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(Buddhism in the Western World)




jwr;tmr,msv,mi env,kmr:l

bIkRidrx2011 n oxs v,s nv,budrxt j wr; y qbr,kwr;n fr: t Unr; 2600 bI
dqmrl Ic/mr:y wrx<
1
huicrn/nr:mv:gv;nn rxes dv. s v,s nv,budrxt
j wr;n ox duigrxa wrs Il o/mqwr:y zmrxdUwrmn r:woxes kwr;pQwrgfv,nfr:dUcr,
wUcr:s uicr,wQdr;l zmrxl o/dI;l o/d/cr:l o/mUicr:l o/Ficr;Ec;woxy U,>
gf/mr:t mr:budrt j wr; a n rmUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwr gmrbn r;j zmr:
n fr:wnr:mUiwr;n oxj mrxl o;hnrmI:l o/gUicr:l o/gnwox< n fr:nnrxkwr;bv:g
net ,Rwv,d<mhv,y v,n El ; wj iRy v,n (gmr;nmrhuj gr:gnr
wv; j /wr:budrxdibQdr x) j Uiwr:noxy wrx<n fr:mUicr:a em,Rig/nr, wnr:mUiwr;
n oxj mrxgmr;nmrhuj gr:gn dibQdrxEl ; j qnr: (Zen Buddhism)<
a mr,nnrgmrbnr;j zmr:l o/: gnwj iRy v,ngmr;nmry wrx<nfr:l igr;
WmrdzmrhUwrnoxj mrxhwr:eda mr,a wrj frs fr,nUiwrl zcr;wv;mUicr:l frgmrbnr;
j zmr:l o/:gna n rl fr< hwr:edd/cr,l wr;Engfv, l UYr;l zcr;buin r:
budrxt s v,s nv, kwr;pQwrnfr:mUicr:wn r:dUgr:gUYr:< dI;a n rbudrx
s v,s nv, kwr;pQwrgfv,nfr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:nnrxegv; b/nrmnr:mI:woxy U,
s zcrb/n r<s zcrb/n rn nrxj mrxbqn rb/nrmUiwr;j wrx(3
rd
B. C. E) El ;
b/n r,mfr, (13
th
century to present day) y wrx<wv;huiwregv;l I dI;n o;-
hwr:a wreda wrbuinr:b/nrmfr, bqn ry fr,es l /dr;gfv,< l o;l qbr;hqn r:
huwv; kun rehvkmr:a es v:g (mUiwr;bo,bqn rj /wr:budrxn n rxj uiwr;mnr:huwv;

1
budrt j y nrdi<a mr,nnra v,y us v,s nv, 2600 bInoxed,nbrxa wrmUiwr;budrxt j wr;
ed,bqnrCpv:< ebv:s mrxnbrxa wr mUiwr;mnr:j wr;a wrnibrxb/nr,j mrxbIbudrxt s v,s nv,j wr;
duigrxkwr;mI:nfr: 2550 gUYr:>

bqn rs nrdv,es v:g<wo/:es bqn rj /wr:budrxmv:y wrxn n rxl o;j uiwr;wv;
kunrehvkmr:t mrmv,es v:g) n oxbqn rpU;a nra wr gf/mr:t mr:budrxj wr;
gfv,pUiYrEp;n fr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr: Hellenic World
2
(hUmr;kwr;bv:
Middle East
3
El ; Asia Minor
4
l /mr:bv:gfv,t uicr bzdr:j /nr:
mUicr:m/nr; [bqn rmUicr:mznr:?]<mUicr:s I,hUwr,<mUicr:t o: hUmr;bv:j qcr,a zgr,
bzdr:j /nr:ea :s Lv:)a zn rd/cr:s udr:bUin r;<bImnr:j mrxmQn r; mUiwr;n fr:
(3
rd
century B.C. E) y wrx<gUYr:gv; l o;huwv;s v,s nv,budrxt j wr;
a n ra wrgfv,pUiYrEp;mUiwr;j wrx a mr,ebv:dn r:m/gr;bUcr: mn r;guimr:
mUinrn cr, mUicr:ea :s Lv:y /mr:l qwr< nv;a znrkun rehv:kmr:a es v:g
bo,gfv, pUiYrEp;s v,s nv,budrxt n fr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:nn rxl o;huwv;l ucr:
kunrehvkmr:a es v:g El ; a l Qgrxs nr:dv: (327-325 B. C.)
mI:l zcr;kzcrxkmrEl ; mI:l zcr;gbr:s uibr,kwr;a zgr,gnrwoxy U,noy wrx<y U,dI;
l zcr;kwr;a zgr,gnrn oxes l o;huwv;a bumr,j Uicr:j wr;Res x< a mr,n nr
j wr;a Rhnrkwrn nrx l o;pQwrgfv,nfr:dUcr,wUcr: kUiwr:gUn r:gRigrxkwry U,
n oy wrx<wo/:es nnrxt Qcr; kunrehvkmr:gRigrxa n rmI:j uiwr;wv; mil in rd
(emnnrdUiwr) nnrxbqn rmv:kunrj /wr:budrxes a ubrxbUicr,pzcr:cmr: mUicr:
a in r:dI:y v: j qcr,Wcr,bzdr:dUgr:y wrx<gzbr;mnr:es bbrxj uiwr;s qcry fr,

2
bqnrmUicr:gRigrxb/nrg/cr(Classic Greece or Classic Period, from 5
th
to 4
th
B. C?)>
3
mUicr: Middle East noxmI:nfr:wUcr;g/crmUicr:ea s Lv:bzdr:dUgr: El ; bzdr:Wcr,apRig<bqnr
dI;gUidr,a zgr,s v,s nv,l o/a nr mUinrncr, s v,s nv,j Uwr:RUwr: (s r) t Riy /nr
(Zoroastrianism)<s v,s nv,j Udo/: (Judaism)<s v,s nv,kRidr(Christianity) El ;
s v,s nv,aidrs l mr(Islam) j Uiwr:noxy wrx>
4
Asia Minor noxmI:nfr:wUcr;g/cr b/cr,l o/,l mr (Black Sea) El ; b/cr,l o/,emdit Uiwr
Rnrniy nr(Mediterranean Sea)<mUiwr;j wrxnnrxgRigrxkwrmgr:mnr;mUicr:j Uiwr:noxbqnrmUicr:
ea :s Lv:y wrx<j uiwr;a nrwv;ea :s Lv:monv:noxbqnrpU;dQmr;l igr;l dinr, (Orosios) bnrwox
mUiwr;nfr:bI(4
th
century A.D) nnrxy wrx<mUiwr;nfr: (9
th
century A. D) nnrxj mrxl o;j uiwr;
wv; dUcr,cmr:l inrbzdr:azgr, (Anatoli or East Thema)<gUnr:gy U:RUbrxkwrmUiwr;j wrxn nrx
s mrxd/cr,wv; gunrbzdr:dUgr: El ; bzdr,j /nr:ea :s Lv: (The West & South Coasts of
Asia) noy wrx>

