Application Information
Short-Circuit Current Calculations-~

1......-__

For Industrial And Commercial Power Systems

Table of Contents

Preface.

Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3
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Section 1- The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents
Sources of Short-circuit Currents ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Short-circuit Currents . Calculation of Short-circuit Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment with Adequate Ratings .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 11- The Details of Short-circuit Calculations

14 Impedance Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15 Determination of Short-circuit Currents .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 Means for Reducing Short-circuit Current 20 One Line Diagram Impedance Diagram Reduction Calculation Solution Computer Solution Estimating Short-Circuits 21 21 22 23 29 31

Section 111- Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations

Appendix Part 1- Estimated Short-circuit Duties
TABLE 4 TABLE 5 TABLE 6 TABLE 7 Figure 25 -Three-phase, Secondary Unit Substation Transformers -Single-phase, Distribution Transformers -Three-phase Padmount Distribution Transformers _"QHT" Dry-Type, Three-phase Transformers - Low-voltage Feeder 32 32 33 34 34 35 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 45 45 48 48

Part II-Impedance
TABLE 8 TABLE 9 TABLE 10 TABLE 11 TABLE 12 TABLE 13 TABLE 14 TABLE 15 TABLE 16 TABLE 17 TABLE 18 Figure 26

Data
-X/R Ratios - Primary Substation Transformers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Network Transformers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Distribution Transformers- Single-phase - D~tribution Tronsforrners=-Three-phase Padmount -Integral Distribution Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -Dry-type Transformers- Type "QHT" - Standard Current-limiting Reactors ...... - Approximate Machine Reactances ....... -Cables -GE Busway Impedances - Conductor Constants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part III-Short-circuit
TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Ratings of Ac Equipment

-Low Voltage Circuit Breakers -Low Voltage Safety and Disconnect Switches -Low Voltage Ind. Mounted Combination Motor Starters -Current-limiting Fuses-Low Voltage -Busway Short-Circuit Ratings -Fuse Rating for Busway Short-Circuit Protection -Motor Control Centers -Limitamp Motor Starters

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49 49 49 50 50 51

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Preface

Table of Contents (Cant/d)
TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 27 28 29 30 31 -Magne-blast Circuit-breaker Characteristics, Symmetrical Rating Basis -POWERIVAC Circuit-breaker Characteristics, Symmetrical Rating Basis -Vacuum Breakers Type PVDB-1 -Summary of Ratings of Current-limiting Power Fuses -Low Voltage Equipments 51 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 58

Part IV-Analytical

Techniques
.

Per-unit System Complex Quantity Manipulation .......... Delta-Y and Y-Delta Impedance Conversions

The calculation of ac short-circuit currents, essential to the selection of adequately rated protective devices and equipment in industrial and commercial power systems, is becoming increasingly important to the system designer. Today, power systems carry larger blocks of power, are more important to the operation of the plant and building, and have greater safety and reliability requirements. Meeting these requirements necessitates the fulfillment of certain criteria, including the use of adequately rated equipment. The system designer, who is usually a consulting engineer or plant electrical engineer, is responsible for the design of the power system and the selection of equipment and will generally have the task of calculating system short-circuit currents. Procedures and techniques for these calculations are not generally available in one place but are scattered among many publications, reports, and papers. The purpose of this publication is to provide the system designer with information and procedures necessary to calculate short-circuit currents in industrial and commercial power systems. The intent has been to make it easier for the system designer to make short-circuit calculations by

providing the necessary information in one place and oriented in a meaningful manner. The most frequently asked questions by system designers on this subject have been answered in this text.

CONTENTS
The contents of the various sections of this publication are briefly described below. Section I describes the nature of ac short-circuit currents and discusses calculation procedures. Also included are equipment ratings and the criteria used for the selection of equipment. It provides a basis for understanding short-circuit calculating procedures. Section II actually details shortcircuit calculations, including the formulation of one-line and impedance diagrams, representation of specific system components, and step-by-step calculation procedures. It shows how to make the necessary calculations. Section III contains examples of short-circuit calculations for both industrial and commercial building systems. A time-sharing computer example and tables for estimating short-circuit duty are illustrated. The Appendix contains estimating data required to make short-circuit

calculations. It includes tables for estimating short-circuit currents,impedance data for system components, and short-circuit ratings of standard devices and equipment. In addition, details of the per-unit system and computational techniques are included. The estimating impedance data and equipment short-circuit ratings are included for completeness; but it must be recognized that new equipment is continually becoming available, so that in actual practice the official rating and impedance data should be obtained from the appropriate, up-to-date equipment literature.

HOW TO USE
This publication is designed to be both instructional and procedural, a text book and a reference book. As seen from the contents it is arranged to provide the theory and definitions in Section I, the actual calculating procedures in Section II, examples in Section III, and estimating data in the Appendix. One who is unfamiliar with short-circuit calculations may want to use the publication as a text book and review the entire contents. For someone familiar with calculating procedures, the publication can be used as a reference for various questions which may arise.

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Some causes are: presence of vermin or rodents in equipment. extensive equipment damage. Maximum voltage drop occurs at the fault location (to zero for maximum fault) but all parts of the power system will be subject to some degree of voltage drop.all of them bad: 1.Section 1. The larger the capacity of the power source. one rated at 1000amperes. the short-circuit must be quickly removed from the power system.1 ohm compared with 20ohms for the motor). and possible fire damage. The maximum value of short-circuit current is frequently referred to as the "available" short-circuit current. then the short circuit at "F 1" (bottom of Fig.000 amperes. Electric power systems are designed to be as free of short-circuits as possible through careful system and equipment design. commercial and institutional buildings are designed to serve loads in a safe and reliable manner. ZT 100. and this is the job of the circuit protective devices-circuit breakers and fuses. is substituted for the 100-ampere unit. even with these precautions.000 AMPERES ~ 5 AMP lIJ I- iL Z z MOTOR 100 V 1000 A OHMS Z T '0. several things happen . the impedance of the larger transformer. personnel injury or fatality. Consequently. At the short-circuit location. 4._E_." When a short-circuit occurs on a power system.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents INTRODUCTION Electric power systems in industrial plants. However. voltage surges. For a simple example. jack hammers or pay loaders." the only impedance limiting the flow of shortcircuit current is the transformer impedance (0. interruption of essential facilities or vital services. and a large assortment of "undetermined phenomena. In order to accomplish this. circuit breaker "A" must have the ability to interrupt 1000 amperes. If a short circuit occurs at "F. If the load grows and a larger transformer. concrete juice and contaminants. 0. as well as proper installation and maintenance. System voltage drops in proportion to the magnitude of the short-circuit current. This stress varies as a function of the current squared (P) and the duration of current flow. the short-circuit current is 1000amperes or 200 times as great as the load current.1 OHMS . The maximum value of short-circuit current is directly related to the size and capacity of the power source and is independent of the load current of the circuit protected by the protective device. Short-circuit current flows from the various sources to the short circuit location. All components carrying the short-circuit currents are subject to thermal and mechanical stress.01 ohm.01 LOAD CURRENT 5 AMP SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT . arcing and burning can occur. Although the load current is still five amperes. Note: These values have been chosen to simplify illustrations rather than to represent actual system values 4 . tools. the protective device must have the ability to interrupt the maximum short-circuit current which can flow for a short circuit at the device location. the greater the short-circuit current will be. accumulation of moisture.01 10 000 ' AMPERES Fig. 1000 AMPERES 00 AMP MUST BE CAPABLE OF INTERRUPTING 10. therefore. Circuit breaker "A" must be able to interrupt that amount. loose connections. consider Fig. Uncontrolled short-circuits can cause service outages with accompanying production downtime and associated inconvenience. short-circuits do occur. it is extremely important that all sources of short circuit be considered and that MUST BE CAPABLE 5 AMP -- OF INTERRUPTING 1000 AMPERES MOTOR 100 100 V A LOAD CURRENT 5 AMP APPARENT IMPEDANCE ZT'OIOHMS 20 SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT 100 0. dust. 1. the intrusion of metallic or conducting objects such as fish tape. 1) becomes limited by 0. 2. Clearly. 1 (top). The impedance which determines the flow of load current is the 20 ohms impedance of the motor. the shortcircuit current increases to 10. deterioration of insulation. SOURCES OF SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENTS When determining the magnitude of short-circuit currents. One of the major considerations in the design of a power system is adequate control of shortcircuits. 3.

3. The flux does last long enough to produce enough short-circuit current to affect the momentary duty on circuit breakers and the interrupting duty on devices that open within one or two cycles after a short circuit. the short-circuit current produced by induction motors must be considered in certain calculations. they have a field excited by direct current and a stator winding in which alternating current flows.CIRCUIT CURRENT FROM INDUCTION MOTOR Fig. diesel engines. Total short-circuit current equals sum of sources the impedance characteristics of these sources be known: There are four basic sources of short-circuit current: 1. However. Induction Motors SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR TOTAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT FROM ALL FOUR SHORT-<:IRCUIT CURRENT FROM SYN. Synchronous Motors Synchronous motors are constructed much like generators. Because the rotor flux cannot decay instantly and because the inertia of the rotating parts drives the induction motor.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents FROM UTILITY EL ECTRIC SYSTEM METAL CLAD SWITCHGEAR SHORT. 2. Normally. the motor stops delivering energy to the mechanical load and starts slowing down. as it is when a shortcircuit occurs on the system. Hence. There is one major difference.CIRCUIT CURRENT FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEM SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT FROM GENERATOR CD mover drives a generator. The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the stator rather than from the de winding. For a short circuit at the terminals of the generator. if the external source of voltage were suddenly removed. a voltage is generated in the stator winding. that is. The induction motor has no de field winding. or other types of prime movers. 2). the inertia of the load and motor rotor drives the synchronous motor. the current from the generator is limited only by its own impedance. 4. The short-circuit current vanishes almost completely in about four cycles. The generated voltage produces a short-circuit current of a large magnitude that flows from the generator (or generators) to the short The inertia of the load and rotor of an induction motor has the same effect on an induction motor as on a synchronous motor. since there is no sustained field current in the rotor to provide flux. synchronous motors draw ac power from the line and convert electric energy to mechanical energy. just as the prime Generators Generators are driven by turbines. The magnitude of a short-circuit cur5 . the flux in the rotor cannot change instantly. that is. This acts like flux produced by the de field winding in the synchronous motor. During a system short-circuit. The rotor flux remains normal as long as voltage is applied to the stator from an external source. as in the case of a synchronous machine. but there is a flux in the induction motor during normal operation. Generators Synchronous Motors Induction Motors Electric Utility Systems circuit. the voltage on the system is reduced to a very low value. MOTOR 0 SHORT. 2. All these can feed short-circuit current into a short circuit (Fig.Section 1. Consequently. The synchronous motor then becomes a generator and delivers short-circuit current for many cycles after the short circuit has occurred. However. it drives the motor after the system short circuit occurs. the generator continues to produce voltage because the field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives the generator at normal speed. water wheels. When a short circuit occurs on the circuit fed by a generator. The amount of shortcircuit current produced by the motor depends upon the impedance of the synchronous motor and impedance of the system to the point of short circuit. This flow of short-circuit current is limited only by the impedance of the generator and of the circuit between the generator and the short circuit. This causes a short-circuit current to flow to the short circuit until the rotor flux decays to zero.

the shortcircuit current behaves as shown in Fig. Transient reactance is effective up to one-half second or longer. and synchronous reactance and are described as follows: reactance (X"d) is the apparent reactance of the stator winding at the instant short circuit occurs. the impedance of the generators and system to the terminals of the transformer and the impedance of the circuit from the transformer to the short circuit. Most short-circuit currents are nearly always asymmetrical during the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs. Transformers merely change the system voltage and magnitude of current but generate neither. but it is of a different value. three values of reactance are assigned to generators and motors for the purpose of calculating short-circuit current at specific times. 3. --- --_ -----j -7/\-7 _---v---STEADY-STATE CURRENT DETERMINED BY SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL CURRENTS The words "symmetrical" and "asymmetrical" describe the shape of the ac waves about the zero axis. The short-circuit current delivered by a transformer is determined by its secondary voltage rating and impedance. the initial value of short-circuit current is approximately equal to the locked-rotor starting current of the motor. 4). It is not effective until several seconds after the short circuit occurs. depending upon the design of the machine. this is not correct because the utility system or supply transformer merely delivers the shortcircuit current from the utility system generators. For example. therefore. Therefore.Section 1. If the envelopes are not symmetrical around the zero axis. A sychronous motor has the same kind of reactance as a generator. Strictly speaking. transient reactance.ECA~OF GREAT LENGTH OF TOTAL OSCILLOGRAM ONLY TWO ENDS SHOWN HERE. The current starts out at a high value and decays to a steady-state value after some time has elapsed from the inception of the short-circuit. SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT . Transient reactance (X'd) determines the current following the period when subtransient reactance is the controlling value. The envelope is a line drawn through the peaks of the waves.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents rent produced by the induction motor depends upon the impedance of the motor and the impedance of the system to the point of short circuit. Consequently. Rotating Machine Reactance The impedance of a rotating machine consists primarily of reactance and is not one simple value as it is for a transformer or a piece of cable. the reactance of the machine may be assumed-to explain the change in the current value-to have changed with time after the short-circuit was initiated. induction motors are said to have subtransient reactance only. The machine impedance. THIS REPRESENTS THE BREAK BETWEEN THE TWO PARTS. 3. consequently. effective at the time of short circuit corresponds closely to the impedance at standstill. if a short-circuit is applied to the terminals of a generator. Oscillogram of a symmetrical short·circuit current produced by a generator 6 . If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are symmetrical around the zero axis. they are called "symmetrical current" envelopes (Fig. it is not generally used in short-circuit calculations. they are called "asymmetrical current" envelopes (Fig. 3. 5). These values are called the subtransient reactance. but the rotor bars act like the amortisseur winding in a generator. Fig. The asymmetrical current is at a maximum during the first cycle after the short circuit occurs =:sJ_h --- --- SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS AT THIS TIME. 1. Since the field excitation voltage and speed have remained relatively constant within the short interval of time considered. Synchronous reactance (Xd) is the reactance that determines the current flow when a steady state condition is reached. Induction motors have no field coils. Subtransient Electric Utility Systems (Supply Transformers) The electric utility system or the supply transformer from the electric utility system are often considered a source of short-circuit current. and it determines the current flow during the first few cycles after short circuit. for the sake of simplification. 2. but is complex and variable with time. Expression of such a variable reactance at any instant requires a complicated formula involving time as one of the variables.

the short-circuit current lags the source voltage by approximately 90 degrees (see Fig. the resistance equals ARE NOT ZERO AXIS ZERO AXIS Fig. An oscillogram of a typical short-circuit current is shown in Fig. The power factor of a short circuit is determined by the series resistance and reactance of the circuit (from the point of short circuit back to and including the source or sources of the short circuit). in Fig. =( Fig.6. OF PEAKS WAVE ARE ABOUT Why Short-circuit Currents Are Asymmetrical In ordinary power systems. ~ENVELOPES OF SINE THE SYMMETRICAL ZERO AXIS. 7. Oscillogram of a typical short circuit The relationship of the resistance and reactance of a circuit is sometimes expressed in terms of the X/R ratio. 5. the reactance equals 19%. In high-voltage power circuits. Therefore. and the short-circuit power factor equals 7. the X/R ratio of the circuit shown in Fig 7 is 13.4%. 6. For example. 4. Power Factor in percent =R/Z (l00) ENVELOPES OF PEAKS ARE NOT SYMMETRICAL ABOUT ZERO AXIS.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents and in a few cycles gradually becomes symmetrical. substantial sine-wave shortcircuit currents result. determined by using the formula. the applied or generated voltages are of sine-wave form. Asymmetrical ac waves OFFSET 1. Low-voltage power circuits (below 600-volts) tend to have a larger percentage of resistance and the current YR2+X2 R )100 7 .4%. For example. The following discussion assumes sine-wave voltages and currents. 7). 6. the resistance of the circuit back to and including the power source is low compared with the reactance of the circuit. Symmetrical ac wove ~ENVELOPES SYMMETRICAL OF OF PEAKS ABOUT ~ AXIS OF SYMMETRY ZERO TOTALLY OFFSET AXIS PARTIALLY Fig. When a short circuit occurs.Section 1.

8. that is. 10. 8 and 9 are extremes. the point on the voltage wave at which the shortcircuit must occur to produce maximum asymmetry depends on the ratio of resistance to reactance of the circuit. If a short-circuit occurs at the peak of the voltage wave in a circuit containing only reactance. the degree of asymmetry can vary between the same limits as a circuit containing only reactance. One shows a totally symmetrical current and the other a completely asymmetrical current. the symmetrical component is at a maximum at the inception of the short circuit and decays to a steady state value due to the apparent change in machine reactance. As previously discussed.Section 1. X. However. The Dc Component of Asymmetrical Shortcircuit Currents Asymmetrical currents are analyzed in terms of two components. Fig. ZERO AXIS SHORT Fig. In a circuit containing resistance and reactance. 9. CIRCUIT rx R (X '7% '~".7~~ I ONE LINE DIAGRAM 1MPEDANCE 19% 1. R' 0. the current will start at zero but cannot follow a sine wave symmetrically about the zero axis because the current must lag behind the voltage by 90 degrees.. CIRCUIT OCCURRED AT THIS POINT circuit 8 Symmetrical current and voltage in a zero power-factor . This can happen only if the current is displaced from the zero axis as shown in Fig. a symmetrical current and a de component as shown in Fig.The Nature of as Short-circuit Currents LINE GENERATOR TRANSFORMER SHORT INTERNAL VOLTAGE OF GENERATOR GENERATOR TRANSFORMER IMPED~ IMPEPANC~ [ ~. 8). Diagrams illustrating the phase relations of valtage and short-circuit currents will lag behind the voltage by less than 90 degrees. 7. those containing resistance. the current will be asymmetrical to a degree dependent upon the point at which the short-circuit occurs on the voltage wave. the de component will also decay (to zero) as the energy represented by the dc component is dissipated as PR loss in the resistance of the circuit. RESISTANCE. The two cases shown in Figs.4. In all practical circuits.~ REACTANCE. If a short-circuit occurs at the zero point of the voltage wave. the short-circuit current will start at zero and trace a sine wave which will be symmetrical about the zero axis (Fig. 11 illustrates the decay of the de component.1 ~ ~. If the short circuit occurs at any point between zero voltage and peak voltage." GENERATOR VOLTAGE --- SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT DIAGRAM SHOWING SINE WAVES CORRESPONDING TO VECTOR DIAGRAM FOR ABOVE CIRCUIT Fig.~ " 1 APPLIED HERE LINE IMPXEPANCR~ ( .----___J.

Total Short-circuit Current The total symmetrical short-circuit current usually has several sources The Basis of Device and Equipment Rating It has been stated previously that a circuit protective device must have the ability to interrupt the 9 . 9 The rate of decay of the de component is a function of the resistance and reactance of the circuit. The first includes generators either in the plant or in the utility system or both. Because these currents decay with time due to reduction of flux in the machine after short circuit..L-+-_--+-~~ . \ \ \ \ I I \ \ / ZERO AXIS "" "'" . accentuating the difference in magnitude of a shortcircuit current at the first cycle after short circuit and a few cycles later.This component also decays with time.-_--':-""""---+-_--I----lo. 13). The magnitude during the first few cycles is further increased by the de component (Fig. In practical circuits. __ -+-. are located in every plant and building. Induction motors. So even if only the symmetrical part of the short-circuit current is considered. Components of current shown in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. I \ I \ I \I \I \I \ \ \ I I I \ . Fig. TOTA L ASYMMETRICAL CURRENT AC COMPONENT -___. The second source comprises synchronous motors. the dc component decays to zero in from one to six cycles. . the total short-circuit current decays with time (bottom. I I Asymmetrical current and voltage in a zero power-factor circuit.Section 1. simplified methods have been developed which yield short-circuit currents required to match the assigned ratings of various system protective devices and equipment. component of the short-circuit current is determined through the use of the proper impedance in the basic equation: 1= E/Z where E is the system driving voltage and Z (or X) is the proper system impedance (or reactance) of the power system from the point of short circuit back to and including the source or sources of a shortcircuit current. \ \ "'" I \I . 9. the third source. the magnitude of current is highest at the first half cycle after short circuit and is of lower value a few cycles later. 10.~. The value of the proper impedance is determined with regard to the basis of rating for the device or equipment under consideration.W__ __ Z E R 0 AX I S _j I I I I I I I I \ \ \ \ \ '- Fig.. 12).-I \ \ \I I I I I . Consequently. Note that the induction motor component disappears entirely after one or two cycles. 12.c. INSTANT AT WHICH SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS The calculation of the precise value of an asymmetrical current at a given time after the inception of a short circuit is a rather complex computation. The value of the symmetrical or a.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents _SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT SOURCE VOLTAGE SHORT CI RCUIT \ \ \ \ I I I I \J "" Fig.

c. component). the impedance of the arc on contact parting. motor control centers. high-voltage circuit breakers have been rated on a symmetrical current basis. (See Appendix. the device short-circuit rating is stated in terms of the available short-circuit current. their short-circuit ratings are based on maximum a. Although rated on a symmetrical current basis. the subtransient reactance X" is used for all sources of short-circuit current in the basic equation 1= E/Z.Section 1. the short-circuit duties during the first cycle (momentary) and at contact parting time (interrupting) must be compared with the circuit breaker's short-circuit capability to close and latch during the first cycle and to interrupt at some time later. motor controllers. when applied at a location with a given available shortcircuit current. then no further calculations are necessary. Prior to 1964. This maximum current is called the "available" short-circuit current. the actual current that the device is required to interrupt may be less than the available current due to the impedance of the device. Therefore. ANSI Standard C37. ANSI Standard C37. high-voltage circuit breakers were rated on a total current (asymmetrical) basis. High-voltage Circuit Breakers (above 600 volts) Toapply high-voltage circuit breakers. components) conditions as covered by the applicable standards. plus d. and the ability of the device to current-limit as in the case of a current limiting protector. and busway are rated on the basis of available symmetrical amperes (a.010-1979 should be used for the calculation of short circuit current and the application of these circuit breakers. But this is not entirely correct. If the power factor is less.5-1979* should be used for the calculation of short circuit currents for these circuit breakers. these devices and equipment are tested on the basis of typical circuit asymmetrical (a.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents TOTAL ASYMMETRICAL COMPONENT CURRENT Fig. including low-voltage power circuit breakers. 11. The basic concept is that the device must have the ability. Both of these . 12. Oscillogram showing decay of de component and effect of asymmetry of current maximum short-circuit current which can flow for a short circuit at a device location. age fuses. switch boards and panel boards in that the rating refers to the available short-circuit current at the locations where the equipment is to be connected. moldedcase circuit breakers. then the asymmetrical current may be greater than the device will withstand and the device should be derated in accordance with applicable standards. On this basis.c. component current during the first cycle. low-volt10 "Sta ndard has been updated to reflect latest calculating procedures.c. Since 1964.c. to satisfactorily interrupt a fault at its load terminals. Since these protective devices are fast operating (contact parting within the first cycle or two).) Fig. The same concept applies to the short-circuit rating of busway and bus structures within switchgear. Symmetrical short-circuit currents from four sources combined into total Low-voltage Protective Devices and Equipment (below 600 volts) Low-voltage protective devices and equipment. For a short circuit on the load side of the device. If these devices are used where the power factor of the circuit at the point of application of the device is equal to or greater than the power factor used for testing and rating the devices.

