This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

Fundamentals of Astrodynamics Bate Mueller and White 0486600610|Views: 3,720|Likes: 26

Published by Navid Boostanimehr

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/64237739/Fundamentals-of-Astrodynamics-Bate-Mueller-and-White-0486600610

04/09/2015

text

original

- 1.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS
- 1.2 THE N-BODY PROBLEM
- 1.3 mE TWO-BODY PROBLEM
- 1.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION
- 1.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION
- 1.7 THE ELLITICAL ORBIT
- 1.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT
- LIST OF REFERENCES
- Sc. 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS 53
- 2.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS
- S. 2.9 THE MEASUREMENT OF TIME 101
- 2.13 SPACE SURVEILLANCE
- 2.14 TYE AD LOCATION OF SENSORS
- 2.15 GROUD TRACK OF A SATELLITE
- 3.1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS
- 3.2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS
- 3.3 IN-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES
- Sc. 3.4 OUT-OF-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES 169
- 3.4 OUT-OF-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES
- 4.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- Sc 4.4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM
- 4.4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM
- EXERCISES
- 5.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 5.6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS METHOD
- PROBLEM-INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS
- EXRCISES
- 6.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUD
- Sec. 6.2 GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROBLEM 279
- 6.2 THE GENERL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROBLEM
- 6.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE
- 6.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION
- 7.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUD
- 7.2 THE EARTH-MOON SYSTEM
- Sec. 7.3 SIMPLE EARTH-MOON TRAJECTORIES 327
- 7.3 SIMPLE EARTH-MOON TRAJECTORIES
- Sec. 7.4 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXIMATION : 333
- 7.4 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXIMATION
- 7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES
- 8.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 8.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM
- 8.3 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXMA nON
- 9.1 ITRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 9.2 COWELL'S METHOD
- 9.3 ENCKE'S METHOD
- ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS*
- VECTOR REVIEW
- SUGGESTED PROJECTS

In te interest of its historic and illustrative value we wil exa·

mine te metod which was originaly proposed by Gauss i

18094. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I

and r is an ellipse, the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic

2

orbits will be obvious. The derivation of the necessary equations "from

scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or

Moulton5. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f

and 9 expressions, we will present a very compact and concise

development of the Gauss method using only equations (5.2·3), (5.2-4)

and (5.2·5).

5.6.1 Ratio of Sector to Triange. In going from rl to r2 the radius

**Sc. 5.6
**

**THE ORIGINAL GAUSS METHOD
**

**259
**

vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5** .**6-1

we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate:

dt = 2 dA.

h

Since h =�the area of the shaded sector, A, becomes

(1.7-7)

where t is the time-of-fight from r **1 **to r .

The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended

chord is just one-half the base ties the altitude; so

Figre 5.6-1 Sector and triangle area

Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y, thus

(5.6-1)

The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations

relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly, L. A trial value of Y

(usually Y **� **1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L. This

**260 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 2 POSITIONS & TIME Ch.5
**

value of L is then used in the second equation to compute a better

trial value of y. This technique of successive approximations will

converge rapidly if y is nearly one, but fails completely if the radius

vector spread is large.

The frst equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for pin

equation (5.6-1) an expression which containsL as the only unknown.

5.6.2 Te First Equation of Gauss. If we square the expression for

the sector-to-triangle ratio, we obtain

**J**pt2

y2 *= _
*

*_
*

*_
*

*_
*

*_
*

*_
*

(r1r

2 sinL)2

Substituting for p from equation (5.4-3) and using the identity,

(sin2 x)/ (1 *-*cs x) *= 2 *cs2 �, this expression becomes

*2
*

2r r cos2 **L ***(r *+ r *-2 -*r

cos L cos bE *) .
*

12

*2 *1

2

V'l'2

*2 2
*

In order to simplify this expression, let

s *=
*

r 1 + r

2

4�

cosbV

1 2

*2 *1

*--2
*

*w =
*

gt2

*(2� *cos*� )3.
*

(5.6-2)

(5.6-3)

Note that sand Ware constants that may be evaluated from the given

information.

