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PHARM (FOUR YEAR INTEGRATED COURSE) DEGREE COURSE AND OPTIONAL MODULAR FIFTH YEAR COURSE LEADING TO B.PHARM (Hons) KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY, WARANGAL – 506 009 From the academic year 2005 – 2006 onwards (Applicable to the UCPSc and other Pharmacy colleges Affiliated to KU, Warangal) I. 1. GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Eligibility for admission:
Candidates for admission to the Degree of required to have passed the Intermediate Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh or equivalent there to with Physics, Chemistry subjects. OR The Diploma in Pharmacy Examination from an Institute in AP recognized by the Pharmacy Council of India (or a local candidate with a Diploma in Pharmacy from outside AP). 2. The degree of Bachelor of Pharmacy will be conferred on the candidates who have subsequently undergone the prescribed course of study of the Kakatiya University for a period of not less than four academic years. The course and Examination for the four year shall be designated as I-B Pharm, II-B.Pharm, III-B.Pharm, IV-B.Pharm and optional modular V-B.Pharm (Hons). The examination for each year shall be on the basis of the Scheme of Examination. The distribution of marks shall be as indicated in the Scheme of Examination and the scope of subjects as indicated in the syllabus. In every academic year there shall be one annual examination, ordinarily in April/May and one supplementary examination in October/November or on such dates as may be fixed by the University. Candidates admitted to any year of the course of study shall pursue in each academic year, the regular courses of lecturers, tutorials, practicals etc, as mentioned in the Scheme of Instructions and after satisfying the conditions laid down in these ordinances will be eligible to appear for the examinations on such dates as may be fixed by the University. A candidate to be eligible to take an examination specified in paragraph  shall prosecute a regular course of study in the course prescribed for the examination concerned, for not less then one academic year in the University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and affiliated colleges of Kakatiya University. Bachelor of Pharmacy shall Examination of the Board an Examination recognized and Mathematics or biology be of as as
d. e. 9.
A student shall be deemed to have pursued a regular course of study in a subject during each academic session, if he/she attended at least 75% of the classes held in each subject of examination and had produced a certificate of good conduct from the Principal of University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences/other affiliate Pharmacy colleges. Provided that the Vice-Chancellor of the university may condone shortage in attendance not exceeding 10% in each subject due to one or more of the following reasons involving absence from classes. Participation in NCC camp duly supported by a certificate to that effect from the Officer-Commanding, NCC. Participation in University or College team in games or cultural activities at Interstate or Inter-University level duly supported by the certificate from the Office concerned. Participation in Educational excursions conducted on working days certified by the principal of the College. No credit will be given for excursions conducted on holidays. University deputation for youth festival certified by the Principal of the College. Prolonged illness duly certified by the Medical Officer of the University Hospital or any Government Hospital. In order to pass an examination, the candidate (i) shall obtain not less then 45 (forty five)% of the Marks allotted for the examination in each paper and (ii) shall obtain not less than 50 (fifty)% of all papers of examination for that particular year. A candidate, who fails in four papers or less, may be promoted to next higher class. Such candidate may take the examination in the papers in which he/she failed, at the subsequent annual or supplementary examination. The candidates of II, III and IV year B.Pharm, who failed in some of the I, II, or III year papers, respectively may be permitted to appear for these papers at the Annual/Supplementary examinations together with II, III or IV year examinations provided, however, that the total number of papers in which they have failed is not more than four at any time for the promotion to next higher class. However D.Pharm lateral entry students in B.Pharm II year may be promoted to III year, even if they failed in five subjects, provided if these students have to appear for more papers in total than the regular students of II year in annual exams. The award of division shall be based on the aggregate marks obtained by a candidate in B.Pharm. I, II, III and IV, years examinations put together. Those who obtain 50% marks and more but less than 60% will be awarded Second Division and those who obtain 60% and above will be awarded First Division. Candidates securing 75% and the above in the aggregate of all examinations of B.Pharm. I, II, III and IV in first attempt shall be declared to have passed in First Division with Distinction. Any candidate, who carries a backlog at any stage, will not be eligible for distinction and rank. A candidate shall be ranked on the basis of his/her grand total provided he/she has passed in all the papers of his/her I, II, III and IV year examinations in first attempt.
i. A candidate who fail to secure 50% in aggregate, but has passed in all papers shall be allowed to appear at a supplementary examination in any theory papers of his/her choice of that particular year. ii. A candidate who fails to secure 50% in aggregate and also fails in not more than one paper shall be allowed to appear at a supplementary examination in the paper failed and two theory papers of his/her choice.
The college, if possible will organize an Educational and Industrial tour for 15 days during III year B.Pharm. Students as a part of the teaching program, may take part accompanied by faculty members deputed by the college. Industrial/Hospital training: It is compulsory that every student of B.Pharm shall undergo training for a period of 6 weeks during final B.Pharm (in summer vacation) in Pharmaceutical Company or in a Hospital. Selection of students for pursuing optional modular fifth year course leading to B.Pharm (Hons) shall be based on the total aggregate marks obtained in the first, second and third year exams of B.Pharm.
SCHEME OF INSTRUCTIONS AND EXAMINATIONS B.PHARM. Analytical chemistry Pharmaceutical Organic Chem-1 Remedial Biology Biochemistry Total 4 .5 3 3 Sl. Analytical chemistry Pharmaceutical Organic Chem-1 Remedial Maths/Remedial Biology Biochemistry Communicative skills in English Tutorials Total PRACTICAL PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 3 3 3 15 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 10 20 80/90 Annual Marks 80 80 80 40 80 320/360 Total Marks 100 100 100 50 100 450 Exam duration (hrs) 3 3 3 2 3 Sl. I YEAR THEORY PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 4 2 2 2 5 21 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20/10 20 20 120/110 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80/40 80 80 480/440 Total Marks 100 100 100 100/50 100 100 600/110 Exam Duration (hrs) 3 3 3 3/1.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subjects Dispensing & General Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Inorganic and.No 1 2 3 4 5 Subjects Dispensing & General Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Inorganic and.
PHARM II YEAR THEORY PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 20 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 140 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 560 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 700 Exam Duration (hrs) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Subjects Pharm Engineering Pharm.B. Org. Chemistry-II Human Anatomy & Physiology Pharm. Jurisprudence Pharmaceutical Administration Total PRATICAL PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 3+1 3 3 15+1 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 100 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 400 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 500 Exam Duration (hrs) 6 6 6 6 3 S. Microbiology & Immunology Human Anatomy & Physiology Biostatistics & computer Applications Total 5 . Engineering Pharm. Chemistry-II Pharm. Microbiology & Immunology Pharm. Org.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subjects Biostatistics & Computer Applications Pharm.
No 1 2 3 4 5 Subjects Cosmetic Technology Pharmaceutical Instrumental Analysis Medicinal Chemistry (Natural Prod.) Pharmacognosy –I Physical Pharmacy Total 6 .PHARM III YEAR THEORY PAPERS: Hours/ Week 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 19 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 140 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 560 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 700 Exam duration (hrs) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 S.) Pharmacognosy –I Pharmacology – I Physical Pharmacy Environmental sciences Total PRACTICAL PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 3 3 3 15 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 100 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 400 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 500 Exam duration (hrs) 6 6 6 6 6 S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subjects Cosmetic Technology Pharmaceutical Instrumental Analysis Medicinal Chemistry (Natural Prod.B.
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subjects Pharm.B. Technology Pharm. Biotechnology Bio-Pharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics Medicinal Chemistry-II (Synthetic) Pharmacognosy-II Pharmacology-II & Toxicology Total 7 .PHARM IV YEAR THEORY PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 19 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 140 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 560 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 700 Exam duration (hrs) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subjects Pharm. Biotechnology Bio-Pharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics Medicinal Chemistry-II (Synthetic) Pharmacognosy-II Pharmacology-II & Toxicology Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy Total PRACTICAL PAPERS: Hours/ Week 3 3+1 3 3 3 3 19 Sessional Marks 20 20 20 20 20 20 120 Annual Marks 80 80 80 80 80 80 480 Total Marks 100 100 100 100 100 100 600 Exam duration (hrs) 6 6 6 6 6 6 S. Technology Pharm.
Optional V year Modular Course Leading To B. measurement) & Pharmaco-epidemiology Clinical pharmacokinetics and TDM Total II SEMESTER Total number of residency (clerkship) during project work: 600 hours. At the end of II semester the student is expected to submit the Project Report.No 1 2 3 4 Paper Pathophysiology & Phamacotherapy Concepts & skills in Clinical Pharmacy Practice Clinical Research (Design.Pharm (Hons) I SEMESTER Theory Hours 30 hrs 20 hrs 30 hrs 20 hrs 100 Practice Hours 125 hrs 125 hrs 125 hrs 125 hrs 500 Annual Marks 75 50 75 50 250 Exam duration Theory 3 3 3 3 Exam duration Practice 3 3 3 3 S. Marks for the project: Comprehensive Viva voce: 100 50 8 .
Magmas and Glycerines.I. DISPENSING AND GENERAL PHARMACY (Theory) [3hrs/Week] UNIT.S. Mucilages.. Liniments. Correction of incompatibilities.III Pharmaceutical calculations (only in C. B.S system): Percentage calculations. Eye drops. Incompatibility of soluble iodides.. Ointments. Industries and Research. Pastes and jellies.PHARM – FIRST YEAR I. Tinctures. Syrups. incompatibility causing evolution of carbon dioxide of soluble barbiturates and emulsifying agents. Throat paints and Gargles. Nasal bougies.P. Principles of dispensing: The form of prescription Handling. of India and Extra Pharmacopoeia. UNIT -V Posology: Calculation of doses and a general know-how of the doses.P. Lotions. Inhalations. Study in detail of extraction processes like Maceration and Percolation. ferric salts and alkaline substances. UNIT . Labelling and Packing. Pharmacy Ethics: Introduction to code of Ethics of Pharmacy. Elixirs. 9 .I History of Pharmacy: Development of Pharmacy Education. Handling of incompatible prescriptions pertaining to: alkaloidal incompatibility. Pricing and Refilling of prescription. UNIT . alligations. Ear drops. Classes of incompatibility.II Principles and various methods involved in the preparation of the following: Solutions. isotonic solutions. Decoctions. Incompatibility: Scope. Dry extracts.T. Liquid extracts.P. Spirits. Emulsions. a) Pharmacy literature: History of I. Creams. Powders. Prescription containers. Proportional calculations. UNIT -IV Principles involved and procedures adopted in the dispensing of the following classes of Pharmaceutical preparations: Mixtures.G. Suppositories. storage and packing of Infusions. B.C. Pessaries. soluble salicylates and benzoates with acids. b) Galenicals: Methods of preparation.. Aromatic Waters.B.F.P. U. and N. Proof spirits and Displacement values.
P. : At least one : Phenol glycerin. Percolation. DISPENSING AND GENERAL PHARMACY (Practicals) [3hrs/Week] I. Benzoic acid solution. Terpentine oil liniment. : Chloroform Water. : Sulphur ointment (Hydrocarbon base) Whitfield ointment (Water miscible base). Flavoured syrup. Salicylic acid lotion. Aqueous iodine solution. : Atropine sulphate eye drops. Camphor liniment. Arachis oil emulsion : Calamine lotion. Tannic acid glycerin. Copper sulphate and zinc sulphate solution. : Normal saline solution. Galenicals Solutions : Demonstration of maceration. Dextrose solution. : Boric acid ear drops. Barrier cream : Zinc oxide paste : Zinc oxide gel ( Bentonite gel) : One each with PEG and Cocoa butter as bases. Peppermint Water. Boric acid ointment Creams Pastes Gels Suppositories Ear drops Eye drops : Cetrimide cream. Preparations: A minimum 50 preparations having at least one from each class is compulsory. : Chloroform spirit : Liquid paraffin emulsion. Zinc sulphate eye drops Aromatic waters Syrups Elixirs Glycerine Spirits Emulsions Lotions Liniments Ointments 10 .I. : Methyl salicylate liniment. Sodium bicarbonate ear drops. Sox halation. Artificial syrup. compound sulphur lotion.I. : Simple syrup. Camphor Water.
lead. Iron. : Menthol and Eucalyptus inhalation : Mandle’s paint : Dusting powder. Sodium and Potassium Replenishers: Sodium chloride. Dibasic calcium phosphate. Zinc sulphate. Important preparations: Compulsory. Zinc chloride mouth wash. Electrolytes: Sodium. Study of some marketed preparations (Minimum of three). Potassium and Calcium replenishers. 11 . Some information regarding incompatibilities (can be a demonstration). PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (Theory) [3 hrs/week] PART – A (Inorganic) UNIT – I (a) (b) Limit tests for Arsenic. ORS. chloride and Sulphate and Pharmacopoeial standards.2. Divided power : Potassium chlorate gargle. Soft soap Lysol (cresol with soap solution) Milk of magnesia (mixture) Chemical incompatibilities (Some representative examples) III.T. Inhalation Paints Powders Gargles II. Tannic acid Gargles. Calcium gluconate. heavy metals. I. Calcium Replenishers: Calcium chloride. compound Sodium chloride solution (Ringer solution). IV. V. Potassium chloride.Mouth wash : Pipperment mouth rinse. Prescription reading (Minimum of three Prescriptions).
