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This report presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the use of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate the consolidation of soft, wet Design and construction guidelines for using clays beneath embankments. prefabricated vertical drains as a ground improvement technique are presented This along with detailed specifications, design examples, and cost data. report will be of interest to bridge engineers, roadway design specialists, construction and geotechnical engineers concerned with foundation settlement problems. Sufficient copies of tne report are being distriouted oy FHWA Bulletin provide a minimum of two copies to each FBWA regional and division office, Direct distribution is being three copies to each State highway agency. to division offices. to and made

Richard E. Hay, D' ctor Office of Enginee ti ng and Highway Operations Research and Development

NOTICE This document is disseminated Transportation in the interest Government assumes no liability under the sponsorship of the Department of of inEormation exchange. The United States for its contents or use thereof. contractor, who is The contents do not of Transportation. or regulation.

The contents of this report reflect the views of the responsible for the accuracy of the data presented herein. necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department This report does not constitute a standard, specification,

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the object of this document.

DTFH61-83-C-00101 Type of Report and Peraod Covered Office of Engineering and Highway Operations Research and Development Federal Highway Administration 6300 Georgetown Pike. drains. Dlsrrlbutlon Statement Vertical drains. Smith 10. 3. t’crformgng Organ. Security Classif.D.Technical 1. fications and comments pertaining and performance evaluation. 7. Prefabricated Prefabricated Geocomposite Guidelines Geocomposite Drains: Drains: Engineering Laboratory Summary of Research Effort Laboratory Data Report Assessment and Preliminary Data Report 17. Rectptent’s Report Catalog Documentation No. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address FCP35P2-032 Il. The information contained herein is intended for use by civil engineers familiar with the fundamentals of soil mechanics and the principles of precompression. The volume is intended to provide assistance to engineers in determining the applicability of PV drains to a given project and in the design of PV drain systems.F. This volume FHWA No. This document able to the public through the Technical Information Services. Organlzatlon S. The volume includes descriptions discussion of design considerations. guideline specito installation guidelines. (TRAIS) Haley & Aldrich. Title and Subtitle yQg7 - As-+9 / 5. Report No. I. II III I II in of types and physical characteristics of PV drains. of Pages is availNational 19. supplementory Notes FHWA contract 16. DiMillio (HNR-30) This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal . Virginia 22161 I Ciassif. prefabricated vertical wick drains. The contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of August 1986. construction control. Report Date Prefabricated Vertical Drains Vol. No. Massachusetts 12. precompression No restrictions. Conwact or Grant No.7 (8-W I I Unclassified of completed page authorized I I 117 I I Reproduction . No. Page FHWA/RD-86/168 4. Author’s) PerformIng Organlzatlon Report NO. Abstract Final Report September 1983 August 1986 14. (of this report) 20. Inc. J. Sponsoring Agency Code - JME/0237 manager (COTR): A. (of this page) 21. 02142 13. Virginia 22101-2296 15. Springfield. Security 22. 238 Main Street Cambridge.lation of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. Price Unclassified Form DOT F 1700. Performing Rixner. recommended design procedures.J. 1986 letton Code 0. 9. RD-861169 RD-861170 RD-861171 RD-861172 is the first Vol. Government Acccsrton No. Work Unit No. McLean. Engineering Guidelines September 6. Name Kraemer and Address and A. The others Vertical Vertical Drains: Drains: in the Title series are: a series.R. 2. Key Words 18.

6 AREA 6auare -P=w rqum 6qmm acres mcher vorh miter 6.03 0.47 0.1 ounces p-46 short ‘cm 02 lb VOLUME tSP tbsp fl oz C Pf qt 901 (1’ yd’ VOLUME milliliter6 milliliters milliliter6 liter6 liters lIterr liter8 cubic cubic ml ml ml I I I meter6 meters k d OC celriu6 temprroturr CdtilI6 temperature ml ’ I I m6 m3 millilitrn liters ‘itSS6 i itOf cubic cubic t-Pa-6 tablespmns fluid ounce6 5 I5 30 0.5 swn 6qu~8 acres PM miles 2.4 qtbxe 6@MXO qwt quare hector66 centimr(sn nukr6 meters kilometers Cd m2 km2 ha quore centimetws fQMlV Nta6 square kitcnwterr h6ctq4oQah2) AREA 0.3 I I 0.6 0.03 2.9 1.5 30 0.6 inche6 Inches feet yards miles in In 11 d mi In H yd mi incW fd yah mlln 2.3 fluid ounces 11 Q pl qt 00’ ft’ yd’ CW6 pint8 quart6 qallonr cubic cubic maters meters pints qua-b gallons cubic feet cubic yards 3-e fert yord6 0.035 2.24 0.4 2.95 8.6 2.9 0.4 3.5 0. MAsshigMl az lb ounce6 MASS (wright) Q”3”‘6 kilagrans t@l-US 9 ‘4’ t Q kg t 28 0.06 0.2 0.METRIC CONVERSiON FACTORS APPROXIMATE SYMKL CONVERSIONS FROM METRIC MEASURES TO FIND SYMBOL APPROXIMATE SYMBOL WkEN CONVERSIONS YOU KIJ(M MULTIRY FROM METRIC MEASURES W TO FIND WHENWU~UUIPLYBY LENGTH LENGTH centimeters crntimeterr meters klbmeterr cm cm m km mm cm m m km millimeten cmtimeters metem meters kilometer6 0.09 0.04 0.76 TEMPERATUZ 35 Wen odd 32) bcoct) Fahrenhrtt temperature TEMPERATURE buxtl OF s fuumheii temp6wfuro S/9 subtractiq (after 32) OC .45 tattrf~lb) F--46 8hCd wkilogmms tom ( ‘OookJ) 0.1 1.2 I.16 -it-&m Ins 1.26 36 I.

............... .... OF DESIGN PARAMETERS 33 33 37 39 $1 I7 IB 21 24 30 EVALUATION :: 3... 8 9 CONS1 DERATIONS 1. .... k.......... Design Procedure .....................) ............. .... Assumptions and Limitations................................. ..... Disturbed Soil Zone (d... Purpose and Scope of Guidelines.... kh.......... 2 5.. DESIGN .... History of Vertical Drains .... ........TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page INTRODUCTION 1. Drain Spacing and Length Drainage Blankets..... The General Case . Objectives ....... Design Example Specifications ... Characteristics of PV Drains ............................... The Ideal Case ....... $4 '15 17 52 55 56 jg 59 iii ............... qw)......... 1 I BACKGROUND :: 3. .......... AND SELECTION ...... ........ Other Design Considerations............... Design Approach...... 3 (-..... 4.......: 8........................................... .. Soil Properties (ch..... Drain Influence Zone (D) .......... 2...... 4...... DRAIN DESIGN Objectives ..) Drain Properties (dw............ 2. :: i: 5............ 5... Basic Principles of Precompression Purpose and Application of Vertical Drains . Objectives Selection of PV Drain Type ........... ...... Design Equations ... ....

. 5.................. Introduction Cost Factors ....................... 63 Site Preparation ................. .... Drain Installation Drainage Blanket .. Installation Equipment ..... Familiarity with Design. COSTS Introduction ...... Site Preparation Drain Installation Equipment and Materials ........... ... .................... ........ ........... 6.......... 5....... 77 8I 83 34 iv ........ 72 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY................. :: 4...... APPENDIX A: Design Equations APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX B: C: D: Effects of Soil Design Example Specifications 74 ................. ~1 61 6....... Contractor Interaction 64 CONSTRUCTION MONITORING 1... Geotechnical Instrumentation 70 7C 71 1.......... 2.............. Introduction ........... 7... Disturbance..................... . ........................... 3..... Installation Procedures............. ......... .......TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Section INSTALLATION 1... r3 6B 68 63 ... ............. 2.. 4.....

....... Photograpns of typical PV drain products ......... Summary of general product information provided by distributors/manufacturers .......... Some technical advantages of PV drains compared to sand drains .................. Representative ratios Of kh/kv for soft Clays Metnods for iW%Wm?ment Of cn and kh/k v .. ................ ........ 29 Estimation of an average drain resistance factor (Fr') 31 Example of parameter effects on tg0 . 25 Relationsnip of F(n) to D/d.................... 48 Effective confining pressure on a PV drain ..................................... 23 Equivalent diameter of a PV drain ... Example curves for "ideal case..... 26 Disturbance factor (F........................LIST OF TABLES Page Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Common types of vertical drains ..... 19 Consolidation due to vertical and radial drainage Schematic of PV drain with drain resistance and soil 22 disturbance ...................... for "ideal case..... Summary of jacket and core information provided ........" ............ . 11 Typical highway applications of PV drains .................... functions of PV drain jacket and core . Approximation of the disturbed zone around the mandrel 42 Relationship of drain spacing (S) to drain influence 43 zone (0) ..................................................... 53 57 .............. ............................................. Typical vertical drain installation for a highway 6 embankment ...... by distributors/manufacturers LIST OF FIGURES 8 10 14 16 35 36 50 51 Figure figure figure figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 5 Idealized types of settlement ......... 38 Typical values of vertical discharge capacity 4o Typical PV drain installation equipment ......." ................ ................................................................ ......... ............... Typical PV drains available in the United States .................................. .....) for typical parameters 27 .... 65 Typical PV drain installation procedure .................... 66 Typical PV drain splicing procedure V .......... Horizontal drainage blankets ....................

which is functionally band-shaped drain diameter the drain diameter (drain drain factor average of the diameter equivalent of a circular drain to the given dW 4 idealized disturbed zone around D of the influence spacing for cylinder zone) factor of influence of the drain F(n) Fr Fr ' drain for resistance drain resistance factor vi .LIST OF SYMBOLS The following is a listing respective definitions: SYMBOL a A width of of the symbols and their TERM a band-shaped of drain cross section removing length cross-sectional the discharge the free surface area of drainage blanket one row of drains area of a drain drain per cross unit AW b b' CV thickness distance coefficient coefficient (or radial) virgin coefficient diameter of a band-shaped between of two drains consolidation section for for vertical horizontal drainage ch CR cc4 d dm of consolidation drainage ratio secondary compression of of compression drain a circular equivalent diameter of mandrel (diameter of circle with an equal cross-sectional area) equivalent diameter.

= horizontal in kv = the vertical kw = coefficient of permeability along the axis of the drain lateral stress ratio of the drain K. number applied maximum of drains on one side of centerline of volume change mv n N P Pvrn = = = = = load past pressure vii . half length of drain when drainage occurs at both ends) coefficient D/d. L = = effective drain length. half thickness of compressible layer when two way drainage occurs) height hydraulic coefficient coefficient direction coefficient direction coefficient direction equivalent material at rest of preload gradient of permeability of permeability the undisturbed of permeability the disturbed of permeability in the soil in soil in the horizontal Hp i k kn = = = = in k.LIST Fs h = = OF SYMBOLS (continued) factor for soil disturbance to conduct y the drainage water from total nead centerline total nead required to point loss in hl> iid = = blanket length of longest drainage path (thickness of compressible layer when one way drainage occurs. (length of drain when drainage occurs at one end only.

LIST OF SYEJlSOLS (continued) ‘&j ‘Iw r re rm = = = = = rate of discharge capacity from of a single . water pressure.the drain drain (at gradient = 1. at a point hydrostatic drainage average taneous excess pore pressure or excess pore U” = with vertical degree vertical of consolidation and horizontal due to simuldrainage viii .disturbed rw rs i4R S s = = = = = defining boundary ratio zone recompression drain rSh spacing = ratio of equivalent time time radius of disturbed radius of drain factor factor for for horizontal vertical zone to Td = nondimensional consolidation nondimensional consolidation time time to complete TV = t tp Qec = = = primary consolidation which secondary time at end of interval during compression is of interest time at surcharge removal Qr Ue = = hydrostatic excess pore pressure.0) discharge radius radius of influence circle cross drain of drain well (D/2) to the radius of mandrel's radius radius of with an area equal sectional area./2) of. well (d.

LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued) iJh = TIv = average drainage average vertical volume distance distance layer unit degree of consolidation due to horizontal degree of consolidation drainage due to V Y Z = = = from below the top centerline surface of to the a given point soil compressible Yw Pv PC = = = weight of water settlement consolidation final final initial settlement total effective initial final primary settlement consolidation settlement settlement Pcf Pf Pi Ps Pt = = = = = consolidation settlement due to secondary compression settlement confining effective effective pressure vertical vertical stress stress UC -lo = = T&f = ix .


The scope of this manual provide criteria to guide design engineers of PV drains for a given project. design and construction of PV drain projects. It is the specific purpose of this manual to summarize the Consultant's interpretation of the state-ofthe-art in PV drain design and installation and to provide design engineers with practical guidelines for the evaluation. on nighway projects has illustrated the need for design and construction guidelines to assist the design engineer. effects on soil properties. Recommended Guideline pertinent design specifications. Recognizing the need. the federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has funded research to develop this manual. construction evaluations and cost considerations. design equation soil a nomograph and methods A discussion of their evaluation. types and solution. performance Tne design guidelines are intended to be applicable to commercially available band-shaped PV drains. or "wick" drains. Comments pertaining to drain installation. installation control. and the surface area which will permit seepage into the drain is commonly 0. including parameters history.2 to 0. various aspects of tne guidelines may also be applicable to other PV drain types. The aspect ratio (width/thickness) is typically 25 to 30. procedures including a design example. The currently available products are characterized by a channeled or studded plastic core wrapped with a geotextile.INTMOUCTION 1. Although intended for use with band-shaped drains. for Background characteristics A recommended information on the of PV drains.4 in (1 mm) length. Purpose and Scope of Guidelines The increased use of prefabricated vertical (PV) drains.3 in2 (150 to 200 mm21 per 0. This manual is intended to in evaluating the applicability to provide an approach for precompression project. Assumptions and Limitations who This guideline manual is intended to be used by civil engineers are knowledgeaDle about soil mechanics fundamentals and soil I 1 . 2. and designing the PV drain component of a includes: purpose.

Information contained herein is generally limited to that which is applicable to the use of PV drains in connection with precompression of soils beneath highway structures and embankments. the relative economics and other factors pertaining to the precompression scheme can be evaluated to arrive at an appropriate precompression design. . determination of the desirability of precompression and the proper use of field instrumentation. the engineer is directed to other available references.precompression principles. As used herein. calculation of ultimate settlements. selection of soil properties. spacing. For considerations of other important factors including the evaluation of stability. length and installation method to achieve a desired degree of consolidation within a given time period. procedures for performing specific in-situ or laboratory tests. Based on the selected PV drain system. design of a PV drain system refers to the selection of drain type.

Secondary compression settlement is the continuing. such that vertical compression is accompanied by lateral expansion.1. applied load exceeds the final loading. and thus settlement. These further volume changes and increased settlements are due to drained creep. The drainage rate depends upon the volume change and permeability cnaracteristics of the soil as well as the location and continuity of drainage boundaries. and are often characterized by a linear relationship between settlement and logarithm of time. By surcharging. the excess pore pressures are initially undrained. can accelerate the precompression and can also reduce due to secondary compression. If the soil has a low permeability and is relatively thick. The rate of primary consolidation is governed by the rate of water drainage out of the soil under the induced hydraulic gradients. Basic Principles of - Precompression soils or temporary is Precompression refers to the process of compressing foundation under an applied vertical stress (preload) prior to placement If the completion of the final permanent construction load. Precompression anticipated consolidation the technique settlements can be used to eliminate all or a portion of the postconstruction settlements caused by primary of most compressible foundation soils. the resulting settlement into three idealized components: 0 Initial "immediate") settlement occurs during application of the as excess pore pressures develop in the underlying soil. cohesive soils. e 3 . long-term settlement which occurs after the excess pore pressures are essentially dissipated and the effective stresses are practically constant. the amount in excess referred to as a surcharge. The foundation soil deforms due to the applied shear stresses with essentially no volume change. occur as stresses are transferred from the water (pore pressures) to the soil skeleton (effective stresses). to a deposit can be divided Mhen an embankment or other area load is applied rapidly of saturated. (or load e Primary consolidation settlement develops with time as drainage allows excess pore pressures to dissipate. Volume changes.

