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Global Thematic Essay4!4!11

Global Thematic Essay4!4!11

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Published by: Nicole Walsh on Sep 07, 2011
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04/14/2012

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Political Systems through out history have shaped the course of a nation or society.

The affects can be positive, negative, or even both. Two examples of political systems that had huge effects on the growth of their nations would be communism and fascism. Communism completely shaped Russia’s future and fascism had a huge impact on Italian history as well. Communism was originally an idea by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as a society and government run by the working class, where all property and profit was shared equally, as written and described in the Communist Manifesto. Russian revolutionaries twisted Marx’s beliefs to fit their own circumstances. The Bolsheviks were Russian Marxists who supported a small number of committed revolutionaries who were willing to sacrifice everything for radical change. Communism started in Russia through these revolutionaries, and was led by Vladimir Lenin. They took power in 1917 and overthrew the provisional government in what became known as the Bolshevik revolution. Lenin renamed the country the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. He organized Russia into several republics under one central government. The Bolsheviks were also renamed the Communist Party. After Lenin died Stalin seized power and was in full command of the communist party. He turned Russia into a totalitarian state, which is a government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of its people’s public and private lives. Stalin took away all freedoms and basic human dignities. He created a command economy, which was a system where the government makes all economic decisions. Political leaders would figure out the country’s economic needs and decide how to fulfill them. He also created

Government officials assigned people their jobs and decided on their work hours and wages. . food. real and imagined. The secret police arrested and killed millions of so-called traitors. Hundreds of families worked on these farms producing food for the state. Freedom of religion was suppressed as well because communists believe in atheism. He seized over 25 million privately owned farms and combined them into large government owned farms. in 1928. the government limited production of consumer goods and as a result. To fill these quotas. Government also controlled all forms of education. Stalin also started an agricultural revolution. Over 5 million peasants were slaughtered. The government set impossibly high quotas to increase the output of steel. Stalin also used indoctrination and propaganda to sway people to accept certain beliefs or actions. which was very successful. motion pictures. Soviet newspapers. Secret police took forceful means of making the Soviet Union a modern nation. They called for rapid industrial growth and strengthening of the nation’s defense. When the great purge was over he had full power and was responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths. but Stalin used terror and violence to force them to work. He destroyed all enemies. and radio praised the achievements of communism and glorified its economic progress. people faced severe shortages of housing. called collective farms. oil and electricity. He launched a campaign of terror called the Great Purge in 1934 directed at anyone he believed was a threat to his power. Many peasants resisted. coal. The government censored all works of writing preventing freedom of speech and press. clothing and other necessary goods. which is the belief that there is no God. and these means took a huge toll on people’s personal lives. The government also controlled every aspect of a worker’s life.Five-Year Plans for development of the Soviet Union’s economy.

Mussolini founded the first Fascist Party in 1919. Italy’s upper and middle classes feared a communist revolution. By the 1930s Stalin stood unopposed as a brutal dictator and maintained full authority over the Communist Party. used special salutes. They pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader who guided the state.Teachers or students who questioned the Communist Party’s explanation of their education faced imprisonment or losing their jobs. and held mass rallies. Under Stalin the role of women greatly expanded. and restore national pride. Fascism’s rise in Italy came from bitter disappointment over the failure to win large territorial gains at the Paris Peace Conference. There was widespread social unrest in Italy due to rising inflation and unemployment. Unlike communism. like what happened in Russia. They preached an extreme form of nationalism and believed that nations who struggled would not be conquered. Stalin left a bitter legacy in the Soviet Union and left the country in terrible political standing. Fascists wore uniforms of a certain color. Fascism is militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. Fascists promised to revive the economy. As economic conditions . Fascism’s message attracted people who felt frustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed World War I and by the great depression. unlike peaceful nations. The Russian Revolution established a totalitarian state that lasted for decades. A newspaper editor and politician named Benito Mussolini boldly promised to recue Italy by reviving the economy and rebuilding its armed forces. Many Italians believed democracy would not solve their county’s problems and wanted a leader who would take action. He also vowed to give Italy strong leadership. punish those responsible for hard times.

He began using the weapons of totalitarianism. Rather. his popularity increased. The king decided that Mussolini was his only hope for his dynasty to survive and let Mussolini form a government. Mussolini outlawed strikes. Secret Police jailed opponents and government censors forced stations and publications to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines. Both used the weapons of totalitarianism and ignored individual rights. Political systems completely shaped Russian and Italian history. Both considered the state to be supreme and practiced no form of democracy.worsened. the aristocracy. However the systems were still very different. they believed each class had its place and function. Groups of fascists attacked communists and socialists on the streets. and their political standings in the world. and communists were internationalists. hoping to unite workers worldwide. about 30. In 1922. and the industrial leaders. which gained him support from the middle class. Fascists did not seek a classless society. Under his leadership. Unlike Communists. He sought to control the economy by allying the Fascists with the large landowners and industrialists. Communism and Fascism were similar in some ways. Mussolini played on the fear of a worker’s revolt. or the leader. . Both systems were ruled by dictators who allowed only one political party. demanding that the king put Mussolini in charge of the government. Mussolini was now Il Duce. Fascists were nationalists. Mussolini began publicly criticizing the Italian government. Italy became the model for Fascists in other countries.00 Fascists marched through Rome. He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists.

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