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HOW T0 PLAY!JUNIOR -3 BLUES -*-..
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CHAPTERIE ~ f X ) U N D I B Q ) F ' f ' f j E 1 &. . . . . . . 6 ~. C H Am ~ . a RHYTHMSANDM-RS. . I l BLUES IN 6/8 TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . BLUESIN MINOMETER . . . , . . 12 COLI;ECT~ON"OF EXAMPLES BLUW OF . '. TWELflE-BAR BLUES 13 TWELVE-BAR BLUES (Alternate Chsrthj. . . . 18 TWELVE-BAR BLUES (Minor). . . . . . . . . 14 TWE LYE -BAR BLUES (Minor-Alternate Chord@ 14 EIGHT-BAR BLUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chm) . I: , S EICIHT-MR B L m EXORT-BAR BLUES maor) . . . . . . . . . . It3 SMTEEN-BAR BLUES 17 SIXTEEN-BAR BLU'ES (Alternate Chords) . . . . 18 SIXTEEN-BAR BLUES (Alternate Structure] . . . 1 9 TWENTY-BAR BLUES . . . - . . . . . . . . nn BLUES IN WALTZ TIME (3/4 Time) . . . . . . BALLADSTYLE BLUES . . . . . . . . . . q
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1Hn Ray Brown M u t e .
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International Copyright SecuFed
Made B U.S. A.
We \vill start with the twelve-bar blues. a large part of our country and western music. A.At Copyri&t 1967 by Ray Brown Music.more than structures of the blues. S.BASICS OF BLUES PIANO In this book we are going to concern ourselves with blues " sounds" and fee1ings. This is the most common of the blues structures. Here are two examples of the basic twelve-bar structure: Figure 1 (Also see page 13) fi Cmaj F7 R I I C I C 1 F7 I I 4 I I - F7 I I I I I I I I I C Figure 2 A C this point 1 would like to add that when playing or continuing from one chorus into another. so that you will have a foundation or pattern to work with. we will explain certain blues structures. Ltd. There are also many variations on the twelve-bar blues structure as far as chord changes are concerned. However. We also hope to give you a better insight and understanding of the blues as to application of these " sounds " and feelings to compositions with basic blues structures. All Rights Reserved Made in U. as well as other type compositions that have blues feelings and sounds. CHAPTER I BASIC BLUES STRUCTURES Now we take up the basic blues structures. t h i i i s the most common turnback (used in place of the last two bars): . and rock and roll music. such as many ballads. International Copyright Secured . There are more blues compositions with this structure than any other.
Parts of the structures I have illustrated here may be ccmbined to form new ones. Here are two examples of the minor blues : Figurc 6 (Also see page 14) G7 I Cm I Crn I I Fm I I I I I I I I I I I Fm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I N I r I . Another variation of the twelve-bar blues is the minor blues.Here is another example of the structure in Figure 2 employing the use of passing or connecting chord changes: Figure 4 Figure 5 is an example of a fancier variation of the twelve-bar blues: (Also see page 13) A C Bm7 E7 Am D7 Gm7 C7 F7 Fm7 There are many more variations on both the structure and chord changes of the twelve-bar blues. After you master the basic structure it will be easy to play the others.
and beginning with the ninth bar there are four bars of " C " Major instead of the usual two. because of the nature of the ending. There are other variations of the eight-bar blues. Often you will run ballads with one of the above structures for the first and second eight bars. but will have a middle eight bars (Bridge) The next form we are going to discuss is the sixteen-bar blues structure. the turnback in Figure 3 does not fit here. if so desired. there are four bars of the " F " Seventh chord instead of two. but the two previous mentioned are the most common and most used. Here are two examples of the eight-bar blues: Figure 8 (Also see page 15) Figure 9 A c E7 F F#dim C Am D7 G7 C F7 C The turnback in Figure 3 also applies to the eight-bar blues structure. Also.The next basic structure will be the eight-bar blues structure. and the ending is different. I t consists of only eight bars. It is very similar to the .e twelve-bar form : Figure 10 (Also see page 17) . as well as all other blues structures. you may employ the following turnback: Figure 1 1 . However. It is just what the name implies. You will notice that the basic difference in the twelve-bar and sixteen-bar structure is that beginning with the fifth bar.