2. brk All turbine generators. 1. High-voltage Fuses The interrupting duty is calculated (above 600 volts) using the rotating-machine reactance High-voltage fuses are rated in multipliers in TABLE 1.5-1979 . Symmetrical of Rating A. C37. S Sept/Oct 1969 (GER-2660) 3.50 X"d 1. "Electric Power Distribution For Industrial Plants"-IEEE Publication 141 (Red Book) dated 1976 or later revisions. IEEE Transactions on Industry and General Applications Vol IGA-S. The circuit breaker must have a calculated interrupting duty (contact parting) equal to or greater than this current.06-1979 lists the schedules of preferred ratings for high-voltage circuit breakers rated on a symmetrical basis. X/R is high-voltage circuit breaker ratings less than 4) multiply symmetrical curTABLE l-Rotating·machine Type Reactance Multipliers" of Rotating Mochine Momentory tust cvcle Interrupting H.75 X'd 1. or less Above 250 horsepower at 3600 r/min.06-1979-Schedule of preferred ratings and related required capabilities for ac high-voltage circuit breakers rated on a symmetrical basis.2of ANSI Standard 37. The differences are intended to account more accurately for contributions to high-voltage interrupting duty from large induction motors.37. C37 . with motors all hydrogenerotors amortisseur windings with omortisseur windings. for single line-to-ground faults) will provide adequate accuracy. and for the alternating current decay of contributions from nearby generators. Interrupting Current Basis Rating ANSI Standard C37. The more exact method should also be used if single line-to-ground fault supplied predominantly by generators.00 X"d 1.75 X'd 1. Subtransient reactances should be used to calculate shortThe rotating machine reactance circuit currents.00 X"d 1. a simple E/X computation (E/X for three-phase faults or 3E and short-circuit calculation.04-1979-Rating structure for ac high-voltage circuits rated on a symmetrical basis. the following references are recommended: National Standards C37.00 X"d 0. This is true if the X/R ratio is 15 or less or if E/X does not exceed 80 percent of the symmetrical interrupting capability of the breaker. Jr. All smaller and above 50 horsepower 11 'From ANSI/IEEE C. All others.00 X"d 0.Y. "Interpretation of New American National Standards for Power Circuit Breaker Application" by Walter C.are identical to those used for calcugle X or Z. Then will withstand and it may be necesmultiply by base current. Asymmetrical short-circuit currents plus the dc component from all sources standards use calculating procedures which differ from those used prior to 1964.6 to above. Momentary Rating metrical current based on an ·XlR The first cycle duty (momentary) ratio of 15. If these conditions are not met then the more exact method of calculation described in Section 5.3. then the asymmetrical current may be greater than the fuses current total per unit current. mote from the generating stations or For a more detailed description of primary substations (that is.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents In most cases of short-circuit calculation. Determine the preshort lating momentary duty for highcircuit operating voltage E. The shortcircuit capability at a lower voltage (down to the maximum rated voltage ~k. If the X/R ratio is greater find the first cycle duty short-circuit than 15. American Fig. terms of symmetrical current but are designed to withstand full asymB.50 X"d 3.000 volts or multipliers shown in TABLE 1 are below. Divide voltage circuit breakers described E by X or Z and multiply by 1. Distribution cutouts are rated on total current. At 15. exceeds 70 percent of the circuit breaker symmetrical interrupting capability. The machine reactances rating is calculated by reducing the for calculating short-circuit currents equivalent network system to a sin.00 X"d Neglect 1000 horsepower 50 horsepower than at 1800 r/min. for the exponential decay of the direct current component of short-circuit current.50 X"d 1. 13. sary to derate the fuse in accordance with applicable standards.010-1979 -Application guide for ac high-voltage circuit breakers rated on a symmetrical basis.Section 1. all condensers Hydrogenerators All synchronous Induction Above motors 1. the voltage range factor) will be higher and is found by applying the voltage ratio to the rated short-circuit current. Huening.20 X"d Neglect 1. The symmetrical current value of rated short-circuit current applies at rated maximum voltage. when the fuse is located reused. at generator voltage. No.00 X"d 1.0101979should be used.

however. and so on. low-voltage industrial and commercial power systems.Section 1. it generally results in maximum short-circuit values and for this reason is the basic short circuit calculation in commercial and industrial power systems. TYPES OF POWER SYSTEM SHORT CIRCUITS Short-circuits can occur on a three-phase power system in several ways. + Z2 + z. 1. This arrangement utilizes an upstream protector which can furnish short-circuit protection for down-stream equipment. The protective device or equipment must have the ability to interrupt or withstand any type of short circuits which can occur. grounding conductor.the Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents rent by 1. Due to its complex nature. Machine reactance and multiplying factor for application of high-voltage fuses (above 600 volts) is shown in TABLE 2. lineto-ground bolted short circuit current is usually equal to. Line-to-ground fault magnitudes on these systems are determined primarily by the resistor itself and a lineto-ground short-circuit calculation is generally not required. Power Fuses at Station-All With symmetrical With asymmetncal Current-limiting Fuses ratings. users preference." For any given location. ratings LOO 1 5~ Subtronsient Subtronsient Subtransient B. it is absolutely essential to use equipment with short-circuit ratings equal to or greater than the available short-circuit current that can occur at the equipment location.41-1981 . = 3EL_N z.20 1. and building steel). Sometimes it is significantly lower than the three-phase bolted short circuit current due to the high impedance of the groundreturn circuit (that is. but it should be noted that the basic short circuits calculation for the selection of equipment is the three-phase bolted shortcircuit. busway enclosure. Arcing faults can display a much lower level of short-circuit current than a bolted short circuit at the same location. when the fuse is located and when the X/R remote 2 All other from stations is less than cases. or less than a three-phase bolted short circuit current. =positive-sequence impedance Z2=negative-sequence impedance Zo= zero-sequence impedance Zg=ground return impedance inel uding resistance of neutral grounding resistor if any In resistance-grounded. Distribution 1. particularly in lowvoltage systems. Line-to-line Bolted Short Circuits In most three-phase power systems. protection characteristics. There is. The 1987National Electrical Code states: Article 110-9 "Interrupting Capacity. In all other cases multiply by 1. tend to be arcing in nature. symmetrical component techniques are used to analyze line-to-ground short circuit where the line-to-ground current can be expressed as: I sc Selection of Equipment In order to provide for personal safety and to minimize equipment damage. Selection of a specific device would then depend on other factors such as economics.000 Fuse Cutouts volts. Line-to-ground Short Circuit Bolted Arcing Short Circuit Many power system short circuits. conduit. Three-phase Bolted Short Circuit A three-phase bolted short-circuit describes the condition where the three conductors are physically held together with zero impedance between them just as if they were bolted together. When required. there may be several types of protective devices which have an adequate short-circuit rating. maintainability. defined as coordinated rating. The basic type of short circuits will be described.4-13.55. In solidly grounded systems. generating 4. + 3Zg Where EL_N = line-to-neutral voltage Z. arcing short circuit is a subject all to itself and is treated as such in GET-6533. mediumvoltage systems (2. or below. TABLE2-Machine Reactance Multipliers· Synchronous Multiplying Factor Generators Condensers and Synchronous Motors Induction Motors A. Line-toground short circuit calculations are seldom necessary in solidly grounded. While this type of short circuit condition is not the most frequent in occurrence. The low levels of arcing short circuit current in low-voltage systems become important in designing adequate system protection. At 15. one instance when low voltage equipment can be applied to a location where the available short-circuit current is higher than the short-circuit rating of the device. but this calculation is seldom required because it is not the maximum value.8 kV) the resistor is generally selected to limit ground fault current to a value ranging between 400 and 2000 amperes. Devices intended to break current shall have an interrupting capacity sufficient for the voltage employed and for the current which is available at the line terminals of the equipment. the levels of line-to-line bolted short circuits currents are approximately 87% of three-phase bolted short circuits currents.2 to obtain asymmetrical current. particularly in low-voltage systems.55 Subtronsient Subtronsient Subtransient 12 *From ANSI C37. These lower levels of current are due in part to the impedance of the arc inserted into the circuit.

the upstream device but in excess of It should be emphasized that cothe downstream device rating when ordinated ratings are assigned by used alone. only when verified by actual in a system using coordinated ratU. The Underwriters LaboraIf any current bypasses the upstream tories has developed procedures for device (such as motor contribution testing devices in series as a system fed in on load side of upstream device) and assigning a "coordinated rata fully rated system. should be used. ings. hibits selectivity between devices cuit occurs on a feeder circuit. the NEMA standards specified certain other requirements for this application. both and increases system maintenance. cascaded arrangements have been infrequently used in industrial and commercial power systems mostly because of the increased recognition of the im. witnessed test in a short circuit ings.Section 1. his application procedure T previously allowed a feeder breaker to be applied on a system where the available short-circuit current was in excess of the breaker's short-circuit rating. the main and feeder breaker would Coordinated ratings are based on probably trip.The Nature of Ac Short-circuit Currents Coordinated Ratings The cascade operation of lowvoltage power circuit breakers (GE TYPE AKR) is no longer recognized by NEMA with the publication of SG-3-196S. In recent years.. provided the feeder breaker was backed up by an adequately rated main breaker.L. when a short cir. In the downstream device which procascade operation. not a coordinated ing" to the system that is equal to rated system. «Trademark of General Electric Company 13 .L.erate and clear simultaneously with portance of service continuity. two protective devices operating in Since 1971 the National Electriseries with all short-circuit current cal Code has permitted systems ratflowing through the upstream device. For successful operation U. In addition. the upstream device must oplaboratory.

to a commercial building system where the service and utilization voltage is 20BY /120 volts. the initial utility available short-circuit duty for an inbuilding system being investigated may be 150 mVA. It was determined that the basic equation for the calculation of short-circuit current is 1= E/Z where E is the system driving voltage and Z (or X) is the proper system impedance (or reactance) of the power system back to and including the source( s) of short-circuit current. 2. all buses are faulted. Future growth and change in the system can modify short-circuit currents. Severe duties are those that are most likely to tax the capabilities of components. In many studies.Section 11. 14 illustrates a typical system one-line diagram. several steps may be combined-for example. 3. including in-plant generation. For the designated short-circuit locations and system conditions. including the calculation of short-circuit currents. 2. The type of short-circuit currents required is based on the short-circuit rating of the equipment located at the faulted bus. Step-by-step procedures will be presented for making shortcircuit calculations. But future growth plans may call for an increase in available duty to 750 mVA several years hence. The most severe duty usually occurs when the maximum concentration of machinery is in operation and all interconnections are closed. future in-plant or in-building expansions very often will raise short-circuit duties in various parts of the power system so that future expansions must also be considered initially. For systems above 600 volts. Prepare an impedance diagram. In this section the details of shortcircuit calculations will be presented. Type and Location of Faults Required All buses should be numbered or otherwise identified. a shortcircuit calculation is required for only a part of the system-for instance. Which machines A System One-line Diagram The system one-line diagram is fundamental to short-circuit analysis. The industrial system would require an extensive representation and many procedural steps while the building system may require minimal representation with just a few steps. After this representation is accomplished. Much of the detail of a short-circuit calculation or study involves the representation of the proper system impedances from the point of short-circuit back to and including the sourceis) of shortcircuit current. 4. based on type of equipment being applied. gram. These step-by-step procedures will provide a basis for making short-circuit calculations for most types of industrial and commercial power systems from an extensive industrial system where the primary service may be 115 kV with distribution and utilization voltage at 13. was discussed. Furthermore. Sometimes.4 kV. the increase must be factored in the present calculations so that adequate in-building equipment can be selected. This increase could substantially raise the short-circuit duties on the in-building equipment. . For example. In the simpler systems.B kV. When calculations are being made on a computer. the actual short-circuit computation is very simple. Decide on short-circuit locations and type of short-circuit current calculations required. to determine the required short-circuit ratings for equipment to be served from a new feeder to an existing building service equipment. resolve the impedance network and calculate the required symmetrical currents (EiZ or EiX). In a similar manner. 1. The location where short circuits are required should be selected. the use of a combined one-line and impedance diagram. Consider the variation of system operating conditions required to display the most severe duties. Refer to Section I for determining the type of short-circuit rating required for various kinds of equipment as well as the machine reactances to use in the impedance diagram.The Details of Short-circuit Calculations INTRODUCTION In Section I the general nature of ac short-circuits. Assign bus numbers or suitable identification to the short-circuit locations. or for low-voltage systems where the only sources of short-circuit current are a supply transformer (or a utility system) and induction motors. Select suitable kVA and voltage bases for the study when the per-unit system is being used. Include all significant system components. Fig. Examples are included which show simple and direct solutions for the cases. System Cond itions for Most Severe Duty It is sometimes quite difficult to predict which of the intended or possible system conditions should be investigated to reveal the most severe duties for various components. 14 STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURES The following steps identify the basic considerations in making shortcircuit calculations. submit impedance data in proper form as required by the specific program. two diagrams are usually required to calculate interrupting and momentary duty for high-voltage circuit breakers. the proper value of impedance depends on the basis of short-circuit rating for the device or equipment under consideration. The conditions most likely to influence the critical duty include: and circuits are to be considered in actual operation? 2. Prepare System One-Line Dia- It should include all significant equipment and components and show their interconnections. For high-voltage equipment apply appropriate multipliers from SECTION 1 to calculated symmetrical values so that the short-circuit currents will be in terms of equipment rating. Therefore. 4BOY /277 volts and 20BY /120 volts. Which switching units are to be open or closed? 1.

more straightforward calculation. and utility systems) are given in per-unit or percent values and further conversion is not required. all impedance values must be expressed in the same units.. The proper concept is that whenever the resistance does not significantly affect the calculated short-circuit current. DRIVING VOLTAGE I T"_ITY TRANS SYSTEM 0 GENERATOR tA LARGE MOTOR B C ~ )oF G LARGE MOTOR CIRCUIT SHORT CABL. Per-unit on a reference kVA In formulating the impedance diagram. Neglecting Resistance All system components have an impedance (Z) consisting of resistance (R) and inductive reactance (X) where: Z = VR2 + X2 Many system components such as rotating machines. showing an impedance for every system component that exerts a significant effect on short-circuit current magnitude. 14 15 . The result is the appearance of using Z or X interchangeably. Neglecting R introduces some error but always increases the calculated current. An equivalent SC oJ E H BUS 3 Fig. 15. negligible errors (less than 3%) will result from neglecting resistance. On systems above 600 volts. PREPARING IMPEDANCE DIAGRAMS The impedance diagram displays the interconnected circuit impedances that control the magnitude of short-circuit currents. more straightforward calculation. per-unit impedance representation will provide the easier. See Fig.~ . Both representations will yield identical results. 14. Not only must the impedances be interconnected to reproduce actual circuit conditions. where few or no voltage transformations are involved and for low-voltage systems where many conductors are included in the impedance network. either in Ohms-per-phase or per-unit on a reference k VA base (percent is a form of per-unit). buses. 15. and reactors have high values of reactance compared to resistance. circuit X/R ratios usually are greater than 4 and resistance can generally be neglected in short-circuit calculations. transformers. have a significant resistance compared to their reactance so that when the system impedance contains considerable conductor impedance. a network of reactances alone can be used to represent the system impedance. What future expansions or system changes will affect in-plant or in-building short-circuit currents? Use of Per-unit or Ohms Short-circuit calculations can be made with impedances represented in per-unit or ohms. On the other hand. This allows a much simpler calculation because then I=E/X. (machines. N I QENERATOR SYSTEM . When the system impedance consists mainly of such components.The Details of Short-circuit Calculations 3. most of the components included in highvoltage networks. The per-unit system is ideal for studying multi-voltage systems. Component Impedance Values Component impedance values are expressed in terms of any of the following units: l. Ohms-per-phase 2. Percent on rated kVA or a ref- erence kVA base 3. Also. Which should be used? In general. the resistance may have an effect on the magnitude of the short-circuit current and should be included in the calculation. if the system being studied has several different voltage levels or is a high-voltage system (above 600 volts). A typical system one-Iine diagram impedance diagram for the system represented in Fig. representation of system elements in ohms may provide the easier. however. but it will be helpful to preserve the same arrangement pattern used in the one-line diagram. the magnitude of a short-circuit current as derived by the basic equation 1= E/Z is primarily determined by the reactance so the resistance can practically be neglected in the calculation. Cond uctors (cables.E E BUS I 0 BUS 2 BUS 3 1 Fig. The diagram is derived from the system one-line diagram. When the ratio of the reactance to the resistance (X/R ratio) of the system impedance is greater than 4.Section 11. transformers. and open-wire lines).

NO. refer to TABLE 3 in Section III. ZT :'JRT2+XTZ' ZT = ·23. on systems below 600 volts. The is latter selection has some advantage of commonality when many studies are made while the former choice means that the impedance or reactance of at least one significant component will not have to be converted to a new base. The Appendix contains a more detailed discussion of the perunit system. and base amperes. Z= VR2+X2. and reactors are generally represented by reactance only. regardless of the system voltage. 7 ) +J . 8 ~ 7 Per-Unit Representations In the per-unit system. Because of their high X/R ratio.Section 11. 17. base volts.949 ZT" ZT (R. the other two values can be 16 The nominal line-to-line system voltages are normally used as the base voltages. Impedance vectors 0.OOO selected as base kVA. transformers. rotating machines.The Details of Short-circuit Calculations However.565° Z=_R_=_X_=_2_=_6_ cos e sin e 0. and is illustrated in Fig.324 or tan 'P= X/R= 6/2 = 3 'P=71. REACTANCE 8 RESISTANCE OF THESE PARTS SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE ONLY· 9840 AMPERES CIRCUIT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE OF ALL PARTS PLUS RESISTANCE OF LOW VOLTAGE CABLE. ~H VOLTAGE CABLE (500FT ~ IOOOkVA TRANS.. 5210 AMPERES derived.324 Fig. When any two of the four are assigned values. but more conveniently a number such as_lO. It is frequently expressed in the form R + j X. GEN.316 =6. The resistance (R) and reactance (X) values must be added together separately. Fig 16 summarizes the locations in a system where resistance is generally used in the short-circuit calculation. impedances (Z) cannot be added directly..+R2+R3)+J'X'+X2+X') c( 2 + • . 18./(2)2+ : 6. A summary of frequently used per-unit relationships follows. the circuit X/R ratio at locations remote from the supply transformer can be low and the resistance of circuit conductors should be included in the short-circuit calculation. an exception being transformers with impedances less than 4%. When combining impedances in series. The kVA base assigned may be the kVA rating of one of the predominant pieces of system equipment such as a generator or transformer. 6 of. How impedances are added . there are four base quantities: base kVA. It is common practice to assign study base values to kVA and voltage. Basic per-unit relationship Per-unit volts _ Actual volts Base volts Per-unit amperes = Actual amperes Base amperes Per-unit ohms _ Actual ohms Base ohms For three-phase systems Assigned Values: Base Volt = line-to-line volts Base kVA = three-phase kVA A A x z Fig.26 -/(10)2+121)2 Fig. Conversion of impedances to per-unit on an assigned study kVA base will be illustrated for various equipment components. IN GENERAL USE MOT. 17. Base amperes and base ohms are then derived for each of the voltage levels in the system. Combining of Impedances An impedance (Z) containing resistance (R) and reactance (X) is a complex quantity or vector./RZ+ X2 (6)2 B B = .4/0) 460V USE ONLY REACTANCE OF THESE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS. where: R= 2 and Z:. base ohms. Locations in system where reactance and resistance are generally used for short-circuit calculations Z = R +jX X=6. and then Z can be computed. For example. Figure 18 illustrates the addition of impedances in series. Further details of complex quantity manipulation are included in the Appendix. 16.

Section 11- The Details of Short-circuit

Calculations

Derived Values: Base amperes = Base kVA (1000) V3 (Base volts) or Base kVA v3Base kV Base Volts vJ(base amperes)

R = X = 0.0037 10 10 = 0.00037 ohms per phase.
EXAMPLES: Conversion to per-unit on a 10,000 kVA base (kVAb)

3. Equivalent utility reactance= 0.160S per-unit on a 10,000 kVA base X = Xpu (kV2 (1000)) kVA

B ase

0 h ms

=

1. Available 3¢ short-circuit kVA= SOO,OOOkVA (SOOMVA) Xpu = kVAb kVAse 10,000 = 0.02 SOO,OOO am-

= 0.160S ((0.48)21000)) 10,000 = 0.0037 ohms-per-phase volts at 480

Base ohms = Base kV2 (1000) Base kVA Changing from perunit on an old base to per-unit on a new base new base KV new X pu~ old Xpu ( old base KV A

A)

2. Available 3¢ short-circuit peres=20,940 at 13.8 kV Xpu = kVAb V3(Ise) (kV) 10,000
V3(20,940) (13.8)

Transformers
Transformer reactance (impedance) will most commonly be expressed as a percent value (%XT or %ZT) on the transformer rated k VA. (Impedance values are usually expressed on the self-cooled kVA rating.)
EXAMPLES:

The Electric Utility System
The electric utility system is usually represented by a single equivalent reactance referred to the user's point of connection which is equivalent to the available short-circuit current from the utility. This value is obtained from the utility and may be expressed in several ways. 1. Three-phase short-circuit kVA available. 2. Three-phase short-circuit amperes available at a given voltage. 3. Percent or per-unit reactance on a specified kVA base. 4. Reactance in ohms-per-phase (sometimes R + ]X) at a given voltage. The X/R ratio of a utility source varies greatly. Sources near generating plants have higher X/R ratios (IS-30) while short-circuit levels of long open-wire lines have lower X/R ratios (2-1S).Typically, the X/R value of a utility source is from S to 12. As explained previously, R may be neglected with small error (less than 3 percent) when X/R ratio is greater than 4. However, it is always more accurate to include R. If the X/R ratio is known or estimated, then R may be determined by dividing X by the value of X/R ratio. If X/R = 10and X = 0.0037ohms per phase (see examples following for calculation) then

= 0.02

3. Equivalent utility reactance=0.2 per-unit on a 100,000 kVA base Xpu = XpUOld(kVAb ) kVAo1d = 0.2 ( 10,000 ) = 0.02 100,000

A SOOkVA transformer with an impedance of S% on its kVA rating (assume impedance is all reactance)
Conversion to per-unit on a 10,000 kVA base (kVAb)

4. Equivalent utility reactance = 0.38 ohms-per-phase at 13.8 kV Xpu = X (kVAb ) 1000 kV2 Xpu = 0.38 ( 10,000 ) 1000 (13.8)2 = 0.02

Xpu = %XT( kVAb ) 100 Transf. kVA = _S_ (10,000) 100 SOO = 1.0

Conversion to ohms-per-phase 480 volts

at

Conversion to ohms-per-phase 480 volts

at

2 X = %XT( kV 1000 ) 100 Transf. kVA =~ ((0.48)21000) 100 SOO = 0.023 ohms-per-phase at 480 volts

1. Available 3¢ short-circuit kVA= 62,270 X = kV2 (1000) = (0.48)2 1000 kVA 62,270 = 0.0037 ohms-per-phase volts at 480 am-

2. Available 3¢ short-circuit peres = 7S,OOO 480 volts at X = Volts L-N = _'!!!_ Ise 7S,OOO = 0.0037 ohms-per-phase volts

Busways, Cables, Conductors
The resistance and reactance of busway, cables, and conductors will most frequently be available in terms of ohms-per-phase per unit length (see Appendix).
17

at 480

Section 11- The Details of Short-circuit

Calculations

EXAMPLES:

250 ft. of a three conductor copper 500 mcm cable (600 volt) installed in steel conduit on a 480-volt system.
Conversion to per-unit kVA base (kVAb) on a 10,000

Motors Rated Above 600 Volts
Motors rated above 600 volts are generally high in horsepower rating and will have a significant bearing on short-circuit current magnitudes. Very large motors of several thousand horsepower should be considered individually and their reactances should be accurately determined before starting the short-circuit study. However, in large plants where there are numerous motors of several hundred horsepower, each located at one bus, it is often desirable to group such motors and represent them as a single equivalent motor with one reactance in the impedance diagram.

3. Groups of small induction motors as served by a motor control center can be represented by considering the group to have'a reactance of 25%on a kVA rating equal to the connected motor horsepower.
EXAMPLES: Conversion to per-unit on a 10,000 kVA base (kVAb)

R R X X

= = = =

0.0287 0.00718 0.0301 0.00753 =
R (

ohms/1000 ohms/250 ohms/1000 ohms/250

ft., ft. ft., ft.

Rpu

kVAb ) 1000 kV2 10,000 ) 1000 (0.48)2

A 500 hp, 0.8 PF, synchronous motor has a subtransient reactance (X"d) of 15%. X"
pu

= 0.00718 ( = 0.312 X
pu

= %X"d ( kVAb 100 Motor kVA" 15 (10,000) = 100

J

=X (

kVAb ) 1000 kV2 10,000 ) 1000 (0.48)2

----.sao

= 3.0
at

=0.00753( = 0.327

Motors Rated 600 Volts or Less
In systems of 600 volts or less, the large motors (that is, motors of several hundred horsepower) are usually few in number and represent only a small portion of the total connected horsepower. These large motors can be represented individually, or they can be lumped in with the smaller motors, representing the complete group as one equivalent motor in the impedance diagram. Small motors are turned off and on frequently, so it is practically impossible to predict which ones will be on the line when short circuit occurs. Therefore, small motors are generally lumped together and assumed to be running. Where more accurate data are not available, the following procedures may be used in representing the combined reactance of a group of miscellaneous motors: 1. In systems rated 600 or 480 volts, assume that the running motors are grouped at the transformer secondary bus and have a reactance of 25% on a kV A rating equal to 100% of the transformer rating. 2. In all 208-volt systems and 240-volt systems, a substantial portion of the load consists of lighting, so assume that the running motors are grouped at the transformer secondary bus and have a reactance of 25% on a kV A rating equal to 50% of the transformer rating.

Conversion 480 volts

to ohms-per-phase

For high-voltage cables (above 600 volts) the resistance of cables can generally be omitted; in fact, for short high-voltage cable runs (less than 1000 feet) the entire impedance of the cable can be omitted with negligible error.

A motor control center has induction motors with a connected horsepower totaling 420 horsepower. Assume group of motors to have a. reactance of 25% on a kVA rating of 420. X = %Xm( 100 kV2 1000 ) Motor kVA

Rotating Machines
Machine reactances are usually expressed in terms of per-cent reactance (%Xm) or per-unit reactance (Xpu) on the normal rated kVA of the machine (see Appendix). Either the subtransient reactance (X") or the transient reactance (X ') should be selected, depending on the type of short-circuit calculation required (refer to Section I). Motor rated kVA can be estimated, given motor horsepower as follows: Type Motors All (exact) Induction (approximate) 100 hp or less >100, <1000 hp ~ 1000 hp Synchronous (approximate) 0.8 p.F 1.0 p.F Rated kVA=
(V

=~

100

((0.48)21000) 420

=0.137 ohms-per-phase at 480 volts

MULTI-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS
The recommended practice based on ANSI standards and IEEE for representing rotating machine in short-circuit calculations for multivoltage systems are as follows:
TYPE OF ROTATING MACHINE All turbine generators. all hydrogenerators with amortisseur windings, all condensers Hydrogenerators tisseur windings All synchronous with arnorFIRST CYCLE (a) 1.00 1.5-4 CYCLES (b) 1.00 X"d

x-,

rated) (I rated) 1000

0.75 X'd

0.75 X'd

Rated hp 0.95 rated hp 0.9 rated hp

motors

1.00.x"d

1.50

x-,

18

Rated hp 0.8 rated hp

Induction motors above 1000 horsepower at 1800 rpm or less above 250 horsepower at 3600 rpm all others 50 horsepower and above all smaller than 50 horsepower

1.00 x', 1.00 1.20 1.67

1.50 x", 1.50 x", 3.00

x-, x-, x-,

x-,

neglect

Section 11- The Details of Short-circuit

Calculations

(XI/d)

Typical subtransient reactance values and XlR ratios are listed in part II of the appendix. (a) for comparison with medium voltage circuit breaker closing and latch (momentary), medium and low voltage fuse interrupting, and low voltage circuit breaker interrupting capabilities. (b) for comparison with medium voltage circuit breaker interrupting capabilities.

Other Circuit Impedances
There are other circuit impedances such as those associated with circuit breakers, current transformers, bus structures and connections which for ease of calculation are usually neglected in short-circuit calculations. Accuracy of the calculation is not generally affected because the effects of the impedances are small and omitting them provides conservative (higher) short-circuit currents. However, on low-voltage systems and particularly at 208 volts, there are cases where their inclusion in the calculation can result in a lower short-circuit current and allow the use of lowerrated circuit components. The system designer may want to include these impedances in such cases.