Figure 1 illustrates a general relationship of the three components of settlement with time.For purposes of analysis it is usually assumed that these three components occur as separate processes. Primary consolidation settlements for many precompression projects considered in the preload design. Experience has snown that the actual deformation behavior of soft foundation soils under embankment loadings is more complex than this simplified representation. Effects such as creep movements and lack of agreement between consolidation settlement and dissipation of excess pore pressures invalidate the applicability of conventional linear consolidation theory for prediction or evaluation of precompression performance. however. and the relationship between the area of loading and the thickness of compressible soil. in the order given. and when primary consolidation occurs rapidly relative to the structure design life. the magnitude and rate of loading. its stress history. In some cases the magnitude of one or more of these components may be insignificant. 87 The initial settlements which occur during the application of the preload generally do not adversely affect the performance of a permanent embankment since additional fill can be placed if necessary to compensate for the settlement. it is important to consider deviations from the idealized assumptions of sequential settlements. in most cases this simplifying assumption is reasonable and designs developed accordingly are appropriate. for precompression projects Y: it can be generally stated that(IS e Initial settlements are seldom of much practical concern. Recognition of such limitations can. the 'vlhen designing precompressionschemes. can 4 . generally predominate are the only settlements and 0 0 Secondary compression settlements are usually of greatest significance with highly organic soils (especially peats). H wever. such as can occur with vertical drain installations. aid the engineers' design judgement and interpretation of results. However. The relative importance and magnitude of each type of settlement depends on many factors such as: the soil type and compressibility characteristics. Discussions of these limitations have been given elsewhere(12s18) and are beyond the scope of this manual. except for loadings on thick plastic or organic soils having marginal stability wherein large shear defor tions may continue to develop due to undrained creep.


. Special measures such as flattening side slopes or use of stabilizing "toe" berms. Some of the importa t considerations relative to this topic are reviewed by Ladd!13 r 2. may be appropriate when marginal stability conditions exist. Assessment of the safety against instability is beyond the scope of this manual. thereby accelerating the rate of primary consolidation. the design of a precompression scheme must also consider overall embankment and foundation stability. Purpose and Application of Vertical Drains Vertical drains are artificially-created drainage paths which can be installed by one of several methods and which can have a variety of physical characteristics. The use of vertical drains along with precompression has tne sole purpose of shortening the drainage path (distance to a drainage boundary) of the pore water. SETTLEMENT POINTS / SETTLEMENT SURCHARGE GROUNDWATER OBSERVATION INCLINOMETER DRAINAGE BLANKET WELL FIRM SOIL PIEZOMETERS’ NOT TO SCALE Figure 2 Typical vertical drain installation for a highway embankment. Figure 2 illustrates a typical vertical drain installation for highway embankments. VLL.If tne foundation soils are weak relative to the shear stresses imposed by the embankment. possibly in conjunction with controlled rates of filling to permit an increase in shear strength due to consolidation.

the principal drain system (i. and prefabricated vertical (PV) drains. Under such conditions. very stiff clay or other obstructions. Soils with these characteristics are almost exclusively conesive. Where sensitive soils are present or where stability is of concern. and to below loaded Vertical drains can be classified into one of three general types: sand drains.. Although the scope of this manual is limited to PV drains. If the compressible layer is overlain by dense fill or sands. Subject to the previously noted factors. and/or use of a vibratory hammer. consolidation with PV drains is feasible under most conditions for projects which can benefit from vertical drains. fine grained soils. tne subsurface profile and/or the proposed construction may impose limitations on the use of PV drains. consolidation the a strength gain due to is of concern. disturbance of the soil due to drain installation may not be tolerable. references to sand drains and fabric-encased sand drains are included where appropriate. for completion benefits are: of To decrease the overall primary consolidation 0 To decrease the amount of surcharge desired amount of precompression in To increase soft soils the rate of when stability required to achieve the given time. jetting. In such cases. if practical. or may not be feasible. of accelerated consolidation) time due to required preloading. such as below improve tne effectiveness of natural drainage areas. general pre-excavation can be performed. Under certain conditions the characteristics of the particular site. and 2) compress very slowly under natural drainage conditions due to low soil permeability and relatively great distance between natural drainage boundaries. Soil types for which use of PV drains is ordinarily applicable include: . relief natural layers of Vertical drains can also be used as pressure pore pressures due to seepage. Use of PV drains is applicable for soils which: 1) are moderately to highly compressible under static loading. drain installation could require predrilling. sand drains installed by non-displacement methods or an alternate soil improvement technique may be more appropriate. fabric encased sand drains.When used in of a vertical 0 conjunction with precompression. Each of the general types can be further divided into subtypes as shown in Table 1. either organic or inorganic.e. wells to reduce slopes.

Table 1 Common types of vertical (after (13)) Sub-Types Closed end mandrel Screw type auger Continuous flight hollow stem auger Internal Rotary jet jetting drains General Type Remarks Maximum displacement Limited Limited Difficult experience displacement to control SAND DRAINS Can be non-displacement Can be non-displacement Full displacement relatively small Full displacement small volume Full displacement small volume Full displacement small volume of volume of of of Dutch jet-bailer FABRIC ENCASED SAND DRAIN Sandwick. Pack Drain. History -of Vertical Drains Early applications of vertical drains in the U. Fabridrain Cardboard Fabric plastic Plastic without drain PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAIN covered drain drain jacket inorganic silts and clays of low to moderate sensitivity. 3. Since that time.S. to accelerate soil consolidation below highway fills utilized vertical sand drains. organic silts and clays. The California Division of Highways. varved cohesive deposits. Use of PV drains is ordinarily not appropriate in highly pervious or granular soils. patent for a sand drain system was granted in 1926.S. sand drains have been used successfully on a large number of highway projects across the country. A U. Materials and Research Department conducted laboratory and field tests on vertical sand drain performance as early as 1933. . and decomposed peat or "muck".

In the late 1930's Walter Kjellman.94 in (100 mm) and a thickness of 0.despite tne proven success of sand drains to accelerate consolidation. less disturbance to the soil mass compared to displacement sand drains. up 0 l to permit porewater A means by wnich the collected porewater and down the length of the drain. Kjellman's drain. Development of plastics during and after World War II prompted development of a variety of PV drains having either rectangular (band shape) or circular cross sections composed entirely of plastic. This can oe a decided advantage in certain circumstances.16 in (4 mm). of -PV Drains material or product A PV drain naving the 0 can be defined as any prefabricated following characteristics: be installed soil strata vertically under field in the Ability to subsurface Ability into compressible conditions. developed a prefabricated oand-shaped vertical drain made of a cardboard core and paper filter jacket which was installed into the ground with a mechanical "stitcher". soil to seep into the drain. The most important advantages are economic competitiveness. made of . which had a width of 3. Characteristics relatively adaptable and can be used in a variety field conditions. The use of PV drains has largely replaced vertical sand drains for most applications. Table 2 lists several tecnnical advantages of PV drains compared to conventional sand drains. are band-shaped (rectangular cross section) consisting of a synthetic geotextile The jackets are commonly "jacket" surrounding a plastic core. PV drains are also of commonly-encountered typical applications 4. and became widely used in Europe and Japan during the 1940's. One additional advantage of PV drains is their feasibility to be installed in a nonvertical orientation.S. and the speed and simplicity of installation. but is not specifically addressed in this manual. At present. the method can have performance and environmental drawbacks which were first reported in Europe. then Director of the Swedish Geotechnical Institute. commercially available non-woven polyester or polypropylene geotextiles. proved to have economic and environmental advantages over sand drains. can be transmitted Tne most commonly used PV drains in the U. Figure 3 illustrates of PV drains on highway projects. it is reported that over 50 types of PV drains are available worldwide.

Won-Displacement require source of water for Do not require control. abundant usually lighter. and Installation maneuverable equipment on site. more Do not jetting. PV drains displacement horizontal Faster rate can withstand considerable lateral or buckling under vertical or soil movements. PV drains at close Where very rapid it is practical spacing. control and inspection for cost not and fewer as critical. processing disposal of jetted spoil materials. continuous vertical drainage path. typically static push rather than driving. of sand backfill of drains. no discontinuities due to installation problems. problems and related truck Job control reduced due procedures. of installation consolidation to install possible. PV drains can be installed a non-vertical orientation underwater and in more conveniently.Taole 2 Some technical advantages compared to sand drains of PV drains (after (13)). is required. 19 . All and inspection to simplicity requirements of installation ar@ There is greater assurance of a permanent. environmental control problems. SAM DRAIN TYPt Oisplacement ADVANTAGES OF PV DRAINS Considerably less disturbance of cohesive soils during installation due to: smaller physical displacement by mandrel and tip. Field Definite Eliminate quality traffic. potential cost control economy.

Typical highway applications (after Mebradrain promotional 11 .(A) HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT WITH BERM (B) BRIDGE APPROACH WITH TEMPORARY SURCHARGE (C) HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT Figure 3 PRELOAD of PV drains literature).

12 .(D) WIDENING OF EXISTING HIGHWAY (E) IMPROVED STABILITY DUE TO STRENGTH GAIN WITH CONSOLIDATION . F f iI=) RELIEI~~s~~C~.ESSo~ORE PRESSURES DUE TO DYNAMIC Figure 3 Typical highway applications of PV drains (after Mebradrain promotional literature) (continued).

and those related to the methods and equipment used during installation. The applicability of any given drain type for a particular project will depend on the drain's performance of these functions under in-situ soil and loading conditions. Table 3 lists typical band-shaped PV dra ins identified to be presently available in the U.S. some of the drain products listed in Table 3 are not acceptable to state highway departments and other agencies that have developed preapproved product lists. The jacket material is a physical barrier separating the core flow channels from the surrounding fine grained soils and a "filter" to limit the passage of fine grained soil into the core area. or mesh-type materials. Variations in these dimensions occur in some drains and at least one band-shaped drain has a width of 11. Product names and information given in Table 3 and elsewhere in the manual are provided for general reference and are not intended to be all inclusive. Criteria for selection of PV drain type and characteristics are provided in Section 2 of DRAIN SELECTION AND DESIGN. 13 . Installation is discussed in Sections 3 and 4 of INSTALLATION. fabric covered plastic or metal spirals or pipe cores. a pattern of protruding studs. Cores typically consist of grooved channels. These factors are of two types: those intrinsic to the drain geometry and material properties and their relationship to the soil characteristics. In fact. approximately 3. many factors influence the capability of any given drain to perform the above functions.94 in (100 mm) wide by 0. This information does not constitute an endorsement of any kind by either the Consultant or the FAdA. The jacket and core must perform a variety of interrelated functions.8 in (300 mm).The plastic core serves two vital functions: to support the filter fabric. Several other PV drain types have been used outside the United States including circular sandfilled fabric tubes.16 in (4 mm) thick. and to provide longitudinal flow paths along the drain length. For a particular soil or project. The primary functions of a conventional PV drain filter jacket and core are given in Table 4. and drains consisting only of filter fabric strips. idost band-shaped drains are manufactured to dimensions similar to the original Kjellman drain.

and Burcan Manufacturing Inc. Pittsburgh. Japan Harquim International Corporation 3112 Los Feliz Boulevard Los Angeles. Hitek Name Alidrain Flodrain S M Manufacturer (Ml/US Distributor (D) Burcan Industries. Japan Chemical Company.D American Wick Drain Co. Osaka. Inc. (4121257-2750 D Pennsylvania Geosystems. Ltd. Canada LlN 529 Drainage D P. Inc. 301 Warehouse Drive Matthews. P. 111 Industrial urive Whitby.Table 3 Typical in the PV drains available United States. Ltd. Product Alidrain. Box 13222 & Ground Improvement. Fukuzawa & Associates. Suite 17. North Carolina l-800-438-9281 Bando 28105 Bando Drain Isobe. 0.. Virginia (703) 430-5444 22170 Amerdrain 307 and 407 M. California 90039 (213)669-8332 14 . 6129 Queenridge Drive Ranch0 Palos Verdes. Ontario. Box 618 Sterling. Atobe Kitamomachi Yao City. 15243 Inc. Inc. CA 90274 (2131377-4735 Castle Drain Board Kinjo Rubber Co. 0.

Foster 415 Holiday Pittsburgh. North Carolina (7041667-7713 Soletanche 6 rue de Watford F-92005 Nanterre.D 37921 15 . Tennessee (6151690-2211 Holland. (415)262-3900 Sol Compact M Rhone-Poulenc Paris. 28728 Desol France Recosol Incorporated Rosslyn Center 1700 North Moore Street Suite 2200 Arlington. France Moretrench American Corporation 100 Stickle Avenue Rockaway. Holland D BASF Corporation Fibers Division Geomatrix Systems Enka.Table 3 Typical PV drains the United States Manufacturer M available (continued). (MI/US in (D) Product Colbond Name CX-1000 Distributor Colbond BV Velperweg 76 6824 BM Amhen. L. Virginia 22209 (7031524-6503 Mebradrain MD7007 Geotechnics Baambrugse Vinkeveen. BV Zuwe 212 III Holland Company Drive Pennsylvania 15220 D Vinylex M. B. Box 7187 Knoxville. 0. New Jersey 07866 (201)627-2100 Vinylex Corporation P.

Table 4 Functions of PV drain (after (13)). jacket and core Functions of Drain Jacket filter while to l Form a surface which allows a natural soil develop to inhibit movement of soil particles allowing passage of water into the drain Create paths Prevent lateral of the exterior surface of the internal o drain flow l closure of the soil pressure Drain internal support drain Core flow of the internal drain flow paths under Functions o o o l Provide Provide Maintain paths filter along jacket the drain configuration to longitudinal drain and shape stretching as well Provide resistance as buckling of the 16 .

is to achieve a desired degree of consolidation specified period of time. 1) ‘ii i&j = = overall average radial) average drainage. can be horizontal drainage. one-dimensional consolidation is considered to result from vertical drainage only. Objectives or without PV within a with PV drains (both separately The principal objective of soil precompression. but consolidation theory can be applied to horizontal or radial drainage as well. u. horizontal or combined drainage depending on the situation considered. the average degree of consolidation. This ratio is referred to as U.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 1. The combined effect is given by: g. With vertical drains the overall average degree of consolidation.)(1-&) (Eq. with drains. The design of precompression requires the evaluation of drain and soil properties and as a system) as well as the effects of installation. For one-dimensional consolidation without drains. Depending on the boundary conditions consolidation may occur due to concurrent vertical and The average degree of consolidation. the case of consolidation due to vertical drainage only is not discussed separately herein. The degree of consolidation can be measured by the ratio of the settlement at any time to the total primary settlement thatJill (or is expected to) occur. ij where = 1 - (l-i&. average degree of consolidation due to horizontal (or degree of drainage degree consolidation irv = of consolidation due to vertical Considerations for evaluation of &. This manual is directed to the assessment of consolidation due to radial 17 . is the result of the combined effects of horizontal (radial) and vertical drainage. are described in most soil mechanics textbooks. calculated for the vertical. By definition. Therefore. only consolidation due to one dimensional (vertical) seepage to natural drainage boundaries is considered.

