] • NCIP information at CoverPages [3] References [1] http:/ / ncip. to provide controlled access to electronic resources. items.National Information Standards Organization Circulation Interchange Protocol 301 National Information Standards Organization Circulation Interchange Protocol National Information Standards Organization Circulation Interchange Protocol (NCIP) is a protocol that is limited to the exchange of messages between and among computer-based applications to enable them to perform functions necessary to lend and borrow items. It is intended to address conditions in which the application or applications that initiate the lending of items or control of access must acquire or transmit information about the user. and to facilitate cooperative management of these functions. ANSI/NISO Z39.

NetBSD. net/ 2. External links • Official website [1] • Official manual [3] • Macintosh-style File and Print Services with Netatalk [4] .2. Currently Netatalk supports the FreeBSD.1 (providing long UTF-8 filenames. Netatalk is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Netatalk supports the latest AFP protocol level 3. Starting with version 2.from the Linux Documentation Project References [1] http:/ / netatalk. net/ [2] http:/ / www. html .5. Netatalk supports the use of Time Machine over a network in a similar fashion to Apple's own Time Capsule. sourceforge. Netatalk was originally developed by the Research Systems Unix Group at University of Michigan and moved to SourceForge in 2000. OpenSolaris and Tru64 operating systems. including: support for Apple Filing Protocol version 3. 2011 2. reliable and persistent storage of file and directory IDs and countless bug fixes compared to previous versions.0 / July 27. open-source implementation of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.0 was released.2. Kerberos V support allowing true "single sign-on". CUPS integration. org/ LDP/ lame/ LAME/ linux-admin-made-easy/ netatalk-file-and-print. Solaris. com/ [3] http:/ / netatalk. which brought major improvements.0. Commercial support for Netatalk is available from NetAFP [2]. OpenBSD. netafp. 1/ htmldocs/ index.sourceforge. full Mac OS X compatibility).net [1] Netatalk is a free. 2011 Operating system POSIX-compliant *NIX/*BSD systems Type License Website Remote Access GNU General Public Licence netatalk. Also there are packages for iOS and Mac OS X. sourceforge. Linux. print and time servers for Macintosh computers. file sizes > 2 gigabytes. tldp.3. Since version 2.Netatalk 302 Netatalk Netatalk Developer(s) Stable release Preview release Netatalk Team 2. It allows Unix-like operating systems to serve as file.2-beta4 / April 5. html [4] http:/ / www. In October 2004 Netatalk 2.

the NetBIOS implementations by other companies were known simply as NetBIOS regardless of whether they incorporated the API extensions found in that emulator. and the latter is NetBIOS over NBT. as an API alone.2 and IPX/SPX using the NetBIOS Frames (NBF) and NetBIOS over IPX/SPX (NBX) protocols. at the IEEE 802. the services of Microsoft's NetBIOS implementation were provided over the IEEE 802. NBF. Microsoft created a NetBIOS implementation for its MS-NET networking technology. respectively. Since its original publishing in a technical reference book from IBM.ɒs/) is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System." and to "allow NetBIOS interoperation in the Internet. with the name NetBIOS commonly used only in reference to file and printer sharing over TCP/IP. The NBT protocol was developed in order to "allow an implementation [of NetBIOS applications] to be built on virtually any type of system where the TCP/IP protocol suite is available. . among other things. This results in each computer in the network having both an IP address and a NetBIOS name corresponding to a (possibly different) host name. the former is NetBIOS over NBF. It provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network. As strictly an API. was published. Older operating systems ran NetBIOS over IEEE 802. the NetBIOS API specification has become a de facto standard. Also in 1985. considering that at the time. History and terminology NetBIOS was developed in 1983 by Sytek Inc. In 1986.2 Logical Link Control layer. the ability to deal with the greater node capacity of token ring. was simultaneously produced to allow NetBEUI (NetBIOS) to provide its services over token ring — specifically.NetBIOS 303 NetBIOS NetBIOS (  /ˈnɛtbaɪ. NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT). as an API for software communication over IBM's PC-Network LAN technology. NetBIOS was itself designed with limited nodes in mind. The name NetBEUI should have died there. named NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI). Novell released Advanced Novell NetWare 2. For MS-NET. Microsoft elected to name its implementation of the NBF protocol "NetBEUI" — literally naming its implementation of the transport protocol after IBM's second version of the API. however. expanded the base NetBIOS API with. In modern networks. IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow NetBIOS-aware applications from the PC-Network era to work over this new design. NetBIOS normally runs over TCP/IP via the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) protocol. NetBEUI originated strictly as the moniker for IBM's enhanced 1985 NetBIOS emulator for token ring. Its services were encapsulated within NetWare's IPX/SPX protocol using the NetBIOS over IPX/SPX (NBX) protocol. As in the case of IBM's token ring. Because PC-Network only supported up to 80 devices in its most accommodating mode (baseband). A new networking protocol." After the PS/2 computer hit the market in 1987. In truth. which included a driver for NetBIOS. On PC-Network.2 Logical Link Control layer by the NBF protocol. In 1987. This emulator. Microsoft file and printer sharing over Ethernet continues to be called NetBEUI. NetBIOS is not a networking protocol. It was described in RFC 1001 ("Protocol Standard for a NetBIOS Service on a TCP/UDP Transport: Concepts and Methods") and RFC 1002 ("Protocol Standard for a NetBIOS Service on a TCP/UDP Transport: Detailed Specifications").0 featuring the company's own NetBIOS emulator. In 1985. even today. Consequently. NetBIOS relied on proprietary Sytek networking protocols for communication over the wire. Worth noting is the popular confusion between the names NetBIOS and NetBEUI. IBM released the PC LAN Support Program. a method of encapsulating NetBIOS in TCP and UDP packets.

) Name service In order to start sessions or distribute datagrams. (Note: SMB. this is necessary because TCP only provides a byte-stream service with no notion of packet boundaries. an upper layer. an application must register its NetBIOS name using the name service. Data is transmitted during an established session by data packets which are responded to with either acknowledgment packets (ACK) or negative acknowledgment packets (NACK). NACK packets will prompt retransmission of the data packet. if ever. • Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication. It can now run atop TCP with a small adaptation layer that adds a packet length to each SMB message. It is called the NetBIOS Suffix (read below) or "resource type". but it is rarely. and is used to tell other applications what type of services the system offers. but doesn't require an acknowledgment. Send No Ack — like Send. Delete name — un-registers a NetBIOS name or group name. to establish a session. • Session service for connection-oriented communication. Find name — looks up a NetBIOS name on the network. NetBIOS names are 16 octets in length and vary based on the particular implementation. Session service Session mode lets two computers establish a connection for a "conversation". In NBT. used). allows larger messages to be handled. and provides error detection and recovery. In the original protocol used to implement NetBIOS services on PC-Network. NetBIOS name resolution is not supported by Microsoft for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). the 16th octet is used to designate a "type" similar to the use of ports in TCP/IP. the name service operates on UDP port 137 (TCP port 137 can also be used.NetBIOS 304 Services NetBIOS provides three distinct services: • Name service for name registration and resolution. the computer establishing the session sends an Open request which is responded to by an Open acknowledgment. and is not to be confused as a necessary and integral part of NetBIOS itself. Listen — listen for attempts to open a session to a NetBIOS name. Receive — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send on the other end of a session. In NBT. The computer that started the session will then send a Session Request packet which will prompt either a Session Accept or Session Reject packet. . Add group name — registers a NetBIOS "group" name. The name service primitives offered by NetBIOS are: • • • • Add name — registers a NetBIOS name. Send — sends a packet to the computer on the other end of a session. Frequently. Since NetBIOS is handling the error recovery. The session service primitives offered by NetBIOS are: • • • • • • Call — opens a session to a remote NetBIOS name. the session service runs on TCP port 139. The computer that started the session will reply with a close response which prompts the final session closed packet. Hang Up — close a session. is a service that runs on top of the Session Service and the Datagram service. Sessions are closed by the non-initiating computer by sending a close request.

Receive Datagram — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send Datagram operation. . the name must be resolved to a network address. Today this is usually an IP address (the NetBIOS name-IP address resolution is often done by either broadcasts or a WINS Server — NetBIOS Name Server). Host names are used by applications such as telnet. master browser record. however Microsoft limits the host name to 15 characters and reserves the 16th character as a NetBIOS Suffix. Host name.or Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)-IP address resolution is typically done by a Domain Name System (DNS) server. each computer may have multiple "names" — names for the NetBIOS API and another (or others) for basic TCP/IP.NetBIOS 305 Datagram distribution service Datagram mode is "connectionless". but it may also be completely different. The host name (or short host name) is specified when Windows networking is installed/configured. etc. | + The Windows LMHOSTS file provides a NetBIOS name resolution method that can be used for small networks that do not use a WINS server. Host name A Windows machine's NetBIOS name is not to be confused with the computer's host name. The datagram service primitives offered by NetBIOS are: • • • • Send Datagram — send a datagram to a remote NetBIOS name. Generally a computer running TCP/IP (whether it's a Windows machine or not) has a host name (also sometimes called a machine name or a DNS name). Since each message is sent independently. although truncated to 15 characters. In order to connect to a computer running the TCP/IP protocol using its HOST name. NetBIOS name vs host name When NetBIOS is run over the TCP/IP protocol. There may also be "connection specific suffixes" which can be viewed or changed on the DNS tab in Control Panel → Network → TCP/IP → Advanced Properties. This suffix describes the service or name record type such as host record. A computer's NetBIOS name is often the same as that computer's host name (see below). web browsers. the datagram service runs on UDP port 138. the host name must be resolved into an IP Address. Send Broadcast Datagram — send a datagram to all NetBIOS names on the network. NetBIOS name The NetBIOS name is 16 ASCII characters. the suffixes registered are determined by the individual services supplied by the host. In order to connect to a computer running TCP/IP via its NetBIOS name. or domain controller record. the application becomes responsible for error detection and recovery. they must be smaller. NetBIOS names can include almost any combination of alphanumeric characters except for spaces and the following characters: \ / : * ? " . which are both set in the System Properties dialog box. Generally the host name of a Windows computer is based on the NetBIOS name plus the Primary DNS Suffix. ftp. In NBT. Receive Broadcast Datagram — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send Broadcast Datagram operation.

Primary Domain Controller for a domain 1C: Domain Controllers for a domain (group record with up to 25 IP addresses) 1D: Master Browser 1E: Browser Service Elections NetBIOS Extended User Interface The Microsoft adaptation of the IBM NetBIOS protocol.NetBIOS 306 Node types The node type of a networked computer relates to the way it resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses. The number of record types is limited to 255. The most common NetBIOS Suffixes: ASCII Values of 16th characters of NetBIOS "names" • • • • • • • 00: Workstation Service 03: Messenger Service 20: File Service (also called Host Record) 1B: Domain Master Browser . NetBEUI expands on NetBIOS by adding a Transport layer component. CIFS Networking [4] Computing-Dictionary: The Free Dictionary [5] LMHOSTS File [6] Online NetBIOS Scan [7] .Scans a Host/IP for open NetBIOS name servers. SMB. There are four node types. • • • • B-node: 0x01 Broadcast P-node: 0x02 Peer (WINS only) M-node: 0x04 Mixed (broadcast. NBF. NetBEUI. NetBIOS Suffixes The NetBIOS suffix. NetBEUI is a fast and efficient protocol that consumes few network resources.Microsoft Knowledge Base article describing list of NetBIOS Suffixes.2 and NetBIOS APIs [1] Implementing CIFS [2] (from the Samba team. However in actual use the number of commonly used NetBIOS Suffixes is substantially smaller. then broadcast) The node type in use is displayed by opening a command line and typing ipconfig /all. External links • • • • • • • • LAN Technical Reference: 802. published under the Open Publication License) NetBIOS specification [3] NetBIOS. then WINS) H-node: 0x08 Hybrid (WINS. This character specifies the record or service type for the registered name record. and requires little configuration. A Windows computer registry may also be configured in such a way as to display "unknown" for the node type. alternately called the NetBIOS End Character (endchar) is the 16th character of a NetBIOS name. provides excellent error correction. . NETBIOS End Characters / Suffixes [8] .

2 type 1 mode to provide the NetBIOS/NetBEUI name service and datagram service. the NetBIOS/NetBEUI services must be [2] implemented atop other protocols. me. microsoft. (7th Ed. org/ cifs [3] http:/ / www. This means that it is only well-suited for small to medium-sized networks. Abraham. net/ tools/ netbios/ [8] http:/ / support. thefreedictionary. the two of them developed to allow [1] NetBIOS programs to run over IBM's new token ring network). uk/ n2c. NBF protocol is commonly confused with NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface. Microsoft and Novell utilized it for their network operating systems LAN Manager and NetWare. com [4] http:/ / timothydevans. NBF is a protocol and NetBEUI an application programming interface extension. Other protocols. McGraw-Hill.2 type 2 mode to provide the NetBIOS/NetBEUI session service (virtual circuit). Microsoft promulgated this confusion by labelling its NBF protocol implementation NetBEUI. NBF protocol or NetBIOS over IEEE 802. an extension to the NetBIOS API that was originally developed in conjunction with NBF protocol. Windows 95 and Windows NT. such as NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). boulder. Because NBF protocol is unroutable it can only be used to communicate with devices in the same broadcast domain. ISBN 978-0-07-225665-9 • Tamara Dean. Gagne. Network+ Guide to Networks. LAN Server. John Wiley & Sons. com/ Net+ bios [6] http:/ / www.). Windows for Workgroups. Sytek developed NetBIOS for IBM for the PC-Network program and was used by Microsoft for MS-NET in 1985. Overview NBF protocol uses 802.2 LLC is used by a number of network operating systems released in the 1990s. com/ technet/ prodtechnol/ windows2000serv/ reskit/ cnet/ cnfd_lmh_qxqq. "Managing and Troubleshooting Networks". netbiosguide. Scott (1990). mspx?mfr=true [7] http:/ / w3dt. Galvin. and NetBIOS-over-IPX/SPX also implement the NetBIOS/NetBEUI services over other protocol suites. which accounts for its reputation as a chatty interface. and 802. com/ kb/ 163409 NetBIOS Frames protocol NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is a non-routable network. pg. Architecture Technology Corp. but being bridgeable it can also be used to communicate with network segments connected to each other via bridges. ibm. such as LAN Manager. html [5] http:/ / computing-dictionary. Greg (2004). ISBN 99914-57-34-8 • Silberschatz. 206 (NetBEUI) References [1] http:/ / publibz. microsoft. ISBN 0-471-69466-5 • Meyers. NBF protocol makes wide use of broadcast messages. Inside NetBIOS.NetBIOS 307 References • Haugdahl. such as IPX and TCP/IP (see above) in order to be of use in an internetwork. . Peter Baer. Operating System Concepts.and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking in the 1990s. In 1987. J. com/ cgi-bin/ bookmgr_OS390/ BOOKS/ BK8P7001/ CCONTENTS [2] http:/ / ubiqx. Michael (2004).