Shunt-connected Impedances
In addition to the components already mentioned, every system includes other components or loads that would be represented in a diagram as shunt-connected impedances. Examples are lights, welders, ovens, furnaces and capacitors. A technically accurate solution requires that these impedances be included in the equivalent circuit used in calculating a short-circuit current. but practical considerations allow the general practice of omitting them. Such impedances are relatively high values and their omission will not significantly affect the calculated results.

by the use of a single over-all driving voltage as illustrated in Fig. 15, rather than the array of individual, unequal generated voltages acting within individual rotating machines. This singledriving voltage is equal to the prefault voltage at the point of fault connection. The equivalent circuit is a valid transformation accomplished by Thevenin's Theorem and permits an accurate determination of short-circuit current for the assigned values of system impedance. The prefault voltage referred to is ordinarily taken as system nominal voltage at the point of fault as this calculation leads to the full value of short-circuit current that may be produced by the probable maximum operating voltage. In making a short-circuit calculation on three-phase balanced systems, a single-phase representation of a three-phase system is utilized so that all impedances are expressed in ohms-per-phase, and the systemdriving voltage (E) is expressed in line-to-neutral volts. Line-to-neutral voltage is equal to line-to-line voltage divided by the /i When using the per-unit system, if the system per-unit impedances are established on voltage bases equal to system nominal voltages, the per-unit driving voltage is equal to l.0. In the per-unit system, both line-to-line voltage and line-to-neutral voltage have equal values; that is, both would have values of l.0. When system impedance values are expressed in ohms-per-phase rather than per-unit, the systemdriving voltage would be equal to system line-to-neutral voltage; that is, 277 volts for a 480-volt system.

a network analyzer or digital computer from an economic and timesaving standpoint. Simple radial systems, such as those used in most low-voltage systems, can be easily resolved by longhand calculations though digital computers can yield significant time savings particularly when short-circuit duties at many system locations are required and when resistance is being included in the calculation. A longhand solution requires the combining of impedances in series and parallel from the source driving voltage and Z (or X) is the single equivalent network impedance. single equivalent network impedance. The calculation to derive the symmetrical short-circuit current is 1= E/Z where E is the system-driving voltage and (or X) is the single equivalent network impedance. When calculations are made in perunit, the following formulas apply: Sym. 3q; short-circuit current in per-unit Sym. 3q; short-circuit current in amperes Sym. 3q; short-circuit kVA kVA = kVAb Zpu

where: Ipu= per-unit amperes, Zpu= equivalent network perunit impedance, Epu= per-unit volts, Ib=Base amperes, kVAb=Base kVAb When calculations ohms: Sym. 3q; short circuit in amperes are made in I = E1-n Z

DETERMINATION OF SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
After the impedance diagram is prepared, the short-circuit currents can be determined. This can be accomplished by longhand calculation, network analyzer or digital computer techniques. In general, the presence of closed loops in the impedance network, such as might be found in a large industrial plant high-voltage system, and the need for short-circuit duties at many system locations will favor using

System-driving Voltage (E)
The system-driving voltage (E) in the basic equation can be represented

where EI_n = line-to-neutral voltage and Z =equivalent network impedance in ohms-per-phase. A new combination of impedances to determine the single equivalent network impedance is required for each fault location. For a radial system, the longhand solution is fairly simple. For systems containing loops, simultaneous equations may be necessary though deltawye network transformations can

19

however. are available for commonly used transformers and for various conductor configurations. the short- circuit duty at the terminals of a 1500 kVA. and their use is illustrated in Section III. it is not unusual to submit the required input data and receive the answers within a period of 10 to 20 minutes at a very low cost for the computer time. it is sometimes desired or necessary to insert additional impedance in the form of reactance to achieve a lower required duty for application of some specific equipment. the duty may be 13. a network analyzer is a model using interconnected driving voltages and impedances to simulate a power system. This would require 1000 m VA circuit breakers for the in-plant or in-building system. providing a complete record of the study and thereby eliminating the need for further data transcription with its possibility of further error. Examples of computer solutions will be shown in Section III. the available shortcircuit duty from a utility service supplying a plant or building may be 850 mVA at 13. In addition. Methods of combining impedances are included in the Appendix. few power system studies are still made on the network analyzer. Curves and tables. This may take the form of punched cards or paper tape for batch processing with the master program stored on magnetic tape. This can be done with current-limiting reactors (all voltages) or current-limiting busways (600 volts and below). Digital computer solutions require the input of system data into the computer program in a manner dictated by the program being used. 480-volt transformer may be 37. With time-sharing systems. MEANS FOR REDUCING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT There is a natural reduction of shortcircuit duty due to the impedance of the conductors from the power source to the loads. For instance.The Details of Short-circuit Calculations usually be used to combine impedances. Faults are actually applied to the system model and actual currents and voltages recorded. Some of the newer electronic calculators can be excellent timesavers in making longhand calculations. With the advent of the digital computer.8 kV. which give the estimated short-circuit duty. Quite simply. input and output data are printed in a systematic form. For example. Calculations are practically error-free. A more economical approach might be to apply current-limiting reactors on the incoming line to reduce the available duty to less than 500 mVA so that lower cost 500-mVA circuit breakers can be applied.000 amperes. Example Two in Section III illustrates the use of a current-limiting busway to reduce the available shortcircuit duty from a 480-volt spot network. Estimating tables and curves are included in the Appendix. Use of Estimating Tables and Curves There are many times when a shortcircuit duty is required at the secondary of a transformer or at the end of a low-voltage conductor. Computer solutions have more than just economic benefits. The general procedure is to determine the additional reactance required to reduce the short-circuit duty to the desired level as follows: X=~_ Idesired E Iavailable o . Examples of longhand calculations are included in a later section. Use of these tables may eliminate the need for a formal short-circuit study and can be used where appropriate. while at the end of a 600-amp cable run.000 amperes. Network Ana Iyzers and Digital Computer Solutions Network analyzers have been used for many years to make power system short-circuit studies. Accuracy is extremely high. But beyond this natural reduction in short-circuit duty. A new development in computers is the time-sharing concept where data can be submitted at a remote teletypewriter by the person making the short-circuit study.Section 11.

voltage.800. therefore. 19.000 15.5% "f T ) ) Cu cab I e 1-3/C-#4 Z = 0.8 kV Bus Step A . 7 and 8 and these are the locations where available system short-circuits are to be calculated.16 0.25 hp 16. Furthermore the most severe duty will occur when all breakers are closed. length and impedance of the cables. That is at short-circuit locations F 1.The System One-Line Diagram Figure 19 contains the basic information that identifies the various electric components of the system and how they are interconnected. The arrangement of elements should assist easy identification of any given component in the two types of diagrams (one-line vs. F3 and F4.7% X/R = 30 J~ ) 1 '500 X"d = 4-100 8. short-circuit available and XlR ratio from the utility system. A one-line diagram of an industrial power system. Base amperes and base ohms for each of the voltage levels can then be derived as shown in Table 3.48 IB 628 2. X/R = I 5 '~ 10 J\_ fT '~ l? MVA Z = 7% TI X/R = 20 1 13.5 to 4 cycle fault current will be calculated to determine breaker momentary and interrupting rating requirements. reactance and XlR ratios for motors Ml. 4. utility is connected and motors are operating. Step B-Type and Location of ShortCircuits Protective devices are located at buses 2.0472 A.084 18. 2.8 4. hp.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations INTRODUCTION The following example illustrate how short-circuit a.7 1.3114+jO.3/C . that the selection of the method of calculation must be coordinated with the particular system components requirements as discussed in the previous sections. 0428 A. both first cycle fault current and 1. High-voltage power circuit breakers and associated equipments are located at bus 2 and 5. The voltage. Z = 9 9. M2. M3 and motor summation designated as M4.Three-phase Assigned Values Values for Example Values Derived Step C-System Impedance Diagrams The one or more impedance diagrams should be patterned after the one-line diagram. The assigned impedance values are based on the ANSI and IEEE recommended rotating machine modified subtransient (X"ct) values for multi-voltage systems as outlined in Section II. 5. component currents are calculated by several of the procedures described in Sections I and II. The assigned base voltages will be the nominal system voltages of 13.c. The KVA. The type.0153 Figures 20 and 21 are the impedance diagrams for the Figure 19 one-line diagram.000 15./IOOOft T2 Bus 6 37W kVA Q. three-phase bolted shortcircuit will be calculated since lineto-ground fault calculations are limited by the grounding resistors./IOOOft T3 F3 I nd 500 hp 1800 rpm X"d = 16.4/0 t_200ft Z = 0.75% X/R = 6. 3. Low voltage circuit breakers and associated equipments are located at buses 7 and 8. 21 . The type. kVA of 15. Maximum short-circuit currents are needed for device selection.Section 111. 0534+ j O.0614tjO. 4. F2.7% X/R = 19.000 is chosen. The per-unit system lends itself to a analysis of this system because of the several voltage levels.064 ZB 12. The diagram also includes the necessary data that is: 1.1539 0.5 J.0359 A. however. first cycle fault current will be calculated to determine breaker interrupting rating requirements at these buses.50 28. It is understood. A base kVAB 15. therefore./IOOO ft Bus 8 Fig. 1 2 5. lOUO" kVA Z = 5. impedance and XlR ratio for transformers Tl. TABLE 3 .3 I nd 2000 hp 3600 rpm X"d = 16. rpm. soor+ '" ceb !e 1.7% hp hp hp F4 250ft Cu cab I e 3-I/C-250 MCM Z=O. therefore. impedance) even through identification of components and significant points in the circuits may become impossible as the network is resolved into a single-value impedance. connection.160 and 480 volts. T2 and T3. Utility available I 500 MVA.000 kVB 13.

07 pu C3 (Transf.703 0.0008 Bus 2 13.575l 0.6328 + j15.515 2. Fig.22) ~ 0.".5 T2 (jO.0874 +jO.. I MI 0.0534 .0014 +jO.75457 0.0014 +JO.0008 +jO..5683 0. 7875 M4. ~ 84.50 Hp remainder 25 Hp = 28.OI Transf.• 4158 +j 18.9417 1.2635 + JIS.7030 Bus 3 +j6.56S3 flat.221 0.0874 + 0.Section 111.19)(01) 0.5727 +j5.5727+ j5.1776 0. tan-16.c.2625 ~ 1.0007 + jO.0674 +j2. 67 (R + jX) C4 (Cable-Bus ~ 0. M3 X ~ X/R ~ 31.0003 0.0449 First R eye le + ' x 1.8691 +jO.25)10. Bus F2 .3.14)10.5786 ~ 0.3917 0.3331 Bus 5 MI 0.25° R (cos 81.0472) jO.0251 + jO. 0 (R jX) I.2635 +J 18..S211 (I~ + jO. 0.07) 0.0049 T X/R ~ 20..5683 C4 0. 3917 0. 75 (15000) 100 11500) ~ 0.07) ft 0.80)10.0614 + JO.1386 1.80° X ~ (sin X/R ~ 3.0377 + J 1.2191 C2 0. ~I~~~ T2 cable) 10.515 -jc. + jO.X =t s in 81.5 to 4 cycle imFirst R 0. 5-4 K eye l e s + X X/R ~ IS.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Figure 20 represents first-cycle impedance representation and figure 21 represents 1.1\.000) 0.7 (15000) ~I 3917 100 12000) 1.c.0007 + jO. .575) Mot. 5 IR + jX) T 16.OI 0.5 I..01). TI - Z~ 7 (15.OOO7 FI Bus 8 FI F4 L Fig. tan-I 20 ~ 87.14)(0. An impedance diagram for calculating 1.8.ci Be..5 to 4 cycle a.0049 +jO.0385)TI}-8)2 X/R ~ 6.0199 +jO.3284 M3 0.OOO8 Bus Lg~0049 +jO. 22 .9763 "2 ¢ Ut. The per-unit values for all components impedances in eye le X 1.0049 + JO.3664 3.0.0449 +j I.575) 0.25)(0.3331 + j6. R 1.0428 (0. 7875 ut .0472.3 1.9054 +J 7.6966 .2(R+jX) 3.000) 100 (15. R ~ X/8.9054 6. ~ Ices 84.01 pu pedance representation from time of short-circuit.3114 1050 (sin 87.2191 Bus 7 T3 0.0007 JO.0199 ~1--+jO. 0699 F2 T2 CI 0.0699 0.19° R ~ (cos 86. 5-4 Cyc "e s R+ X figures 20 and 21 are derived and listed as follows: Utility- z ~~ ~ T 110t.5 ~ 81.0008 + jO. kY Bus F3 T3 Bus 6 (jO.8 . ~ 0.0 (R jX) T ~ 0..0977 ~ 0.0008 +jO." ~-------N 4-M4( 100) 8-M4( 50) 1.0014 +0. X CI IMot..0199 + jO.4158' j18.3284 0. _..9763 + J7. 0.0003 (jO.OOO7 C3 6~go~~7) ~ +~O.0035 + jO. MI X ~ 100 15 (15000) (4000) 10.8328 +jI5./1000 ft 2 0.5 100 tan-I II (15000) 13750) X/R ~ 5.0008 0.25 Hp ~ 6.0251 +jO.80)10. An impedance diagram for calculating first cycle a.0534 7 to Mot .0003 0.8 I.0614 100 Hp X ~ I~Oblm~~~: X/R ~ 8. component short-circuit current for system one-line diagram shown in Figure 19.0007 + jO.J.0545 TI (jO.0874 +jO.".2191 :m~g:~ ilm~L ~ 8us 8) X/R ~ II.0035 + J O.5.0251 0. '"'" M2 0.0875 M4-4 (100) 2.8 kY (jO.4/1000 ft ~0.0008 +Ws) 0.7 (15000) 100 1500) 1. component short-circuit current for system one-line diagram shown in Figure 19.21. T2 Z ~ 5.19)1. M4 ~ 1500Hp 25% 100 Hp ~ 4-100 Hp 35% 50 Hp ~ 8.0359 .575 Z~~ + jO.0 IR + j X) ~ 0.22 50 Hp X ~ 1~66 Transf.0545 X/R ~ 28.OOO3 ~ ~ '"l 13. HI cable) 10.3114 + jO. 20.071.7S75 ~ 0.0S75 86..22) 0.2191 0. x ~ Isin 0.00 (R + jX) 25 Hp X ~ 1~66 84. R ~ X/19 1.. R ~ X/28 I (R + jX) 1.515 480V 7 28-M4(25l 1.2625 0.6966 X/R ~ 19.575).0007 N "m" .0007 +jO.A/IOOO (IS) TT3.0699 Transf.2737 + jO.0977 Z ~ 200 10. xnl ~ 0.9) .140 R ~ (cos 87.O699 TI CI 0. fl2 X ~ 16.0008 + jO..0674 + J2. 20 (R + j X) 3.0199 + jO.WI M3 .703 Assumed 0.0359) + jO. 5 (R + jX) C2 (Transf.0449 + j1.8) ft.22).0428)(-i* ____________ ¢.3664 +j7.8) ~ 0.0385A/IOOO T3 Z ~5.95) ~ 5.515 3.OI Bus I .7875 + j7.8691 + jO.0377 + J 1..8 (50) 3 .5. T3 Cable) ~ 0.0874 + jO.0035 tjO.5683 ~OOI4 +jO. R ~ X/5.. R ~ X/3. 2 (R + jX) 3. tan-I 15 ~ 86.

Section 111.0049 + 0.0034 2380952 38.0666 1/X 12.0449 0.1331 0.515 5. Indicating an applicable network 2.2191 7.c.575 + 2.01 +00699 0.0251 + 0.c.4335 0. resistive and reactive. Indicating network resolution to be applied 3.1673 0.0.22 + 1.61 30021 22.0666.1409 .7185 0.0003 6.+ Tl M1 M2 M3 M2+M3 T2+(M2+M3) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj M4 (28-25 hpj LM4 T3+LM4 Net X Ut.5683 + 2.01 +007 0.515 7.1663 0.4294 1. This means that the system per-unit driving voltage (E) equals 1.8765 0.6 23 . Justifi- cation being that the neglected components are negligible compared to reactive components being considered..4045 0.6359 2. component) Current The results attained is dependent on the method used to resolve the impedance network. <- 1/X 12. Method C: Consider all components. resistive and reactive.0008 0. if the system impedance has a large resistance component compared to the reactive component then the resultant current calculation will increase.4045 0.515 5.5727 0.703 6..1474 Branch X 0.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Step D-Calculation of Short-circuit (a. .3470 15. The base voltages were assigned values. Case One-Short Method A-Network Branch Circuit at Fl resolution X 0.9763 2.0666 +- Equivalent Z = 0.1673 0.1331 0.0007 +0. Method B: Consider all components. If the network resolution is treated as a complex quantity accurate results will be attained.1409 0. This method is required however to determine system XlR ratios.3664 1.0874 + 0.1580 0. A total of two cases will be systematically presented by: 1.1409 7.3068 0.0034 + jO. Application Case One-First Cycle e.4219 .7349 0.8765 0.3068 0.0035 0.0666 per unit .1331 0.3331 0. Calculating a symmetrical current S.9763 2.0007 + 0. Justification provides an accurate result but requires more complex mathematics.3917 1.4722 ___2QJ2§ Ut.3068 + 1.1045 0. resolve each independently.3284 1. and resolve the network as a complex quantity.5156 1. per unit X/R ratio = 0. If the network is treated as separate R and X networks the result will provide slightly higher short-circuit currents. F2.7185 0. 295.4335 0. as listed in Table 3. However. however.5 1. Solving the network to a single-value impedance 4.+ T1 M1+C1 M2 M3 M1+M3 C2+ T2+ (M1 +M3) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj M4 (28-25 hpj LM4 C3+ T3+LM4 Net R Equivalent Z = 0 + jO.0008+0.1580 0.0034 = 19.. A separate R and X calculation is still performed to determine the short-circuit XlR ratios in accordance with ANSI standards.3068 0.515 7.3477 150201 Ut+ Tl M1+C1 M2 M3 M2+M3 C2+ T2+ (M2+M3) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj M4 (28-25 hpj LM4 C3+ T3+LM4 Net X 0.4225 0.0396 00014 +00199+00396 0.2717 25. Component Short-circuit Current The impedances of Figure 20 are to be resolved into a single impedance value that limits the current for a three-phase short-circuit at F1. The resolution methods to be applied are: Method A: Neglect resistive component except for low voltage cables and resistive and reactive component for high voltage cables.9054 1.703 + 0.3917 1.7319 0. equal to the nominal system voltages which are equivalent to the pre-short circuit or operating voltage.2738 16. F3 and F4. 0.0666/0. Justification to provide a moreaccurate result but simplify the mathematics compared to Method C.1409 0.0043 Method B-Network Branch resolution 1/R 0.3284 1.7348 0.

1409 (112+1'13)+ T2+C2 (0.3608 (Ut+Tl)+(1'1l+Cl)]+(1'12+1'13+T2+C2)= (0.0042+jO.0003) 0.5727jJ5.9763) (0.9054+47.0034+~0.703)+(0.0682)(0. Branch Ut + Tl (0.5727+5.0259+jO.$392+j2.761 (0. 0718 1'12 1'13 + (0. or C differ by only 0.0035+jO.3664+j7.0007) 0.0449+jl.3608 (0.8839) (o. The power circuit breaker applied at the 13.3149 I.3917) (0.0008+jO.8 kV bus should have a momentary or close and latch rating equal to or greater than 1.7033) 0.0799)(0.0014)+j(1.0718) (0.3284)(0.o034+j . Note: refer to appendix analytical techniques for complex quantity mathematics.0799)+(0.5727+j5.0623+jl.0410+jl.2191+0..6 per ANSI C37.Section 111.3331+j6.0042+jO.41 1981 standard.0007+jO.9054+j7.0699) 0.0199+0.5674+3.515)+(1.0259+jO.3284)+(0.0666 Am~eres 9429 9417 9415 rms Symne t rica 1 C 24 Note: The fault currents calculated per method A.0042+jO.8839 Net Z (Ut+Tl+~'1+Cl+M2+M3+T2+C2)+( 11'14+T3+C3) (0. 0666 0. M4+T3+C3 (0.8839) = 0. If other protectors such as fuses are to be applied the short-circuit rating capability may have to be derated due to the system XlR ratio = 19.6 (9429) = 15086 amperes rms asymmetrical.3664+J7.0682)+(0.3149+0.15 per cent which continues to justify neglecting high voltage resistance as well as cable reactance thus simplifying calculations.0035+jO.0666 O. .51S) 0.0874+0.0036+jO.0036+ jO.0259+jO.0049)+j(2.51S)+(1.0/Z net) Method A B = 628/Z current Z net Per Unit 0+jO.0682 1'14(4-100hp) 1'14(8-50hp) ~'4 (28-25hp) ~ ~'4 0.1409+0.4469+0.7033 (Ut+Tl )+(~'l+Cl) (0.761)(1.0035+jO.761}+(1.0718)+(0.0623+jl.5683+0.5674+j3.9054+J7.4469+j2.0008) 0.5392+j2.5674+j3.515 (0.7033) (0.515 1.5392+j2.3608) 0. B.0036+jO.0666 per unit at Fl is net Ib (I per unit) Ib The symmetrical short-circuit (E/Z net) = 628 (1.9763 (0.3664+47.0251+jO.3331+j6.0623+jl.515 1.9763 0.0449+jl.3917) 0.0034+jO.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Method C-Network resolution.Ol)+(0.0410+0.0799 1'11+ Cl (0. 0034+jO.

0718 M4+T3+C3 = 0.S392+j2.1580 Q2JJl.i 4.2695 3.0008+0.O/Z net) = 2084/Z net Method A B Note the fault currents calculated per method A.8839) (0. 1409) (0.3238 resolution 0.5683+0.2900)+(0.0449 0.0410+jl.S392+j2.16Kv bus should have a momentary or close and latch rating equal to or greater than 1.01S3+jO.3917 0.017S+jO.22 6.S392+j2.2312 0.0037+jO.2191) 0.4225 0.3068 + 0.8839 M2+M3 = 0.2312/0.2900)(0.0036+jO.2313 per unit The symmetrical short-circuit current at F2 is 1=1b (I per unit) = 1b (E/Z net) = 2084 (l.6 (9010)= 14.4495 0.0701+0. 1409) 0.04 0+j1.0410+'1.0251 +00008 04045+00874+00049 0.1409 (Ut+T 1+Ml+C 1) +( E M4+ T3+C3) (0.3068+0.017S+jO.0007 0.070 T2) 0070+00008+0.3284 1.02S0+jO.703 2.3470 14.4364 Ut+ T1 M1 +C1 LM4+T3+C3 (UT+T1)+(M1+C1)+(LM4+T3+C3) (Ut+ T1 +M1 +C1 +LM4+ T3+C3)+C2+ ~ M3 Net R ~ Branch X 0.0036+jO.11 Method C-Network resolution From Fl solution: Ut+Tl+Ml+Cl = 0.2312 per unit X/R ratio = 0.0153 = 15.4219 0. The power circuit breaker applied at the 4.0036+jO.61 ____2ill22 <-2787181 40. Z Net Per Unit 0+jO.4473 0. B or C differ by only 0.0199 ~~31 0.0037+0.1626 Moo1 22.2191 6.2313 Am~eres rms S.7185 4.3477 ~ 14.0036 T2) 00036+00014+0.02S0+~0.391 7 0.2717 65.575 0.416 amperes rms asymmetrical.lmmetrical 9010 8994 8984 C 25 .1580 0.30 percent which justifies neglected high voltage resistance as well as cable reactance thus simplifying calculations.2313 per unit ° Method B-Network Branch resolution 1/R 00007 + 00035 0.3284 1.2313 O.0952 38.5156 1.2900 Net Z (Ut+Tl+M l+C1+ z M4+T3+C3+C2+ T2)+(M2+M3) (0.01 +00699 0.5 1.8839) 0.0701 +0.2313 Ut+ Tl M1 LM4+ T3 (Ut+ T1) + (M1) + (LM4+ T3) (Ut+ T1 +M1 +M4+ T3) + (T2) M2 M3 Net X Equivalent Z = + jO.025 +jO.7030+00003 2.0718)(0.0014+0.o'18)+(0.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Case One-Short-circuit Method A-Network Branch at F2 x 1/X 12.0199)+j(0.0153+jO.Section 111.0701 0.2312 1/X 12.2852 3.3260 Ut+ T1 M1 +C1 LM4+ T3+C3 (Ut+ T1)+(M1 +C1)+(LM4+ T3+C3) (Ut+ T1 +M1 +C1 +LM4+ T3+C3)+(C2+ M2 M3 Net X ~ Equivalent Z=Net R+Net X=0.0701 (Ut+Tl+Ml+Cl+ tM4+T3+C3) + (C2) + (T2) (0.0153 238.01 +007 0.

9882 <<<- Ut+ TI MI+CI Ut+ Tl +MI +CI M2 M3 M2+M3 M2+M3+ T2+C2 (Ut+ TI +MI +CI) + (M2+M3+ T2+C2) (Ut+ TI +MI +CI +M2+M3 + T2 +C2) + (C3+ T3) LM4 Net R 30021 22..0682 + 0.0774+jO.5683 2.6724 1.3149) = 0.6372) + (0.5683) 0.3331 0.0682+0.1409 1.0717 <6.0957+jO.Section 111.5547 0.0049 + 0.45 From Fl Solution: Ut+Tl+Ml+Cl+M2+M3+T2+C2 = 0.5000 Amperes rms Symmetrical 35912 35751 35679 The low voltage breakers applied at the 480V bus should have a momentary or interrupting rating equal to or greater than 35912 amperes rms symmetrical.0049+0.446 +j2.9215 Equivalent Z=0+jO.4219 13.4993 0.0396 <0.01 +00699 0.45 thus low voltage molded case or insulated case breakers if applied at this bus would require derating per applicable standards since they are tested at a lower XlR ratio.0007 + 0.5156 1.0682 0.3284 1.4469 + j2.276.22 .65% which continues to justify neglecting high voltage resistance as well as cable reactance thus simplifying calculations.703 + 0 0003 0.4493 2.0718 6.0034 + jO. B.3149 (Ut+Tl+Ml+Cl+M2+M3+T2+C2) + (C3) + (T3) (O.0957+jO.61 0.575 2.1580 0.0796 + jO.9225 0. !6 .0796+jO.0774 resolution x 0.503 12.0396+ 0.2738 10.4722 12.5694 0.0774 + j0.1346 0.4469+~2.7348 14.5000 per unit The symmetrical short circuit current @ F3 is (E/Znet) = 18064 (l.0682 + 0. or C differ by only 0.0449 0.3149) (O.0682 .503 per unit Branch X 0.3917 1.4335 20029 Method C-Network resolution Equivalent Z = R+ jX = 0.703 0.2717 25.9375 I/X Ut+ TI MI+CI Ut+ TI +MI +CI M2 M3 M2+M3 M2 + M3 + T2 + C2 (Ut+ TI +MI +CI) + (M2+M3+ T2+C2) (Ut+ TI +MI +CI +M2+M3+ T2+C2) + (C3 + T3) M4 Net X 0.3284 1.4993 per unit X/R ratio = 0. Note computed XlR ratio at this bus is 6.0034+0.3068 0. B C Note: the fault currents calculated per method A.3068 0.0034 + 0.8765 0.503 0.7185 0.0035 2380952 0.4045 <0.1580 0.0874)+j(O.5 I/X Ut+ TI MI Ut+TI+MI M2 M3 M2+M3 (M2+M3+ T2) (Ut+ TI +MI) + (M2+M3+ T2) (Ut+ TI +MI +M2+M3+ T2)+(T3) LM4 Net X .0874 0.4993/0.1m 13.01 +007 0.4294 <.6573 1.0007+0.8765 0.7185 0.6372) (O.O/Znet) = 18064/Znet Method A Ib (I per unit) Z net Per Unit 0+jO.0007 + 0.3917 1.293.0774 = 6.0957+jO.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Case One-Short-circuit Method A-Network Branch at F3 Method B-Network Branch resolution I/R 0.0036 <.l.1409+0..4335 1.0682 ~ M4 0.0034 0.0199 +00014 16.0251 + 00008 38.1409 <1.7349 14.1409 + 0.2191 +00008 <0.7052 0.6372 Net Z (Ut+Tl+Ml+Cl+M2+M3+T2+C2+C3+T3) + (~M4) (O.4993 <12.