Zinc stearate. Calcium carbonate. Sodium lactate. Magnesium carbonate. Magnesium oxide (Magnesia). iron and dextrose injection. UNIT – III Definition. Preparation. Tricalcium phosphate. Copper sulphate. Ferric ammonium citrate. Antidotes: Sodium thiosulphate. Potassium citrate. Ferrous fumarate. Copper sulphate. Potassium iodide. Bismuth sub carbonate. Zinc oxide. Calamine. Properties. (d) (e) UNIT-II (a) Mineral Nutrients/Supplements (1) Haematinics – Ferrous sulphate. Heavy kaolin. Sodium nitrite. sodium citrate. Ferric oxide. Limits and Uses (a) Topical agents: 1) Astringents: Zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphate. Titanium-dioxide. Dialysis fluids: Haemodialysis fluids and intraperitoneal dialysis fluids. Aluminium stearate. Emetics: Potassium antimony tartarate. (2) Halogens: Iodine and Iodides or fluorides.(c) Gastro-intestinal agents: (1) Acidifiers and Antacids: IP: Dilute hydrochloric acid. (2) (3) (c) (d) (e) Expectorants: Ammonium chloride. Talc and Calcium carbonate (Precipitated chalk). Sodium citrate/Potassium citrate. Suspending agents: Bentonite. and Sodium acetate. Colloidalsilica. (b) Pharmaceutics aids: (1) Excipients: Dicalcium phosphate. Ammonium chloride. Ferrous gluconate. Magnesium-hydroxide mixture. 2) Topical protectants: Zinc oxide. Aluminium hydroxide gel. Acid base Regulators: Sodium bicarbonate. Magnesium stearate. 12 . Talc. Dried Aluminium hydroxide gel. Activated charcoal. Calcium hydroxide. sodium bicarbonate. Colourants: Titanium oxide. Magnesium trisilicate. Assay methods. (2) Adsorbents and related drugs: Light kaolin. Heavy kaolin and Light kaolin (only uses). sodium acid phosphate. 3) Silicone polymers: Activated Dimethicone.
Acidbase concept. Surgical aid: Plaster of Paris. Sodium peroxide (BP). 2) Oral antiseptics and Astringents: Hydrogen peroxide. Sulphur. b) Unit – V a) Complexometric titration: Theory. PART – B (Analytical) Unit – IV a) Theory of Neutralization Titration: Acidimetry. Potassium permanganate. 4) Cements & fillers : Zinc oxide (only uses). Sodium monofluorophosphate and stannous fluoride. General Principles and theory of oxidation-reduction methods. Sodium metaphosphate and Strontium chloride. povidone – iodine). 3) Dentifrices: Calcium carbonate. Ammoniated mercury). Selenium sulphide. types and application in pharmaceutical analysis. Zinc peroxide and Mouth washes. Calcium phosphate. 13 . and precipitation methods. Mercury compounds (Yellow mercuric oxide. as under IP 1996. An account of the indicators used in these titrations. Masking and demasking and their applications. (solutions of Iodine. Common ion effect and Solubility product. Application of the above methods in the analysis of drugs. (b) Dental products: 1) Fluorides: Sodium fluoride. Alkalimetry.4) Anti infectives: Hydrogen peroxide solution. pH. Boric acid. Buffers and indicators. Dibasic calcium phosphate. (c) Other Medicinal agents: 1) 2) 3) 4) Antineoplastic agents: Cisplatin Antidepressants: Lithium carbonate Diagnostic agent: Barium sulphate. Zinc – undecylenate. Silver nitrate (Silver protein). Iodine. Magnesium peroxide.
1N Potassium hydrogenphthalate.1M). Application of the above methods in the analysis of drugs. 13) Preparation and purification of Potash alum. Pipette and Burette. 18) Assay of Calcium gluconate (or) any calcium compounds (Complexometry). 23) Exercises related assay by Gravimetric method. 17) Assay of sodium bicarbonate and assay of Boric acid (Neutralisation). 12) Preparation and purification of Sodium citrate.1N EDTA solution. 20) Assay of Sodium acetate (Non-aqueous titration). Preparation and standardization of Hydrochloric acid solution (0. as under IP 1996 (including the latest addenda). Karl-Fisher method of estimation of water and other methods of moisture determination and Picnometry.1N). Preparation and standardization of Potassium permanganate solution (0.P. B) 14 . C) I.b) Non-aqueous Titration: Theory. 10) Preparation and standardization of 0. 15) Preparation and purification of Ammoniated mercury.1N & 0. types. solvents used and application in Pharmaceutical analysis. 19) Assay of Copper sulphate (Redox titration). 21) Assay of Ferrous sulphate (Oxidation-reduction / Redox titration). 11) Preparation and purification of Boric acid. 14) Preparation and purification of yellow mercuric oxide. 9) Preparation of a primary standard solution of 0. 22) Assay of Hydrogen peroxide solution (Permanganometry). Calibration of weight. 16) Preparation and purification of Magnesium stearate. PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (Practicals) [3hrs/week] List of experiments: A) Limit tests for the following as per the procedure given in Indian Pharmacopoeia (1996 – including the latest addenda) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Chlorides Sulphates Heavy metals Iron Arsenic (demonstration) Balances and Weighing. 2.
Molecular orbital picture of Benzene. Polymerisation). Isomerism (Chain. Bond angles and Bond dissociation energies. Hydrogen bonding. Alkadienes: 1. elimination reaction and Saytzef’s rule. Aromtic Hydrocarbons: Kekule’s structure of Benzene.4 addition reactions. Factors that play role in SN1 and SN2. elimination reactions. Kharasch effect. Free radical substitution reactions (Halogenation) of Alkanes. chair-boat conformation. Huckel’s rule. 15 . Hyper conjugation. Alkenes: Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes. Benzyne ion concept. 3. Heats of hydrogenation and stability. Nomenclature of Benzene derivatives. classification. Ring stabilities of cyclohexane. 2o and 3o alcohols. characteristic reactions of Benzene.T. Types of organic reagents and reactions. conformational and geometrical) Relative stabilities (Heats of Combustion and Hydrogenation). Bayer’s strain theory and Sachse-Mohr theory. Bond lengths. Bond lengths. Bayer’s Oxidation (Cis-Hydroxylation. Electromeric or Mesomeric effect. Alcohols: Nomenclature. Electronic effects in organic molecules: Inductive effect.I. Selectivity of Halogen. two important methods of preparation. Halogen Compounds-Aromatic: Nomenclature. physical properties. Reimer Tiemann reaction and relative reactivities of 1o. Low reactivity of halo benzenes towards nucleophilic substitution. concept of resonance. Williamson’s synthesis. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I (Theory) [4hrs/week] Unit – I Structure and Activity of Organic Molecules: Shapes of organic molecules. Action of HI on ethers (Ziesel’s Method). characteristic nucleophilic substitution reactions (replacement of -OH by -Cl). Walden inversion. Unit – II Halogen Compounds-Aliphatic: Nomenclature. theory of reactivity and orientation in monosubstituted benzenes. Markovnikov’s Rule. A Study of Hydrocarbons: Aliphatic/Alicyclic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature. Aromaticity. two major methods of preparation. Ethers: Nomenclature. characteristic nucleophilic substitution reactions.
Unit – III Carbonyl Compounds: Nomenclature. electron density and reactivity. Intermolecular association. Nomenclature. Unit – IV Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: Carboxylic acids: Nomenclature. acidity of nitro compounds containing hydrogens. Relative reactivity. Acylation reactions Diazotisation and Reactions of Diazonium salts. Acid derivatives: (Acid chlorides. Reduction of carboxylic acids. anhydrides. Unit – V Nitrogen Compounds: Nitro compounds: Nomenclature. aldol condensation. Addition of hydrogen halide (HCl) addition of water and keto-enol Tautomerism. structure and aromatic character of Naphthalene and Anthracene. Two important methods of preparation. Electrophilic substitution. oxidation-reduction reactions. reductive reactions of aromatic nitro compounds. Reformatsky reaction. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature. Reduction of esters and amides. Decarboxylation. Basicity of amines. esters and amides). stability of phenoxide ion. Classification. Benzoin condensation. Stereo specific reduction of alkynes. relative reactivities of carbonyl compounds. Nitriles and isonitriles : Nomenclature. Phenols: Nomenclature. Kolbe-Schmidt reaction stability of conjugated dienes. physical properties. A note on dicarboxylic acids. Brief account of Malonic and acetoacetic esters. Hofmann’s degradation of amides.Alkynes: Acidity of 1-alkynes. reactions of phenols. Perkins reactions. two methods of synthesis. 16 . two important methods of preparation. acidity of phenols. Their importance in synthesis. Resonance structures. stability of carboxylate anion. and Fries rearrangement. Hinsberg method of separation. Amines: Nomenclature. two important methods of preparation. Formation of metal acetylides. polarity of carbonyl group. functional groups reactions. Oxidation and reduction reactions. Reactions like hydrolysis. Cannizzaro reaction. reactivity and functional reactions. nucleophilic addition and addition-elimination reactions.
aq. 8. Olefinic and Acetylinic Hydrocarbons using i) Test for unsaturation with bromine-carbon tetrachloride and/ or dil. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I (Practicals) [3hrs/week] Introduction to: Equipment & Glassware. Preparation of organic compounds (each involving a specific organic reaction covered in theory) 1. details of M. 6. B.P and distillation I. An Experimental Determination of Relative Reactivities of the Following Differentiation between Parafinic. N-Acetylation O-Acetylation Nuclear Bromination Hydrolysis Nuclear Nitration Reduction Oxidation Esterification Etherification Addition-Elimination -Halogenation–cumOxidation Extensive Nuclear Bromination : : : : : : : : : : : : Preparation of Acetanilide from Aniline Preparation of Aspirin from Salicylic acid Preparation of p-Bromoacetanilide from Acetanilide Preparation of p-Bromoaniline from p-Bromoacetanilide Preparation of m-Dinitroaniline from Benzene Preparation of m-Nitroaniline from m-Dinitrobenzene Preparation of Benzoic acid from Benzyl chloride Preparation of n-Butylacetate from n-Butylalcohol Preparation of -Naphthyl methyl ether from -Naphthol Preparation of Phenyl hydrozone or Oxime from benzaldehyde Preparation of Iodoform from Ethanol or Acetone Preparation of Tribromophenol or Tribromoaniline from Phenol or Aniline II. 10. Recrystallization method. a) 17 . 5. and ii) Ammonical silver nitrate. 3. 3.P.I. Potassium permanganate. III. 7. 2. 4.P. Systematic qualitative Analysis (Identification) of Monofunctional Organic Compounds: Avoid water-soluble compounds. 12. 9. and compounds containing more than one functional group. 11.
RH derivatives and LH derivatives. Differentiation between: Formaldehyde. N-Dimethyl (3) using tosyl chloride (Hinsberg’s Method) Differentiation between: n-Propyl alcohol (1). Differentiation between Aniline (1). REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS (Only for student’s admitted under B. 18 . Determinant of second and third order.III Analytical geometry: Distance between two points. partial differentiation. Acetaldehyde. maxima and minima (elemental).T. Angle between straight lines. Integral calculus: integration as reverse process of differentiation.4. Matrices: types. integration of algebraic functions. Point of intersection. differentiation. Area of a triangle. UNIT .II Trigonometry: Trigonometric ratios and the relation between them. Adjoint and inverse of non-singular matrix. multiplication of matrices.C and D.b) c) d) e) Differentiation between Benzene.P. Binomial theorem. addition. Locus. Sulphuric acid (sulfonation). Partial fractions.butyl alcohol (3) using the Lucas Reagent. Application of determinant to solve simultaneous equations by Cramer’s rule. UNIT . UNIT .I Algebra: Arithmetic and geometric progression. evaluation of area and volume in simple cases. and Benzaldehyde using Tollen’s Reagent. Equation to a straight line in different forms. Toulene and Nitrobenzene (Relative aromaticity) using conc. Height and distances with simple problems only. Permutations and combinations. Coordinates of a point dividing a given segment in a given ratio. Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles. derivatives of trigonometric functions (including reverse trigonometric functions). isopropyl alcohol (2) and tert. Logarithms. derivability and deviation. Cos (AB) and Tan (AB) formulae only. logarithmic differentiation.IV Differential calculus: Continuity and limits. N-Methylation (2) and N. integration by substitution and by parts. I. differential general theorems and derivation.Pharm streams) (Theory)[2hrs/Week] An introductory review of elementary mathematics: UNIT . Sin (AB). definite integrals.
and ribosome. mitochondria and plastids. Bark. linear equation with constant co-efficiency. Systematic position (Clasification) of the following families with special references to medicinal Magnoliophyta (Angiosperms): Fabaceae(Leguminosae). simultaneous differential equations which are linear and of first order. first order and degree. stream) (Theory)[2Hrs/Week] Section – A (Botany) UNIT I Plant Cell and Tissues: Plant cell ultra structure with special reference to plasma membrane. Lamiaceae(Labiatae). Solanaceae.IV Animal cells and Tissues: Animal cell ultra structure with special reference to endoplasmic reticulum.UNIT . Section – B (Zoology) UNIT .V Differential equations: Formulation and derivation. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY (Only for students admitted under M.P. golgi apparatus.II Morphology and Histology: Root.4. Modifications of roots and stems. Types of plant tissues. UNIT . and their functions. tissue systems. Types of cells and tissues. Fruit and Seed. Leaf. order and degree. and their functions. Stem. Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Apocynaceae. Liliaceae and Zingiberaceae. Apiaceae(Umbelliferae). UNIT -III Taxonomy: Taxonomic hierarchy. homogeneous linear equations (first method of solution only).T. Wood. Cell division. Flower. I. 19 .C. Cell inclusions.
general metabolic reactions of amino acids like deamination. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY (For students from M. tyrosine. metabolism of the following amino acids: glycine. transamination. UNIT – II Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids: Essential and non-essential amino acids. tryptophan. Morphology of various Plant parts. urea cycle. Introduction of Microscopes and their handling.T. musculo-skeletal and respiratory systems.P. BIOCHEMISTRY (Theory) [2 Hrs/Week] UNIT – I Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glycolysis.VI Fundamentals of parasitology: Life cycles of some animal parasites that cause human disease : Amobeasis – Entamoeba histolytica (Protozoa). I. & e : Three sub-families of Leguminosae 5. Kreb’s cycle. cystine. A comparative study of gross anatomy of different organs of rabbit. cardiovascular. valine and lysine. phenylalanine. methionine.4. cystein. mice. Taeniasis and cysticercosis – Taenia solium (Cestoda). Study of following systems of Frog (Dissections) a) Digestive system b) Respiratory system c) Venous system c) Arterial system I. direct oxidative pathway (HMP). decarboxylation.V Study of Anatomy of frog: A basic study of GI. Malaria – Plasmodium vivax (Protozoa).5. glycogenolysis.C stream) (Practicals)[3Hrs/Week] Experiments 1. and Filaria – Wuchereria bancrofti (Nematoda). guinea pig and a primate. 2. nervous. Histological study of (Transverse sections) a) Monocot Root b) Monocot stem c) Monocot Leaf d) Dicot Root e) Dicot Stem f) Dicot Leaf 4. gluconeogenesis. UNIT . Systematic study of representatives of the following families: a) Apocynaceae b) Solanaceae c) c.P. d. genito-urinary. uronic acid pathway.UNIT . 3. 20 .
