Philippines

Environmental Health Country Profile World Health Organization
As of March 1, 2005

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1.1 1.1.1

Development, Environment and Health Status
Development Pattern of the Country Maps / geography / demography / urban-rural trends

The Philippines is one of the world’s largest archipelago composed of 7,100 islands with a total land area of 300,000 kms2. It is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean, in the west by the South China Sea, in the north by the Bashi Channel and in the south by the Sulu and Celebes Seas. The biggest island group is Luzon (141,395 kms2), followed by Mindanao (101,999 kms2) and Visayas (56,606 kms2). Manila, located in Luzon, is the capital city. The Philippine has a tropical and monsoonal climate. There are two distinct seasons - the dry season from December to May and the wet season from June to November. About 20 to 30 typhoons lash the country during the wet season. In 2003, the estimated population in the country is 81,081,460 with an almost equal ratio of male to female. About 55 percent of the population lives in the island of Luzon. Metropolitan Manila, which is the largest urban center in the country, is home to an estimated 10,574,000 people in 2001. The Philippines has one of the highest growth rates in the world at 2.36 percent. This is almost twice the global rate of 1.30 percent. About 34.65 percent of the population is between 1 and 14 years old, and 4.25 percent is 65 years old and above. The presence of a well established educational system accounts for the high literacy rate of 95.10 percent, which is higher among females and in urban areas. In 2003, about 61 percent of the population lives in urban areas, which are continuously attracting numerous migrants from rural communities. According to the Human Development Report, in 2002 infant mortality rate was 29 for every 1,000 live births while under-five mortality rate was 38 for every 1,000 live births. In 2000, about 83.35 percent of newborn infants weigh at least 2500 g at birth. A low-birth-weight child or a child exposed to environmental pollution and poor living conditions is more susceptible to diseases, which has a substantial influence on physical, mental and social growth. 1.1.2 General economy of the country

The Philippine economy traditionally depends on agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing. Arable farmland comprises an estimated 26% of the total land area. Since it is surrounded by water, the Philippines has a very diverse range of fishing areas. However, in recent years, the manufacturing sector has grown rapidly. Economic growth was spurred by the development of ecozones or
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industrial estates that are intended to boost industrial activities both in the urban and rural communities. There are about 137 industrial estates (IE) in the Philippines with about 886 locators or firms, half of which are semiconductor and electronics companies, which contribute about 70% of export earnings. The country is well-endowed with mineral and thermal energy resources. Natural gas reserves off Palawan Island were recently discovered. Philippine copper and chromite deposits are among the largest in the world. Other important minerals include gold, nickel, silver, coal, gypsum, and sulfur. The Philippines is still developing slowly. In 2001, at current prices, the gross national product (GNP) was $ 75,702 million while the gross domestic product (GDP) was $ 19,749 million. The total health expenditure of the country reached Php119.40 billion in 2001, posting a growth rate of only 5.20 per cent, much lower than the 9.70 per cent in 2000. A large proportion of the total health spending (55 per cent) is from private sources, 37.50 per cent from government and 8.0 per cent from social insurance. 1.1.3 Development priorities

The Philippines has been implementing the Medium-Term Development Plan 2001-2004, which contained the government’s socioeconomic policies, strategies and programs in the following core themes, namely: trabaho (employment), edukasyon (education), pabahay (housing), and pagkain sa bawat mesa (food on every table). Part I ensures macroeconomic stability with equitable growth based on free enterprise, Part II is for agriculture and fisheries modernization with social equity, Part III is for comprehensive human development and protecting the vulnerable, and Part IV is for good governance and the rule of law. The next Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2010 is currently being developed that spells out a 10-point agenda distributed over three clusters: economy, political security, and poverty alleviation. Relevant to environmental health are two of the 10 points which are: Item 5. Provision of power and water supply to all barangays; and Item 6. Decongestion of Metro Manila by forming new cores of government and housing centers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. 1.1.4 Human Development Index

This is a composite index developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational attainment, as measured by adult literacy and total primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio; and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. As an indicator of quality of life, the human development index of Filipinos has been improving over time. Between 1995 and 1998, the Philippines was the only ASEAN country where the human development index (HDI) rose. The gains in gross enrolment ratio largely accounted for the increase in HDI during that period. The Philippines is now in the medium HDI level with an HDI of 0.75 as of 2002 and ranked 83 out of 177 countries. 1.2 1.2.1 Existing Service Levels Proportion of population (national) with existing utilities