8691+jl.2191 +00008 181875 181875 9. This increase is mostly due to neglecting the low voltage motor resistance in method A.0674 0.6966 1.8442+0.3614 0.l 140484 X 0.. Net R = per unit 1.9480 .5683 + 0.QQ.1959 Net Z R+JX 0.8691+jO. Method B-Network Branch Case Two-Short-circuit Method A-Network Branch at Fl Resolution l/R + 0.5 0. ~ 1.0532 0.575 0.4845 .Network resolution R net @ F3 + RC4 0.5156 0.01 +0.. The resolution methods to be applied are identical to method A.0036 +00199 +00014 .S to 4 Cycle After Fault The impedances of figure 21 are to be resolved into a single impedance value that limits the current for a three-phase short-circuit at F 1 and F2.9465 Net X X net @ F3 + XC4 0..1064 0.2635 3.0712/0. 0.3614 1. Ut+ Tl Ml M2 M3 M2+M3 (M2+M3) + (T2) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj LM4 (LM4) + (T3) Net X Ut+ Tl Ml+Cl M2 M3 M2+M3 (M2 + M3) + (T2)+ (C2) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj LM4 (LM4) + (13) + (C3) Net R Branch Ut+ TI MI+Cl M2 M3 M2+M3 (M22 + M3) + (T2)+ (C2) M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj LM4 (LM4) + (T3)+ (C3) Net X 0.8442 1.0712 per unit X/R ratio =0.0545 15.22 18.M§Z2 16. .1959 X/R ratio = 1..4418 0.0532 0. .6966) 0.0774+0.C. ~003 140331 l/X 12. .8442+0.5000) + (0..8328 0..0377 0.1996 0.4845 <<0.Network resolution Net Z Znet @ F3 + C4 (0.0796+jO.1966 per unit 1b (I per unit) Note: the fault currents calculated per method A.9465 Method C ..QJ.Network Resolution Net Z at F4 = = X net @ F3 + C4 (0+jO.1959/0.0624 2.O/Znet) = 18064/Znet Method A B Z net Per Unit 0. Band C defined previously for case one.0003 15. Component Short-circuit Current-l.503) + (0.5422 0.26 The symmetrical short circuit current @ F4 is (E/Znet) = 18064 (l.9483 .0008 2380952 25.07 1. Method Band C results remain relatively close justifying Method B approach thus reducing the computation to one method since method B is required to determine system XlR ratios.4790 0.7875 18.3985 9. 0.0007 0. 1959 0.2008 11.0376 +00874 +00049 2761112 l/X 12.6966) 0.0713 per unit Net Z=0.2928 01346 --.9740 Resolution x 0.8442 1.0036+jO.7875 9.3985 + 0.9541 0.0632 0.8691+jl.9487+jl.1064 O.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Case One-Short-circuit Method A .8691 0.8 27 .9465+j1.4158 1. B or C difference is increasing.9487+j1..8211 20875 1.5422 0.0712 Net X=OjO.0624 0.4790 0.0036= 19.1064 .0632 0..1966 Am~eres rms S~metrical 12194 11844 11829 C Case Two-A.8691+jO.0532 0. 1996 per unit Method B .0713 0.4993+0.3985 9.9465+jl.01 +00699 1.0007 0.8211 20875 1.3985 + 0.0545 + 0..0035 + 0.Section 111.

2635 3.3985 9.4024 Ut+T1Hll+Cl ~ M4 The power circuit breaker applied at the 13.0738 + 0.0.5 0.2 of ANSI Standard 37.7030 + 0.0 7346 e0.0038+~0.2635+ j18.0036+jO.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Method C-Network Ut+Tl Ml+Cl (0.1064 0.7875) (3.3614+0.22 15.0008 2.0003 18.0007 0.0035 0.0738J+(O.0799J+(O.0699 0.0639+jl.5108+j9.3.2533/0.4158+j18.0385+jl.0042+jO.0038+jO..0674+J2.0014 0.2534 0..010-1979 should be used.0007) 1.0199+0.0532 18.0712 Case Two-Short-circuit Method A-Network Branch at F2 Method B-Network Branch Resolution l/R 0.0738 0.0038+jO.0179 = 14.8782 resolution x 0.0674+~2.0038+jO.0852+j2.0199+0.7875) 1.0. l/X 12.0008)+j(1.0548) (2.8328 0.2534 per unit Branch x 0.0641) (0.7875 ~ 9.2533 .01 +0.2 .0548) (O.9714 0.0385+jl.0008) 0.8211 20875 0.0385+jl.8211 20875 0.2 (8808)= 10.0007+0.0036+jO.5683 + 0.4790 3.0632 0.0038 +0.0674 0.0179+jO.0852+J2.5156 0.0737 .0532 0.0641) Net I = 0.2533 per unit XlRratio = 0.2008 55.0875 0.5486 3.0532 0.0743J+(1.8 kV bus should have an interrupting rating of 1.9714) (O.3985 <-.4037 0.5108+9.8211)(0.0874+00049 0. If not then a more exact method of calculation described in Section 5. Refer to Section 1.5683+0.0545+0.0639+0.9479 ?R Net Z=0.0799 resolution (0.0713 0.0042+jO. ~ M4+T3+C3 (1.0377+.7571 39.05+5 18.0852+j2.0799) (0.4418 Q2m <.01 + 0.9740 0.385 + 0. Net X=0+jO.6879 264.0014)+j(1.0007 + 0.01+0.3614 1..3985 + 0.2191 +0.7875 9.219+0.0003) 0.0036+jO.0738)(0..8328+J 5.4158 1.821 I)+(0.9483 Ut+ Tl Ml M4 14-100 hpj M4 18-50 hpj ~M4 I~M4)+IT3) IUt+ Tl) + IM1) + IM4+ T3) IUt+ T1 +Ml +M4+ T3) + IT2) M2 M3 Net X Ut+ Tl Ml+Cl M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj ~M4 (~M4) + (13) + IC3) (Ut+ T1)+ (Ml +Cl) + (~M4+ 13+C3) (Ut+ Tl +Ml +Cl +~M4+ T3+C3) + (T2+C2) M2 M3 Net R 0.0377 +0.011 net) = 628/Z net Method A B I net Per Unit Am~eres rms S~metrical 8808 8808 8808 1 C 0+jO.5108+j9.4185+j9. ~ .9480 Ut+ Tl Ml+Cl M4 (4-100 hpj M4 (8-50 hpj ~M4 I~M4) + (T3)+ IC3) (Ut+ Tl)+ (Ml -cn +(~M4+ T3+C3) (Ut+ Tl +Ml +Cl +~M4+ T3+C3) + (T2+C2) M2 M3 Net X 0.0008 15.7875 0. 7875) (2.0874+0.1003 13.9714 (Ut+Tl +M l+C 1)+("£ M4+ T3+C3) (0.M4+T3+C3 )+(M2+M3+ T2+C2) (0.0699) (0.569 amperes rrns symmetrical or greater.0712 0.2635+j18.0038 2380952 25.575 0.0743) (1.07 1.5 to 4 cycle after fault at Fl is Ib (1 per unit) Ib (Ell net) = 628 (l.0548 (0.8442+0.7875 18.1064 9.415+ j18.0738 M2+M3 = (0.4057 0.0042+jO.9459 l/X 12.0179 .4790 3.7875J+(3.4185+0.0632 0.1003 13.Section 111.8442 M2+M3+T2+C2 = (0.0049)+j(9.4024+0.8328+115.0737 +0.0035)+ 0.8406 1.0641 (Ut+T 1+M i-c 1+ z.0712 per unit The Symmetrical short-circuit current 1.5639 3.0038+jO. 0.0875) (0.

0 11.70 8.2625 5 3.2736 5 4 1.Schenectady.U.X.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Method C-Network Resolution From previous calculations for fault at Fl Ut+Tl=Ml+Cl+~ M4+T3+C3 M2+M3 = 0.8 P. as noted in Section 1. 0.6 19.70 28. .0 6.70 4.21910 0.2533 0.56831 Bus 1 4 6 Bus 2 5 7 Cable Impedance on a 15 MVA Base at 60 Hz-Res.00077 0. Not only does the computer calculate faster and more accurately but the necessity of making an impedance diagram is eliminated.2534 0.70313 3 5.2937 (Ut+T l+Ml+Cl+ E ~14+T3+C3+T2+C2)+(M2+M3) (0. A separate data reduction computer program is used to convert the impedance values of the system components into per unit values all on a common kVA or Mva base.0639+jl.00 16.0 QUAN 1.0251+~0.00 5. at 75C Cable Cl C2 C3 C4 Conductor 1-3C-2!OAWG cO 1-3C-4/0AWG CU 1-3C-4AWG CU 3-1C-250MCM CU Condu it N'Mag N'Mag N'Mag Mag Len.0251+JO. 8442 (Ut+TlfM i-cr.2191+0.0251+jO. 0.2534 Computer Solution Many computer programs have been written for the calculation of short-circuit currents.0738 = 0.Section 111. NY Data Reduction program.Version 1.00998 Element Impedance on a 15 MVA Base T1 Ident T2 T3 kVA 15000 3750 1500 %Z 7. the XlR ratio is less than 15 at the 4. The results for the system shown in the one-line-diagram figure 19 are as follows: Impedance Data Reduction GE Industrial Power Systems Engineering .U.8442) Net Z = 0. A typical computer solution for the example previously solved will be illustrated.5 P.2931)+{0.s M4+T3+C3)+( T2)+( C2) = (0.00145 0.00491 0.40 15 MVA Base-60 Hertz Impedance Data Reduction Utility Source Impedance on a 15 MVA Base Bus MVA 1500 X/R 15.0008) = 0.U.2534 per unit The symmetrical short-circuit current 1.3916 6.70 X/R 27.00085 0.0038+jO.Q/Z net) = Z.U.0639+JI.R.2937)(0.OB4/z Ylet Method A B The power circuit breaker applied at the 4.50 5.01992 0.5785 6 29 .U.0 P.0199+jO.U.0639+ j 1.8442) (0.00074 0.3 31.75 X/R 20.08743 P.0179+jO.0014)+j(0.75452 1. 0.00350 0.00 16.U.U.94174 P.U.R.X.0199+jO. The system designer who knows how to use these programs benefits from the computer's well known accuracy and speed.5 3.86974 P.02547 . Motor X" d or Locked Rotor Impedances on 15 MVA Base Bus Hp 3 4000 5 500 5 2000 7 100 7 50 7 25 Motor SYN IND IND IND IND IND kVA 3200 475 1800 100 50 25 RPM 1800 1800 3600 1800 1800 1800 PF 1.5 to 4 cycle after fault at F2 is I = Ib (I per unit) Ib (E/Z net)= 2084(1.69640 Bus Bus 2 3 4 2 2 6 7 8 P.0 8.0038+0.27299 .R.16 kV bus.0199+0.2625 5 6. Vo lts 100ft 13800 300ft 13800 200ft 13800 250ft 480 P.00 16.00030 0. 0.0738+0.00 16. CODE .16 kV bus should have an interrupting rating of 8224 amperes rrns symmetrical since. These per unit values are used as an input to the computer program for calculating short-circuit currents.00 16.X. Z net Per Unit Amperes rms Symmetrical 8224 8207 8199 C o + jO. 0.00067 P.R.04495 . 1386 .06991 0.X.3 5.00 1~~00 1. 0.70 1.

OOTIli"7 0. NY Three Phase Short Circuit Program-Version 1.57 DEG.02547 0.97624 CODE -.21910 0.6 * ISYM . 9.03 DEG.144 ANG -87.32842 3.00085 0. If.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 5 6 X/R . Current & Flows From Complex Network. GE Industrial Power Systems Engineering . NY Three Phase Short-Circuit Program. 13.196160 Max.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Short-circuit currents using impedance per unit values based on ANSI and IEEE recommended rotating machine modified subtransient values for multi-voltage systems as outlined in Section II. For Bkr Duties Per ANSI C37. 1. 8.85. Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Duty Level.12.00030 0. 11. 14.656 kA (29. X/R .Schenectady.00077 0.961 kA ( 64.6*ISYM .00077 0.94DEG.572 Contributions BUS TO BUS 7 8 Short-circuit currents using impedance per unit values based on ANSI and IEEE recommended rotating machine modified subtransient values for high voltage systems as outlined in Section II.39.86974 0.21910 0.01992 0.340 kA ( 223.34 IASYM based on X/R . 6 *ISYM .56 MVA) AT-85.480 kV l .94 IASYM based on X/R .816 kA (9.752 ANG -81. 6.920 ANG -119.08743 0.00145 0.160 kV 0.00085 0.149 Contributions BUS TO BUS 4 5 INDMOT 5 * Bus 7 Ell .02547 0.06991 0.05 IASYM based on X/R . Current & Flows From Complex Network.66 in kA ~'AG 28. X/R .04495 0.00491 0.. 0. 13.U.231308 1.00074 0.66MVA) AT-85. 0.06991 0.079281 + J 0.800 Kv l . + J 0. If.U.26.010-1979.381 BUS TO BUS 3 2 6 2 MAG 0.39167 6.461 l.32759 0.01992 0.452 -81.577 * Bus E/l .045 -87. 19. 15. 0.139 ANG -85.70313 1.45.00074 0.99 DEG.067103 1.82 in kA ~'AG 11.00350 0. 11. Contributions BUS TO BUS 1 2 4 2 ANG -87. 0.. X/R .voltage R P.54457 1. 14.495 ANG -8B.Version 1. C37.08743 0. 0.892 0.495 ANG -88. 15. 4. XlR From Separate R&X 08/24/87 15 MV A Base 60 Hertz Case: l-First Cycle Multi.89 MVA) AT-86.00030 0.00145 0.974 kA (64.40 First Cycle Calc.Schenectady. 8.54457 1 4 6 2 2 2 7 0 0 0 0 * Bus 2 2 5 7 3 4 6 8 3 5 5 7 x P.82 MVA) AT -51.65 in kA MAG 7. X/R . 14.214 ANG -87. 14. 14. 0.499760 Max. X/R .000 2.U.003558 x P.149 Contribution BUS TO BUS 30 4 I NnMOT 5 Ii O~1?q -R7 01'i .86974 0.40 First Cycle Calc. For Breaker Duties Per ANSI C37.845 0.67 in kA MAG 7.017655 +J 0.017595 + J 0. 13.160 kV l.800 kV E/l .255 Contributions BUS TO BUS 6 7 INDMOT 7 *Bus 8 Ell . 35. 35.012 -87.13-1981 Tot.480 kV l .64 DEG.329 ANG -85.57271 1 4 6 2 2 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 * Bus 2 2 5 7 3 4 6 8 3 5 5 7 7 l . 0.70313 1.74 in kA MAG 7.892 0.000 4.69640 0. Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Duty Level.845 0.3 MVA) AT -87.461 ANG -87. 816 ANG -51.51979 Tot.64 in kA MAG 7.071 BUS TO BUS INDr'IOT 5 ~'AG 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 5 Ell . 13. 19.36 IASYM based on X/R . 4.152 0..32759 0.00350 0.866 -79.6*ISYM .73.670 -75.32842 3.OOTIli"7 0... ~8 0.66 DEG.00491 0.378 BUS TO BUS 3 6 2 2 MAG 0. GE Industrial Power Systems Engineering .02 -87.624 Contribution BUS TO BUS 1 2 4 2 *Bus 5 E/l . 15. ~8 0.56831 0.231658 1.003483 +J 0.75752 5.U.Section 111. 9.56831 0.167 6.04495 0.035 BUS TO BUS INDMOT 5 MAG 1.867 -81.752 BUS TO BUS 8 7 INDMOT 7 I'IAG -0.64 IWA) AT -80.949021 + J 1.14.75752 CODE -. XlR From Separate R&X 08/24/87 15 MVA Base 60 Hertz Case: 2-First Cycle High Voltage R P..066603 1.69640 0.409 kA (224.

409 Case Three 1. SYM 8.808 8..11 14. AT FAULT BUS TOTAL REf~OTE 7.000 4. Estimating Short-circuits Tables and curves can be very useful in estimating short-circuit duty.012 -87.5-4 Cycle Computer XlR 19.304 TYPE SOURCE REMOTE 0.69640 1.56831 0.26 Case One 1 Cycle 9.01992 0.00 0.027 5Tot 9. Also the short-circuit current at F4 at the end of the 250 ft.84 7.21910 0.199 35. Factor Contributions BUS TO BUS 4 5 INDMOT 5 SOURCE BUS 1 REMOTE/TOTAL in kA 8.65 1. Q.160 kV Circuit Breaker Max.U.08750 15.036 08/24/87 Hertz 15 MVA Base 60 BUS TO BUS 1 2 4 2 SOURCE BUS 1 REMOTE/TOTAL *Bus 5 MAG 7.000 MAG 7.84 7.997 ANG -88.00077 0.45 1.019945 + J 0. REMOTE TOTAL 6. we note the secondary short-circuit current is 35600 amperes rms symmetrical.800 Kv Circuit Breaker Max.097 -87.05 +J 0.594 0.131 TYPE SOURCE REMOTE 0. 693 GEN VOLTS 0.062 ANG -87.03820 0.79.50 Z = 0. Referring to table 4 for a 1500 kVA. consider the 1500 kVA transformer T3 Figure 19.875 = P.81897 1.15 6.253411 Type 8Tot.816 amperes (Case 1 bus 8).45 1.5-4 Cycle 8. = 19.89 MVA or 225 MVA (Bus 2 Case 1 computer output).U.829 Calculated Case Two 1.679 11.19 1.6 19.885 -81. 250 MCM cable can be estimated from Figure 25-27 to be 12.000 amperes rms symmetrical which compares with the computer calculated value of 11.00 0.95 1. ~8 0. GE Industrial Power Systems Engineering-Schenectady.066 sm 5SYM 9.805 Z = 0.063 0. Duty Level Mu 1 t. For Bkr Duties Per ANSI C37.19 1.8 15.656 11.84 DEG.415 8.86974 0.52 GEN VOLTS 0.00350 0. 31 .130 3SYM 9.73 19.52 6.633 CONTRIBUTIONS LOCAL 0.816 Note the computer produces more accurate results since the cal- culations were based on impedance values rounded to the four decimal place.00074 0.U. Factor Contribution in kA 9. Current & Flows From Complex Network..5 to 4 Cycle High Voltage R P.071180 Type 8Tot.035 CONTRIBUTIONS LOCAL 0.05 1.08743 0. NY Three Phase Short Circuit Program .010-1979.52 6.Examples of Ac Short-circuit Calculations Short-circuit currents using impedance per unit values based on ANSI and IEEE recommended rotating machine modified subtransient values for high voltage breaker interrupting duty requirement as outlined in Section II. 056 3SYM 8.5-4 cycle Using complex Impedance Values for Short-circuit calculations location Case One 1st Cycle F1-bus F2-bus F3-bus F4-bus 2 5 7 8 9.00 BUS TO BUS 3 2 6 2 MAG 0.06991 0.84 7.00030 0.79 15.796 SUM ANG -85.Version 1. X/R 1 4 6 2 2 2 7 0 0 0 0 2 5 7 3 4 6 8 3 5 5 7 ElZ = 8. This compares with the 35.05470 2. X/R = 14. XlR From Separate R&X Case: 3-1.00145 0.51979 Tot.06742 0.984 8.845 0. For example.19 1.82104 9.969 Comparison Results: Amperes rms symmetrical First Cycle Multi-voltage and 1.2 6. 13.75% transformer with 250 MVA primary available and 1000/0 motor contribution.39381 DEG.36143 X P.891 SUM ANG -87.149 = AT FAULT BUS P .U.000 ssm 5Tot 8.656 amperes calculated per computer for a fault at F3 bus 7.52 6.40 Interrupting Calc.12 14.38 1.01 MVA) AT-85.Section 111. 5.00085 0.190 kA ( 59.26 8974 8.190 35.12 1.003662 -r0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 5 5 CODE * Bus 2 kA ( 210. The primary available short-circuit duty as calculated for a fault at F1 is 224.805 XlR 19. Duty Level ~lu 1 t.OOl107 0.00 BUS TO BUS INDMOT 5 MAG 0. 480 volt. C37.00491 0. E/Z = 8.45 MVA) AT -87.15.

THREE PHASE (Cont'd) 16300 17300 17770 18000 18300 18400 18500 25300 27800 28700 29500 30200 30400 30800 28700 32000 33300 34400 35200 35600 36200 35800 18000 19000 19400 19700 20000 20100 20200 28000 29600 31500 32300 33000 33200 33600 32900 36200 37500 38600 39400 39800 40400 41400 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 480 VOLT. 32 .75% 7700 7800 7900 7900 8000 1400 r--9100 9200 9300 9300 9400 13300 14400 14800 15200 15500 15600 15800 16100 17500 18000 18500 18900 19000 19300 3000 575% 8500 8900 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited ~ 3607 41200 46500 51900 56800 58700 62700 14400 55600 I-- - 60900 66300 71200 73100 77100 500 t45% 240 VOLTS.5% 834 1700 500 t4. THREE PHASE (Cont'd) 26700 28800 29700 30400 30900 31100 31500 32100 35000 36100 37000 37800 38000 38600 50 1000 5.75% r--51500 40000 48400 43600 46300 48700 49600 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 3008 40500 44500 48100 49500 52300 30700 12000 52500 56500 60100 61500 64300 45100 480 VOLTS.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 22600 23600 24400 25000 25300 25700 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 1804 7200 ~ 1804 27800 I------7200 32100 33900 35600 37000 37500 38600 1500 5.Three-phase Secondary Short-circuit Transformer Roting Maximum Normalload Continuaus Current Unit Substation Current Transformers Short-circuit Current Short-circuit Current RMS Symmetrical Amp RMS Symmetricol Amp Shortcircuit Transformer Rating Maximum Shortcircuit Mva Available From Primary System Normal- RMS Symmetrical Amp Ironsformer Rating Maximum lood Continuaus Current Transformer Alone Shortcircuit Mva Available From Primary System Normol- load Continuous Current Transformer Alone 3-phase kYA and Impedance Percent mVA Avoilable From Primary System Transformer Alone 50% Motor load a-phose Combined kVA and lmpedonce Percent 100% Motor load j-phose Com- bined kYA and lmpedance Percent 100% Motor load Combined Amp 3 4 5 6 Amp 3 4 5 6 Amp 3 4 5 6 1 2 1 2 1 2 208 VOLTS. The estimated short-circuit duty is based on the component impedance values listed with each table. Part IV illustrates the mathematical techniques involved with short-circuit calculations. THREE PHASE 50 100 300 i4. PART I-Estimated Short-circuit Duties Frequently it is convenient to use tables to estimate the short-circuit duties on the secondary side of a transformer or at the end of a cable served from a transformer.Appendix INTRODUCTION The tables and supplementary information contained in this Appendix provide systems designers with reference for the equipment parameters necessary for a short-circuit study.75% 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 34000 36700 39100 40000 41900 28000 36400 r--9600 34300 40700 I-2780 45100 46600 47300 48200 47600 5600 r--50700 52200 52900 53800 55900 46700 48800 r--53500 3609 56900 59700 60600 62800 14400 -67900 2500 5.5% 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited r--4160 57500 61700 65600 68800 69900 72400 8300 7100 7500 360 65800 70000 73900 77100 78200 80700 I-- 1500 5. THREE PHASE 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 240 VOLTS.75% 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 300 t4. A. Secondary Unit Substation Transformers TABLE 4.75% 250 500 750 Unlimited I-41100 43200 - 50 100 1500 5.75% 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited I-2406 31100 35700 37500 39100 40500 41000 41900 41300 49800 -45300 9600 40700 I-- - 47100 48700 2000 5. Parts I.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 902 3600 :t: Minimum impedance. and III are concerned with specific equipment short-circuit ratings and impedance data. • Numbers Fault refer to columns in table. THREE PHASE 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 601 10900 12000 12400 12800 13100 13200 13400 12500 13900 14400 14900 15300 15400 15700 I-- - 2400 300 t4.5% 1203 21900 24000 24900 25600 26100 26300 26700 24900 27800 28900 29800 30600 30800 31400 ~ 1203 15500 17800 18800 19600 20200 20500 20900 20600 24900 26700 28400 29800 30300 31400 24700 31100 4800 20300 4800 500 t45% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 1388 2800 750 5.75% 50 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 750 5.5% 722 14200 15000 15400 15600 15800 15900 16000 2900 17100 17900 18300 18500 18700 18800 18900 750 5.75% 2080 4200 1000 5.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 50100 50600 51500 55700 64200 71300 74100 75000 77200 2406 50 100 150 1000 5. II.