Barron's work was based on simplifying assumptions of Terzaghi's one-dimensional linear consolidation theory. 2) = time required degree to achieve Dh due to horizontal average drainage D = of consolidation diameter of the (drain influence coefficent drain ln(D/d) diameter spacing . The most widely-used simplified solution from Barron's analysis (see Appendix A) provides the following relationship among time. of Tne first comprehensive treatmen (in English) of the radial drainage problem was presented by Barron ($1 who studied the theory of vertical sand drains.e. no drain 18 . Design Equations effects~of vertical and radial drainage. drain diameter and spacing. consolidation due to vertical drainage is presented in Figure 4. Appendix A includes a discussion of Barron's analysis and an explanation of the resulting simplified equation.drainage and the combined comparison of one-dimensional and due to radial drainage 2. this equation permeability (i. coefficient of consolidation and the average degree of consolidation: t where t = (D2/8ch) FInI ln(l/(l-gh)) (Eq. A The design of a PV drain system requires the prediction of the rate dissipation of excess pore pressures by radial seepage to vertical drains as well as evaluating the contribution of vertical drainage. 3) d = of a circular theory In addition further l to the one-dimensional assumes that: the drain resistance) itself has infinite assumptions..3/4 cylinder zone) of influence of the drain cn F(n) = = = of consolidation factor (simplified) drain for horizontal drainage Kq.



there are consolidation disturbance)

no adverse effects on soil properties due to drain

permeability installation

and (i.e.,


Equation 2 was modified oy Hansbo(g) to be applied drains and to include consideration of disturbance resistance effects. Hansbo's derivation and terms theoretical analysis (See Appendix A for a summary modifications). The resulting general equation is:

to and are of

band-shaped PV drain based on a Hansbo's

t where t I&



+ Fs + Fr) h(l/(l-~h))

(Eq. 4)

= =





oh at depth z due to

average horizontal diameter coefficient drain ln(D/d,)

degree of consolidation drainage of the of cylinder consolidation factor of

il Ch F(n)

= = =

influence for



drain drainage


spacing - 3/4

(Eq. 5)
(See detailed discussion in


equivalent diameter later section) factor ( (kh&) for soil


- 1) ln(d,/d,) the of permeability undisturbed in soil in the the

(Eq. 6)


the coefficient direction in the coefficient direction in diameter drain factor rz for of


the the

of permeability disturbed soil idealized disturbed

horizontal around the






(L - Z) (kh/q,)






distance layer










effective drain length; length of drain when drainage occurs at one end only; half length of drain when drainage occurs at both ends discnarge capacity of the drain (at gradient = 1.0)



The variables of Equation following sections. 3. The Ideal --Case

4 are

shown in


5 and discussed



Equation 4 can be simplified to the "ideal case" by ignoring the effects of soil disturbance and drain resistance (i.e., F, = Fr = 0). The resulting ideal case equation is equivalent to Barron's solution:





lnW(I-ghll for a specified degree of consolidation of soil properties (Ch), design variables (0, d,).

In the ideal case, the time simplifies to be a function requirements (T&,1 and design

The theory of consolidation with radial drainage assumes that the soil is drained by a vertical drain with a circular cross section. The radial consolidation equations include the drain diameter, d. A band-shaped PV drain must therefore be assigned an "equivalent diameter," d,. The equivalent diameter of a band-shaped drain is defined as the diameter of a circular drain which has the same theoretical radial drainage performance as the band-shaped drain. Under most conditions dw can be assumed to be independent of subsurface conditions, soil properties and installation effects. It can be assumed to be a function of the drain geometry and configuration only.

‘,~~,“,“,~~PJgys,‘~ dW




to calculate




(Eq. 9)








Scnematic and soil

of PV drain disturbance.




where: a b = = width thickness of a band-shaped of drain cross drain section cross section

a band-shaped

Equation 9 is based on the assumption that circular and band-shaped drains will, for practical purposes, result in the same consolidation performance if their circumferences are the same (see Figure 6). Equation 9 also assumes that the core does not significantly impede seepage into the drainage channels. Impedence can occur if the core openings to the drainage channels are very small and/or widely spaced, or if a high percentage of the jacket area is in direct contact with the core. Based on initial research performed to prepare this manual, Equation 9 was found to be generally valid when the portion of the perimeter area of the band-shaped drain which permits inflow


(27) design use for a/b of approximately 9A) This conclusion is supported by other published Equation 9A is considered to be appropriate for conventional band-shaped drains having the ratio 50 or less. The ideal case equation is commonly in some cases even for final designs.3 . studies. between openings to the drainage channels. will tend to reduce the theoretical impedence caused by core blockage. For most types of PV drains. (not obstructed by the drain core) exceeds approximately 10 to 20 percent of the total perimeter. In practice the equivalent diameter calculated using Equation often arbitrarily reduced in recognition of the uncertainties in determining the equivalent diameter of a band-shaped drain. Also. seepage in the planer of the jacket. practice is considered unnecessary if Equation 9A is used. this condition is easily met.EQUIVALENT CIRCULAR DRAIN WITH (EQUATION (EQUATION 91 9A) BAND SHAP ED PV DRAIN Figure 6 Equivalent diameter of a PV drain. be used for typical design conditions of the manual. 9 is involved This used for preliminary designs and Appropriate design equations to are discussed in later sections 2. Subseq ent finite manualY8) suggest Equation 9 to: element that it studies performed during may be more appropriate preparation to modify of this dW = (a+b)/2 (Eq.

4) The assumed conditions resistance are shown in used to model Figure 5. both tend to retard the rate of consolidation below.) and drain resistance (F ) are additive (i.) . drain 24 ./d. This means i hat the effect disturbance on reducing the rate of consolidation could theoretically be up to 3 times as great as the effect of spacing. for a range of soil parameters and d.1) ln( d. soil In Equation 4 the effects of soil disturbance (F. it is apparent from theoretical Y . For typical values of F(n) the ratio of Fs/F(n might range from of approximately 1 to 3. for the ideal ditnin a typical range of D/d.) can be of approximately the same or slightly more significance than F(n). the soil disturbance effect (F. 4. F(n) ranges from approximately Figure 8 is a series of design curves for the ideal case. The General Case case.) (Eq.figure 7 shows the relationship of F(n) to D/d. Depending on the project effects may or may not be significant. t = it is appropriate to consider the effects of drain soil disturbance.. 10) where FS = ((kh/k. and the drain resistance effect (Fr) is typically of minor importance./d.. 3. ratios.e. 2 to In some situations resistance and/or conditions. 0 Soil Disturbance case with soil 4 simplifies disturbance to: (no drain resistance) For the Equation t = (D2/8ch) (F(n) ' Fs) ln(l/(l-gh)) (Eq. As discussed parametric studies that the drain spacing effect (F(n)) is always an important factor. 6) Figure 9 illustrates the relative magnitude of F. these equation (Equation disturbance. The general 4) includes factors for drain resistance and soil (D2/8Ch)(F(n) + Fs + Fr) ln(l/(I-Uh)) disturbance and drain (Eq.

. ( EQUATION 5 1 ’ I figure 7 Relationship of F(n) to D/d. Ti=TQ 83..0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 o/d” FOR THE IDEAL CASE t = (no soil disturbance or drain resistance) ( EQUATION 8 1 I D2 F(n) R. 25 . for "ideal case".

for = 0. dw = 0.05m t for ah Find: required D l. t b (months) 2 t = + 5-l [ln s W .G] Ln [ $Q-] (Equation 2) For other Values of oh (aSSLIming d.9m2 Im2 /yr yr w/d.1 I IO 100 TIME.05m) t = -Chbtb ‘h Example Given: ‘h = I . = 0.05m “ideal case”.0 20 100 L 0. = 90 % = 20 months Solution: t b = (20 months) = 38 months D = l.9 m2 / yr.85m figure 8 Example design 26 curves .

the proposed framework promises to provide a more analytically sound approach to estimating soil disturbance effects than the current statef-the-practic which is to use the methods proposed by Barronr2) and Hansbo f g). Full development of the framework is beyond the research scope. or to ignore the effects altogetner. 27 . As part of the research for preparing this manual. A summary of the results of this research is presented in Appendix B along with a framework for predicting installation disturbance effects. the soil disturbance due to mandrel insertion and withdrawal was studied with empha i on analyti a techniques developed since the work by Barron ts2 and Hansbo 'ij g .Fs = ( h-1) t ks ln(ds 7) W (Eauation 6) 8 6 3 4 5 6 kh'ks figure 9 Disturbance factor (Fs) for typical parameters. however with development.

t = (D2/8ch) (F(n) + Fs + Fr) ln(l/(l-$1) (Eq. Therefore. If an averge value of Fr (Fr') is entered into Equation 11. 11) nz(L . typically the theoretical effect of drain resistance is significantly less than the effect of drain spacing or soil disturbance.e. 0 Combined Soil Disturbance and Drain Resistance disturbance and drain For the combined case of combined soil resistance.0 Drain Resistance (without drain disturbance) resistance (no disturbance) Equation 4 For the case with simplifies to: t wnere Fr Fr' = = = (D2/8ch) (F(n) + Fr) ln(l/(l-Uh)) Kq. 74 process (presented in Figure 10) results Two way drainage: Fr' = (r/6)(LZ)(kh/qw) (Eq.2) (kh/q. One approach to the averaging in the following: One way drainage: Fr' = (h/3)$+ (kh/qw) (Eq. 7b) 'rlith typical values the ratio of Fr'/ F(n) is generally less than 0. 4) 28 . 7) below) It can be seen from Equations 7 and 11 thatgh varies with depth if there is drain resistance (i.05.. Equation 4 applies.jJ) an average value of Fr (see explanation (Eq.. Fr not equal to zero) but is constant witn depth if there is no well resistance (Fr equals zero). uh can be considered to be the average degree of consolidation for the entire layer.

. = nr(L-2) kh .F. = .(z) -.: kh f.(z)) 0 Lb 0 L2 f)(z) of an average 29 kh kh 2L 7rq(--z2)=nq w 2 +( z2L kh f. Fr =nz(L-z+ F. = .(&j(z)) kh kh =n-((zL-z2)=TT4.(z) 0 ..(z) LD 0 ONE WAY DRAINAGE IMPERMEABLE STRATUM Z Fr = nl+-z)q. F. ..(n$J:. FI = 2n 3 L2 kh w (EQUATION 7b) figure 10 Estimation drain resistance factor (Fr’).). d&:./2 PERMEABCE STRATUM -I I L2/4 f.).- (EQUATION of the drain for for I way drainage 2 way drainage 7) L is the length L= Hd L= 2tid TWO WAY DRAINAGE .=!&6 2 k h qw (EQUATION 7a) z L .

wnere F(n)+F.+Fs = (ln(D/dw) . uesign Approach scheme utilizing PV drains should include the design of a preloading following main steps: a. has the most dominant influence on tgQ. 30 . which can vary by a factor of about 2 to 3. of f. Predictions of the total representative locations secondary compression. Predictions of at representative for cases with the anticipated settlements at due to primary consolidation and d. rate of primary consolidation locations for the case without PV drains at several spacings. testing program and drainage engineering C. Subsurface to provide conditions properties of the project of tolerable time requirements and the amounts of postconstruction b. and ds). The influence of the properties of the disturbed zone (k. The equivalent diameter. Evaluation of stability and the possible need establish safe heights of filling berms and/or staged construction.) &I.3/4) + ((kh/ks)-1) ln(ds/dw) + rZ( L-Z) (kh/q.. drains n. Evaluations of the relative economic and technical merits additional surcharging versus drain spacings where it is determined that the rate of primary consolidation settlement must be accelerated to meet the project schedule. has a consIderable influence due to the D2 term. 5. to for (t vs. which can easily vary by a factor of 10. 12) Equations 4 and 12 represent the general case for PV drains witn consideration of drain spacing. D. It should be noted from Figure 11 that the greatest potential effect on tg0 is due to changes in ch and D. Figure 11 demonstrates the relative effects of key parameters in Equations 4 and 12 for a given base case situation. investigations and laboratory soil detailed information on site soil and high-quality data on pertinent of the compressible soils..) and e. although much more difficult to quantify. can also be very significant. d. The Val UC? Of ch. Evaluation establishment settlement. soil disturbance and drain resistance. has only a minimal influence on tgD.

5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Zxample 20. I I 9.1 9 I .100 J 0.05 0.05 0.68 0.9 34.3 3.24 2.05 0.00 1.94 (months) I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO Figure 2 2 2 2 2 4 8 I 2 2 11 2 I 2.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 1 I Illllll I I I111111 I I I I lllll I TIME t = < [[[n(t)-:] + (3 -I) (months) l. 0.0 IO.05 0.06 0.6 25.4 I parameter 31 .05 of I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t 90 Case i 90 t gOCase I I .0 18.50 0.87 0.0 on $0.25 2.n($)]Ln’i+) (EQUATION ID/“’ t CASE ‘h (m2/yd D (4 dv4 (m) 0.07 0.oo 0.2 2 4 2 4 effects 5. I 49. I 40.

The general are highly the key parameters in PV interrelation between 32 . The following chapters discuss drain design individually with discussions of parameters. geotechnical engineering experience and judgement.The above approach requires knowledge of design procedures for PV drains. If there are errors or unrealistic assumptions made in any of the above stages. by nature. The design process for PV drains is iterative approach given above is listed in steps which interrelated. then the success of the project (in terms of preventing stability failures and limiting postconstruction settlements to within the allowable limits) may be adversely affected even though the PV drains may perform in accordance with theoretical predictions.

EVALUATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS 1. and ks. kh. In general. The appropriate level of effort involved in the evaluation of each parameter will depend in part on the overall relative size and complexity of the project. Ch.intermediate between categories A and C. can be evaluated using the following relationship: 33 . low to moderate sensitivity) Simple construction (no staged loading) PV drains (few in number. or high sensitivity) Staged loading or other construction complications PV drains (numerous or length greater than about 60 ft (18m)) 2. k. kh. a. length less than about 60 ft (18m)) Generally similar to Category A although with increased degree of complexity . Project Category A Description Basically uniform soil (no varving. Project categories are presented below as an expedient to the following summary discussion on the evaluation of design parameters. an One or more of the following: Unusual soils (varved. soil property values evaluated at the maximum stress to be applied to the compressible soil in of Consolidation of Permeability for Horizontal for Horizontal Drainage Seepage (kh) and The application of of soil properties appropriate to use vertical effective the field. 4) requires an evaluation it is considered ch.) the general equation (Eq. Coefficient Coefficient - The coefficient of consolidation for horizontal drainage. Objectives The design of a PV drain project requires evaluation of design parameters including soil and drain properties as well as the effects of installation. Soil Properties (Ch.

The ratio of permeability can be approximated using Table 5 as a preliminary guide or preferably from available data on the soil in question.) c. 14) = = unit weight of water of volume change coefficient Use of the specialized in-situ techniques requires a thorough understanding of soil consolidation theory in order to properly analyze the results../k. In-situ piezometer probes and analysis of pore pressure dissipation curves can also be used to evaluate Ch and kh. Ch and the ratio of kh/Kv can be more accurately estimated using the methods described in Table 6. Th se techniques are reviewed by Jamiolkowski et al. B or C).Cl] = bq. field and/or laboratory measurements should be made for comparison with the estimate. = 1) from one-dimensional consolidation tests (ASTM 02435) which would be performed on any project (Category A.e. On Category C and possibly Category B projects. Proper application of Equation I. 34 . and then evaluate ch using Equation 13 (fSf . kh/k. (Eq..3 requires an awareness of the basic assumptions used and the potential ramifications of soil macrofabric on the ratio Of kh/k. e 12) In-situ determination of kh by small-scale pumping tests in piezometers or by self-boring permeameters can be used with laboratory mv values to calculate ch using the relationship: ch where YW = kh/hvvw) (Eq. On a Category A project cn can usually be conservatively estimated as being equal to cv measured in the laboratory (i. Consequently the generally recommended approach is to employ conventional consolidation tests to measure cv combined with field and laboratory investigations to imate kh/k.. t3 or C) involving vertical drains. 13) The techniques used to evaluate Ch depend on the project complexity (Category A..

for soft clays.2+ 0. Slight layering (e. Designers should verify the actual properties of any given soil. sedimentary clays witn discontinuous lenses and layers of more permeable material)*** 2 to 5 2 to 4 3.* kh/kv 1.2 - No or only slightly developed macrofabric (e. sedimentary clays with discontinuous lenses and layers of more permeable soil)*** 1 to 1.Table 5 Representative ratios of kh/k. sedimentary clays with occasional silt dustings to random silty lenses)** Fairly well to well developed macrofabric (e. Varved clays in tiortheastern US ** lo+ 5 Varved clays and other deposits containing embedded and more or continuous permeable layers*** less 3 to 15 Notes: * Soft clay is shear strength Reference: Reference: defined as a clay with an undrained of less than 1. i40 evidence (Partially completely of layeriny dried clay has uniform appearance)** 1.g.5 L. ** *** (13) (11) These ratios are provided for general information purposes only.000 psf.g. 35 .g.