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5 Transport related: number of vehicles registered.7 Capacity for data collection and processing 3 .8 percent has access to adequate excreta disposal facilities. In both cases.748 barangays are supplied with electricity covering almost 90 percent of the total population. 1. a 2. noise. which are the bottom 30 of the population. 1. there were one and a half million registered motorcycles or 2.000 population.6 Capacity for monitoring environmental quality (drinking water. radiation. only 7 percent of Metro Manila is served by sewerage system and the majority relies on septic tanks. proportion of people living in informal settlements There are building regulations in place with inspectors from local government units and labor department.2.000 population) In 2003. about 37. electricity.8 percent of the population has access to safe water and that 66. In addition.2. As of 2003. There are well-established poison control centers and poison control and information service linked with the government-run hospital and university. 1. etc) Several government and private laboratories are adequately equipped to monitor various environmental quality parameters for drinking water. ambient air. 1. sewers.2. rate (number per 100. number of motorcycles registered.4 Housing: presence of building regulations. there were more than 4 million registered vehicles. Chemical emergency response and preparedness is currently gaining ground in terms of capacity building with the help of the academe. most of the facilities are located in highly urbanized cities. ambient air.2. water resources. a higher percentage is found in the urban areas.2.50 percent increase from the previous year. noise and radiation. 1.2. On the other hand.3 Presence of other basic services such as fire fighting and emergency management There are government agencies in charge of emergency preparedness for firefighting and natural disasters.000 population.Data shows that 86. In 2003 of the total solid waste generated.610 vehicles per 100.2 Proportion of urban population served by piped water.029 per 100. which could indicate poor housing. However. homeless and income poor. municipal solid waste collection A high percentage of the urban population (80-100 percent) is served by municipal waste collection. about 70 percent in the urban areas and 40 percent in the rural areas is collected. 1. The Environmental Management Bureau has a fully equipped environmental laboratory. There are government programs to provide social housing to qualified urban households for the informal settlers. which are being used mostly as tricycles for public transport. This translates to 5. water resources. It is estimated that 30 percent of the population live below the poverty line.

malaria. 1. where the population density is 63 times the national average.1 Public Health Statistics Ten leading causes of mortality and morbidity The ten leading causes of morbidity are diarrhea. of which 27 tons are infectious waste.4 1.4 Hazardous waste In 2000. 1. influenza. there are no hazardous waste treatment facilities or secure landfill.3.5 to 0.000 tons. diseases of the heart. Out of 421 rivers.3.There is some capacity within various agencies of the government to collect and process environmental quality data but there is no system in place for use of information for decisionmaking and planning especially for environmental health. In Metro Manila.4 million tons of toxic and hazardous wastes were generated. However.4. 1. tuberculosis. 1. The prevalence of communicable diseases is still very high while that of non-communicable diseases 4 .000 SMEs and medium to large industries. Incinerator is banned in the country which was the technology used by most hospitals to deal with medical waste.3. 50 were polluted and 40 were considered biologically dead. Around 70 percent of the vehicles use diesel and about 30 percent use unleaded gasoline.293 tons of health care waste.3 Solid waste The national solid waste generation rate ranges between 0. pneumonia. it was estimated in 2003 that 47 tons of health care waste were generated daily. The volume of wastes generated daily weighs about 6. approximately 2.3 1.2 Surface and ground water pollution The Philippines has excellent water quality standards but weak in its implementation.66 kg.7 kg per capita per day with a total annual waste production of 10 million tons. Hospitals contributed 10. Close to 80 percent of Metro Manila residents are exposed on a regular basis to total suspended particulates (TSP) levels that exceed the standard levels. In Metro Manila alone. the estimated daily per capita waste generation is 0.3. about 85 percent of the population was using solid/biomass fuels for cooking especially for grilling. hypertension.1 Environmental Quality Air pollution In 2000. measles and chickenpox. bronchitis/bronchiolitis. The majority of the wastes came from more than 1. 1. There are very good water treatment facilities in Metro Manila but water districts in the provinces use only chlorination or not at all depending on the water source. less than 1 percent of the total volume of waste. Of the total wastes discarded 42 percent is recyclable.