A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be

expressed compactly as

y2 *=
*

W

**S **+ l( 1 *-*cos bE)

2

*2
*

which is known as "the frst equation of Gauss."

(5.6-4)

Sc. 5.6

**THE ORIGINAL GAUSS METHOD
**

261

5.6.3 Te Second Equation of Gauss. Another completely

independent expression for y involving lE as the only unknown may be

derived from equations (5.2-4) and (5.6-1). From the first of these

equations, we see that

r r sin lv

*I
*

12

=t-L(lE-sinlE) .

.i

**J.
**

**.
**But r 1

1 *-*-= *-*-(lE *-*Sin l .

1 1*j*3

. E)

Y t **J.
**

**.
**

(5.6-5)

We still need to eliminate **a **from this expression. Using the identity,

si n l *= *2 si n l cos � ,equation (5.6-1) becomes

2 **L
**

**.
**

y-

0

t

2 *. *lv

lv

r 1 r 2 Sin *-***COS ***-
*

2 2

From equation (5.2-3) we can write

1 *-*cos lv *=. *(1 -cos lE)

r 1 r 2

(5.6-7)

Substituting this last expression into equation (5.6-7) eliminatesv

in favor of v

y=

Vit

2� sin lE

cos lv

(5.6-8)

2 2

If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5.6-5), **a **wil

be eliminated and we end up with

y3 *(*1 *-1)-***J. **t2

(lE -sin lE)

y

(2� cosl

V*) *3 sin3 lE .

1 2

2

2

**262 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 2 POSITIONS & TIME Ch.5
**

Recognizing the frst factor as *w, *we may write, more compactly

y2 (y -1) =W (L -sinLE)

sin 3 6E

2

Substituting for yfrom (5.6-4) and solving for y, we get

*(A
*

**C
**

. *A ***C ***) ( *1 -cos � *)
*

y ** = **1

**S +
**

2

sin3LE

2

2

which is known as "the second equation of Gauss."

(5.6-9)

5.6.4 Solution of the Equations. To review what we have done so

far, recall that we started with three equations, (5.2-3), (5.24) and

(5.2-5), in three unknowns, p, a and L. We then added another

independent equation, (5.6-1), and one more unknown, y. By a process

of eliminating p and a between these four equations, we now have

reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns, y and L.

Unfortunately, equations (5.64) and (5.6-9) are transcendental, so a

trial-and-error solution is necessary.

The first step is to evaluate the constants, sand *w, *from **r **I' **r2 ,!J
**and t. Next, pick a trial value for y; since this method only works wel

if 6vis less than about 900

, a good first guess is y **� **1.

We can now solve Gauss' frst equation for 6E, using the trial value of

y:

cos*f*= *1-2(� -s).
*

(5.6-10)

If we assume that L is less than 2 (which will always be the case

unless the satellite passes back through **fl **enroute to **f2**)**, **there is no

problem determining the correct quadrant for L.

We are now ready to use this approximate value for6E to compute a

better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. This better

value of y is then used in equation (5.6-10) to compute a still better

value of 6E, and so on, until two successive approximations for yare

nearly identical.

When convergence has occurred, the parameter p may be computed

from equation (5.4-3) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. The

determination of V

I and **v2 **from equations (5.2-7) and (5.2-2)

completes the solution.

*Sc. 5.6
*

**THE ORIGINAL GAUSS METHOD
**

*263
*

Since the equations above involve ., they are valid only if the

transfer orbit from **(1 **to (2 is elliptical. The extension of Gauss'

method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the

next section.

S.6.5 Extension of Gauss' Method to Any Type of Conc Obit. If

the given time-of-fight is short, the right-hand side of equation (5.6-10)

may become greater than one, indicating that�E is imaginary. Since we

already know that when.E is imaginary, .F is real, we can conclude

that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. Noting that .E =

i.F and **C **i.F = rs .F, equation (5.6-10) may aso be wrtten as

.F

*(w)
*

cosh 2 = *1 *-2

y2 -S

(5.6-11)

whenever the right side is greater than one.