The computer with which the session is to be established will respond with a "Name Recognized" response indicating either that no session can be established (either because that computer is not listening for sessions being established to that name or because no resources are available to establish a session to that name) or that a session can be established (in which case the response will include a local session number to be used in subsequent packets). i.e. an application must register its NetBIOS/NetBEUI name using the name service. Name service In order to start sessions or distribute datagrams. Because NetBIOS/NetBEUI allows packets to be sent that are larger than the largest packet that could be transmitted on a particular MAC layer. Sessions are closed by sending a "Session End" request.NetBIOS Frames protocol 308 Services NetBIOS/NetBEUI provides three distinct services: • Name service for name registration and resolution • Session service for connection-oriented communication • Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication NBF protocol implements all of these services. this will also acknowledge all preceding "Data First Middle" packets." allows larger messages to be handled. and provides error detection and recovery.2 handles flow control and retransmission of data packets. specifying that a session should be initialized. To do so. the name service. the response to which will have the MAC address of the host sending the response. to start a session or to send a datagram to a particular host rather than to broadcast the datagram. a NetBIOS/NetBEUI packet might have to be transmitted as a sequence of "Data First Middle" packets and a "Data Only Last" packet. packets that do not need to be segmented in that fashion will be sent as a single "Data Only Last" packet. . broadcasts a "Node Conflict" message on the network. the host with that name. Session service Session mode lets two computers establish a connection for a "conversation. NBF protocol has to determine the MAC address of the host with a given NetBIOS/NetBEUI name. If the NetBIOS/NetBEUI name is already in use. Data is transmitted during an established session by data packets. IEEE 802. The computer that is starting the session will then send a "Session Initialize" request which will prompt a "Session Confirm" response. running on the host that owns the name. this is done by sending a "Name Query" packet. The computer establishing the session sends a "Name Query" request. Sessions are established by exchanging packets. In addition. An acknowledgment will be sent for all "Data Only Last" packets that are successfully received. an "Add Name Query" or "Add Group Name Query" packet is broadcast on the network.

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Datagram distribution service
Datagram mode is "connectionless". A datagram is sent with a "Datagram" packet if it is being sent to a particular NetBIOS/NetBEUI name, or a "Datagram Broadcast" packet if it is being sent to all NetBIOS/NetBEUI names on the network.

Availability
NBF protocol - apart from DOS and Unix implementations - is officially supported by Microsoft on almost every version of Windows up to Windows 2000,[3] but its use has decreased quickly since the development of NBT. Microsoft officially dropped support starting with Windows XP,[4] but it is included on the Windows XP CD-ROM and can be installed manually.[5] Windows Vista does not include NetBEUI support at all, but the Windows XP NetBEUI support drivers can be used.[6]

External links
• LAN Technical Reference: 802.2 and NetBIOS APIs [1] - includes NBF protocol specifications • About NetBEUI [7] • Comparison of Windows NT Network Protocols [8]

References
[1] "NetBios NetBEUI NBF Networking Introduction" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070207171212/ http:/ / ourworld. compuserve. com/ homepages/ timothydevans/ intro. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / ourworld. compuserve. com/ homepages/ timothydevans/ intro. htm) on 2007-02-07. . Retrieved 2007-07-03. [2] "NetBios NetBEUI NBF Networking Encapsulation" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060915105324/ http:/ / ourworld. compuserve. com/ homepages/ timothydevans/ encap. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / ourworld. compuserve. com/ homepages/ timothydevans/ encap. htm) on 2006-09-15. . Retrieved 2006-11-24. [3] "NetBEUI support on Windows 2000" (http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ technet/ prodtechnol/ windows2000serv/ reskit/ intwork/ inde_nbf_hlpj. mspx). . Retrieved 2007-03-19. [4] "The NetBEUI Protocol Is Not Available in Windows XP (KB306059)" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ kb/ 306059). . Retrieved 2007-03-19. [5] "How to install NetBEUI on Windows XP (KB301041)" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ kb/ 301041). . Retrieved 2007-03-19. [6] "NetBeui on XP and Vista" (http:/ / www. mac-net. com/ 174984. page). . [7] http:/ / www. comptechdoc. org/ independent/ networking/ guide/ netnetbeui. html [8] http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ kb/ q128233/

NetBIOS over TCP/IP

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NetBIOS over TCP/IP
NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. NetBIOS was developed in the early 1980s, targeting very small networks (about a dozen computers). Some applications still use NetBIOS, and do not scale well in today's networks of hundreds of computers when NetBIOS is run over NBF. When properly configured, NBT allows those applications to be run on large TCP/IP networks (including the whole Internet, although that is likely to be subject to security problems) without change. NBT is defined by the RFC 1001 and RFC 1002 standard documents.

Services
NetBIOS provides three distinct services: • Name service for name registration and resolution (port: 137) • Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication (port: 138) • Session service for connection-oriented communication (port: 139) NBT implements all of those services.

Name service
In NetBIOS, each participant must register on the network using a unique name of at most 15 characters. In legacy networks, when a new application wanted to register a name, it had to broadcast a message saying "Is anyone currently using that name?" and wait for an answer. If no answer came back, it was safe to assume that the name was not in use. However, the wait timeout was a few seconds, making the name registration a very lengthy process, as the only way of knowing that a name was not registered was to not receive any answer. NBT can implement a central repository, or Name Service, that records all name registrations. An application wanting to register a name would therefore contact the name server (which has a known network address) and ask whether the name is already registered, using a "Name Query" packet. This is much faster, as the name server returns a negative response immediately if the name is not already in the database, meaning it is available. The Name Service, according to RFCs 1001 and 1002, is called NetBIOS Naming Service or NBNS. Microsoft WINS is just an implementation of NBNS. It is worth saying that due to constant development of the way in which the Name Service handles conflict or merges, "group names" varies from vendor to vendor and can even be different by version e.g. with the introduction of a service pack. The packet formats of the Name Service are identical to DNS. The key differences are the addition of NetBIOS "Node Status" query, dynamic registration and conflict marking packets. They are encapsulated in UDP. Later implementation includes an optional Scope part of the name, making NetBIOS name hierarchical like DNS, but this is seldom used. In addition, to start a session or to send a datagram to a particular host rather than to broadcast the datagram, NBT will have to determine the IP address of the host with a given NetBIOS name; this is done by broadcasting a "Name Query" packet, and/or sending it to the NetBIOS name server. The response will have the IP address of the host with that name. It is interesting to note that NBNS is one of the first proper dynamic peer-to-peer distributed name registration services. The reputation of the NBNS protocol was brought into disrepute by Microsoft: it earned a bad name for being 'chatty', swamping networks with dynamic registration traffic on multiple protocols (IPX/SPX, NBF and TCP/IP) as people badly misconfigured their machines and their networks. The principles implemented in NBNS have been reimplemented many times, including in such systems as ZeroConf and MobileIP.

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Session service
Session mode lets two computers establish a connection for a "conversation," allows larger messages to be handled, and provides error detection and recovery. Sessions are established by exchanging packets. The computer establishing the session attempts to make a TCP connection to port 139 on the computer with which the session is to be established. If the connection is made, the computer establishing the session then sends over the connection a "Session Request" packet with the NetBIOS names of the application establishing the session and the NetBIOS name to which the session is to be established. The computer with which the session is to be established will respond with a "Positive Session Response" indicating that a session can be established or a "Negative Session Response" indicating that no session can be established (either because that computer isn't listening for sessions being established to that name or because no resources are available to establish a session to that name). Data is transmitted during an established session by Session Message packets. TCP handles flow control and retransmission of all session service packets, and the dividing of the data stream over which the packets are transmitted into IP datagrams small enough to fit in link-layer packets. Sessions are closed by closing the TCP connection.

Datagram distribution service
Datagram mode is "connectionless"; NetBIOS datagrams are sent over UDP. A datagram is sent with a "Direct Unique" or "Direct Group" packet if it's being sent to a particular NetBIOS name, or a "Broadcast" packet if it's being sent to all NetBIOS names on the network.

Security vulnerabilities
Web servers are typically - but not exclusively - the first point of impact for internet-based attack vectors. Local Area Network (LAN's) ports, by design, advertise information and consequently often become the focus of the most attacks upon Client-Server networks. Many services that are vulnerable to such means of attack, can - dependent on organizational impact to work-flows - safely be disabled. This is particularly true of network services that are inherently intranet-centric. Two such vulnerable network protocols that provide services are: the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol and NetBIOS over TCP/IP. Both services can reveal incredible amounts of detail and vital, security information about an exposed network. When not mitigated, NetBIOS over TCP/IP and SMB provide recurring vectors for malicious attacks upon a network. Specifically, NetBIOS provides attackers with a means to map the network and also freely navigate a compromised intranet. In regards to public Web Servers, neither service is necessary for the successful operation of a public Web server and disabling both services in such scenarios can greatly enhance the security status of a network.

Decreasing relevance in post-NT Client-Server Networks
In relation to post-MS Windows 2000 / NT, client-server based networks, NetBIOS is effectively becoming a legacy protocol. NetBIOS was also developed for non-routable LAN's. In most post year 2000 networks operating Windows 2000 or later, NetBIOS effectively offers backwards compatibility for network devices that predate compatibility with DNS. A central role of NetBIOS in Client-Server networks (and also those networks that have networked peripheral hardware that also predates DNS compatibility) is to provide name resolution to computers and networked peripherals. Further, it allows for such networked hardware to be accessed and shared and also enables the mapping and browsing of network folders, shares and shared printers, faxes, etc. In its primary capacity, it acts as a session-layer protocol transported over TCP/IP to provide name resolution to a computer and shared folders. To that end, Windows 2000-based, Client-Server networks - and later - do not require this insecure means of name resolving

NetBIOS over TCP/IP and addressing or navigating of network shares.

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External links
• KB204279 [1] - KB article describing the more modern, direct hosting of SMB • nbtscan [2] - open-source program to scan IP networks for NetBIOS name information

References
[1] http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ kb/ 204279 [2] http:/ / www. unixwiz. net/ tools/ nbtscan. html

NetWare Core Protocol
The NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) is a network protocol used in some products from Novell, Inc. It is usually associated with the NetWare operating system, but parts of it have been implemented on other platforms such as Linux, Windows NT and various flavors of Unix. It is used to access file, print, directory, clock synchronization, messaging, remote command execution and other network service functions. TCP/IP and IPX/SPX (obsoleted, technical support is provided only for NetWare platform) are the supported underlying protocols. TCP/IP implementations use TCP/UDP port 524 and rely on SLP for name resolution. Novell eDirectory uses NCP for synchronizing data changes between the servers in a directory service tree.

Client-side implementations
• • • • • • • • Novell Client for Windows Vista [1] from Novell. Novell Client for Windows 2000/XP/2003 [2] from Novell. Novell Client for Windows 95/98 [3] from Novell. Novell Client for Linux [4] from Novell. NetWare Clients for DOS [5] from Novell - no longer supported. NetWare Client for Mac OS X [6] from Prosoft Engineering. ncpfs [7], an open-source NCP client implementation for Linux. Client Service for NetWare from Microsoft.

External links
• NCP specification [8] without description of underlying Netware RPC framework [9] • Wireshark (an open source protocol analyzer) Documentation - Fields of the NCP packet [10] • Making Mac OS X play nicely with Novell

References
[1] http:/ / www. novell. com/ products/ clients/ #vista [2] http:/ / www. novell. com/ products/ clients/ windows/ xp2000/ overview. html [3] http:/ / www. novell. com/ products/ clients/ windows/ win9598/ overview. html [4] http:/ / www. novell. com/ products/ clients/ linux/ overview. html [5] http:/ / www. novell. com/ coolsolutions/ tools/ 13555. html [6] http:/ / www. prosofteng. com/ products/ netware_client_x. php [7] http:/ / freshmeat. net/ projects/ ncpfs/ [8] http:/ / www. novell. com/ developer/ ndk/ netware_core_protocols. html

NetWare Core Protocol
[9] http:/ / www. wireshark. org/ docs/ dfref/ n/ ncp. html [10] http:/ / www. computerworld. com/ action/ article. do?command=printArticleBasic& articleId=9053138

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NetWare Link Services Protocol
NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) is based on the Intermediate-System-to-Intermediate-System (IS-IS) routing protocol developed by the International Organization For Standardization (ISO), NLSP enables Netware servers to exchange routing and service information without the high broadcast overhead generated by Routing Information Protocol and Service Advertising Protocol. Instead of periodically retransmitting its information every few minutes like RIP and SAP, NLSP only transmits every two hours, or when there is a change in a route or service, making it much more suitable for use over a Wide Area Network.

Network Control Program
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet. Although sometimes the abbreviation NCP is mistakenly expanded to Network Control Protocol, this term is not found in the contemporaneous documentation.

History
NCP provided connections and flow control between processes running on different ARPANET host computers. Application services, such as email and file transfer, were built on top of NCP, using it to handle connections to other host computers. On the ARPANET, the protocols in the Physical Layer, the Data Link Layer, and the Network Layer used within the network were implemented on separate Interface Message Processors (IMPs). The host usually connected to an IMP using another kind of interface, with different physical, data link and network layer specifications. The IMP's capabilities were specified by the Host/IMP Protocol in BBN Report 1822. Since lower protocol layers were provided by the IMP-host interface, NCP essentially provided a Transport Layer consisting of the ARPANET Host-to-Host Protocol (AHHP) and the Initial Connection Protocol (ICP). AHHP defined procedures to transmit a unidirectional, flow-controlled data stream between two hosts. The ICP defined the procedure for establishing a bidirectional pair of such streams between a pair of host processes. Application protocols (e.g., FTP) accessed network services through an interface to the top layer of the NCP, a forerunner to the Berkeley sockets interface.

and Newman. known as flag day. J. The use of a network based protocol would also allow the devices to be remote from the controlling application and not limited by the connection length of an RS422 serial line. CA: Network Information Center. Network Working Group (now IETF). IETF. E. Menlo Park. Crocker (16 March 1970). Inc. NDCP was designed to be a network based protocol instead of the traditional serial connection protocols to Broadcast devices.. . (1978).Network Control Program 314 Transition to TCP/IP On January 1. The intent was that vendors would standardize their Broadcast devices on a single protocol instead of each vendor offering proprietary protocols for their devices. NCP was officially rendered obsolete when the ARPANET changed its core networking protocols from NCP to the more flexible and powerful TCP/IP protocol suite. • BBN (May 1978). Jon.Specifications for the Interconnection of a Host and an IMP. BBN Report 1822. Bolt.[1] Notes [1] Postel. Interface Message Processor -. RFC 801. Feinler. • Postel. Previous to that he had worked for Louth Automation which was acquired by Harris. Network Device Control Protocol Network Device Control Protocol (NDCP) was designed by Laurent Grumbach who at the time was an engineer with Harris Broadcast. 2. (November 1981). ARPANET Protocol Handbook. RFC 36. Protocol Notes. Further reading • S. "The General Plan". 1983. marking the start of the modern Internet. NDCP was an XML compliant protocol and loosely based on the concepts of SOAP. NCP/TCP transition plan. p. Beranek.