8 2. 5.0 2. and 600 volts.0 1.0 times the normal current of the transformer at 208Y/120 volts and 4. the supply stiffness is defined as a single-phase short-circuit mVAjust one-half the three-phase short-circuit m VA. 7. Available Transformer kYA Rating. The transformer half-winding reactance was taken from typical transformer designs at 1. 50 100 750 5. It was assumed that the 120/240volt unit substation would supply lighting loads only. 4. Threewire. Because of assumptions 2 and 3 above. i.5% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 481 10200 10500 10500 10700 9900 11100 10000 1900 B. 2. 3·WIRE. 3. value of 500 t4.0 TRANSFORMER) 0.Appendix TABLE (Cont'd) 4 Ironsformer Roting NormelShort-circuit Current RMS Symmetrical Amp Moximum Shortcircuit load Contin- a-phose kVA and Mvo Available From Primary System lrnpedonce Percent covs Cur rent Amp Transformer Alone 10% Motor load Combined 600 VOLTS. 5.0 2.6 2. Three-wire Secondary (7200/ 12.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 962 3800 16300 18100 18800 19500 20000 20200 20600 22300 25700 27200 28500 29600 30000 30900 27400 32500 34900 37100 38900 39700 41200 32000 38800 42000 1500 5. It was assumed that the only source of power for the secondary bus was one transformer of the rating indicated. (72DD/ 12. to x. to X2 or X3 to X4 in the illustration below) of these singlephase three-wire transformers allows approximately twice as much shortcircuit current to flow as does a lineto-line fault involving the full secondary winding (terminals x . SINGLE·PHASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER (lINE·TO·NEUTRAL FAULTAT TRANSFORMER TERMINALS) t Minimum impedance. and 600 volts. Only source of power to the secondary is the substation transformer.75% 31800 35900 40100 43900 45300 48500 r---11100 42900 47000 51200 55000 56400 59600 TABLE S-Estimated Secondary Short-circuit Distribution Transformers For Single-phase. Tabulated values of short circuit current are in terms of RMS symmetrical amperes per NEMA Standard SG-3. 480. 2. 3.2 times the full-winding reactance. Transformer impedances listed in table.6 2.5 12 2.. and both values were on the full kVA base. Single-phase. 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited I--2786 3000 5. Single Phose 25 37.].75% 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 722 -11500 11900 12200 12300 12500 12500 14300 15000 15700 16200 16400 16800 16500 19900 21400 22700 23800 24200 25100 19700 24800 27200 29400 31200 32000 33500 22400 29200 32400 2900 r---14400 14800 15100 15200 15400 1000 5.vOLTS.2 1.0 times normal at 240. the faulted half-winding short-circuit current. The generally permissible assumption of equal positive and negativesequence reactances in the threephase system was made.47DY -12D/240-YOLT % IR % IX 1.0 33 .5% 289 5700 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6400 8700 9600 1200 6900 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7600 10600 11500 11900 12100 12400 12400 12600 12800 14000 cent of transformer rating at 240. A three-phase bolted fault at the low-voltage terminals of the substation. 4. THREE PHASE 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 300 t4.120/240·YOLT TRANSFORMER) MAXIMUM SYMMETRICALSHORT·CIRCUITCURRENT FOR STANDASRD 120/240. while the half-winding resistance was taken at 1.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 1444 5800 (Foult) 2000 5.e. 480. 6.44 times the fullwinding resistance. A half-winding solid fault exists at at the transformer low-voltage terminals. The transformer primary was assumed to have the more common line-to-line connected to the threephase system. The motor contribution is taken as 2. 6. Total connected motor k VAdoes not exceed 50 percent of transformer rating at 208Y/120 volts and 100 per- Primary 3 phose Short-circuit MYA 104 156 Short-circuit 20B Symmetrical 313 Current at 120 Volts 417 696 25 50 100 150 250 SOO 750 Unlimited 5997 6128 6195 6217 6235 6248 6253 6262 7765 8007 8133 8175 8210 8235 8244 8261 12664 13347 13710 13835 13936 '_40'2 14038 14089 18782 20425 21342 21663 21926 22127 22194 22331 22971 25633 27191 27749 28211 28567 28688 28931 34758 41603 45037 46513 47754 48722 49052 49723 TRANSFOMER FULL-WINDING IMPEDANCE ON RATEDkYA.0 1. no motor contribution.5 Normal-load 50 Continuous Current 75 ~ Amperes 100 at 240 Volts 167 Application Tables are based on the following: 1.75% 2406 250 500 750 Unlimited r---35700 38500 39600 41900 23700 9600 r---45300 48100 49200 51500 34800 Consequently breaker selections for three-wire service must be based on Basis of Table 5 values: 1.75% 50 100 150 250 500 750 Unlimited 1924 7700 50 100 150 2500 5. Distribution Transformers A line-to-neutral fault involving one of the secondary half-windings (terminals x .470Y .

rms amterminals 3</> bclte d ".37 Short-circuit 2.100 16.2 4.810 6.800 13.700 50.80 3.0235)2 + (0.Q15 ) (~~! ~~~) = 0.L-'-'--.450 r 15".8 4.820 6. Z : 2. lINE·TO·lINE PRIMARY VOlTAGE 25 kV WYE-18 kV DELTA Transformer kVA Rating Fault using the base 225 kVA as the study Source= 225 kVA 250._--'_ _:_-'-_-'-.050) rms Amperes Secondary Voltage x=X 225 515 225 520 225 520 415 960 420 965 420 970 640 1. 3oj> bolted .0235) (150 kVA) 150 kVA =0.750 2.400 8.J__ _ Transformer Impedance 500 _:__ X available Symmetrical 150 kVA = 0.0009 pu Secondary Voltage Rating Available Primary Transformer Impedonce- 75 112.8 1.260 19.6 59 X trans=(0.750 3.__:_---' __ -'.750 3.Appendix c. 150 kVA as the study = f-- L.550 15.J___-'-.050 pu 150 kVA + Trans = 0.56 MVA ovcilcble 480 -208 y/120 -Yolls 150 kVA.400 available 25.0417 1: Available Ise = n kVAh 225 (0.II = 14.485 650 1.000 480 208 480 208 480 208 5.5 1.200 2. _ Fault using the base.. Select __JL_ _ _l.160 9.8 Symmetrical 1..0585) Ise=7..700 3.015 pu 2 TABLE -Estimated 7 Secondary Transformers Short-circuit z Avail.d Transformer kVA Rating Solve for the Secondary per-unit method.2I1V-208y/120V 225 k VA.35 5.0389 R Trans=( 0.52 1.__ .5 1..87 2.600 7.5 1.700 10.2 % 250 MVA = VR2 + X2 = V (0.8 3.065 2.2 1.8 1.0 1.400 6.0536 pu rrns Amperes %IR %IX 2.500 2.4 4.690 6.6 4..0585 kVAb n(kV)(Z) 150 Ise = V3 (0.0 Short-circuit 1.570 kVA 150 kVA = 0.5 150 225 500 X Utility a-phose Short-circuit (1) 480Y /277V %IR %IX 1..0389)2 = 0.7 3.73 Symmetrical 2.740 4.5 3.000 : 41.16 2.7 mVA I 2)208Y /120V %IR %IX X Trans = (0.7 2.760 4.200 16.925 1.31 1.L.43 3.010 2.4 4.925 6.000. 34 z 50.. Select 300 % 1.350 4.400 21. z: 5. IIQHTII Dry-type Three-phase Transformers Short-circuit Currents for GE Type "QHT" Dry-type 3-phase 208/120V PRIMARY RATING 600 VOLTS AND BELOW.000 Short-CirCUit svrn rms amperes (50..125 4.000 kVA =0. D.038 pu 100 250 500 II) (2) (I) (2) II) (2) 3363 7176 3407 2764 3422 7294 3353 7737 3403 7854 3421 7894 4196 9361 4278 9541 4306 9602 6494 14540 6698 14980 6769 15132 7217 16980 7475 17598 7565 17814 12398 26008 13187 27511 13471 28050 X=X trans+X utility=0.208) (0.0036 + 0.010 7.0036 pu 41..050 = 0.27 1.91 2. Three-phase Padmount Distribution Transformers Padmount Solve for the Secondary per-unit method.117 3¢ Short-circuit peres at transformer sym.8 2.7 1.6 ufo = VR2 + X2 = V (0.925 6.005 1.".5 1.8 3.151 4.860 R Trans= (.100 7.4 3.2 4.72 2.000 7.060 1.15 5.208) S"".500 2.1 1.495 885 2.. primary 3-phase short-circuit: 13.4 rms Amperes TABLE 6-Estimated Secondary Short-circuit Currents for GE Three-phase Distribution Transformer Single-voltage Primary.72 1.II .000 10.085 7.0235 pu 200.050 9.0536)2 = 0.050 845 2.0 1.2 1. 5ECONDARY RATING 480Y/277Vo.977 3¢ Short-circuit cal rms Amperes at Terminals.5 Maximum 1.0477) SymmetriTransformer (kV) (Z pu) 1/3(0.038) (~~! ) ~~~ = 0.015)2 + (0.035 890 2.925 6.000xv3 x 480Vl/I.475 645 1.

000 r---.0099 Feeder Conductor Size/Phase #4 #1/0 500 MCM 2-500 MCM 2-750 MCM 4-750 MCM Resistance (R) Ohms/Phase/1000 ft.---' ~1- t--~-t-++-~+--2.----.:o. Feeder Impedance Values Used in Investigation 60·Cycle Inductance/Reactance (X) Ohms/Phase/I 000 ft. 25-1 through 25-30.00 at-- ------- \ ~ .10\ -----+ -_I~I\ -. _'\ 16. 25-1 Transf: 150 kVA.000 j-H--J--I--j4-l+-'i-~---PY-"k-+++-flI~~----!". I\. II II I t--.00 tl\ 1\ t 6.Appendix E.J._- . (See Figs. CONTRIBUT ING MOTORS L _ .-t- 2.-~ r--- ~Io::- t-- 18._ '<.--_.. Note that conductors thus selected must be further checked to assure adequate load and short-circuit capabilities and acceptable voltage drop. Coordinated ratings are based on two protective devices operating in series with all short-circuit current flowing through the upstream device.k+~+'kt-t__-t__+_H ~->t-I'\-+-f'N-++tl"-"\'\.000 'l.t- ~-f'.. 3.1231 0.~o 1--I-MI-+H-I++--+-++++Htt---.00 a 14. 71I '1 --I -.++-++++---+-+-1- -_. 25-2 Transf: 150 kVA. & '-".CIRCUIT DUTY IS 500 MVA Fig. ~+-N-+-f' + H +-+_-_ -_ -_f-r-. not coordinated rated system.000 f-----4 ··---4-++-PHtI"'-----"c--t'~._l______r-'\ ~ . 4.000 . The primary three-phase shortcircuit duty was 500 MVA (60 cycles) for all curves.-. 0." "'" -.. Motor contributions through the bus to the point of short circuit were included in the calculations 1.2~0 _l_L5~OW~IOho--.000 [\:-1\ -- f-- --j- f---4----jH++-t+t+--- t-\ f.0288 0.. -1-+-+-++++++1\--\-1---- 1\ -z. --- f-6. should be used. 2.--~" 12. can be read directly in rms symmetrical amperes from a series of curves.-._ C r: -- ---1- . 1:- rs~-~\ ~~ \~ -~ '\ $ t--'b '0:: ~ ~ ~~ v ~ ~ uo ~ Q~ ~ \ \ -f- -.--::: 4. III ! -- 12.r-h-.. If any current bypasses the upstream device (such as motor contribution fed in on load side of upstream device) a fully rated system. 208V.OOOr- .0%Z Fig.000 I----l-H++++t+f----j-H-+ 1\ ~ ~ "*--+-'.='E~50'OO a 20 - t---t--2000 200 1000 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig. 0~0:---~§200~=:.\ ~F\q..-+-+-1-1 1- 10.000 -.\ ~~"'f 0 G~4-f++f---1f-H-1 •'--+H-l+l-f---f--+--l-1 .0053 24..-\ f-----t 10..000 ~-~~~T-n-"---"--'--"-"--rTrr--'--'-'-'-'rTTllrf----f--HI-l-l-l '-~- 22.. .-_t-t. 0. The conditions on which the curves are based were as follows: The fault was a bolted threephase short circuit.0144 0.t+t: 2 5 10 --~ ~ 500 ~~ ~"'--r----- "" ~ 5000 ---.0492 0.H -l-j 1-14. =~ ~ 0 -. ~ <.\ ~-----\:. I FEEDER R+JX CONDUCTORS )( --_j OHMS/PHASE (3_ FAULT) Typical circuit investigated to show effect on short-circuit duty as point of fault is moved away from the low·voltage bus along the feeder conductors. 4.000 a L-!-_LjUW~..000 f-- -- -. 208V. and 600-volt systems and 50-percent contributions for the 208-volt systems. 24.0103 0.-. 2.0198 0.0402 0. A typical supply-system X/R at the lowvoltage bus was used in calculating the curves for each case.-jf--1 -.---=1. -~i'- .-+-t .::1:~~Y+-~~ - 20.C20ho_l~5hoom.00 0 ~-K_ -50 100 I"" 1'\ .. SECONDARY SUB-STATION__' _J r-- 3~ PRIMARY SHORT. These curves can also be used to select feeder conductor sizes and lengths needed to reduce short-circuit duties to desired smaller values...:-"""H~ ---- ~ ~ -~ -r-t-r.\ . 0/ l&_. Fig.Estimated Short-circuit at End of Low-voltage Feeder Power-system maximum estimated short-circuit currents.>t-IH j"-~--+---+-l_++-++tt--+_+--t--l --+---+-+-+++-N-t---"".000 8.0457 0. The one-line diagram shows the typical radial circuit investiga ted.5%Z 35 . 480-.0201 0. as functions of distance along feeder conductors fed from standard three-phase radial secondary unit substations.000 ~ K~ ~----~~"'-: \" \ _____ 1- I---. 25-1 thru 25-30) on the basis of 100-percent contribution for the 240-.3114 0.~k:--Pkl-fN~t-----'::::---. The feeder-conductor impedance values used in the calculations are indicated for various conductor sizes..--" -\1- K Kb:""" 8.

" 4. '\ ~-. ~ a: o 1 I--.00 0 F==:S:: -'.. II - --+-- '1 16. 240V.\I\~ ~'.. '" ur ~ 12. ~ fI -. o~$. 500 36 0 DISTANCE ~~ -~ ~-= 1000 2000 CONNECTION t=~ 5000 1---' 0 L___ """.0%Z Fig.00 0 ~~ 1----1-- t:::::~ ~~ R r-: r-.. R f- .. - \- 1\ 1\ - '\ \ \\\ "'~~~ 't_.00 0 150 kVA.----.~~ ~ '-' ~- .\ 1\ \1\ I i I D.00 o~ 0 'b " ~ 5.. ~ U _ f--I--.I---.00 0 f-- r' \ -+-+-+-1+I-+tt--.. 1<i~"~~'!!~.I--++-f+t+f+--+--+-+-1 I-~ 1---' 6.'-.000" \\ ~''-'''O --+. 'r10 " 5000 I--0 - ~ 1"'~ ~ "~ t::::-.. o r-1 I ..%\\ ~--- 1\ 1----1-- ~ 'b ~ ~ ~\' \ 1'0 DISTANCE '-"'" '-500 1000 2. 2. '" 6.I-6.H+N-f'..-t-H'+jl++t---r--\i~ Jtt--+-+-+-1 r .. 25-8 Transf: 225 kVA...---. ~ ~ ~ .~Pkl-+l~~~"~~~~~~ ~ f' 500 ... \.'~ -. 1"- '" <. 25-4 Transf: 16.O".5%Z I-30. -.00 0 ! 14_00o~ II 1 ill -c f- ~ " .+ \++-+-m--'\\' '1i ~.-Tl-n-rr----. to ~ ~ tu " " i.._...1. I"--t--2000 <: ~ t5000 o~-~~LLLU~_~_L-L~Ulh-~h-LJLhUJ~~~--~~g~~ 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER 2000 5000 o 2 5 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 1000 TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BAEAKER CONNECTION Fig.+-t-j 2ooo~.'\~~ -\ \ ----'I ~ ~ .000 -- f-- 1---+-+-f+t+'f.5%Z .-. _. f"1\ \ <.\-+''d'..-I--'k+"kf++I'~.: U t\ t- 1\ j\ . 240V.H-HtI:l--''->.!-I\'+-++++-I+---+---++I 1'\ 1\ ~ [\ . 208V. -... 20._\J\".00 Or---- I--- - I-2.-8.-'-. *'}.1- a: ~ :3 12. )"::: ~ ~ r-.-.000 14.-. \ % 1'\'-. -- \ '\ '-': -.1\ 1"- \\ \"'-'~'b:{.00 0 z 3 U ~ 5 a: U ti=: 15.000 r----.00 0 ~C'~ R~ lW'\ -- . 4.1---1--+1 ~ .-t t_. ".-++1-++++----+-1\-1-+++#+1\-'\-\-'\-1--" '-'''0 \ --HI-+++++I---+--+1-.----..00 0 -. 200 <.. 4. \ <. __ ~ ~ "' " 6.r--S 500 1000 2000 5000 CONNECTION -.r"'1 12.-~I---~~I_+l++---'-'~-~--+-_+-+_+_~!-~-~. 1\ \ \ I~ ~ 4.. 240V.000 1\ I---+--+-++HH+--+--+++'<+++i +1'*14+-'.. 100 1\ \ r-.-.. 25-6 Transf: 225 kVA.. \ ---.00 0 ~ -c ~ U ~I--)...00 0 .. :::::1-. r" " i.. ~ a: a: " ~ B a: o f- 20. -..\ t--- <.. i '" ur ~ ~ '" ~ ~ z ~ 1----' t···· 12..I~--f'". ~ _.00 0 s- <.00 0 'b '" 'b~~\ ~9J--~ . 3( ~~'}.---..00 0 1-\ 1_1\ 1\ -- " ~ 5 U a: 8.. '" -c U t.00 0 22. 1----- ..000 ~::::~~~~UW.Appendix 24. 2..00 0 o I---- -t-o s- ? ~..000 15. 4. -. -I ~ ~ 1\ II: .J-tt--'--"'"----1IK'\~Y--1-+l4l---*__+-H '0" '}. f\ \ -...TTTTI--.000 -\ '" 'bt-- 1\ j\ - I-- j . 5..jf'tl*-~~---.000 k~ <. 0-. r----.000 18. ~ ~ 1000 o~ I-r---f- K.-.5%Z <.000 1--+--l--l+++-H-I--+-+++I+l+H---lI--+-+-f+++-H----+-HI--I I---- fI-10..00 01--' '.-rrTnrr---.t. f-- '~ \- <.+. - ~ ~ ~ SOD 1000 i'c. 1\ 1\ 1 a: o iJi (3 ii' 10. ---t . 25-3 Transf: 35.---+-.00 0 150 kVA. 25-5 Transf: 30. 208V.- I\~:{.. 16.'+N+--t-+-J-j 1\ ~\ .000 " ~ -c r-.I--I--'b 4. -.- - a: U 10. ~ .J 10.:::=ttt:tjjjtt=j=tttttijt=j=tjj ~~ 1--..0 ~ 'b \ \'ft.. 2. ""':q. '-:'''0 -.00 o~· ill ~ -c " ~ ~ z ur "'" -.\- + ~ 8. r-.00 0 25.- 1----. ~ -. 1'25.00 0 B a: rr I ~-. t-.t--++-t-t-t+f'lcl\-""-'\-ll"~ .000 .o~ 1\ -. ~ ~ f::: 1:==1:: 5000 5 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 2000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION 10 20 50 100 200 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER Fig.00 0 _:t::'~~ . :{. 14.0001---'- 10.-.0%Z t-- Fig.'ft.. Kr::: -I-- ~.000 f--- .000f-- --'c---t--tf-++t+t+---fI\4\-+-.::-f'+FfRt~""="'~"od__==t~d-++Hf___-+__+_++f_+1*--f___+_+1 I' ~"" :1 i ~ U I 1-8.'['....~ -..00 0 1 I 1 ill ~ 20.00 01--- ~ 'f~ -t-o~ _ .000 225 kVA.-- 1----1-- e- " ~ U _.'\\ o o l-- '}.00 0- 1\ -.+"-t. <. 20 50 100 200 2000 10 DISTANCE 20 50 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER Fig.-.

000 30.5%Z Fig.000 ~ ~ c- 25.000 t---->--I----l-l--jl-l Hf+--+-+-+-++++++---- --H-H+tt--+~--+-I 1--17. 25-13 Transf: 500 kVA.000 I'"-: \ c- iii a: a: => 0 c- \ \'\ [\ ~ 7. r5000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig..5%Z 37 .I----~" ~ ~ " ~ 0: 9.-~~ ~ ~w 6.00 0----- ::::----.00 0 3.:-LLJ5::-0 LLl1'~00.000 Fig. 6. 25-9 Transf: 300 kVA.00 01--- '5 o rr -i- f--U 10. 4.oo 0 20.__<.fH~s. f:: --------+-t-t+++++---j-+--l--1H+H+--H~H:J-ffi-'_::~~2:+-~ -.000 2.00 0 \ \ I\~U~\ \\ ~ 'D '.:.000 20.000 if> W " = -'" _'l.00 0 u Ii: 0 I '5 0 a: f-5. .00 01-6.900. 25-12 Transf: 300 kVA.20001-- i"f"----.5%Z Fig.I-f-I- t--- -t-O f--v 10 .~ -0 ~~ 1\ en ..O00~11~11~~· ~r f- ~~=ttltffi:t==t:~jsj:itltt:j.000 \1\ 1\ f\ \\ \ " ~ f\ 0 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 0 -.00 01--- K~ I---I- 16.- ~+ - I i'" 14.t2.:----::20hO_j_j-. 4..5%Z 4 35.00 0 8._.0==:.000 " ~ if> " ~-t$'D ~~ ~" ~ "'o~ '0 ~ <.000f------. ---- --I-._.5%Z 11.00 0 4.00 0 2.\'+-I-Hrr-H\~1-. '--t"I'--2 5 DISTANCE 10 20 50 1 00 200 500 1000 2000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION -.iiO:~lmi ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~Q~===+~=t~ ~-rt---+-+--+-1 0: tt:H=f--=-=4=+=~ '5 o a: U tr_ o I if> 15.000 s- !j1 ~ ~ W 10.00 0 I\-~ '\ <. p." " 1\ \~ 'D \ I" -. ~ o o 2 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION o 2 5 10 20 50 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER 100 200 500 1000 2000 TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION 5000 Fig.-f--f-- 4. f-f-- . 25-11 Transf: 300 kVA.- I-. 208V. 240V.000 C c- iii a: a: 20.00 0 -- -- __ .: ~ 1-~O~ 5.t--"'--'q--H-~tttt\\·_\~r -+t-tlH-tt--+--f.020~0~0=:E~5000 TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER -t-t-ttffi+--+-++t-t-Htt-= "I" " ~ Fig. 4. 25-14 Transf: 500 kVA.EfE 1.00 0 1.00 0-- 6 ----- \ 1\ _ .-+-+-t-t-f-N-Hf--t-~i't>~\ --t-.--. ~ ~ 1000 0 ::::::Ci--= 2 5 DISTANCE 10 20 50 2000 5000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER CONNECTION " -. 4.000 ~ 1b.Appendix zz.00 0 5.\ '1\ j\ 0 ~ " " ~ 3. SOOV.__ '0 -j~ V .~0' _~20.~ .+-1O..r\.00 0 1. 25-10 Transf: 300 kVA. 240V.000 iii ~ 5.00 0 f-I- => o f- f-12.--f- lf--- e- en w i c- " ~ <i ~ 18.00 Of-r-. r-. 1-.f--- --- c---- -I- I-. I'---1'--100 200 500 TO POINT OF BREAKER \ -.5%Z 8.000 . \ f-. -c c- 30.00 0 -- -----..'\ ~'D / j1b ~4+-t~ ~a ~~~ . ~3\~J p~~~..~ 'b~~ o ilS 8000 --'I+--1f--4--++++!+~i~ "0~ ---+-H-I () 1--+-+--1f-+H-H-t--t-t\-~I2\~C). ~ -.~-++'~+'It+L-"~-~\. <. o 'it.-!-1_ll~. 208V. rr f-o ilS 8.000 3 c- I\_\ \\ '5 o a: U t: 15. ~ 4.00 0 f----6. 480V.. 25.~ \'b~~Q1:I:lt=+=t:j~ ~'b 0-0 _--.I--r-.000 1 -" --~t-- --t-t--t-t1ii- .00 0 ~ r----::r:: <.:..j_ f4. '-' ~ o 10. " ~ iii a: a: ffi c.000 ~ ffi c.0001------jr--t---+--1_ u ro~ ~_:::_:=1\ ~ .00 of--.\ -'< -- I- 1\ - -.00 0 1.: NO o 't---- ~tstiO~~g.5~00il~.00 0 10. 4.

-- ~ " ~ r-.\ ~ \~'h. 32.-*-_f ~ U rr 0 I 20..000 8000 r----~r---- -16 t---.-- o iJi o 0: 16.75%Z 20.> " :\50' 00 1\ t\l\tt"''''~\ 'b t-0~d\~ ~ ~ 0 ~ t0 1-.1s. ~- -t?iX ..:..~ "'0 "01..000 ~~ 0 0~ ~\ 1\ ~ 5 o a: U 8.00 0 .000 --- r-.- 5 u rr U rr I ~ o 10. 1\ \ 1\ I~~ t\ o DISTANCE 10 ---- t--::I'-- 2.00 of--- - - \ t\~h " "~l\ it.00 0 R ~~ ~- r-...000 § :J U 28. 208V.. ~ >--12.. 1'\ I Iii " I I I ~ ~ D~ r'\ 1\ i%~ 1-'0.00 0 - I\I\~[~\"~ ~ t- t- 'b :1?o 't. I- ~ 5 u c...000 ~ 12. 500 1000 2000 1\ r o o .QOO f--- 1\ ~ ~ f--.5%Z _. 32. "0 i3 ~ u rr ~ 1\ u tr: o I " "' ~ -6._..! u 1\ 1\ \ -I\. <.12. ~~~~~ f-400 --e. v i2 ~ 0: ~ ..~~W" %"'..-- 1-0 .000 -. T'. 4.000 r-.00 0 .1. f- l- I-- -- ~ ~ 24. 25-19 Transf: 750 kVA. ~ .Appendix 16. 5.-01." -" 1 I I I I 14. 240V. 5.75%Z I Fig.~ %~~ ~ -'+: \ -i-10~ -~ '0 ...'" --e- t.-_1\c. ~ -~ I'--. ~ 0 5000 _L__ <.000 t--- "' w 0: ~ :::!: 0: ~ ~ tii a: tr :J U 36.. 1---11- 1--.00 ot---- -t- f--~ " l\ z :J U 10. w rr rr 12. >- 12.z.00 or--r--- "' w 0: .! o 1i' 16.1---e-e_.-01._---. 600V..00 0 e--2..-~ \ '\ 1\ ~ ~ of-- 2. 5.0 \ -~ I~ ~ " ~ --f-- .. 480V.00 0 <....:.000 ~t 1\ -- 14..000 . 25-17 22. 25-15 44..~ ~" C}.00 0 e-- - [\ j " 0: f.000 '" 200 500 ~ ~ I~ t--- ~ " ~ 1---2.000 4000 t- 4.00 of-----..QOO " u rr rr f--- f---f-- ~ ~ U .5%Z Fig.000 -- t5000 0 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 <.000 ~ ~ a: tr :J 14.00 o~_ __ _s~ --t1- f-- t3 36.000 - - - -- -".- r--' 0_ t-. -~~ :E+". O-. <.. rr rr .00 of-----8.000 ----- '" .00 0 :J U ..1--.000 '"K" 1\ - . t:::::: 14.t-.: \ ~ "' 0: U 8. --- - 1.000 --- ~ "' .f.000 1-\ ~"'~ -- t-:> .00 01---- f-~~ I--1--- 1\ \ 1- ~ 6.000 f'=.:.~~ t--5000 -____ L_ 10 DISTANCE 20 1000 -------- 10 DISTANCE 20 50 100 2000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig..000 --j 1- ~ . 20 50 100 200 500 ~ 1000 .~ ~ 1\ <: -~ " - o I ~ rr 5 '" '" >- so 6.:. ~- 1\ t\ 01..75%Z 38 . . - 18.00 0 ~--- \ 1-0.-t-.. 25-18 16.f-8. ~ <.\~o\ o ~ 1. 5. 4.75%Z IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig.\ I~ " " i. I~" -.00 0 =~ 40. rr &? U " 20.01..-'" 100 200 500 1000 TO POINT OF BREAKER -\.. ~ 16. ~ w sr c. ~ v ~ 6.- "-. I-f-----f--- " .000 Transf: 500 kVA. 1'\ _ ~ z ~ ---e--- r.00 ~ 0 f--12. 'b (:) ~ ~ ~I-..:>~ t-.000 " " "' 5000 8.00 Of--- --- e- f-10. 600V..000 t3 ffi c. .00 0 Transf: 750 kVA.%~ ~"~ro r-. 25-16 44.000 28.-~- 40.000 - Transf: 500 kVA. 480V.000 --4. 4.~ ~ r. =':s pr's 24. 25-20 Transf: 750 kVA. ~ 2000 ~ 2000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION ----.. -.000 -- "' .:: ~ 1cr 10.000 Transf: 750 kVA.1-- 5000 Fia.~~~~ """.00 0 I- il"~ ~ 1\ ~~\ ~- '\ 1\ ~ "' ~ 4.000 ~'-" f---- 1-1---- f ~ -- - f--~-+=R -f-- . 200 500 1000 2000 5000 o o DISTANCE 10 20 50 2000 10 DISTANCE 20 50 100 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig.

