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Madhusudhan Rao
1
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Thyristor Commutation
Techniques
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Introduction
•
Commutation
–
Process of turning off a conducting thyristor.
•
Current Commutation
•
Voltage Commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Methods of Commutation
•
Natural Commutation
•
Forced Commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Natural Commutation
•
Occurs in AC circuits
~
T
+
−
v
o
v
s
R
↑ ↑
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ω t
ω t
ω t
ω t
S u p p l y v o l t a g e v
s
S i n u s o i d a l
V o l t a g e a c r o s s S C R
L o a d v o l t a g e v
o
T u r n o f f
o c c u r s h e r e
0
0
π
π
0π
0 π
0π
0π
α
t
c
G a t e P u l s e
π + α
α
π + α
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
Natural Commutation of Thyristors takes place
in
–
AC voltage controllers.
–
Phase controlled rectifiers.
–
Cyclo converters.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Forced Commutation
•
Applied to dc circuits
•
Commutation achieved by reverse biasing the
SCR or by reducing the SCR current below
holding current value.
•
Commutating elements such as inductance and
capacitance are used for commutation purpose.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Methods of Forced
Commutation
•
Self commutation.
•
Resonant pulse commutation.
•
Complementary commutation.
•
Impulse commutation.
•
External pulse commutation.
•
Load Commutation.
•
Line Commutation.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Forced Commutation
is applied to
•
Choppers.
•
Inverters.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Self Commutation
Or
Load Commutation
Or
Class A Commutation
(Commutation By Resonating
The Load)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
Circuit is under damped by including suitable
values of L & C in series with load.
•
Oscillating current flows.
•
SCR is turned off when current is zero.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
R
L
V ( ) 0
c
C
T
i
L o a d
+ 
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression for Current
Fig. shows a transformed network
V
S
R
S L
0
C S
V
C
( ) 0
S
C
T
I ( S )
+ +  
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
C
C
C
CS V V
S
I S
RC
V V
S
I S
R SL
CS
C
S S LC
V V
R
LC S S
L LC
1
−
¸ ]
·
+ +
1
−
¸ ]
·
+
1
−
¸ ]
·
1
+ +
¸
+
1
]
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
C
C
V V
L
I S
R
S S
L LC
V V
L
I S
R R R
S S
L LC L L
−
·
+ +
−
·
¸ _ ¸ _
+ + + −
¸ , ¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
Where,
0
0
, ,
0 0
C
C
V V
A
L
I S
S
R R
S
L LC L
V V
R R
A
L L LC L
δ ω
δ ω
−
· ·
+ +
1
¸ _ ¸ _
1
+ + −
¸ , ¸ , 1
¸ ]
−
¸ _
· · · −
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
0
0
is called the natural frequency
Taking inverse Laplace transforms
sin
t
A
I S
S
A
i t e t
δ
ω
ω
ω
δ ω
ω
ω
−
·
+ +
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
Expression for current
0
sin
Peak value of current
0
R
t
C
L
C
V V
i t e t
L
V V
L
ω
ω
ω
−
∴
−
·
−
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For Voltage Across
Capacitor At The Time Of Turn Off
V
R
L
V ( ) 0
c
C
T
i
L o a d
+ 
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
Applying KVL to figure
Substituting for i,
sin sin
c R L
c
t t
c
v t V v V
di
v t V iR L
dt
A d A
v t V R e t L e t
dt
δ δ
ω ω
ω ω
− −
· − −
· − −
¸ _
· − −
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
sin cos sin
sin cos sin
sin cos sin
0
sin cos
0
t t t
c
t
c
t
c
t
c
A A
v t V R e t L e t e t
A
v t V e R t L t L t
A R
v t V e R t L t L t
L
A R
v t V e t L t
δ δ δ
δ
δ
δ
ω ω ω δ ω
ω ω
ω ω ω δ ω
ω
ω ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
− − −
−
−
−
· − − −
· − + −
1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
Substituting for A,
0
sin cos
0
0
sin cos
0
SCR turns off when current goes to zero.
i.e., at
C
t
c
C
t
c
V V
R
v t V e t L t
L
V V
R
v t V e t t
L
t
δ
δ
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω π
−
−
−
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
−
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
Therefore at turn off
0
cos 0
0
0
C
c
c C
R
L
c C
V V
v t V e
v t V V V e
v t V V V e
δ π
ω
δ π
ω
π
ω
ω π
ω
−
−
−
−
· − +
1
· + −
¸ ]
1
∴ · + −
¸ ]
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
For effective commutation
the circuit should be under damped.
0
That is
0
With R = , and the capacitor initially 0 uncharged
that is 00
sin
Note:
C
R
L LC
V
V t
i t
L
LC
ω
¸ _
<
¸ ,
·
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
0
But
sin sin
and capacitor voltage at turn off is equal to V 0
Fig. shows the waveforms for the above conditions.
Once the SCR turns off voltage across it is
negative voltage.
LC
V t C t
i t LC V
L L
LC LC
ω ·
∴ · ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
C u r r e n t i
C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e
G a t e p u l s e
V o l t a g e a c r o s s S C R
0
π π / 0
ω t
ω t
ω t
ω t
V
− V
V 0
Conduction time of SCR
π
ω
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
Calculate the conduction time of SCR and the
peak SCR current that flows in the circuit
employing series resonant commutation (self
commutation or class A commutation), if the
supply voltage is 300 V, C = 1µF, L = 5 mH
and R
L
= 100 Ω. Assume that the circuit is
initially relaxed.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V = V 0 0 0
R
L
L
F 0 µ 0 0 0 Ω
m H 0
C
T
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
1 111
000 000 0000
, rad/sec 00000
Since the circuit is initially relaxed, initial voltage
across capacitor is zero as also the initial current
through and the expre
L
R
LC L
L
ω
ω
ω
− − −
¸ _
· −
¸ ,
¸ _
· −
× × × × ×
¸ ,
·
ssion for current is i
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
0
sin , where
0
peak value of current
000
0
00000000
Conducting time of SCR = . msec 1111
00000
t
P
V R
i t e t
L L
V
L
I A
δ
ω δ
ω
ω
π π
ω
−
−
· ·
∴ ·
· ·
× ×
· ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
Figure shows a self commutating circuit. The
inductance carries an initial current of 200 A
and the initial voltage across the capacitor is
V, the supply voltage. Determine the
conduction time of the SCR and the capacitor
voltage at turn off.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
= V 0 0 0
L
F 0 0µ
H 0 0µ
C
T
+
−
i ( t )
→ I
O
V
C
( ) 0 = V
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
The transformed circuit of the
previous figure is shown in figure below
S L
V
S
V ( ) 0
S
C
I L
O
+
+
+



0
C S
I ( S )
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
The governing equation is
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
C
O
C
O
C
O
V
V
I S SL I L I S
S S CS
V
V
I L
S S
I S
SL
CS
V
V
CS
S S
I LCS
I S
S LC S LC
· − + +
− +
∴ ·
+
1
−
1
¸ ]
· +
+ +
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
0
; where
C
O
C
O
C
O
V V C
I LCS
I S
LC S LC S
LC LC
V V
SI
I S
S
L S
V V
SI
I S
S
L S LC
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
1
−
¸ ]
· +
1 1
+ +
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
−
· +
1
+
+
¸ ]
1
−
¸ ]
· + ·
1
+
+
¸ ]
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
Taking inverse LT
sin cos 0
The capacitor voltage is given by
0
0
0
sin cos 0 0
C O
t
c C
t
c C O C
C
i t V V t I t
L
v t i t dt V
C
C
v t V V t I t dt V
C L
ω ω
ω ω
· − + 1
¸ ]
· +
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
· − + + 1
' )
¸ ]
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
∫
∫
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
cos sin 0
0
0
cos sin 0 0
0
sin cos 00 0
sin cos cos 00 0
sin cos 0
C
O
c C
C
O
c C
O
c C C
c O C C C
c O C
V V
t t
I C
v t t t V
o o C L
V V
I C
v t t t V
C L
I C
v t LC t V V LC t V
C C L
L
v t I t V V t V V t V
C
L
v t I t V V t V
C
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω
1
−
· − + +
1
1
¸ ]
1
−
· − + +
1
1
¸ ]
· × + − − +
· + − − + +
· + − +
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
we get
cos &
sin
C
O
c O
V O V
i t I t
L
v t I t V
C
ω
ω
·
∴
·
· +
Q
I
0
i ( t )
π / 0
π / 0
ω t
ω t
v
c
( t )
V
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0 0
0
Turn off occurs at a time ' ' so that
0
. 00
. 00
. 11 1111 1111
. . seconds 11 11 111 111
O
O
O
O
O
t
t
t LC
t
t
π
ω
π
π
ω
π
π µ
− −
−
·
∴ · ·
· × × × ×
· × × ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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40
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
and the capacitor voltage at turn off is given by
sin
0000
sin 000 00 000
0000
. . 000000 0000
c O O O
c O
c O
L
v t I t V
C
v t
v t V
ω
−
−
· +
×
· × +
×
· + ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
In the circuit shown in figure V = 600 volts,
initial capacitor voltage is zero, L = 20 µH,
C=50µF and the current through the
inductance at the time of SCR triggering is
I
O
= 350 A. Determine
–
Peak values of capacitor voltage and current
– Conduction time of T
1
.
