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05 TTSS Solutions WG Report Volume 1_Feb05

05 TTSS Solutions WG Report Volume 1_Feb05

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11/14/2013

8.2.18.1

Principle Conclusions

This paper summarises the objectives and the findings of early results from the SCITTER
storm screenings rig. The acronym SCITTER is derived from:

Storm sewage Constituents Test and Evaluation Rig

Reliable results have been recently obtained for lower intensity winter storm profiles, which
show typical screenable solids loading rates of up to 3000 g/m3. Loadings for earlier spring
and summer results, based on less reliable data, are suspected of being well in excess of this
level. It is apparent that there are significant seasonal differences in screenable solids
loading rates.

The results display a prominent first flush effect. A reasonable correlation is developing
between the size of the first flush load and the duration of the preceding dry periods for a
given event. Further trials are needed to establish a fuller appreciation of seasonal variations
and to capture more extreme events. It is expected that the first flush effect will vary
according to the location and nature of the catchment upstream of each individual CSO.

Initial difficulties experienced with ADFM flow monitoring during heavy storm conditions is
better understood and measures have been put in place to resolve the issues of incomplete
data. Useful water quality & Raw ADFM data has also been obtained in support of
automated solids monitoring for development of Real Time Control. It is anticipated that the
DWF results currently under analysis, will give stronger confidence for the prospects of this
development work.

8.2.18.2

Discussion of Study

Introduction

A significant element of the Thames Tideway Strategy Investigation is the potential obligation
to remove sewage litter from all intermittent discharges to the tidal section of the River
Thames. Sewage litter is defined as solids greater than 6mm, but in particular Persistent
Synthetic Substances. A better knowledge of both the quality and quantity of such
substances, and their variation during storm events, is essential to more accurately determine
the likely scale of screenings requirements involved.

The Beckton & Crossness sewer models provide quantitative information for most CSO
discharges along the tideway. However information on quality and knowledge of pollutant
transport mechanisms within the catchment is poor.

Aims

The SCITTER project has 2 main objectives:

1. To investigate the characteristics of storm discharge in terms of screenable solids.
2. To assist the development of a solids monitoring system using conventional ADFM
flow monitors. This development may enable Real Time Control (RTC) of the
catchment, allowing selective retention of the most polluting material and
corresponding discharge of less polluting volumes, thus optimising the cost / benefits
of any storage or treatment element of a given solution.

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

144

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

Description of the SCITTER plant

The SCITTER plant is situated at Acton storm tanks (Figure 25). The tanks receive flow from
the Stamford Brook trunk sewer. In storm conditions, the sewer weirs over into the storm
channels, which lead to the six storage tanks on site. A temporary weir was installed across
the inlet channel to divert preferential storm flows into the SCITTER rig.

A 1200mm diameter GRP pipe has been placed in the channel upstream of the rig, and the
channel modified downstream, so as to create a steady flow regime for accurate
measurement of velocities and depth.

The rig itself consists of a Jones & Attwood high flow vertical band screen. The screenings
are washed from the 6mm screen and directed in turn to each of the 15 Copa-sacks
throughout the course of a storm event by an automated pneumatic valve system. This can
be set to variable catch & spill times, allowing a custom sampling sequence to be built up for
an anticipated storm profile. The current sampling sequence is set to a maximum of 60
minutes duration.

Figure 25 - Scitter layout schematic

Tank 6

Tank 5

Main Channel

Stamford Brook Combined Sewer

Storm Weir

6mm Band Screen

Schematic Layout at Acton Storm Tanks

Temporary
Diversion Weir

Coarse Debris screen

Site Flow
Monitors

SCITTER Automated Screenings Collection Rig

Key:

-ADFM flow
monitoring

-ADFM quality
-monitoring
-Sigma flow
monitor

-ISCO sampler
-Manual samples

6mm Copasac’s

Operation - Phase 1

Construction of the SCITTER rig was undertaken during Feb to March 2002, with automated
operation thereafter.

Several significant storm results were captured during the April / May period. After a few
initial teething troubles the automated sack collection system worked well. Unfortunately
many storm results suffered from intermittent failure of the ADFM flow monitor.
Consequently, the early estimates of screenable solids loading rates were derived from
incomplete flow data. While this may have lead to some initial over prediction, the results
clearly showed a First flush effect, with screenable solids loading rates significantly higher
than rates initially assumed for general screen design purposes.

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

145

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

The failures in flow data capture were initially thought to be due to ragging of the instrument,
and the generally unfavourable hydraulic conditions. Modifications were proposed to
overcome these problems and a package of minor improvements was undertaken during
June / July, during which, the rig was removed from operation.

Operation - Phase 2 (Post Modification )

Despite the works carried out to improve the monitor location, the initial results from autumn
storms showed similar failures of the ADFM flow monitor. Until such time as the difficulties
with the ADFMs have been fully resolved, a non-intrusive radar type flow monitor has been
installed as an alternative method to record flow. Meanwhile, the manufacturers of the
ADFM flow monitor are making attempts to re-analyse the incomplete Phase 1 flow data.