Using the identity, -i sin i.F = sinh .F, equation (5.6-9) becomes

*(*sinh .F -.F *) � 1 *-cosh .F*)
*

y = *1 *+

*. *3.F

s +

2·

sinh "

2

(5.6-12)

These equations may be used exactly as equations (5.6-9) and

(5.0-10) to determine y.

If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic, then .

and .F will be zero and both equations (5.6-9) and· (5 .6-12) become

indeterminate. For this reason, difculties may be anticipated any time

.E or .F are close to zero. Gauss solved this problem by defnig two

auxiliary variables, x (not to be confused with the universal variable of

Chapter 4) and X as follows:

**x ***= � (1 -*cos *�)
*

X = . -si n .

sin3 .

2

The frst equation of Gauss may then be written, as

y2 = W

S + **x
**

**264 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 2 POSITIONS & TIME Ch.5
**

·x = **.
**

**. -
**

s.

y2

The second equation of Gauss may be written as

*I y *= 1 + X (s + x) *·1
*

(5.6-13)

(5.6-14)

Now, it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.

This may be accomplished by frst writing the power series expansion

for X in terms of &, and then expressing 6E as a power series in x. The

result, which is developed by Moulton, is

*1 � =
*

1 ( 1 + § **X ***+ *6·8 x2 + 6·8·10 x3

+ *.... **) .1
*

*.
*

3

5 5·7

5·7·9

. (5.6-15)

We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss

problem via the Gauss method as follows:

1. Compute the constants, sand *w, *from rl, r2, **/ **and t using

equations (5.6-2) and (5.6-3).

2. Assume *y ***� ***1 *and compute **X **from equation (5.6-13).

3. Determine X from equation (5.6-15) and use it to compute a

better approximation to *y *from equation (5.6-14). Repeat this cycle

until *y *converges to a solution.

4. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point, the orbit

being an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola according to whether x is

positive, zero, or negative. Depending on the type of conic, determine

6E or 6F from equation (5.6-10) or (5.6-11).

5. Determine p from equation (5.4-3), replacing Cs6E

with Cs

6F

in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.

2

2

..

6. Evaluate f, **g, **f and 9 from equations (5.2-3), (5.2-4), (5.2-5) and

(5.2-6).

7. Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5.2-7) and (5.2-2).

The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid

technique known for solving the Gauss problem when **l **is less than

900

; the iteration to determine *y *fails to converge shortly beyond this

point.

**Sc. 5.7
**

**INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS
**

**5.7 **PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

A E Roy Orbital Motion

Fundamentals of Astrodynamics and Applications

Modern Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Chapter 2 Scan

Orbital Mechanics Tolson 2005

Spacecraft Dynamics

Time Space Stars Man

Nucleosynthesis.and.Chemical.evolution.of.Galaxies

Physics From Stargazers to Starships

Prescod-Weinstein_Chanda

Algebraic Methods in Galilean Mechanics Eng

Project Cyclops - 1971

Methods of Astrodynamics Computer Codes Vallado

Ringmakers of Saturn - Norman R. Bergrun

User Friendly Multivariate Calibration GP

A Practical Research Methods - C.dawson

Apollo Program Specification March 1, 1966

Columbia Accident Investigation Board Volume Four

Post Launch Report for Mission as-201 (Apollo Spacecraft 009)

Post Launch Report for Apollo Mission A-004 (Spacecraft 002)

Upgrade Your Physics

Apollo 13 Technical Air-To-Ground Voice Transcription

Skylab 3 Voice Dump Transcription 8 of 9

NASA-1358

NASA-SMD-Science_Plan_07

Maclaurin - An Account of Newton's Discoveries

101 Science Experiments

Budd Hopkins - Missing Time

Edition) M..Plischke.&.B..Bergesen

Anderson M. - The Mathematical Theory of Cosmic Strings

8429551 Operational Methods in Mathematical Physics

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd