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The General Staff and Its Problems

The General Staff and Its Problems

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Published by: Druid_ian on Sep 07, 2011
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01/29/2012

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return to the

system of

breast-feeding and less artificial

feeding.

Further

by :

31. Enabling mothers to

get advice and infants' treatment

through the Infant Welfare institutions, which must be

established in

greater numbers in the

country. Where

no such institutions

exist, supervision by medical officers

of

health, children's

doctors, midwives, district

nurses, lady

volunteers.

Premiums for

nursing mothers. Milk-kitchens in the

large

towns.

Training of

girls in the care of children and of

nurses

holding Government certificates.

Supervision of nurses and foster-children

by the medical

authorities.

32. Provision for

illegitimate children. The increase of

illegitimate births and the

comparatively high mortality of

illegitimate children make it

imperative that

they should have

more

protection, both economic and

legal. Morally, too, they

are in a worse

position : far more

illegitimate children are sent

to the reformatories than

legitimate. The Prussian Ministerial

Commission and the Prussian Chamber of

Deputies dealt with

this

question on the

9th May, 1916, and

17th February, 1917.

The

following measures were

proposed :

{a) A more

stringent enforcement of §§ 1666 and

1707

B.G.B.

(Influence of the

guardian on the

bringing-up

and education of the

child.)

ib) Modification of

§361, 10 Str. G.B.

(Responsibihty

of the father for

maintaining his

illegitimate child.)

{c) Abolition of the so-called

exceptio plurium concum-

hentium.

(Holding all the

putative fathers

jointly respon-

sible for the cost of the child's

maintenance.)

{d) Extension, to be followed

by general application,

enforced

by law, of the

system of State

guardians, in

addition to individual

voluntary guardianship.

{e) The Chamber of

Deputies favoured the transfer of

Provision for Men Returned from War 22.3

responsibility for the care of

illegitimate children to the

higher authorities, on lines similar to those on which

poor-relief is

administered, by increasing the so-called

"

extraordinary

"

poor rate,

(/) If these measures obtain the force of law

many

valuable lives will be

preserved and the moral and social

level of the children will be raised. The

complete legal,

social and economic

equality of

illegitimate and

legitimate

children would meet with serious

opposition on

moral,

religious and social

grounds. The

procreation and

training of

legitimate children must remain the firm

foundation of the State and

society.

33. Mother and child.

Just as the milk of the

healthy

mother is the best food for the child, so, generally speaking,

the mother's care and

training are

superior to

any other.

They can be

improved by educating the

girls and

young

women who are the future mothers of the race.

34. In the

increasing employment of women and mothers

in industrial

occupations away from home there lurks

great

danger to

family life and the

feeding and

bringing-up of

children. The

importance of

protecting motherhood, train-

ing women and

guarding children is

recognized, it is

true,

but there has not

yet been sufhcient endeavour to

promote

these aims

(industrial hygienics, instruction in domestic

economy, infant

welfare).

35. Children's homes and creches—best on Pestalozzi-

Frobel

principles—should be extended, and

require hygienic

and medical

supervision by infant welfare authorities, school

doctors and school dentists. The attention of educational

authorities should be called to the

high death-rate of German

infants and the remedial measures

required (tuberculosis,

rickets, whooping-cough, diphtheria).

36. Infants in

large towns suffer most, physically, mentally

and

morally, from lack of

open playgrounds. This threatens

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