About 23 percent of the population in 1998 was undernourished.000 population) There were 16. typhoid) With 845. Among children. wheezing and shortness of breath are highest among drivers and commuters.4 Traffic crashes (mortality due to traffic accidents. there were 326 cases of pesticide poisoning with more but not reported. rate: deaths /100. rate: injuries/100. 1. injuries due to traffic accidents. associated with congestion and poor housing.46 accidents per 100 000 population and 38. 1. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. pneumonia. 1. 6. mostly among children under five years of age.4. accidents. 5 . nutritional problems and parasitism are common.70 per cent of the total deaths. diabetes mellitus. transport and industry sectors Respiratory diseases and COPD are in the top ten causes of mortality in the Philippines. other diseases of the respiratory system.418 reported cases of road traffic accidents in 2003. In 1998. hepatitis. Adolescents and youth account for 17 percent of the total morbidity from notifiable diseases and 6.526 cases reported in 2001. 1. tuberculosis) Tuberculosis. This double burden of disease places a great toll on the health and economy of the people and of the nation as a whole.25 accidents per 10. diseases of the vascular system. nephritis/nephritic syndrome and nephrosis. About 15.4.4. and 333 cases due to cholera. had 118. diarrhea is the top cause of illness in the Philippines.000 population.855 cases of pesticide poisoning.757 illnesses are due to typhoid fever. pesticide poisoning) In 2000. All of these are preventable diseases with provision of adequate water supply and sanitation facilities and proper hygiene practices. The top ten leading causes of mortality are diseases of the heart.4.2 Diseases associated with agricultural and irrigation development (proportion of undernourished people. 1.is increasing and will continue to do so. it was estimated that there were about 1. Respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia are in the second and third causes of morbidity in the Philippines.408 cases in 2002. chronic phlegm. Road safety is still an important concern in the Philippines.6 Water supply and sanitation-related diseases (such as diarrheal diseases.3 Respiratory diseases related to outdoor air pollution from energy. the prevalence of underweight pre-school children (between 1 to 5 years old) is 32 percent. schistosomiasis.736 cases due to hepatitis. Research shows that the incidence of bronchitis among Metro Manila children is 11 times the national average and that chronic cough. malignant neoplasms. tuberculosis.000 vehicle registration. In 1998. This is about 21.5 Diseases relating to poor housing (including pulmonary diseases.4. cholera.

Policy.The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 RA 9003.The Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 PD 1067 .000 cases with about 183 deaths in 2002. such as the following: a) b) c) d) Constitution.1 National policies. used automobile tires and other items that collect rainwater.1. Dengue is preventable by eliminating the habitat of the mosquito Aedes aegypti that breeds in urban and semi-urban environment such as man-made containers like earthenware jars. dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever) Malaria is the eighth cause of illness in the Philippines with around 40. Dengue/DHF was reported with 16.The Ecological Solid Waste Management of 2002 RA 9275.Environmental Impact Statement System of 1978 RA 6969. and Institutional Structure Legislative and Policy Framework 2.Tobacco Regulation Act 2.1.Philippine Health Promotion Programme through Healthy Places e) RA 9211 . found mostly in the southern part of the country. 341 .Sanitation Code of the Philippines of 1975 PD 1586.The Philippine Environment Code of 1977 PD 600 . However.Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 6 .Sanitation Code of the Philippines Administrative Order No.4. the problem has been that enforcement is weak and there is not enough concerted political will and commitment. metal drums and concrete cisterns used for domestic water storage. Health impact assessment has been made part of environmental impact assessment since 1997.Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act of 1990 RA 8749.2 Relevant legislation addressing environmental health issues The Philippines has been a pioneer in developing excellent environmental laws and public health legislation in the region. 2 2. Article XII Cabinet Resolution No. plague.The Philippine Water Code of 1976 PD 522 – Sanitation Requirements for Transport Facilities of 1974 PD 856 . as well as discarded plastic food containers. plans or strategies for environmental health There are national policies on environmental health but contained within various laws and administrative orders.The Marine Pollution Decree of 1974 PD 979 . Some of the related regulations are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) PD 1152 .1. 37: Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development PD 856 .7 Vector-borne diseases (such as malaria. Environmental impact assessment was recognized to be important and required as early as 1978.000 cases.1 Legal.

2 List of agencies and partners for environmental health other than the government Several nongovernmental organizations and civil societies organizations are doing environmental health work in the Philippines. 2. Department of Labor and Employment. to conduct activities. 2. assist and/or support the conduct of research and relevant activities for environmental maintenance and protection. monitor.2 Institutional Structure for Environmental Health 2. Department of Science and Technology. Department of Agriculture. coordination and technical assistance on environmental health. with secretary of Department of Environment and Natural Resources as vice-chair.3 Decentralization and / or privatization policies dealing with environmental health The environmental health functions including environmental mandates have been devolved to the regional offices and local government units through the following regulation: • RA 7160 Local Government Code of 1991 • Department of Health Administrative Order No. water. National Economic Development Authority. The committee members come from Department of Public Works and Highways. It is composed of 11 members chaired by the secretary of the Department of Health. 7 . occupational health. Regional IACEH were also created through DOH Department Circular No. and Public Information Agency. There are five sectors of IACEH with their own subcommittees: solid waste.2.2.1 Administrative / organizational set-up of the country on environmental health An Inter-agency Committee on Environmental Health (IACEH) has been formed through Executive Order 489 of 1991. Department of Transportation and Communication. Department of Interior and Local Government. air. Among them are the following: Philippine Environmental Journalists Inc. 48 series of 1995. and evaluate EH programs and development projects c) Undertake information dissemination and education campaigns on EH programs d) Coordinate.1. At the Department of Health. The functions of IACEH are to a) Formulate policies and guidelines and develop programs for environmental health protection b) Coordinate. 18: Devolution of health services to local government units (LGU) of 1992 The central office mainly deals with policymaking. Department of Trade and Industry.2. there is an Environmental and Occupational Health Office with two divisions: Water and Sanitation Division and Health Care Waste and Toxic/Hazardous Substances Division. programs and projects geared to the reduction or prevention of environmental hazards and risks posed by environmental pollution through an inter-agency approach. toxic and hazardous waste.