Screenable Solids Loading Rates

Recent results have provided useful data on the variable screenings content for lower
intensity storm events, with screenable solids loadings of up to 3000 g/m3. However, the
loadings from earlier spring and summer results, despite the necessary interpretation of
incomplete data, still showed significantly greater solids loadings.

The recent set of autumn data has been supplemented with water quality samples from some
selected events. These samples have been submitted for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
& Total Solids (TS) testing.

Recent Storm events showed the following trends (Table 49):

Table 49 : Typical Storm screenable loading rates

Storm Date * No. of
preceding

dry

days

Average
Screenable Load
mg/l

Peak Screenable
Load mg/l

TS mg/l

BOD mg/l

17/09/02 DWF

275

650

730

130

12/10/02 32

1400

3000

5500

>1854

15/10/02 0.5

700

1600

08/11/02 0

130

200

10/11/02 1

70

150

12/11/02 0.5

200

440

122

35

29/01/03
*DWF*

6

20

28.9

360

140

01/02/03 8

622

3400

1320

353

01/05/03 60

1500

2892

777

Results for two example storm events are shown below (figures 26 – 29), which depict the
variation of flow and screenable solids loading throughout the events.

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

146

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

Figure 26 – Scitter results - Event 12th

November 2002 – Sack weights and Flow

Figure 27 – Scitter screenings loadings – event 12th

November 2002

Scitter Storm 12/11/02
Sack Weights & Flow

0

2

4

6

8

10

4

:

3

0

4

:

3

6

4

:

4

2

4

:

4

8

4

:

5

4

5

:

0

0

5

:

0

6

5

:

1

2

5

:

1

8

5

:

2

4

5

:

3

0

5

:

3

6

5

:

4

2

5

:

4

8

5

:

5

4

6

:

0

0

6

:

0

6

Time

Sack weights kg

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Flow l/s

Sack Weight
Flow m3/s

Scitter storm 12/11/02
Screenings Load mg/l

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

4

:

3

0

4

:

3

4

4

:

3

8

4

:

4

2

4

:

4

6

4

:

5

0

4

:

5

4

4

:

5

8

5

:

0

2

5

:

0

6

5

:

1

0

5

:

1

4

5

:

1

8

5

:

2

2

5

:

2

6

5

:

3

0

5

:

3

4

5

:

3

8

Time

Load mg/l

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

147

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

Figure 28 - Scitter results - Event 12th

October 2002 – Sack weights and Flows

Figure 29 - Scitter screenings loadings – event 12th

October 2002

Scitter storm 12/10/02 (Sigma & ADFM)

05

10

15

20

25

30

35

9:069:129:189:249:309:369:429:489:5410:010:010:110:110:210:310:3

Time

Sack Weight

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Flow l/s

20' weight
ASSUMED Q

Scitter Storm 12/10/02
Screenings Load mg/l

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

9:06

9:08

9:10

9:12

9:14

9:16

9:18

9:20

9:22

9:24

9:26

9:28

9:30

9:32

9:34

9:36

9:38

9:40

9:42

9:44

9:46

9:48

9:50

9:52

9:54

Time

mg/l

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

148

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

Solids Monitoring Development

Development of the ADFM flow meter for Automated real time solids monitoring, relies upon
complex analysis of raw data reflectance from particulate matter within the flows. Two ADFM
monitors have been located upstream of the SCITTER rig, one set to record flows and the
other to record the necessary raw data.

To understand the significance of the raw signals requires detailed monitoring of the water
quality content. To this end, automated ISCO water quality samplers have been located up
and downstream of the screen. These are programmed to sample simultaneously with the
screen and COPA sack filling sequences. The samples obtained are tested for chemical &
biological quality, as well as particle size distribution of solids.

Comprehensive tests were undertaken on 17th

September to establish a record of baseflow
characteristics during typical Dry Weather Flow (DWF) conditions. Captured data included
standard lab tests such as BOD, COD, NH3, SS, TS, COPA Sack weights for screened
materials, Laser Diffraction Analysis and “Raw ping” ADFM data both Up and down stream of
the rig.

Summary of Operational issues

Due to the variable and difficult nature of sewage, some difficulties with measurements and
monitoring had been anticipated. The learning curve has been steep, particularly with regard
to the automatic collection of data. These problems have been largely overcome and the
operation of the SCITTER rig is now quite robust. These operational experiences have
highlighted the need for robust monitoring and control mechanisms, as well as a regular and
rigorous maintenance regime.

Further Monitoring Required:

• There currently appears to be little research available on the screenable solids
content of storm flows, with the exception of the UPM Manual, so more reliable data
is essential for screening plant design purposes, in particular the screenings washing,
handling and disposal units.

• A wider range of data is necessary for confident development of the ADFM real time
solids monitor.

• A wider capture of storm types, particularly for heavy convective storms following long
dry periods, is required to allow better prediction of likely maximum screenings
handling requirements. Current results indicate a distinct correlation between the
number of dry days (recess), preceding a given storm event and the resulting total
screenings load. Reliable results to date have mainly captured short recess/back to
back winter storms, or intermediate spring events.

Thames Tideway Strategy

8. Technical Studies

149

Solutions Working Group Report
Volume 1 - February 2005

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