mUinrn cr, ^mil inrdbn rhv&
5
noxj cr,pudr:mI:mv:y wrx<n zgr;es nn rx
t Qcr; pU;mI:j uiwr;s qcrpo/,l zcr;t zcrxt qwr;gfv,k/wr:d/cr: mUinrn cr,mv,kUwr,
bUwr,l Uwr, (gUn r:gv.<1254-1324 A. D)
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a n rmv:bqnrpU;bnrd/cr:
kfr;j fr El ; pzcr:kqwr (Advisor & Ambassador) dmr;dI; kun rehv
kmr:kubrl o/k/nr (1215-1294 A. D.)
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n nrxegv; l o;huwv; mnr:
a wrk/wr,t mr:budrxt j wr; mUiwr:s Ucr,t uicrmUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwry U,noy wrx>
l zcr;d/cr:s v,s nv,budrxt j wr; l o;kwr;pQwrgfv, n fr:mUicr:wnr:
dUgr:mUiwr;b/nrmfr,noxj mrx mI:woxl o/l zcr;l o/mqwr:wox<mo/nuicr;nnrx bqn rgzbr;
pU;l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;l o/: (Scholars)<
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mo/s zcrbqn rgzbr;j wr;bo/:wUn rxkbrx
(Philosophers)<mo/s /mrs mrxbqn ry znrxl UYr; j wr;pU;mI:Y/nr,l uigrx
l gr:po/ (Intellectualists)<mo/s I, bqn rgzbr;l UYr;pU;dQmr;l igr;l o/:bo/
eb, (Writers)<mo/hv; bqn rgzbr;j wr;bo/:mzn r: (Artists) kwrEl ; bqnr

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bbrxnoxmU,cwr;mnr: y umr,y mrwv; dQmr;woxnfr:s grgd (Sanskrit)<l /mr:woxwv; dQmr;mUiwr;nfr: bI
(100 B.C.E)<bbrxnoxbigrxs mrxmU,cwr;mnr:nnrxdQmr;woxnfr:s grgdes dv. gmr:l uinr:s udr:mv:
l o;hnrguidr:gQnr,woxnfr:l igr;bv,l igUYr:<bbrxnoxmUicr:t o: El ; mUicr:s I,hUwr, a mr,nbrxkwr;bv: nfr:
bbrxbidgdrs /mrgzcr<gUYr:gv; mUicr:m/nr;s mrxnbrxj uiwr;mnr:kwr;bv: nfr:kudrdgnigo/:y wrx<bid
gdrdo:egv; j zmr:l crmU,m/nr;noxy wrx>
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ebv:kfr;huk/wr, l zcr;dUcrxnuicr El ; gfv,k/wr:d/cr:mnr:gmr;pzcr;nnrxs uibr,l Ua wrnfr:bbrx
Marco Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Henry Yule & Henri Cordier,
trans. (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1
st
editon
1998), vols. 1-2 nnrxdv.>
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kunrehvkmr:kubrl o/k/nrnoxbqnrkunrj /wr:budrx(gnmhv,y v,n)<j UiwrxkUiwr:mnr:j mrxbqnrj /wr:
kUiwr:mUnr,gUwr:y wrx< a nrdUbr,y o/;wUcrxehvkmr:do:nfr:mUicr:Ek,es do:s mrxebv:l o;gj /gr,gj o/
gfv,l o;po/,l o/,d/cr: pQwr,gfv,nfr:mUicr:do:<mUicr:t o: El ; mUicr:l /wr: mUinrj Uicrxncr,y /mr:l qwrnox
nnrxbqnrgzbr;kunrehvkmr:mUnr,gUwr,kubrl o/k/nrnoxy wrx>
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nfr:wUcr;g/crpU;l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;l o/: (Scholar) El ; pU;dQmr;l igr; (Writer) noxmI:l zcr;
bQgr,bUicr;gnrwoxa idr:aI;<pU;l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;l o/:anrwv;nnrxbzcr,wv;d/cr:hunuicr;a nrnnrx
mnr:hut uicrdI;es a mr,gv: ebv:emvpuYr,bv:dI;bzcr,mnr:<pU;dQmr;l igr;noxm/cr;egv.egv; ed
bqnrpU;l Ucrxd/cr:hunuicr;mqwr:egv;edbqnrl o;<a mr,nnrd/cr:hunuicr;a nrnnrxmnr:a mr,hu
t uicrbuinrx<gUYr:gv; gzmrxgUYr:hua wrpiwrmnr:es dQmr;gfv,l zcr;d/cr;l o/anrl o/mqwr:woxnnrxy wrx>

y zn rxl UYr;gUn r: j /wr:budrxea :s Lv: a n rko/xgfv,y U, nfr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:
(Asian immigrants) kwrj Uiwr:noxy wrx< n fr:l zcr;d/cr:l o/a nrj Uiwr:
n oxj mrxhwr:eda wrl zcr; a n rj wr;l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;l o/:<j wr;bo/:wUnrx
kbrxEl ; j wr;mI:Y/nr,l uigrxkuigrxpo/kwr (mUiwr;j wrx<a mr,n brxbv:y /mr:
l qwr) a wrk/wr,gf/mr:t mr:budrxt j wr; s Ucr,kwr;gfv,nfr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:
bqn ry fr,es t dr:s /crs br:l Qcr:Engfv,y wrx< l zcr;d/cr:a nrguidr:
j Uiwr:nnrxj mrxhwr:eda wrj imr nfr:Eg;g/crmnr:es d/cr,l /dr;
Engfv,gUYr:>