2 Formal and informal training programs for environmental health 8 . are estimated to be more than 2.- Wildlife Foundation of the Philippines Haribon Foundation Green Forum Philippines Crusade for Sustainable Environment Likas. Tao at Kalikasan Philippine Business for the Environment 2.Kyoto Protocol p) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control 3 3. Pollution control officers. In 2004.3 Related government agencies involved in environmental health and their respective functions Annex 1 provides the list of a dozen government agencies involved in the various functions of environmental health in the Philippines. 2. professionals and their skills The Philippines has a surplus of qualified manpower in environmental health since there are formal courses available in the country.000 throughout the country. there are about 3.000 health inspectors and 122 sanitary engineers within government service of the Department of Health and local government units. employed in the private sector.1 Human Resources Development Programs Environmental health workforce.2. 3.3 Relevant International Conventions and Agreements Ratified or Signed The Philippines is a party to the following international agreements: a) b) c) d) e) f) Stockholm Convention on POPs (2001) Montreal Protocol on Ozone layer depleting substances (1987) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary of Air Pollution (1979) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) Kyoto Protocol (1997) Basel Convention on transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal (1989) g) Convention on Biological Diversity (12 June 1992) h) Convention to Combat Desertification i) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) j) Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer k) Law of the Sea l) Marine Dumping m) Nuclear Test Ban n) Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals o) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Formal degrees can be obtained at the tertiary level on the following courses. mostly from the University of the Philippines: a) BS Environmental Health (University of the Philippines) b) BS Sanitary Engineering (Mapua Institute of Technology. sanitary engineers and civil engineers. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Sanitarians Association of the Philippines – more than 3. has to take a government examination to obtain a license to practice.Formal and informal training programs in the Philippines are many.4 Professional associations There are many at least eight professional associations in the Philippines related to environmental health. 3. Technological Institute of the Philippines.3 Short course for sanitary inspectors Certificate course on toxic and hazardous waste management Short course on air quality management Pollution control officers training programs Government certification Environmental health workforce such as medical doctors. 9 . Health inspectors if employed in government have to take the civil service examination. Inc (PCAPI) Philippine Association of Environmental Assessment Professionals (PAEAP) Philippine Environmental Industry Association (PEIA) Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) or Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines (76 firms) Safety Organization of the Philippines (SOPI) Environmental Health Study Group Philippine Society of Sanitary Engineers. Inc.000 members Pollution Control Association of the Philippines. Some of these groups are duly registered but others have been formed informally. Philippine Society of Chemical Engineers The Air and Waste Management Association (based in the US) has a local chapter in the Philippines. National University and University of Baguio) c) MS Public Health (UP) d) MS Environmental Engineering (UP) Informal training or continuing education is also available for environmental health such as: a) b) c) d) 3.

1 Agriculture Sector Since the Philippines is still predominantly an agricultural country. These ecozones have their environmental units that enforce environmental laws on control of air and water pollution. 4.6 percent of total freshwater resources are used for irrigation serving 1. About 326 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in 2000. there are large inputs of fertilizer and pesticides that might be released as part of irrigation runoff thus contaminating water resources. programming and policy-making n) Lack of logistics and facilities 4. 10 . followed by hydropower and renewable energy such as geothermal and solar.550. mainly fossil fuel (oil and coal). local communities l) Traditional approach in environmental governance: regulatory vs development m) Sustainable development concerns are not fully integrated in planning.4 Priority Environmental Health Issues The following issues have been identified in many discussion groups and by the respective government agencies (not in order of priority): a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Biological dead rivers due to water pollution Presence of smoke belching motor vehicles causing air pollution Rapid population growth Inadequate sewerage system and sludge management system for septic tanks Inadequate monitoring of drinking water sources Absence of a rationalized land use plan Improper and indiscriminate disposal of solid and liquid wastes Unregulated management of toxic and hazardous chemicals substances Loss of primary agricultural lands Weak implementation and enforcement of environmental regulations/laws Inappropriate assessment of adverse impacts of development/industrialization to affected stakeholder. Fossil fired power plants have to deal with the following environmental problems: air pollution.e. thermal pollution.020 metric tons were used. noise.000 hectares of irrigated agricultural land. 4. i.2 Energy Sector The country relies on a variety of energy sources.3 Industry Sector The Philippines has established ecozones or industrial estates that are group of companies that are not heavy industries (not major polluters). fly ash and sludge disposal. About 72. and disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste. about 723. In 2002.