* See page 22 I . It is a twenty-bar form. there are other forms which are not standard blues structures like those I have previously mentioned. but most of the tunes and melodies written on it (especially rock and roll and country and western tunes) are definitely " the blues.Here is another form. As I mentioned earlier.) By the same token not all compositions with a twelve-bar structure are necessarily the blues." It is a sixteen-bar form : Figure 13 (Also see page 19) Cmaj G7 C C C F dim C Am D7 G7 C.* (This is especially true of a great many ballads. but are definitely " the blues. and the first twelve bars you will notice are exactly the same as the sixteen-bar structure. Here is a structure which is not commonly known as a blues structure. However. you will find variations on this one. Only the last eight bars are different: Figure 12 (Also see page 20) A C c With this form you may use the turnback in ~ i ~ u r e ' 3 . this is the most basic one. and should be incIuded in any discussion of the blues. F7 C As with the other structures. but it is the blues. It is not as common as the sixteen-bar or other structures." depending on the feeling or general nature of the composition.
etc. and there are rare exceptions to even this. Some say that blues are based on the melodic minor. Only minor blues tend to take exception to this scale. still others say they come from the pentatonic scale. I would say it depended on the emotions and feelings of the performing individual. Blues as a rule usually contain both major and minor phrases. due to the strong emotional quality of the blues. or diminished chord. Figure 15 .e. it would be like this: Figure 14 You will notice that this is really a chromatic scale with the first half-step of the scale omitted." a sound that will be discussed later).6 CHAPTER I1 THE BASIC SOUNDS OF THE BLUES Many musicologists have said that blues are built on certain scales. phrases. There is really no set rule for this. I am of the opinion that blues are composed of a combination of scales. also the use of blues sounding intervals. seventh chord. even at times taking in quarter tones (i. being based simply on the melodic and harmonic minor scales. Here is a very simple twelve-bar blues I have written out to illustrate what I have just said. etc. You will very often find minor phrases against a major chord. However. " bending notes. some say the harmonic minor. If I were asked to give an example of a blues scale.
" Notice that bar four has a similar instance with an F Diminished chord with C seventh in the left hand.) Figure 17 Figure 18 .Sotice in the second bar of Figure 15 we have an example of a minor phrase against a seventh chord. making it a C minor phrase is also contained in the F seventh chord. here the G seventh gives the chord a little more " colour.I Observe also in bar two the last note: Eb and A in the treble. Technically we would call this interval an Augmented fourth. (See Figure 1. When played together in this instance the composite chord becomes a G9f5." There is no clash of tones. These examples are adaptable to the first two bars of the twelve-bar structure. or C9+5. and G and F in the bass. But in this case to call it an Augmented fourth would technically make the interval in the key of Eb. as the Eb in the phrase. Here are two more examples. But my reason for calling the chord a C Diminished is because a C Diminished chord (or just a single note C ) may be used in the left hand in place of the G seventh. . it is really a C Diminished chord with the first and third tones of the chord omitted. But for " the sake of the blues. Figure 19 Also take notice that this interval is played with a G seventh interval in the left hand." and to keep it in the key of C. However. We have a C minor phrase against an F seventh chord: Figure 16 This is one example of a " blues sound. Study them. and then try to compose your own such phrases.
Here are some other examples of " blues sounds. for simplicity's sake we will continue to use the key of C . and/or phrases that are most commonly associated with the blues. notes. Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 . Figure 20 Figure 2 1 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 n Figure 26 . combinations of notes." which are merely certain intervals. Assuming that you are familiar with the art ofpransposing. They are all in 414 time.
there are times when they will fit elsewhere in the structure.Figure 30 Figure 3 1 Figure 32 Figure 33 1 s t The examples in Figures 32 and 33 are typical blues piano endings. become familiar with the sound of them. too numerous to list here. However. and see how many of your own you can come up with. There are many more. These are but a few typical blues sounds. r . Study these.