g/n rhqn r:l igr;l o/:bo/eb, (Academic Study)
gf/mr:gbr:t ugr,a nrwv; ^ebv:bo/gmry mr dmrdUiwrxes kUmr:l Qwr:
(The pen is mightier than the sword)&
9
nonnrx
m/crbzgr;kfr;j fr;egv; edj fr;y U,< gzbr;bo/gmrj wr;l Ucrxl Qnr,
l igr;l o/:po/,t mr,mkwres gUn r: mUicr:wn r:dUgr:b/nrmfr,kwr
j Uwr:aznrgnr j imr:j /mr:dUYr:nmrxt mr: budrxt j wr;mv:nmrEdx<
l o;huwv;t mr:budrxt j wr; a n rl ugrxa rdI; Ek,es bin r,ebkwr;
n fr:l igr;pRQn rx (French) gmr:azn rd/cr: s udr:nnrx bqn r
^s udr;d/nr,s I,s ibr:s zcrdznr;& (The Sutr of Forty-two
Sections) noy wrx<bin r,eb,mUiwr;n fr:bI 1802<pU;bin r,eb mnr:j mrx
bqn rkU: De Guignes< bbrxl igr;t mr,ma nrn ox mI:nfr:l igr;
pRcr,s qdr;gUYr:a mr,gv: bin r,ebkwr;gfv,bv: nfr:l igr;a cr:gidr: El ;
l igr;gLv,m/nr,t Qcr;gzn r,y wrx<pU;bin r,ebkwr; n fr:l igr;a cr:gidr:j mrx
w

E
9
gf/mr:ekv;noxgUnr:dQmr;mnr: bqnrkU:emva cr:gidr: dward Bulwer-Lytton< dQmr;
mUiwr;nfr:bI1839>

bqn rkU:
gzbr;l o;j imr:j /mr:dUYr:bbrxt mr,mmU,noxEl ; l o;hnrbo/:
wUnrxkbrxmnr:nnrx buin rxt /nrmnr:mv:co/:j mr t mr:budrxt j wr;gmr;
12
S. Beal<bin r,mUiwr;n fr: bI1862<
10
bIbin r,kwr; n fr:pv,s v,gLv,
m/nr,j mrxmQn r;mUiwr;nfr: 1913 n I;y wrx>
bbrxmU,noxn nrx l zcr;d/cr:nfr:mnr: gUwr;gwrkUnr:s /n rgnrwox<
a n rhwr:l /dr;l o;hUwrhubr;mnr:Edxn fr:gU;dzn r;nn rxl o;hnrl /dr;
bv:woxl zcr;d/cr:gmrbn r;l Is I,l dv,pU;j zmr:t mr:budrxt j wr;gU;egv.
n nrxy wrx<l o;huwv;bbrxmU,noxn nrxbqn ra n rj fr.duiwr:nmrgnrwoxn fr:mUicr:
j /wr:budrxgnmhv,y v,y v,n mUinrn cr,mUicr:Ek,kwred,gfv,noy wrx<
t mr:a n rbv:nfr:bbrxmU,noxn nrx l o;hnrl Uigr;gQbr:a wrmv: nfr:nigo/:
El ; a v,gmy wrx<
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edl o;wv; bqn rbbrxgqbr:WmrdzmrdQmrt mr,mnoy wrx<
l o;huwv; j wr;bo/:wUn rxkbrxj uiwr;s qcrl uiwr: mUinrn cr,a v,dUiwr,s Uwr:pQn r:
hwr:y Uiwr:egv;
pzcr;y wrx>

10
dv,pU;emvl Ul igr;Ek,kwrnnrx hvl Ua wrl o;nfr: www.tianyabook.com/gudian
/42.htm<<a nrbinr,kwrnfr:l igr;a cr:gidr:j mrxmI:woxl o/mU,<pqcr,d/cr:hnrdUEdxkfr;duigr:
s Unr:pU;l Ul igr;hwr:kwr l Ua wrmU,j Uicrxncr,a nrEdxwoxdcr:dfr;noxy wrx<gzbr;s crEl ;wv;nn r
nomU,noxpU;binr,mnr: l Qbr;h/cr;j mrt mr:gnet Rwv,dgUYr:a mr,gv:<l igr;s grgdegv;
l Qbr;h/cr;ncr,mnr:l Ucrxl Qnr,woxx< l igr;a cr:gidr:a nrbinr,woxnnrxegv; l Uel v;co/;> mU,nox
hvpdr:a wrnfr:bbrx Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, www.sacred-
texts.com/journals/jras/os19-14.htm< j Uiwr:pU;kwr;j fr nfr:l igr;gLv,m/nr,j mrxdUYr:
a wrnfr:bbrxDie 42 Analekta des Buddha; in: Zeitschrift fr Buddhismus
(Schriftleitung: Dr.Wolfgang Bohn), Jg. 1 (1913/14), pp. 11-22; Mnchen:
Schlo-Verlag, 1928 (revised edition)< dv,pU;l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;pR/nrxkwrEdx
pU;dQmr;l igr; a mr,Enbnrd/cr:l o;<hvl Ua wrhcr:gzo:j wr;gwr,dv.>
bbrxbidgdr (s udr;dnrd) a v,gm(s grxgd) El ; nigv,y (bv,l i) noxpU;l Ucrx
l Qnr,l igr;l o/:t mr,mdcr:nmr< a mr,nnr dcr:s zcrpo/,mhv,y v,n El ; et ,Rwv,d
hbrxk/mr,gnrdcr:s zcrpo/,<y Uicr:j U:wv; bqnrt mr,ma nrj wrxl Uiwrs udr:<nfr:kudrdgnigo/:Edx
l o;hnrpU;l Ucrxl Qnr,kwrmI:d/cr:hnrt uicrbQgr,bUicr;gnrwoxa idr:a I;>
12
dv,pU;a nrhgrxd/cr:hukwrnnrxkfr;bnrd/cr:kfr;j fr H;j imr:dUYr:bbrxmnr:a nrbUinr;huj gr:
nmr mUinrncr, Schopenhauer, A, The World as Will and Idea, trans. R.
11
B.