5 5. Despite the law that requires passing of emission testing prior to vehicle registration. There is not enough landfill space and the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act has intensified solid waste disposal and recycling efforts.4 5.3 5. 4. Although public/mass transport are established such as the LRT and MRT trains. there are still too many vehicles on the road ( causing traffic jams most of the day. traffic crashes. 4. and jeepneys. Environmental management could reduce the incidence by removing their habitat. buses. it has not eliminated the so-called “smoke belchers” on the road since around 70% of the vehicles still use diesel for fuel. Water borne diseases are preventable through provision of adequate water supply systems and sanitary facilities. Buses and jeepneys often use second hand engines with inefficient combustion engines that are the sources of ambient air pollution. ambient air pollution.6 Cross-cutting issues Malaria and dengue are still important causes of illnesses in the Philippines.2 5.1 5.6 Areas Requiring Improvement Specific policies and legislation for environmental health Institutional development and intersectoral collaboration Human resources development Monitoring and surveillance Integration of health and environment in international/regional agreements Others 11 . Bottled water have been popular among households and establishment since the drinking water from the tap is suspected not potable. The number of vehicles on the road is just staggering for a small road network (4 million registered vehicles).4. 5 5. Rural areas have less coverage. which will be discontinued since incineration is banned in the country under the Clean Air Act.5 Urban /Rural Development Sector Diarrhea is still the number one cause of illness in the Philippines with less than a million cases in 2001. There are hospital incinerators. Health care waste is not properly managed as existing facilities and technologies are not adequate.4 Transport Sector Road safety. and noise are the issues pertinent to the transport sector in the Philippines.

protection. planning.etc.Annex 1 – List of government agencies and partners for environmental health (for Section 2. Its primary function is the promotion.3) AGENCY Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) FUNCTIONS Formulation and revision of water quality criteria and effluent standards Regulates effluent quality from formulating plants Regulates industrial sources Monitors disposal sites for leachate contamination. air pollution.2. Formulation. preservation and restoration of the health of the people through the Development of drinking water standards (National Center for Disease Prevention and Control) Formulation of rules and regulations on proper waste management Regulates food quality (Bureau of Food and Drug) Licensing of water resources for development Over-all coordination of water rights Levels 2 and 3 Sewerage System Water Quality Monitoring Levels 2 & 3 of Water Districts For cities and municipalities outside MM Development of water districts Construction of water supply facilities Department of Health (DOH) National Water Resources Council (NWRC) Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Local Government Units (LGU) - Responsible for water quality monitoring Enforcement of anti-pollution regulation/laws Health units provide service for poisoning cases Health education on food hygiene Monitor environmental impact Issues sanitation permits to food establishments Regulates domestic discharges Develops and implements solid waste Over-all Management of the Laguna Lake basin Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) - Enforcement of anti-pollution laws in Metro Manila 12 . implementation. and coordination of policies and programs in the field of environmental health.

rules and regulations. housing. monitors pesticide residues in selected crops. control and eradication of pests. protection and assistance programs (National Meat Inspection Commission) Advise and coordinate with LGUs on the maintenance of proper sanitation and hygienic practices in fish markets and fish landing areas. recommend plant quarantine policies and prescribe rules and regulations for the prevention. conducts R & D activities on organic fertilizers and natural pesticides. poultry and allied industries (Bureau of Animal Industry) Enforce meat inspection laws. among others (Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources) 13 . distribution and sale of livestock. education and other social development services Enforcement of anti-pollution laws in Metro Manila Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) Department of Agriculture - - - - - - Regulates the fertilizer and pesticide industries. coordinate and monitor the activities and projects relating to livestock and allied industries. regional and multilateral arrangements geared towards ensuring food security. provide technical assistance in meat plant development. diseases. promote consumer information. provide laboratory services to the meat industry. conducts crop pest infestation monitoring.Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) - Support bilateral. regional and multilateral agreements on the protection of the environment Initiate bilateral. conducts public information campaigns (Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority) Protection of agricultural crops from pests and diseases. labeling. conducts outreach services for farmers/fisherfolk (Plant Health Clinics). development and improvement of farm equipment and other related structures to the plant industry. implement an inspection system for import and export of fishery/aquatic products and fish processing establishments consistent with international standards. prescribe standards for the quality of manufacture. advertising. and injuries to plant and plant products. importation. perform inspection on imported meat and meat products. and the delivery of health and nutrition. ensure safe supply of fresh agricultural crops and promote its export (Bureau of Plant Industry) Proper preservation and inspection of livestock products.