PC. It implies amongst others the migration of voice from a circuit-switched architecture (PSTN) to VoIP. Increasingly applications. services are independent of transport details. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. Description According to ITU-T. . This means that whenever a provider wants to enable a new service.i. NGN implies the migration from the dual system of legacy voice next to xDSL setup in local exchanges to a converged setup in which the DSLAMs integrate voice ports or VoIP. Frame Relay (either commercial migration of the customer to a new service like IP VPN.25. NGN convergence implies migration of constant bit rate voice to CableLabs PacketCable standards that provide VoIP and SIP services. similar to those used on the Internet. In an NGN. and therefore the term all IP is also sometimes used to describe the transformation toward NGN.Next generation network 315 Next generation network Next generation network (NGN) is a broad term used to describe key architectural evolutions in telecommunication core and access networks. there is a more defined separation between the transport (connectivity) portion of the network and the services that run on top of that transport. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users. including voice. NGNs are commonly built around the Internet Protocol. and also migration of legacy services such as X. • In the cable access network. making it possible to remove the voice switching infrastructure from the exchange[2] .[1] . data. NGN implies a consolidation of several (dedicated or overlay) transport networks each historically built for a different service into one core transport network (often based on IP and Ethernet). Both services ride over DOCSIS as the cable data layer standard. NGN Seminar in Fusion Technology Center by NICT(Japan) researcher From a practical perspective. the definition is: A Next generation network (NGN) is a packet-based network which can provide services including Telecommunication Services and able to make use of multiple broadband. and all sorts of media such as video) by encapsulating these into packets. set-top box). The general idea behind the NGN is that one network transports all information and services (voice. tend to be independent of the access network (de-layering of network and applications) and will reside more on end-user devices (phone. Quality of Service-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. NGN involves three main architectural changes that need to be looked at separately: • In the core network. • In the wired access network. or technical emigration by emulation of the "legacy service" on the NGN). they can do so by defining it directly at the service layer without considering the transport layer .e.

video and data traffic across a converged infrastructure. For voice applications one of the most important devices in NGN is a Softswitch . With the most recent changes introduced for H. At the application level. which converted (using gateways) voice and data from their analog or digital switched-circuit form (PSTN.323. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) seems to be taking over from ITU-T H.323 may again be looked upon more favorably in cases where such devices encumbered its use previously. Next Generation Networks also extends into the messaging domain and in Ireland. many of the largest carriers use H.323 as the protocol of choice in their core backbones. In the Netherlands. built and deployed Traffic Control to handle the demands . This was originally a VoIP device. However.Next generation network 316 Underlying technology components Next Generation Networks are based on Internet technologies including Internet Protocol (IP) and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). potentially allowing organisations to enjoy lower infrastructure costs.323. On top of this. in line with growth demand. THUS' NGN contains 10.a programmable device that controls Voice over IP (VoIP) calls. It enables correct integration of different protocols within NGN. it is now possible for H. opening up the possibility that H. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardised NGN architecture for an Internet media-services capability defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).323 is like the "fiber backbone". coupled with Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that underpin quality of service performance guarantees. Initially H. Implementations In the UK another popular acronym was introduced by BT (British Telecom) as 21CN (21st Century Networks. though its popularity decreased in the "local loop" due to its original poor traversal of Network address translation (NAT) and firewalls.600 km of fibre optic cable with more than 190 points of presence throughout the UK. sometimes mistakenly quoted as C21N) — this is another loose term for NGN and denotes BT's initiative to deploy and operate NGN switches and networks in the period 2006-2008 (the aim being by 2008 BT to have only all-IP switches in their network) The first company in the UK to roll out a NGN was THUS plc [3] which started deployment back in 1999.323 was the most popular protocol. most of the telcos are extensively researching and supporting IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). SS7) to the packet-based one (IP). It controlled one or more gateways. The core optical network uses Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology to provide scalability to many hundreds of gigabits per second of bandwidth. A Call Agent is a general name for devices/systems controlling calls. So really SIP is a useful tool for the "local loop" and H. Traffic can be prioritised with Classes of Service. the THUS backbone network uses MPLS technology to deliver the highest possible performance. IP/MPLS-based services carry voice. Nonetheless. The most important function of the Softswitch is creating the interface to the existing telephone network. KPN is developing a NGN network in a network transformation program called all-IP — this is another loose term for NGN that is increasingly used. as well as added flexibility and functionality. The THUS NGN accommodates seven Classes of Service. One may quite often find the term Gatekeeper in NGN literature. PSTN. through Signalling Gateways and Media Gateways. the Softswitch as a term may be defined differently by the different equipment manufacturers and have somewhat different functions. Openmind Networks has designed. As soon as this kind of device started using the Media Gateway Control Protocol. four of which are currently offered on MPLS IP VPN. which gives SIP a major chance of being the most widely adopted protocol. However in voice networks where everything is under the control of the network operator or telco. For this reason as domestic VoIP services have been developed. SIP has been more widely adopted. the name was changed to Media Gateway Controller (MGC).323 devices to easily and consistently traverse NAT and firewall devices.

In Canada.ngnforum. ADSL. net Bezeq NGN press release (http:/ / ir. as well as implementation of higher bandwidths for the Metro and Long-distance Ethernet / VPN services. co.org) • ECMA TR/91 "Enterprise Communication in Next Generation Corporate Networks (NGCN) involving Public Next Generation Networks (NGN) (Ecma-International. html) • ITU-T NGN Management Focus Group (http://www. int/ ITU-T/ studygroups/ com13/ ngn2004/ working_definition.htm) • ITU-T Focus Group on Next Generation Networks (FGNGN) (http://www.tispan.uk/solutions/ ngn-migration-strategy.com/) • NGN Forum (http://www.ecma-international.org/) .int/ITU-T/studygroups/com04/ngn-mfg/index. http:/ / www. html) • NGN enabled label (http://www. upstart Wind Mobile owned by Globalive is deploying an all-ip wireless backbone for its mobile phone service.php) External links • ETSI TISPAN website (http://www. cross-national transits and WebTV/IPTV application.itu. zhtml?c=159870& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=1295729& highlight=/ ) • Migrating TDM Networks to NGN | A US Case Study (http://www.co.ngn-enabled. thus.squire-technologies.Next generation network and requirements of all IP networks. In Israel.int/ITU-T/ngn/fgngn/index. 317 References [1] [2] [3] [4] NGN working definition (http:/ / www. Centrex. il/ phoenix. 1000Kbps UL).itu. The service will allow enhanced services to phone subscribers as well as upgraded speed capabilities for ADSL users (up to 100Mbps DL. bezeq. The inherent flexibility and scalability of the new core network approach resulted in an unprecedented rise of classical services deployment as POTS/ISDN. Bezeq announced in a June 2009 press release[4] the move to NGN in selected areas. VPN.org/publications/techreports/E-TR-091. org/ cws/ article/ magazine/ 39844) Retrieved on 2009-08-28. BTC (Bulgarian Telecommunications Company) has implemented the NGN as underlying network of its telco services on a large scale project in 2004. itu. In Bulgaria. html) Next-generation networks: the MSAN strategy (http:/ / fibresystems. December 2005)" (also ISO/IEC DTR 26905 and ETSI TR 102 478) (http://www.

It has been defined by. and using multiplexers. cisco." External links • Cisco page on NHRP [3] • OpenNHRP project page [4] References [1] http:/ / tools. sonars. the standard also defines the contents of each sentence (message) type so that all listeners can parse messages accurately. html [4] http:/ / sourceforge. Multiple Access (NBMA) Networks. and is controlled by. It is defined in IETF RFC 2332 [1]. GPS receivers and many other types of instruments. a talker can have a unidirectional conversation with a nearly unlimited number of listeners. wishing to communicate over [an NBMA] subnetwork. autopilot.Next Hop Resolution Protocol 318 Next Hop Resolution Protocol Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is sometimes used to improve the efficiency of routing computer network traffic over Non-Broadcast. ietf. anemometer.-based National Marine Electronics Association [1]. gyrocompass. org/ html/ rfc2332 [2] http:/ / tools. At the application layer. the U. Serial configuration (data link layer) . org/ html/ rfc2333 [3] http:/ / www. ietf. and further described in RFC 2333 [2]. multiple sensors can talk to a single computer port. serial communications protocol that defines how data is transmitted in a "sentence" from one "talker" to multiple "listeners" at a time. com/ en/ US/ docs/ ios/ 12_4/ ip_addr/ configuration/ guide/ hadnhrp_ps6350_TSD_Products_Configuration_Guide_Chapter. Description From RFC 2332: "[NHRP] allows a source station (a host or router). to determine the internetworking layer addresses and NBMA addresses of suitable 'NBMA next hops' toward a destination station.S. The NMEA 0183 standard uses a simple ASCII. net/ projects/ opennhrp NMEA 0183 NMEA 0183 (or NMEA for short) is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marine electronic devices such as echo sounder. Through the use of intermediate expanders.

. The next five characters identify the talker (two characters) and the type of message (three characters). much of it has been reverse-engineered from public sources and is available in references like gpsd and Dale DePriest's [3]. According to the official specification. All data fields that follow are comma-delimited. but it is only included if a checksum is supplied. The checksum is the exclusive OR of all characters between the $ and *.10 N Talker ID (GP for a GPS unit.NMEA 0183 319 Typical Bit rate 4. Where data is unavailable. the checksum is optional for most data sentences. NMEA 2000. but is compulsory for RMA. in "123.N. the second field's data is unavailable).[2] However..WPTNME*32 where: GP AAM A A 0.10.456".A. • The first character that immediately follows the last data field character is an asterisk.g. the corresponding field contains NUL bytes (e. RMB. As an example.A.0.400. without using a central hub. GL for a GLONASS) Arrival alarm Arrival circle entered Perpendicular passed Circle radius Nautical miles WPTNME Waypoint name *32 Checksum data The new standard. and RMC (among others). • <CR><LF> ends the message. .800 Data bits Parity Stop bits Handshake 8 None 1 None AIS units use a default baud rate of 38. a waypoint arrival alarm has the form: $GPAAM. • The asterisk is immediately followed by a two-digit checksum representing a hexadecimal number. Application layer protocol rules • • • • Each message's starting character is a dollar sign. accommodates several talkers at a higher baud rate. The NMEA standard is proprietary and sells for at least US$ 325 as of June 2010.

09..W.29.09.61.13.17.A.8.15.3.03.10.A free NMEA Monitoring utility for NMEA 0183 GPS devices[14] DeLorme Street Atlas GPS TrackMaker[15] .*76 ..020.M.186. The record lasts two seconds.63.1.1.252. These extended messages are not standardized at all and are normally different from vendor to vendor.7.M.16.2.OpenStreetMap Map Editor PolarCOM .07...*76 $GPGSA.11.11.Marine Navigation and Charting Software Rand McNally StreetFinder Coastal Explorer by Rosepoint Navigation[6] Magic e-Map NemaTalker NMEA instrument simulation Microsoft Streets & Trips Microsoft MapPoint Serotonin Mango M2M[7] (suitable for NMEA compliant weather stations) MapKing gpsd .08.2. /******************************************************************************/ $GPGGA.29.223.61.72.05.NMEA 0183 320 Vendor extensions Most GPS manufacturers include special messages in addition to the standard NMEA set in their products for maintenance and diagnostics purposes.3.03.02.3372.07.PC instruments for both NMEA 0183 and NMEA 2000 VisualGPS .30*70 $GPGSV.39.13.137.59.1.19.A Brazilian solution which supports many GPS brands Java Marine API[16] .04.02.54.10.36.301..1. This file was produced in Leixlip co Kildare Rep of Ireland.04. Software compatibility NMEA 0183 GPS compliant software • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Master Navigator Software (MNS) [4] .uk) OrbitGPS ElectricCompass Telogis GeoBase NetStumbler Nimble Navigator [5] .00630.000.157.17.20.38*0A $GPGSV.1.3..a set of digital and analog NMEA instruments[12] [13] Avia Sail ..24.euronav..N.5321.14*79 $GPGSV.3.070.Open-source NMEA library for Java Sample file A sample file produced by a Tripmate 850 GPS logger.3.11.26.Map and Navigation Software seaPro Navigation Software (www.1.6802.Unix GPS Daemon GPSy X for Mac OS X[8] Turbo GPS PC/PPC/Android[9] GRLevelX Weather Suite[10] Google Maps Mobile Edition [11] JOSM .14.55.08.23.05.092750.co.098.290..28.

098. polarnavy.05.092751. com [14] http:/ / www. sourceforge.63.092750.15. gpstm. fi/ master.5321.30*70 $GPGSV.10.N. org/ [2] Publications and Standards from the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) / NMEA 0183 (http:/ / www..com/p/gpstalk/) NMEA Specifications at APRS Info (http://aprs. nmea.61.3. htm http:/ / www.7. elisanet.301.pdf) Free C library for parsing and generation of the NMEA protocol (http://nmea. com http:/ / mango.com/datasheets/GPS/NMEA Reference Manual1.3371.A.36. org/ content/ nmea_standards/ nmea_083_v_400.252.W.google. gpsy.. com/ [9] http:/ / www..M.17.nmea.11. navigator/ http:/ / www. grlevelx.02.gpsinformation.org/content/nmea_standards/nmea_083_v_400.39.3.15*77 $GPGSV.092751.26.1.000. serotoninsoftware.net) Free Java library for parsing of the NMEA protocol (http://nmealib. google.00630.31.3. net/ VisualGPS [15] http:/ / www.16.10. com/ mobile/ default/ maps..8.08. visualgps.38*0A $GPGSV.com/files/ WrydAs2CdNAMGhy*O-mvQMNhGW6Mmt-2RUB2Jb1odwCMia*dzrbnJWicJlJ4D9KxRkh6huPt4fDP14imYTC2D1ozEw-k6Jq-/ MTKNMEAPROPRIETARYCOMMAND. turboirc. com/ [11] http:/ / www.sourceforge.03.07. aviasail. nimblenavigator.6802.07.11.A*43 $GPGGA.NMEA 0183 $GPRMC.03.223..1.gids.13.. net/ [4] [5] [6] [7] External links • • • • • • • • • National Marine Electronics Association (http://www.00630.. asp) [3] http:/ / www.1.11.A*45 321 References [1] http:/ / www. html [12] http:/ / www.sparkfun.13.08.asp) NMEA data information (http://www. nmea.20.1.280511.59.66..31.org/dale/nmea.05.3. com/ main/ prod2 [13] http:/ / www.*75 $GPGSA.00630.W.070.0.6802.280511.000.. com/ tgps/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ [8] http:/ / www. gpsinformation.org/) NMEA's website about NMEA 0183 (http://www.17..pdf) .A.290.66..6802.020.02.29.000.nl/nmea/) MTK proprietary NMEA extensions (http://api.23.net) Open Source (New BSD License) C# library for parsing NMEA protocol (http://code.14.09.09.N.nmea.06.29.55.5321. com [16] http:/ / marineapi.3.186.54. org/ dale/ nmea.5321.ning.N.W.0.137.htm) Sirf-Chipset NMEA data reference manual (http://www.1.1.157.A.3..3372.M.28.sourceforge.*76 $GPRMC.16.3371.. com http:/ / rosepointnav.04.72.61.04.24.2.02.