ebv:mv:hqdr:hUwrhubr;mn r:es l /dr;j uicr a nrkU:l Ucrxl Qnr,
l igr;l o/:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwr ed,l qbr;hqn r:t mr,mmUiwr;j wrxn nrx gmr;
n mred,l qbr;hqnr:t mr,mn fr:gnmhv,y v,naznrd/cr:y wrx<mUiwr;hUwr
buicr:s udr:nnrxkU:a cr:gidr: a nrhigr;j uiwr;wv; B. H. Hodgson
(1800-1894) ed,j udzmrt mr:gnmhv,y v,n dI;mUicr:niebv:< wo/:
n nrxkU: Eugene Burnon (1801-1852) aicrnUiwrpuinrt mr: anrB.
H. Hodgson Wmrj udzmrn oxes mnr:l Uigr;bin r, ^s udr;d/nr,mzgr,mUwr
(Lotus Sutr)&mUiwr;nfr:bI 1852<l Uiwres nnrxmnr:kuinr:s uibr,dQmr;
t Qcr;bbrx^buin r:gQbr;s v,s nv,budrxt nfr:mUicr:ainr:dI:y v: (Introduc-
tion to the History of Indian Buddhism)&<bbrxn oxdQmr;n fr:bI
1845< dQmr;woxnfr:pv,s v,pRQnrxl igr;s oz;bv,l i (Essay on Pi,
1826) egv; mnr:dQmr;<mUiwr;nfr:bI1855 nnrxkU: Viktor Fausboll
bin r,bbrx^t mr,mbd&hUmr;kwr;bv: a drt gt v,mnr:gmr;pzcr;<ed,
a wrbI1858 gfv, mnr:kuin r:s uibr,bin r,dQmr;t Qcr; bbrx^j v,dg&<kU: V.
Trenckner (1824-1891) s mrxdQmr;gf/mr:nmr: El ; t dr:mil in rd
bn rhv<mUiwr;n fr:bI1924 nnrxs mrxmn r:kuin r:s uibr,ebv. ^bbrxgumr:gf/mr:
bv,l i (s /mrdzo:)&<bbrxgumr:gf/mr:bv,l imn r:noxedl o;wv;bqn rgQwr; (Rd
dnv,) dv,pU;l qbr;hqnr:l igr;bv,l ikwres s mrxbqn rbbrxgQmrmuiwr:dv,
pU;l Ucrxl Qnr,t mr,mkwrgU;egv.y wrx<l zcr;mnr:j mrxbbrxa n rnoxEnwox
l o/:gRmrmv,mn r:gzo:a mr,gv: gf/mr:t mr,mnuicr;ekv;nn rx mnr:mI:nfr:
l igr;bidgdrbbrxl fr? dzo:l fr? nv;l igr;l fr? ed,gfv,j Uiwr:noxEn woxmUdr:

Haldane, M. A. & J. Kemp, M. A., vols. 1,2,3, London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul Limited, 1883 & Schopenhauer, A, The World as Will and
Representation, trans. E. F. J. Payne, 3
rd
edition, in two volumes: vols. 1-2,
New York: Dover Publications, 1969. noxdv.<nfr:bbrxbinr,pv,s v,s zcra nrnoxbbrx
gmr:l uinr:l crnoxbqnra nrl Uco/;<gzbr;bUiwr;a wrgf/mr:a cr:gidr:b/nrmfr,es dQmr;wox>

(y U,dI;d/cr:hnrt uicrmnr: El ; gv;ncr,mnr:l qbr;hqn r:hnrt uicr)
y wrx<nv;l igr:bzcr:mnr:j mrxl /mr:woxedmI:y U, 2000 l Uiwrl Uiwry wrx>
a n rkuinr:mv:gumr:gmrxt Qmrt Qcr; l igr;t mr:bidgdrj wr;s /mrgzcr
El ; hqdr:H;j Uiwr:l qbr;hqn r:t mr,mn fr:l igr;a cr:gidr: ebv:eda mr,
mI:l zcr;y /br,j frs cres a idr:nnrx bqn rbUa zgr,kU: T. W. Rhys
Davids (1843-1922) El ; Em:n/cr:mn r: kU: Caroline Augusta
Foley Rhys Davids (1858-42) y wrx<y zn rxkvbU,a zgr, a zn rdcr;
j umr:bin r,pv,s v,bv,l i (Pi Text Society) kwr;n fr:l igr;a cr:gidr:
El ; hwr:j cr,l o;hnrt mr:bidgdr n fr:pv,s v,a cr:gidr: j Uicrxn cr,
wnr:mUiwr;n oxy wrx<mU,j umr:a n rnoxed,dcr;mUiwr;nfr:bI 1881<t v,n
cwr;j uic

r;mU,j umr:a nrnoxdcr;y U,woxdI;mUicr:a cr:gidr:<h/nrxedv,wn r:
mUiwr;n ox l igr;bidgdrgnet ,Rwv,ddcr:s qcr; a n rkwrbo,bin r,
ebkwr; n fr:l igr;a cr:gidr:nnrxguidr:a wry U,t Qcr; bbrxy mg (l o;huwv;
duigrxbin r,y U,?)<
13
a drt gt v, (gmr;pzcr;) El ; dI,gv, (gmr;pzcr;)
gUYr:y wrx>
14

l Uiwres nnrxkU:l Ucrxl Qnr,po/,t mr,mkwrj Uiwr:a wrg/n ra nr
n oxhqdr:bqn ra n rl qcrxdzcrxes dQmr;bbrxl igr;t mr,ma zgr,nnrxguidr:mI:
y U,dcr:nmr<n fr:nnrxkU: Herman Oldenber (1854-1920) dQmr;bbrx
^budrxt < t mr,mEl ; s cr,k (The Buddha, His Life, His
Doctrine, His Community, 1881)&<kU: Henry Clarke Warren