Colour reactions of Cholesterol 6. Identification of Carbohydrates 2. hydroperoxidases and oxygenases in biological oxidation. phosphates. -oxidation of fatty acids. dehydrogenases. Estimation of Glucose in Urine 10. 7. activators and deactivators of enzymes. coenzymes. iron and phosphorous. bile pigments. factors influencing enzyme action. biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Identification of Proteins 5. Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA. creatinine. competitive and noncompetitive inhibition with respect to drug action. bile salts.P. potassium. Analysis of urine for abnormal constituents 8. Analysis of urine. mechanism of enzyme action. Preparation of Osazones 3. Nucleic acid metabolism: Structure of DNA and RNA. urea. bile pigments and albumin. The principles involved and the method used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of urine for the following constituents: glucose. UNIT – IV The principles involved and the method used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood for the following constituents: glucose. cholesterol. Biological oxidation: Introduction. BIOCHEMISTRY (Practicals) [3 Hrs/Week] Experiments: 1. Enzymes: Classification. Estimation of Uric acid in Urine 21 . SGPT and SGOPT. ketogenesis. magnesium. bile salts. sodium. Identification of Amino acids 4.UNIT – III Metabolism of Lipids: Essential fatty acids. Estimation of Chlorides in Urine 9. ketone bodies. I. structure. properties. brief account on the role of oxidases. UNIT – V Role of Minerals and Water in Biochemical Processes with emphasis on the following: calcium. calcium.5. Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.
Role of wit and humor in communication. evaluation. writing memos.T. letters of complaint. degrees of comparison. and practices. interacting with learners and teachers. barriers to communication. COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS IN ENGLISH (Theory) [2hrs/Week] UNIT-I Role and importance of communication.11. how to use a dictionary. skills. how to tender apology. Estimation 13. learning and listening of knowledge. effective communication. scientific/technical report writing. resume writing and interview techniques. Concepts of learning and listening: types and methods of learning and listening. communication media.. vocabulary development. organizing the information. comprehension. agreement and disagreements. conferences etc. Verbal and non-verbal communication. of glucose in blood by glucose oxidase method of serum cholesterol (Enzymatic method) of Urea in Blood of Creatinine in blood of Serum protein of Urobilinogen in Blood of Bile pigments in Serum of alkaline phosphatase in Serum I. making presentations through collection. some polite expressions. attitudes. conduct of seminars. and responses. voice. how to use a thesaurus. Estimation 12. Group communication. paragraph writing. formal /informal English (one way /two way). synonyms and antonyms. British/American/Indian Englishes. letters of enquiries. Estimation 17. how to thank in different ways. official and personal letters. UNIT-II Spoken english Vs Written English. articles. how to introduce one self and others. Estimation 14. Estimation of Creatinine in Urine of Glucose in blood by Folin-Wu method. what to avoid while writing. Estimation 16. drafting and delivering a speech. circulars and notices. reading method. 22 . UNIT-IV Grammar: Sequence of tenses. greetings. Estimation 20. common errors in English made by Indian learners of English. Estimation 18. Estimation 19. participating in discussions. Estimation 15. direct and indirect speech. one word substitutes. UNIT-III Communication through letters.6.
The Generation Gap from Modern English” prose Edited by -C. The Secret of work 4. Andrew Carnegie 3.H Carter -Swami Vivekananda -Benjamin Spock 23 .UNIT-V The following four essays from “Selections Haladhar Panda are prescribed: 1.M.Joad -E. Our Own Civilization 2.E.
24 . input/output devices. PASCAL etc. bar.1. Probability and Distributions: Bayer’s theorem. UNIT-II Regression: Correlation and regression analysis. Statistical inference: Common parametric and non-parametric tests employed in testing of significance in biological/pharmaceutical experiments and elements of ANOVA (One way and two way). assembly language. probability distribution. probability theorem. normal distribution curve and properties.B. memory. 2-D and 3-D diagrams. probability and events.. Applications of statistical concepts in pharmaceutical sciences. data collection. comparison of high level and low level languages especially C.PHARM – SECOND YEAR II. introduction of computer networks. data organization. method of least squares. standard deviation and standard error of means. diagrammatic representation of data. Section – B: Computer Applications UNIT – IV Concept: History of computers. Sampling and Quality Control: Concept of Random sampling. UNIT – III Design of experiments: Basic concepts of CRD. C++. UNIX. pie. sample size. co-efficient of variation. computer languages and their hierarchal machine language. kurtosis and skewness. confidence (fiducial) limits. RBD and Latin square designs.T. simple model of computer and working parts of the computer. elements of binomial and poison distribution. etc. Statistical QC Charts. nonlinear regression. random and non-random sampling methods. high level language. BIO-STATISTICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (Theory)[3hrs/Week] Section – A: Bio-statistics UNIT – I Data collection and treatment: Significant digits and rounding of numbers. Introduction to microcomputers and concepts of operating systems: Elements of DOS. CPU.
UNIX. Examples of efficient algorithm and flow-chart. EXCEL. with the help of calculators and software programmes like Graph pad. concepts and objectives of database and database management system. ACCESS. Sequential files and random access files. advantages and disadvantages of the database management system and examples of DBMS packages (like DBASE III). UNIT –VI Introduction to computer programming: C language: Constant and string variables. 25 . functions. 3. Computer application in pharmaceutical and clinical studies. sampling.UNIT – V Database management: Spread sheets (like MS-EXCEL. BIO-STATISTICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (Practicals)[3hrs/Week] 1. structures. ACCESS). repitition statements (loops). Flow chart and algorithm development: Definition and properties of the algorithm. program using loops and nested loops. program using functions and simple programs using arrays. POWER POINT. expressions. Concepts of files. Software packages like MS-WORD. nested loop. definite and indefinite loop and arrays. Operating systems like WINDOWS. Flow chart symbols and their uses. Sample programs in C: Program to calculate simple and complex arithmetic expressions. Simple program writing for bio-statistical methods.P. conversion of algorithm/flow-chart to high-level languages. 2.1. program using structures. II. Solving of biostatistical problems related to inference. etc.. graphical representation of data etc.
Transportation of Fluids: Cocks. temperature gradient in forced convection. contraction losses. kneading machine. design of impellers. 26 . advantages and disadvantages of belt conveyors.T. laboratory scale. interchangers and fimmed tubes. impellers. regulating valve. enlargement losses. Bernoulli’s theorem and definition of head friction losses. layers in series. and centrifugal pump. cyclone. Stefan-Boltzmann law. condensing vapors. Flow of Fluids: Concepts of fluid statics and dynamics. screw conveyors and pneumatic conveyors.II. bucket elevators. radiation.2. screens. screening equipment. Definitions of stoichiometry. venturimeter. fluid energy mill. humidity chart. check valve. factors influencing size reduction. Unit and dimensions: simple inter-conversions of units used in engineering calculations.self-priming pumps. Unit-operation. humid heat. pilot scale and industrial scale operations. v-type mixer. colloidal mill. temperatured rop in parallel and counter current heat exchangers. unit process and chemical technology. construction. pitot tube and rotameter and flow meters. percentage humidity. Transportation of Solids: Construction details. Scrubber. shaking and vibrating screens. Reynolds’s number. boiling liquids. Principles of size separation. adiabatic saturation temperature. humid volume. Study of orifice meter. sedimentation theory. operation and application of heat exchangers. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING (Theory) [3 Hrs/week] UNIT – I Introduction: Fundamental concept of material and energy balances. Size reduction and separation: Theory of size reduction. differential and inclined manometers. dew point.II Mixing: Mixing of liquids and liquids. valves. construction and application of dry mixer. power consumption of mixer. UNIT . pumps. Humidity: Definitions of humidity relative humidity. Natural and forced convection. dimensional analysis.gate valve. construction of simple. Flow of Heat: Concept of heat flow: Conduction through single wall. air and hydraulic separator. ball mill. bag filter. energy aspects in size reduction hammer mill.
. drying curves.UNIT – III Evaporation: Theory of evaporation. filter media. leaching of solids. UNIT – IV Crystallization: Mier’s theory. construction and operation of filter press. atmospheric and vacuum compartment dryer. metafilter. rotary dryer. freeze dryer fluidized bed dryer. steam distillation. Podbielniak extractor. material and energy balances in crystallization. agitator dryer. Utilities and services. equipment. Krystal crystallizer and vacuum crystallizers. safety measures. operation and application of different dryers. Filteration of air. Distillation: Concept of distillation of binary miscible. its limitations. Layout. simple distillation. construction. Principle. UNIT – V Centrifugation: Theory. agitated tank crystallizers.Mechanism and equipment. forced circulation evaporators. Capacity of multiple effect evaporators. heat and material balances evaporator types: steam jacketed kettle. and molecular distillation. operation and application of batch crystallizers. Construction and Working of the Centrifuges Viz. crystal growth. Pollution control. Extraction: Theory of extraction. Rectification. horizontal vertical tube evaporator. spray dryer. caking of crystals. rotary dryer. shrinkage of materials. disc filter. azeotropic distillations. immiscible mixtures. counter current extraction. Perforated basket centrifuge. rotary vacuum filter. Drying: Theory of drying. super centrifuge. atmospheric and vacuum compartment dryer. extractive and fractional distillation. and Conical disc centrifuge. 27 . Filtration: Theory of filtration. Horizontal continuous centrifuge. Classification of centrifuges. nucleation. construction. falling film and climbing film evaporators. Pharmaceutical Industry – Establishment: Plant location.
` Five membered and six membered ring systems with one hetero atom: Furan. acidity-basicity and ` characteristic reactions of the following heterocyclic compounds. Identification of Azeotropic and Zeotropic mixture 10. Ball mill / Effect of Ball charge (or) Effect of time of operation on size reduction. Comparision of Extraction efficiencies of single and multiple stage extractions 16. Study of crystallization process 14. Effect of nature of liquid on rate of evaporation. Verification of Stoke’s law 15. aromaticity. 2. Thiophene and Pyridine. cake thickness) 13. Dew point method ii. 6. 5. Determination of Radiation constant for Unpainted glass 8. Determination of Radiation constant for Brass 7. Fluidised bed drier (demonstration) 20. Determination of overall heat transfer coeffecient 19. Imidazole.P. Isoxazole. Factors effecting rate of filteration (pressure. Sieve analysis of given sample of granular powder.3. Determination of Humidity .i. Filter press (demonstration) 21. Thiazole and a comparative study of Pyrazine. Five membered and six membered ring systems with two hetero atoms: Pyrazole.2. 17. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – II (Theory) [3 Hrs/Week] UNIT . Steam distillation 9. Oxazole. Psychrometric method 3. reactivity. Boiling point diagram 18. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING (Practicals) [3Hrs/week] 1.T. Pyrimidine. Pyridazine Five membered rings with three hetero atoms: Triazole 28 .I A Study of Some Simple Heterocyclic Systems: Definition. Effect of Filter aid on rate of filteration 12. Determination of Reynold’s number for a liquid flowing through a pipe.II. Evaporation under reduced pressure (demonstration) II. slurry concentration. Pyrrole. Determination of Radiation constant for Iron. nomenclature. structure. Drying rate curve 11. 4.