\ ..000 \ ~--.W\~ .--- 14. -+--'k-H'J4rt+I--'.. ~ <. ~ l~H~ '1.000 I- \ ~ ":' .--.00 en \.::--H-1 5000 r-. .... ~" <.000 I---+-+-++++Mt---\t- G l.-rrTTl. ~~ § \"- ~ ~ ~ 36.4+t++I--+-t-t+t+Ht--t--+-H « Fig.000 \\ 3 I--+-+-+~++HJ-~+-+. .00 0 "0 " ~ 18.75%Z 64. ~ <.00 (_\30.--l-'+-+-~+++---+-Hh ~' !5 i " « --I-a: => o f- f~ . f--- a'.++++H\\- ---h-++~++~---.000 1---+-+-+++++++---->. 7['.000 'b I HQ.\--HI.--..:.000 \ \j \.-1--1--I-- ~ 24. \ \':"-~HJ+lt--"~~I-*+-I-+H+I--- 1--1-1--1-1--1-- 1-o"'_ <.000 I-1--iJ.~!i~~~~t~ ~O 4~ j.000 I--+-+-+-+++I+I'. 25-22 Transf: 1000 kVA. 600V..00 0 - I_.rrrrr--.--~++~H+I----+--++I--+--!-t-++++H~--~~~~ ~~~-+~-++t+tH----I-4--+.000P--f'O-~2f--I-<ld+++--+-++++++I+--+-t-+++++l+--~++-I :D 72.0001--+-++++++I+--+---f-d+i"Id++". 208V. 25-21 Transf: 1000 kVA.DOO f-- ii' 1\ \ e~'1.000 -- -I- 0 ~ 50.000f-§ I---+-t-+++++tt- ~ -c f-\t\ [5 -['\ ~\ -~ -.- ~ " -c ~ 18.. ~ <.000--+--++-1-+1+11--1--1 1 o '" (3 30.000 > " • '.---- ~ " f-c .000 \ ~ !\ ~ 66.00 0 0 2 5 DISTANCE ~~ '1.00 12.~ ~ 6. -: ~ \ <.\-~1-~\f. . 1'--5000 1 a 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMEI-i TO POINT OF BREAKER Fig.000 78. '1.+~~+l'I'~-"---"--d--Hc-+++++I--+-+-++++l+I--+-++-I ffi ~ 66.c'\.1- "It~ \ ~ .io \ ~ 54. 25-23 Transf: 1000 kVA..--. a: a: => c f- a'. " I---~ f-" 10. t--50 -.--t. \~ I.000 I-.000 ~-~~~~~rrr--"-~~~~-rr--.\. <. '\ v '" 10.--+-+-++++l+I--+-+-+=> U t: 48.000 :E -c r-. .000 1--.::==. ~ 60.00 G 0 f- a: 0 ~ 36.000 I--+--l-++++++l-__"'J--+"+--N'H-++~.1------+-j---t-:-t_=++--jtt·~1-:--:--:--:-t--_=++----l~ CO> ~.. 76..0001--+--'J--+-t\I-l-f+f>c--l'"HI-4++++I--+-+-++++l+I--+-++ a'..000 i '0 5.0001----1-- ~Wl) ~+- ." -.75%Z 39 ..000 ~en w .'ft.-. 54.75%Z 64. ~I\ 0~ \ f'\S: \ " ~ -Z-O\.. 208V.-. 25-26 Transf: 1500 kVA. .-.~~~ a< ~ i_t' - 5 48. "~ ~ '\ oC±±tt~~tllli~~~~~ 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER '---._ 60. j- a: !5 o :5 I--- - a< -f\ (j f- a: 0 +~~~~----\\~t-~I\-+-~~~~~~--+-·I-I-~~---+--+-+30. 5.00 0 %-& -Z-O\:- ~'b ~ 24. « U \ -- B. - " « .00 0 :5 o a: fI -_':" (j o a: '" ~ ii' 20.000 ~ 72.16.00 0 . en W 20. -.r---:..1'--.000 (j 1--- 1\ \ 10._-+- " ~ ~-z-o\ I--v 4. ~ 60.. 'f.j- a< 42.000 ~~.' t:::::- f' 16.\+-+ f---+--j4++++++. """ "" -j--. 1"- 1"-. l~ t=::t=:t::t::m:t:tl.00 -."*++'H-l+--+--I-+-1 -.000 I\.000 42. <. 5.-t-"cI-+lh/-N-1--\it-~ ' ".""" ~ -- . '" """ 1000 2000 CONNECTION " a: f- I 1--+-++++-1+++ 0 <i 20.00 0 I" 0 -.000 ~ " == ~ I'- _\ 30.00 0 6. 5.t---500 1000 2000 5000 o o DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 500 1 '--i-000 2000 5000 TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig.000 I-2..:: '" 6.-Z-~.1--1-I-~f- 40.Appendix 60.000 1--+-t-'l:+~Ht-~-""'~t--~Ik-1._-1- :D -.---r-.-'-rrTTl'---r-"-.'~ ~ 'b 'ft. tti--\--+--+-+++l-tt +~++~---+-+-H i-i-I-I-_-+_i-t---+-. 25-25 Transf: 1500 kVA.00 ~0 5000 -- F\ .-. \\ 1--1-~-I--1--1-- _. 5. - - ---- I-- 2 5 10 20 100 200 500 0 '---2 DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 CONNECTION 5000 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER Fig. -.-- 1- \ 1\ -Z-~I--" 0 v 12..-. \ ~O~ ------"t':\---- ~ 15.000 1-- ~ 20. Fig.0001--+-+-+++++++ 1----*--+--+-+-+-H1+I· 1----1- - -t-"l+++fId--":k-+-'t."d--pI--. --.". 25-24 Transf: 1000 kVA.75%Z ---~ _--- 22. r 1--I-- -- ---I. 5. -v~\'1.000 r---. ~~ ~ ~ 11- . l\ \ " " >- tu +---0 i'. I-- ~\ I~ ~ K .. 40. 50.75%Z Fig.rrTr-rr--.000 g.t=ttt:t:llit==~~~~ 2000 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 DISTANCE IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION +-Pt+±-l+-~::I-"'>-f~H'Mdd~:---"~t-----.000 f\ .75%Z 30.00 0 I--+--+~~H+~--~~~~ ~ '1.-..!~o14. 240V. 480V. ~~ '1. -.5. 5. 240V.--Id-++++t--\~~· ~i_t ~.%\_ ~~'W1-H-II__'" \ __+--+-+_ \ %~ \ -~ '--~~ \ !b 'b ~Q i'L_--Hi-- ~-~-~ ~ 10.000 ----- \\ \ - -~I--- v " f- 1--a? 12.

» f" 16.. -. ~. 600V.--.. c-.000 40. 480V.000 '5 >- 20.. /" / -- / I 30 20 r--.000 35.000 0 :.000 en w 50.000 . 5.000 _-- "b ~~ -1--0 " 1::'--------0 2 DISTANCE 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKEA "" 00 4..2 :5 30.000 ~ ~-_ '----.I--- 40. >- ffi 32.75%Z Fig. 200 500 1000 2000 5000 0 DISTANCE 2000' 10 20 50 100 CONNECTION IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig. 5.~~ <& ~ f--~ -~ --- :5 o a: U >a: 0 I ~ 7t. "'-'" .-- en w ~ '\.r--p. IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION o o DISTANCE 10 20 50 100 2000 5000 IN FEET FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF BREAKER CONNECTION Fig.000 r-: _ -~- f--~ 4..75%Z 60.000 -- ~ "'~:'-~ ~~ '~ -~ t . 26-27 Transf: 1500 kVA.0 'lb ~ 12. 200 500 o " 1000 ~~I1'-': 100 200 -c.75%Z I MEDIUM LOW 70 "O- / Data The approximate impedance data listed in these tables are representative of standard equipment in current production.000 a: :0 ~ ~" ~\\ f-+- u I- 24.J PART 11Impedance ~ 60 10 0 1000 iIiI""" 1 --C~~VE FROM ANSI C37_010 Fig.000 36._ -Vo~ ~ 1000 0- 1"-- " i" n 8. . The impedance values of this equipment change from time to time so that the up-to-date validity of the impedance values should be verified. >- " ~ a: U 25..f-I---" V I III 6080§ I »> »> 10 -: <'oJ /' ~.0: " -c :..'b %t.000 :5 o a: U >a: 0 20..000 ~~ ~ :. "' l o» 500 1000 2000 5000 1--0 5.000 ~c.z.. 25-30 Transf: 2000 kVA.000 sn w 30.'?: / "g...Appendix 44. « u ~ 12. 480V.i ~ 28. 0 ~ 10..x.000 28..000 <. \ .000 ~ a: a: :0 U >- 24....000 ~dS:"" t-"~q..000 -.i ~ 20.000 '" ~ct. 25-29 Transf: 2000 kVA.000 iJj . 0 .000 .! -_::" l- " -c r '-' . ~ " " in 8. ~~ ----- :<. ~ "' -c o ~\~ . :5 u a: G >a: ~ 20.:: « a: cc 50 5000 10000 20000 15000 25000 NAMEPLATE KVA X/R Range for small generators and synchronous motors (solid rotor and salient pole) 2500 60 x 40 ". 5...000 44.i '2 a: >w 16.. 5. 15.000 1--:F' / ~~ . a.I I III 40 o o I II II III ~ ~ ~§ o o III ill 000 000 I o <'oJ I II 8 o ~ II 1'1 000 <D aJ~ I 8 880:50 o o cv I II ill ILL 8 .. ~ " -c '" -.so 32.000 - I--. .000 r- .000 --- -_ --~ 1--0 10.QOO 40.75%Z 90 TABLE BA 80 70 '" x rr: o 50 30 70 « o c:: . -c :."" '" >z w a: a: :0 .000 '<.000 U >a: . \ . 600V.000 U ~ " ~ ..o 2 5 DISTANCE 10 20 50 -Vo .000 '" ~ u >- ~" i.~ en ~ 36. 25-28 Transf: 1500 kVA.000 l.'\'" ffi'b-:.

7.Appendix X/R Ratios Typical values for generators.--- f-r= --- I ~. 'A<\..I 20 50 I)--- 10 100 200 500 1000 SELF-COOLED MVA TRANSFORMER RATING Range 40-120 Typical 80 TABLE 9-Primary Substation Transformers (501-5000 kVA 1¢.. induction motors. motors.-I -c ~ 20 ...f------.J V .------ source 10 1. Range: 15-30 2.O 30 'E_'" '::. .. add 0.---- 7r-:=-- -V / V / V ------ V ------ -- -_ ----- -'- IIII . 501-10.12.010 . TABLE 10Network Transformers Threephase (LOW Voltages 216Y/125 or 4BOY/277 STANDARD IMPEDANCES Percent kVA Impedance ~ a: / / / volts) r--I--- 1000 kYA and Below Above 1000 kVA 5..-- ---.LL --=-f .05 I . Large generators cooled sychronous and hydrogencondensers TABLE B B ~ ao ~ 'OO[I.000 kVA 3¢) 65C rise ANSI C5 7.5 5. Generators Typical 80 and synchronous (See TABLE8B) 1300 1 500 1677 1 130 1 200 1 250 40 f--- motors (See TABLE8A) C. utility sources.00 STANDARD IMPEDANCES Low-voltage High-voltage Winding BIL kV TABLE ac .0 INDUCTION MOTOR HORSEPOWER 41 . Long open-wire line Range: 2-16 3. power transformers. and reactors. Typical Range: 5-12 F.d/.. __j__J 50 100 20 250 500 1000 5000 2500 10.0 9..//Ji{\\'!>LOW 10~~vr o I ill t t--+---1----+---+-/--/. Utility o i= « a: a: 30 formers 20 motors (See TABLE8C) X 20 '--_.75 5.~--+---~--+.f~~---~----t---I---~---+-~~--~--------f-------j--t--------t.1 ~ 2 ."G" !: -': M".5 --LJ. FOA-POWER 1000 100 500 TRANSFORMER LIMITS) Factor f---lMVA -. Induction E.r---I 1-- _.5 9. (From ANSI Standard C37.5 B.000 HP induction 8...25 7.1 Li W U f-- ~ • 12 ~~-__j-~ ---.. Power transformer D.\\1>''11 I .--~ ---~~ I -_ '1::" .75 7."M 20 0 CURVE U' i'" FROM ANSI C37..010) A.0 7. Near generating plant 1--+-. -- I 0 (STANDARD IMPEDANCE Range of Rated MVA OA (setf-cooled) transformers FA (forced aircooled) trans0501-2499 2500-11 999 12000·300 0576-2874 2875-14999 13000·400 Range 40-120 B.5 NAMEPLATE X/R range for three-phase Lf----I-.~ 5 10 50 50 3-PHASE.\ \YI i 41/10.---- / o X a: * For load tap changing (LTC) transformers.75 5..-' -.-----I -_ ___ .0 7. 30 f.40 CURVE FROM ANSI C37 010 50 - windtnq BIL kV Percent Impedonce* I-I T :-1-1 • --HI~~.5 to values listed. synchronous motors.A.!'1~DIUM - )------t--~---t------I---30 110 150 200 250 350 450 550 650 45 60-110 45 60-110 45 60-150 45 60-200 60-250 60-350 60·450 60·550 5. Reactors t--- o.

4 1.2 1.7 1.9 0.0 24 21 14 08 1.8 1.3 120/240 1.2 16 10 1.70 5.9 1.3 2.75 ').0 3.6 120/240 16 1.72 42 .3 2.8 1.0 0.1 2.71 5.1 0.9 2.7 0.8 1.3 23 1.1 2.6 1.7 14 14 20 35 3.0 1.5 150 225 29 3.8 1.6 2.1 15 20 1.4 26 39 4.Appendix TABLEll-Distribution kVA Transformers-Single-phase %IR %IX %IZ kVA Low Voltage %IR %IX %IZ Low Voltage HIGH VOLTAGE2400/4160Y 10 HIGH VOLTAGE7200/12470 24 22 1.0 0.3 10 2.8 2.8 1.8 1.20 1.5 2.5 1.0 2.6 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.72 0.6 2.6 1.9 2.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 20 19 HIGH VOLTAGE14400/24940GRDY OR 24940GRDY/14400 24 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.5 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 490 5.6 300 18 18 16 15 14 --+-----4_----~----~----+-----+_----~------r-----+_----+_----4_---35 4.0 2.0 0.6 1.70 5.5 2.3 2.2 40 4.8 1.5 1.6 240/480 0.68 0.6 2.6 2.7 1.5 2.6 1.9 1.2 2.2 2.6 30 23 23 23 2.0 1.5 21 1.8 4.1 2.7 2.4 0.1 1.1 10 15 25 37Y2 240/480 0.5 28 2.6 1.75 5.9 0.3 2.5 2.4 10 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 10 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 2.7 1.8 1.9 0.9 11 50 75 100 HIGH VOLTAGE4800/8320Y 10 15 25 370'2 50 75 100 167 10 0.9 2.0 2.6 1.4 10 15 25 37Y2 240/480 50 75 100 167 1.7 18 1.30 120 0.5 1.4 41 4.7 0.2 1.6 21 1.5 1.5 1.9 0.5 1.5 2.40 1.6 2.0 2.6 2.0 1.0 24 22 0.2 2.30 4.5 2.0 1.9 2.8 24 2.1 1.70 550 5.0 20 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.6 1.9 1.0 2.9 1.70 5.9 2.7 2.70 4.7 2.3 2.9 21 2.1 1.0 1.7 22 26 26 2.1 1.75 120 1.1 0.6 1.8 1.8 1.2 0.3 1.7 0.6 1.8 1.0 20 22 2.0 25 2.6 120/240 1.8 2.9 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 1.75 5.40 575 5.1 15 25 371/2 50 75 100 1.7 1.1 1.9 4.8 1.5 2.9 2.6 1.5 1.9 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 240/480 0.0 0.0 0.8 37 4.5 1.1 0.9 2.9 1.3 2.8 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.20 5.9 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 10 1.7 %IX kVA %IZ 208Y/120 %IR %IX %IZ 480Y /277 %IR %IX 75 112.8 2.6 2.8 1.6 2.4 10 120/240 2.75 5.2 2.2 2.9 1.0 0.9 HIGH VOLTAGE4160/7200Y 10 HIGH VOLTAGE7620/ 13200Y OR 13200GRDY/7620 24 2.3 2.9 0.1 0.9 1.9 22 1.0 1.5 18 2.4 15 25 37Y2 2.0 21 2.6 1.5 19 21 18 18 18 20 20 TABLE12-Distribution Transformers2S kv Wye-18 kV Delta Low Voltage Three-phase Padmount-Single-voltage Primary Maximum Line-to-Line Primary Voltage- Low Voltage kVA %IZ 208Y/120 %IR %IX 22 %IZ 480Y /277 %IR 1.4 120/240 1.5 2.9 07 0.6 3.8 15 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 10 120/240 1.6 1.6 2.1 50 75 100 1.8 15 25 371/2 50 75 100 240/480 2.3 2.5 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.2 2.8 240/480 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.5 2.9 or 12470GRDY/7200 2.8 1.0 1.61 4.0 0.5 2.9 1.6 2.3 2.6 2.75 1.5 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.0 1.2 0.6 22 2.1 1.2 1.8 23 19 2.8 1.7 2.9 0.9 0.7 0.1 2.

6-13 8-12 10-17 15-35 25-45 (with omortisseur) 9 10 14 25 35 18 24 24 20 33 15 20 10-30 20-38 Cener otor s (without or less Three-phase %IX 1.0 55 4.40 50 63 80 1.3 2.6 31 2.000 20.0130 010 0046 . Reactance Range Average 3 4.500 4 pole. Dry.5 40 50 63 80 LO L6 .63 2.5 5.25 . Closs built by GE since 1935 have .Tral\sformers for secondary unit substation and Integral.7 355 3.010 .010 . 20 29 5 kV Insulation tnsvlonon Single-phose and Three-phose Single-phose and Three-phase Continuous Current Amperes c.92 2.000 25.2 4.000V %Z X/R t A Induction Motors The short-circuit reactance of an induction motor or induction generator in percent of its own kV A base. to account for a group of a large number of low voltage induction and synchronous motors in the firstcycle network. see text page 18.000 25. Synchronous Percent (A) Machines X"d (distributed kVA kVA-up kVA-up omortisseur) pole) Range Mean Range X'd t Typical ratios based on severol manufacturer tMinimum impedance V a I ues on M ac hi ne kVA Rat n Generators (1) Turbo Generators 2 pole. use a reactance of 25 percent based on the total rated kVA of the group.69 6.Appendix Table 13-.6 Current Current Closs 30 Reactors Closs 15 kV I1Nearly all salient-pole generators amortisseur windings. assuming rated voltage and frequency applied.58 2.0 28 30 %Z Cost Coil X/R 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 52 4.type transformers-Type Reactance and Resistance :j: kVA %IX Single-phose %IR 2.5 5.14 272 2. I 3.75 575 575 5.000 34.08 4.5 50 75 100 167 1.2 4.6 2.45 4.25 L60 1.2 7.16 .000 25.000 15.000 12.15 1.7 5.000V %Z X/R t 2400-15.000 12.6 2.84 10 15 25 37.0485 0285 0230 .Maximum allowable rical rms amperes sustained symmet2000 • Trademark of General Electric Company.16 04 .000 25.000 15.73 1.0285 0230 0170 .48 3. Liquid filled (oil.000 25.3 1.8 2.72 1. induction or synchronous) is not known precisely.25 40 10 16 25 10 .63 150 225 300 500 387 5.50 Subtransient X"d Transient X'd 15-25 16.000 8. Impedance.0 2. (2) Salient-pole 1'2 poles 12.83 1.93 2.9 49 6.1 62 68 7.75 575 5.04 %IZ kVA QHT.0 1. In such cases. .0170 0130 .75 575 575 5.0046 .7 4.16 25 40 50 63 .50 3.500 I Mean TABLE 14-Dry. I 175 3.5 5.0285 .5 150 225 300 500 %Z X/R t 2400-4800V %Z X/R t 6900-15.25 .0 4.0 5.) Motors I :j:Typical values based on data from several Limiting manufacturers.000 34.9 61 12 poles or less 14 poles or more 10-25 18-40 (8) (CI Synchronous Synchronous Condensers Converters I 9.5 4.Type Liquid-Filled TABLE 16-Approximate Machine Readances 480V kVA 75 112. I 38 252 227 243 212 UO 3. 16 %IR %IZ 14 poles or more (3) Solient_:£9le Generctoro" 1.5 5 60 6.0 3.6 5.00 7.02 2.33 245 322 443 20t 4.063 10 16 .77 61 5. 12.57 6.7 2.2 5..0 4.9 4. silicone and vapor-tran') and dry-type (including encapsulated coil).000 15. 43 .75 400 410 4.00 doto 575 5. TABLE1S-Standard 60 Volt Indoor Insulation Service Foult.00 535 B.33 64 2400-15.000 25.000V Dry X/R 1.37 1.8 3.1 0.7 2.10 16 25 AO 400 400 600 Grouped Small Motors In many short-circuit studies the number size and type of low-voltage motors (perhaps up to 250 hp.25 .0 .063 10 30 .0285 300 050 63 80 1.94 2.000 15.6 5.68 7_5 1.4 3.6 5.2 45 4.38 17-22 28-38 7-23 11-29 I 600 V de 250 V de (0) Synchronous 2-6 pole 8-14 pole (incl.75 5.7 65 7.625-9375 2 pole. This first cycle estimated reactance is a combination of several X" times multiplying factor values.88 346 5.000 20.42 2.95 6. but the short-circuit contributions from these motors must be estimated. may be taken as: X"/7o = 100 Times normal stalled rotor current The reactance will generally be approximately (in percent on own kVA base).31 15 30 45 75 1121/2 I 82 1.2 26 28 4.75 2.5t 45t 2. 600 1200 2000 1200 L:.04 063 10 .500 om 5 010 200 0.Distribution Centers.9 235 115 18 L6 3.91 2.4 3. OHMS per Phase Amperes 1 second Duration Continuous Current Amperes OHMS per Phose OHMS per Phose 1000 1000 800 800 600 600 600 600 600 600 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 225 23.