4. large large (10 cm) samples recommended Method of installation important Need to consider length to diameter ratio Method of installation important Pervious layers can have important effect Pervious important layers effect can have (24) (6.16) (19) Field from drain pumping vertical (kh) test sand (3) Field falling head tests in piezometers (kh) and piezocone pore pressure dissipation (ch) (13) 36 .kh) flow Problem with variability when using different samples Better than No.5) Laboratory permeability tests on vertical and horizontal samples (Ch) Laboratory permeability tests on cubic sample (h/h/ ) Field constant head tests with hydraulic piezometer (ch.Table 6 Methods (after for measurement (14)). of ch and kh/kv Method and Parameter Remarks References Laboratory consolidometer test on horizontal sample kh) Laboratory consolidometer test with radial drainage to sides (ch) Laboratory test with to vertical (ch) consolidometer radial drainage sand drain Wrong mv Sample size results (21) influences May have problems with side friction and scale effects Large sample recommended to minimize scale effects (17) m2.

Accurate measurement of drain discharge capacity is time consuming and requires relatively sophisticated laboratory testing. Equivalent properties a. 37 .) capacity equation (qw) are (Equation drain 4). q. The ratio of kh/k. ranges from Discharge Capacity The discharge capacity of a PV drain is required to analyze the drain resistance factor. to 3 in (75 mm). Therefore. for particular project conditions.. is generally considered to range from 1 to 5 at strain levels anticipated within the disturbed soil.) are used to obtain these values. However. Careful consideration. 3. (qw) d. several different test configurations (confining media. band-shaped PV drains.. the ratio of kh/k. discharge capacity is not normally measured by the engineer as part of the PV drain design process but rather is obtained from published results. can be expected to vary with soil sensitivity and the presence or absence of soil macrofabric.. Vertical discharge capacities are often reported by the drain manufacturers. etc. Unfortunately. 9A) For commonly used abOUt 2 in (%Mn) 0. engineering judgement and possibly special testing are necessary to make realistic assessments of kh/k.) in the Horizontal Direction in the Evaluation of the general equation requires an estimate of Very little published guidance is available to the k&. Drain Properties diameter required Equivalent Equivalent be calculated Id.) and discharge to use the general Diameter diameter as: (dw) for conventional band-shaped drains should dW = ((a+bV2 1 (Eq.0. which is almost always less significant than the drain spacing and disturbance factors. Coefficient Disturbed of Permeability Soil (k. design engineer. (d. These results demonstrate the major influence of confining pressure. drain sample size. Results of vertical discharge capacity tests performed as part of this research and those performed by others are Shown in Figure 12.

38 .4 Col bond cx-1000 \ (41 200 \ bDesol \ (2) \ \ Oesol(3) L 0 60 100 0 0 20 40 LATERAL CONFINING PRESSURE Note: Data Data Sources from sources other than (3) not verified. (2) Desol internal . 1. promotional literature.6 \ :. ‘\ ’ .2.Y -\ \ \ \ \ Mebradrain MD7007 (3) ‘.4: .\ ‘\\\ . \“\ \ I’\ Mebradrain . Figure 12 Typical values of vertical discharge capacity. Castle Drain 0. unpublished. MO7407 (4) -2 -N \ . (3) Reference 8.\E “.L \ f.4 HYDRAULIC GRADlENT = - I 200 IIO00 c .(1) Colbond report. -w v -. (4) Jamiolkowski and Lancellotta. Test methods vary. *.

possibility that an annular space is created around present after the mandrel is removed. of the mandrel is greater than that of the drain. The PV Since the area there is the the drain which is results in laboratory test data.. The installation disturbance to the soil around the drain. In lieu of specific can be conservatively m3/yr) for currently only known exception horizontal confining 4. van de Griend concluded that a rigid drain will experience a greater reduction since buckling begins at a lower value of relative compression. accompanied oy increases in total stress and pore drain is protected by the mandrel during installation.c. 0 39 . Although little data are available to assess shape effects. while at the same time. Disturbed Soil ___Zone w similar to that in shear strains The shearing is pressure. the ratio kh/kv can be very high. However. PV drain installation results and displacement of the soil surrounding the drain.. discharge capacity assumed to be 3500 ft3/yr (100 available band-shaped drains with the of the Desol drain when exposed to stress in excess of 40 psi (276 kPa). the beneficial effecis of soil stratification (and hence greater horizontal permeability) can be reduced or completely eliminated. For soils with pronounced . Evaluation of the disturbance effects is understanding is that disturbance. PV drains are typically installed using equipment shown in Figure 13. van de Griend Y26 7 observed reductions of 10 to 90 percent in vertical discharge capacity at vertical compression of about 20 percent in laboratory consolidation tests. adequate stiffness of the mandrel (dependent on cross sectional area and shape) is required to maintain vertical alignment. within tne remolded zone. The present relates to drain performance. Generally disturbance increases with larger total mandrel cross sectional area. possibly up However. The mandrel cross sectional area should be as close to that of the drain as possible to minimize displacement. as it is most dependent upon: l very complex. Buckling or crimping of the drain has been observed in both laboratory and field testing. it is believed that the shape of the mandrel tip and anchor should be as tapered as possible.Vertical discharge capacity is also influenced by the effects of vertical compression on the shape of the drain. Mandrel size and shape. The potential reduction on vertical discharge is er difficult to accurately estimate.fabric. Soil macrofabric (soil layering).

. . .*. .. . ..:: .: ..:‘:..“.*.:._ . ..‘-.. . * .‘... . ‘I. .... . . . .~ . . 4’ 4’ . . . .:‘:... ‘.. .’ .. -kiER ROLLER / /////////////////////////// . . .. . :.a. .. .-. .. ....‘. . . .a.. .::..... . ... . . . ...~<“....:. . .a. .:.:. ... ’ . .. .. . ... . . . . . .:‘. ‘.. : ...* . -. .UPPER MAIN ROLLER- 7 MANDREL I. *.:: :.‘. ... . 43 ......I. . . (Al tNSTALLATlON RIG (B) DRAIN DELIVERY ARRANGEMENT STEEL SHAPE PV DRAIN ROLLERS MANDREL MAY VARY) (cl CROSS SECTION OF MANDREL AND DRAIN Figure 13 Typical PV drain installation equipment. . .* ...:. :‘. ... .‘. ...:.. .. .-. . . ... .~. . .. ..._ . ..:I.. . . .. “. .:. :.._ * .‘.

whichever is greater. It is not known whether drain performance is sensitive to the rate of mandrel penetration. Vertical drains are cormnonly installed in square or triangular patterns (see Figure 15). The effect of penetration rate on wobbling should be observed during installation. F (n). should be evaluated 6)rm 03-j. complete soil remolding occurs (see Figure 14). 0 can retard layers into Installation Procedure. No conclusive data are available on the effects of varying the installation procedure. At the distance d. such as Ch.. However. Drain Influence Zone -(0) The time to achieve a given percent consolidation is a function of the square of the diameter of the influence cylinder (0). It is the distance between the drains (S) that establishes D through the following relationships: 41 . which is used in both the general and ideal cases. The penetration rate and mandrel stiffness should be selected to limit wobbling. For design purposes.. If necessary. Research performed as part of the development of this manual (see Figure 14 and Appendix 6) indicates the theoretical distribution of shear strain with radial distance from a circular mandrel. Unlike the other parameters discussed above with the variable since it is a function exception of dw. or cross sectional area of the anchor or tip. static pushing is thought to be preferred to driving or vibrating the mandrel especially in sensitive soils. D is a variable in the drain spacing factor. D is a controllable of drain spacing only. d. is the radius of a circle with an area equal to the mandrel s greatest cross sectional area.Smearing of pervious layers with less pervious soil the lateral seepage of porewater from the pervious the drain. 15) where r. Buckling or "wobbling" of the mandrel can cause added disturbance. The effects of a 5 percent shear strain on critical soil time. For design purposes it is currently assumed that within the disturbed zone. thereby reducing the effective kh/k.. are not known at this 5. properties. the rate should be controlled to 1 imit wobbling. from Equation 15 the theoretical shear strain is approximately 5 percent. wh n isturbance is as e lo ? : dS = (5 to it has been recommended by others that to be considered.

* For constant site plan area per drain.pq- Disturbed zone 4 Undisturbed soil Developed for this Manual d.. _ -. Appendix B) Figure 14 Approximation of the disturbed zone see the mandrel.-. A triangular however since it provides more uniform pattern is usually preferred.: ./. consolidation between drains than does an equivalent square pattern.PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IDEALIZED Previouslv CONDITIONS bv others orooosed I I Fouivolent -7 -. 42 . circular drain f r s “S z-z 2 (5r 2) m -. 17) A square pattern may be easier to lay out and control in the field. particularly for sites where surveying is difficult. around Pattern Square Triangular D as a function D= D= 1.13s 1.05s of S* (Eq. 16) (Eq..= Path Method.

‘.Vertica I drain D=l. \ \ ‘\ D = 1. (s) to 43 .13 SQUARE S PATTERN 0 0 0 m *.05 TRIANGULAR S PATTERN Note: Plan area per drain is n D2/4 for both patterns Figure 15 Relationship of drain influence drain zone spacing (II).

current typical practice should evaluate the project. Objectives The principal objective of a PV drain design is to select the type. PV drains probably not required. Assessing the need for vertical drains is the first step on projects where precompression is determined to be a viable approach to improving the foundation soils. For example. This approach introduces complications to the determination of ch and the evaluation of disturbance effects. in the are 44 . The design engineer applicability of the procedures for any given vertical drains and the relatively small rational methods to becomes apparent. The design guidelines recommended in this manual address only tnose issues pertaining to the design of the PV drain system. The PV drain design is one step in the iterative process of developing a cost-effective precompression scheme. discharge capacity and disturbance Procedures are given herein which represent for designing PV drains. if soil has been precompressed so that the soil will still be over-consolidated after consolidating under the preload. Traditionally. in some cases sand drain installations may have been designed with conservatism due to the inability of the design methods and previous experience to reasonably account for the uncertainties of variables like installation effects and limited drain discharge. and length of a PV drain to accomplish a required degree of consolidation within a specified time. without a more thorough study of the underlying mechanisms. With the increasing number of projects using development and popularity of PV drains with equivalent diameters. spacing. However. drain disturbance effects have been accounted for by using "effective" values of ch which were intended to represent a weighted average of the disturbed and undisturbed zones. nondisplacement) and spacing. since qw for a typical 12 in (30 cm) sand drain could be less than 3500 ft3/yr (130 m3/yr) and center-to-center drain spacing often exceeded 0 ft (2 m). With this approach. "effective" Ch would vary with drain diameter. the importance of more eval uate ch. PV drain design procedures have evolved from procedures used successfully in the design of sand drains. Extending the same design methods to PV drains. One of the most important factors the assessment is the stress history of the soil. would perpetuate similar design uncertainties.I)RAId ilESIGi\l AND SELECTIOd 1. The example given in Appendix C illustrates how the PV drain design fits into the framework of the precompression scheme. This may or may not be a reasonable assumption. Effects of discharge capacity were usually ignored. drain type (displacement.

Economic comparisons between amount of surcharge versus quantity (spacing and length) of PV drains should also be made prior to selection of f-inal drain design. Discharge capacity. On some projects it is necessary to accelerate the rate of soil shear strength increase. drains are likely required. these factors is discussed for their evaluation are Equivalent diameter.Another approach involves calculation of the final effective stress at the end of time available for preloading for the case without vertical drains. then either the use of drains and/or greater surcharge is required. In general. should be known for the selected drain and its effect should be checked using procedures given 45 . Each of criteria a. q. following sections and a 0 strength. qw PV Discharge capacity is seldom an important consideration for drains. If dissipation of the remaining positive excess pore pressure would result in a calculated settlement exceeding the tolerable value. For common PV drains. 2. The design example (Appendix C) illustrates a procedure for maximizing the efficiency of the surcharge/PV drain design. d. it is probably inappropriate to use a drain with an equivalent diameter of less than 2 in (50 mm). and an evaluation of different properties of pertinent case histories the candidate drains. ranges from 2 to 3 in (50 to 75 mm). dw Equivalent diameter should be calculated using Equation 9A. by accelerating the rate of increase in effective stress. review of . b. If the necessary time is greater than the available time. Selection of me-.PV Drain Type Selection of a PV drain type(s) for a specific project should be an objective process including experience on similar projects. The primary concerns in the selection of type of PV drain for a particular project include: 0 0 Equivalent Discharge Jacket Material filter diameter capacity characteristics flexibility and permeability and durability in the given. The need for drains in this case can be assessed by comparing the time to achieve the stress increase without drains to the available time. However.

This is very difficult and represents a major drawback to using permeability. Some drains may have jackets with a permeability so high that they are not effective in preventing fines from passing into the core. In order to determine the permeability of PV jackets or any other geotextile. However. A relatively high rupture strain is more important than very high tensile strength. e. the selected drain should have a vertical discharge capacity of at least 3500 ft3/yr (100 m3/yr) measured under a gradient of one while confined by the maximum in-situ effective horizontal stress. Section 4 of DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. In general. Jacket oermeabil itY The jacket permeability can retard consolidation if it is not equal to or greater than the permeability of the surrounding soil. which is defined as the volumetric flow rate per unit area under a given hydraulic head. flexibility and durability The stress-strain characteristics of the jacket and core should be compatible. For most soil types. Most currently available PV drains have greater jacket permeaoility than required to pass water into the drain. Material strength. 287 . the jacket filter characteristics are presently considered to be more important than permeability. which are typically nigher than the in-situ stresses (if subgrade stability is not an issue). C. The drain (core or jacket) must not break when subjected to handling and installation stresses. d. It may be better to compare geotextiles using permittivity. To date the available a topic of recent researchl results of such research are not conclusive with regard to the mechanism of clogging. Jacket filter characteristics The PV drain jacket is exposed to groundwater and remolded soil at the completion of drain installation. Typical values of qw are given in Figure 12. design criteria which can be applied in gen r 1 to PV drains are presented by Christopher and Holtz ivO . 46 . at least initially the jacket serves as a "filter" when the preloading increases pore pressures and the pore water seeps horizontally into the drain core. it is necessary to estimate the fabric thickness which is a function of confining pressure. The potential exists for tne jacket to cake or clog due to the mobility of fines in The cakin and clogging of PV jackets is the remolded soil.

There are numerous PV drains available for the design engineer to evaluate and select for a specific project. For this reason.It is generally considered to slip within the jacket effects of crimping during preferable that the to reduce the possible consolidation. and no single characteristic may be sufficient to disqualify its use. -Photographs of 12 representative PV drain samples available at thie time this manual was prepared are shown in Figure 16. can be evaluated by use of the design equation. but may have sufficiently large equivalent diameter to offset adverse characteristics. should The practical minimum drain spacing is usually about center to center. The product information that was received for 10 PV drain distributors/manufacturers is summarized in Tables 7 and 8. 47 . PV drains having synthetic jackets should be used. During the preparation of this manual. representatives for various PV drain products were contacted and asked to submit detailed product information. Disturbance effects may eliminate theoretical benefit of significantly closer spacing. If groundwater is suspected to contain solvents or other chemical contamination. core be free adverse durability of synthetic woven or non-woven geotextile jackets throughout the consolidation period is usually not a concern for cases of non-polluted groundwater. Relative hydraulic properties of alternate drain types. For example. These photographs are included to give the design engineer a perspective the variety of band shaped PV drains available. low wet strength are concerns with paper jackets. Other properties such as clogging potential or crimping are not explicitly accounted for in the current design equations. if known.S. microbial degradation and very be checked. the possible effects on drain integrity should Deterioration. The design engineer should verify this information and obtain similar updated information prior to recommending or specifying a particular PV drain. a given drain may have relatively low discharge capacity or jacket permeability. Individual drain characteristics may represent tradeoffs. The selected PV drain should have characteristics such that the system will achieve the desired consolidation within the specified time. 3. The information provided in these tables is included in this manual for general reference. the U. Other Design Considerations be given to other factors including the following: 3 ft any (lm) on Consideration a.


however. additional length may not improve the consolidation rate due to the effects of drain resistance. 0 compressibility coefficient evaluated drainage top. Where overall stability is a problem. l consolidation at maximum (cv effective 0 boundaries bottom and intermediate drainage layers. as drain length becomes very large (say greater than 80 ft (Xm)). Drain installation disturbs the soil and may reduce the shear strength of the deposit. (1 to 3m). C. area of the mandrel affects the volume of soil displaced by the mandrel during installation. CR. Typically the cross-sectional area of the mandrel is less than 10 in2 (65 cmzj. l !I* soil properties The evaluation is the should most difficult include: step in stress history effective stress profile (Zvo). f. Wain center layout is to center typically spacings a triangular of 3 to 9 ft or square pattern. In some cases. it may not be necessary to fully penetrate the compressible stratum to achieve the necessary shear strength gain or amount of consolidation. with e. Evaluation of drain designs. 49 . and Ch) stress. of of soil (RR. Sites having more than one compressible stratum can be analyzed by treating each layer independently if drain discharge capacity does not retard consolidation. The amount of soil displacement is intuitively a major factor in the resulting effects of soil disturbance.b. Drain length should be sufficient to consolidate the deposit or portions of the deposit to the extent necessary to achieve the design objectives. maximum past pressure profile (lavm).). Also. Vibratory installation may cause a greater increase in pore pressures than static pushing. C. The cross-sectional d. Theoretic 1 nalyses of partial penetration have been developedP23y. Shear strength can be adversely affected by the soil remolding and excess pore pressures caused by insertion of the mandrel. the available information is inconclusive regarding the possible detrimental effects of vibratory installation. effects of disturbance on overall stability should be evaluated.