1.0-14 years .2 1.1.4 14 .65+ years 1.1.2 1.1.71 40 260.PHILIPPINES Environmental Health Data Sheet As of November 18.Female 1.75 2.1.1.1.1 1.50 29 38.00 3.1 Urban population (%) Adult literacy rate (%) .35 Y 1050.00 2002 1 81 081 46 40 820.Female 1.00 2003 2003 2003 31 31 3 95.1 Annual population growth rate (%) Percentage of population .3 Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births) Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births) Newborn infants weighing at least 2500g at birth (%) General economy: narrative report (separate sheet) Per capita GNP at current market prices (US$) Total expenditure on health as % of GNP Development priorities: narrative report (separate sheet) Land area for agriculture (as percentage of total land area) Human development index (Highest = 1) Human development index Rank (out of 177 countries) DATA Year Source 300.1 1.1.75 83 1999 2001 2002 2002 7 9 5 5 1.1.1 1.36 2003 2003 2003 2000 1 1 1 2 34.65 4.1.00 83.3 1.1 1.2 1.1.1.Both sexes .1 95.25 61.1 1.1.1.Total .0 72. 2004 INDICATORS 1 1.Male .10 2003 2003 2003 2002 2001 2000 4 4 4 5 5 17 2003 2001 10 18 47 41 0.Male .1 Development. Environment and Health Area (1000 km2) Estimated population ('000) .

G.Rural 1. year) Number of registered vehicles Rate (number per 100.Rural 1.P Y.4 1.Rural 1.7 1996 1998 1998 2003 26 26 26 11 33 70 40 80-100 7 2003 2003 2002 2000 11 25 1.2.2.1 Population with adequate excreta disposal facilities (%) .1 Solid waste collection (% of total waste generated) .2.Urban .P 2003 2003 2003 2003 13 13 13 13 2004 30 15 .2.8 88 64 1998 1998 1998 26 26 26 66. G.4 1.2 1.000 population) Number of registered motorcycles Rate (number per 100.3 1.9 57.1 1.2.2.Urban . year) • Poison Control Center University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital • Poison Control & Information Service Network UP-PGH Chemical emergency preparedness (Y/N list. G/P) Ambient air (Y/N .2.Total .3 90 2003 32 Y 2003 29 1.2.2 Proportion of urban population served by municipal solid waste collection (%) Proportion of urban population served by sewerage system (%) Metro Manila Proportion of population with electricity (%) Poison center service (Y/N list.Total .2 1.2.80 1 552 579 2029.P Y.6 Presence of government/private laboratories and equipment for monitoring Drinking water (Y/N. year) Proportion of population living in informal settlements (%) Presence of building regulations and inspection (Y/N list.50 Y Y.2.000 population) 1.INDICATORS 1.2. G.2.8 75.Urban . G/P) DATA Year Source 86.2.1 1.5 N 30 Y 4 292 272 5610.1 Population with access to safe water (%) .2. G/P) Water resources (Y/N .

4 1.INDICATORS Noise (Y/N . average) short term … 1 …7897 0.1 1.3.3. G 85 Year Source 2000 14 1.293 2003 35 1.4.3 1.2 1.3.4 Toxic and hazardous wastes generated (tons/year) Industries generating toxic and hazardous wastes (number) Health-care waste generation (tons per year) Nuclear waste generation (tons per year) Cases of pesticide poisoning (number) Proportion of undernourished population (%) Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (%) Motor and other vehicle injuries (number) Road traffic crashes: Number of accidents (within a year) Rate (Accident per 100. G/P) 1.2 1.2 1.3.46 2003 2003 13 13 16 .3 50.000 population) 2003 2003 2001 39 39 27 326 23 32 5018 2000 1998 1998 1998 29 5 22 6 16.4.4 1.4.3 (Average of 5 LGUs in MM) 2.30 – 0. G Y.1 45.7 1.3.4 1.2 M 2948 10.4. G/P) Proportion of population using solid/biomass fuels for cooking or heating (%) Proportion of vehicles using diesel (%) Proportion of vehicles using unleaded gasoline (%) Average number of times national air quality standards are exceeded in a year: a.3.3.418 21. In major drinking water supplies Industries generating wastewater (number) Solid waste generated (kg/per capita/day) Solid waste generated (tons per year) Proportion of recyclable solid waste (%) Biodegradable Non-biodegradable DATA Y.2.3. short-term (1-hour average) frequency of exceedance b.71 10 M 2003 2003 2003 13 13 40 1. long-term (8-hour average) frequency of exceedance Average number of times national water quality standards are exceeded in a year a.3.3.4.2 1. In three major rivers b.1 1. G/P) Radiation (Y/N .3 1.8 30.2 2003 2004 2003 2003 34 37 35 35 1.1 Presence of government/private system for data collection and processing (Y/N.4 1.4 1.3. G.3.P Y.1 69.3.2 …96 times out of 446 exceeded the national air quality guideline value in National Capital Region (NCR) (24 hrs.