0775 .0108 0.0529 .0487 .0171 .0132 0118 1.0531 .0451 .0366 .0135 0.0529 051 .0347 0328 .3114 0.Gl08 0.247 1959 .0294 .0156 .1553 .0213 .0614 .0868 .0457 .0366 .127 1007 .0115 .0383 .1007 .0336 .0317 .0553 .025 0.0424 0339 .0713 .0161 .0342 .1959 .0977 0775 .0584 .0417 .4954 .0854 .452 .1553 .0313 .5107 .7873 .0428 .0331 .0357 .0451 0384 0318 .0302 03 0.0131 0115 .029 .0356 .0455 0439 .0868 0727 .0299 0288 .0332 .0171 .3212 2547 2019 1602 127 .029 .0288 0219 0178 0151 0132 .0404 .4051 .247 .0255 0252 .045 .036 .1007 .0529 .1007 0854 .029 0283 0279 lie R 1.0284 .0462 .0139 .7873 .1959 .0311 .0604 .0348 .0283 0285 .0326 .0405 .0269 .0274 .0441 0.0383 .0545 .0305 .0374 0366 .0448 .0544 0534 .7873 . Magnetic and nonmagnetic conduit ohms/WOO ft l-n*.0179 .0219 0178 .2019 .1602 .0328 .127 1007 .0167 .0557 . 44 .0413 .0277 .0614 .0096 Conductor t/C Conductor X R 1.0492 .0291 0284 .0404 0392 .0439 .1007 .8124 .2019 .4954 3114 .0373 .0429 .0348 .016 .0309 .0234 0194 .0442 .0385 .1231 .Appendix TABLE 17-Cables Approximate 60-cycle resistance and reactance of copper and aluminum cable.0467 .0341 .0467 0457 .016 .0279 lie R Conductor 3/C X R 0.5107 4051 .0287 .0614 .0775 .0977 .0252 .0194 0155 .0332 0326 0317 0309 0301 .027 .0633 .0626 .0523 .0393 .0451 0384 .2911 .0458 .0327 .0157 1.0264 .0466 0485 .0249 0213 .0364 .7873 .0627 .0429 .0544 .0417 .0167 .0219 0178 0151 0132 0118 'These values are from IEEE Standard from values used in earlier publications 141 and differ slightly of this bulletin.127 .0388 0383 .0727 .0545 0507 0489 0472 0457 043 0431 0417 0404 .0429 .0405 .4954 .0379 .0977 .0414 .0323 .0681 .0317 .0485 .0189 .0182 .0491 0474 .1231 .1231 .0256 0.0733 .0626 .0458 0446 0436 0427 .0573 .0396 .0536 .0336 033 .03 0.0457 .0446 .0358 .035 .0375 0.0167 .0161 .0539 .0543 .1007 0868 .0614 .3114 .8124 .1231 0977 .0629 .0561 .042 .0868 .2911 .0661 .0614 .07873 .0421 .0157 X 0.1231 .031 .0252 .0252 .0388 .0461 .0276 .0383 .2019 .0547 .0333 .0141 .0414 .0323 .0514 .127 .0157 1.0627 .1231 .0386 .0254 .0291 0284 0279 .0276 0271 .0257 0.127 .0612 .1553 .0333 .0189 .0259 .016 .4954 .0591 .0775 .0431 .0141 .127 .0317 .0868 .0627 .0298 .2911 .0285 .1602 127 1007 .025 0.0724 0674 .4051 3212 2547 0219 1602 .1959 .0537 .0472 0455 0439 .035 .0611 .7873 .2019 .028 .0219 .05 0482 .0521 .0783 .0299 0288 .0257 0254 0251 .0272 .0413 .247 .0479 .2911 8124 .0573 0557 .0135 0.0265 026 .0339 .0435 .0384 .0199 0161 0139 .0125 .0479 .0383 .0359 .0265 0261 .0627 0553 .0452 .0343 .0604 .051 .0612 .0536 . 600 volts.1553 .0371 0357 .0115 .0104 .0306 .0378 .0301 .0353 0342 .0151 0132 .0508 .0614 .0358 .0096 0.0321 .0275 .0417 .0977 .0674 .0413 .0326 0.0214 .0414 .2547 .5107 .3114 .0371 .0264 .0328 .0462 .0379 .0531 .0383 .0627 0553 .0318 .8124 .3114 247 .0977 .0306 .0421 .0341 .0326 0.0382 .0331 .0171 0157 1.0385 0374 0366 0358 0353 5107 4051 .0171 .0393 .0259 .0713 .0341 0333 .0308 .0775 .0371 .026 .1602 .1602 .0318 .8124 5107 .0149 .0288 .0276 0273 0268 .0348 .2019 1602 .0249 .247 .0775 .0385 .0536 .0394 .04 0387 .5107 .0324 .0341 .0275 .0977 .0868 .0125 .4954 .0377 .0343 0328 0311 0298 .0447 .0637 .0443 .0461 .0505 .127 .0131 .0614 .0264 .0341 .0171 .0324 .0118 1.0553 .0724 .247 1959 .0627 .0591 .0282 0277 .0257 .0384 .1602 .3114 .0378 .0429 .0257 0.0434 .0358 0288 .0425 .0474 .0517 0516 .029 .0297 .0393 .4051 .0151 0132 0118 0.0318 0254 0215 0189 0171 0157 X 0.3212 .0489 0472 .0429 .0153 0.0447 .0418 .0399 .034 .0448 .0369 .0315 .1231 .0214 .0318 0254 .1231 .0637 .0386 .035 .0492 .045 0439 .1007 .3114 .042 .1231 .0254 0215 .0367 .3212 .0586 .0238 .0727 .0279 .0462 0405 .0584 0543 .0151 X 0.3114 .0115 0108 3AWG 2AWG lAWG 1/0AWG 2/0 AWG 3/0 AWG 4/0 AWG 250 MCM 300 MCM 350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 600 MCM 750 MCM 1000 MCM 1250 MCM 1500 MCM 1750 MCM 2000 MCM .0139 .0451 0384 0318 0254 .042 .0393 0383 0373 0388 .0612 .0392 .0356 .247 .0417 0389 .0383 .0369 036 0351 0347 0337 .0155 .0189 .0288 .0153 .0427 .1007 .0977 .0592 .0451 .033 .247 .0614 .0582 .0413 04 .0182 .0446 0386 0341 0279 .0713 0612 .0157 1.0713 .0336 .7873 .0733 .2547 2019 1602 127 1007 .0294 .0254 .0411 .0357 .0462 .0323 0305 0297 .3114 .0466 .1553 .0358 .0424 0399 .0411 .0287 .0284 .2547 2019 1602 127 1007 .0375 0.026 .0388 .0386 .0614 .0478 .0214 .8124 .2547 .2911 .1553 .0149 .1553 .0451 .0446 .0104 .2019 .0125 .2911 Conductor 3/C Conductor X R 1.0337 .0384 .0713 .0341 .8124 .029 .1553 .0408 0.034 .1959 .0612 0536 .0389 0364 0353 0342 0332 0313 0305 0297 029 0282 .0592 .027 .3114 .0215 .0429 .0479 .0775 .0273 .0479 .4954 .0392 .0394 0399 0377 0367 0357 0371 035 0341 0333 0326 0328 032 0315 0311 0301 .0327 .127 .0254 0215 .2911 8124 5107 4051 3212 .028 .0537 .0249 0.4954 .0161 0139 .0436 0427 .4051 3212 .0438 .2911 .0215 .0414 .049 .0258 0255 0252 .0446 .04 0387 .0775 .0279 .0288 .0358 0353 0.0294 0252 .0446 .0507 .0775 .0392 .5107 .0727 .1553 .0417 .0347 .0418 .0283 .1959 .0614 .0189 .0514 .0268 .0614 .0388 .1553 1231 .1602 .0372 .0727 .0301 .1959 .0272 .0299 .0358 0288 0219 .0531 .0351 .1959 .0842 .0343 .0521 .0359 .2911 8124 5107 4051 3212 2547 .0179 .0337 .0359 0294 .0332 .0534 .0536 .0342 .0405 .0516 05 0482 .0508 .0279 0238 .0521 .0539 .0614 .0279 0274 0271 600 Volts 8AWG 6AWG 4AWG 3AWG 2AWG lAWG 1/0AWG 2/0 AWG 3/0 AWG 4/0 AWG 250 MCM 300 MCM 350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 600 MCM 750 MCM 1000 MCM 1250 MCM 1500 MCM 1750 MCM 2000 MCM 5 kV 8AWG 6AWG 4AWG 3AWG 2AWG 1 AWG 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG 3/0 AWG 4/0 AWG 250 MCM 300 MCM 350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 600 MCM 750 MCM 1000 MCM 1250 MCM 1500 MCM 1750 MCM 2000 MCM 15 kV 8AWG 6AWG 4AWG 0.0517 .0302 .0531 .0582 0561 .0505 .031 .0118 1.3212 2547 2019 .0115 .0531 .032 .049 .0553 .0681 .0199 .7873 .1231 .0505 .0259 .0161 .0854 .247 .029 .0854 .0727 .7873 .0469 .4954 .043 .0775 .0167 .0428 .0755 .036 .0435 .0977 .0446 .0405 .0854 .0238 0199 .7873 4954 .0977 .0382 .0977 . Copper Cable Coble Size in Me netic Conduit Conductor Cable in Nonmagnetic Conduit Cable in Magnetic Conduit Aluminum Conductor Coble in Nonmagnetic Conduit lie R Conductor 3/C Conductor X R 0.0491 .0326 .0457 .4051 3212 .0276 .0586 .0701 .0375 .0409 .0328 .0478 0469 .0404 0396 .0614 .0531 .0388 .0713 .0531 .0457 .0115 .1959 .0413 04 .0255 .1553 .0342 0336 .0359 0348 .0255 .2547 .0251 .0854 .0611 .0317 .0612 .0547 .2911 8124 0.0271 0265 .0402 .0274 027 .0633 .247 . 5 kV and 15 kV.016 0156 .0775 .0337 .0408 0.0269 0264 0259 .1602 .0125 .7873 .0553 .0214 0182 .0118 1.1553 .0348 .0534 .0182 .1231 .0571 .0405 .0446 .247 .0215 0189 .0727 .0531 .0161 .0258 .3114 .0428 .042 .0529 .0402 .0321 .0409 .0199 .0311 .0359 .0347 .2911 .0156 0153 X 0.3114 .0905 0842 0783 0755 0727 0701 0661 .0256 0.0317 031 031 .5107 .0312 .0571 .0156 .0358 .0385 0372 035'9 0348 0339 .0413 .0905 .0375 .0629 .0536 .1959 .0319 0311 0320 0305 0297 029 0283 .0319 .0312 0308 .0234 .0977 .0534 .0238 .0299 .0249 0.4954 .0523 0505 0487 0458 0442 .2911 8124 5107 A051 3212 2547 2019 .7873 .0458 .0614 .4051 3212 .0521 .247 .1959 .0434 .0219 0178 0151 0132 .0178 .0443 .0342 . 75 C conductor temperature.0427 .036 .0441 3/C Conductor R 1.0178 .0274 0271 8124 5107 4051 3212 2547 .0472 .0153 0.027 0265 0261 026 .0343 .4954 .0311 .0775 .0108 0.0425 .4954 .2547 .

8 ohms/mile (or 0.0022 .00088 00066 .00018 .00163 .00348 00225 00171 .00177 .00135 .00099 .00021 00069 .00159 .0065 .00073 .00028 00021 .00200 00132 .0290 0.0082 0075 .2+140.00394 .00333 .0052 . with respect to nearby grounded enclosures or rr.00035 .00228 .00200 00148 00112 00090 00077 00059 0. will be 'indefinite because the spacings are not definite.0050 0.00168 00135 .00102 . The values in Fig.00316 .0450 0.0034 .0052 . 26-1 were calculated from the equation .00053 00039 0.0064 .aterial.00054 .4 log ~S) with dimensions according to the following illustration where Sand dare in the same units: There is a considerable amount of variation in the spacing of conductors of overhead lines.00065 .00238 .00210 .00068 00051 00041 00030 00023 0.00143 00108 00081 00064 00054 00041 00032 0.00246 00166 00119 .051 0.00097 00065 00061 .00030 00024 .00133 00110 .00028 . 45 .00086 .XL = 1O-6w ( s Bus Site-assembled bus will have 60cycle inductive reactance (positiveor negative-sequence) varying with conductor spacing according to Fig.00058 .00034 00025 0. line-la-Neutral Alternating Reoctonce(X) Current Impedonce( Z) 60-HZ Resistoncet R) TABLE lB-Busway Impedances Ampere Rating (Cont'd) Ohms Per 100 feet.053 0.0038 .0048 .0037 . 26-2 gives representative values for current practice on an equivalent-delta basis.0038 .00110 .00331 .00097 .0071 .00090 .00380 00252 00159 00122 .00053 .0032 0.00051 0004.00070 .00079 00052 00051 00037 00030 00024 00018 0. an equivalent value of S can be derived from the relation IWI I~' 15.00200 .0070 .00051 00037 .0064 .00119 00112 00084 .051 0.093 .0018 0.00144 00117 .00031 0.00252 00182 .00197 .00015 0.00080 . 26-3 through 26-5.00114 00110 .00066 .00023 00020 .0041 .00210 00163 .00143 .0074 .0065 0058 0054 0046 0.00084 00060 00049 00036 .00951 00378 00358 00240 00159 00120 00104 . Fig.00142 00109 . The zero-sequence reactance of site-assembled bus.00036 000500 00174 00148 .00045 00045 00031 .00061 00046 .093 .00127 00092 .00575 . 26-1 (page 44) if the conductor spacing is known.00069 00066 00044 00035 .0034 225 400 600 800 100 100 50 30 60 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 225 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 225 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 0.00041 0.0294 0. Ratios of ZO/Z1 tend to be very large.00081 .00402 00226 00181 00153 00119 00089 00071 00059 00045 00035 0.00132 00099 .0037 0.00027 00020 00015 0.00066 00049 00037 00027 0.00273 00226 00210 .00053 .00433 .0011 0.0032 0.00112 00093 00067 00053 00044 .0034 .00041 0.00220 .00041 00032 0.0014 .00394 00276 00433 00380 .00114 00110 .0064 .00059 .15 ohms/lOOO feet) line-to-neutrai.or negative-sequence reactance as high as 0.00656 00388 00488 00434 00289 00212 00169 00137 00141 00099 00076 00055 LVO Feeder With Copper ARMOR·CLAO Feeder Aluminum Bus Bars LVOP Plug-in With Aluminum Bus Bars ARMOR·CLAO Feeder Copper LVDP Plug-in With Copper Bus Bors ARMOR·CLAO Plug-in Aluminum CL With Aluminum Bus Bars CL With Copper Bus Bars ARMOR-CLAD Plug-in Copper FVK With Copper Bus Bars Overhead Lines Practical transmission lines are often assumed to have a 60-cps positive. Closer values can be obtained from Fig.00178 .00072 .00359 00241 .00143 00108 .00049 00032 .00149 00166 00118 00077 00068 .0021 .00048 0.00460 .00081 00079 00052 .003 003 0.00064 .00050 00040 .00027 0.055 0.0064 0058 0054 0046 0.00304 00156 00126 00102 00083 00062 00050 00042 .0050 0.00099 00088 00066 00059 00040 00034 00025 0.00013 000228 00081 .Ql029 .0064 0064 0058 0054 0050 0042 0.00124 .00044 .00016 0.0064 .00032 00072 0067 0066 0059 0055 0051 0042 0.0187 0.Appendix TABLE lB-GE Busway Impedances Ohms Per 100 Feet.0098 0061 .00049 00036 000268 00206 00135 00100 00096 00083 .014 0.3 00036 000524 .00522 .0069 0069 .0048 .00069 00066 .00078 00055 .00221 00166 .00106 00124 00086 00057 00048 00019 0.00088 . Alternating Reactonce( Line-la-Neutral Current X} Impedonce(Z) 60-HZ Busway Type Ampere Roting Buswoy Type Resistance(R) FVA With Aluminum Bus Bars OH CU AL LTG LW LVO Feeder With Aluminum Bus Bars 600 800 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 800 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 800 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 800 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 225 400 600 800 1000 0.00114 . --fp~ For an unsymmetrical arrangement of three conductors.00134 00121 .

~~ - ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ /.. 26-2.... ~ ~ i"" . ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ :z: 0.16 _....5 II IIIII 10 II I 2 SPACINCi S Of II fEET 10 10 10 CENTER-TO-CENTER CONDUCTOR. ~ ~....08 I- ~..Appendix Conductor Constants 0.14 II: III L VI 0.~ ~ ~ .. Fig..:~~~~~~ ~+ .. Typical equivalent-delta spacing used for three-wire transmission lines 46 ...06 j: u I~ 0 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ! III oJ U 0. INSULATION • o - I I I I I II 2 INCHES EQUIVALENT 0..18 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 II: III L III VI <III L - 0... single-phose circuits and line-to-neutral for three-phase circuits ~ 30 UJ UJ LL Z c> 20 z < 0.2 0.~ ~ ~ ~_.~ ~...f) +" ~~o <III III II: III > 0.-:~ :~ 00 ~ ~ III . (/) o 0:10 o o Z ~ o ::::l o o O I I III I ~ ~ I ~ I 2 5 10 20 LINE-TO-LINE 50 100 KILOVOLTS overhead 200 Fig. I 2 f- 2 0 :z: 0. Calculated inductive reactance for parallel conductors with standard stranding where valves are per conductor for twa·wire.20 ~ "0 0 f0. 26· 1.. fP~~ " u Z <III ~ u I0.04 >I -~ a02 u 0 ~NI"U" S fOR 4"4-1N..~ . .. ~ V I.' ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~.10 ~~ ~~ ~ ~ .

--S ~~: 00 .+-1--------+-~--1J~/·+__+-+-H+1-+-----t-----f--' '/ +-i .-- -- --J '3 i--~-" _ r-- WHERE SI: CENTER SPACINGBETWEENPHASESI AND2 " """ " "2 I" "3 3 S3' .S2:" __ ..THE MEAN REACTANCEPER FT OF EACH CONDUCTORIS DETERMINEDAPPROXIMATELYFOR THE I S2 S3) I--------+---+---+-t-¥-yyt-+-t-/...+---+-UH-H+r-I----+ .t s. 30 1-----+---+/-+-~h++-/--+L-JiV'-iJt'r-----+---f---[-I -.. V~V /' I " CURVES OF REACTANCE AT 60 CYCLES VS SPACING FOR 2"X 1/4" BARS AND FOR 4"XI/4" BARS IN FACEWISE ARRANGEMENT OHMS PER FT OF EACH CONDUCTOR AT A DISTANCE S FROM RETURN CONDUCTOR IN A BALANCED 3-PHASE CIRCUIT. . I. -J..'_-+~ "1 050 2 ~-=--=--=--=--=--=-j.:::-=--=--=-1_--+--+//~V'--i--+-hl. FOR • .----=:::: SPACING r-r-: MEAN V'-?f-+-tA£f-t--... 0 / / vi /~ __ ~__ ~ 40 f-------+---/-I-7I/. I" AND 10" CHANNEL • IN PAIRS . 6·.ol1I'-+--+--+ 1-------I----+----A S : (SI f-----+---ILf---.. f---f---+ f----~_+_--_+__/_¥'/_+_+..-+-I-/-/J+-+-H-iLyL'---+>1------+--"---i//'---+--c.~I-+-IF. ..--_- __ -r--.' .PHASES SPACED HORIZONTALLY OR VERTICALLY / ~'PO I r ~ 2 40 10 I / / I / V I • V li 10 I OHMS PER FT OF EACH CONDUCTOR A I1:r DISTANCE 5 FROM RETURN CONDUCTOR IN A BALANCED 3-PHASE CIRCUIT./ Ll]J - =C-.J--r---I-.--r-r- r-~~_+_--~/~+--+-+-~~l-+----t--+-~-+--+---j--lr-~+~~-----+----+--r-+-+-H 20 2 3 4 5 6 • 10 15 20 JO INCH£S UNTEII PACING S 4O!!O 60 10 100 Fig.._-/ -/~I :: :~=~ ~:::~~~~ ::::~'.-_-r-r-r"rr---_Ir. 20 8 10 I~ 20 30 40 IIII INCHES CENTER SNCING S so 607080 100 I~ IL 11111 Fig.. 0 >- It. THE MEAN REACTANCEPER FT OF EACH CClllDUC10R IS DETERMINED APPROXIMATELYFORTHE MEAN SNCING.-~ ~~ 2BARS 2")( 4 4 ~PART /BAR4"xii"i" BARS 4" X 4 4 APA~T r 70 f------I---+--I--+-+-H+"" 1--------t--+----t-+-+-H-+-tF--+-+- Q: It.---- --=.'f/~---+- ..L_--L__l__j_j-j r-- -1 1.--r--r~-ro- f-------+90 0 >0 Q: ---- - - f--- f--------+----+---+----' ------- - ~ 0 ~ eo f-----+--_-+ 0 0 <I !oJ ~ . 60 I/ '/ /_ / /.-_---r~---. I I I .:::. VS SPACING. 26-4 47 .r-- I-- ~ r (/) --I---H'+--.-'-' I I I 'L I I 30 1/ I i 52 • 53 • CENTER SPACINGBETWEENPHASESI AND 2 2 AND3 " " IAMl3 " " ..::::J ~s~ - ---I 112 -+-+++-i ~f--_+-_+++------17Vf~1j /-._-_-r---_Ir/-:IB-A-R-2-'·-X-4PI-"---I"--------... L_ - -+. Q: !oJ Cl.tJrf-+/_++J/'-W-/--+ -0 <I !oJ Q: . / --L '/ /_ V 1-------+---+---+---1--1-~V7'\--ift". .f'JIr/'--------. ~ --1---[/./'1.Appendix Conductor Constants (Cont'd) 100 1 l'1AIT B[] I I A-a a: 4" 90 e g 0 ~" 6" e"lo" 80 V V z 8 5 t I[ /1 I V CURVES OF REACTANCE AT 60 CYCLES.-//-- ~ -/---1[/- j'(_2 V7V-::: . 26-3 100r_-_-_-- --. 1/3 S'(SIS2S3) WHERE SI e I .

9 I7 3.18 0.5 70 t77 7 / /.2 340 10. FOR 3"X 1/4" BARS AND FOf'( 6"X OHMS 114" BARS..4 10.36 06 1.c. rv I- /.Appendix 100 I ~ 90 I-S-j II:: ~ I: iI !I II 11 I II 3.. TABLE 19-Low COMPONENT Molded Case Circuil Breakers Insulated Case Circuit Breakers Low voltage Power Circuit Breaker Coordinated Ratings The short-circuit ratings may change from time to time and in addition new components or equipments are continually becoming TABLE 20-Low-Voltage available so it is suggested that upto-date short-circuit ratings be verified by consulting the appropriate product bulletin.42 0...1 2BARS g 80 g U [7r' : ---- + 1/ I)i 1/ f' APART ~ J: U . PER IN FACEWISE ARRANGEMENT AT A o ">~ 60 II:: '" 0.0 100 0.95 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 FUSED UNIT FUSE CLASS R J - L -- 200 200 200 200 - - 200 200 200 200 - TH 600 - - - 100 100 OMR 600 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 - OMW 600 - 17 18 3.2 0. v v 3 4 5 6 78 10 15 CENTER 20 INCHES _-30 SPACING 40 " " " " I 1 I 50 I II I II 6070 I II Fig. IJ FT OF EACH CONDUCTOR S FROM RETURN 3-PHASE CONDUCTOR ::I! J: II> If> f-- DISTANCE 050 o - - VI /V IV 1/ IN A BALANCED REACTANCE CIRCUIT. Components and Equipments The short-circuit ratings listed in the following tables are representative of standard components or equipment in current production.~i' i'APART 4" IBAR 6"X I " 2BARS6{~ I BAR 3"X.-- VV //' f7 /.L ..0 4. THE MEAN IS FOR THE MEAN PER FT OF EACH CONDUCTOR 1/ DETERMINED APPROXIMATELY SPACING 1/3 S'<SI S2 S3) WHERE SI' S2' CENTER SPACING BETWEEN / 30 PHASES lAND 2 2AND 3 lAND 3 1/ S3' " " 20 2 VLI . 1// V / / !II I CURVES OF REACTANCE AT 60 CYCLES VS SPACING. vl/ 1iJ/ f----. 26-5 Part III Short-circuit Ratings of a.2 24 36 0.8 7.36 1.6 192 42 200 200 HPC 600 - - - 48 . Voltage Circuit Breakers BULLETIN NUMBER Safety and Disconned Switches INTERRUPTING RATINGS RMS SYMMETRICAL KILO-AMPERES GET-2779 GET-6211 GET-6218 GIZ-2691-26 TYPE TG MAXIMUM VOLTAGE AC 240 CONTINUOUS CURRENT RMS AMPERES 30 60 100 200 400 600 30 60 or 100 200 400 or 600 800 1200 30 60 100 200 400 600 30 60 100 200 800-1600 2000-4000 NO FUSE kA H 0.

1.000 200.5 THFK TJJ & TJK Circuit Bkr TJK4 (200-400A) TJK6 (250-600A) Circuit Bkr THJK (225-400A) 1450-600AI Fusible Class R or J Short-circuit ratings apply to NEMA type 1. Limiter Circuit Breaker TED 7/9 7/9 7/9 Except (15-30A) (35-70A) (35-70A) (15-50A) (60-100A) (25-100A) (110-150A) Circuit Breaker THED 7/9 7/9 All Except 7/9 All All All All All All Except (15-50A) (60-70A) (15-70A) (15-50A) (60-100A) (15-100A) (25-100A) (11O-150A) Circuit Circuit Circuit Breaker Breaker Breaker TF J 7/9 7/9 7/9 7/9 Except Except 2 2 2 3 3 & TFK 7/9 All All All All Except 7/9 7/9 7/9 All All Except 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 0.Appendix TABLE 21-Low-voltage PROTECTOR TYPE Individually NEMA SIZE Mounted Combination Motor Starters THREE~PHA5E 5HORT~ClRCUIT RATING RMS SYMMETRICAL KIlOAMPERES ENCLOSURE ALL All Except 240 Volt 480 Volt 600 Volt Circuit Motor Breaker Circuit TEB Breaker 0.2.1.000 AC 600 600 600 600 600 J L TABLE 23-Busway BUSWAY Short-circuit Ratings 3-PHASE SHORT~ClRCUIT RATING RMS SYMMETRICAL KILO AMPERES Type LW LTG OH FVA (Alum Bus) FVK (Copper Bus) LVO and LVOP Continuous Current RMS Amperes 30 & 60 50 100 225 400 600 800 1000 600 800 1000 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 Aluminum Bus Bars Copper Bus Bars 5 5 5' 14 22 22 22 14 22 22 22 22 35 60 70 85 105 140 175 175 175 175 35 65 70 85 105 140 175 175 175 . 3R. Combination starters with circuit breakers or fuses listed are adequate for installation in moTABLE 22-Current-limiting Closs RK-I RK-5 T Voltage tor branch circuits where the available short-circuit current at the incoming line terminals of the circuit breaker or fusible disconnect switch does not exceed the values indicated in Table 21. 4X 7/9 and 12 enclosures.1. Fuses Available Continuous Current rms Amperes 3-600 3-600 3-800 3-600 601-4000 Interrupting Ratingrms Symmetrical Amperes 200.3.000 200.2. GE Type TEO or TO circuit breakers by 100A max Closs RK5 fuses by 100A max Closs J or T Fuses 49 .2. TEe 0.000 200.3. 4.2.000 200.3 4 4 0.1. 4. 14 kA when protected 50 kA when protected 200 kA when protected by 100A max. After a fault maintenance and replacement of some components or devices may be required.3 4 4 0 0 I I I 2 2 3 3 0 I I I 5 7/9 25 25 25 100 100 100 18 5 25 5 18 25 5 25 5 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 42 22 25 10 30 10 35 10 7/9 100 25 25 25 100 100 100 14 5 25 5 14 25 5 25 5 14 25 14 14 25 25 25 25 25 22 25 10 30 10 35 10 100 5 5 10 100 100 100 5 5 25 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 25 5 5 25 5 25 25 5 22 10 10 22 10 25 10 100 7/9 All Except Motor Circuit Breaker TEe with If Cl.

J600. L1600 L1600 L2000 L2000 L2000 l800 L800 l800 Ll200 Ll200 lI200 L3000 L3000 L4000 Table 25-Motor Control Centers 600 Volt Maximum GET 6728 MOTOR CONTROL CENTER SHORT~CIRCUIT RATINGS Standard bus bracing for motor control centers is 25.C kA 75 85 100 100 100 125 75 75 85 100 100 100 150 25 65 65 65 65 75 75 125 125 150 25 30 65 65 65 65 65 75 125 125 125 R200. TBOO. The short-circuit rating of busway plugs is equal to the short-circuit rating of the circuit breaker or fuses used in the plug. J600. J600.000 rms symmetrical ampere bracing is available. J600. 42. T800.000 rms symmetrical amperes. T800.L1600 T800. T600 50 kA CLF FUSE RATING (CLASS R. TBOO. 65. L2000 L2S00 L2500 L3000 R600. ll200 T800. T800. threephase four wire with half and full neutral all with and without internal ground bar.000 and 100. L1200 L1600 L2500 L2500 L2500 L4000 J200. J600. The short-circuit rating of fittings with protective devices which are part of the busway such as power take-offs and reducers is equal to the lower of the short-circuit rating of the protective device or the busway with which the fitting is used. L2000 L2000 R200. J600.L2000 T800. T800. J400. J600. Ratings without a ground bar are established by tests which require the housing and housing joints to provide a satisfactory ground return. TBOO. J. J600. The short-circuit ratings cover all types of busway three-pole. tap boxes power take-offs and plugs which are necessary for a busway installation. T OR L( AVAILABLE RMS SYMMETRICAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT 100 kA R600. T400 R600.000. J600. T200 R600. J600.LI600 T800. L800 R600. T600 R400. J600. L800 L1200 L1200 L1200 L3000 L3000 L4000 J400. elbows.1400 R600. L2000 200 kA R600. LI600 L2000 L2000 L2000 Armor-Clod Plug-m AI R200. T800. T's. Type Continuous Current rms Amperes Full Neutral or 3ph3W Holf Neutral Full Neutral or 3ph3W Holf Neutral Boc 75 75 85 100 100 100 150 200 200 200 200 Armor-Clad Feeder 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 SOOO STD 22S 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 2S 65 65 65 65 75 75 125 125 150 200 200 - 85 100 100 100 125 200 200 200 200 200 200 HIGH - 85 100 B5 75 75 150 150 150 200 200 200 85 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 STD 75 75 85 100 100 100 150 200 200 200 200 HIGH 75 75 85 75 75 75 150 150 150 200 200 Armor-Clad Plug-in 100 100 100 100 100 125 150 150 200 200 200 65 65 100 100 100 125 150 150 200 200 200 - - 25 30 65 65 65 65 65 75 125 125 125 200 200 50 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 150 200 200 - 50 65 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 150 200 200 TABLE 24-Maximum BUSWAY Type Continuous Current RMS Amperes Fuse Rating for Busway Short-circuit Protection MAXIMUM Sid S. L1200 T800. TBOO R600. J600. Armor-Clod Feeder AI 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 225 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 225 400 600 800 1000 1200 1350 1600 2000 2500 3000 Armor-Clad Feeder Cu R600. 50 . T800. J600. L1600 R600. T600 J600. These UL short-circuit ratings apply to all busway and associated fittings such as straight lengths. 1800. TBOO Armor-Clod R200. T400 J400. 1800.Appendix Table 23A-Busway BUSWAY Short-Circuit Ratings+ 3~PHASE SHORT~CIRCUIT RATING RMS SYMMETRICAL KILOAMPERES Aluminum 3 Ph 4 Wire Bus Bars Copper 3 Ph 4 Wire Internol Ground Bor Internal Ground Bus Bars + Short-circuit ratings have been assigned to all General Electric busway based on tests performed in accordance with UL 857 busway standard. J600. L800 T800.