.-+ | Transport | +...-+ | Internet | +..Non Access Stratum 322 Non Access Stratum Non Access Stratum (NAS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Core Network and User Equipment.| NAS +. +...........-+ Functionality Following form the part of Non Access Stratum • • • • Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management .| IP +......-+ | Link Layer | +..............-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +.-+ | Application | +..| AS +....| HTTP +........ The layer supports signalling and traffic between those two elements......| TCP +.| Channels +.-+ | Physical | +.......-+ | Network Layer| +...

Split horizon route advertisement In NBMA networks a special technique called split horizon route advertisement must be employed by distance-vector routing protocols in order to prevent routing loops. Some common examples of nonbroadcast network technologies include Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). but data is transmitted only directly from one computer to another single host over a virtual circuit or across a switched fabric. other devices may not be able to demodulate the information sent between them. and home power line networking. so when this feature is absent.Non-broadcast multiple-access network 323 Non-broadcast multiple-access network A non-broadcast multiple access network (NBMA) is a computer network to which multiple hosts are attached.hn standard provides a specification for creating a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network using existing home power lines. so modulation parameters are unique for each transmitter and receiver pair. phone lines and coaxial cables. Power line networks The ITU-T G. it has to be emulated with series of unicast transmissions.25. Because of multipath propagation. Frame Relay. . power lines use frequency-selective channels. X. Channel frequency response is different for each pair of transmitter and receiver. NBMA networks do not support multicast or broadcast traffic. which may result in receiver node sending a route advertisement back to the node it has just received it from. This family of protocol relies on link layer broadcasting for route advertisement propagation. Since each pair of devices uses a different modulation scheme for communication.

If the computers that are using NWLink use different frame types. By itself. It is also used when you are running File and Print Services for NetWare or using IPX routing. com/ technet/ prodtechnol/ windows2000serv/ reskit/ intwork/ ince_net_oesd. which will attempt to automatically choose a compatible frame type for your network. NWLink packages data to be compatible with client/server services on NetWare Networks. References [1] http:/ / www. One advantage of using NWLink is that is easy to install and configure. com/ windowsserver/ en/ library/ 9829cfc2-cb4a-4b3e-a606-21d0677e45831033. the NWLink protocol does not allow you to access the data across the network. The main function of NWLink is to act as a transport protocol to route packets through internetworks. If you want to access NetWare File and Print Services. If you need to connect to servers that use various frame types. which will allow you to use a different frame type for each network. you leave both settings at their default values. Configuring NWLink IPX/SPX The only options that are configured for NWLink are the internal network number and the frame type. mspx?mfr=true . The internal network number is commonly used to identify NetWare file servers. microsoft. Using NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport is Microsoft's implementation of the Novell IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange) protocol stack. However. Normally. they are not able to communicate with each other. microsoft.NWLink 324 NWLink NWLink is Microsoft's implementation of Novell's IPX/SPX protocols. The default setting for frame type is Auto Detect.[1][2] NWLink includes an implementation of NetBIOS atop IPX/SPX. The frame type specifies how the data is packaged for transmission over the network. you must install NWLink and Client Services for NetWare (software that works at the upper layers of the OSI model to allow access to File and Print services). The Windows XP implementation of the IPX/SPX protocol stack adds NetBIOS support. NWLink does not provide access to NetWare File and Print Services. mspx?mfr=true [2] http:/ / technet2. To access the File and Print Services the Client Service for NetWare needs to be installed. you should configure Manual Frame Type Detection.

such as the number of bytes in an object and the modify time of an object. and snapshots. A list command returns a list of identifiers for objects within a partition.e. There is a special policy tag attribute that is part of the security mechanism. The higher-level storage system that uses the OSD can query this collection and take corrective action as . In the OSD standard. collections of objects.Object storage device 325 Object storage device An Object-based Storage Device (OSD) is a computer storage device. Read and write commands can be combined. A collection is a special kind of object that contains the identifiers of other objects. The OSD implements a security mechanism that provides per-object and per-command access control. an OSD organizes data into flexible-sized data containers. For example. The OSD can implement a space-efficient copy using copy-on-write techniques so that the two partitions share objects that are unchanged between the snapshots. attributes might be used to classify objects. and objects are created and deleted within partitions. "Object-Based Storage Devices . and improved error handling. similar to disk storage but working at a higher level. An extensible set of attributes describe objects. or to capture relationships among different objects stored on different OSDs. There are no fixed sizes associated with partitions or objects.. which are writeable. The command interface to the OSD includes commands to create and delete objects. called objects. and there are operations to get or set attributes for all the objects in a collection. A list command can also return selected attributes of the listed objects. This ability reduces the number of times a high-level storage system has to cross the interface to the OSD. Instead of providing a block-oriented interface that reads and writes fixed sized blocks of data. Partitions are created and deleted within an OSD. If an object becomes damaged by the occurrence of a media defect (i. with commands to get and set attributes. its identifier is put into a special error collection. The OSD Standard The SCSI command set for Object Storage Devices was developed by a working group of the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) for the T10 committee of the International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS). The standard defines clones. was approved in 2004. These are set on objects by the higher-level storage systems that use the OSD for persistent storage. optionally filtered by matches against their attribute values. OSD Version 2 Work continues on a second generation of the SCSI command set. a bad spot on the disk) or by a software error within the OSD implementation. "Object-based Storage Device Commands" (OSD). or the OSD might physically copy the data to the new partition. Other attributes are uninterpreted by the OSD.2" (OSD-2). Several research projects have explored object storage and implemented prototype systems with various semantics. A snapshot is a point in time copy of all the objects in a partition into a new partition. The OSD is responsible for managing the storage of objects and their metadata. Each object has both data (an uninterpreted sequence of bytes) and metadata (an extensible set of attributes describing the object). objects are specified with a 64-bit partition ID and a 64-bit object ID. The early research spawned a standardization effort that led to a standard OSD command set for SCSI. The main additions are support for snapshots. (T10 is responsible for all SCSI standards. and to set and get attributes on objects. which can improve overall efficiency. write bytes and read bytes to and from individual objects. There are operations to add and delete from collections. or piggy-backed. which are read-only.) The initial OSD standard. Collections are also used for error reporting. they are allowed to grow subject to physical size limitations of the device or logical quota constraints on a partition. Some attributes are implemented directly by the OSD.

The general goal of the research was to provide a higher-level building block that could be aggregated together to provide large scale. t10. August 2003. A more powerful processor could implement features such as space management (i. and Howard Gobioff described a security protocol for object storage [1] that allowed a security manager to provide fine-grained access control to a shared storage device on a network. org/ drafts. secure storage systems.Object storage device necessary. html http:/ / lwn. edu/ gobioff99security. IEEE Communications Magazine. psu. LWN.net. Sun Developer Network. and Riedel. 2008 • open-osd project [6] aims to develop production-quality open source implementations of OSD References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / citeseer. techstreet. htm#OSD_Family http:/ / developers.8 pp 84–90. July 2007 • "Linux and object storage devices" [5] by Jonathan Corbet. External links • "SCSI Object-Based Storage Device Commands (OSD)" [2] at the INCITS online store • T10 OSD-2 and OSD-3 drafts [3] (free to download until ratified as standards) • "Object Based Storage" by Mesnier. block allocation) and provide a more abstract interface of reading and writing bytes to flexible data containers. November 4. com/ solaris/ articles/ osd. 326 History Research by Garth Gibson et al. • "Object-Based Storage Devices" [4] by Christian Bandulet. ist. OSD-3 is now in development. com/ cgi-bin/ detail?product_id=1204555 http:/ / www. Access control was an important aspect of the research. html http:/ / www..41 n. on Network Attached Secure Disks (NASD) in the 1990s explored the ability to move more processing power closer to the disk drive in a network-attached storage environment. net/ Articles/ 305740/ http:/ / open-osd. sun. v.e. Ganger. The second version of the command set (OSD-2) was finalized in late 2008 but remains stalled in the standardization process. org/ . The first version of the OSD command set for SCSI was standardized in 2004.

OFTP 2 (ODETTE File Transfer Protocol) is a specification for the secure transfer of business documents over the Internet. X.25/ISDN or native X.25 networks.di-international.odette. OFTP 2 can encrypt and digitally sign message data. exchanging files in both directions. It comes from the Odette-Organisation (Organization for data exchange by teletransmission in Europe).txt) OFTP 2 Whitepaper (http://www. request signed receipts and also offers high levels of data compression. A single OFTP 2 entity can make and receive calls. obsoletes RFC2204 (http://www.org/publications/executive-summaries/telecommunications/ copy_of_executive-summary) • Odette Website (http://www. OFTP 2 can work point-to-point or indirectly via a VAN (Value Added Network).ow2. A description of OFTP 1.ietf.com/Education/OFTP2. which can only work in a push mode.25.odette.org/odetteftp) . This means that OFTP 2 can work in a push or pull mode.org/rfc/rfc2204.25 References External links • • • • RFC5024 .org) Open Source software • Accord Odette OFTP2 (http://accord. OFTP 2 Technical Overview • • • • • • • • Message encryption Message signatures Signed receipts Message compression Message integrity Session authentication Session encryption (TLS) CMS envelopes Advantages • • • • • File restart Push / pull operation Peer-to-peer or indirect communications File compression Operates over TCP/IP.ODETTE File Transfer Protocol (http://www. whilst OFTP 2 is defined in RFC 5024. X.aspx) OFTP2 Documentation (https://forum.ietf. ISDN and X.OFTP 327 OFTP The Odette File Transfer Protocol (OFTP) is a protocol used for EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) between two communications business partners.org/rfc/rfc5024) RFC2204 . native X.OFTP 2. as opposed to AS2. additional session level security is available by using OFTP 2 over TLS (Transport Layer Security). When used over a TCP/IP network such as the Internet. All of these services are available when using OFTP 2 over TCP/IP.3 can be found in RFC 2204.25/ISDN.

se) OS4X . commsdesign. jhtml?articleID=59200019 [3] http:/ / wiki.dip. pdf) 328 OpenLLDP The OpenLLDP project aims to bring a comprehensive implementation of the IEEE standard 802.com/index. pdf [2] http:/ / www. org/ LinkLayerDiscoveryProtocol [4] http:/ / openlldp.com/archivos/pdf/INT/EDICOM_OFTP_SERVER.php?id=74&L=1) EDICOM OFTP2 SERVER (http://www.encode. ieee. org/ getieee802/ download/ 802.com) HUENGSBERG . com/ design_corner/ showArticle. 1AB-2005.com) Commercial software • Data Interchange Plc (http://www.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol.os4x.huengsberg.aspx) • • • • • ET-Connector EDI Integration suite (http://schaefer-bs.OpenLLDP [4] References [1] http:/ / standards. net .mendelson-e-c.uk/Products/ODEX-Enterprise.php?id=167&L=4) Encode Networks Svenska AB (http://www.1AB (LLDP) Specification [1] CommsDesign: Tutorial on LLDP [2] The Wireshark Wiki LLDP Page [3] The Open Source LLDP Project . wireshark.OFTP • mendelson Open Source OFTP2 (http://oftp2. OpenLLDP currently supports LLDP transmission and reception on the following platforms: • • • • Linux Mac OS X (including iPhone) FreeBSD NetBSD External links • • • • IEEE 802.com/index.co. sourceforge.edicomgroup.engDAX with OFTP2 (http://www.The Odette System for Unix (http://www.

These control signals can then be processed electronically to allow the timely setup of an optical light path to transport the soon-to-arrive payload. OBS features the separation between the control plane and the data plane. A control signal (also termed burst header or control packet) is associated to each data burst. and data buffers such as fiber delay lines may be used. External links • OpenWire [1] References [1] http:/ / activemq. It is the native wire format of ActiveMQ. OBS can be used for realizing dynamic end-to-end all optical communications. apache.OpenWire (binary protocol) 329 OpenWire (binary protocol) OpenWire is a binary protocol designed for working with Message Oriented Middleware. Edge router architectures have been proposed (see [1] [2] ). Purpose The purpose of optical burst switching (OBS) is to dynamically provision sub-wavelength granularity by optimally combining electronics and optics. OBS considers sets of packets with similar properties called bursts. It differs from these paradigms because OBS control information is sent separately in a reserved optical channel and in advance of the data payload. In OBS data is transmitted with full transparency to the intermediate nodes in the network. packets are aggregated into data bursts at the edge of the network to form the data payload. but signaled out of band and processed electronically at each OBS router. OBS is viewed as a compromise between the yet unfeasible full optical packet switching (OPS) and the mostly static optical circuit switching (OCS). . The data burst can cut through intermediate nodes. whereas the data burst is transmitted in all optical form from one end to the other end of the network. Various assembling schemes based on time and/or size exist (see burst switching). html Optical burst switching Optical burst switching (OBS) is an optical networking technique that allows dynamic sub-wavelength switching of data. org/ openwire. OBS provides more bandwidth flexibility than wavelength routing but requires faster switching and control technology. Therefore. the router can accept new reservation requests. After the burst has passed a router. The control signal is transmitted in optical form in a separated wavelength termed the control channel. OBS granularity is finer than optical circuit switching (OCS). This is known as delayed reservation. Method In OBS.