13
bbrxmo/nuicr; (dznr;mU,l y mg edv,t uicrs grj y mg) nnrxj wr;Cs v,nv,Rd El ;
gumv,Rv,piwmrs binr,a zgr,mUiwr;nfr:bI 1998<ebv.dI;mel :s Lv:<bbrxmo/s zcrdoz:s zcrmnr:j mrx
(pzcr:duigrxdQmr;l igr;WmrdzmrhUwrnox) l o;huwv;duigrxh/cr;hQnr: dv,edebv.a zgr,mv:y U,noy wrx>
14
ebv:kfr;hudI;gf/cr;mnr: gfv,l Ua wrnfr: http://www.palitext.com/ noxdv.< a drxt
gt v,nnrxmUicr:s I,hUwr,kwr binr,eb,kwr;nfr:l igr;kwrmUdr:y wrx<y /mr:l qwr l o;huwv; kwrduigrx
binr,t Qcr;dI,gv,y U,<g/nrbinr,eb,pv,s v,a nrnoxmU,j umr:gumr:t icr:Ficr;Ec;s v,s nv,budrx
t (Buddhist Cultural Centre) po/,ebv.bbrxl igr;t mr,mkwraznrhUwrnmr:nv;s /cr;<l zcr;
kwrnnrxl Ua wrl o; nfr: http://www.buddhistcc.net/Attakatha.asp>

dQmr; ^bin r,pv,s v,t mr,m(Buddhism in Translations, 1896)&<
Eugene Watson Burlingame s mrxbin r,bbrx^t mr,mbda drt g
t v, (s /mrdoz:)&< bbrxj Uicr: ^j wr;s iddrt (1922)& anrkU:
Herman Hesse (1877-962) dQmr;nnrxegv; bin r,ebkwr; n fr:pv,s v,
l o/a nres bRis /dr;dcr:nmrduigrxs Ucrl UEl ; ebv.a zgr,hnrxedv,
y /mr:l qwr<kU: Spence Hardy dQmr;a zgr,bbrx^buin rxt /nrbudrxs v,s
nv, (A Manual of Buddhism, 1863)&<egv.dQmr; ^d/cr:hnrn Uiwr
n ibrb/nr, (The Concept of the Buddhist Nirva, 1927)&j mrx
bqn rkU: Theodore Stcherbatsky (Russian scholars)<pU;dQmr;bbrx
^dgrgs drt j /wr:budrx(Buddhist Logic, 2 volumes set, 1930)&
j mrxbqn rkU: Fedo Ippolitovich Shcherbatskoi<Abhidharmko-
sabhsya (6 volumes, 1923-31) j mrxegv.dQmr;mnr: bqnrkU: Louis
de la Vallee Poussin (Belgian Indologist)< bbrxj Uiwr:a n rkU:
l Ucrxl Qnr,po/,t mr,mkwr dQmr;a zgr,mUiwr;j wrxn nrxj uiwr;bbrxmn r:guidr:
y U,gmr;pzcr;<gUYr:gv; gzbr;gUwrnv;l igr;mnr: gf/cr;gfv,aidr:nuicr;El ;
eda mr,dQmr;d/cr,Ens qcr;y wrx<wv;nn res dv. edhqdr:hvl Ua wr
o; n fr:dI;l frnoEdx edEnbnrd/cr:mnr:y U,< l Uiwres nnrx
Uiwrgmr;pzcr;n oxbqn rbbrxa nrbn rd/cr:hut mr,m

l
bbrxm/cra n rs mrx bqn rbbrxgLv,m/nr, El ; pRQn rxkwry wrx< bbrxj Uiwr:
Enj uiwr;mnr:mv: bv;n
dmr;dI;gUnr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwrmUiwr;j wrxes hqdr:H;kwrkwr;j fr kfr;l qbr;
hqnr:t mr,mbudrxt j wr;mv: l zcr;n uicr;y wrx>
15


g/br;b/nrbo/:s o/; El ; d/cr:hu(The Age of Science & The Age
of Enlightenment)

15
j uiwr;bbrxa nrguidr:gQnr,woxj Uiwr:nnrx hvl Ua wrl o; nfr:bbrx Naw Kham La
Dhammasami, Another Way of Looking At Things (A Comparative Study of
Schopenhauer and Buddha Perspectives on Human Liberation), pp. 21-24>

t mr,mbudrxt j wr;n oxa mr,j fr;bo/:s o/;<bo/:s o/;egv; a mr,j fr;
t mr,m<gUYr:gv; s crhwr:l /dr;wv; t mr,mbudrxt j wr;noxmI:h/cr;p/cr
l grknv,bo/:s o/noEdxeda mr,pidr:<h/cr;p/cr;bo/:s o/;l U: s mrxbqnr
s crnom/crj Uiwr:edkfr;t /mrn cr,noy U,<h/cr;p/crbo/:s o/;noxn UiwrkUwr:
kzcrwdrxt uEl ;s cr< a mr,n nr n Uiwrl zcr;d/cr:nuicr;a n rEl ;s cr
mnr:mI:nmrxj fr kfr;t dr:s /crhudUwrt Ubr:j /mr:l qbr;hqn r:dUYr:nnrx
y wrx<ebv:a mr,mI:l zcr;dUwrt Ubr:dUYr:nomnr: (bo/:s o/;) a mr,ebv:kfr;
y umr,<mUin rnn rn cr,gwr, t mr,mbudrxt j wr;n oxegv; ebv:gmrbn rj zmr:
n oduinr:edl o; /mr,j v:dUwrt Ubr:pzn r:l Imnr: s uiwr;nv;dn r:dv
a mr,h/crx<t mr,mj wr;egv; duin r:mI:h/cr;p/crpidr;Wcrxd/cr,egv. dUwr
t Ubr:j /mr:dUYr:gU;mUiwr; (ea hibs ig)<gzbr;h/cr;p/crl grknv,t mr,m
a n rnoxes j nrj frj wr;bo/:s o/;kwrdcr:nmrEdxEdx< n fr:dcr:nmr
n nrxebv:edl o;t Ugr:a zgr,l /dr;En dUwry /cr,mn r:egv.nuicr;j uicr
mnr:nnrx bqn r Albert Einstein (1875-1955) y wrx< mnr:nox
bqn rpU;a n rj uiwr;s qcr;l uiwr:bo/:s o/;egv.n uicr;y wrx< gzcrxgo/,l UYr;s v,s
nv,noxes mUiwr;bzgr;n uicr; mnr:y /mr;b/wr,wv; ^mUiwr;nv;mv: s crwv;ed
mI:s v,s nv, a n r
k
dv,edv,s U;l o; bo/:s o/;nnrxebv:noj uicrs v,s nv,
a n rkU: Charles Darwin (1809-1882) b/wr,wv; ^gUn r:El ;
a n rn nrxdgr:bqn rs v,s nv,budrt <l zcr;mnr:j mrxs v,s nv,budrx
t a mr,a wr (God) pIbqn rdI;buicr; El ; hqdr:bqn rpU;dv,a wrhwr:
a zgr,l zdr;dugrxk<s v,s nvbudrxt j wr;End/cr:hwr:wv; dv,edEg;ko
l o;bnrhvEl ; a zgr,l zdr;dugrxknnrxd/mrdUwrgwr,edl o;l ugrxhqdr:
a wr&noy wrx>
s dr:dcr:s qcr;n oxa mr,j fr;j wr;pI (God) po/,nUiwrkUcrs /cr;bnrmv:<
mnr:l Qgr;l o/;ko/xl Ucr:mv: j zmr:duinr:s pv,wmnr:gUYr:&non n rxegv;