Benzimidazole. Acid value and Iodine value). structure. optical activity. A brief account on pharmaceutical importance of various carbohydrates. physiological importance. Study of glucose structure. Mutarotation. physical properties.II Definition nomenclature. aromaticity. reactivity. chirality. Isoelectric point. L configuration). and . Nomenclature. Classification. quinoline. Meso Compounds. Lipids (oils and fats): Definition. secondary and tertiary structure. Glycosidic linkage. UNIT . isoquinoline and phenothiazine. configuration. acidity. Osazone formation. fatty acids. Essential amino acids. Enantiomers. Lobry de Bruyn – van Ekenstein reaction. Brief account of primary. Racemic Mixture. Stereochemistry of Alkenes – Concept of E & Z configurations. Three important methods of preparation of amino acids. Sequence rules (with examples). Epimerization. – glycosidic linkages. Notations (Assignment of Configuration). basicity and characteristic reaction of some fused ring systems : Indole. Action of Barium hydroxide.III Carbohydrates: Definition. polypeptides and proteins. Glycosides: Definition. Relative Configuratiosn (Fischer D. Benzothiazole. Benzoxazole. Classification of proteins. Polypeptides and proteins: Definition. Classification. C-terminal and N-terminal concept. characterization of lipids (Saponification value. A brief account of the Pharmaceutical importance of amino acids. Denaturation. b) c) 29 . Structure of the disaccharide sucrose. isoelectric point. Absolute configuration. Oxidation-reduction reactions.IV a) Amino acids: Definition. Stereochemistry of Carbon compounds (with only one Chiral centre): Optical rotation. UNIT . Zwitter ionic nature. Relative Configuration of some important monosaccharides. Enzymatic hydrolysis. plane polarized light. Hydrogenation and Rancidity of oils and fats.UNIT . Ring structure. Structural components of starch and cellulose. peptide synthesis and important reactions of amino acids. Non-reducing nature.
5-Diphenylimidazole from Benzil. C. 2. Synthesis of some simple Heterocyclic Compounds. A study of the mechanism and application in synthesis of the following named reactions: A. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) II. Benzoxazole from o-Aminophenol. Beckmann rearrangement Fries rearrangement Phillips condensation reaction Mannich reaction Michael addition reaction b) c) II. Systematic Analysis of Organic Binary Mixtures a) b) Avoid the water-soluble compounds Avoid the binary mixtures having a risk of chemical interaction. 3. D. Benzimidazole from o-phenylene diamine (Phillip’s Reaction). E. O-hydroxyacetophenone from phenyl acetate (Fries migration) Benzanilide from benzophenone oxime (Beckmann’s rearrangement) (to be avoided from examination) III.UNIT . 2.P. 4.5-Dimethylpyrrole from Acetonylacetone. 30 . 3. nucleosides. 2.V a) Purine derivatives (xanthine bases) : Chemical structures of uric acid and methylated xanthines (caffeine. theophylline and theobromine) of physiological/pharmaceutical significance. Definitions of nucleic Acids. A brief account on structure of DNA & RNA. 3. Oxazolone from Benzoylglycine. B. Molecular Rearrangements and Named Reactions a) b) c) d) Mannich Base from Acetophenone (Mannich Reaction). 2.5-Dimethylisooxazole from Acetylacetone.5-Dioxopiperazine from Glycine.5-Dimethylthiophene from Acetonylacetone. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-II (Practicals) [3hrs/week] I.5-Dimethylfuran from Acetonylacetone. nucleotides.5-Dimethylpyrazole from Acetylacetone.
coagulation of blood and the factors influencing coagulation of blood.Innervation of GIT and their influence on GIT. transmission/conduction of impulses in nerves and synapses. UNIT – III Gastro-intestinal tract: Anatomy of GIT. Introduction to the neurohumoral transmitters. II. autonomic nervous system. Role of different blood cells in physiological and pathological conditions. Respiratory system: Uptake and delivery of the respiratory gases. sites of secretion and role of different juices secreted in GIT. white blood cells and their production. Lymph glands. red blood cells and their production. Iodine value of a fixed oil. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (Theory) [4Hrs/Week] UNIT – I Human anatomy: Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomical consideration in relation to nervous system. 31 . Mechanism of breathing and Control of ventilation. Classification and properties of different muscles and their anatomical position. Lymphatic system: Composition. peripheral nervous system. Lymphatic circulation.IV. blood volume and its estimation. Pulmonary gas exchange. Blood groups. Different types of motility of GIT. UNIT – II Nervous system: Classification of nerves. Nerves. Blood and blood-forming organs: Functions and composition of blood.4. Functions. Saponification value of a fixed oil. muscle and nerve. skin and special senses.T. their origin and innervation. Analysis of Oils & Fats a) b) c) d) Determination Determination Determination Determination of of of of Acid value of fixed oils. Acetyl value of a fixed oil. endocrine system.
4. 4) Determination of blood groups. hormonal regulation of mineral metabolism. the thyroid gland. pregnancy and lactation.Body fluids and renal function: Physiology of the body fluids. 5) Determination of Bleeding time and clotting time. HUMAN ANATOMY ANDPHYSIOLOGY (Practicals) [3Hrs/week] 1) Introduction to instruments used in physiology lab. UNIT – V Endocrine system: Principles of hormone action and endocrine control. cardiac muscle: Cardiac structure-function relations and excitation contraction coupling. c) Potassium balance and regulation of potassium excretion and d) Regulation of calcium. hormonal regulation of the ovary. 2) Study of compound microscope. anatomy of the kidneys. electrocardiography and disorders of cardiac rhythm. the nephron and its functions: a) Regulation of volume and osmolality of the body fluids. hormonal regulation of growth and development. structure-function relations in the peripheral circulation. magnesium and phosphate excretion. the adrenal gland. 3) Study of different tissues. 6) Estimation of Hemoglobin 7) Determination ESR 8) Estimation of RBC 9) Estimation of WBC 10) Determination of Differential Count 11) Recording of normal HR and Effect of Exercise on HR 12) Recording of BP and Effect of Exercise on BP 13) Recording of Vital capacity 32 . b) Acid-base balance and regulation of H+ excretion. the hypothalamic. fertilization. II. and cardiovascular control and integrated responses.P. dynamics of the peripheral circulation. UNIT – IV Cardiovascular system: Introduction to the cardiovascular system. the coronary circulation. hormonal regulation of testicular function. electrical impulse formation and condition in the heart.pituitary control system.
construction and operation of autoclave.bacterial conjugation. isolation of nutritional and antibiotic resistant mutants. ultrasonic waves. acid fast. broad classification of bacteria.P. Mutagens. negative. sterilization by filtration.I Study of morphology.III Study of sterilization by moist and dry heat. Effect of UV light. Microbial limit tests official in I. Methods of quantitative 33 . PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (Theory) [3Hrs/Week] UNIT . Different methods of isolation and preservation of microbial cultures. actinomycetes. protozoa. fungi and viruses. Sterilization monitors. simple.T. temperature. Genetic recombination.5.II Study of bacterial growth. Introduction to microbiology of air. flagella and spore staining methods. Gram`s. yeasts. fungal and actinomycete cultures. Theory of staining. II. transformation and transduction. UNIT . sterilization by radiation and gases. types of mutations. salt concentration and metal ions. pH. osmotic pressure. Mechanism of mutation. Mutation. UNIT . evaluation of microbial contamination. water and milk. An outline of theories of antimicrobial action of drugs and chemicals. Types and preparation of media for bacterial.14) Study of Reflexes (Knee Jerk and Light Reflexes) 15) Recording of Strength of Stimulus 16) Recording of Simple Muscle Curve 17) Recording of Beneficial Effect 18) Recording of Effect of Fatigue 19) Recording of Normal Cardiogram of Frog Heart 20) Recording of Effect f Temperature on Heart 21) Recording the Effect of Drugs on Heart.
Concept of asepsis. Maintenance of aseptic conditions. Dynamics of disinfection, merits and demerits of different disinfectants, commonly used disinfectants, their mechanism of action. Evaluation of disinfectants. UNIT - IV Principles of immunology, classification of immunity, natural and acquired immunity, methods of transmission of communicable and infectious diseases, carriers, vectors and reservoirs. General methods of immunization against diseases. Fundamentals of serology, the lattice theory, neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, opsonization and complement fixation. Cells involved in immune response. Antibody, structure and function, immunoglobulin classes and their general properties, antibody diversity, cell medicated immunity. Immunity of viruses: T cell recognition of viral antigen role of interferons. Immunity to bacteria: recognition of bacterial components, role of antibody and complements, interaction with phagocytic cells, macrophage activation. Immunity to fungi. UNIT - V Study of etiology, diagnosis, sources of infection, mode of transmission, immunization methods, prevention and control of the following diseases. Bacillary dysentery, diphtheria, tuberculosis, leprosy, cholera, typhoid, syphilis, gonerrhoea, tetanus, food poisoning, amoebiasis, infective hepatitis.
II.P.5. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (Practicals) [4 Hrs/Week; 3 Hrs on first day and 1 Hr on the following day] 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Introduction to equipment and ware used in Microbiology Laboratory. Simple Staining Gram Staining Negative Staining Acid fast Staining Aseptic Transfer Enumeration of Bacteria by Pour Plate Technique. Enumeration of Bacteria by Direct Microscopic Count Isolation of pure Cultures by Streak Plate Method Oligodynamic Action of Heavy Metals
11) 12) 13) 14)
Observation of Colony Characteristics Microbiology of Air-Settling Plate Technique Microbiology of Water – Presumptive, Confirmed & Completed tests Biochemical Reactions: i) Indole test ii) Methyl Red Test iii) Voges Proskauer Test iv) Citrate Utilization Test v) Starch Hydrolysis Test vi) Gelatin Liquefaction Test vii) Fermentation of Carbohydrates viii) H2S Production Test 15) Morphology of Molds 16) Morphology of Yeasts 17) Microbial Limit Tests – Viable Count 18) Microbial Limit Tests for E. coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, etc. Minimum no of experiments to be performed: At least 5 bio chemical tests, at least 14 other experiments. Scheme for practical examinations- 3 experiments + spotting with minimum 5 spots
II.T.6. PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE (Theory) [2Hrs\week] UNIT - I Development of Pharmaceutical and drug legislation in India. Legislation to regulate the import, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs and cosmetics. The Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940 and Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945, as corrected up to-date. Legislation to regulate the profession of pharmacy. The Pharmacy Act, 1948. UNIT - II Legislation to control the advertisements, excise duties and prices of drugs. a) The Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act. b) The Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (Excise duties) Act, and Rule of 1956. c) Drugs (Prices Control) Order, as corrected up to –date. UNIT – III Legislations to control the operations regulating the Dangerous Drugs, Poisons and Opium, the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985.
UNIT – IV . Legislations affecting Pharmaceutical and Food Industry. Industries (Development and Regulations) Act, 1951. UNIT – V a) The India Patents and Design Act, 1970 with reference to the Drugs and Pharmaceutical, only. b) Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. c) The factories act 1948 and the amendments d) Consumer protection act 1986 e) Intellectual property rights – a brief introduction to various IPRs. f) Case histories involving different Acts. Note: The Students are expected to be acquainted with amendments to the above Acts.
II.T.7. PHARMACY ADMINISTRATION (Theory) [2hrs/Week] UNIT –I Pharmaceutical Industrial administration: Principles of Pharmaceutical Industrial Management in relation to the Introduction to forms of Business Organization. Manufacturing Management: Plant location, factory building lay-out, production management goals and organization, operating problems, production policy, initiation of production, purchasing and inventory control, works lay-out and plant management. UNIT -II Workman Safety: measures to health hazards and prevention of environmental pollution. Organization of Distribution and Marketing: Factors in distributions, Sales organization and sales promotions. General principles of medical detailing. Export and Import trade. GATT,WTO- New product development.
milestones in the development of pharmaceutical industry. books of accounts. UNIT -IV Export and import of drugs and pharmaceuticals –knowledge of PHRMEXIL. Structure of the industry. organized sector. Accounting records in drug stores. UNIT -V Elements of industrial accounting accountancy: Elements of double entry. sales promotion and salesmanship in drug store. Principle of Drug store and community pharmacy administration: Drug store management: Drug store planning and lay – out. Various types of insurances including marine insurance. manufacture of pharmaceuticals in public sector. Progress in the manufacture of basic drugs – synthetic and drugs of vegetable origin. profit and loss account. current status and its role in national economy and national health. small sector. statutory councils governing the profession.UNIT -III Indian pharmaceutical industry: Pharmaceutical industry in India. ledger and cashbook. 37 . The balance sheet. Pharmaceutical associations and societies. Principles of costing and estimating. journal.
Basic knowledge of the skin. COSMETIC TECHNOLOGY (Theory) [2Hrs/Week] UNIT – I Introduction: Definition of cosmetic. hair tonics.PHARM – THIRD YEAR III. hair dyes and depilatories (hair removers). Dental Preparations: Tooth powders and pastes. cleansing creams. formulation.I. Body cosmetics: Deodorants and antiperspirants. manufacture and evaluation of following classes of cosmetic products. UNIT – II Ideal requirement. UNIT – IV Preparations for the hair: Shampoos. nail lacquers and nail polish removers. preservatives. General aspects of cosmetic preparations: Coloring agents in cosmetics. Baby specialities: Baby powder. classification of cosmetics. 38 . face powders. sunscreen products. raw materials. and bleaching preparations. UNIT – V Shaving preparations: Pre-shave and after shave lotions shaving creams and shaving soaps. talcum and dusting powders.B. baby oils and lotions. antioxidants and perfumes used in cosmetics. UNIT – III Preparation for hands: Hand creams and lotions. lipsticks. Preparations for the face: Foundation and moisturizing creams.T. hair creams. mouth washes.