com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwMWI2ZGI1M2UtZDIyOC00NTg2LThmZTAtOThkMjJkNmE0M2Q4& hl=en& authkey=CKymjskF) . google.A core optical router in an OBS network may face reduced control plane requirements when compared to that in an OPS network. Rajaduray “Photonic Burst Switching (PBS) Architecture for Hop and Span-Constrained Optical Networks”. 2693-2705 (https:/ / docs. pp. "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks". University of California Santa Barbara. University of California Santa Barbara. Ovadia. Therefore. 97 . C. Yoo. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwN2Q1OWViNzQtYTQxNy00ODNjLWI4MDQtNWQwOTllNmEyM2M4& hl=en& authkey=CK2C1NcE) [2] R. so that core optical router data planes have adequate time to switch packets or bursts. References [1] R. PhD dissertation. "Optical Burst Switching (OBS) . 1999 (http:/ / www. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en) [6] R. PhD dissertation. Rajaduray.a New Paradigm for an Optical Internet". 8.Optical buffer technology has not matured enough to enable low cost manufacturing and widespread use in optical networks. Rajaduray. Rajaduray. University of California. vol.84.Optical burst switching 330 Advantages of OBS over OPS and OCS Advantages over OCS More efficient bandwidth utilization . Rajaduray. Advantages over OPS Remove throughput limitation .78. Qiao and M. November 2004. Aggregating packets into bursts can reduce guardband impact on data channel throughput. cse. buffalo. "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks". Reduce processing requirements and core network energy consumption . pp. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en) [3] S. If the data transmission duration is short relative to the set up time. google. Blumenthal. Rajaduray. 61 . edu/ ~qiao/ wobs/ obs/ papers/ qiao_jhs99. S24-S32 IEEE Comms Magazine Nov 2003 (https:/ / docs. This advantage may be offset by the fact that an OBS network edge router is likely to be more complex than an OPS network edge router. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwYTE1OTYwODUtMGE4Yi00ZmFiLWE5NDEtZDFlMjQ1OTRiZDE5& hl=en) [4] C. M. then it can limit data channel throughput.In a OCS system.[5] This limitation can be overcome by using OBS [6] [7] Furthermore there must be a guardband in the data channel between packets or bursts.99 (https:/ / docs. bandwidth may not be efficiently utilized in the OCS system. google. In such networks. Consequently the energy consumption and potentially the carbon footprint of a core optical router in an OPS network is likely to be larger than that of an OBS network router for the same amount of data. pp. as: A core optical router in an OPS network would have to perform processing operations for every arriving packet. due to the possible need for a burst assembly/aggregation and a sorting stage.105 (https:/ / docs. and therefore may offer more efficient bandwidth utilization compared to an OCS system. J. Dec. Journal of High Speed Networks. PhD dissertation. Additional notes (10 Jan 2011) to accompany "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks" (https:/ / docs. R. google. a lightpath must be set up from source to destination in the optical network. Consequently energy consumption at the edge of an OBS network may be higher than in an OPS network. "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks". This is similar to the advantage offered by packet switching over circuit switching.99 (https:/ / docs. Using JET can create a throughput limitation in an edge router in an OPS system. D. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en) [7] R. less processing operations per packet are required in a OBS network core optical router compared to an OPS network. Santa Barbara. pp. In comparison. Core optical network nodes are likely to either be unbuffered or have limited [3] [4] buffers. google. "Analysis of an edge router for span-constrained optical burst switched (OBS) networks". Paniccia. pdf) [5] R. If the guardband is large relative to the average packet or burst size. Ovadia. December 2005. wherelse in an OBS network the router performs processing operations for an arriving burst which contains several packets. Maciocco. S. OBS does not require end-to-end lightpath set up. 2005. December 2005. pp. google. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology. pp.78. 69 . 61 . 97 . 61 . delayed reservation schemes such as Just Enough Time (JET) are combined with electronic buffering at edge routers to reserve bandwidth. pp.

This was made possible by the emergence of optical network elements that have the intelligence required to automatically control certain network functions. 16–23. Jason P. Rajaduray “Photonic Burst Switching (PBS) Architecture for Hop and Span-Constrained Optical Networks”. "Architectures and Algorithms for IPv4/IPv6-Compliant Optical Burst Swicthing Networks". Optical mesh networks enable a variety of dynamic services such as bandwidth-on-demand. San Francisco. 18 (3). IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology. "Just-in-Time Optical Burst Switching Implementation in the ATDnet All-Optical Networking Testbed" Proceedings of the Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2003). Chunming and Yu.. Qiao. • Chen. Covilhã. Oct 26 – 30. along with continuous deployment of DWDM systems. Vinod M. but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth services. PhD Thesis. USA. • Gauger. C. November 2004. San Francisco. S24-S32 IEEE Comms Magazine Nov 2003 Optical mesh network Optical mesh networks are a type of telecommunications network. • Jue. M. Technological Transport network based on SONET/SDH ring advancements in optical transport equipment in the first decade of the architecture 21st century. Ovadia. D. "Analysis of an edge router for span-constrained optical burst switched (OBS) networks". Rajaduray. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching. "Projects and Test Beds Related to OBS in Europe". “Impact of Burst Assembly Parameters on Edge Router Latency in an Optical Burst Switching Network”. . "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks". Ovadia. Transport networks. and optical virtual private networks that open up new opportunities for service providers and their customers alike. have evolved from DCS (Digital Cross-connect Systems)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s. Blumenthal. USA. • R.. 2693–2705 • R. Paniccia.. bandwidth scheduling. Arizona • R. the underlying optical fiber-based layer of telecommunications networks. • Garcia. or Ethernet-centric infrastructure. May–June 2004. Just-In-Time bandwidth. Ovadia. such as fault recovery. Optical Burst Switched Networks. bandwidth brokering. Rajaduray. Nuno. December 2005 • S. S. 2008. J. 2005 ISBN 0-387-23756-9. IEEE Network Magazine. C.Optical burst switching 331 Additional reading • Baldine I. University of California Santa Barbara. Vol. "Optical Burst Switching (OBS): A New Area in Optical Networking Research". pp. Yang. and Vokkarane. PhD dissertation. have led telecommunications service providers to replace their SONET ring architectures by mesh-based architectures. Optical Networks Series. R. S. such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP. Blumenthal. et al. Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks. to SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. Springer. 2003. Xiang. Tucson. The new optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery previously available in ring networks while achieving better capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost. MPLS. Maciocco. Paper MF3 LEOS 2003 Annual Meeting. Portugal. 2003. IEEE Globecom. D. University of Beira Interior. Rajaduray. pp. J.

regional.see subsection on of traffic in an OEO device transparency).. deployment. and to groom Switching. trans-oceanic) areas by deploying optical transport equipment that are capable of switching traffic (at the wavelength or sub-wavelength level) from an incoming fiber to an outgoing fiber. the underlying optical fiber-based layer of telecommunications networks. to SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. Such fast recovery (in the tens to hundreds of msecs) in case of failures (e. “P-cycles” protection[6] . and a key driver for the deployment of SONET/SDH ring-based protection. The new optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery previously available in ring networks while achieving better capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost. G. In addition to switching wavelengths. In DCS-based mesh Example of mesh network: NSFNET 14nodes architectures.Shared Protection Ring (MS-SPRing) in SDH networks). have evolved from Digital cross connect system (DCS)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s. and grooming traffic (as long as the equipment is so-called opaque . telecommunications carriers deployed restoration systems for DS3 circuits such as at&t FASTAR (FAST Automatic Restoration)[1] and MCI Real Time Restoration (RTR)[2] . . national. or international (e. In SONET/SDH rings. protecting against and recovering from a network failure in 50 msecs or less[5] .. Optical mesh networks Optical mesh networks refer to transport networks that are built directly off the mesh-like fiber infrastructure deployed in metropolitan. without relying on an external network management system. There have been attempts at improving and/or evolving traditional ring architectures to overcome some of its limitations.. new approaches have been developed for the design. with trans-oceanic ring architecture (ITU-T Rec.Optical mesh network 332 History of transport networks Transport networks. along with Technological advancements in optical transport switches continuous deployment of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. a significant improvement over the recovery time supported in DCS-based mesh restoration. [8] in the first decade of the 21st century. the equipment is typically also able to multiplex lower speed traffic into wavelengths for transport. multiplexing. have led telecommunications service providers to replace their SONET ring architectures by mesh-based architectures for new traffic.g.g. these equipment also provide for the recovery of traffic in case of a network failure. As most of the transport networks evolve toward mesh topologies utilizing intelligent network elements (optical cross-connects or optical switches [8] ) for provisioning and recovery of services. or to share protection capacity among rings (e.g. operations and management of mesh optical networks. network link or node failure) is achieved through the intelligence embedded in these new optical transport equipment.841). next-generation SONET/SDH equipment that can handle multiple rings. or have the ability to not close the working or protection ring side. with Virtual Line Switched Ring (VLSR)[7] . which allows recovery to be automatic and handled within the network itself as part of the network control plane. carriers implemented ring protection such as SONET Universal Path Switched Ring (UPSR)[3] (also called Sub-Network Connection Protection (SCNP) in SDH networks) or SONET Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR)[4] (also called Multiplex Section . Finally. restoring circuits in minutes after a network failure.

after failure and recovery only partially diverse backup paths. 333 Recovery in optical mesh networks Optical mesh networks support the establishment of circuit-mode connection-oriented services. segment and path protection are the most common protection schemes. can be implemented. link. or directed to an outgoing fiber link where they are again carried as wavelengths multiplexed into that fiber link towards the next telecommunications office. others can be protected against single or multiple failures in various ways. or shared among multiple connections (aka Shared Backup Path Protection [11]). Inside a telecommunications office. some connections can be unprotected. The backup path and associated resources can be dedicated to the connection (aka Dedicated Backup Path Protection). the signals are then handled to and switched by a Opaque switching of traffic between transport switch (aka optical cross-connect or optical switch) and either are fiber links dropped at that office. A number of other protection schemes such as the use of pre-emptible paths. typically ones Shared backup path protection . Finally. The act of going through Optical-Electrical-Optical (O-E-O) conversion through a telecommunications office causes the network to be considered opaque. where multiple wavelengths are multiplexed to increase the capacity of the fiber.Optical mesh network Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks. but also support efficient routing and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth point-to-point Ethernet and SONET/SDH services. MPLS. Reshaping. Transparency Traditional transport networks are made of optical fiber-based links between telecommunications offices. Channel. The wavelengths are terminated on electronic devices called transponders. undergoing an optical-to-electrical conversion for signal Reamplification. or Ethernet-centric packet infrastructure. Multiple recovery mechanisms that provide different levels of protection [9] or restoration [10] against different failure modes are available in mesh networks. P-cycles[6] is another type of protection that leverages and extends ring-based protection. and Retiming (3R). thereby avoiding contention for the shared resources in case of a single link or node failure. Restoration is another recovery method that can work on its own or complement faster protection schemes in case of multiple failures. multiple diverse routes can be designed so that a connection has multiple recovery routes and can recover even after multiple failures (examples of mesh networks across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans). or Shared backup path protection . A connection can be protected against a single failure by defining a backup path.before failure whose primary paths are not likely to fail at the same time. When the incoming wavelengths do not undergo an optical-to-electrical conversion and are switched through a telecommunications office in the optical domain using all-optical switches (also called photonic . diverse from the primary path taken by the connection over the mesh network. In path-protected mesh networks. such as inter-router or inter-switch connectivity in an IP.

a backup path diverse from the primary path. Several algorithms can be used to determine a primary path and a diverse backup path (with or without sharing of resource along the backup path) for a connection or service. com/ EDU/ upsr. References [1] FAST Automatic Restoration . ualberta. [4] Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR) (http:/ / www. [5] Is 50 ms necessary? (http:/ / www. com/ EDU/ blsr. optical add-drop multiplexer. Wavelengths are used on each link independently of each other's. or "RWA"). ca/ ~grover/ pdf/ Grover_OFC_2003_Invited_Presentation_TuI1. In an opaque network.201-203. com/ books?id=yA0EAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA27). bandwidth scheduling." (http:/ / www. google. sonet. including Dijkstra's algorithm. in the absence of devices that can translate between wavelengths in the optical domain). (Invited Paper) "p-Cycles. 2003. the network is considered to be transparent. such as shortest path. This is due to the fact that the connection remains on the same wavelength from end-to-end throughout the network (sometimes referred to as wavelength continuity constraint. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2003). Just-In-Time (JIT) bandwidth.FASTAR (http:/ / ieeexplore. ece. htm). routing of connections is tightly linked to the wavelength selection and assignment process (so-called routing and wavelength assignment. ece. In 2010. htm). [2] Real Time Restoration (RTR) (http:/ / books. edge and node-diverse or disjoint routing. ualberta. ieee. D. ppt) [6] W. and numerous heuristics. Atlanta. ece. operational long distance networks still tend to remain opaque. k-shortest path[12] . including Suurballe's algorithm[13] . pdf) Proc. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. March 24–27. ca/ ~grover/ pdf/ Schallenburg_50ms. sonet. ppt)). Hybrid schemes can provide limited O-E-O conversions at key locations across the network. ca/ ~grover/ pdf/ Grover_OFC_2003_Invited_Paper_TuI1. . Ring-Mesh Hybrids and "Ring-Mining:” Options for New and Evolving Optical Networks. 334 Transparent switching of traffic between fiber links Transparent optical mesh networks have been deployed in metropolitan and regional networks. Routing in optical mesh networks Routing is a key control and operational aspect of optical mesh networks. the routing problem is one of finding a primary path for a connection and if protection is needed. such as • Dynamic services such as Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD)[14] . or Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) systems).Optical mesh network cross-connect. Grover. ( related presentation (http:/ / www. pp. Applications The deployment of optical mesh networks is enabling new services and applications for service providers to offer their customers. In transparent or all-optical networks. ualberta. and bandwidth brokering • Optical virtual private networks[15] It also supports new network paradigms such as • IP-over-optical network architectures[16] Related network architectures Mesh networking in general and wireless mesh networking in particular. [3] Universal Path Switched Ring (UPSR) (http:/ / www. jsp?arnumber=188598).

pt/ ~eqvm/ OPP/ KSPP/ KSPP.com/about-us/ lightwave-issue-archives/issue/intelligent-optical-mesh-empowers-digital-media-network-54890667.html) • Verizon Business Enhances Trans-Atlantic Network (http://www.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470015659. html) [15] PHOTONIC NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS.com/gen/pressroom?pid=4800&cdvn=news&newsarticleid=24555) • AT&T offering fully meshed optical service (http://www. and most of the times. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials.html) • "Survivable networks: algorithms for diverse routing".net/) External links • Self-Healing Mesh Optical Nets Emerge (http://www.com/showArticle.indiaprwire. R. (http:/ / www. Tarjan.html) • Intelligent optical mesh empowers digital media network (http://www.org/livepubs/surveys/public/2010/jan/07asthana. com/ content/ n134143km2630l1q) [16] RFC 3717 .ciena. MPLS. Georgios Ellinas.com/about/news/ displaynews.xml?newsid=21353) • Verizon Business Enhances Performance and Reliability of Pacific Undersea Cable Systems on Global Network (http://www. Bala Rajagopalan.com/news/news_2007pr_8630. The term optical does not imply that the equipment handles signals completely in the optical domain. network failure recovery.N. by Eric Bouillet.htm) . Protocols. uc. and Debanjan Saha (http://www. the recovery path is computed in real time (after the failure occurs) and spare capacity available in the network is used to reroute traffic around the failure. (http:/ / www.ece. special issue on "Optical Virtual Private Networks (oVPNs)" (http:/ / www.Optical mesh network [7] Virtual Line Switched Ring (VLSR). Jean-Francois Labourdette. E. wiley. although some equipment (referred to as photonic cross-connect) do switching (only) fully in the optical domain without any O-E-O conversion. it does not and instead it grooms.com/pressrelease/telecommunications/200710235231. (http:// www.verizonbusiness. (http:// books.networkworld.comsoc.html) • VSNL and Tata Teleservices Build First Nationwide Intelligent Optical Mesh Network in India Using Ciena's CoreDirector (http://www. google.xml?newsid=25065) • The Internet2 Dynamic Circuit Network (DCN) (http://www. com/ doi/ 10. org/ html/ rfc3717) 335 Further reading • “Mesh-based Survivable Transport Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical.com/books?id=zSSjFf-jZT8C) • "P-cycles: an overview". "A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths".amazon.D.com/Optical-Network-Control-Architecture-Protocols/dp/0201753014/) • “Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks”.jhtml?articleID=207402005) • AT&T Optical Bandwidth on Demand Gains Velocity with More Speeds for Customer Provisioning (http:// www. [9] Protection refers to a pre-planned system where a recovery path is pre-computed for each potential failure (before the failure occurs) and the path uses pre-assigned resources for failure recovery (dedicated for specific failure scenarios or shared among different failure scenarios) [10] With restoration. and switches signals in the electrical domain. by Wayne Grover (http://www.eetimes. multiplexes.google.com/about/news/displaynews.ualberta. R. by Greg Bernstein. Asthana. and Standard". by Ramesh Bhandari (http://books.internet2. (http:/ / onlinelibrary.att. springerlink. html) [13] J. com/ patents/ about?id=9z-nAAAAEBAJ) [8] Also referred to as optical cross-connects or optical switches. network failure events" (http://www.htm).com/ books?id=SIkfR0lAN1wC) • "Site on Network Protection . and Ramu Ramamurthy (http://www. 3230140209/ abstract) [14] Verizon's Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) (http:/ / www22.ca/~grover/book) • "Optical Network Control: Architecture.IP over Optical Networks: A Framework (http:/ / tools. network-protection. [11] http:/ / www. ietf. 1002/ net. Singh.verizonbusiness.edu/network/dc/index. mat. February 2010 (http://dl.com/news/2006/ 111606-att-meshed-optical. Y. com/ wholesale/ solutions/ solution/ bod. Suurballe. W. Grover.network-protection.wiley. verizon. SONET and ATM Networking”.network protection techniques.google.lightwaveonline.html). net/ shared-backup-path-protection-sbpp/ [12] K-th Shortest Path Problem. W.

Disadvantages Slow in spreading the data. End System Multicast: Streaming for the Masses End System Multicast (ESM) is a revolutionary peer-to-peer media streaming technology that lets you view and broadcast live streaming media.com/about/news/pr-25395-en-Verizon+Business+Circles+Globe+With+Optical+Mesh+ Network.xml) • Verizon builds 18-city optical mesh (http://connectedplanetonline.com/ethernet/news/ verizon-optical-mesh-0310/) 336 Overlay multicast Also known as End System or Peer-to-Peer Multicast. In an overlay or end-system multicast approach participating peers organize themselves into an overlay topology for data delivery. External links • • • • • RFC 3170 Multicast over TCP/IP HOWTO [1] Nemo . Duplicate packets at certain points.com/ 360networks+Deploys+The+World's+Most+Extensive+Optical+Mesh+Network-a067463903) • Verizon Business Circles Globe With Optical Mesh Network. Multicast decouples the size of the receiver set from the amount of state kept at any single node and potentially avoids redundant communication in the network. Begins Extension to Middle East (http://www. a number of research projects have explored the use of multicast as an efficient and scalable mechanism to support such group communication applications. a best effort network layer multicast protocol.Emulating FatTrees for Overlay Multisource/Multicast [2] End System Multicast [3] • Bibliography [4] on overlay multicast and application layer multicast for the IRTF Scalable Adaptive Multicast Research Group [5] . and the goal of the multicast protocol is to construct and maintain an efficient overlay for data transmission. multi-party games and content distribution.Resilient Overlay Multicast [2] FatNemo .xml) • Verizon Business Global Mesh Network Investment Pays Big Dividends for Enterprise Customers During Multiple Submarine Cable System Disruptions in Asia-Pacific Region (http://www. Each edge in this topology corresponds to a unicast path between two end-systems or peers in the underlying Internet. using only end-systems. High bandwidth multi-source multicast among widely distributed nodes is a critical capability for a wide range of important applications including audio and video conferencing. The limited deployment of IP Multicast. All multicast-related functionality is implemented at the peers instead of at routers.com/ about/news/pr-25372-en-Verizon+Business+Global+Mesh+Network+Investment+Pays+Big+Dividends+ for+Enterprise+Customers+During+Multiple+Submarine+Cable+System+Disruptions+in+Asia+Pacific+ Region.+Begins+Extension+to+Middle+East.verizonbusiness. verizonbusiness. has led to considerable interest in alternate approaches that are implemented at the application layer.Optical mesh network • 360networks Deploys The World's Most Extensive Optical Mesh Network (http://www. Long latency. Throughout the last decade.thefreelibrary.

tldp.2 and SPI-3 and their predecessors PL-4 and PL-3 are commonly used as the interface between packet processing devices and framer devices that implement POS. Scrambling is performed during insertion of the PPP packets into the SONET/SDH frame to solve various security attacks including denial-of-service attacks and the imitation of SONET/SDH alarms. However. org/ bib http:/ / www. POS technically stands for "Packet over Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy". edu http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. cs. PMC-Sierra produced an important series of early semiconductor devices which implemented POS. PPP is well suited for use over these links. POS is defined by RFC 2615 [1] as PPP over SONET/SDH. which itself stands for "Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy". Large amounts of traffic on the Internet are carried over POS links. org Packet over SONET/SDH Packet over SONET/SDH. The acronym PL-4 means POS-PHY Layer 4. edu/ projects. cmu. Given this information. PPP is the Point to Point Protocol that was designed as a standard method of communicating over point-to-point links. northwestern. is a communications protocol for transmitting packets in the form of the Point to Point Protocol (PPP) over SDH or SONET. Applications of POS The most important application of POS is to support sending of IP packets across Wide Area Networks. . Since SONET/SDH utilises point-to-point circuits. aqualab. This modification was justified as cost-effective because the scrambling algorithm was already used by the standard used to transport ATM cells over SONET/SDH. org/ HOWTO/ Multicast-HOWTO. which are both standard protocols for communicating digital information using lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs) over optical fibre at high line rates. abbreviated POS. Complementary Interfaces The System Packet Interface series of standards from the Optical Internetworking Forum including SPI-4. html http:/ / esm. srambling can optionally be disabled to allow a node to be compatible with another node that uses the now obsoleted RFC 1619 version of Packet over SONET/SDH which lacks the scrambler. samrg. samrg. The S represents "SONET/SDH". cs. POS is also one of the link layers used by the IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring standard. Details about the name "POS" POS (packet over SONET) is a double-nested abbreviation.Overlay multicast 337 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. History of POS Cisco was involved in making POS an important Wide Area Network protocol.

about twenty different network technologies were developed. the X. packets are buffered and queued.25 in 1973 [1] .25 is the best known virtual call protocol. and the Internet era when restrictions on connection to the Internet were removed.Packet over SONET/SDH 338 References [1] http:/ / www. . called packets.25 and the OSI model. irrespective of content. telephone and telegraph (PTT) companies introduced networks with X. [2] CYCLADES CYCLADES was an experimental French network. or structure into suitably sized blocks. type. The principal goals of packet switching are to optimize utilization of available link capacity. BNRNET BNRNET was a network which Bell Northern Research developed for internal use. X. In the datagram system the host must detect loss or duplication of packets. The history of such networks can be divided into three eras: early networks before the introduction of X. BNR later made major contributions to the CCITT X.25 project.25 era when many postal. which was an important component of ARPANET2. Inexpensive minicomputers were an important component in the early networks. the network guarantees sequenced delivery of data to the host. This results in a simpler host interface with less functionality than in the datagram model. When traversing network adapters. Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the best known example of a host to datagram protocol. In some cases custom I/O devices were added to allow inexpensive or exotic attachments to communication lines. In the virtual call system. faqs. org/ rfcs/ rfc2615. depending on the traffic load in the network. Early networks ARPANET and SITA HLN became operational in 1969. There was a debate about the merits of two drastically different views as to proper division of labor between the hosts and the network. ARPANET This is the principal survivor from the early era. switches and other network nodes.25 interfaces. Some ideas from this network were later incorporated into ARPANET. minimize response times and increase the robustness of communication. html Packet-switched network A packet-switched network is a digital communications network that groups all transmitted data. Louis Pouzin was the principal designer. was chosen for use in NSFNET which eventually became the Internet. Before the introduction of X. resulting in variable delay and throughput. The network over which packets are transmitted is a shared network which routes each packet independently from all others and allocates transmission resources as needed. It initially had only one host but was designed to support many hosts. TCP/IP.

The company originally designed a telephone network to serve as its internal (albeit continent-wide) voice telephone network. It became operational in 1976. Sharp Associates to serve their time-sharing customers. UK made many important contributions to the theory of packet [7] switching.) After going international some years later. Warner was right. offering batch processing services. a data network based on this voice-phone network was designed to connect GE's four computer sales and service centers (Schenectady. the centers were computer service bureaus. P. The handling of link control messages (acknowledgements and flow control) was differed from that of most another networks and is not fully explained in the published literature. NPL built a single node network to connect sundry hosts at NPL. GEIS created a network data center near Cleveland. Ohio.) The design was hierarchal with redundant communication links. and Phoenix) to facilitate a computer time-sharing service. It became operational in May 1976. EIN nee COST II European Informatics Network was a project to link several national networks. It mixed circuit switching and packet switching. EPSS EPSS (Experimental Packet Switching System) was an experiment of the UK Post Office. (Though it has been stated by some that Tymshare copied the GEIS system to create their network. apparently the world's first commercial online service. He decided that a time-sharing system. at the instigation of Warner Sinback. [5] [6] IPSANET IPSANET was a semi-private network constructed by I. based on Kemney's work at Dartmouth—which used a computer on loan from GE—could be profitable.Packet-switched network 339 DDX-1 This was an experimental network from Nippon PTT. [8] [9] [10] . Chicago. NPL Donald Davies of the National Physical Laboratory. General Electric was a major international provider of information services. Very little has been published about the internal details of their network. was given the job of turning the business around. Tymnet. Ferranti supplied the hardware and software. In 1965. It was succeeded by DDX-2. a high-level marketing manager. and Sinback. OCTOPUS Octopus was a local network at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It connected sundry hosts at the lab to interactive terminals and various computer peripherals including a bulk storage system. They lost money from the beginning. Phoenix. (In addition to selling GE computers. [3] [4] GEIS As General Electric Information Services (GEIS).

RCP was a virtual-circuit network in contrast to CYCLADES which was based on datagrams. RCP influenced the specification of X. Libraries were also among first ones in universities to accommodate microcomputers for public use in early 80's. This allowed construction of a private network. [15] [16] [17] SCANNET "The experimental packet-switched Nordic telecommunication network SCANNET was implemented in Nordic technical libraries in 70's. Further developments led to Xerox Network Systems (XNS). It was a datagram network with a single switching node. [20] .Packet-switched network 340 Philips Research Philips Research Laboratories in Redhill. [19] SNA Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. as well as higher level functions such as a reliable byte stream. RCP RCP was an experimental network created by the French PTT. The entire suite provided routing and packet delivery. along with numerous applications. It became operational in 1972 and thus was the first public network. It carried interactive traffic and message-switching traffic. RCP emphasised terminal to host and terminal to terminal connection. Surrey developed a packet switching network for internal use. As with many non-academic networks very little has been published about it. it was created by researchers at Xerox PARC in the mid-1970s. TRANSPAC was introduced as an X. and it included first Nordic electronic journal Extemplo. It was used to gain experience with packet switching technology before the specification of Transpac was frozen. An IBM customer could acquire hardware and software from IBM and lease private lines from a common carrier.25 network. Their High Level Network became operational in 1969 at about the same time as ARPANET.25 [12] [13] [14] RETD Red Especial de Transmisión de Datos was a network developed by Compañía Telefónica Nacional de España. [11] PUP The PARC Universal Packet (PUP or Pup) was one of the two earliest internetwork protocol suites. CYCLADES was concerned with host-to-host communication." [18] SITA HLN SITA is a consortium of airlines.

Tymnet Tymnet was an international data communications network headquartered in San Jose.75 gateways. He had tried to interest AT&T in buying the technology. and remote procedure calls. and government agencies. X. Another employee suggested the name. but the monopoly's reaction was that this was incompatible with their future.25. financial applications — the Australian Tax Office made use of AUSTPAC — and remote terminal access to academic institutions. which provided routing and packet delivery. The private networks were often connected via gateways to the public network to reach locations not on the private network. Some such as DATAPAC and TRANSPAC were initially implemented with an X.25 host interface in addition to older host connection schemes. .25 networks.25 external interface. It went public in 1979 and was then sold to GTE. supporting applications such as on-line betting. (Interesting note: Tymnet was not named after Mr. who maintained their connections to AUSTPAC up until the mid-late 1990s in some cases. Access can be via a dial-up terminal to a PAD. CA that utilized virtual call packet switched technology and used X. Beranack and Newman (BBN) provided the financing. Tyme. Telenet designed these protocols and helped standardize them in the CCITT. by linking a permanent X.S.) [21] [22] XNS Xerox Network Systems (XNS) was a protocol suite promulgated by Xerox.25/X.25 and the terminal interface to X. or.25 network operated by Telstra. Users typically connected via dial-up connections or dedicated async connections.25 node to the network. Tymnet was also connected to dozens of other public networks in the U. BSC and ASCII interfaces to connect host computers (servers)at thousands of large companies.29.Packet-switched network 341 Telenet Telenet was the first FCC-licensed public data network in the United States. AUSTPAC was Australia's first public packet-switched data network. educational institutions. Northern Telecom sold several DATAPAC clones to foreign PTTs including the Deutsche Bundespost.75 and X. and internationally via X. The business consisted of a large public network that supported dial-up users and a private network business that allowed government agencies and large companies (mostly banks and airlines) to build their own dedicated networks. Bolt. DATAPAC was developed by Bell Northern Research which was a joint venture of Bell Canada (a common carrier) and Northern Telecom (a telecommunications equipment supplier). It was founded by former ARPA IPTO director Larry Roberts as a means of making ARPANET technology public. A user or host could call a host on a foreign network by including the DNIC of the remote network as part of the destination address. X.121 allowed the interconnection of national X.25 era There were two kinds of X. as well as higher level functions such as a reliable stream. Some older networks such as TELENET and TYMNET were modified to provide a X. Started by Telecom Australia in the early 1980s. Telenet was incorporated in 1973 and started operations in 1975.25 networks. It initially used ARPANET technology but changed the host interface to X. AUSTPAC AUSTPAC was an Australian public X. It was developed from PARC Universal Packet (PUP). SNA/SDLC.

It covered major Canadian cities and was eventually extended to smaller centres.25 network was based mainly on GEC 4000 series switches.Packet-switched network 342 ConnNet ConnNet was a packet switched data network operated by the Southern New England Telephone Company serving the state of Connecticut. In addition to providing X.25 links at up to 8 Mbit/s in its final phase before being converted to an IP based network. Eirpac Eirpac is the Irish public switched data network supporting X.25 and X. PSS PSS was the UK Post Office (later to become British Telecom) national X. Iberpac is run by Telefonica. Messages were buffered at the nodes adjacent to the sending and receiving terminals. The JANET network grew out of the 1970s SRCnet (later called SERCnet) network. Strictly speaking Datanet 1 only referred to the network and the connected users via leased lines (using the X. but the PSS name has remained better known. The X. Datex-P Deutsche Bundespost operated this national network in Germany. And because the main Videotex service used the network and modified PAD devices as infrastructure the name Datanet 1 was used for these services as well. PSS also included public dial-up PAD access. British Telecom renamed PSS under its GNS (Global Network Service) name. Switched virtual calls were not supported. JANET JANET was the UK academic and research network. the name also referred to the public PAD service Telepad (using the DNIC 2049).28. Eirpac is run by Eircom.[23] Datapac DATAPAC was the first operational X. . HIPA-NET Hitachi designed a private network system for sale as a turnkey package to multi-national organizations. It was launched in 1984. publicly funded research laboratories. message switching software was also included.121 DNIC 2041). Although this use of the name was incorrect all these services were managed by the same people within one department of KPN contributed to the confusion.25 packet switching.25 network with a DNIC of 2342. providing X. and various InterStream gateways to other services such as Telex. [24] Iberpac Iberpac is the Spanish public packet switched network.25 network (1976). and run X. but through the use of "logical ports" an originating terminal could have a menu of pre-defined destination terminals.25 services. linking all universities. higher education establishments. replacing Euronet. The technology was acquired from Northern Telecom. Datanet 1 Datanet 1 was the public switched data network operated by the Dutch PTT Telecom (now known as KPN).

"THE BNR NETWORK: A CANADIAN EXPERIENCE WITH PACKET SWITCHING TECHNOLOGY" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. (1970). "Principles of Design in the Octopus Computer network" (http:/ / portal. David L.. John G. S.E. and is the first transcontinental Ethernet network working to establish a direct line of communications between international parties.T. Mischa. the Experimental Packet-Switching Data Transmission Service of the French PTT" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. D (1974). . (1975). 171–85. ITS APPLICATIONS" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. Matras (1976). Connections. Jim Metzler (2008). pp. ca/ PS/ BNR/ BNRnet. The user no longer saw network identifiers such as the DNIC. N. (1974). ca/ PS/ CTNEA/ CTA. Control" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. Herrera. 163–170. H. [6] Schwartz. html). ca/ PS/ RCPBAC/ RB. . (1973). ca/ PS/ NPLPh/ PhilipsA. B. R. ca/ PS/ NPLPh/ NPL1974A. Steve. [14] Bache. "RCP. [8] Mendicino. 199–213. [13] Bache. html). Proceedings of the IEEE 60 (11): 1408–23. (1972). Layec. . . pp. Roy D.Packet-switched network 343 Transpac Transpac was the national X. Internet2 Internet2 is not an actual network. ca/ PS/ Kirs1973/ Ki. acm. Wilkinson. Wilkin. html). . .'s PACKET SWITCHING NETWORK. (November 1972). D J. It was developed locally at about the same time as DataPac in Canada. html). "EXPERIMENTAL PACKET SWITCHING PROJECT OF THE UK POST OFFICE" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. html). [15] Alarcia. 223–228. . [9] Pehrson. ca/ PS/ RCPDEP/ RD. National LambdaRail National LambdaRail is a high-speed national computer network in the United States that runs over fiber-optic lines. Matras. 435–44. R. COMPUTER NETWORKS (Englewood Cliffs.. Proceedings of ICCC 76. C. "AN ENGINEERING VIEW OF THE LRL OCTOPUS COMPUTER NETWORK" (http:/ / www. the distinctions between national networks blurred. rogerdmoore. (1974).. "Some Design Aspects of a public packet switching network" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. cfm?id=810357). (1974). THE EXPERIMENTAL PACKET-SWITCHED DATA TRANSMISSION SERVICE OF THE FRENCH PTT" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. pp. Rober R. [5] Kirstein.. United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing. . Sussex.J. Researchers have created some experimental networks to complement the existing Internet. G. Proceedings of the 2nd ICCC 74. It began operation in 1978[25] . ca/ PS/ OCTOA/ OCTO. . C. Boorstyn. html). pp. pp. html). 10–14.. "1970 OCTOPUS: THE LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY NETWORK" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. html). info/ Page4. Long and Y.R. Peter T. html#GEISCO). P.T. J. Raymond L. [11] Burnett. . IFIP Congress 1974. "RCP. dir/ index. L. Internet era When Internet connectivity was made available to anyone who could pay for an ISP subscription. [4] Pearson. ca/ PS/ RCPHCC/ RH. Samuel F.): 95–100. "Fundamental Choices in the Development of RCP. Sussex.25 network in France. (1973). Computer Networks (North-Holland Publishing Company) 1: 341–348. Cunningham and M. html#GEISCO). It is a research consortium which has created the Abilene Network. the Experimental Packet-Switched Data Transmission Service of the French PTT: History. 311–16. "Vint Cerf on why TCP/IP was so long in coming" (http:/ / www. . Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. Michael A.. M. "The National Physical Laboratory Data Communications Network" (http:/ / www. [2] Martel. Y. ca/ PS/ EPSSB. The development was done by the French PTT and influenced by the experimental RCP network. Proceedings of 2nd ICCC 74. Smith. html). com/ newsletters/ frame/ 2008/ 0128wan1. . A. "Packet Switching at Philips Research Laboratories" (http:/ / rogerdmoore.: Prentice-Hall Inc. [7] Scantlebury. [12] Després. Sethi. . ca/ PS/ TONET/ TON..N. html). S. html). A. "A SURVEY OF PRESENT AND PLANNED GENERAL PURPOSE EUROPEAN DATA AND COMPUTER NETWORKS" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. Some older technologies such as circuit switching have resurfaced with new names such as fast packet switching. United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing. A.J. Grushcow. pp. networkworld. . Proceedings of the 2nd ICCC 74. Proceedings of ICCC 76. html). References [1] Taylor. org/ citation. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. pp. "C. H. [10] Fletcher. D. Guillou.. (1976). dir/ pages/ Octopus. and Pickholtz. ca/ PS/ EPSSFer/ EF. computer-history. . Proceedings of ICCC 74. "Terminal-Oriented Computer-Communication Networks" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. . [3] Bright.

L.org/issues. Retrieved 15 June 2011 [24] Tomaru. rogerdmoore..5.H.5. html). ..group.4. Robert H'obbes' Zakon.3. pp. (1980). T. 28.euclideanspace. html). Chapter 3: page 20 and further.phrack. G.Packet-switched network [16] Cuenca. Sussex. Zakon Group LLC (http://www. hu-berlin. .rogerdmoore. "The SITA Network" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. [22] TYMES. ca/ PS/ TYMNET/ TY. html). ""1980 SNA'S First Six Years: 1974-1980"" (http:/ / rogerdmoore.1–28. Issue #2". Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Communication Networks. ca/ PS/ SNA6Y/ SNA6. pp. J.J. fr/ Publications/ X25-TPC. LA ROY W.TUE.1". html). [18] Haarala. ca/ PS/ CTNEC1. .3. ca/ PS/ RETDB. ca/ PS/ TYMFlow/ TF. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS COM-29 (4): 392–98. Steneker: Graduation Report on X. [19] Chretien. "A Private Packet Network and Its Application in A Worldwide Integrated Communication Network" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. pp. "Routing and Flow Control in TYMNET" (http:/ / www. Konig. tue. Conference Record of ICC 80. html). "A PUBLIC PACKET SWITCHING DATA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK: EIGHT YEARS OF OPERATING EXPERIENCE" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. K. External links • "The Guide to Hacking & Phreaking. 578–585.Pre-Internet Data Networking" (http:/ / remi. and Rech. (1973). Manchester and Glasgow. "ARCHITECTURE. [17] Lavandera.ca/PS) • "An Introduction to Packet Switched Networks".D. pdf) Electrical Engineering .25 Virtual Circuits . IEEE. Kato and S.Transpac in France . United Kingdom: Noordhoff International Publishing. 211–16.I. .25 data services in GSM network (http:/ / alexandria. R.org/robert/ internet/timeline/) • 20+ articles on packet switching in the 70s (http://www. 39. nl/ extra1/ afstversl/ E/ 354398. html). 517–22. . . Arja-Riitta. G. ca/ PS/ HIPA/ HIA. 16 May. IEEE.lt/hacking/icebook2. Yamaguchi (1980). Proceedings of ICCC '80. ca/ PS/ SITAB. [20] Sundstrom. Liquid Jesus (http://textfiles. html). 344 [21] TYMES. html?issue=18&id=3#article) • EPSS (http://www.zakon.. pp.com/coms/history/epss/index. html). . Schultz (1980). "TYMNET — A terminal oriented communication network" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. PROTOCOLS AND PERFORMANCE OF RETD" (http:/ / rogerdmoore. free. Luis (1980). 373–396. Proceedings of 5th ICCC 80.4. despres. Phrack. pp. 05/3/88 (http://www.txt) • "Hobbes' Internet Timeline v8. 1991. html).. W. . pp. .M. Conference Record of ICC 80. Proceedings of the SJCC 1971.htm) Pictures of the EPSS exchanges in London. LA ROY W. "Libraries as key players at the local level" (http:/ / edoc. (APRIL 1981).1–39. de/ conferences/ eunis2001/ e/ Haarala/ HTML/ haarala-ch2.J. [23] H. . 38. [25] "X.J.

PRP is a layer 2 redundancy. ppt [2] http:/ / www. The modem only chooses the channels that are error free. epfl. Parallel Redundancy Protocol Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) is a data communication network standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission. Therefore. ines. To this effect. The disadvantage is the relatively long time it takes to switch between sending and receiving data. each node (device) in the network has two Ethernet ports attached to two different local area networks (LANs) of arbitrary. as long as one LAN is operational. ch/ kirrmann/ Pubs/ IEC_61439-3/ IEC_62439-3. Non-PRP nodes are either attached to one network only (and therefore can communicate only with other nodes attached to the same network). taking advantage of a sequence number in each frame that is incremented for each frame sent. which makes PEP usable on bad lines. ch/ fileadmin/ user_upload/ engineering/ _Institute_und_Zentren/ INES/ PRP/ PRP_Tutorial. which allows network management protocols to operate without modification and simplifies engineering. This protocol provides a zero-time recovery and allowing checking redundancy continuously to avoid lurking failures. Each node in PRP has two Ethernet bus controllers. A source node sends simultaneously two copies of a frame. 4_PRP_Kirrmann. zhaw. that allows data to overcome any single network failure without affecting the data transmission. pdf [3] http:/ / wiki. a device that behaves like a doubly attached node. Node failures are not covered by PRP. in the fault-free case. wireshark. with a certain time skew. but duplicated nodes may be connected via a PRP network. Therefore. The destination node accepts the first frame of a pair and discards the second. which have the same MAC address and present the same IP address(es). or are attached through a Red Box. It uses the full bandwidth (3000 Hz) of the telephone lines and dividing it in hundreds of channels. one over each port. External links • PRP Tutorial [1] • Tutorial on Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) [2] • PRP in the Wireshark Wiki [3] References [1] http:/ / lamspeople. as IEC 62439-3 Clause 4. It can be applied to most Industrial Ethernet (Real-Time Ethernet) since it is independent of the protocols and provides seamless failover. the destination always receives one frame. Geneva. The two LANs are completely separated and are assumed to be fail-independent. but similar topology.Packetized Ensemble Protocol 345 Packetized Ensemble Protocol The Packetized Ensemble Protocol (PEP) is a protocol used by Telebit modems. org/ PRP . The two frames travel through their respective LANs until they reach a destination node.

in a system with two switch-fabris chassis have one of these chassis with 50% of the line-card chassis in dataroom 1 and the rest of the system in room 2 so that even when there is fire in one room the system will continue to work) it is possible as long as the length of the fibre-optic canles doesn't exceed 100 meters (328 feet). The inter shelf communication links will therefore process the same kind of data-volumes as a backplane will normally carry in any single-shelf router.g. The four SCC/2 LCC also gives optimal availability and reliability without the loss of any throughput in case that a switch fabric module fails. management-cards. To allow these kind of speeds via external fibre optic cabling Cisco designed special modules to make this possible. As the traffic between these kind of chassis is comparable with the data that flows over a backplane in a single-shelf system the required bandwidth is very high and as is the need for reliability the shelves are interconnected using several fibre optic cables. There are basically two types of multi-shelf CSR systems: • single switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis • two switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis • four switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis The second option allows for the most fault-tolerant system in a CSR system: although a single shelf switch-fabric allows for redundancy on most levels (power. fans. For a multi-shelf system you need three kind of connections between the line-card chassis and the switch-fabric chassis: • 1:Management cabling • 2:Controller cabling .PAROLI 346 PAROLI PAROLI is a propriety protocol used inside a multi-shelf Carrier Routing System from Cisco and stands for parallel optical link[1] Paroli usage It is used to connect the line-cards in a so called line-card chassis with the switching fabric in a switch-fabric chassis. If you want to place the different shelves in different rooms (e. As this protocol/feature is only used in multi-shelf Cisco-CSR systems you will only find it in IOS XR the special high performance version of Cisco IOS. The traffic is then sent to the switch-fabric shelf where the packet is processed and based on the desitination (and of course system-configuration) the data is then sent to the outgoing interface on a line-card in a line-card shelf. This will also allow you to move individual shelves of the system[2] Interconnecting shelves All traffic coming in into a multi-shelf CRS system will come in via an interface of a line card on a line-card shelf. [2] Three chassis of a CSR system if these shelves would be interconnected it would use PAROLI Distance between shelves Although the different shelves of a multi-shelf routing system will often be placed directly next to each other the PAROLI system allows for some distance between the shelves. a multi-shelf system based on two switch-fabric cards and (at least) two line-card chassis will continue to run even when one of the switch-fabric shelfs is completely down.). switch-cards etc.