. whether it be vocal or instrumental.) One of the secrets of playing good blues with feeling is simplicity. This can also be accomplished on many wind and string instruments. in my opinion. pleasure and relaxation? I first became aware of this while working with the late and great Dinah Washington. It should not be a difficult task to keep this kind of simplicity while playing the blues (without lyrics) on the piano. was one of the greatest exponents of the blues. Here are some examples of some blues phrases using " bent notes. It annoys me very much to have to think too hard to enjoy a certain piece of music. or to things in life that have happened to most of us." Note that the accent may fall on either the grace note. or a blues sound that is syrupy. Thirds. or the main note.Earlier I spoke of " bending notes. If you have ever listened to some of the blues singers such as Dinah Washington. After all. thus employing the use of quartertones. The human voice can " bend " a note merely by slurring it sharp or flat. performed to give enjoyment. I enjoy music with simplicity. it can't be done this way on the piano. (The same holds true for the other blues sounds in Figures 20 through 37. care should be exercised against the over-use of trills." To " bend " a note is definitely a blues sound. Figure 34 Figure 35 $ Figure 36 Figure 37 - Trills are also very prominent in the sound of the blues. to prevent a pseudo-blues sound. especially blues and jazz. Personally. or too sugary and flowery. However. Jimmy Witherspoon or Ray Charles. who. so we use grace notes. you no doubt have been "moved " most by the simple and plain blues melody lines with lyrics that usually pertain to simple and plain everyday life. However. isn't music. or any other instrument. sixths and octaves are the most common intervals for trilling: Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Trills are very good for adding color.
a church of Negro origin founded sometime during the slavery period. a Latin rhythm. only 3/4. L Here is an example of a blues in 618 time. In recent years the straight 314 rhythms have been introduced in playing the blues. There are times when 618 feels like 314. It is just like 414. You will probably feel after observing and listening to some of these rhythms that they have very strong African characteristics and overtones. I would say back as far as when the blues began. There is no particular rule for playing the blues in 314. It is usually a very slow tempo for the right blues effect. Many jazz historians agree that jazz and the blues get their roots from the old Negro churches. The feeling that we are going to be concerned with here is 618. or a 214 rhythm. there are other rhythms which have " crept " into the blues. but jazz in general. * See page 21 + . but the feeling of the 618 involved here is the important element." because they are so identifiable to the rhythms of the hymns of the sanctified church. feeling like 214. The basic sanctified rhythm is 618 time.* However. This is the standard and principal rhythm for not only playing the blues.CHAPTER I11 RHYTHMS AND METERS Up to now we have dealt with 414 rhythms mainly. but because it is in 618 time. In jazz circles we refer to these as " sanctified rhythms. By taking a 618 rhythm and slowing it down (very slow) and putting the heaviest acccent on the first and fourth beats of each measure you should get an idea of the feeling I'm trying to express-the 214 feeling or like a very slow march tempo. it comes out sort of a long-meter sixteen-bar structure. primarily based on the eight-bar structure.
you can play a 214 rhythm with your left hand. If you are playing solo. in 414 time. but still basically sounding like the original form stretched out with a change in the rhythm. Thus. the accompanying instruments (bass and drums) usually play in 214 time. It is merely a doubling of each bar.. to acquaint you further with the sound and feeling of blues piano playing. . For example. eight becomes sixteen. designed to cover all the materials we have gone over in the previous chapters. a twelve-bar blues becomes a twenty-four blues." This is a style used by many of the earlier blues players and singers.You have probably heard in jazz circles musiciacs speak about tunes being played in " long meter. etc. Here is an example: On the following pages are a collection of blues solos.
13 Twelve -Bar Blues (See Figure I) Twelve -Bar Blues with alternate Chord Changes (see Figure 5) .
Twelve-Bar Minor Blues ( s e e Figure 6) Twelve-Bar Minor Blues with alternate Chord Changes ( s e e Figure 7) .
Eight-Bar Blues (see Figure 8) Eight -Bar Blues with alternate Chord Changes (see Figure 9) .
Eight-Bar Minor Blues STRUCTURE: A Fm .
Sixteen -Bar Blues (See Figure 10) .
Sixteen-Bar Blues with alternate Chord Changes r n Medium Ternno STRUCTURE: A F7 F7 C7 *Optional fills .
Sixteen-Bar Blues Alternate Structure (see Figure 18) .
20 Twenty-Bar Blues .
but is still basically twelvebar blues.B a r F o r m r- I - f i STRUCTURE : C: NOTE: Because of meter (314) structure comes out to twenty-four bars.3!ues in W a l t z T i m e (3a~ i m e ) Based on T w e l v e . .