70 142.874 28.453 Number of cases 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1. Chronic obstructive 8.50 12.00 10. Hypertension 6.000 population 76.25 18. all forms 7. Influenza 5. Tuberculosis.40 31.4.000 vehicle registration) Rate (Injuries per 10.50 408.4. Diarrhea 2. Accidents 6.INDICATORS Rate (Accident per 10.408 2002 20 17 .516 7.30 Rate per 100. TB Respiratory 7.11.87 1. Other diseases of the respiratory system 10.000 vehicle registration) Rate (deaths per 100.30 19.20 60. Chickenpox 1.4. Measles 10.4.7 1.819 7. 228 8.090 29 .00 31. Pneumonia 4. Diseases of the heart 8.80 38. Diseases of the heart 2.60 46.5 Tuberculosis (All types) 118.11. Malaria 9.nephritic syndrome and nephrosis Ten leading causes of mortality Ten leading causes of morbidity DATA 38. Pneumonia 4.00 891.40 641. 041 14. Diabetes mellitus 9. Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis 3.4.30 10. Malignant neoplasms 5.7 1.000 population) 1.40 52.70 837.30 56.10 43.3 Number Rate per 100. Diseases of vascular system 3.90 40.000 population 1085.709 32 . Nephritis.2 Number of deaths … Year 2003 2003 2003 Source 13 13 13 845 526 694 836 652 585 499 887 318 521 110 841 47 040 40 543 24 494 24 359 Number 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 55 830 41 380 33 .

year) • RA 9211 .526 4606 C: 2001 D: 1998 1.4.6 Cholera Typhoid fever (and paratyphoid fever) 333 15.1 2.6 1. 37: Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development Policies to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (Y/N list.4.156 Y 1 71 183 1998 2002p 2002 2.1 Y 1987 1989 Y 2003 9 9 12 2.1.4.6 Diarrhoeal diseases 845. Water b. year) PD 856 .2 Y 2004 12 15 1977 1974 18 .4. year) • Administrative Order No.4. Solid Waste d.Tobacco Regulation Act National policies for healthy settings (such as healthy cities) (Y/N list.INDICATORS 1. and Institutional Structure National environmental health policy (Y/N list.Sanitation Code of the Philippines National environmental policy (Y/N list. year) a.7 1. Article XII • Cabinet Resolution No. year) • Constitution.4.4.5 1. 341 Philippine Health Promotion Programme through Healthy Places Environmental/Health Acts promulgated: (Y/N list. Toxic chemicals/Hazardous Waste e.4.6 1. Policy.1 Plague Malaria Dengue/DHF Legal.7 1.The 1977 Philippine Environment Code • PD 600 .757 … 1120 2001 C: 2001 D: 1998 1.1. Air c. Others • PD 1152 .1.6 Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases Acute respiratory infections Hepatitis viral DATA … … 6736 … … 966 Year Source C: 2001 D: 1998 8 6 8 8 6 8 6 6 20 20 1.005 16.1.4.1 Y 1997 12 2.The Marine Pollution Decree of 1974 … 37.7 2 2.1.

Environmental Impact Statement System • RA 6969.3 2. year) Organizational structure for environmental health (separate sheet) List of agencies and partners for environmental health other than government Philippine Environmental Journalists Inc. year) HIA as part of EIA requirement (Y/N list.1.2.2.2 Y Y 2. Tao at Kalikasan DATA Year 1976 Source Y 1976 1976 1975 1978 1990 1999 2000 2004 41 2.Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 EIA as an official requirement (Y/N list.The Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 • PD 981 – National Pollution Decree of 1976 • PD 1067 .Sanitation Code of the Philippines • PD 1586.Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act • RA 8749.3 Y Y Y 1978 1997 15 12 1991 1992 12 12 2.1. year) Policies for decentralization such as for environmental health and monitoring (Y/N list.The Philippine Water Code • PD 856 .1.The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 • RA 9003. year) • RA 7160 Local Government Code • Department of Health Administrative Order No.2 2.1. 18: Devolution of health services to local government units (LGU) Policies for privatization such as for environmental health and monitoring (Y/N list.The Ecological Solid Waste Management • RA 9275. year signed/ratified) Y Y 2004 9 19 .3 List of government agencies and their functions (separate sheet as Annex 1) Relevant international conventions/agreements (List.3 N 2. (PFEJ) Wildlife Foundation of the Philippines Haribon Foundation Green Forum Philippines Crusade for Sustainable Environment Likas.2.2 2.INDICATORS • PD 979 .1 2.

2 20 .279 Y 2004 37 21 3.INDICATORS Philippines is a party to: • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change • • DATA Signed Ratified Signed Signed Ratified Entered into force Signed Ratified Entered into force Year 1992 1994 05/27/04 1998 1993 1994 1988 1991 1991 Source 36 Stockholm Convention on POPs Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer • • The Philippine signed: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Kyoto Protocol Signed Ratified Signed Ratified 06/12/92 08/02/94 04/15/98 11/20/03 • • Convention on Biological Diversity (12 June 1992 • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (12 June 1992) • Convention to Combat Desertification • Convention on International Trade in 3 3.1 Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer • Law of the Sea • Marine Dumping • Nuclear Test Ban The Philippines signed: • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeKyoto Protocol Human Resources Development Programs Environmental Health Workforce Pollution Control Officer (accredited) Tertiary degrees related to environmental • 7.