then goes to the switch-fabric (stage 2) and then to the desitination line-card (stage 3).[5] In the LCC's you use stage 1 and 3 cards: S13 cards. Fabric cabling And finally you need the fabric cabling that will carry the actual data or payload between the line card chassis and the switch fabric chassis. Initial configuration of a shelf is done via the console port of a RP. but is meant for remote access via a modem • Management ethernet port:This will be the main means of configuring and managing the system after initial configuration. in a multi SFC setupthe S2 cards are distributed over the . In a single SFC with two LCC you will install both SC-GE-22 modules in the single SFC and each interface of the RP connect twice to the single SFC. but this same 3 stage model is being used. • Console cabling: initial configuration of the route processor (RP) of a shelf a multi-shelf system is done via the console port. In a dual SFC each SC-FE-22 has a direct (full mesh) link to all 3 other SC-FE-22 and in a 4 SFC system you also create a full-mesh network between all FC-FE-22 modules. To allow for redundancy you will connect each ethernetport0 interface of each RP to a port on the first FC-FE-22 and each interface 1 to the second SC-FE-22. In a four SFC setup the first RP connects to SFC 1 and 3 while the other RP of that shelf connects to SFC 2 and 4.It is of course possible that the linecard of the ingress resides in the same shelf as the egress line card. In a single SFC setup all 8 S2 cards reside in the single SFC. When a packet arrives via an interface on a linecard in a LCC (the ingress FCC) it is on stage 1. There are different type of management and clock signalling options. For the interconnection the system uses 8 fabric planes. The console port of the 22 (switch fabric shelf) or 2 port (line card shelf) SCGE card (see below) cannot be used to configure a new system. In a SFC you have stage 2 cards S2. If you want all console ports of each RP connected you can use a terminal server • AUX port: provides remote out of band access to the RP. in a dual SFC you will need 14 [4] cables (8xSC-LC + 6 LCC mesh) and in a 4 SFC-2 LCC you need 8 LC cables and 28 SFC-SFC mesh cables. similar to the console port. The ethernet management port will only become operational after configuring it with a terminal connected to a console port. And to allow for communication between the two Sc-FE-22 modules (creating a mesh-network) you connect port 22 of each SC-FE-22 to each other. This cabling means that for a one SFC and two LCC you will need 8+1 ethernet cables for network control. And on the LCC's you use the two ethernet interfaces provided with the two RP's in each chassis. alarm and external clock cabling is to allow management of the different shelves in the system. In combination with that it uses a 3 components or stages. In general the ethernet ports of each RP in the system will be connected to an out-of-band ethernet LAN so you keep control over the system even when the CSR wouldn't be able to route any data. In a 2 x 2 setup one GE port of each RP connects to one SFC and the other GE port connects to the other SFC. If the CSR is in a different location you will probably connect this (configuration) management (V)LAN withh your NOC via a network connection that doesn't use the CRS to route the data (or you have a fall-back method such as ISDN access to the local management LAN) • Alarm-Out cabling: You can use the external alarm-out cicuits to raise alarms with the power modules • External network clocking: If you use an external clock to synchronize your network components you can 'feed' this clock into all shelves. If the CSR is installed at the same location as the configuration system you will probably use a dedicated ethernet LAN.PAROLI • 3:Fabric cabling 347 Management Cabling The management.[3] Controller Cabling For the controller cabling Cisco have created a special module for use in the fabric card chassis: the 22 port Shelf Controller Gigabit Ethernet module the SC-GE-22. At least one management cabling is required and in general that will be the RP ethernet connection. numbered 0 to7.

html). visited 6 December 2010 [6] Cisco CRS multishelf cabling guide Ordering Fabric cables (http:/ / www. alarm and clock cabling (http:/ / www. It is conceptually similar to BitTorrent but allows for streaming media.PAROLI SFC's. Thus to interconnect a system you need 3 sets ordered in the length you require in steps of 5 meters[6] In the future configurations with more than two LCC's will be supported. These cables can be ordered in lenhths of 10-100 meter and come in sets of 24. visited 6 December 2010 [4] Cabling instruction for the Control cabling (http:/ / www. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabintr. cisco. The protocol has been assigned port 6086 by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. html). org [2] http:/ / defcon. cisco. visited 6 december 2010 [3] Cabling instruction for the Management. visited 6 December 2010 [5] Cabling instruction for the Fabric cabling (http:/ / www. cisco. cisco. External links • PDTP protocol web site [1] • PowerPoint Presentation [2] References [1] http:/ / pdtp. html#wp1170337). visited 3 December 2010 Peer Distributed Transfer Protocol The Peer Distributed Transfer Protocol is an Internet file transfer protocol for distributing files from a central server across a peer-to-peer network. 0/ interfaces/ configuration/ guide/ hc3gloss. org/ images/ defcon-12/ dc-12-presentations/ Arcieri/ dc-12-arcieri. html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide.3) x 8(#planes) x 3(2xLCC+1FCC).2 or 3 switch facbric chassis. visited 6 December 2010 [2] Cisco CSR-1 Introduction to Multishelf System Cabling (http:/ / www. The primary implementation is DistribuStream. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabfbrc. com/ en/ US/ docs/ ios_xr_sw/ iosxr_r3. html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide. cisco. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabrout. but currently a multi-shelf configuration supports two lince card chassis and 1. Even when you have more than one SFC you still use 72 cables: in a two SFC setup 50% of the fibres from LCC connect to SFC1 and 50% to SFC2 and similar to a 4 node system). cisco. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabfbrc. For the communication based on tow line-card chassis you will need 72 fibres (3(S1.[5] 348 References [1] Cisco IOS-XR Glossary (http:/ / www. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabsc22.2. ppt . html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide.

[2] Windows Remote Assistance in Windows 7 uses PNRP when connecting using the Easy Connect option. The qualifier is a string.[4] If a peer name is secure. PNRP and Distributed Hash Tables Internally. PNRP always store the hash on the node that publishes the identifier. issued on June 20. peer names are composed of an "authority" and a "qualifier". There are however some significant differences. PNRP uses an architecture similar to distributed hash table systems such as Chord or Pastry. . or the whole Internet. but rather a cache of PNRP entries. PNRP services PNRP is a distributed name resolution protocol allowing Internet hosts to publish "peer names" and corresponding IPv6 addresses and optionally other information. 2006. PNRP v2 is not available for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition or any edition of Windows Server 2003. and a DHT-like algorithm is used to retrieve the location of the host publishing that identifier. Unsecured peer names can be published by anybody. The peer name is hashed to produce a 128-bit peer identifier. In contrast. derived from an IPv6 address of the node. a campus). the PNRP name records are signed by the publishing authority. For example.g. allowing an authority to have different peer names for different services. Other hosts can then resolve the peer name. The PNRP design arguably trades increased security and robustness for higher routing cost. any group member can publish addresses for the peer name.065.0 was introduced with Windows Vista and is available for download for Windows XP Service Pack 2 users. In contrast. Windows Server 2008 and Windows XP SP3. Peer names are published and resolved within a specified scope. PNRP allows multiple hosts to publish the same name. retrieve the corresponding addresses and other information. and the routing algorithm is designed to find that node. PNRP 2. It appeared in July 2003 in the Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP. PNRP does not use a routing table. The cache maintenance algorithm ensures that each node maintains adequate knowledge of the "cloud". DHT systems like Chord or Pastry store the indices of objects (hashes) at the node whose identifier is closest to the hash. A node will thus have as many entries in the routing system as the number of identifiers that it publishes. The authority is identified by a secure hash of an associated public key. and was later included in the Service Pack 2 for Windows XP. and establish peer-to-peer connections. without possible verification. [3] The design of PNRP is covered by US Patent #7. and can be verified using its public key.1 is included in Windows Vista SP1. The internal index is in fact composed of the 128-bit hash of the peer name and a 128-bit location identifier. The scope can be a local link.Peer Name Resolution Protocol 349 Peer Name Resolution Protocol Peer Name Resolution Protocol (PNRP) is a peer-to-peer protocol designed by Microsoft. [1] PNRP 2. or by a place-holder (the number zero) if the peer name is "unsecured". Multiple entities can publish the same peer name. Most DHT systems assume that only one node publishes a specific index. PNRP was first mentioned during a presentation at a P2P conference in November 2001. PNRP enables dynamic name publication and resolution. if a peer name is associated with a group. a site (e. and requires IPv6. New cache entries are acquired as a side effect of ongoing traffic. With PNRP.587. It is designed to ensure that the time to resolve a request varies as the logarithm of the size of the cloud.

S.microsoft.google.net/talks/p2p-names. It provides mechanisms for nodes to join.microsoft. due to limitations of UDP MTU. com/ en-us/ library/ bb726971.com/en-us/library/aa371699. It maintains information about nodes in a routing table.com/en-us/magazine/cc188685. Patent 7065587 (http://www. microsoft. • U.huitema.com/?kbid=817778) at Microsoft. microsoft. microsoft. or search for a resource-object in the overlay.aspx) at MSDN MSDN-Article by Justin Smith. Basic functions of the protocol are • • • • Resource publishing and look-up.aspx) Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking (http://technet.aspx) at MSDN Microsoft PNRP documentation (API) (http://msdn2. . aspx) [3] Peer-To-Peer based Features in Win 7 (http:/ / blogs.Peer Name Resolution Protocol 350 References [1] Download PNRP 2. it searches for one who can.com/en-us/network/bb545868. by performing a nextHop() operation to a destination from the routing table (recursive-routing). Heterogeneous connectivity. If a node can't accomplish the request. aspx?FamilyID=55219164-ec71-4a32-a648-4ed2582ebc7c& DisplayLang=en) [2] http:/ / technet.0 for Windows XP (http:/ / www.com • Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution (http://www.ppt) Slide deck presented by Christian Huitema at the O'Reilly P2P conference in November 2001. com/ p2p/ archive/ 2008/ 11/ 19/ peer-to-peer-based-features-in-win-7. Because of potentially large content. leave. aspx) External links Microsoft Peer-to-Peer Networking blog on how Windows features use PNRP (http://blogs. It can be either a request or a response. com/ en-us/ library/ bb726971.com/patents?vid=7065587) • • • • • Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) Peer-to-Peer Protocol is an Application-layer protocol that can be used to form and maintain an overlay among participant nodes. The response header contains a response code (see codes).com/en-us/library/cc239047. They cannot be combined in one message if an unreliable transport is used.com/p2p/) PNRPv2 protocol specification (http://msdn. P2PP is a request–response protocol Messages A message is a P2PP protocol message that performs a certain function.microsoft.aspx) at Microsoft TechNet • Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP (http://support.msdn. microsoft. aspx) [4] Peer Name Resolution Protocol (http:/ / technet. It begins with a header followed by a sequence of type-length-value (TLV) objects. P2P network maintenance. com/ downloads/ details. publish.microsoft. aspx#EHAA Peer Name Resolution Protocol (http:/ / technet. a node's routing table only contains a subset of these nodes.microsoft. com/ en-gb/ library/ bb726971. featuring PNPR (http://msdn. msdn.

413 Message Too Large. bandwidth Utilization (8 bits). 480 Alternative Service response. If the request was received over TCP. response data which indicates that the request should be redirected. TCP used to maintain routing tables causes increasing of necessary connections up to 320. The request SHOULD be sent over TCP if its size exceeds UDP MTU. This is only included in a DHT-based overlay. response data which indicates that the request has failed. the requesting peer has control over peers the request is forwarded. demands resending request over TCP directly to the peer which generated this response. Additional Fields: their inclusion is left to the overlay implementer. can include Uptime. Neighbour/resource-utilization. it SHOULD be forwarded over TCP. Peer-ID (variable): fixed-length output of the hash function negotiated at join. The response is matched to the appropriate request transaction by the transaction-ID. If request sent over UDP and response extends MTU. 2xx (Success). These responses are only sent when request is sent over an unreliable transport in a recursive manner. response data which indicates that the request has been processed successfully in some sense. the peer issuing has no control over peers the request traverses. TCP needs a connection establishing with each requested node (what takes time due to three-way handshake). . returned. Routing Recursive routing : the request traverses the peers until it reaches the peer responsible for the resource-object if it exists. response data which provides an update on the progress of the request. the peer sends a request to another peer which replies with the network address of the peer to which the request should be forwarded. CPU Utilization (8 bits). Peer Bandwidth (32 bits). when node responsible for it has been found.Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP) 351 Type-length-value objects Peer-Info: a variable length TLV object. Iterative routing : (can be sent to multiple peers at the same time). Response codes ( same as used in SIP ) 1xx (Provisional). 4xx (Request Failure). It is preferred to use UDP for lookups (by sending only resource-ID). CPU Utilization of this peer on a scale of 1 to 100. kilo bits per second. Request / Response Rules Requests cannot be combined. UDP can send messages limited by MTU. A peer issuing the request MAY request to receive a copy of the routing and neighbour tables of recipient. on a scale of 1 to 100. Uptime (32 bits) Resource-Info: Number of Neighbors (16 bits). and NAT and firewall TLV objects. Additional Information Fields Unhashed ID of this peer. 3xx (Redirect). and TCP to send whole resource-object once.

which is formatted with a file system. Images on digital cameras are generally stored as files on a mass storage device. However. edu/ u/ provos/ photuris/ Picture Transfer Protocol Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a widely supported protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers. which may be laid out as per the Design rule for Camera File system (DCF) specification. and is commonly implemented over the USB and FireWire transport layers. it is designed to support existing standards. Description PTP specifies a way of creating. External links • RFC 2522 • Test implementation of Photuris [1] References [1] http:/ / www. USB PTP is a common alternative to USB MSC. These objects can however have parents and siblings so that a file-system–like view of device contents can be created. It is further standardized for USB by the USB Implementers Forum as the still image capture device class. as PTP abstracts from the underlying representation. citi. However. if a camera is mounted via USB MSC. most commonly FAT or FAT32. Photuris is a session key management protocol defined in RFC 2522. none of these are required. USB is the default network transport media for PTP devices. umich. such as Exif. While it is common to think of the objects that PTP handle as files. and DPOF.Photuris (protocol) 352 Photuris (protocol) In computer networking. By contrast. Some cameras support both modes. as a digital camera connection protocol. Storage PTP does not specify a way for objects to be stored – it is a communication protocol. they are abstract entities identified solely by a 32-bit object ID. the physical file system and layout are exposed to the user. such as a memory card. Nor does it specify a transport layer. . transferring and manipulating objects which are typically photographic images such as a JPEG file. DCF. The protocol has been standardised as ISO 15740. TIFF/EP.

as well as for tagging objects with extended metadata (such as title. This updated version of PTP is fully backward-compatible with PTP v1. This may reduce long response times for some devices that possess large numbers of objects Support for arbitrary resizing prior to image transmission (responder scaling). Microsoft implements PTP on Windows through Windows Image Acquisition. libraries used by applications such as digiKam and F-Spot. The Poseidon USB stack on Amiga includes ptp.Picture Transfer Protocol 353 Extensions A number of protocols have been developed that extend PTP. and offers optional performance. respectively. allows for transfer over wireless or wired networks based in part on FotoNation's PTP/IP.class. only the mi