Ballad Style Blues .
the following year he joined Lester Young. up-tempo 12-bar theme. that feeling has been happily captured and transmitted in these twelve succinct and well-varied performances. 1938) is a most attractive illustration of how to keep swinging but stay soulful. many of us are glad that there remains in many performers a blithe spirit that communicates warmly and directly with audiences at every level. Nat Adderley's blues. Jr. wrote 'D' Waltz and gave it to me originally for my trio. Jump!!!. 6ee Baby. is a trained musician who studied seriously for years. In fact. is another one I used to play with the Adderley brothers." Junior's ballad style is well represented with But Beautiful (Jimmy Van Heusen. a sense of spontaneity and pleasure that most jazz enthusiasts still feel must be a part of any meaningful performance. the Mance Trio has been on the road as permanent accompanying group for Joe Williams.lar brass section composed of outstanding West Coast musicians-the kind who. often a swinging humor. known in the 1930s and early '40s as the relief band at the Savoy Ballroom in New York. And of course Broadway i s a number that Count Basie popularized when he recorded it in 1940. the title number and closing track. may be familiar to older swing fans. it was the theme number of a group called the Savoy Sultans. and all have a Basie-like bite that Junior found most inspiriting. That was in 1948. gets that old Jimmie Lunceford or Andy Kirk sound." says Junior. the fine Hollywood studio guitarist who lately has been earning an auxiliary reputation as a skillful writer for both singers and instrumental groups. Ain't I Good To You is the 1929 Don Redman composition. but has enjoyed substantial exposure playing sets on its own in clubs and on television. is a buoyantly convincing case in point. After that. and Running Upstairs is an exciting. "I've kncwn most of the songs a long time. The other tracks were arranged by Bob Bain. for instance. Julian Clifford Mance. Since August of 1962. September Song (Kurt Weill. I liked the feeling we got on this. Ky. All three were arranged by Dave Cavanaugh. is a moderately paced blues with a deliberate beat. Junior studied privately for several years from the age of eight. She's A Little Doll is based on the I d b a r blues pattern. On these sides Junior was supplied with a musci. he launched his own trio in 1961. Jubilation is my own tune-l did it in 1957 with Cannonball. the saxophonist. and Hear Me Talkin' To Ya. there were a few months back with Ammons before he entered the Army and was assigned to a service band at Fort Knox. While welcoming the esthetic acceptance of any valid music form. from happy music far lighthearted listeners t o solemn subject for serious students. 6et Ready. Soon after his release in 1953. The late Dinah Washington. After a brief stint with the Eddie Davis-Johnny Griffin combo.Notes By LEOMRD FEATHER Much hhs been written lately about the transformation of jazz tmn entertainment to art fwm. was took him on tour in 1954 and '55. there is in his work at all times a joy of creation. "Moten Swing. i n keeping with Junior's penchant for traditional forms. he became a house musician at the Bee Hive in Chicago. who in these sides makes an auspicious Capitol debut. Junior toured with the trumpeter's quintet at home and abroad until late 1960. As anyone will attest who has seen Junior Mance in person. which goes back at least 35 years. Some time before his twentieth birthday he went on the road with Gene Ammons' combo. with the horns playing sustained notes behind me on the first chorus-just like the old records. that suffuses even the blues numbers that make up a substantial proportion of his repertoire. "and I felt comfortable doing them-we . 1947). are capable of generating the same sort of excitement with which Junior himself is associated. Junior. Percy Heath's brother. later he majored in music at Roosevelt College in his native Chicago. at many po~ntssome of the puncli~ngfigures from the brass are the equivalent of the rhythmic comping often furnished by Junior's 3gile left hand. the brass choir joining i n later with bucket mutes. which opens unaccompanied. Joining Dizzy Gillespie in March of 1958. jump! Photos and ~ n s ~ d e courtesy C a p ~ t o l text Records and Leonard Feather . whose taste in accom~anists always without peer. And now. "Jimmy Heath. The blues is a pervasive element. Set. as the first track makes obvious. With the help of an unusual instrumental setting.were careful t~ get exactly the right tempo and feeling for each one. Sweet Talkin' Hannah. yet there is in his music an ebullience. set. His jazz identification was firmly established through his membership in the original Cannonball Adderley Quintet during almost all of 1956 and '57. as our leader enjoins us-get ready.
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