Problem
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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42
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
L
i ( t )
→ I
0
C
T
0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
The expression for is given by
sin cos
It is given that the initial voltage across
the capacitor O is zero.
sin cos
C O
C
O
i t
C
i t V V O t I t
L
V
C
i t V t I t
L
ω ω
ω ω
· − + 1
¸ ]
∴ · +
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
0
0 0
can be written as
sin
0
where tan and
The peak capacitor current is
O
O
O
i t
C
i t I V t
L
L
I
C
V
LC
C
I V
L
ω α
α ω
−
· + +
· ·
+
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
0 0
0
Substituting the values, the peak capacitor current
0000
. 000 000 000000
0000
The expression for capacitor voltage is
sin cos 0
with , sin cos 00
c O C
C c O
A
L
v t I t V V t V
C
L
V v t I t V t V
C
ω ω
ω ω
−
−
×
· + × ·
×
· − − +
· · − +
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( ) ( )
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
This can be rewritten as
sin ; Where tan
The peak value of capacitor voltage is
Substituting the values, the peak value of capacitor voltage
0000
000 000
0000
c O
O
O
C
V
L
L
v t V I t V
C I
L
V I V
C
ω β β
−
−
−
· + − + ·
· + +
×
· + ×
×
. . 111 1111 111 11111V + · + ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
To calculate conduction time of T
1
•
The waveform
of capacitor
current is shown
in figure.
When the
capacitor current
becomes zero
the SCR turns
off.
ω t
C a p a c i t o r
c u r r e n t
π − α
0
α
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
conduction time of SCR
tan
0
Substituting the values tan
O
O
L
I
C
V
LC
L
I
C
V
π
π α
ω
α
−
−
∴
¸ _
−
−
¸ ,
· ·
¸ _
·
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
0
0
0 0
000 0000
tan
000 0000
. i.e., . radians 1111 11111
0 0
. rad/sec 111111
0000 0000
conduction time of SCR
. 00000
. sec 1111
. 000000
LC
α
α
ω
π
µ
−
−
−
− −
×
·
×
·
· · ·
× × ×
∴
−
· ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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50
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Resonant Pulse Commutation
(Class B Commutation)
L
C
V
L o a d
F W D
a
b
i
T
I
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
Series LC circuit connected across thyristor
‘T’.
•
Initially ‘C’ is charged to ‘V’ volts with plate
‘a’ as positive.
•
Current in LC oscillates when SCR is ON.
•
‘T’ turns off when capacitor discharges through
thyristor in a direction opposite to I
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
G a t e p u l s e
o f S C R
C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e
v
a b
π t
0
V
t
t
t
I
p
i
I
L
t
C
∆ t
π
ω
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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53
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
t
t
V o l t a g e a c r o s s
S C R
I
S C R
T h y r i s t o r C u r r e n t
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For t
C
,
the Circuit Turn Off Time
Assume that at the time of turn off of the SCR
the capacitor voltage and a constant
load current flows.
is the time taken for the capacitor
voltage to reach volts from volts and 0
it i
ab
L
c
v V
I
t
V
≈ −
−
s derived as follows
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
seconds
For proper commutation should be greater than .
Magnitude of the peak value of should be
greater than the load current .
Expression for is derived as foll
c
t
L c
L
c
L
c q
p
L
I t
V I dt
C C
VC
t
I
t t
I i
I
i
· ·
·
∫
ows
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
56
56
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
The LC Circuit
During The Commutation Period
LC Circuit Transformed Circuit
i
L
C
T
+
−
V
C
( ) 0
= V
I ( S )
S L
T
0
C S
V
S
+

Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
57
57
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
V
S
I S
SL
Cs
VC
I S
LC S
L
V
CS
s
S LC
V
L
L
C
S
C
· ·
+
· ·
¸
¸ _
¸ ,
+
×
+
¸
+
_
,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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58
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Taking inverse LT sin
V
LC
I S
L
S
LC
LC
C
LC
I S V
L
S
LC
C
i t V t
L
ω
¸ _
¸ ,
· × ×
¸ _
+
¸ ,
¸ _
¸ ,
· ×
+
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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59
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
0
Where
sin sin
amps
p
p
LC
V
or i t t I t
L
C
I V
L
ω
ω ω
ω
·
· ·
∴ ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
60
60
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For
Conduction Time Of SCR
0
Conduction time of SCR
sin
L
p
t
I
I
π
ω
π
ω ω
−
· + ∆
¸ _
¸ ,
· +
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
61
61
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Alternate Circuit
For Resonant Pulse Commutation
V
L
O
A
D
F W D
L
T
0
I
L
T
0
T
0
i
C
( t )
i
C
( t )
V
C
( ) 0
a b
+
−
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
62
62
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
Initially C charged with polarity as shown in
figure.
• T
1
is conducting & I
L
is constant.
• To turn off T
1
, T
2
is fired.
• i
C
(t) flows opposite to I
L
& T
1
turns off at
i
C
(t) = I
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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63
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin
Where & and the capacitor voltage 0
0
.
0
sin . 0
cos 0
c p
p C
c C
c C
c C
i t I t
C
I V
L
v t i t dt
C
C
v t V t dt
C L
v t V t
ω
ω
ω
·
·
·
·
· −
∫
∫
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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64
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
0
0
Instant at
which the thyristor turns off is at
& sin
0
L p
p C
t
t
I I
LC
C
I V
L
·
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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65
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( ) ( )
0
0
0 0 0
or sin
0
& the corresponding capacitor voltage is
cos 0
L
C
c C
I L
t LC
V C
v t V V t ω
−
¸ _
·
¸ ,
· − · −
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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66
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For t
C
( )
0
0
Assuming a constant load
current which charges the capacitor
seconds
Normally 0
For reliable commutation
depends on & becomes smaller for
higher values of
L
c
L
C
c q
C L
L
I
CV
t
I
V V
t t
t I
I
·
≈
>
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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67
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
t
t
t
C
t
0
V
0
V
V
C
( ) 0
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e v
a b
C u r r e n t i
C
( t )
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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68
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Resonant Pulse Commutation
With Accelerating Diode
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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69
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
L
O
A
D
F W D
L C
T
0
I
L
T
0
T
0
i
C
( t )
V
C
( ) 0
+

D
0
i
C
( t )
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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70
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• Diode D
2
connected as shown to accelerate
discharge.
• T
2
turned on to turn off T
1.
• Once T
1
is off at t
1
. i
C
(t) flows through D
2
until
current reduces to I
L
at time t
2
.
• From t = t
2
,
‘C’ charges through load, T
2
self
commutates.
•
But thyristor recovery process low hence
longer reverse bias time.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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71
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
I
L
0
V
C
0
V
0
V ( O )
C
i
C
t
t
t
0
t
0
t
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
72
72
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
The circuit in figure shows a resonant pulse
commutation circuit. The initial capacitor
voltage V
C(O)
=200V, C = 30µF and L = 3µH.