The Preparations of the following are compulsory: 1. Hair dye (Metallic/Vegetable) Baby Lotion Brush less Shaving Cream Conditioner Shampoo Demonstration of preparation of the following products 1. 4. 16. 6. COSMETIC TECHNOLOGY (Practicals) [3Hrs/Weel] Preparations of following cosmetic Products and their Possible evaluation.P. Vanishing / Foundation Cream Moisturizing Cream Talcum Powder Lotion Shampoo Hair Cream Tooth Paste Mouth Wash / Liquid dentifrice Baby Powder After Shave Lotion 2. 6. PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS (Theory) [3 hrs/week] UNIT-I A Detailed account of the theory. 4.2.T. Spectrophotometry 39 .1. Lipstick Styptic III.III. UV & I. 17. instrumentation and pharmaceutical applications of: Visible.R. 8. 3. 7. 5. 7. 5. Barrier Cream Deodorant Powder Makeup Powder Coconut Oil Shampoo After Shave Powder 2. Nail Lacquer Depilatory Wax 2. 18. 3. 11. 9. 15. 12. 10. 9. Cold Cream Hand Cream Face Powder Antidandruff shampoo Depilatory Paste / Cream Tooth Powder Nail Lacquer Remover Lather Shaving Cream Antiperspirant Lotion The Preparation of the following cosmetic products are optional 1. 4. 13. 3. 8. 14.
3dichlorohydrin method). 40 . UNIT-V Analysis of the following drugs/compounds by different techniques: Differential thermal analysis Paper. 3. Vitamin B1 – Thiochrome flurometric method and silicotungstic acid – gravimetric methods. Vitamin D – Colorimetric (antimony trichloride) method. Vitamin B12 – Spectrophotometric and counter current distribution methods. colorimetric and polarographic methods. 8. GC & HPLC Electrophoresis RIA & ELISA Nephelometry & turbidometry Potentiometry & pH metry (include specific ion electrons) Conductometry Polarography Vitamins: Vitamin A – Colorimetric methods (Carr-Price method and glycerol-1. 6. instrumentation and applications of the following techniques: 5. thin layer and column chromatographies. instrumentation and pharmaceutical applications of: Fluorimetry Flame photometry Refractometry Polarimetry and Spectropolarimetry UNIT-III A brief account of the theory. 7. Vitamin B6 – Colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. instrumentation and applications of the following techniques: 1. 4. 2.UNIT-II A Detailed account of the theory. Vitamin B2 – Fluorimetric method. UNIT-IV A brief account of the theory.
Barbiturates – Spectrophotometric and paper chromatographic methods.4 DNP) method. 16. Ergometrine – Column chromatographic method. IR and polarographic methods. Steroids: Progesterone – Colorimetric (2. Codeine – I.2. Determination of . Paper electrophoresis of amino acids. 4. 7. Assay of paracetomol UV-spectro photometry.R. Erythromycin – I. Potentiometric titration. 3. 41 . 15. Assay of ibuprofen UV-spectro photometry. 9. III. method.Antibiotics: Pencillins – Colorimetric (hydroxamic acid) method and U. Assay of rifampicin Colorimetric method. Xanthines – Theophylline – Spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods. 10. Reserpine – Paper chromatographic method. Alkaloids: Quinine – Fluorimetric and nephelometric methods. 6. PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS (Practicals) [3 hrs/week] Practical experiments 1. Streptomycin – Fluorimetric and polarographic methods. Conductometric titration. Ascending paper chromatography. Determination of concentration of glycerine by Abbe’s refractometer. methods. Column chromatography * (demonstration only). methods. Estrogens – UV. Nephelometric determination of sulfate. 12. Assay of riboflavin Colorimetric method. Thin layer chromatography. method.P. 13.max of a drug* 8. Flame photometric determination of sodium. 5. Tetracyclines – Spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods.R. Synthetic drugs: Sulpha drugs – Colorimetric and polarographic methods. 11. Fluorimetric estimation of quinine.R. 14. Radial paper chromatography. Aspirin and its combinations – Spectrophotometric and I. 2.V.
20. HPLC*(demonstration only). *Not for examinations. mechanism of action. 19. Gel electrophoresis* (demonstration only). 42 . Structures of some important Cephalosporins and Cephamycins.17. Acid hydrolysis of Cephalosporin C. as derivatives of penam. toxicity. amidase and methanolysis followed by aqueous mercuric chloride. Classification: Oral and parenteral. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – I (Natural Products) (Theory) [3 Hrs/week] UNIT – I Antibiotics: Brief historical background.Analysis* . penam and cepham.related problems (demonstration only). enzymatic hydrolysis with Pencillinase. structures of the important tetracyclines. PAGE* (demonstration only). epimerisation. A note on -lactamase inhibitors. Amphoteric nature. mechanism of action. Reactions: Hydrolysis of penicillin by cold and hot dilute mineral acid. 18. Structures of different penicillins. therapeutic uses. Cephalosporins: Historical background and biological sources.3. SAR and toxicity. SAR and Advantages over penicillins. as natural. Nomenclature: Numbering and naming according to the CA and USP systems. IR. A mention of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. III. Comparison of 6-APA and 7-ACA. Aminoglycosides: Structure of streptomycin. alkali. chelation with metals. Kinematic viscosity*. General method of synthesis of pencillins from 6-APA. Penicillins: Historical background and biological sources. Dihydrostreptomycin and its importance.T. requirements for a substance to be considered as an antibiotic and classification of antibiotics. penicillanic acid and as penicillins (trivial system). A brief account of chloramphenicol. acid hydrolysis. spectrum of activity. mechanism of action. Tetracyclins: Biological sources. Classification: Generations of cephalosporins Oral and parenteral. important structural units and the three acidity constants in the tetracycline molecule. biosynthetic and semi-synthetic. 21. therapeutic uses and toxicity. definition. based on spectrum of activity and resistance to -lactamase. SAR. Note. macrolide and polypeptide antibiotics and Rifampicin (Structures not included).
K3 and K4 – Structures – Physiological role and uses. Bile acids: Names. B12 . folic acid and Ascorbic acid. Sources of steroidal drugs – diosgenin. Physiological role and uses. Cardiac glycosides: structures of glycosides from Digitalis. Selenium distillation of steroids. Isotretinoin. Cyanocobalamine. SAR. Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs: Classification. Water soluble vitamins: Structures. Enzymatic and acid hydrolytic reactions of the glycosides. Vit E – Structures of . the oxidation of nicotine to nicotinic acid. Marker’s synthesis of progesterone. Squill and Bufa. Fat-soluble vitamins: Vitamins A1 and A2 – Structures. the amidation of nicotinic acid to nicotinamide. 43 . cholesterol. Some important reactions of water soluble vitamins like: The oxidation of thiamine to thiochrome. Colour reactions of steroids. the oxidation of Ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. UNIT – III Steroids: Introduction: Brief history of development of steroid industry. the degradation of riboflavine to lumiflavine and lumichrome. Nomenclature of steroids. and cholecalciferol from 7-dehydrocholesterol.UNIT – II Vitamins: Introduction and Classification.tocopherols – Physiological role and uses. Mechanism of action. B2. stereochemistry and numbering the ring system. therapeutic uses and toxicity. Nicotinic acid and amide. Vit D – Structures – Physiological role and uses. SAR. uses & toxicity. the reduction of folic acid to dihydro and tetrahydro folic acids in the biological system. B6. structures. and . preparation of ergocalciferol from ergosterol. Strophanthus. stigmasterol and ergosterol – their structures. Vitamin Ks – Vit K1. structures and functions. K2. physiological role and uses of Vit B1. Tretinoin (Retinoic acid).
Tests for alkaloids. Levallorphan. Properties of alkaloids.Hormones: Sex Hormones: Male and female sex hormones. 44 . Glucocorticoids: Cortisone & Hydrocortisone – Structure. Structures and uses of these compounds. Antitussive agents: Noscapine. Structures and their interconversion. pork. Preparation of progesterone from diosgenin. Relationship between tropine & pseudotropine. estriol. Homatropine. Structure and biological activities & uses Adrenal Cortex Hormones: Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone. Hormones of Pancreas: Insulin – introduction. estrone. Bioligical actions and uses of tropane alkaloids. Glucagon – Structure and Physiological role. Metabolic effects of insulin. Fludrocortisone – structures. General methods of extraction and isolation. Androgens – Testosterone and derivatives. Tropane alkaloids: Structures of Atropine/hyoscyamine. uses. biological actions. Hyoscine. Hormones of Thyroid: Thyroxine and triiodothyronine – structure and functions. structural features – some sequence differences in insulins of some species like humans. pseudoalkaloids and protoalkaloids. Estrogens – estradiol. biological activity and uses. Dioxyline. Dextromethorphan. Modification of structure and effect on analgesic activity – SAR of morphine and morphine-like analgesics. beef. Hydrolytic products of these – Tropine and Scopine. Progesterone and selected progestins – structures. A note on Steroid contraceptive agents and regimens. Aldosterone antagonist Spiranolactone. Opium alkaloids: Structural features of Morphine molecule – Peripheral groups. Smooth muscle relaxants: Papaverine and related compounds like ethaverine. Therapeutic uses and side effects. Deoxycorticosterone. Structures of synthetic estrogens. Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine. uses and side-effects. A note on insulin preparations. UNIT – IV Alkaloids: Definition of alkaloids.
Methysergide. Rescinnamine. Classification. special isoprene and gem-dialkyl rules. L S D. Mechanism of action of reserpine. commercial method of preparation from -pinene and uses. conversion into p-cymene. 1. Conversion into Carvacrol. citral-b (Neral). Synthetic derivatives: Methylergonovine (Methylergometrine). citronellol. Oxidation of citral to geranic acid. Preparation from Cis-terpin. Deserpidine. 45 . Source. Alfa – Terpeniol: Sources and structure. Oxidation to camphoric acid and camphoronic acids. therapeutic uses and toxicity.8-Terpin and pinene. properties. Reduction of citral to citronellal. 2. Reduction of camphor to Borneol & isoborneol. isoprene.Rauwolfia alkaloids: Structures and uses of Reserpine. structures and uses. isomerism in citral. hydrolytic products. Preparation of alfaterpeneol from limonene/dipentene.8 – terpin.8-cineole: Sources and structure. selenium dehydrogenation. Structural features like the basic nucleus. Reduction of Carvone with different reagents. NOTE: 1. UNIT – V Terpenoids: Volatile oils: Definition of terpenoids. geraniol and nerol. structures. Citrals: Sources and structures. pharmacological actions. Camphor: Source. Oxidation of menthol to menthone. presence of substituent groups shall be discussed. Menthol and menthone: Sources. Simple reactions like hydrolysis. Oxidation of borneols to camphor. terpinolene. Conversion of menthol into thymol. Cyclodehydration of citral to p-cymene. shall be taught wherever applicable. Conversion into p-cymene. dipentene dihydrochloride. Conversion of citrals – a and b into alfa-terpeneol and ionones. ajmaline. 3. Ergot alkaloids: Classification.. Carvone: Sources and structure. oxidation. Structure elucidation of compounds is not included in the syllabus. uses of isoborneol. citral-a (Geranial). Hydrolysis of reserpine and rescinnamine. structures. dipentene. Synthesis from Limonene/Dipentene and alfa – Terpeneol. reduction etc.4-cineole. 1. 1. Mention of 1. syrosingapine.
5. 10. Steroidal Glycosides and Cardiac Glycosides. 6. Identification of Alkaloids by specific colour tests.III. Classification of crude drugs. Types of adultrants. Vitamin B1. 14. 3. Diosgenin from Fenugreek or Dioscorea Yams. etc. Isolation of phytochemicals: a. Steroids. LibermanBurchard test. Identification of natural products. Estimations of the following. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – I (Natural Products) (Practicals) [3 Hrs/week] 1. 9. Volatile oil production by steam distillation (Demonstration Experiment). Alkaloid (by gravimetry).T. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Crude drug adultration. Scheme for pharmacognostic study of crude drugs. III. PHARMACOGNOSY – I (Theory)[3 hrs/week] UNIT – I A) Definition. Penicillin. 46 . Strychnine & Brucine from Nux-vomica seeds. Cultivation. Fecl3 test. Collection and processing of crude drugs. b. Mayer’s Wagner’s. Shinoda Test (Mg /Hcl test). steroidal glycosides and cardiac glycosides. Ascorbic acid. Exogenous factors affecting cultivation. Citral by Hydroxylamine hydrochloride. 13. Collection. Processing of Crude drugs: Merits and demerits of cultivation of crude drugs. 7.4. Crude drugs: Organized and unorganized crude drugs. etc. Tests for steroids. Salkowski reaction.3. 2. 12. 8.P. Eugenol content in Clove oil. evaluation of a crude drug and methods of evaluation. 4. and testing some alkaloids and Plant extracts using these reagents. TLC Examination of Alkaloids. Tests for flavanoids and their glycosides. 11. Kedde reaction. and Scope of Pharmacognosy. Preparation of different Alkaloid testing reagents like Dragendroff. A brief introduction to plant growth regulators. A brief account of pests and methods of pest control. 15. History.