2 13.25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 1. For operating voltages below 11K times rated maximum voltage. 4800 7200 400 700 400 700 300 200 400 800 400 800 400 are for one-high 200 260 400 520 600 200 200 200 400 400 600 ambient Vacuum Contactor 2400 4800 7200 "Horsepower ratings TABLE .25 1.30 1.30 1.4-4.30 1.16 4. ~With the limitation stated in 0.76 8.25 1.30 1.6 K Tunes Rated Shortcircuit Current kA.30 19 36 36 1200 2000 1200 2000 1200 2000 29 18 28 5 5 5 2 2 2 3. For single phase-to-ground faults.06. When a changeover from the total current basis of rating to the symmetrical basis of rating is effected the older standards will be withdrawn.6 11.6 6.06) 27 Identification Rated Values Current Maximum SyrnmetRated Rated Roted Interrupting Time Cycles rica I Rated Maximum Voltage Divided Interrupting Capability Related Required Capabilities Current Values voltcce Insulation Rated Level Withstond Test Voltage 3 Sec Shorttime Current Carrying Capability Closing ond Latching Capability ShortANSI line Number Nominal Voltage Closs kY. 1700 2750 3000 5000 5000 1000 2000 4000 4200 8400 6000 enclosures In MVA Symmetrical Three-phase Class EI Class E2 Unfused Fused 50 50 50 50 30 25 29 37 50 75 75 40°C Max.8 250 500 750 4.24 1.8 48 48 48 HIGH CLOSE AND LATCH CAPABILITY CIRCUIT BREAKERS.0 4.25 8.rms Rated Voltage Range Rated Contlnvous circuit Current (ot Rated Max kV) kA.rms 3.24 1. In accordance with ANSI-C37.5 11.8 13.2. rms K Factor.76 4.8 13. rms Nominal Per rnbsible Tripping Delay.5 11.76 15 15 1. the specific conditions stated in 0. em. and 7200 Volts Interrupting Rating MAXIMUM MOTOR HORSEPOWER' Type Voltage RMS Volts 2400 Mech Contactor Continuous Current RMS Amperes Synchronous 08PF 1500 2500 2500 4500 4000 800 1600 3200 3350 6700 4800 NEMA 1 vented I. ANSI-C37.5.16 13.76 4.8 13. y a-phose mVA Closs Rated Maximum Voltage kV. For voltages between rated maximum voltage and 11K times rated maximum voltage.16 4.3 of ANSI C37.rms kV Crest Impulse Current ot 60 Hz omp.0 4.85 4.30 1. 36 36 49 49 49 41 41 23 23 36 36 kA.04. Required Capability Current Symmetrical = Rated Interrupting Short-circuit x (Rated ~ax. rrns Rated Short-circuit Sec t +§ kA.19 1.4-4.76 4. all values apply for polyphase and line-to-line faults.19 1.5 11.Appendix TABLE26-Limitamp Motor Starters-2400.5 11.6 13.16 4.6 13.85 11.76 4.PF.rms ~ K Times Current 1.5 of ANSI C37.19 1.85 3. (These ratings 4.5 36 36 49 49 49 41 41 23 23 36 36 48 48 48 58 58 76 78 76 66 66 37 37 56 58 77 77 77 7. the required symmetrical interrupting capability of the circuit breaker shall be equal to K times rated short-circuit current.0 6. Induction Wound Rotor Synchronous 4800.06 symmetrical rating basis is supplementary to ANSI-C37. For example.5 36 23 36 36 23 36 78 58 77 • Maximum voltage for which the breaker is designed and the upper limit for operation. "General Electric Magne-blast circuit breakers are designated as Type AM"kV"-"mVA". voltage) (Operating voltage) ages below 11K times rated maximum voltage.6 (total current rating basis) and does not replace it. users should confer with the manufacturer on the status of the various circuit breaker ratings.30 1. this breaker is Type AM-4.2 7.16-2.06) 60 95 95 1200 2000 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 1200 2000 1200 2000 1200 2000 3000 29 29 41 41 41 33 33 16 18 28 28 37 37 37 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3.30 1.30 19 19 19 19 19 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 exceed 60 60 60 60 60 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 ANSI C37.Magne-blast Circuit Breaker Characteristics (Symmetrical Rating Basis ANSI C37.O.8 13.16 4. the following formula shall be used: 51 .04 apply.16 250 250 350 350 350 500 500 500 500 750 750 1000 1000 1000 4.\ 4 5 50 6 6 9 11 12 13 14 15 150 16 4. rms by K kV.50 +K is the ratio of rated maximum voltage to the lower limit of the range of operating voltage in which the required symmetrical and asymmetrical interrupting capabilities vary in inverse proportion to the operating voltage.5 1 1.24 1. low Frequency kV.5 11.8 13.5 11. follow :j:above. IlCurrent values in this column are not to be exceeded even for operating volt- :j:To obtain the required symmetrical interrupting capability of a circuit breaker at an operating voltage between 11K times rated maximum voltage and rated maximum voltage.

76 15 15 1.5 11.24 1.8 13. the following formula shall be used: Required Capability Current Symmetrical Interrupting 2 K is the ratio of rated maximum voltage to the lower limit of the range of operating voltage in which the required symmetrical and asymmetrical interrupting capabilities vary in inverse proportion to the operating voltage. symmetrical interrupting capability of a circuit breaker at an operating voltage between 11K = Rated Short-circuit x (Rated ~ax.8 13.2 7.76 8.8 13.6 6. the required symmetrical interrupting capability of the circuit breaker shall be equal to K times rated short-circuit current.30 1.5 36 23 36 36 23 36 78 58 77 1 Maximum voltage for which the breaker is designed and the upper limit for operation.30 1.76 4.8 13.25 1.76 4.24 1.2 7.04 apply.10-2.85 11.76 4.25 8.0 4.8 13.Appendix TABLE 28-POWER/VAC (Symmetrical Identification (6 & 7)' Circuit Breaker Characteristics Rated Values Related Required Capabilities Values Rating Basis ANSI C37.30 19 19 19 19 19 19 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 60 60 60 60 60 60 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 3000 1200 2000 3000 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3.5 11.30 1.25 1.8 13.8 13. follow 3 above.5 11.19 1.24 1.30 1.3 of ANSI C37. 52 .0 6.16 4.16 7.2 13.16 13.5 36 36 36 49 49 49 41 41 41 23 23 23 36 36 36 48 48 48 58 58 58 78 78 78 66 66 66 37 37 37 58 58 58 77 77 77 Breokers-High Close and Latch Capability 1200 2000 1200 2000 1200 2000 4.8 Non-standard 250 250 250 350 350 350 500 500 500 500 500 500 750 750 750 1000 1000 1000 4.19 1. times rated maximum voltage and rated maximum voltage. 5 Current values in this column are not to be exceeded even for operating voltages below 11K times rated maximum voltage. 3 To obtain the required For operating voltages below 11K times rated maximum voltage.04-1979.25 1.5 11.30 1.76 4.85 3.8 13.24 1.30 1. For voltages between rated maximum voltage and 11K times rated maximum voltage. Y (Seconds) Rated Maximum rms Voltage Divided by K (kA) 3 Sec.8 13.5 11.30 1.5 11.0 4. voltage) (Operating voltage) 4 With the limitation stated in 5.5 11.10 of ANSI C37.8 250 500 750 4.6 11.5 11.16 416 416 4. Short-time Current Carrying Capability K Times Rated Short-circuit rms Current (kA) (kA) 36 36 36 49 49 49 41 41 41 23 23 23 36 36 36 48 48 48 Closing and Latching rms Current (kA) 4.76 4.5 11.30 19 36 36 60 95 95 29 18 28 5 5 5 2 2 2 3. For single phase-to-ground faults.85 3.30 1.85 4. all values apply for poly-phase and line-to-line faults.06-1979 Voltage Insulation Level Current Maximum Symmetrica I InterCapability (5) Current Rated Withstond Test Voltoge Nominal rms Voltage Class (kV) Nominal 3-phase Class (MVA) Rated Maximum rms Voltage (kV) (1) Rated Voltage Range Factor K (2) Low Frequency rms Voltage (kV) Crest Impulse Voltage (kV) Continuous rms Current Roting at 60 Hz (omperes) Short Circuit rms Current (at Rated Max kV) (kA) (3) (4) 29 29 29 41 41 41 33 33 33 18 18 18 28 28 28 37 37 37 Rated Interrupting Time (Cycles) Rated Permissible Tripping Delay.6 6. the specific conditions stated in 5.19 1.30 1.25 8.16 4.25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 1.

5 15.0 1.0 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 600 800 1200 1200 1200 2000 2000 12 16 16 20 25 20 25 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 15.5-20000 PVDB 1-15.5 15.Appendix TABLE29-Vacuum Breakers-Type PVDB-l Related Required Level Current Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability Current Capabilities Rated Values Voltage Insulation Values Closing and Latching ShipCapability ping 1.5 15.5 12 16 16 20 25 20 25 53 .5-20000 PVDB 1-15. Short-time CurrentCarrying Capability K Times Rated Short-circuit Current kA. kV.5 15.5 15. rms Impulse kV. rms 12 16 16 20 25 20 25 PVDBl-15.0 1. kV) Cycles kA.5 15.5-25000 PVDB 1-15. in Times Ib Rated Shortcircuit Current 20 26 26 32 40 32 40 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2300 2300 Withstand Test Voltage Breaker Type Max.5-16000 PVDB 1-15.0 1. rms Range Factor K Continuous Current at 60 Hz Low Frequency kV.5 15.5 15.6K Times Wt. Crest Short Circuit InterCurrent rupting (at rated Time Max.5 15.0 1. rms 3-Sec. kV Divided by K kV. rms Rated Permissible Tripping Delay V-Seconds Max.5 15.5-16000 PVDB 1-15.0 1.0 1.5 15.5-12000 PVDBl-15.5-25000 15.5 15.5 1. rms kA.

Use reduced-rated station or intermediate on load side of fuse only.Appendix TABLE30 -Summary Voltage af Ratings of Current-limiting Ratings Power Fuses. Note. 2. Bus bars are braced to withstand forces exerted by the let-through current. t rated interrupting 1.OOO 190.5 15. refer to Company for recommendations. these fuses may not necessarily meet other NEMA requirements such as a 65-degree rise on the ferrule. etc.OOO BO. The values in these columns are derived as follows: Three-phase mVA = V3 (FUSed rated kV) 1000 (Fuse 2.000 60.6 times the calculated symmetrical value of available current during the first cycle.5 B.2 7.000 50. consult the Company.B 4.75/4. :j:These asymmetrical current values for fuses correspond to momentary current ratings for power circuit breakers.5 5. The interrupting rating of individual devices.25 15.5 5. "E" rated fuses conform to NEMA 100-percent Standards.B 25~B 3B.5E~1OE 15E~100E 0.4 14. is not altered when the device is mounted in a panel board.OOO BO.16 4~B 4.B 4.000 60. Exceptions: Fuse units rated 600 volts may be applied on circuits rated 220 to 600 volts.4 14.0 34.0 3B.5E~10E 15E~200E - 0. +T'he three-phase mVA interrupting ability for power fuses is based on the maximum symmetrical value of available rms amperes to which a set of fuses shall be subjected in interrupting a three-phase short circuit. High current fuse units rated 2400/4160 volts may be used at either voltage.4 rt 0.000 100.5 5.5 - 6May be applied at 50 Hertz without derating.B 4.000 70.OOO 100.4 2. Low Voltage Equipments Circuit-breaker Panel boards The short-circuit rating of a panelboard is the interrupting rating of the lowest rated device.4/4. are required in the same circuit 1.76 5.25 B.000 155 210 210/360 415 415 515 515 410 620 620 2950 2020 935 925 700 1740 1000 2600 750 250E~450 - 0.625 2. 1. or full-rated station or intermediate surge arresters on either the source or the load side of the fuse.5E~3E 0. For frequency less than 50 Hertz.5 15. ratings.0 23. fusible switches with fuses.0 25. If reduced-rated station or iri.4 2. 'The line-to-line circuit operating voltage should be between 100 percent and 70 percent of the fuse-unit voltage rating.2 14.5 34.000 BO.000 20. §All current ratings are the continuous in accordance with NEMA Standards.000 40. however. Types EJ-l and EJO-l Continuous Current Ratings Interrupting Ratings kV*6 Mox EJ~ 1 (Indoor) Amperes§ Total RmsAmp 60 Hertz* Nominal EJO~1 (Outdoor) Mox 3¢MVA (Svmm (Asymm)t 0.OOO BO.5 15.6 amp) Notes: When lightning arresters as current limiting fuses.B 7.0 3HOE 1E~200E - 1E~200E - 100.OOO BO.000 130.6 2.000 BO.000 70.5E~1OE 15E~200E 0. Continuous ratings without the "E" arelOO-percent ratings.5E~3E 0. However. molded case circuit breakers.75 2.5 5. All material in Type EJ fuses is capable of withstanding the temperatures encountered.0 15. that the system duty calculated for the purpose of selecting current-limiting power fuses is 1.5E~1OE 15E~BOE 23.4 14. 54 . Ratings are based on circuit power factors corresponding to those used to rate devices.termediate surge arresters are required on the source side of the fuse.75 2. surge arresters 3.OOO BO.5E~lOE 15E~25E 0.4 14.000 60. Use distribution surge arresters (Form 28 or magne-valve).5E~3E 5E~lOE 15E~100E 0.5E~3E - 125 150~ 175 0.

17 123 0. In the first column. we may arbitrarily select numbers for the following: Base Volts Base Amperes Then we may not in addition arbitrarily select base ohms since it has already been fixed by the first two selections because of Ohm's Law: = z = :§_. Impedances of electric apparatus are usually given in percent. We may select any convenient number for the base number. For example. we must first mentally determine the ratio of one to the other.000.66 2053 Each number in the second column is a per-unit part of the base number. if we wanted to show how much larger each number is when compared with the smallest number. and impedance. Type AKD-8-600 Volts Ac Maximum Panelbaards Switchboards Av-t. 100.000 amperes bracing is available. we might have selected 95 as our base. For a simple example. 100.04 per unit. We learned in our early arithmetic to determine the interest by multiplying the principal by 0. and other practices as well-some of which are described below. Thus.60 The value of a per-unit system is particularly useful when we want to compare numbers that are similarly related to two different base numbers.000 150. Part IV -Analytical Techniques Simplification in the calculation of short-circuit currents is obtained for various configurations of power systems by the use of the per-unit system complex numbers. for the columns below. Per-Unit System A per-unit system is a means of expressing numbers for ease in comparing them. and 200.30 560 5.000. The percent system is somewhat more difficult to work with and more subject to possible error since we must always remember that the numbers have been arbitrarily multiplied by 100.04.000 symmetrical rms amperes as standard. money may draw interest at the rate of four P ercent Base-Value Relations In a per-unit system as used for expressing electrical quantities of voltage. By definitionA Number (l00) Base Number Thus to change percent to per-unit we divide by 100.00 95 123 1.91 percent per year. In the second column this is already accomplished for us. Switchgear. 65. we may express all parts of an electric circuit or system in per-unit terms as follows: 55 .06 per unit. In a complex calculation this repeated conversion may invite errors.000 ampere bracing is available. For example. In effect it is safer and more convenient to say that interest is at the rate of 0.00 3.mee Switchboards Power Breck" Switchgear Type AKD-8 Switchgear bus bars are braced for 50. in order to compare the numbers. In the above example. Per-unit = We would then obtain: Per-unit Value Number with 95 as a Base 1. base voltage is also called unit voltage. For example: Case A Case B Normal volts 2300 460 Volts during motor starting 2020 420 The above figures in themselves have little significance until we mentally compare each with its normal condition as follows: Volts during starting in perunit of normal 0. 150. a base of 560 is used: Per-unit Value Number with 560 as a Base 95 0. A per-unit value is a ratio: A Number Base Number The base number is also called unit value since in the per-unit system it has a value of one or unity.Appendix-Analytical Techniques Switchboards. I or Base Ohms = Base Volts Base Amps Using our selected base values. We thus had to remember to convert to the per-unit value before using the figure. We can aid the comparison by selection of the base number which will illustrate the comparison best.000. The percent system is obtained by multiplying the perunit value arbitrarily by 100 in order to keep many frequently used perunit values expressed as whole integers. Percent Values Obviously percent and per-unit systems are similar.22 560 1.88 0. It is usually convenient to convert these figures immediately to per unit by dividing by 100 and thereafter do all calculating in terms of per unit rather than attempt to remember always during the calculations whether a number should or should not be multiplied or divided by 100 to obtain the true value.000symmetrical rms amperes as standard.90 2053 21.000 and 200. Maximum AV-LlNE and POWER BREAK-600 Volts Ac TABLE 31-Low Voltage Equipments EQUIPMENT BULLETIN NUMBER GET-6592 GET-6212 GEA-10258 GET-6937 Switchboard bus bars are braced for 50. current. a transformer which has an impedance of six percent has an impedance of 0.

Fig.~. Inasmuch as per-unit ohms is directly proportional to base kVA. A generalized notation in the rectangular form is ±A ±jB where j =V-f: The basic quantities in most 2500 1000 230 5. without first determining base treat the two interconnected systems ohms according to the following easily as a single system and carry out any derived expression: calculations necessary. Inasmuch as per-unit ohms is inversely proportional to the square of base volts.000 kVA. (These base voltV3 (Base Amps) ages must have the same ratio to each Where Base kVA is three-phase other as the turns ratio of the transkVA former connecting the two systems. 27 shows a typPer-Unit Ohms ical example. the per-unit impedance of the machine must then be changed to the new base voltage. two systems will thus be correspondingly different.Appendix-Analytical Techniques Per-unit Volts = __ V_o_lt_s_ Base Volts Per-unit Amps = Amps Base Amps The expression above is valid for single-phase circuits where Base kVA is a single-phase value. we may select a common V3(Base Volts) kVA base for both systems and the Base Volts rated voltage of each system as its Base Ohms = ---.5 (5.6 190 SYSTEM IA) RA TlO IB) MANIPULATION OF COMPLEX QUANTITIES IN RECTANGULAR FORM The rectangular form of complex quantities is the most widely used. suppose a 500-kVA transformer having 0.5 (B) LOW BASE VOLTS BASE BASE BASE KVA AMPS OHMS VOLTAGE SYSTEM 1000l(VA 13800 VOLTS 2300 VOLTS \9n old base ( Per-unit ohm~ volt~ G (old base vOltS)2) (new base volts F IA)HIGH VOLTAGE 13 BOO 1000 41. or a Base Amps convenient round number such as 1000 or 10. In system studies. Per-unit ohms on new base volts (old base volts )2 Per-unit ohms on (new base volts}' old base volts and Per-unit ohms on new base volts = Of---~H'__-----10 PRIMARY RATING 13200 VOLTS TRAr-iSFORMER SECONDARY RATING 2400 VOLTS RAT 10' 13 200/2400'5. although it does not lead to the simplest computations in all types of problems. Base volts Base kVA will usually be selected as the kVA rating of one of the machines Base Ohms = Base Volts or transformers in the system.) Base Volts is line-to-line Base ohms and base amps for the Base Ohms is line-to-neutral. Hence. Base kV is a line-to-line value. 27 56 .5)2 6. ient to select: Base kV is a line-to-line value. Only in reconverting the per-unit values of the Per-unit Ohms = Ohms (Base kVA) results to actual voltage and current (Base kV)2X 1000 GENERATOR 1000 KVA MOTOR (1000 KVA) and Per-unit ohms on new base = ( Per-unit ohms\ on old base G ~r~~n~~~~. Change ToA New Base Frequently the impedance of a circuit element expressed in terms of a particular base kVA must be expressed in terms of a different base kVA. In practice we find it more convenBase kVA is a three-phase value.25 (Photo A 129287) Fig.=-----own base voltage. base voltage is for a single-phase system: usually selected as the nominal system voltage.:~-New base kVA Per-unit ohms on Old base kVA old base kVA J CNew base kYAt Old base kVAJ Likewise a machine rated at one voltage may actually be used in a circuit at a different voltage. Per-unit Ohms = -::----. values do we need to remember that two different voltages actually existed in the system.000 or 100. If calculations are to be made from an impedance diagram including both of those transformers they must be converted to a common kVA base.O_:h_:m-::::-:-s_ The same expression is valid for Base Ohms three-phase circuits where Ohms are line-to-neutral. For example. Base Volts Base kVA The base values of other quantities Preferred Base Values are thus automatically fixed.0 1/5.05 pu reactance and a 1000-kVA transformer having 0. or the voltage rating of the Base kVA (1000) Base Amps generators and supply transformers. If this latter voltage is selected as the base voltage. In practice it is convenient to conOnce the system values are exvert directly from ohms to per-unit pressed as per-unit values we may ohms. Similarly for a three-phase system: Where two systems of differing Base kVA (1000) voltage are interconnected through a Base Amps transformer.5 1.06 pu reactance (both expressed on their rated kVA as a base) are used in the same system.

and adding the quadrature parts together to get the total quadrature part.) . In such cases. they will have the following identifying notation: ZI = RI+jXI Z2 = R2+jX2 Z3 = R3+jX3 The real part of a complex quantity will often be so small compared to the quadrature part that it can be ignored with little effect on a computed result. Whenever several impedances appear in the same example. and then adding.) \:: R22+X22j+J\:: R22+X22) = Req+jXeq Special case where Resistance ZI = +jXI = XI Z2 +jX2 X2 = 0: P2 Subtraction is accomplished as in algebra by first reversing all signs in the subtrahend. A very common type of problem requires long-hand resolution of a more-or-less complicated network of impedances into a single impedance quantity. Sums (or Differences) Methods for Combining Reactances to ~ X. The resolution is repeated on the next page with respect to two impedances: ZI _ RI+jXI Z2 R2+jX2 = RI +jXI (R2-jX2) R2+jX2 R2-jX2 = (RIR2+XIX2)+j (R2XI-RIX2) R/+X22 =(RIR2 + XIX.: (R2+jX2) = (RI R2-XI X2)+j (RI X2+ R2XI) = Req+jXeq Special case where Resistance = 0: ZIZ2 = (+jXI) (+jX2) =-XI X2 z. To combine branches in series to ~ X.--. For example. = ZI = RI+jXI Z2 = R2+jX2 Z3 = R3+jX3 (RI+R2+R3)+j(XI+X2+X3) =Rt+jXt 57 . XT = -'---1 --. For example.RIX. the sum total impedance of series-connected impedances ZI' Z2' and Z3 is determined by addition as follows: -+-+-tXI X2 X3 X4 To combine branches in parallel for more than two branches The resulting equivalent diagram is: Quotients To resolve an expressed quotient requires applying the rationalization process just described.Appendix-Analytical Techniques' electrical problems are vector voltages such as E = EI + jE2' vector currents such as I = II +jI2. and impedance operators such as Z = R + jX. the product: ZIZ2 = (RI -jx. To combine branches in parallel for two branches only to ~ X. resolved expressions and computation can be greatly simplified. Some of the examples to follow will include special cases of this type to indicate the extent of simplification. Products Multiplication follows the fundamental rules of multiplying binomials.(R2XI .- The sum of complex quantities is obtained by adding the real parts together to get the total real part.

known. 2. Then the resulting impedance P. the entry in the corresponding "B" column should be assigned a minus sign. These can be very useful tools in the long-hand solution of network problems. imped- or for two reactances only. rearrangement yields the following valid expression: The resolution process is readily guided in routine work by the tabular form shown as TABLE 36 in which the parts of the several complex impedances are entered and manipulated as indicated. 58 . (2) add the admittances of the several branches. and (3) convert the sum total admittance to an impedance by taking the reciprocal. Note that a plus sign is proper in all five columns. andlYtl2=Gt2 + B. if the branch impedance is of the more common inductive character (R + jX). 3 2 Case 2: With V-connected impedances Za' Zb' and z. This process is illustrated by the following example: The tabulation process yields a total admittance Yt=Gt-jBt. to Single Admittances = G~ R/III' B~ R Bronch Bronch Bronch 1 ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( X ) ) R2+Xl Z B = Z a+Z +ZaZc c-- X/Ill' ( ( ( Bt ) ) ) Zb ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) 2 3 ) c. TABLE 36-Form for Covertlng Parallel Impedances Admittance Impedances Z 2 Z= ZA+ZB c ZA+ZB+ZC DELTA-YAND Y-DELTA IMPEDANCE CONVERSIONS In a three-terminal three-branch network limited to fixed-frequency operation. the entry in the corresponding "G" column should be assigned a minus sign. If any reactance is capacitive (-jX).Appendix-Analytical Techniques Paralleled Impedances To evaluate a multiplicity of impedances in parallel: (1) determine the admittance (1/Z) of each branch. a delta impedance pattern can be converted to a Y pattern and vice versa. to P2 becomes: ZeQ=2_= Yt Special case where Resistance IYtP Gt +j~ 2 IYtP = 0: Case 1: With delta-connected ances ZA' ZB' and Zc known. The diagrams here provide notation for internal impedances which are to be related in conversion formulas so that the two diagrams are equivalent when viewed from their terminals. In the rare event that a negative resistance (-R) is encountered.

Notes 59 .

.GE Electrical Distribution & Control GET-3550F 0489 BLC General Electric Company 41 Woodford Ave. CT 06062 © 1989 General Electric Company . Plainville.