Determine the circuit turn off time t
C
, if the
load current I
L
is 200 A and 50 A.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
73
73
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
L
O
A
D
F W D
L C
T
0
I
L
T
0
T
0
i
C
( t )
V
C
( ) 0
+
−
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
74
74
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
When ; Let be triggered at 000 0
Capacitor current reaches a value at
when turns off
sin
0
000 000
sin . sec 111 1111 111
000 0000
0 0
000
L
c L
L
C
I A T t
i t I t t
T
I L
t LC
V C
t
LC
µ
ω
−
−
− − −
−
· ·
·
¸ _
·
¸ ,
¸ _
×
· × × × ·
×
¸ ,
· ·
×
0
0 0
. / sec 000000
0000
rad
− −
· ×
× ×
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
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75
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
At the magnitude of capacitor voltage is,
cos 0
i.e., cos . . 00000000000000
. 11111111
. Volts 00000
&
. 0000 00000
. sec 1111
000
C
c
L
c
t t
V V t
V
V
V
CV
t
I
t
ω
µ
−
−
·
·
· × × ×
· ×
·
·
× ×
· ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
76
76
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
1 1 1
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
When 00
00 000
sin . sec 111 1111 1111
000 0000
cos . . Volts 000 000000 000000 0000 000
0000 000
sec 000
00
It is observed that as load increases the value of re
L
c
L
c
I A
t
V
CV
t
I
t
µ
µ
−
− − −
−
−
−
·
¸ _
×
· × × × ·
×
¸ ,
· × × × · × ·
× ×
· · ·
duces.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
77
77
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
Repeat above problem
For if an antiparallel diode is 000
connected across thyristor as shown in figure
L
I A D
T
·
Problem
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
78
78
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
L
O
A
D
F W D
L C
T
0
I
L
T
0
T
0
i
C
( t )
V
C
( ) 0
+

D
0
i
C
( t )
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
79
79
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0
0
0
000
Let be triggered at 0
Capacitor current reaches the value at ,
when turns off
sin
111 111
sin 000 0000
000 0000
. sec 111
L
C L
L
C
I A
T t
i t I t t
T
I L
t LC
V O C
t
t µ
−
−
− − −
−
·
·
·
1
∴ ·
1
¸ ]
¸ _
×
· × × ×
×
¸ ,
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
80
80
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0
0
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0 0
000 0000
. radians/sec 111111
cos
cos . . 000 000000 00000
. 11111
C C
C
C
LC
At t t
V t V V O t
V t
V t V
ω
ω
ω
− −
−
· ·
× × ×
· ×
·
· · −
· − × × ×
· −
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
81
81
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0 0
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
0
0 0
0
flows through diode after turns off.
current falls back to at .
. 000 0000 00000
. sec 0000
0 0
000 0000
. rad/sec. 000000
C
C L
i t D T
i t I t
t LC t
t
t
LC
π
π
µ
ω
ω
− − −
− −
· −
· × × × − ×
·
· ·
× × ×
· ×
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
82
82
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
cos . . 000 000000 000000
. 11111
. . 111111 11111
. secs 000
C
C
C
C
At t t
V t V
V t V V
t t t
t µ
+ −
− −
·
· · − × × ×
· ·
∴ · − · × − ×
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
83
83
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
For the circuit shown in figure calculate the
value of L for proper commutation of SCR.
Also find the conduction time of SCR.
V
= V 0 0
L
i
F 0 µ
R
L
I
L 0 0Ω
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
84
84
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
The load current
00
Amp 0
00
For proper SCR commutation ,
the peak value of resonant current i, should be
greater than
Let , Amps 0 0
L
L
p
L
p L p
V
I
R
I
I
I I I
· · ·
· ∴ ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
85
85
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0 0
0
. 00
Also
000
0 00
0 0
rad/sec 11111
. 0000 000
p
V V C
I V
L L
L
LC
L mH
L
LC
ω
ω
−
− −
· · ·
×
·
×
∴ · ×
· · ·
× × ×
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
86
86
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
Conduction time of SCR
0
sin
sin
0
11111 11111
. 0000
radians . seconds 000000
00000
. msec 000
L
p
I
I
π π
ω ω
π
−
−
¸ _
¸ _
¸ , ¸ ,
· + · +
+
· ·
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
87
87
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
For the circuit shown in figure given that the
load current to be commutated is 10 A, turn off
time required is 40µsec and the supply voltage
is 100 V. Obtain the proper values of
commutating elements.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
88
88
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
= V 0 0 0
L
i I
L
I
L
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
89
89
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
peak value of & this should be greater than
Let . 00
. ... 1111 111
Also, assuming that at the time of turn off the capacitor
voltage is approximately equal to V, and the load curren
p L
p L
C
I i V I
L
I I
C
a
L
·
·
∴ × ·
t
linearly charges the capacitor
seconds
c
L
CV
t
I
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
90
90
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
& this is given to be sec. 00
000
0000
00
0
Substituting this in equation (a)
000
. 1111 111
00 000
. 00 00
. . 111111 1111
c
t
C
C F
L
L
L H mH
µ
µ
−
−
−
−
∴ × · ×
∴ ·
×
× ·
× ×
× ·
∴ · × ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
91
91
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
In a resonant commutation circuit supply
voltage is 200 V. Load current is 10 A and the
device turn off time is 20µs. The ratio of peak
resonant current to load current is 1.5.
Determine the value of L and C of the
commutation circuit.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
92
92
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
Given . 00
. . 11 1111 11
. ., ... 00
It is given that the device turn off time is sec. 00
Therefore the circuit turn off time should be
greater than this,
Let sec & 00
p
L
p L
p
c
c c
L
I
I
I I A
C
i e I V A a
L
t
CV
t t
I
µ
µ
·
∴ · · × ·
· ·
· ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
93
93
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
0
0 0
000
0000
00
. 11
Substituting in (a)
. 0000
00 000
. 0000
00 000
. mH 11111
C
C F
L
L
L
µ
−
−
−
×
∴ × ·
∴ ·
×
·
×
· ×
∴ ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
94
94
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Complementary Commutation
(Class C Commutation,
Parallel Capacitor Commutation)
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
95
95
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
R
0
R
0
T
0
T
0
I
L
i
C
C
a b
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
96
96
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
Two SCRs are used, turning ON one SCR turns
off the other.
• T
1
is fired, I
L
flows through R
1
.
•
At same time ‘C’ charges towards ‘V’ through
R
2
with plate ‘b’ positive.
• To turn off T
1
, T
2
is fired resulting in capacitor
voltage reverse biasing T
1
and turning it off.
• When T
2
is fired current through load shoots up
as voltage across load is V+V
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
97
97
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h R
0
π
I
L
V
t
t
t
t
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h T
0
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h T
0
0
0
V
R
0
0
V
R
V
R
0
V
R
0
V
R
0
0
0
V
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
98
98
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
t
t
t
V o l t a g e a c r o s s
c a p a c i t o r v
a b
V o l t a g e a c r o s s T
0
C u r r e n t
t h r o u g h R
0
t
C
t
C
t
C
V
 V
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
99
99
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For
Circuit Turn Off Time t
C
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0
Where is the final voltage, is the initial
voltage and is the time constant.
At , , , C, & 0
1 1
c c
t
c f i f
f i
c c f i
t t
R C R C
v t V V V e
V V
t t v t V V R V V
V V V e V Ve
τ
τ
τ
−
− −
· + −
· · · · · −
∴ · + − − · −
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
100
100
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
; . 0 00
Taking natural logarithms on both sides
ln . 00
. 1111
This time should be greater than the turn off time of
Similarly when is commutated . 0000
And this
c c
t t
R C R C
c
c
q
c
V Ve e
t
RC
t RC
t T
T t R C
− −
∴ · ·
−
·
·
·
0
0 0
time should be greater than of
Usually
q
t T
R R R · ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
101
101
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
•
In the circuit shown in figure, the load
resistances R
1
= R
2
= R = 5Ω & the
capacitance C = 7.5 µF, V = 100 volts.
Determine the circuit turn off time t
C
Problem
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
102
102
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
R
0
R
0
T
0
T
0
C
0
The circuit turnoff time
. RC seconds 0000
. . 111111111
sec 00
c
c
c
t
t
t µ
−
·
· × × ×
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
103
103
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• Calculate the values of R
L
and C to be used for
commutating the main SCR in the circuit
shown in figure. When it is conducting a full
load current of 25 A flows. The minimum time
for which the SCR has to be reverse biased for
proper commutation is 40µsec. Also find R
1
,
given that the auxiliary SCR will undergo
natural commutation when its forward current
falls below the holding current value of 2 mA.
Problem
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
104
104
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V
= V 0 0 0
R
0
R
L
M a i n
S C R
A u x i l i a r y
S C R
i
C
C
I
L
i
0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
105
105
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
In this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and
the auxiliary SCR is used to turn off the main SCR.
Once the main SCR turns off the current through the
auxiliary SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging
current i
C
and the current i
1
through R
1
, i
C
reduces to
zero after a time t
C
and hence the auxiliary SCR turns
off automatically after a time t
C
, i
1
should be less than
the holding current.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
106
106
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
Given 00
000
. ., 00
0
sec . 11 1111
. ., . 000000000
0000
. 00000
. 0000
L
L L
L
c L
I A
V
i e A
R R
R
t R C
i e C
C
C F
µ
µ
−
−
·
· ·
∴ · Ω
· ·
× · × ×
×
∴ ·
×
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
107
107
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0
0
0
0
0
0
should be less
than the holding current of auxiliary SCR
000
should be 0
000
000
. ., 00
V
i
R
mA
R
R
i e R K
−
·
∴ <
∴ >
×
> Ω
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
108
108
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Impulse Commutation
(Class D Commutation)
V
L
O
A
D
F W D
C
T
0
T
0
I
L
T
0
V
C
( O )
+
−
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
109
109
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• ‘C’ charged to a voltage V
C
(O) with polarity as
shown.
• T
1
is conducting and carries load current I
L
.
• To turn off T
1
, T
2
is fired.
• Capacitor voltage reverse biases T
1
and turns it
off.
•
‘C’ Charges through load.
• T
2
self commutates.
• To reverse capacitor voltage T
3
is turned ON.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
110
110
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
V o l t a g e a c r o s s T
0
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
V
S
t
t
t
t
C
V
C
 V
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
111
111
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For
Circuit Turn Off Time t
C
0
0
depends on & is given by the expression
0
(assuming the load current to be constant)
seconds
For proper commutation , turn off time of
c
c L
t
C L
L c C
C c
L
c q
t I
V I dt
C
I t V C
V t
C I
t t T
·
· ·
>
∫
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
112
112
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• T
1
is turned off by applying a negative voltage across
its terminals. Hence this is voltage commutation.
• t
C
depends on load current. For higher load currents t
C
is small. This is a disadvantage of this circuit.
• When T
2
is fired, voltage across the load is V+V
C
;
hence the current through load shoots up and then
decays as the capacitor starts charging.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
113
113
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
An Alternative Circuit
For Impulse Commutation
V
C
D
T
0
I
T
0
I
L
i
T
0
L
R
L
V
C
( O )
+
_
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
114
114
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• Initially ‘C’ is charged to V
C
with top plate
positive.
• T
1
is fired, load current I
L
flows.
•
‘C’ discharges at the same time & reverses its
polarity.
•
‘D’ ensures bottom plate remains positive.
• To turn off T
1
, T
2
is fired.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
115
115
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
G a t e p u l s e
o f T
0
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h S C R
T h i s i s d u e t o i
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e
t
t
t
t
C
V
C
I
L
I
T
0
 V
V
R
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
116
116
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
L o a d c u r r e n t
V o l t a g e a c r o s s T
0
t
t
t
C
I
L
V
V 0
R
L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
117
117
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is
shown in figure. Determine the available turn
off time of the circuit if V = 100 V, R = 10 Ω
and C = 10 µF. Voltage across capacitor
before T
2
is fired is V volts with polarity as
shown.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
118
118
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
C
T
0
T
0
V ( ) 0
C
V
+
+


R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
119
119
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When T
2
is triggered
the circuit is as shown in figure
C
i ( t )
T
0
V
+
+


R
V ( O )
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
120
120
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Writing the transform
circuit, we obtain
V
s
V ( ) 0
s
C
+
+
−
−
I ( s )
0
C s
R
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
121
121
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Expression for capacitor voltage
is obtained as follows,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
C
C
C
V V
S
I S
R
CS
C V V
I S
RCS
V V
I S
R S
RC
+
·
+
+
·
+
+
·
¸ _
+
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
122
122
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Voltage across capacitor
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0 0
0
C
C
C C
C
C C C
C