Designers should properties of any given PV drain. (3 Free volume is defined as the total cross sectional area of the drain minus the cross sectional area of the core (i. This i n f ormation is provided for purposes only..Table 7 Summary of general product provided by-distributors)manufacturers. 90 ii 90 92 98* 93 50-160 92 180 100 200 200 470 260 250 250 I E. Weight (g/m) Free Surface hm2) Free Volume (mm3/mm) 100 7 4 3 !: 9) Lb 3." 200 200 13. the open cross sectional area of the drain). general verify information the actual (4) . PV Drain b-d Alidrain Alidrain S Amerdrain 307 Amerdrain 407 Bando Castle Drain Board Colbond CX-1000 Des01 Hitek Flodrain Mebradrain MD7007 Sol Compact Vinylex ilange Median Notes: 1DO 100 100 9. defined that is as the distance not obstructed around to flow the by the (2 surface is perimeter structure. information Width. (152) 100 95 130 100 100" 95 95-100 100 7. 77-200 190 146* 500 180 108-470 215 (1) Information distributor supplied indicating supplied Free drain core given was provided by the manufacturer/ unless designated by 0 indicating it was by others and verified by measurement or * it was determined using information by the distributor/manufacturer.e.::' Tnickness.5 i 3 5* 4 2-7 3 160 90 93 (E.

test method generally not product manufacturer/distributor Designers should verify the and is provided actual properties (2) specified. PV drain.5 3 4 * * 5. PE . PO . Notes: (1) Information for general of any given Permeability shown was provided by the information purposes only.polyester.polypropylene. PP .polyolefin.000 200 500 * 200 Polymer** PE PE PP PP i0 FO . Jacket PV Drain Alidrain Alidrain S Core/Jacket Connection none none none none bonded bonded none none none none none Polymer** P P PP PP * R P PP PP * PP by U.S.8 Permeability (x10-4 cm/set) 3 3 300 200 ioo 1. R Rayon.) 3. .: * PE Core Geometry studded both sides studded one side channels channels channels channels filaments channels dimpled channels channels continuous ribs G-l w Amerdrain 307 Amerdrain 407 Bando Castle Drain Board Colbond CX-1000 Desol Hitek Flodrain Mebradrain MD7007 Sol Compact Vinylex No Jacket Typar Typar Typar Typar 4 4 * 4 * Information ** P . Trade Name Chicopee Chicopee DuPont DuPont * * Colbond DuPont DuPont DuPont or Bidim DuPont Typar Typar Weight (oz.Table 8 Summary of jacket and core information provided by distributors/manufacturers.5 3. not provided distributor.polyethylene.


shear strength profile initial in-situ profile; estimated strength gain with settlement/stability analysis.




Orain effectiveness can be affected by increasing horizontal confining stress. Figure 17 illustrates that increased confining stress can be a result of increased depth below the ground surface and increased preload or surcharge. The engineer should be aware of potential changes in the performance properties of the PV drain as a result of the horizontal confining pressure. Also, the drain discharge capacity will tend to decrease with time due the possible effects of creep. These effects are partially offset by the fact that the volume flow through the drain is highest during the initial stages of consolidation and the fact that the discharge capacity of most PV drains current y available is in excess of the recommended minimum of 3500 ft 3lyr (100 m3/yr). Spacing and Length



The drain spacing and length are determined using the basic design approach given in Section 3 of DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. The effort level applied to the various investigations and design steps must be decided on a project by project basis. For "simple" projects (Category size, non-sensitive soil, drain the following is suggested:

A as described above; simple, small in length less than about 60 ft (18 m)), but

Neglect specify effective

effects of d'scharge ca acity and disturbance, !I qw > 3500 ft 3/yr (100 m /yr) at the maximum hzrizontal stress.


Assume ch = cv obtained laboratory consolidation level. Design the PV drain (Equation 8). If time is critical, uncertainty.

from good quality conventional tests at maximum effective stress case equation S to compensate for


system using the ideal reduce drain spacing


In this case, a reasonable (possibly conservative) design will likely result since using ch = cv will usually be sufficiently conservative to offset disturbance effects. Costs for subsurface investigations, laboratory testing and PV drain design should be


\ \ \ \ \ \ \

HP = 20m =66ft \

I 2000 I d

I 4000 1

6000 , 30 40 infinite ‘areal 50



8000 IO uh = lOO%, 20 60

(PSf) (psi)

i 0 (*when




o; loading)







on a PV drain.


reasonable compared with the overall project added engineering effort will probably not reduction in overall drain system costs.

cost. result


The expense a significant


For "intermediate" projects (Category 3 as described important, conservative design not sufficient), the suggested: a

above; following

time is


Determine cn using methods described in Table 6, piezometer probe pore pressure decay curves which requires consideration of the over consolidation ratio, or by adjusting cv (lab) obtain ch according to the ratio of horizontal to vertical permeability by: c, = C,(kh/k,) kh/k, by one or more kh/k, k, in values of following such as given methods: in Table 5. Kq.




Determine a. b.

Published Measure k-tests

and kh in lab triaxial cell

in oriented k-tests, or consolidation tests. in-situ permeability assumptions regarding test boundary


irleasure k, and kh using recognizing the required and flow conditions.


Include consideration
drain 4). a. resistance using

of possible the general

effects design

of disturbance and equation (Equation

Estimate the extent 15, and therefore,

of the disturbed obtain an estimate

zone using of d,/d,.



Estimate kh/k, which is permeability &isotropy soil disturbance (i.e., mandrel). See Reference Evaluate available research the discharge manufacturer's test results.

influenced by the initial and varies with the 1 eve1 radial distance from the 8 for guidance. capacity of literature the drain and publi using shed



For "major/complex" projects (Category C as described to nave state-of-the-art prediction of time-rate of drains more than about 60 feet long, large quantities following is suggested:

above; critical consolidation, of drains), the


Depending on tne purpose of the desired consolidation reduced post construction settlement or increased stability due (e. to shear strength gain). 5.g. Drainage Blankets The water seeping from the drains should be discharged out from beneath the preload or surcharge area. Cedergren($) discusses in Figure 18. a drainage blanket may be of little or no benefit. In most cases this is accomplished using a drainage blanket constructed between the subgrade and the fill. The total an idealized head required drainage system as illustrated to conduct the escaping water is: 55 .Use sopnisticated to obtain best above). the design engineer should consider nead losses which may occur in blankets or drainage mats which collect the water from the drains and discharge it to the side of fills. elimination of the drainage blanket should be considered very carefully because it may have a severe impact on the efficiency of the drain system. without excessive head losses. engineer and system who is parameters Include consideration resistance consideration using of the the of effects of soil disturbance general design equation (Equation discussion in Appendix 6. for PV drains to produce maximum benefits. and drain 4) and In addition to determining the required drain spacing and length. using the procedures Consider use of trial embankment to observe actual performance. Obtain consultation from a geotechnical experienced in the evaluation of soil for PV drain design.. parameters given under Category 6. However. tihen designing the drainage blanket. all of the water seeping out of the drain should be discharged by the outlet blankets or outlet drains. the design engineer must also determine the required area1 limits of the PV drains. in-situ estimates and/or laboratory of ch and kn (see testing Section procedures 2 Estimate the ds and k. If the surficial subgrade material is granular and permeable. properly-instrumented trial embankments are often appropriate to check design assumptions and/or permit revisions to the design prior to production installation of the drains. the area1 limits of the drains may extend beyond the plan area of the embankment or other structure. Therefore. On major projects. The drains should penetrate any compressible soils where accelerated consolidation is necessary to accomplish the design objectives.

18) = = = = total head required to pointy. evaluated over the entire thickness of the layer 56 . Design Procedure system design parameters are as follows: The PV drain Given or Selected Ii t Soil Parameters Pvm Design Criteria degree of consolidation due to simultaneous and horizontal drainage time to achieve1 Average vertical Availaole Required ' Maximum effective stress to which the soil deposit has been previously consolidated (maximum past pressure). 6. distance coefficient to conduct water from centerline point blanket from the centerline of permeability to a given of the drainage cross-sectional area of blanket removing the discharge of one row of drains (A = b' x blanket thickness) the distance rate between drains from a single blanket is: Kq. 19) b' 9d Total nb where N = = of discharge drain head loss in the drainage = (qdb'N2)/(2kA) = number of drains on one side of the centerline Tne total head loss in the blanket (hb) can be used to evaluate the suitability of tne proposed drainage blanket design and to evaluate the merits of alternative designs.h where h Y k A = (Eq. The use of pipe drains to increase the drainage capacity of the blanket is fairly common.

:::: ‘* ~ -a qtg :.:. :::::: :...:I 1:: :::: . :....::j:.:...i..: .: . . I:. !:I .... :. ::: :‘: . ..:_: . 1. I.:::: ::..(.:I:! . 57 . . (2..:. (2.?.:.. j.:. :I :I .:.:: 2...:::: .:..:.j..:.A:.: :.. ::.:.: .:. ... j:: 9 .I.:...:. ::.: .:: :::..:. :. ::: . 3 :..A..: :.:.:. r ..:.:. :..: j. :....:.: q ::. :..::.. . .: ..:...:..:::: :. . !.( >: A... ::. .&+ /A* j#k :::::::: ::::.j:..:. ..I.. “” IMPERMEABLE SUBSTRATUM (A) CROSS SECTION :qy=nqd qd ’ ’ -‘Nqd 1 ( 6 1 DISCHARGE QUANTITIES IN HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE BLANKETS I (C) HEAD LOSSES IN HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE BLANKET Figure 18 Horizontal drainage blankets.‘:’ t:.:::: ..: I ::.::::... :.:.:.: 1:: :..2.... .- FILL JOUS :T DRAIN A=b? DRAINS .: :.A(... ::: :::: ::: :::: ::: :::: :. . .: :. ‘$ :::.::::: ::::..:..

. coefficient direction soil of horizontal for undisturbed permeability soil to in that the for RR. half of compressible layer when two way drainage) Initial and final effective stress profiles thickness -.qw D dS Diameter Diameter installation Length Center S S = = cylinder drained zone of soil by a single caused PV drain by drain disturbed drain spacing L S single to center D/1. (thickness of compressible layer when one way drainage.CR. Recompression coefficient of ratio. the of required in-situ soil parameters and laboratory using an appropriate investigations and 2. *d Length of longest drainage path. Ratio of coefficient undisturbed soil to design approach (to of horizontal permeability discharge capacity of the S and L) consists for drain.13 for for of PV drains pattern pattern where: triangular square Kh/qw The general 1.Gil sCV Coefficient drainage Ratio of horizontal disturbed for of consolidation undisturbed for soil radial and vertical in/k. of: determine Select a PV drain type and installation procedure considering the site conditions.05 D/1. Determine combination testing..vo. %f System Parameters Required Equivalent selected diameter PV drain of of of the and discharge capacity for the dw. project objectives and criteria contained in EVALUATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS and DRAIN SELECT'ION AND DESIGN.C. virgin compression secondary compression ratio.

Select a trial drain length thickness and consolidation selected to fully penetrate Calculate Select required a trial value gh knowing of installation discussed in procedures. A typical components: PV drain specification could include the following major 1.0 Definitions 59 . Steps 1 through 4 in particular require considerable judgement and understanding of soil mechanics. Iterate until than or equal to available time. Design Example use of in the A design example is given in Appendix C to illustrate the design equations in BACKGROUND and the des ign considerations EVALUATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS. the (The above design approach should normally be conducted in two phases. Estimate d. and should be performed DY an experienced geotechnical engineer). stratum. of trial L (particularly the consolidating layer). 7. 7. Specifications The design engineer should consider the preparation of PV drain specifications to be part of the PV drain design process.0 Description 2. D and calculate t using Compare calculated time time exceeds that which calculated time is less Evaluate appropriateness only partially penetrate Incorporate the overall evaluation to available time. based on load requirements. If the calculated is available. using 6. layer In most cases. based on probable type and other considerations DESIGN PARAMETERS. 5. and1 configuration. EVALUATION soil OF 4.3. 8. resulting of the drain design and cost into preload/surcharge scheme. the requirements for an acceptable PV drain product and design. if drains 8. (2). and the probable effects of the installation process. Eq. Eq. L is (1). 9. Preparation of PV drain specifications requires careful consideration of the site soil properties. the consolidating &. adjust D.

0 Materials 3. .0 Installation Procedures 6. This specification is very detailed and includes requirements for parameters. Where appropriate..2 Jacket 3.e. which are currently being researched. commentary is included in the specification to provide guidance in its use. For example.3.3 Core 3.0 Basis of Payment The extent to which each of the major depend on several factors including: l categories is detailed will 0 0 0 the tne the the size of the project degree of design sophistication sensitivity of the soil parameters specified PV drain(s) (if any) to installation effects D A "generic" (product independent) specification is given in Appendix as a guide to preparation of PV drain specifications for projects.0 Measurement of Quantities 7. Category A as defined in Section 1 of EVALUATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS) would not merit the level of detail included in the generic specifications in Appendix D. The design engineer should exercise prudent judgement regarding the level of detail required in the specifications.5 Quality Control 4. small or relatively straight forward projects (i. such as discharge capacity.0 Installation Equipment 5.1 General 3.4 Assembled Drain 3.

For discussion purposes the installation aspects have been grouped the major areas of site preparation including drainage blanket construction. of the PV drains.ItiSTALLATIOd 1. dense material (frozen soil. Construct a Working Mat and Drainage Blanket: Depending on the site conditions and the type of installation equipment. Site Grading: Establishing and maintaining a reasonably level site grade to aid proper installation of PV drains and as may be necessary for the drainage blanket to function as designed. the drainage layer must be protected from freezing and contamination. necessary site work may include a. or as part of the working mat. C. impede the installation in Prior to PJ drain installation. Procedures vary with the site conditions. 61 . construction of a drainage blanket and/or working mat. This section presents a qualitative discussion of installation aspects that impact drain performance. Introduction The major steps in PV drain installation include site preparation. drain installation and contractor selection. or other etc. Excavation: Removing soil. the installation equipment and in some cases with the type of PV drain being installed. It is important for the design engineer to anticipate procedures and installation or site conditions that might adversely affect the performance of the drain. and drain installation. least some general site work. Most installation equipment used in PV drain installation cannot compensate for a more steeply sloping surface without loss of production efficiency. the particular contractor installing the drains. Ground that slopes as little as 2 to 5 percent can present some installation difficulties. D. Site Preparation it is usually necessary to perform at Depending on the site conditions. The relative cost of regrading should be compared to the potential cost of reduced production efficiency. 2.) which would surficial debris. cobbles. the the following: that vegetation. In most cases the working mat can later serve as the drainage blanket or the drainage blanket can be incorporated into the working If the drainage layer is installed prior to the drains mat. it may be necessary to construct a working mat to support the construction traffic and installation rig loads. soil containing construction rubble.