Tailas. A brief introduction to plant bitters and sweeteners. Gutickas. Bees wax. Pancreatin and Gelatin. Pectin. UNIT – III A) A brief introduction to Ayurveda and to its preparation like Arishtas. Sterculia and Tragacanth. Pepsin. Pale catechu. Nylon. anticancer/cytotoxic and antibiotic drugs from marine sources. B) A brief account phytopharmaceuticals of commercial significance. Kaolin. 5.UNIT – II Biogenesis of natural products: A) A brief introduction to biosynthesis. An introduction to potential cardio-vascular. Polyester. Asavas. Cocoa butter. Papain. Isoprenoid compounds and cardiac glycosides. Kokum butter. 4. Cod-liver. Almond oil. B) A brief account of primary and secondary metabolite’s production from carbon metabolism in plants. Shark liver oil and Wool fat. A brief introduction to natural colors and dyes. Honey. 47 . Guargum. Hydnocarpus oil. Lard. preparation. Castor oil. Bentonite. lipids. Study of fibers used in pharmacy. Kieselguhr and Talc. Asbestos. Diastase. Trypsin. Linseed oil. Morphine. C) Production of amino acid by shikimic acid pathway. 3. Starch. D) Biogenesis of Atropine. chemical constituents. 2. Glass-wool. Gum acacia. Churnas. Study of mineral dugs. Cotton. Lehyas and Bhasmas. C) Biological source. Silk and Wool. Gall and Myrobalan. Black catechu. UNIT – IV A) General introduction to carbohydrates. Olive oil. tests for identification and uses of following. collection. enzymes and proteins and tannins. UNIT – V 1. B) Systematic pharmacognostic study of agar and isapgol.
UNIT – II Pharmacology of drugs acting on autonomic nervous system: Organization and functions of ANS. adrenergic neuron blockers. beta adrenoceptor blockers. Dose effect relationship. scope and branches of pharmacology. Determination of foreign organic matter.P. Detection of lipids in crude drugs. Drugs acting on autonomic ganglia: stimulants and blockers. Detection of tannins in crude drugs. Lipids and Tannins. 16. Molecular mechanisms and factors affecting the drug action. anti-cholinergic drugs. Identification of fibers by chemical tests. enzymes and carrier systems. Detection of carbohydrates in crude drug by chemical tests. Concept of pharmacokinetics. pharmacodynamics and their interrelationship. Determination of Palisade ratio of two dicot leaf drugs. Concept of receptors. 20. anticholinesterase. 15. 5&6. Measurement of Calcium oxalate crystals in powdered crude drug. Detection of proteins in crude drugs. 12. 14. Neuromuscular blocking agents. alpha. 2. Identification of Cinnamon by Linear measurement technique (by measuring the diameter of starch grains and width of Phloem fibers). Determination of extractive values of vegetable crude drugs. ANS (cholinergic & adrenergic) transmission and co-transmission. 18. ion-channels. PHARMACOLOGY – I (Theory)[3hrs/week] UNIT – I General Pharmacology: Definitions. Determination of Stomatal number and Stomatal index of two dicot leaf drugs. Determination of Vein islet number and Vein-let termination number of two dicot leaf drugs. 7&8.III. III. Pharmacology of adrenergic drugs. 11. 3. 9&10.4. Pharmacology of parasympathomimetic. 48 . Spotting of Crude drugs: Minimum 20 Crude drugs belonging to Carbohydrates.5. 19. 4. Determination of swelling factors. Proteins. Brief description of cellular signaling systems. 17. 13. Measurement of Phloem fibers in powdered crude drug. Measurement of Starch grains in powdered crude drug. PHARMACOGNOSY –I (Practicals)[3hrs/week] List of experiments: 1.P. Determination of ash values of vegetable crude drugs.
Pancreatic hormones and their actions. UNIT – IV Pharmacology of drugs acting on gastrointestinal tract: Laxativesantidiarrhoeals. antithyroid drugs. antiestrogens. Role of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents in deabetes mellitus. DNA Replication and Transcription. oral contraceptives and drugs regulating calcium homoeostasis. Molecular organization and Genome. Vasoconstrictor and dilator drugs. pituitary and gonadal). Mechanism of action and therapeutic uses of antiarrhythmic. nucleus and cytoplasmic matrix. Vascular smooth muscle and role of endothelium in controlling it. Genetic recombination. prokinetic agents. types of mutations. Hormones and related drugs: Study of hormones of different endocrine glands (adrenal. Genetic recombination. Pharmacology of drugs used in hypertension. Pharmacology of drugs acting on kidney: Water and electrolyte balances. Pharmacology of drugs affecting blood formation.UNIT –III Drugs acting on cardiovascular system: Cardiac rate and rhythm. disturbances in rhythm. antiprogestogens. Mechanism of protein sysnthesis. cell memberane: Structure and functions. cardiotonic and anti-anginal drugs. Molecular basis of protein syntheis. antiulcer drugs. Molecular basis of mutation and variations. thrombolysis and platelet aggregation. corticosteroids. diuretics and urinary pH modifying agents. Surface architecture. cell growth and division. coagulation. 49 . thyroid. UNIT – V Basics of cell and molecular biology: Structural organization of life. emetics-anti-emetics.
Factors influencing emulsion stability. Mechanism of solute-solvent interactions. Distribution phenomena. sensitization. Control of suspension stability through zeta-potential and structured vehicles.6. UNIT – IV Rheology: Hagen-Poiseulli’s equation. Spreading coefficient and its applications. Mechanisms of emulsion stability. Suspensions: Basic concept of particle-particle interactions. Factors influencing viscosity and measurement of viscosity. liquids/liquids and gases/liquids. kinetic and electrical properties by giving special emphasis of their applications towards pharmaceutical product formulation. derived sedimentation parameters. Thixotropy and its application towards formulation design of pharmaceutical systems. UNIT – II Interfacial Phenomena: Concept of adhesive and cohesive forces. Methods to determine HLB & CMC and their applications in Pharmacy. UNIT – III Colloids: Study of their optical. Thixotropy and its applicants. True and apparent distribution and application. buffered isotonic solutions and methods of adjusting tonicity and pH. buffers in pharmacy and biological systems. Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems. concept of critical HLB.III. and their influence on surface and interfacial tensions. knowledge of HLB scales to aid the dispersion stabilization. Solubility: Solutions of solids/liquids. Stability of colloids: Electro kinetic stabilization. Factors influencing solubility of solids/liquids.T. buffer capacity. Mathematical concept of viscosity coefficient. solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. rate of solution. Biological and pharmaceutical applications of adsorption phenomenon. 50 . Factors influencing viscosity and measurement of viscocity. Energetics of solubility concept. sedimentation of suspension. Emulsions: Concept of free energy of surfaces and its effects on emulsion stability. Nonaqueous emulsions and micro-emulsions and their formation mechanisms. Electrokinetics of interfaces. PHYSICAL PHARMACY (Theory)[3hrs/week] UNIT – I Buffers and Isotonic Solutions: Buffer equation. protection and solubilization mechanisms. Adsorption isotherms: Mathematical concept of adsorption at solid/gas. Theories of emulsification and emulsion stability.
Cloud point – nonionic surfactant-water system. Half-life. Arrhenius theory. 18. Complexation and protein binding: Classification of complexes. period 90% and their usefulness. Porosity. Effect of temperature on solubility of solid in liquid. 11. 13.6. 5. UNIT – V Chemical kinetics : Introduction to the concept of kinetics and their application towards Pharmacy. 9. Effect of co-solvent on solubility. 14. 51 . density and packing arrangements of particles. Adsorption Isotherm. Flow properties of powders and their effect on solid dosage form processing. Surface and Interfacial tension using Stalagmometer. Buffers (Preparation and testing buffer capacity). 2. Ternary phase diagram. Viscosity – by Ostwald Viscomete. III. 3. first order and pseudo first order reactions. 8. Determination of reaction order. 4.P. Statistical approach towards the particle size measurement in heterogenous pharmaceutical systems. Determination of sedimentation volume and degree of flocculation. PHYSICAL PHARMACY (Practicals)[3hrs/Week] Minimum 15 experiments to be completed 1. Preparation of Micro emulsion Demonstration. Partition coefficient – Effect of Additives. Effect of particle size and effect of glidant on angle of repose. 21. Determination of bulk density. Second order Reaction. 20. true density and percentage porosity. Determination of Zeta potential Demonstration. Preparation of Multiple emulsion Demonstration. advantages of complexations. Determination of CMC of a surfactant.Micromeritics: Particle size measurement. mechanism of complex formation. 10. 15. detection methods and protein binding. 12. 19. Mathematical concept of zero order. Determination of Order of reaction – First order. 7. Determination of Spreading Coefficient. Microscopic size analysis. Influence of temperature on reaction rate. 16. stoichiometry of complexations. Effect of Impurities. 6. Accelerated stability testing of drug compounds and determination of shelf life period. 17. Phase diagram Phenol – Water.
Definition: genetic. Mineral resources: Use and exploitation.III. scope and importance. dams-benefits and problems. Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. drought. case studies. Value of biodiversity: consumptive use. Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water. classification of India. Structure and function of an ecosystem. and social. dams and their effects on forests and tribal people. Introduction. Producers. aesthetic and option values. soil erosion and desertification. effects of modern agriculture. Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. UNIT-II Ecosystems Concept of an ecosystem. man induced l andslides. floods.T. characteristic features. oceans. streams. Food resources: World food problems. deforestation.7. estuaries) UNIT-III Biodiversity and its conservation Introduction. environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing. fertilizer-pesticide problems. land degradation. mining. Food chains. water logging. Timber extraction. case studies. Ecological succession. d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds. structure and function of the following ecosystem: a) Forest ecosystem b) Grassland ecosystem. Biodiversity at b) c) d) e) 52 . case studies Energy resources: Growing energy needs. species and ecosystem diversity. Energy flow in the ecosystem. rivers. c) Desert ecosystem. Natural Resources: a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation. types. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (Theory) [2hrs/week] UNIT-I The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies: Definition. productive use. renewable and non-renewable energy sources use of alternate energy sources. Land resources: Land as a resource. Consumers and decomposers. food webs and ecological pyramids. lakes. case studies. conflicts over water. ethical. Biogeographically. salinity.
Hot spots of biodiversity. 53 .global. Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions. Endangered and endemic species of India. earthquake. b) Water pollution. variation among nations. rain water harvesting. Population explosion – Family welfare programme. cyclone and landslides. Water conservation. manwildlife conflicts. Wildlife protection Act. Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ conservation of biodiversity UNIT-IV Environmental Pollution Definition. acid rain. watershed management Resettlement and rehabilitation of people. f) Thermal pollution and g) Nuclear hazards solid waste Management: Causes. and Forest conservation Act. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act. effects and control measures of: a) Air pollution. nuclear Accidents and holocaust. causes. National and local levels. Technology in Environment and human health. Pollution case studies. global warming. poaching of wildlife. HIV / AIDS Women and child welfare. Value Education. Human Rights. its problems and concerns. Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss. Role of Information. UNIT-V Social Issues and the Environment From unsustainable to sustainable development. Environment and human health. Consumerism and waste products. Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. Urban problems related to energy. Air (prevention and Control of pollution) Act. Environment protection Act. Human population and the Environment Population growth. Public awareness. Disaster management: floods. Case studies. e) Noise pollution. c) Soil pollution. Climate change. . d) Marine pollution. Case studies: Wasteland reclamation. ozone layer depletion. Case studies. India as a mega-diversity nation. Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes.
quality control of parenterals.coefficient. formulation. micro encapsulation techniques. Quality control of aerosols. (b) Capsules-Hard and Soft: Formulation and manufacture and their quality control. Partition. Brief study of solubility. film. flavors and sweeteners. lubricants. UNIT – IV Concept of sustained action dosage forms: Dosage calculations. quality control of tablets. colours. formulation and manufacture. methods adopted in release controlling. vehicles. PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY (Dosage forms) (Theory)[3Hrs/Week] UNIT – I Preformulation: Objectives. storage and quality control of ophthalmic ointments. propellants. Pressurized packaging and applications.B. Pka. UNIT – II Parenteral preparations: Definitions.1. formulation. preparation.III Solid dosage forms: (a) Compressed Tablets: Additives: diluents. filling. design of aseptic filling area. UNIT . containers. Quality control. 54 . classification. advantages and disadvantages. Dissolution and Solid-state properties. Formulation and manufacture of tablets. Liquid orals: Formulation and technology and evaluation of: (a) Solutions. Coating – sugar. (b) Suspensions (c) Emulsions and d)Dry syrups. disintegrating agents. binders.T. creams and suppositories. packaging. Semi-solid dosage forms: Classification of bases. sealing and testing. press and enteric coating methods. UNIT – V Aerosols: Classification.PHARM FOURTH YEAR IV.
Paracetamol tablets (wet granulation procedure). IV. Diclofenac sodium tablets. quality control and applications. 3. Solution 2. Container Materials: Packaging of all formulations.1. production of Tc99m injection. 8. A short list of radiopharmaceuticals. Chewable tablets. 6. Preparation of films for Transdermal delivery 4. package testing.P. Aspirin tablets. 5.Radiopharmaceuticals: Definition. Suppository 5. 9. Effervescent tablets 7. Drug loading on to pellets 3. Radioactivity. Dry syrup 3. Soluble tablets 6. Ampoule sealing – Parenteral injection. Capsule filling. Drug release from different ointment bases. 2. Effervescent granules 6 Emulsion Preparation and evaluation of the following: 1. Solid dispersion 5. 4. Matrix sustained release tablets 55 . Enteric coating of tablets 2. B) Optional (seven) Preparation and evaluation of the following 1. 7. Micro encapsulation. Suspension 4. Dip coating. PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY (Dosage forms) (Practicals)[3 Hrs/Week] A) Compulsory (fifteen) Formulation and evaluation of the following: 1.
(ii) Acids-lactic acid. Ideal characters of plasma substitutes. Normal human immunoglobulin injection. Introduction to fermenter and its accessories. Surface. submerged and solid-state fermentations. Dextran formulations (Preparations.Purified protein derivatives for Tuberculin test. Manufacture of the following: Study of culture. Plasma.(L)-Glutamic acid. 2.P Blood products: Whole human blood. (iii) Enzymes-Fungal diastase.IV. extraction and purifications of: (i) Antibiotics-Penicillin and Streptomycin. (vi) Polysccharides-Dextran. (v) Vitamins. production conditions. thrombin. BCG Vaccine. Manufacture and standardization of: Bacterial Cholera. 3. ii) Pepsin (iii) Heparin I.2. fibrin. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (Theory) [3hrs/Week] UNIT – I Fermentation Technology: 1. Immunological preparations: Definition and classification of immunoloical preparations. 56 . UNIT . Toxoids Diphtheria. (iv) Aminoacids. dried plasma. purification and types of formulations. Anaerobic and aerobic fermentations. media. uses and storage). Animal Products: i) Insulin-extraction.II Animal. 4.Vitamin B12.T. blood and immunological products. Antitoxins Tetanus antitoxin Diagnostic agents . Viral Polio and Rabies. Screening Methods for bioactive metabolites.
Principles of microbiological assays and detailed assays for Vitamin. Cutting and joining of DNA molecules: Cutting of DNA molecules. sampling. Applications in pharmaceutical industry. basic techniques like agarose-gel electrophoresis. adsorption methods of immobilization. B12 and Penicillin. Conducting these tests for injections. and modifications of RIA viz. Desirable properties of plasmid cloning vehicles. therapeutics and clinical analysis. Plasmids as cloning vehicles: Basic properties of plasmids. Immobilization of enzymes. Radio immuno assay (RIA): Theoretical principles. advantages and limitations of immobilization and brief study of gel entrapment. Microbial transformation of steroids: Introduction. Brief account of animal cell culture and its applications. restriction endonucleases and their nomenclature..UNIT – III Testing methods: Test for sterility: Sterility testing. types of transformation and uses. UNIT – V r-DNA (recombinant DNA) technology and applications. cDNA. Southern blotting and Northern blotting. Brief knowledge of RNA and DNA structures. purification of plasmid DNA. UNIT – IV Enzymes and animal cell biotechnology: Enzymes: Sources. prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene organization. Fundamentals of genetic engineering: Definition of rDNA technology. Monoclonal antibodies: Preparation and applications. surgical sutures (cat gut). media. target sites and joining of DNA molecules. ELISA. practice and applications. Natural and artificial plasmids-PSC101 and PBR 322 as vectors. DNA manipulations with the help of enzymes like Alkaline 57 . cotton. neutralization of various antimicrobial substances in dosage forms.
Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacterial cells. Microbiological assay of antibiotics by agar diffusion method. DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. hepatitis B vaccine (no process details). Microbiological assay of antibiotics by turbidimetry method. 14. S1 nuclease. A short list of products obtained through genetic engineering. DNA ligase.2. Introduction in to host cell: Transfection with recombinant phage DNA.phosphatase. Determination of MIC of antibacterial substances (phenol). 4. Transformation of E. 58 .coli transformation with plasmid DNA. Production of an antibiotic (Aerobic fermentation). 11. powders Preparation of antiserum from rabbit (demo) Estimation of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus sporogenes. interferon. Heparin bio-assay (demo). double linkers. 2. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (Practicals) [4 Hrs\week] (3hr on the same day and 1hr in the next day morning) 1. 8. Detection of antibiotics by Bioautography technique. 7. exonuclease. immunochemical. IV. 5. 13. Recombinant selection by genetic. and nucleic acid hybridization methods and Expression of cloned genes. 15. Estimation of diastase activity. 9. Production of alcohol and estimation of alcohol (Anaerobic fermentation). Preparation of killed bacterial vaccine Sterility testing of injections.P. coli (Demonstration). 6. adapters and homopolymer tailing. 12. Applications of genetic engineering: Simple steps to constrct the rDNA for production of Human insulin. 3. somatostatin. 10. Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acid (demo). E.
Limitations of Dissolution Test. 19. Official Methods of Dissolution. UNIT – II DISSOLUTION: Mechanisms of Dissolution. Rate Limiting Step in Bioavailability. 20.I INTRODUCTION TO BIOPHARMACEUTICS: Introduction The Concept of Biopharmaceutics ABSORPTION OF DRUGS: ABSORPTION OF DRUGS FROM GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Introduction. Oil/Water Partition Coefficient (Lipid solubility). Measurement of Dissolution Rates. Control of Variables in Dissolution Testing. 17. Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution. Drug Dissociation Constant and Gastrointestinal pH. Determination of Additive/synergistic effect of combination of drugs. Factors Governing Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption: Physiological Factors. Mechanisms of Drug Absorption. IV. Complicated Factors and Formulation Factors. Immobilization of enzymes (Gel entrapment).16. Unofficial Methods of Dissolution. RIA/ESLISA test.3. Physicochemical Factors.T. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT). Metabolic Factors. 59 . (Demo). 18. pHPartition Hypothesis. In-vitro and In-vivo correlation’s. Pyrogen testing – LAL test (demo) Antigen – Antibody reaction diffusion method. BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS (Theory) [2 Hrs/Week] UNIT .
Pharmacokinetic Study. Extrahepatic Metabolism and Minor Pathways of Drug Excretion. Area under the curve (AUC) and Clearance. Drug Metabolism. ONE COMPARTMENT OPEN MODEL INTRAVENOUS INJECTION (BOLUS) I. First Pass Effect. Hepatic Clearance. Induction and Inhibition of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes. Renal Blood Flow. Phase-I Reactions. Phase-II Reactions. Renal Clearance. Elimination Rate Constant. Bolus-Unchanged Drug in Urine. UNIT – V INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS: Mathematical Model. Pharmacological Activity of Metabolites. Introduction to Pharmacokinetic Models. Biliary Excretion.V. Hepatic Elimination of Drugs. Drug Binding in Blood. Sigma-Minus Method and Comparison of the two methods. Excretion rate Method. I. Bolus-Unchanged Drug in Blood Plasma. Enterohepatic Circulation. Disposition of Metabolites. Biological Half-life. Apparent volume of distribution. Drug levels in blood. UNIT – IV DRUG ELEMINATION: Renal Excretion. Calculation of Pharmacokenetic Parameters. Drug Binding to Tissue and Other Macromolecules and Apparent Volume of distribution. Physiological Barriers to the Diffusion of Drugs. Blood Flow to the Organ. Organ/Tissue Size. 60 .UNIT – III DRUG DISTRIBUTION: Physicochemical Properties of the Drug.V.
2. Correlation coefficient. Determination of disintegration time of tablets In-vitro dissolution studies: 1.3. Chi-square test 3. One compartment open model-extra vascular administration. Dissolution of sustained release tablets –diclofenac sodium 4. 2.V. b) Dissolution of uncoated tablets of the drug. Protein binding studies 1. Equilibrium dialysis method –demonstration of drug.IV.drug interaction at protein bind sites.P. T-test 2. Theoretical problems 1. One compartment open model-I. a) Construction of diclofenac sodium standard graph by spectroscopic method. PHARMACOKINETICS IV. (Diclofenac sodium) 3. In-vitro ointment release studies III. V. Biostatistics 1. II. 61 .(bolus) a) Unchanged drug in blood b) Unchanged drug in urine i) Rate excretion method ii) Sigma minus method 2. Equilibrium dialysis method-demonstration of protein binding. a) Unchanged drug in blood b) Unchanged drug in urine i) Rate excretion method ii) Sigma minus method. a) Construction of standard graph of a drug. BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS (Practicals) [3 Hrs/Week] I. b) Dissolution of enteric coated tablets.
A brief account of quantitative aspects of drug action and Receptor concept of drug action mechanism. UNIT – III A study of the following classes of drugs including introduction.4. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – II (Synthetic) (Theory) [3 Hrs/Week] UNIT – I Basic considerations of Drug activity: Introduction. classification. Basic concepts of computer Aided drug design. Enzyme stimulation. mechanism of action and synthesis of Benzocaine and Lidocaine. mechanism of action and SAR. Theories of drug activity. Biotransformations. Synthesis of compounds specified against each class is to be studied. Valproic acid Antidepressants – Imipramine Introduction. QSAR with the use of TSAR. Introduction. Synthesis of compounds specified against each class is to be studied. SAR. general method of synthesis (if any). chemical classification. structures. 62 . Sulfonamides and Membrane – active drugs Drug metabolism and inactivation: Metabolic reactions. Conjugation reactions UNIT – II A study of the following classes of drugs including introduction. Halothane and Ketamine.IV. Enzyme inhibition. Activity/toxicity predictions.T. Diazepam. mechanism of action and SAR. Mechanisms of Drug action: Introduction. classification. Factors affecting bioactivity. Alprazolam. Drugs acting on CNS: A brief study of the chemistry of neurotransmitters. Haloperidol Antiepileptics – Phenytoin. Hypnotics and Anxiolytics – Phenobarbital. structures. General and Local anesthetic agents: Definition. Antipsychotics – Chlorpromazine.
PAM (Pralidoxime) Cholinergic blockers: Propantheline Neuromuscular blockers: Galamine UNIT – IV A study of the following classes of drugs including introduction. classification with examples structures. anti-anginals. Glipizide including a brief account on PPAR r inhibitors Drugs affecting Thyroid Function: Methimazole. mild analgesics and strong analgesics : meperidine and methadone. Verapamil. b) classification and systematic development of analgesics of morphine. Synthesis of compounds specified against each class is to be studied. catabolism Indirect acting sympathomimetics: Amphetamine Drugs affecting cholinergic mechanism: Introduction – some aspects of cholinergic system Cholinergics – Carbacol Anticholinesterase – Neostigmine Antidotes for Ach Inhibitors:. Furosemide Anticoagulants. Diltiazem Antihyperlipidemics (Hypocholesteremic drugs): Clofibrate General account on panereatic and thyroid hormonal malfunctions. paracetamol.Drugs affecting adrenergic mechanism: Introduction. Chemotherapeutic Agents: Definition Chemical Classification. Drugs and Cardio-vascular diseases: General account of cardiovascular diseases Antihypertensives – Methyl Dopa. ibuprofen diclofenac d) A brief account on co-x-2 inhibitors and nimsulide. Captopril Anti-arrhythmics – Procainamide Diuretics – Acetazolamide. Adrenergic receptors. and coronary vasodilators – Isosorbide dinitrate. c) NSAIDS – aspirin. Propylthiouracil UNIT – V Analgesics and NSAIDS (Non-steroidal anti-inflamatory agents): a) Introduction and types of pain and inflammation. Hydrochlorthiazide. mechanism of action and SAR. SAR and mechanism of action and synthesis of the specified drugs in the following: 63 . Amlodipine. A brief account on statins Antidiabetics – Phenformin.
Paracetomol from para nitro phenol. i.Sulpha drugs : Sulphamethoxazole. Sulphameter Anti tuberculars Anti leprotics Antiamoebics Anthelmintics Antimalarial Drugs ` Anticancer Drugs : : : : : : Isonicotinic acid hydrazide and ethambutol Dapsone Metronidazole. Anti viral Drugs Antifungal Agents : : Analgesics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents: Introduction – Types of pain and inflammation Classification – Morphine structure and systematic development of anologues of morphine.4. IV. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – II (Synthetic) (Practicals) [3 Hrs/Week] I. Chloroquine. v. Mild analgesics and strong analgesics: Meperidine and Methadone Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Aspirin. Or para Aminophenol. Halogens (Strepheno’s method). Synthesis of some medicinal compounds and their analogues. Procarbazine. Primaquine and pyrimethamine Chlorambucil. iv. Carmustine. not to be given in examinations 64 . Diloxanide furoate Diethylcarbamazine citrate. 5-Mercaptopurine and Methotrexate.4. Qualitative estimation of some functional groups. mebendazole. iii.P. viii. Benocaine from para nitro benzoic acid. Phenytion from Benzoin or Benzil. Busulphan. pyrantel pamoate. II. vi. i. Paracetamol. 5-Flurourasil. Ibuprofen. iv. Barbituric acid from Diethyl Malonate. Antipyrine from ethyl aceto acetate. iii. ii. vii. Sulfanilamide from acetanilide Isoniazid from -picoline. Aciclovir. Zidovudine Clotrimazole and Ketokonazole. Diclofenac COX-II inhibitors: Nimesulide. 1. Hydroxyl groups (acetylation method) Methoxyl groups (Zeissel’s method) Carboxyl groups (silver salt method). Piroxicam. ii. ix. Quinazolinone from anthranilic acid via benzoxazinone.di hydro pyridine from ethyl aceto acetate. Indomethacin.