gfv,dumrxdUiwrxy zn r; n fr:dUcr,wUcr:s v,s nv,kRidrxed,gfv,kwrEl ; dUcr,
wUcr:gUnr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwrEdxEdxy wrx>
16

mv:t Qcr;gzcrxgo/,l UYr;l zcr; a wrd/cr:hunmr:nv; bzcrs /cr;hqdr:
g/nrnUiwrgU;l zcr;<ed,a wrmUiwr;b/nr17
th
& 18
th
century A. D. nox
mUicr:wnr:dUgr: bqn rb/nrbo/:s o/; El ; bqn rb/nra wrd/cr:hun mr:nv;
(The Age of Enlightenment or Age or Reason) y wrx<t mr,mj wr;
n oxegv; mI:woxt Qcr;h/cr;p/cra n ra wrd/cr:hun mr:nv;es bzcrkuicrs /cr;
nv;g/nrgU;mqwr:nnrxy U,<dUwry /cr,mnr: l zcr;y umr,y mr (s drt v,)
n fr:j /wr:budrxn oEl ;- l zcr;y umr,y mr nfr:d/cr,j /wr:s v,s nv,nn rx
a mr,mI:s un r,l o; l zcr;dv,eddzcr;t /mr<ebv:y umr,egv; edl o;y umr,
y mrdcr:buigr:nnrxy wrx<l zcr;y umr,nfr:j /wr:budrxj mrxa mr,j fr;j Uicrxn nr
l zcr;l fregv; t Ugr:ekv;t /mrl o;< gzcrxgo/,l UYr;l zcr;y umr,y mrn oxes
mUiwr;bzgr;n uicr; j wr;s v,Ribudrd l wr;l /dr;budrxt j wr;wv; ^Cpv:bqn r
j wr;dI;kv;! a nrkv;dEb:hwr: mI:l zcr;y umr,y mrs drxt v, nUiwrj wr;
hwr:kv;nnrxa mr,j fr;l zcr;l br:dvy umr, l zcr;a n ra mr,hul o;<a mr,
hnrl o;ed,gfv,j Uiwr:noxdI;kv;< kv;dEb:hwr: y umr,y mrnUiwrCpv:bqn r
j wr; a icrn Uiwra nrhul o; a n rhnrl o;ed,gfv,es j cr,y umr,dI;kv;
ea v;&noy wrx<
17
l Uiwres nn rxbudrxt j wr;y cr:bo/j fr. l ugr;n zcrxmnr:

16
gzcrxgo/,l UYr;l zcr;hUwrekv;noxes s uibr,l Ua wrdI;gf/cr;mnr: nfr:bbrxDarwin, Charles,
The Origin of Species, New York: New American Library, 1964 noxdv.<
mUiwr;bUnrxmv: a mr,ebv:huicrs crnoxkU:emvl Ucrbo/:s o/; mUinrncr, Stephen Hawking El ;
UYr:not Qcr;y wrx<s uibr,
o/;es dQmr;wox< s crkfr;l Ua wrd/mr
Nikya, vol. V. pp. 220-222 noxdv.>
Leonar Mlodinow kuinr:t Ugr:azgr,mzgr,l /dr;t Qcr;wv; Universe El ; Big Bang nox
a mr,j fr;j wr;pIpo/,nUiwrkUcrs /cr;<mnr:duinr:bqnrmv: hcr:s pv,wmnr:g
l Ua wrdI;gf/cr;mnr: nfr:bbrxStephen Hawking & Leonard Mlodinow, The Grand
Design, New York:Bantam Book, 1
st
edition 2010 noxdv.>
17
dI;nfr:s udrdnoxl /dr;l zzcr; ^s drdinrdRiy &<a nrdUbinr,woxnoxkf/gr;em,<a mr,n n r
a wrdI;bzcr,piwrmnr: H;gUnr:nUiwrd/cr:kwr kwr;j frbzcr,j frc
dvnogfv,hvl Ua wrl o; nfr: Sayutta

j wr; t dr:s /crl zcr;gmrbn r; El ; s brbn rYudY/nr,mnr:j wr;
t Qcr;gznr,<
18
n zgr;es nn rxt Qcr; nUiwrl zcr;d/cr:dcr:s qcr; mUinrn cr,
d/cr:huEl ;s cr<l zcr;gmrbn r;El ;s cr<Ficr;Ec;El ;s crebv:a mr,
mI:pzn r:l Ino t ugr,l Ipv;boz,bQdr;n oegv; mnr:j wr;bnrd/cr:kfr;
j frwox<
19
aicrn Uiwrl zcr;n oxes hwr:edt dr:s /crbzcr,j frwv; n fr:j /wr:
budrxn oxa mr,mI:dI;y U, l zcr;l br:dv y umr,y mrduiwrdnrn UiwrgU;l zcr;
ed,a wrl zcr;y umr,y mrs v,s nv,gfv,< l zcr;n fr:j /wr:budrx mI:d/cr:
zdr;l Qwr: a wrd/cr:huemvt dr:s /cr; pidr:huiwrt ugr,es hqdr:gfv,y U,
uicr;ncr,gwr,y wrx<gzbr;nn rEl ;j cr,wv; t mr,mbudrxt j wr;nox
rxkbrxdcr:nmrn nrxs Uwr:pQn r:hwr:y Uiwr:noxbqnrpU;
l
gfv,j Uicrxn cr,n oegv; bqn ra nrj nrj fr gUn r:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwrt Qcr;
a n rn
a wrdI;y U,l o;co/;co/; nfr:dUcr,wUcr:bo/:s o/;kuinr;y fr, (y wrx) mUin rn cr,
mUicr:dUgr:mUiwr;l qwrn oxy U,y wrx>