Vibration is applied construction type vibrators similar to those used piles or sheet-piling. Continuity between the drains and drainage blanket should be considered in the design of the working mat and/or drainage blanket. resulting in inadequate connection with the drainage blanket. If the surficial soils are excessively disturbed. Installation Equipment Although there are numerous variations in installation equipment most of the equipment has fairly common features. some of which can directly influence PV drain performance. or rubber-tired rigs for smaller projects. or rhombic. The shape of the mandrel is typically rectangular Tne effect of shape on the amount of disturbance from mandrel penetration is not yet known. The cross sectional area of many mandrels is about 10 in2 (65 cm2) although the area may range from 5 to more than 20 in2 (32 to 129 cm2).It may be important to minimize the disturbance of near-surface soils due to the operation of construction equipment. resulting 0 Penetration compressible The static combination the weight using large to install Method: The mandrel is penetrated into the soils using either static or vibratory force. force is applied using the weight of the mandrel in with a dead weight at the top of the mandrel or of the installation rig. The displacement of soil results in remolding which is usually detrimental to radial consolidation. The desire to reduce the area of the mandrel and the resulting displacement must be balanced by the need to have a stiff mandrel to permit penetration through dense soils and to maintain vertical alignment. the PV drains may be displaced or damaged at the surface. The design engineer should consider the magnitude of the force as being secondary to the decision 62 . 3. Aspects consider 0 of the installation equipment include the follotiing: that the design engineer should Mandrel: The mandrel protects the PV drain during mation and creates the space for the drain by displacing soil during penetration. A typical band-shaped drain installation rig is Shown in Figure 13. The installation rigs are usually track mounted boom cranes. The penetration force required is typically estimated by the contractor based on nis experience with similar penetration depths in similar soils.

Predrilling techniques include the augers. frozen soil. soil dense soil). tne design engineer may limit the overall weight or bearing pressure of the installation equipment in an attempt to limit possible construction problems. A discussion of some of these procedures and the possible ramifications follows: 63 . An anchor is sequence rig is (shown positioned in Figure with the 19) is as follows: above a mandrel 0 0 placed on the end of into the the PV drain to the (Figure desired 19a). The mandrel is penetrated depth (Figure 19b). drainage for the blanket drainage or above blanket Regardless of the site preparation and installation equipment. the design engineer should be aware that instability may result from other factors. static and/or vibratory penetration should be The use of vibratory force should be carefully considered if detrimental property changes (reduced permeability or increased remolding) are anticipated as a result of vibration. Determination of the maximum acceptable equipment weight and/or bearing pressure is difficult because the engineer does not want to be needlessly restrictive with respect to construction equipment. use of jetting. The mandrel is withdrawn. etc. or a hydraulic hammer. 4. At the same time. ground 0 0 The drain material is cut above the the working mat leaving extra length (Figure 19c).test section may be constructed using different penetration methods to evaluate the effects. Procedures to penetrate with cobbles. 0 Equipment Weight: If stability of the subgrade/working mat is in question. sand/silt lenses. there are installation procedures that can influence drain performance. Installation The locations of the PV drains may be predrilled obstructing materials (debris.).of whether specified. such as equipment traffic patterns. Possibly susceptible soils may include sensitive soils and those with macrofabric (varves. The typical 0 or very installation The installation drain location. On a large and/or critical project a . which are not normally specified in the contract documents.

2 ft (0. Ideally the anchor should be sized to be slightly larger than the mandrel. Penetration should be uninterrupted and typical rates are approximately 0. The core and jacket should be spliced by overlapping about 6 inches. and stiffness of the anchor compared to the mandrel will impact the amount of disturbance around the mandrel. but small enough that it does not contribute needlessly to soil disturbance. both in strength and hydraulic properties. the core sections should be in direct contact when the splice is completed. Preferably the splice should be made prior to initiation of mandrel penetration so that the penetration is not interrupted to make a splice. The anchor may be a piece of rebar or pipe. 0 5. Since many of the products. The anchor should be configured so as to represent the smallest cross section consistent with the needs and/or difficulty of anchoring. The relative size.06m) from vertical over 10 ft (3m) of length. Typical splicing procedures are shown in Figure 20. The drains should be installed with a straight mandrel deviating a maximum of about 0. each alternative drain may be specialty subcontractor. Splicing is not necessarily objectionable if the splice is made properly.0 Rate of Mandrel Advance: The rate of mandrel advance should be controlled to avoid significant bending or deflection from vertical. The primary requirement in splicing is that the integrity of the drain. Deviation from vertical may result in nonuniform settlement magnitude and rate due to drain spacing variations with depth.5 to 2 feet per second (0. shape. Interaction usually provide the use of several alternative by a specialty contractor. Anchor: It is common practice to use an anchor at the bottom tip of the PV drain. or a specially made plate.60 m/see). Mith nonbonded drains. be maintained. Splicing: At the end of a roll of drain material it is common practice to splice the remainder to a new roll to save on material wastage.15 to 0. 0 l Verticality: Proper performance of the PV drain system with respect to the assumptions of the design equation is dependent on the drains being vertically installed. Contractor Contracts for PV drains drain products installed drains are proprietary installed by a different 64 .



e drain types after careful 0 general and/or contractors regarding the need for quality previous experience for those installing 0 Consider using specialty experience in PV drain is critical. Prebid meetings are recommended on projects involving PV drains because a prebid meeting is the appropriate time for the design engineer to state the criteria that will be used to evaluate any alternative drain products if. documented drain installation depending engineer e on the complexity of the PV drain should also consider the following project. in fact. The design e engineer should: research alternate. alternates will be accepted. design phase. Educate the workmanship the drains. Preconstruction meeting: A preconstruction meeting is recommended on PV drain projects so that the design engineer. 0 0 67 . contractors installation with where proven. prequalification is not usually necessary. nvl a complex project + ere the drain performance is critical or in cases where the drains are to be installed by the general contractor. general contractor and PV drain subcontractor can discuss details of the test drains (if any) and production drain installation process prior to mobilizing equipment and materials to the site. the procedures: design Prequalification of PV drain contractors: Since PV drain installation IS typically performed by specialty contractors with experience. This system results in competitive environment both for price and for substitution of alternative PV drain products. acceptable alternative available PV drain products a Thoroughly during the Select the consideration. Prebid meeting: Most large projects have prebid meetings to discuss project details and to answer questions prior to bidding.Jsually a general highway construction contract is bid and the potential general contractors will request bids or negotiate with several PV drain specialty subcontractors. the design engineer should consider requiring prequalification of the PV drain contractor to avoid problems with a less experienced contractor. However.

Field observations should be discussed design engineer. and any appropriate addenda. 68 . 3. the design engineer should remain personally involved during the PV drain system construction and subsequent monitoring. The ground surface may be graded to be level or pitched depending on the site and/ or the desired drainage conditions. the field personnel should be aware of the design intent and the possible implications if the field procedures deviate from design. geotechnical instrumentation. In order to provide continuity of design intent. The field personnel can influence should observe Site preparation drain performance tne following: a. Site Preparation including any excavation and regrading. This familiarity should extend beyond the PV drain specifics to include site preparation. specifications. in several ways. the drainage blanket may not perform adequately. Introduction for PV drains to perform as designed. 2. In addition to knowing the requirements of the contract drawings and specifications. The site should be graded to comply with the grades shown on the contract drawings. and any other contract items that influence or are influenced by the drains. the drains must be installed in accordance with the contract drawings and specifications. b.CONSTKUCTION MONITORING 1. If the ground surface is improperly graded. The soil observed conditions assumed with the conditions exposed during site work should be to determine whether they are consistent with the encountered in test borings or test pits and in design. fill placement. This section presents a discussion of construction monitoring procedures that should be considered for any PV drain project. It is important tnat field monitoring personnel know the correct installation procedures and the possible ramifications of deviations from those procedures. Familiarity with Design The construction monitoring personnel should be thoroughly familiar witn the contract drawings.

to the required depth.). type means to verify penetration depth equipment weight Naterials I) o o l l drain name and model number drain dimensions (width and thickness) comparison with drain samples submitted with the contractor's bid examples of proposed splice anchor 69 . to the correct diameter. and in a manner which does not cause excessive soil disturbance or blanket contamination. The field monitoring personnel should keep accurate and detailed records of tne predrilling at each drain location (observations of cuttings and groundwater conditions. heaving. etc. Equipment o l l l o b. penetration method (static or vibratory) mandrel size. lateral displacement. shape.) of the near-surface soils. the field monitoring personnel should be watching for any indicators of disturbance (pumping. shape. the field personnel should verify that a proper control point is used and that the staked locations agree with the contract drawings. In critical cases this may require a check survey to be performed by the engineer. Predrilling. 4. if required. Drain The field monitoring personnel should determine whether or not the equipment and materials that the contractor proposes to use do in fact comply with the contract documents. etc. and stiffness anchor size. should be closely monitored to verify that the predrilling is performed carefully.C. e. Although it is typically the contractor's responsibility to properly position the drains. The field survey procedure for staking the drain locations should be monitored. Some of the important items to be checked include: a. During the construction of a working mat or drainage blanket. Installation Equipment and Materials d.

ripping. 3uring drain installation. etc. to the factors should be aware discussed above. particularly the adequacy of predrilling and penetration force and methods of handling possible obstructions. the field personnel should observe the procedures to evaluate with contract specifications regarding horizontal mandrel staoility and penetration rate. The design engineer and field personnel should be present during trial drain installation. Also common is the drainage blanket as a working mat. subsurface the coarse soils or other grained blanket which I ‘J . should be evaluated during the trial program. the field of and observe other potential monitoring problems of 8 0 8 0 inaccuracy of the depth calibration on the rig. Field conditions and construction activities may adversely affect the drainage Factors affecting the proper functioning of the drainage include: 0 infiltration contaminating can impede of fine grained materials into drainage. if encountered. Wain Installation Installation of trial drains to evaluate the installation equipment and general procedures is recommended on most projects. If the trial drains indicate that vibratory force is necessary. Variations in installation procedures. may be handled by predrilling or if the obstructions are isolated. the adequacy may be affected. splicing and cutoff of the drains. Blanket conduct the use of the the blanket. drainage The primary design purpose of the drainage blanket is to expelled water away from the drains. by installing another drain at a slight offset to the obstructed location.5. The same personnel (construction and monitoring) should observe both the trial drain and production drain installation. In addition personnel including: 0 vary from the design assumptions. depth of verticality. the trial program should be used to evaluate the minimum amount of vibration (intensity and depth) that is needed. If the conditions the design monitoring conformance location.) of the drain product proper storage of drain materials before use (especially protection from sunlight and freezing temperatures). installation. blanket 0. problems/short cuts with anchoring bowing or flexing of the mandrel integrity (tearing. abstructions.

some of which is installed prior to installing the drains and the remainder prior to the fill placement. Most of the observation wells and piezometers should be installed prior to the drains to monitor the effects of drain installation. design engineers should use other available references(14s15) develop appropriate instrumentation programs for a specific As a general guideline the instrumentation should include following: a to project. Settlement platforms or points oottom of the drainage blanket the "bottom" of the compressible drains. 7. and/or the blanket which 0 the drainage design slope should adverse blanket/subsurface which can alter the soil drainage. This is typically performed using geotechnical instrumentation. Sufficient instrumentation malfunctioning (particularly vandalism/damage throughout should be installed and at intermediate layer prior to at the depths installing 0 and the 0 should be installed to anticipate with piezometers) and/or the settlement period. ground water observation wells should be installed It is very important that the adjacent drains. Geotechnical Instrumentation observe conditions any indicators and report A critical element of any project involving tne consolidation of fine grained soils is measurement of the actual degree of consolidation under the actual field load. of them the to the The field monitoring personnel above or similar potentially design engineer. Settlement devices and piezometers are used to measure settlement and the dissipation of excess pore pressure. to The analysis of the location of Piezometers and equidistant from adjacent drains the pore pressure data is particularly sensitive the piezometers relative to adjacent drains. 71 .0 freezing of tne top can impede drainage. be as vertical as possible. the A combination of groundwater observation wells and piezometers to provide a complete pore pressure profile prior to drain installation. large deviation interface from of the of the drains. respectively.

the material costs are nearly the same for many of the available products. The competitive nature of the market in general and the various conditions of each individual project can in some cases make it difficult to estimate drain costs. Since the market is highly competitive. On a typical project the PV drain material costs are currently approximately 40 to 50 percent of the installed cost per unit length. Spacing and length: Once the working mat is in place and production drain installation begins. Surface soil conditions: The need to predrill can result The design engineer should substantial cost increase. in a C.. From Equations the quantity consolidation 72 . cost of accelerating using PV drains) is: equal. Although PV drains can be substantially PV drain materials: cheaper than sand drains.e. however. as discussed 0. Introduction The number of alternative PV drains presently available and the rate at wnicn new products are being introduced are good indicators of the competitive nature of the PV drain market.COSTS 1. Other spacings and lengths may be feasible given project geometries and conditions. Cost Factors of the PV drain following design factors for process. it can be seen that for all else of PV drains required (i. the design that may influence site work engineer should project costs: in Section 2 As part consider a. Installations typically have spacings of about 3 to g ft (1 to 3 m) and lengths of about 30 to 60 ft (10 to 20m). d. the factors discussed in the following section can be considered in evaluation of overall PV drain system costs. the cost of the PV drains will depend primarily on drain spacing and length. the Site work: The need of INSTALLATION. evaluate the available geotechnical data to anticipate predrilling and to develop a reasonable estimate of the required depth and cost of predrilling. 8. the material costs are significant. 16 and 17. 2.

However.0 inversely proportional to S* 0 0 0 inversely proportional to ch inversely proportional proportional to 1 n (I/( to t allowed l-oh)) Tne objective of a PV drain design is to create the lowest cost system that meets the project design requirements.00 per lineal foot without a drainage blanket. the relative cost of accelerating the consolidation is proportional to natural logarithm of the inverse of (l-oh). The drain spacing is the major controllable factor that influences the actual design cost of the PV drain installation. work mat. If possible. t and 'ijh) influence the drain spacing. increased time for consolidation to occur will result in direct cost savings. As with any design. the time for consolidation should be as long as feasible tiitnin the overall project time frame. predrilling. The time available for consolidation is a major factor that may or may not be controllable depending on specific project constraints. the 73 . The actual cost of PV drains on a given project is closely related to other factors discussed in Section 2 above. Therefore. small increases in the spacing can result in substantially lower costs. This cost range is provided for general reference only. small changes in the required Fh result in only marginal changes in the cost. the time for consolidation and therefore. The cost of accelerating consolidation is inversely proportional to the time available and therefore. and assuming that the length and number of drains on the project is sufficient to create a competitive bidding environment. Since the relative cost of accelerating the consolidation is inversely proportional to SZ. mobilization/demobilization.75 to $1. The required average degree of consolidation (oh) is a major design variable. there are some factors that can be controlled and others over which only limited control is possible. In 1986 installed PV drains cost $0. It is important for the design engineer to consider as many of the controllable factors as possible to develop the most cost effective design. The otner variables (ch. or any other "extra" costs.

Vertical of Plastic and Haley & Aldrich. Vol. Vol. Drains: Vol.D. 1... pp. "On the Journal. 3.C. and Poulos. "Undrained Settlement Clays". and Flow Nets. T. No. 9.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. of Clay by Band-Shaped 12. New York.T. 2. 9. and Speeding in R. 1985. "Consolidation S. "Precompression Helsinki... Christopher. 12. Geotextile Highway Administration.M. of Geotechnical 6. Permeability Ratio of Journal. Vol. 1981. Terzaghi Lecture. pp. "Consolidation Paper 2346. D. 5. Up Consolidation". 21-25. and Wolski. 1973. Laboratory pp. 3.C. 11. Vol.. 13. Manual. H. XI ICSMFE. 113. Edition. "Consolidation by Vertical the Prediction of Settlement X ICSIVIFE. H.. 1983. JGE. Jamiolkowski. L. Foott. Proc. Inc. Lancellotta. pp. prepared for Federal mute. "Prefabricated (FHWA/RD-86/169).C. No.A. ASCE. C. C. 718-724. "Strain Baligh. in Field and San Francisco. R. 10.. III. Organic R. VIII ECSMFE.R. 57-154. 1986. DTFH61-80-C-00094.. John Wiley and Sons.. W." Proc.. 8. Washington. No. September. pp. 1977. B. 5. Effectiveness 6. M.. 4. Ground Engineering. Drainage.. 74 .. "Stability Evaluation ASCE Boston Convention. Seepage. Second Casagrande. Jamiolkowski. Path Method". ASCE Trans. 453-472. Proc. 1984. et al. and Kenney. Ladd. Drains Rates". R. Wells". M. . "Laboratory New Liskeard Varvea Soil". 1948. Engineering National Highway 7. and Holtz. and Ladd. 1981. Preftidricated Jamiol kowski. Stockholm. R. "New Developments Testing of Soils. Barron. Construction". Drains". and Lancellotta.. Drains". Investigation Canadian Chan. 1985. M. pp..R. 1979. Vol. S. During Staged October. 3. No.. 1969. Canadian Geotechnical Cedergren. by Drain of Sand 287-326. 534 p. pp. 2.Uncertainties Involved Panel Discussion. 1079-1094. of Fine-Grained Soils V. JGED ASCE FT8. Hansbo. Summary of Research Effort".C. M. 1986. 1108-1136. New York. 10.