000 members • Pollution Control Association of the Philippines.1 4.4 Y 3.738 ktons of CO2 1999 38 21 .2 3.1 723.2 4.550 2001 19 100. Inc (PCAPI) • Philippine Association of Environmental Assessment Professionals (PAEAP) • Philippine Environmental Industry Association (PEIA) • Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) or Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines (76 firms) • Safety Organization of the Philippines (SOPI) • Philippine Business for the Environment (PBE) International associations’ local affiliates (Y/N list.3 Y 3. memberships) • Sanitarians Association of the Philippines – more than 3.1 4.1 4.6 4.6 1996 23 4. memberships) • Air and Waste Management Association Priority Environmental Health Issues Soil erosion (mm/year) Fertilizer consumption (metric tons/year) Pesticide consumption (metric tons/year) Banned pesticides used (number) Water resources withdrawal for irrigation (annual withdrawal as percentage of total water resources) Irrigated agricultural area (1000 ha) Inputs from Chapter 1 Carbon dioxide emissions (ktons CO2) DATA Year Source 1975 Y 21 3.4 Y 4 4.020 2002 19 72.1 4.1 4.INDICATORS health (Y/N list) • BS Environmental Health (UP) • BS Sanitary Engineering (MIT) • MS Public Health (UP) • MS Environmental Engineering (UP) Short courses and duration related to environmental health (Y/N list) • Short course for sanitary inspectors • Certificate course on toxic and hazardous waste management (UP) Government certification for environmental workforce (Y/N list) • Government board examination for licensure for sanitary engineering Professional associations related to environmental health (Y/N list.6 1.

National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC . National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) 11 Environmental Management Bureau (EMB).doh. 22 February 2004 19 Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics . est.gov. National Epidemiology Center – Department of Health (DOH) 7 Department of Agriculture .http://www.denr.ph 8 2001 Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS) – Department of Health (DOH) 9 United Nations Environment Program.nscb.emb.http://www.undp.http://apps.rrcap.org 6 1998 Philippine Health Statistics.ph/ 16 DOH Field Health Service Information System 17 DOH Field Health Service Information System Annual Report 2000 18 Information provided by WHO Representative for the Philippines.INDICATORS 4.gov.unescap.ph 3 2003 ESCAP Population Data Sheet http://www.http://www.jsp 20 Tuberculosis Cases 2002.da.gov.ph 14 2004 World Health Report .6 Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP metric tons) DATA 2. National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) 2 Population Commission _Department of Health (DOH) – http://www.fao.http://www.popcom.gov.049 1.gov.ph/ 12 Department of Health (DOH) .who.lto.ph 5 2004 Human Development Reports – http://www. Regional Resource Center for the Asia and the Pacific (UNEP RRCAP) . WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific Tuberculosis Control in the WHO Western Pacific Region 2003 Report 22 .gov.org/stat/data/statind/index.ph/ 13 Land Transportation Office (LTO).http://www.422 Year 2001 2002 2003 Source 22 Notes: … Data not available. data provided by Stop TB and Leprosy Unit.http://www. Estimate C Cases D Deaths p Preliminary Sources: 1 2003 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. Department of Transportations & Communications .644 1.gov.org/default.asp 4 National Statistical Coordination Board – http://www.int/whr/en/ 15 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) http://www.org/ 10 National Accounts of the Philippines.unep.

Malaria and Dengue cases and deaths. Regional and Provincial.http://www. Final Report. Housing and Urban Coordinating Council 31 1995 Census Based National.http://www.org/statistics/ 23 Philippine Environment Monitor. Vectorborne and Parasitic Diseases Unit. Manila UPM) . data provided by Malaria.NSO 32 Department of Energy.http://www. Population Projection.Office of the President 2003 29 Poison Control Centers 2003 30 Housing Need Projection: 2001-2004. Phil. Volume 8.ph/ 22 Asian Development Bank Statistics . September 2003 28 Built Operate and Transfer Center. Medical Waste Management. World Bank 2003 26 National Health and Demographic Survey-DOH-NSO 1998 27 Asian Development Bank.gov 33 Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project – ADB 34 EMB 35 NSWM Status Report 36 Philippine Senate/DFA 37 EMB-Regional Accomplishment Report 38 38. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.up. Web site. World Bank 2000 24 Philippine Environment Monitor (Solid Waste).edu. 10 March 2004 21 University of the Philippines (Diliman UPD.adb.doe. Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project [TA 3848PHI]. World Bank 2001 25 Philippine Environment Monitor (Water Quality). Institute National Convention on Climate Change 39 EMB Regional Office report 40 Metro Manila TSP sampling 41 The President in the exercise of the legislative power 23 .

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