bo/:wUnrxkbrx<Ficr;Ec; El ; bo/:mznr: (Philosophy, Culture & the
Arts)
l zcr;d/cr:a n rs v,s nv,budrxt j wr; kwr;gfv,pQwrnfr:mUicr:
wnr:dUgr:t Qcr;nnrxbqn ry zn rxbo/:wUnrxkbrx<Ficr;Ec; El ; bo/:mzn r:kwr
y wrx<nfr:j wr;bo/:wUn
a n rkwr;j frn Uiwrt mr,mbudrxt j wr; gmr:azn rd/cr:s udr:bUin r;y wrx<
l zcr;mnr:kwr;j fr l qbr;hqn r:t mr,mmv:ncr,noegv; edl o;wv;bqnrgzbr;
mnr:l o;l Ul qbr;hqn r:mQnr;bbrxa n rkU:l Ucrxl Qnr,po/,t mr,mkwr bin r,
ebdQmr;kwr;gfv, nfr:l igr;mUicr:wnr:dUgr: mUinrn cr,s br:l Qcr:Enmv:
dcr:nUiwrnn rxy wrx>
ebv:hwr:edl o;mv: hubr;bqn rdI;gQbr;s udr:mnr:es l o;d/cr,
l /dr;En l zcr;bo/:wUn rxkbrxs Uiwr:pQnr:hwr:y Uiwr:j uicredl o;huhnrwv;

18
Vmasaka Sutta, Majjhima Nikya, No. 47.
19
Aguttara Nikya, I. 188 ff.

buin rxt /nrb wUnrxkbrxmnr:nnrx mv:co/:a Uimr;j mrt mr,mbudrxt j wr;
(t mr,mj grgbwdrdns udrd) woxy U,y wrx<mnr:wv;a n rhwr:l o;gUwr;
o/:
m
Li (Res x) no
wrx<
2

gwry U,nfr: l zcr;a r,hn rxbqcr:ebv:j frdugrxkl Ucrdcr:s qcr;noxcwr;h/gr;
mnr:y cr,mv: dI;j fr^kfr; (Will)&<ebv:kfr;H;l zcr;a mr,hnrxbqcr:ebv:j fr
n oxho/j uicr l Uwr,gzomzdr,bQdr;j fr ^kfr;&<kzn rxj zgr:a nrdv,eddoz,bQdr;
mnr:j mrxbqn rbo/:mznr:<mqdrxdv, El ; l o/:gmrbn r;Ris
y
0
bo/:wUnrxkbrxmnr:nox gfv,j nrj frgUn r:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwr
kfr;mv:l qbr; hqn r:t mr,mbudrxt j wr; dzn r;nuicr;l o/:nuicr;ncr,gwr,y wrx>
bo/:wUn rxkbrx David Hume (Scottish philosopher &
Historian, 1171-1776) a n rl /dr;l zcr; ^s pv,ws v,s nv,
(Natural Religion)&nnrxegv; bqnra n rgfv,duigr:s Un r:j frgUn r:mUicr:
wnr:dUgr:kwrkfr;mv:l qbr;hqn r:s vs nv,budrxt EdxEdx>
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82, bqn rkU:s zn rl igr; dI;
j nrxj zmr<emvdQmr;wzgr: El ; kU:dQmr;l igr;s zo; Essayist) El ; Henry
David Thoreau (1817-62, bqnrj wr;bo/:wUn rxkbrx<emvdQmr;wzgr: El ;
pU;dUcrxn uicrg/n rmU,j umr: Acivist) noxl o;hnrkvawrd/cr:hut mr,mbudrx
t j wr; j fr.el v:bo/:wUn rxkbrxkves j fr.duiwr:gfv,nfr:pwgU;wnr:<gzbr;bo/:
wUnrxkbrxEl ; g/nrdUcrxn uicrkves hqdr:H;gUn r:mUicr:a em,Rig/nr,kwr
j Uiwr:a nrkfr;l o;d/cr:y qn rj frn nrx mv:l qbr;hqn r:t mr,mbudrxt j wr;
EdxEdx<kU: Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904) mUicr:a cr:gidr: a nr
bqn rpU;dQmr;l igr; bbrxj uiwr;s qcry fr,^ s o/l Qcr:ea :s Lv: (The Light of

20
ebv:kfr;s uibr,l UdI;gf/cr; bo/:wUnrxkbrxs Uiwr:pQnr:hwr:y Uiwr: El ; budrxt j wr;j uicrs uibr,l Ua wr
l o; nfr:bbrxdo: a nrj wr;t mr,ms v,mienv,kmr:l dQmr;<s qnr;d/cr:dv,l zdr;l Qwr: (bo/:
wUnrxkbrxbudrxt El ; s Uiwr:pQnr:hwr:y Uiwr:)<aidr,dI;ea :<dv;gucr;<bI2010 nnrxdv.<ebv:
kfr;l Unfr:po/,a cr:gidr:j mrxl Ua wrl o;bbrxNaw Kham La Dhammasami, Another
Way of Looking at Things (A Comparative Study of Schopenhauer &
Buddha Perspectives on Human Liberation), Maharagama: Ruwan
Paharuma, 2011 noxdv.>