ASCE Spec. 441-464. 3. V16. “In Situ Measurement of Volume Change Characteristics". Dept. 1985.J. Cell. 2.. Foundation Design of Embankments on Varved Clays. Proc.. Department of Transportation.. of Civil Engr.Z.. ASCE Spec. "A Laboratory Study of Rates of Consolidation Clays with Particular Reference to Conditions of Radial Porewater Drainage. E. D. 411 pp. V 1. New York. tieotechnique 35.H. Inc..W. pp.C. for Soil Poulos.G.. 1977. pp. and Ladd.I. K... and Wiberg. 1959. 4. Dept. 1975." and of Rowe. 162. C. Conf.. and Barber. Part 1. STP No. Shields.E. and Choi. FHWA-TS-/I-214. Symposium on Vane Shear and Cone Penetration Resistance Testing of In-Situ Soils. k1. 1974. Saxena. pp. 7961.S.S. No. pp. 15.. Rowe. G. 1966. McKinley.K. of Civil Engr. State-of-the-Art Report. No. and Davis. J. D. W.BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued) 14. No. and Gardner. N. Analysis of Embankments in 16. Partially 511-516." Geotechnique. 18. R. Purdue University. 19. 22. "Geology and Engineering Properties of Connecticut Valley Varved Clays with Special Reference to Embankment Construction".C.. 17.C. A. JGED ASCE GT4. C.. ASTM. (1972).M. S. "Settlement on Soft Clays".. on Performance of Earth ana Earth-Supported Structures. Ladd. and Gifford. V ICSMFE. H.G.. and Foott. 21. A.W.C. 1970. P. J. Elastic Solutions Rock Mechanics. No. 25. and Wissa." Proc.W.. 339. 1965. Hansbo. "The Efficiency of Penetrating Vertical Drains". P. 225-228. Hedberg. "Results of Special Laboratory Testing Program on Hackensack Valley Varved Clay". Embankments with Sand Drains on Sensitive Clay". Mitcnell. Soils Publ. 211-242. "Performance of Ladd.. pp. l s 20. D. J. Mesri. Proc. Soils Publ. North Carolina State Raleigh. Cay. p. Ladd. Paris. Research Report R70-56. S.‘.T. C.K. 75 . 1985. of the Coefficient of Consolidation V9. John Wiley & Sons. M.G. 31.. No. on In-Situ Measurements of Soil Properties. and Rowe..T. U. 107-118. 1974.E. 39-47. "Measurement Lacustrine Clay.. 23.H. "A Simple Shear Test for Saturated Cohesive Soils". C. Runesson. 264. pp. Rixner. P. Research Report R74-66. 24. L. "A New Consolidation tieotechnique.

Van de1 Elzen. van den Berg. of Interface 76 . v. Vreeken. 27. "Accelerated Consolidation of Compressible Low Permeability Subsoils by Means Colbond Drains". 1980.BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued) 26.W.S. 8th ECSMFE. F. pp. van de Griend. Helsinki. L. A. 713-716.. 1983. Colbond b. of Ld. and Loxham. and Atkinson.. Compression of a Soil Capacity of a Number Technical University 1984..A.. Arnheim..A. thesis for the Delft Specialist Group for Geotechnology. "Research into the Influence of Relative Layer and the Drain Deformation on the Discharge of Vertical Plastic Drains". "The Effect Erosion on the Performance of Band-Shaped Drains". M. Clay-Drain Vertical C. M..

respectively.. only. (Eq.) (Eq. 21) cv = coefficient = time . which is: TV = kv where t)/(Hd)2 of consolidation for vertical path. instantaneously. drainage (Eq. The Terzaghi theory applies to primary consolidation only and is based on several assumptions including: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The soil The flow $9 is saturated and homogeneous. is related to a dimensionless time factor TV. Design Equations Design Equation for Vertical Drains is generally analyzed using the drainage proposed by Terzaghi.APPEIUI X A: 1. and compression m. g. are one dimensional.d = length of the vertical drainage figure 4 shows the relationship of TV and g. 20) The General The rate of consolidation theory of consolidation The pertinent equations fq/Pf = U" in precompression for one dimensional are: where& = average degree of consolidation for vertical drainage. was developed by Barron (2) to For the case of radial drainage (Eq.. and pt and p are the consolidation settlement at any intermediate time and the fina f consolidation settlement. 23) 77 . and k remain constant strains The vertical are small. 22) The load is applied Consolidation theory for vertical drains analyze the performance of sand drains. during consolidation. as well as the assumed one-dimensional drainage condition. Barron's solution is: 'iih = 1 _ exp(-8Th/F(n)) where zh = 1 -(u/u.

Eq. the horizontal spacing time ratio factor for n Th Ct1 = = (re/rw) = Cht/D* Kq. Hansbo's dealt mainly with simplifying assumptions due to the physical and characteristics of PV drains. 2. permeability. 26) coefficient horizontal the for of consolidation drainage of the cylinder I) Barron 1) 2) used = diameter the drain of influence the following is saturated basic assumptions: and homogeneous. (Eq. the .xcess The zone increment u. disturbance are not Barron also extended Equation 22 to include the effects of soil around the drain and drain resistance. but the simplified versions are presented below. . 78 .u F(n) = average the soil = excess pore pressure mass at time t (u. The load pressure No e. throughout at time t=o). pres'sure of influence is initially carried incompressible in 5) by excess pore water 7) 8) in the of drain. The resulting equations given here. are The permeability Darcy's law of k is independent 5) The pore water and the mineral grains comparison with the clay skeleton. within the soil mass occur in a vertical The clay All compressive direction. 241 25) (n*/(n*-l))ln(n) = D/d. of location. each drain is a cylinder. modifications dimensions modified the equations developed by Barron for PV drain Using the same theoretical approach as Barron. Modification of -the General Design Equation rlansbo(g) applications.(3n*-1)/(4n*) . No vertical Validity coefficient of pore strains 3) 4) water flow.

28) Drain Resistance do not have infinite they have limited a drain resistance along the vertical permeability in the vertical discharge factor (Fr) assuming that axis of the drain. the drain resistance factor and therefore. 29) where z = distance L half Kt1 from the drainage end of the drain = length of the drain length of the = coefficient direction discharge a hydraulic when drainage occurs at one end only.(3n2-1)/(4n2) Kq. (Eq.e. drain when drainage occurs at both ends. in the soil horizontal of permeability in the undisturbed capacity gradient qw = of the drain of 1) (defined using If the drain has a finite permeability capacity).. vertical discharge is a function of depth 79 . The Realizing that the PV drains longitudinal direction (i. 24) 27) Equation = (n2/(n2-l))ln(n) . capacity).e. Wain Spacing 24 can be simplified F(n) F(n) = (n2/(n2-l))ln(n) as follows: . = in(n) Kq. Hansbo developed Darcy's late applied to flow resulting equation is: Fr = rz(L .2) (k&w) (Eq.a.(1/4n2) assuming and that that 1 n 2 = 0.3/4 F(n) 3. = 1.3/4 . then Equation 27 simplifies to: (n2/(n h -1)) . limited (Equation 29) depth. uh is not constant with (i. since n is typically 20 or more..

= diameter of band-shaped in the drain direction in permeability soil horizontal .3/4) (kh/%) + ((kh/ks)-1) ln(d.C. with a 30) d. = k.) nZ(L-Z) where: d. Soi 1 Disturbance Barron (2) developed an equation to account for the effects of soil disturbance during installation by introducing a zone of disturbance reduced permeability.) + (Eq./d. The resulting disturbance factor. F. = diameter equivalent coefficient the disturbed of the disturbed of the zone around the drain .+F. when combined with F(n) and Fr is F(n)+F.. = (ln(D/d.

In order to achieve this objective. Insight into d. ranges of d. subject research. can be obtained from prior research on ef Pects of penetration of piles and cone e etrometers on the surrounding soils. Baligh developed the Strain Path Method for determining the state of soil disturbance due to the installation of piles. Complete copies of Dr. Specifically. are 2. it was believed that guidelines and additional data could be developed to aid the design engineer in evaluating disturbance effects./d. Mohsen M. the following important aspects of PV drain Penetration of Mandrel The radius of the soil zone around the drain that is affected by mandrel penetration and the distribution of excess pore pressure within this radius depend on the soil characteristics. Based on this research. Dr. mandrel geometry and the penetration conditions. 2) Effects of Mandrel Withdrawal Withdrawal of the mandrel causes additional changes in the soil conditions and the pore pressures around the drain. can be recommended for various mandrel configurations and installation methods. summarizing studies for the included in Prefabricate Vertical Drains: Vol. Effort (FHWA/RD-86/169) t 8). The radius and the distribution of excess pore pressures as well as the drainage characteristics of the soil (permeability and consolidation properties) affect subsequent consolidation rates. 81 . The "Strain Path Method" BY can be used to I develop recommendations on optimal mandrel shapes and sizes. Baligh.APPENDIX B: Effects of Soil Disturbance Evaluating the effects of installation disturbance is a very complex soil mechanics problem for which a comprehensive solution was beyond the stop f the design guideline manual. The major objective of the research on soil disturbance was to provide a more rational approach to the overall evaluation of disturbance effects. the current design equation 77 provides only a very simplistic g approach to accounting for disturbance. The design equation accommodates disturbance in the ratios d. Dr. and k /k. was retained as a Special Consultant. Also.. However. Professor of Civil Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Summary of Research these reports address installation: 1) Effects Baligh's reports.

provides a good measure of clay sensitivity. a 82 . Liquidity Index.31 Rates of Soil Consolidation Estimates of soil consolidation rates after mandrel withdrawal taking into consideration installation disturbances (straining and excess pore pressures) as well as surcharge loading are required in order to determine installation effects on drain efficiency. it is believed that clay sensitivity.. St. Susceptibility of soils to installation disturbances can therefore be estimated from the reduction in Tc and the increase in mv they undergo due to undrained shearing. and an increase in compressibility as expressed by mv. LI. disturbance of the soil that can 2) Retardation in soil consolidation rates due to installation disturbances is principally caused by undrained soil straining (or distortions at constant volume) due to mandrel penetration. Based on the above. is a good measure of susceptibility to installation Undrained shearing of sensitive soils causes disturbances. Zc. Undrained shearing of slightly overconsolidated clays causes reduction in effective confining (or octahedral) stresses. The significant reductions in Yc and increases in m. These two factors tend to decrease the coefficient of consolidation and hence delay the dissipation of excess pore pressure and reduce drain effectiveness. Ti ?e general conclusions are as follows: 1) regarding soil disturbance of the report(8) Drain installation causes reduce drain effectiveness.

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APPEWIX 1): Specifications The following generic guideline specification for prefabricated vertical (PV.0 6.0 7. that may not apply to all projects depending on the complexity of the The design engineer should use these guideline specifications project. as well as detailed specifications.3 3.O DESCRIPTIOid Under these items.0 3. as a tool to aid in the development of the materials and construction control specifications for a particular project. 1.0 Description Definitions Materials 3.4 3. Comment: currently The requirement available Desol for a suitable drain product.1 General 3.0 5. jacket material excludes the 94 . labor.0 Jacket Core Assembled Drain Quality Control Equipment Procedures of Quantities Installation Installation Measurement Basis of Payment 1 . The drains shall consist of a band-shaped plastic core enclosed in a suitable jacket material and shall be spaced and arranged a shown on the plans or as otherwise directed by the Engineer.0 2. equipment and materials and perform all operations for the installation of prefabricated vertical (PV) drains in accordance with the details shown on the plans and with the requirements of these specifications. Specifications that would usually be "optional" or be used at the discretion of the design engineer are enclosed in brackets. the Contractor shall furnish all necessary plant.5 4. drains includes comments.2 3.

Comment: The Engineer 3. The shall allow free passage of pore water to the core loss of soil material or piping. flexible to bend consolidation and peeling during of 3.2. The core shall continuous vertical drainage. Necessary definitions may include: jacket.1 3. punching through the filter by sand/gravel particles). The jacket material shall not be subject to localized damage (e.21 The drain shall be band-shaped with divided by thickness) not exceeding 3.2 Jacket The jacket shall be a synthetic non-woven geotextile capable resisting all bending.d DEf INITIONS should include any specific definitions of terms that may be necessary for clarity of the specifications.2.1.2. shall conform The jacket material specifications: to the following 95 . discharge capacity.2. core.1 MATERIALS General The PV consist jacket without provide drain shall be of newly-manufactured materials and shall of a core enclosed in or integrated with a jacket. punching and tensile forces imposed during installation and during the design life of the drain.2 .1.0 3.g.2. equivalent diameter.5 3. permittivity.3 3. The jacket material shall be sufficiently smoothly during installation and induced settlement without damage.1 C3.4 3. an aspect ratio 50.2 3. (width 3. The jacket material shall be sufficiently rigid to withstand lateral earth pressures due to embedment and surcharge so that the vertical flow capacity through the core will not be adversely affected.2. and free volume.6 Jacket material installation snail not undergo cracking of the drain..

130 psi The jacket condition.4 The Engineer may limit the acceptable core materials and channel geometries depending on the particular job The Engineer may also specify core material physical if appropriate. properties 3. The design engineer should review the items.3. the core and jacket are integral and cannot be tested separately).1 Comment: drainage conditions. (See Section 2 of DR!UN SELECTION AND DESIGN) of text. Comment: The appropriate minimum requirements have been established by reviewing specifications in use at the time of preparing the manual. and required minimums for each project. The design engineer should decide on a minimum permittivity acceptable on the given project. 96 Assembled 3..Test I tern Grab Tensile (1975) Trapezoidal Tear Puncture Strengtn Durst Strength * Requirement Designation ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM D1682-64 D2263-68 D751-73 D774-46 (Minimum Roll Value)* 80 lbs. 3.e. Drain (strength and modulus) of the equal or exceed those specified and core. The present perception is that a jacket should have a minimum permeability equal to or greater tnan the permeability of the adjacent soil in order to function properly.4. c3. 3. The designer is referred to Christopher and Holtz (1984) for guidance. Comment: Requirement for test data on mechanical properties for the jacketcited above may be waived by the Engineer for PV drains that have integrated structures (i. two tested material shall be tested in saturated and dry These requirements apply to the lower of the conditions.1 The mechanical properties assembled PV drain shall for the component jacket . Comment: The role of permittivity on the satisfactory performance of a PV drain is not fully understood.2.3 Core The core shall be a continuous to promote drainage along the plastic axis of material fabricated the vertical drain. 25 lbs. test designations. 50 lbs.71 The jacket shall have a minimum permittivity of gal/min/ft2 when tested according to the ASTM Suggested Test Method for Permeability and Permittivity of Geotextiles.

the drain shall be wrapped in heavy paper.4.7 97 . 3. The drain shall be protected from sunlight. dirt. manufacturer and product identification of the jacket and core. The Engineer should decide whether a specified minimum value is necessary and if so what the minimum should be (See Section 3 of EVALUATIOIJ OF DESIGN PARAMETERS of text). insects.4. mud. As a minimum. each roll shall be identified by the manufacturer as to lot or control numbers.4.4. burlap or similar heavy duty protective covering.4. and confining medium.31 c3.2 The assembled drain shall be resistant against wet rot.6 PV drain materials shall be labeled or tagged in such a manner that the information for sample identification and other quality control purposes can be read from the label. alkalis. = diameter of a circular drain equivalent shaped drain = width of a band shaped drain = thickness of a band shaped drain to of the band it Comment: The design engineer should determine a minimum equivalent diameter for the drains on a specific project.41 The assembled drain shall have a minimum discharge of 3500 ft3/yr when measured under a gradient of the maximum effective stress that the drain will capacity one at experience. solvents. = (a+b)/Z d. acids. the Engineer must also define the general test method to be used (confining pressure. mildew. Alternatively. the equivalent diameter requirement can be restated by specifying a minimum thickness and width for the band shaped drain. and any other significant ingredients in the site groundwater. salts in solution in groundwater. During snipment and storage. debris and other detrimental substances during shipping and on-site storage. 3.3.). etc. bacterial action.) 3. confining media. If a minimum discharge capacity is specified. confining pressure. Comment: Discharge capacity is a function of drain type.4. (See Section 3 of EVALUATIOla OF DESIGN PARAMETERS of text. test procedure. One single type of assembled drain project unless otherwise specified Engineer. and hydraulic gradient as well as possibly being dependent on the test apparatus. dust. date of manufacture.5 The assembled drain shall have a minimum equivalent diameter of using the following definition equivalent diameter: d. length of sample. individual roll number. shall be used on the or approved by the the E3.