Asafoetida. Biological source. Tea and Withania. Benzoin. UNIT – II General introduction to Alkaloids. Gaultheria. Lemon grass oil. Clove and Nutmeg.antipyretic. adulterants and substituents of following: Belladonna.5. Orange peel. collection and preparation.T. Ephedra. ix. Colchicum. Coffee. Assay of some drugs from their formulations. Cola. Substitutes and adulterants of following: Chenopodium. Catharanthus. Caraway) and their biological sources. Balsam of Peru. Duboisia. Cassia. Lobelia. hypoglycemia) Metronidazole (antiprotozoal) Ibuprofen (analgesic-antiinflammatory) Furosemide (diuretic) Isoniazid (anti-tubercular) Aspirin (analgesic. Ergot. Cinnamon. Biological source. antithrombotic) Phenytoin (anticonvulsant) Phenobarbitol (sedative-hypnotic) Diethylcarbamizine (antihelmintic) Salbutamol (antiasthamatic) Phenyl butazone (Anti inflammatory) IV. chemical constituents and tests for identification. vii. Eucalyptus oil.and antiinflamatory. Tobacco. palmarosa and Sandalwood. uses. 65 . General pharmacognostic features of Umbelliferous fruit (Fennel. Mentha oil. Pilocarpus. ii. uses. xii. x. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following: Cardamom. Sulpha methoxazole (sulpha drug) Glibenclamide (sulphonylurea. chemical constituents. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following: Cinchona. Lemon peel. Oil of citronella. chemical constituents and Tests for identification. uses and adulterants / substituents (if any). Ipecac. Myrrh. iii. PHARMACOGNOSY-II (Theory) [3hrs/week] UNIT – I General introduction to Volatile Oils and Resins. diagnostic features. Musk. Balsam of Tolu. Coca. Nux-vomoca.III. v. Coriander. Hyosyamus. xi. Solanum. Kurchi. Guggul. viii. Capsicum. Podophyllum and Storax. Datura. i. Dill. Opium. Rauwolfia and Vasaka. Ginger and Turmeric. vi. iv.
66 . Ginseng. Liquorice. commercial significance and uses of novel biochemcals – Artemesinin. Camptothecin. uses. Neem derivatives and taxol. diagnostic features. Gentian. UNIT – IV Historical development of plant tissue culture: Types of cultures. chemical constituents and tests for identification. structure. Cascara.UNIT – III General introduction to Glycosides. Bacoposides. Senna and Saffron. Ammi majus. Digitalis. Nutritional requirements. growth and their maintenance. Strophanthus and Quassia. Applications of plant tissue culture in production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Dioscoria. Squill. adulterants and substitutes of following: Ammi visnaga. Biological source. Gymnemic acid. UNIT – V Source. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following: Aloe. Chirata. Asiaticosides.
i. 5. E. 13. Ephedra. e. f. Isolation of Curcuminoids. And some exercises on powdered crude drug mixtures 14. Consia. Quassia I. d. Detection of steroidal compounds. 8. g. Nux Vomica. J. Squill. Clove. Rauwolfia. m. Ipecac. a. Isolation of starch from potatoes. Quassia. G. Identification of following powdered crude drugs and their combinations with the help of organoleptic. Detection of glycosides. 67 . Senna.5. Fennel. 10. Spotting of crude drugs mentioned in theory (minimum 30 crude drugs). b. Ginger. 6. Cinchona. h. 12. Clove. 11.IV.Linseed/nux vomica. a. TLC profile of nux vomica / cinchona alkaloids. 2. Kurchi. 3. f. d. Fennel/ Coriander l. Senna b. microscopic. 7.P. 4. Detection of alkaloids by chemical tests. Ipecac. h.micro chemical nadf chemical methods (if any). Isolation of Bixin. Isolation of Piperine from black pepper. TLC of glycosides TLC profile of peppermint oil. Cassia/ Cinnamon c. Anatomy of following crude drugs. PHARMACOGNOSY – II (Practicals) [3hrs/week] List of experiments 1. Detection of flavonoids. Ginger k. 9. c.Vasaka. 15. Preparation of cetyl alcohol from Spermaceti.
Pharmacology of cortical and medullary stimulants. Pharmacology of drugs used in pain: Opiods and related drugs. Schizophrenia. proteins and peptides as drugs. Epilepsy. PHARMACOLOGY – II AND TOXICOLOGY (Theory) [3 Hrs. Drugs acting in atherosclerosis. CNS transmission and study of distribution and functions of different neurotransmitters. Peptides and proteins as mediators:Regulation of peptides and peptide antagonists. UNIT – IV Chemotherapy of infections and malignant disease: basic principles. Antiallergic drugs and Non-steroidal analgesic. Insomnia. antihelminthic. Pharmacology of agents used in general and local anesthesia.T.I Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system: Organization and functions of CNS. Pharmacology of immunosuppressants and stimulants. antimalarial.6. and Dementia & Alzheimer disease. UNIT – III Local hormones. UNIT – II Drugs acting on respiratory system: Drugs affecting respiration and drugs used in disorders of respiratory function. Drug dependance and drug abuse: Nicotine. antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacology of drugs used in Parkinson’s disease. antiviral. antifungal./Week] UNIT .IV. antiamebic and anticancer drugs. inflammation and allergy: Acute inflammatory reaction. 68 . Peripheral mediators: 5-Hydroxytryptamine and purines. Lipid lowering drugs. Mental Depression. Anxiety. study of antibacterial. Ethonal and cannabis. unwanted immune responses and mediators of inflammation and allergy.
P. 10. Sub acute and Chronic toxicities. Recording of the effect of Venous Pressure on Isolated frogs Heart by Syme’s technique. Demonstration of Local Anaesthetic Activity on Frog’s Hind-limb Withdrawal. PHARMACOLOGY – II AND TOXICOLOGY (Practicals) [3hrs/week] 1. 14. Alcohol Snake and Scorpion venoms. 12. Introduction to different Physiological Solutions used in Pharmacology lab. Effect of Ach. i. ii. 18. Heavy metals like lead. iii. 11.4. 3. Recording of Dose response curve of Acetylcholine in presence of Physostigmine on Rectus Adbominis Muscle.UNIT – V Principles of Toxicology Acute. mercury. 6. Isoprenaline and Nicotine. 4. Effect of Routes of Administration on the Action of Drugs. Benzodiazepines and opioids. 8. Effect of different Electrolytes / Drugs on Isolated frog’s Heart by Syme’s technique. Introduction to different equipment used in Pharmacology lab. 2. 15. symptoms and treatment of poisoning due to: OP and non OP pesticides (Organophosphorus and Non Organophosphorus) Barbiturates. 13. Effect of Drugs on Rabbit eye. Effect of Atropine in presence of Ach. 16. Iron. Bio-assay of Acetylcholine on Frog Rectus Abdominus Muscle by different Methods. Effect of drugs on Ciliary Movements in frog’s oesophagus. Neuroleptics and antidepressants. Demonstration of Local Anaesthetic Activity on Rabbit eye. Recording of Dose response curve of Acetylcholine in presence of dtubocurarine on Rectus Adbominis Muscle. 69 . 17. IV. Determination of ED50 using isolated tissue preparations. To demonstrate to presence of Cholinesterase in Blood. To demonstrate the effect of Drugs on frog rectum. Arsenic. Adr. 9. Recording of DRC of Histamine on Guinea-pig ileum. 7. 5. Recording of Dose response curve of Acetylcholine on Frog Rectus Abdominis Muscle. To record the Cumulative Dose Response of ACh on frog and the influence of Physostigmine and dtc. General principles of treatment of acute toxicity and poisoning-Signs. Effect of Adrenaline in presence of Propranolol.
24. Demonstration of effect of drugs on coronary blood vessels (DEMONSTRATION). Role of hospital pharmacist in hospital committees and practice of Rational Drug Therapy . preparation and distribution. Drug distribution: Outpatient and Inpatient services. workload and remuneration of hospital pharmacist. HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY (Theory) [2Hrs/Week] SECTION – A: Hospital Pharmacy UNIT – I Introduction to hospitals and hospital pharmacy Hospital pharmacy: Objectives and functions. Demonstration of Effect of local Anaesthetics on Isolated preparation like rectus abdominus or rat intestine or frog rectum. personal. unit dose drug distribution systems. IV. organization and functions. planning and administration of modern hospital pharmacy services. non sterile products. 20. 22. Drug exchange program. Antibiotic committee and Research and ethics committee. central sterile services and bedside pharmacy. planning.7. floor ward stock systems. role of hospital pharmacist in isotope and non-isotope pharmacy. 23. 21. abilities and evaluation of hospital pharmacist. Hospital formulary – Organization. UNIT – II Hospital manufacturing: Economical considerations and estimation of demands lay out. manpower requirements and quality assurance. Drug Interaction studies ACh X SCh. raw materials. production. 70 .19. Demonstration of difference between Cardiac Stimulants and Cardiotonic Agents (DEMONSTRATION). location. total parenteral nutrition and intravenous additives. qualifications. Hospital committees – Infection control committee. Pharmacy procedural manual preparation and publication. Bioassay of Histamine on Guinea pig ileum. requirements. formulary content. layout. organization. requirements. Demonstration of type of antagonism by local anaestheics. ACh X Pilocarpine. manufacturing of (including repacking and prepacking ) sterile products (small and large volume Parenteral). satellite pharmacy services.T. Study of Different types of Antagonism in from rectus abdominis / Rat Colon. Radiopharmaceuticals: Radioisotope committee. Pharmacy and therapeutic committee – Purpose.
critical evaluation of drug information and literature. clinical review. 71 . development of a drug information data base and emergency treatment of poisoning. history and development of clinical pharmacy. congestive cardiac failure. inflammatory bowel diseases and hepatitis. preparation of written and verbal reports. Nervous diseases: Epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. pulmonary function tests. Professional activities of the clinical pharmacist: Drug therapy monitoring (medication chart review. interpretation of test results of liver function tests. ischemic heart disease. Infectious disease: Respiratory tract infections. design of literature searches. UNIT – IV Drug and poison information services: Introduction of drug information. TDM and pharmacist interventions). Psychiatric disorders: Schizophrenia. tuberculosis. Renal disorders: Acute and chronic renal failure. Gastrointestinal disorders: Peptic ulcer disease. Endocrine disorders: Diabetes mellitus. drug therapy and critical analysis of rational use of drugs in the following disorders: Cardiovascular disorders: Hypertension. adverse drug reaction management. drug information and poison information. Patient data analysis: Clinical laboratory tests used in the evaluation of common disease states. Respiratory disorders: Asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. Urinary tract infections. Typhoid. leprosy and AIDS.III Definition. ward round participation. medication history review and patient counseling. its sturcture and use in evaluation of drug therapy. drug interactions.SECTION – B: Clinical Pharmacy UNIT . Hematological disorders: Anemia. The patient’s cases history. resources available. depression and anxiety. scope. haemogram and renal function tests. UNIT – V Pathophysiology.
Infectious diseases: Respiratory tract infections. Communication skills. Hematological disorders: Anemia and drug induced hematological disorders. laboratory and other clinical data. urinary tract infections. arrhythmias and hyperlipidemias. Oral contraception. Emphasis is placed on problem solving. Nervous diseases: Epilepsy. typhoid. Helminthiasis. List of diseases: Cardiovascular disorders: Hypertension.OPTIONAL MODULAR B. Medication Adherence. Concepts and skills in clinical Pharmacy Practice (20 hrs Theory and 125 hrs Practice): Present status Pharmacy practice in India and world. ward round participation. hepatitis. Rational drug use.PHARM (Hons. Patient counseling. Congestive cardiac failure. Oncology: Leukamias. Psychiatric disorders: Schizophrenia. Respiratory disorders: Asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. Protozoal infections. adrenal diseases. ischemic heart disease. medical management of disease states most frequently encountered in Indian Scenario and precautions which are required in proper selection and dosage. 2. Competencies for clinical pharmacy practice. anxiety disorders and sleep disorders. hypo and hyper thyroidism. inflammatory bowel diseases. Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapy (30 hrs Theory and 125 hrs Practice): A course in Pathophisiology and Pharmacotherapeutics will be focusing on interpretation of pathological basis. alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis of liver. pneumonia. gastro-enteritis. lymphomas and solid tumors. Gastrointestinal disorders: Peptic ulcer disease.) FIFTH YEAR SYLLABUS I SEMESTER 1. pediatric and Geriatric Pharmacy practice. tuberculosis. 72 . Endocrine disorders: Diabetes mellitus types I and II. depression. Parkinson’s disease and headache. bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Renal disorders: Acute and Chronic renal failure and drug dosing in renal impairment. drug information. menopause and hormone replacement therapy.
influence of renal. Standards of ethical Behavior 2. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and TDM (20 hrs Theory and 125 hrs Practice): Basic concepts of clinical Pharmacokinetics. Clinical Trial inspection Oversight. The Concepts of privacy and confidentiality in the context of Research iv. Hepatic and other disease states on Pharmacokinetics of drugs. The Institutional Review board iii. therapeutic drug monitoring and target concentration intervention of important classes of drugs. study completion/Termination 2. Regulation of clinical Research in India (ICMR) 1. Parameters of clinical relevance. Evaluation Types and Guidelines. ii. drug exposure and outcomes. Clinical Research (Design. Research theory 2. Protocol design 3. Protecting Human Subjects 1.3. Need for Pharmacoeconomics in Indian Pharmacy Practice. GCP expectations. if any. 4. Study Planning. advantages and disadvantages of PE Models. The Clinical Protocol and Investigator Brochure 1. basics of population Pharmacokinetics of drugs. Investigator brochure v. i. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Research Subjects 1. Epidemiologic Studies. Evidence Based medicine. Measurement) and Pharmacoepidemiology (30 hrs Theory and 125 hrs Practice): Phases of clinical research. Measurement of outcomes. Case studies. Adverse Event Reporting Concepts of Pharmacoepidemiology. Clinical trials Management 1. study conduct. 73 . 2.
PHARM (Hons) KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY WARANGAL – 506009 http://medicalppt.RULES.PHARM (FOUR YEAR INTEGRATED COURSE) DEGREE COURSE AND OPTIONAL MODULAR FIFTH YEAR COURSE LEADING TO B. REGULATIONS AND SYLLABUS FOR B.com/search/label/PHARMACOLOGY 74 .blogspot.
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