Asia, 1879)&n nrxegv; gzbr;bUiwr;bbrxwzgr:mnr: a n rdQmr;woxl zcr;pw
budrxt j wr; El ; buin rxt /nrt mr:mnr:j wr;nnrxes hqdr:H;
gUn r:nfr:l Ugr;kwr mucr;dUYr:budrxt s v,s nv,mv:< mn r:a mr,gzmrxdQmr;
l igr;l zcr;j /wr:budrxa n rl qwrgUYr:<pzcr:mUiwr;gzcr:mU:budxrt gv,y v, dI;
wqcr:budrgv,y v, mUicr:ainr:dI:y v: duigrxh/mr:a mr,mI:gUn r:l Ul zmrgumr:
l umr:l v:nn rx d/mrdU wrmnr:l ugrxgfv,ain r:dI:y v:es gfv,pzdr;mU,
j umr:hvciunr:gzcrg/cr dv,gumr:l umr:l v:gzcr:mU:budrxt gv,y v,y wrx< l zcr;
gzcr:mU:budrxt gv,y v, kuin r:gumr:s bo/,h/cr;l Idvmv: El ; l Ucrbzcrj uicr;
a in r:dI:y v: s mrxebv:a mr,aubqgrxkv,bQdr;l o;gzcr:mU:s U,noxn nrxhwr:
edl o;wv; ebv:a mr,bv:wiRiy El ; s drxt v,mnr:amr,bqnrl o;<pzcr:
mnr:dUcrxnuicrhqdr:g/nrdv,gzcr:mU:budrxt gv,y v,noxnnrxs mrxbqn rpzcr:
a cr:gidr:cmr:a in r:dI:y v: El ; k/wr,c/wr:dUcrxn uicrmnr:noxgfv,y zn r;
woxnfr:gUn r:l o/kUiwr:wox<wo/:es nnrxa mr,huicra mr,n/n r: kU: Colonel
Henry Olcott (1832-1907) El ; Madame Blavatsky (1831-91)
kva zn rgnrdcr;mU,j umr:hUmr;dumrs v,s nv, (Theosophical Society,
1875) y wrx< l zcr;hqdr:d/cr:s /cr;mU,j umr:a nrn oxj mrxgqbr;l Uigr;Wmr
dzmra wr gf/mr:t mr:l In fr:s v,s nv,l o/a n res dQmr;l /dr;pUiYr
Ep;gfv,nfr:l Ugr;<gf/mr:t mr:s v,s nv,a n rkwrl Uigr;a wrn nrxj mrxbUicr
Ucrmnr: bqn rs v,s nv,n fr:ea :s Lv:< n fr:s v,s nv,ea :s Lv:nnrx
mrxgf/mr:t mr:budrxt s mrxa wrdI;y U,woxdcr:nv;y wrx<mU,j umr:a n rnox
r,t mr:budrxt j wr; gfv,l o/po/,l o/d/cr:woxEdxy wrx<l zcr;
Uicr:wnr:dUgr:kwr hul zcr;j /wr:budrxmv:t Qcr;a n rnuicr;

l
j
egv; s Ucr,k/w
d/cr:a nrgUn r:m
n nrxj mrxbqn ry znrxFicr;gUn r:j /wr:budrxmUicr:ea :s Lv: a n rko/xgfv,y U,
n fr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:j Uiwr:nn rxy wrx>


ekv;hubr;gQbr;


r:budrxmv:t Qcr;nn rx
mrxbqn ry zn rxbUiwr;j wr;bo/:wUn rxkbrxEl ; j wr;bo/:mzn r:kwr j Uiwr:kwr;
frt mr,m<j Uiwr:a wrk/wr,t mr,ms Ucr,t uicrn fr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:j Uiwr:nnrx
wrx< l Uiwres nnrxt Qcr; hwr:edl o;huwv; gzbr;Ficr;gUnr:j /wr:budrx
a :s Lv: a n rgfv,y U,nfr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:nnrxEl ; hqdr:H;gUn r:mUicr:
nr:dUgr:kwrhul zcr;budrxt s v,s nv,mv:noy wrx>>
l o;huwv;kun rehvkmr:a es v:gmUicr:ainr:dI:y v: a wrt mr:budrx
t j wr; gfv,pUiYrEp;nfr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr: dqmrmUiwr;n fr:hUwrbuicr:j wrxnv;k
Ridrxbo,pudr:bun rxnoy wrx<wv;nnres dv. s v,s nv,budrxt j wr; a n r
kunrehvkmr:a es v:g gfvpUiYrEp;nn rxa mr,ebv:azgr,mzgr,m/gr,bUcr:
mUinrmUicr:ea :s Lv:noy wrx>
buin r:s v,s nv,budrxt a nrgfv,guin r:Ep; n fr:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:
b/n rmfr,noxn n rxebv:mv:hubr;dumrgqbr;es l wr;d/cr,Enj uicrl zcr;d/cr:
mnr:nnrxedl o;mI:l o/a n rmUin rncr,l /dr;Endcr:nUiwrnn rxy wrx<
mo/nuicr;nnrx bqn rgzbr;kU:l Ucrxl Qnr,l igr;l o/:po/,t mr,mkwr bin r,eb,
t mr,m< dQmr;l zcr;t mr,mkwr;gfv,nfr:l igr;l o/:bo/eb, gUn r:mUicr:wnr:
dUgr:El ; kwrj cr,hukwrj cr,kwr;j frl zcr;j /wr:budrxmv:<mo/s zcrs mrxgzbr;
bUiwr;g/br;b/nrbo/:s o/; El ; g/br;b/nrd/cr:hul Qgr;l o/;es kwrkwr;j fr
n Uiwrt mr,mmv:<mUin rn cr,l /dr;Enmv:nn rxy wrxt mr,mj wr;noxh/cr;
p/cr;l grxknv,j mrbo/:es a mr,gv: dI;n uicr;mv:egv; n fr:j /wr:budrxnox
a mr,mI:l zcr;y umr,y mrduiwrdnr< mI:s un r,l o;dzcr;t /mrt dr:s /crn Uiwr
budrxt j wr; El ; hUmr;bv:t mr,mgzn r,y wrx<l zcr;d/cr:gmr:l uin r:l cr
a n rhqdr: H;gUn r:mUicr:wnr:dUgr:kwrmucr;dUYr:j /w
j
j
y
e
w



on Human Liberation).
) P. V. Bapat, Prof (ed). 2500 Years of Buddhism. New
Delh: Government of India, 1956.
(3) wr;t mr,ms v,mi en v,kmr:l < s qn r;d/cr:dv,l zdr;l Qwr:
rxkbrxbudrxt El ; s zbrpQn r:hwr:y Uiwr:)<ebv.dI;dv;
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puin ra icrdv,s uibr,l UdI;gf/cr;

(1) Dhammasami, Naw Kham La. Another Way of Looking
at Things (A Comparative Study of Schopenhauer &
Buddha Perspectives
Maharagama, Sri Lanka: Ruwan Paharuwa, 2011.
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