Alidrain Alidrain S Hitek Flodrain Drainage & Ground Improvement. Two currently available drain products (Sol Compact and Desol) are not included in the list because laboratory test data is either not available (Sol Compact) or observed critical properties were judged to be below current standards (Desol. Box 168 Sterling. NC 28105 (800) 438-9281 Fukuzawa & Associates. Box 13222 Pittsburgh. 3112 Los Felit Boulevard Los Angeles.O. VA 22170 (703) 430-5444 Amerdrain 307.O. P. PA 15243 (412) 257-2750 Geosystems. No payment of any kind shall be made for rejected material. 407 International Construction Equipment. NC 28728 (704) 667-7713 Division Inc. storage. Inc.3. Fibers Geomatrix Systems Enka. 301 Warehouse Drive Mathews. which also does not have any jacket). P. The design engineer should list only those drains he considers acceptable on the specific project.91 Comment: The design engineer may want to preapprove drains to expedite the bid preparation process. 6129 Queenridge Drive Ranch0 Palos Verdes.4. CA 90274 (213) 377-4735 Harquim International Corp. or handling and/or which does not meet the minimum requirements of the drain material shall be rejected by the Engineer.8 All material which is damaged during shipment. The following list does not constitute acceptance by FHWA or the Consultant of any of the drains for any specific purpose or project. Inc. Prefabricated vertical project are as follows: drains preapproved for use on this c3. Inc. unloading. Bando . CA 90039 (213) 669-8332 Colbond CX-1000 BASF Corporation.4.

3. TN 37921 Vinylex (615) 3.1 The actual type of the Contractor PV drain installed will subject to the approval be at the option of the Engineer. the - - 99 .3 If install by the a drain Engineer. Samples of the spliced drain shall be long enough to include the splice plus 2 feet of unspliced drain on both sides of the splice.kieuradrain MD 7007 L. Box 7187 Knoxville.O.B. the Coxractor shall submit vJritten notice to the Engineer at least 28 days prior to the installation of any drains and submit to the Engineer for testing 3 samples of any proposed splices at least 21 days prior to the installation of any drains. at least 14 days prior to installation. that Ais the not on submit to the Engineer for testing a sample of the unspliced PV drain to be used. Samples of spliced PV drain shall be long enough to include the splice plus 2 feet of unspliced drain on both sides of the splice.5.5. and 3 samples of any proposed splices. PA 15220 (412) 262-3900 Vinylex Corporation P. the Contractor intends to the preapproved list supplied Contractor shall: - 3. at least 28 days prior to the installation of any drains. Foster Company 415 Holiday Drive Pittsburgh. install proposed one of the preapproved drain is disallowed drain by the types if Engineer. The sample of unspliced drain shall be at least 10 feet long.2 If the Contractor intends to use a PV drain that is on the preapproved list supplied by the Engineer. submit to the Engineer manufacturer's literature documenting the physical and mechanical properties of the drain (as a minimum those properties required by the specifications) and other similar projects where the same drain has been installed including details on prior performance on these projects.5.5 Quality Control of 690-2211 3.

e.2 c4. The Contractor purchase certificate to characteristics of the drain c3.1. whichever is less. cuts. drain designation. and manufacturer's certification of physical and chemical properties). and abrasion during installation.5. the mandrel or sleeve shall have a maximum cross-sectional area of ' 2 Tne mandrel or sleeve shall be sufficiently stiff iFevent wobble or deflection during installation. Snould any individual sample selected at random fail to meet any specification requirement. Drains shall be installed using a mandrel or sleeve which shall be inserted (i. not be used until tne Engineer has accepted the sample (verified physical dimensions.5. If either of these two additional samples fail to comply with any portion of then the entire quantity of vertical the specification.51 During construction. the proposed source of the to the site. pushed or vibrated) into the The mandrel or sleeve shall protect the drain soil. Samples submitted for tests shall indicate the linear feet of drain represented by the Tne total footage represented by the sample shall sample.1. manufacturer. then that roll shall be rejected and two additional samples shall be taken at random from two other rolls representing the snipment or PV drains shall be installed with approved modern equipment of a type wnich will cause a minimum of disturbance of the sub-soil during the installation operation and maintain the mandrel in a vertical position. EQUIPMENT C3. whichever is less.1.0 4. and shall be retracted after each drain is installed. To minimize disturbance of the subsoil.4 The Contractor shall indicate materials prior to delivery shall also retain a supplier's verify the type and physical to be used.000 linear feet.31 . Individual samples shall be no less than 10 ft in length and shall be full width.000 linear feet. material from tears.1 INSTALLATION General 4. drain represented by the sample shall be rejected. individual test samples shall be cut from at least one roll selected at random to represent each shipment or LOO.61 4.. 4.

If. acceptance of the method for the the remainder of the project.2 5. the Contractor shall alter his method and/or equipment as necessary to comply with these specifications.1.0 5.1 weeks prior to the beginning of trial PV drain installation. Approval by the Engineer of installation sequence and methods shall not relieve the Contractor of its responsibility to install drains in accordance with the plans and specifications.1.1 INSTALLATIOid General 5. numbered and staked out by the using a baseline and benchmark provided by the The Contractor shall take all reasonable to preserve the stakes and is responsible for . the Contractor shall submit full details on the materials. necessarily. PHOCEUURES 5.Comment: Tne design engineer should select a maximum area based muation of disturbance effects.3 5. and in particular. precautions shall be located.1 Installation PV drains Contractor Engineer. It is t pica1 for the maximum cross-sectional area to be 10 in* (65 cm?i ).2 5. the Contractor will be required to install trial drains totalling approximately linear feet at locations designated by the Engc. The Engineer shall determine the acceptability of the anchorage system and procedure. 5. the Contractor shall demonstrate that its equipment. equipment. For this purpose. the diameter of the disturbed zone. at any time.1.2. methods.1. sequence and method proposed for PV drain installation to the Engineer for review and approval. and materials produce a satisfactory installation in accordance with these specifications. Approval by the Engineer of the method or equipment used to install the trial drains shall not constitute. ds. the Engineer considers that the method of installation does not produce satisfactory PV drains. Prior to the installation of production PV drains. The dimensions of the anchor shall conform as closely as possible to the dimensions of the mandrel so as to minimize soil disturbance.4 on The mandrel or sleeve shall be provided with an anchor plate or similar arrangement at the bottom to prevent the soil from entering the bottom of the mandrel during the installation of the drain and to anchor the drain tip at the required depth at the time of mandrel withdrawal. 4.

2.2.4 During PV drain installation.3 The installation shall be performed.2 PV drains that are more than plan location or are damaged be rejected and abandoned in PV drains shall the depth shown directed by the depths.2. The as-installed location PV drains shall not vary by more than six (6) inches the plan locations designated on the drawings. will 5. of the from from design installed. or as otherwise specified on the contract drawings. the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with suitable means of determining the depth of the advancing drain at any given time and the length of drain installed at each location. In no case will alternate raising or lowering of the mandrel during advancement be permitted.6 3.8 techniques requiring driving will Jetting techniques will be permitted written approval from the Engi. the plan limits for this work as necessary.2-feet in 10 feet during installation 5.3 be installed from the working surface to on the drawings. Raising of the mandrel will only be permitted after completion of a drain installation.) quantity of PV drain installed at each location.11 The completed PV drain shall be cut off neatly 1 foot the working grade.5 5.7 PV drains shall be installed static weight or vibration. above 192 .2.2. installing PV drains shall be plumbed prior each drain and shall not deviate from the than 0.2. 5. not be only after 5.any necessary re-staking. locations and day. length (to nearest 0. rate should be between l/2 and 2 c5.2. or to such depth as Engineer. 5.101 5. Installation permitted.neer. spacings. receiving using a continuous push using 5.1 ft. The mandrel penetration feet per second. The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer at the end of each working day a summary of the PV drains installed that The summary shall include drain type. and may revise six (6) inches or improperly place. Equipment for to installing vertical more of any drain.2. The Engineer may vary the or the number of drains to be installed.2.2. without any damage to the drain during advancement or retraction of the mandrel.

gravel or stone.8 should be used as a guide and modified as appropriate.5.3. The Contractor shall replace.1 5.3.3. penetrate more than compressible soil. the Contractor shall complete the drain from the elevation of the working surface to the obstruction and notify the Engineer prior to installing any more drains. At the direction of the Engineer and under his review. the following specification sections Comment: If the design engineer anticipates obstructions that can bered using augering of spudding. the design tip elevation.building rubble.3. etc. the drain location shall be abandoned and the installation equipment shall be moved to the next location. the contract documents should include provisions for acceptable obstruction removal techniques and payment for obstruction clearance. the Contractor shall attempt to install a new drain witnin two (2) feet horizontally from the obstructed drain.2.3. or other providing two feet the Contractor may use methods to loosen the soil the augering does not into the underlying and 5. 5. or other action shall be taken as directed by the Engineer.anticipate any the following specification sections 5.) based on the results of the subsurface explorations or other information.1 through be used as a guide and modified as appropriate.12 The Contractor shall observe precautions necessary for protection of any field instrumentation devices.4 through 5. Where obstructions are encountered below the working surface wnich cannot be penetrated by the drain installation equipment.2 the design engineer does not. If permitted by the augering. 5. at his own expense. 5.3 Preaugering/Obstructions Comment: If the design engineer anticipates any obstructions (dense sofls. spudding. The Contractor shall be responsible for penetrating any overlying material as necessary to install the drains. Comment: If obstructions. Engineer.4 The Contractor overlying fill shall be responsible for penetrating material as necessary to satisfactorily .3 should 5. A maximum of two attempts shall be made as directed If the drain still cannot be installed to by the Engineer. any instrumentation equipment that has been damaged or become unreliable as a result of his operations prior to continuing with drain installation or other construction activities. clear obstructions.3.

in the listed immediately the drain the following sequence: notify and prior a 5. The Contractor shall prior to completing any other drains.3. such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to clear obstructions in accordance with these specifications. are encountered.7 the 5. the augers shall have minimum outside diameter equal to the largest horizontal dimension of the mandrel. If augering is the selected method. .6 5.3. Satisfactory installation may clearing obstructions defined as any man-made or object or strata that prevents the proper insertion mandrel and installation of the PV drain. procedures and location.install require natural of the 5. the Contractor shall: a) attempt to horizontally install an offset of the obstructed drain within drain. or two feet D) implement obstruction clearance install the drain at the design Obstruction clearance procedures as directed by the Engineer. however.4. Based upon the results of these installations and at the direction of tne Engineer and under his review. The Contractor may use augering.3.1 Splicing of PV drain a workmanlike manner hydraulic continuity material shall be done by stapling in and so as to insure structural and of the drain.5 the PV drains. The Contractor shall then attempt to install drains adjacent to tne obstructed location. be no more than three inches greater than the minimum outside diameter. shall be used only 5. The obstruction clearance procedure is subject to the approval of the Engineer.8 obstructions be implemented procedure 1. shoe or anchor. techniques underlying Where shall clearance procedures shall be kept to a The augering or other obstruction removal shall not penetrate more than two feet into compressible soil.3. spudding. whichever is The maximum outside diameter of the auger shall greatest.4 Splicing 5. or other approved methods to loosen the soil and any obstruction material prior to the installation of PV drains. Obstruction minimum. the Engineer to installing 2.

135 . survey stake out of drain locations. 6. whichever is the lesser depth.2 PV Drains 6. special insurance. and other equipment and materials as necessary to properly execute the work. 6.3 The jacket and core inches at any splice.1 MEASUREMENT Mobilization 6.1. tools.2 6.4. Payment will not be made for drains which are not anchored to the required depth. equipment.2] A maximum permitted. or to a depth two (2) feet into the underlying compressible soil.2. of 1 splice per without specific shall drain installed permission be overlapped will be from the Engineer. Obstruction clearance a time and materials of the Engineer. a minimum of 6 5.3. and the Engineer verifies the penetration length. The obstruction clearance depth is subject to verification by the Engineer.2 6.3 Obstructions Obstruction clearance by augering or spudding method shall be measured by the linear foot. required permits.1 6.4. PV drains contract additional prior to placed in excess of the length drawings shall not be paid for length was authorized by the or during the drain installation. crews.[5. subject to shall be measured the prior approval on 6.1 OF QUANTITIES and Demobilization This item shall include the furnishing of all supervision.1 PV drains shall be measured to the nearest whole foot.0 6. by other methods basis. designated unless the Engineer in on the writing 6.3. The lengtn of PV drain to be paid for shall be the distance the installation mandrel tip penetrates below the working grade plus the required cut off length above the working grade.3 Obstruction clearance shall not be paid for unless the use of the necessary equipment is authorized by the Engineer prior to its use.3. The length of obstruction clearance to be paid for shall be the length from the working surface at the time of installation to the depth penetrated by the auger or spud.2.

including the cost of disposal of any surplus preaugered or obstruction clearance materials.1 BASIS OF PAYMENT Mobilization and Demobilization 7. labor.7. equipment. and all other costs necessary to complete the required work.1 Payment for work under this item will be made at the contract price for Mobilization and Demobilization. permits if required. spudding. price bid 7. and shall also include tne cost of furnishing all tools.1 . The contract unit price shall also include furnishing all tools. materials. any work drawings. equipment and all other costs necessary to complete the required work.2 7. labor.4 No direct payment will be made for constructing platform other than that shown on the contract The cost of such shall be included in the unit for PV drains or in the lump sum bid for mobilization/demobilization.1 7. installing the PV drain. 7. or for any delays or expenses incurred through changes necessitated by improper material or equipment.2. Payment for linear foot trial drains shall for the PV drains.3 Obstructions Payment for obstruction clearance using augering or spudding shall be made at the contract unit price per linear foot.3. 7. No direct payment shall be made for PV drains. The costs of such shall be included in the unit price bid for this work. be at the bid price per 7. or performing other acceptable methods to clear obstructions and to satisfactorily install the PV drains.2. which price shall be full compensation for the cost of preaugering. materials.2. altering of the equipment and methods of installation in order to produce the required end result in accordance with the contract drawings and specifications.3 7.1.0 7. Payment for Mobilization and Demobilization will constitute full compensation for expenses for such performance.2.2 PV Drains Payment for PV drains shall be made at the contract unit price per linear foot for acceptable drains. notwithstanding increases or decreases in quantities of the other contract items. which price shall be full compensation for the cost of furnishing the full length of PV drain material.

3 Payment Items Payment will be made under the following Item Mobilization and Demobi1i zati on Prefabricated (PV) Drain 3 4 Obstruction (Augering Vertical Clearance or Spudding) items.32 Payment for the removal of obstructions using methods other than augering or spudding shall be on a time and materials basis.1 Pay Item No.3.7. 7. Pay Unit lump sum per linear per linear ft ft 7. 1 Obstruction Clearance (Other Means) per hour plus materials 107 .

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