V
V s I S
CS S
V V V
V s
RCS S
S
RC
V V V V V
V S
S S
S
RC
· −
+
· −
¸ _
+
¸ ,
+ +
· − −
¸ _
+
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
123
123
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
0 0
0 0
In the given problem 0
11
C
C
t t
RC RC
c C
C
t
RC
c
V
V V
V S
S
S S
RC RC
v t V e V e
V V
v t V e
− −
−
· − −
+ +
¸ _
· − −
¸ ,
·
¸ _
∴ · −
¸ ,
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
124
124
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
The waveform of v
C
(t)
is shown in figure
t
t
C
V
V ( ) 0
C
v ( t )
C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
125
125
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
At , 0
1 11
0 0
0
0
c
c
c
c c
t
RC
t
RC
t
RC
t t v t
V e
e
e
−
−
−
· ·
¸ _
∴ · −
¸ ,
·
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
126
126
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
( )
( )
0
Taking natural logarithms
0
log
0
ln 0
ln 111111 1
. sec 000
c
e
c
c
c
t
RC
t RC
t
t µ
−
−
¸ _
·
¸ ,
·
· × ×
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
127
127
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Problem
•
In the commutation circuit shown in figure
C = 20 µF, the input voltage V varies between
180 and 220 V and the load current varies
between 50 and 200 A. Determine the minimum
and maximum values of available turn off time
t
C
.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
128
128
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
C
T
0
T
0
I
0
I
0
V ( ) = V 0
C
+
−
V
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
129
129
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
It is given that varies
between and V & 000 000
varies between and A 00 000
The expression for available
turn off time is given by
is max. when V is max. & is min.
O
c
c
O
c O
V
I
t
CV
t
I
t I
·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
130
130
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
max
max
min
0
max
min
min
max
0
min
000
sec 1111 11
00
000
sec 0000 00
000
c
O
c
c
O
c
CV
t
I
t
CV
And t
I
t
µ
µ
−
−
∴ ·
· × × ·
·
· × × ·
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
131
131
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
External Pulse
Commutation (Class E Commutation)
V
S
V
A U X
L
C
T
0
T
0
T
0
R
L
V 0
A U X
+
−
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
132
132
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• T
1
is conducting & R
L
is connected across
supply.
• T
3
is fired & ‘C’ is charged to 2V
AUX
with upper
plate positive.
• T
3
is self commutated.
• To turn off T
1
, T
2
is fired.
• T
2
ON results in a reverse voltage V
S
– 2V
AUX
appearing across T
1.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
133
133
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Load Side Commutation
•
In load side commutation the discharging and
recharging of capacitor takes place through the
load. Hence to test the commutation circuit the
load has to be connected. Examples of load
side commutation are Resonant Pulse
Commutation and Impulse Commutation.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
134
134
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Line Side Commutation
•
In this type of commutation the discharging
and recharging of capacitor takes place through
the supply.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
135
135
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
L
O
A
D
F W D
L
r
C
T
0
I
L
L
T
0
V
S
T
0
+
_
+
_
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
136
136
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• Thyristor T
2
is fired to charge the capacitor ‘C’.
When ‘C’ charges to a voltage of 2V, T
2
is self
commutated. To reverse the voltage of
capacitor to 2V, thyristor T
3
is fired and T
3
commutates by itself. Assuming that T
1
is
conducting and carries a load current I
L
thyristor T
2
is fired to turn off T
1
.
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao
137
137
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
• The turning ON of T
2
will result in forward
biasing the diode (FWD) and applying a
reverse voltage of 2V acrossT
1
. This turns off
T
1
, thus the discharging and recharging of
capacitor is done through the supply and the
commutation circuit can be tested without load.
Introduction
• Commutation
– Process of turning off a conducting thyristor.
• Current Commutation • Voltage Commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
2
Methods of Commutation
• Natural Commutation • Forced Commutation
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
3
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.Natural Commutation • Occurs in AC circuits T + vs ~ ↑ R − ↑ vo Power Electronics by Prof.K. T. E&E Dept. MSRIT 4 . M. Anantha Kumar..
. M.K. c E&E Dept.S π u p p l y s v o l t Sa g i n e u v s o 0π i d ωt a l 0 0π G a t e P u l s e ωt α L o a d o α T u vo o π + α l t a g e v ωt r n o f f c c u r s h e r e π + α 0 π 0π V o l t a g e 0π ωt s s S C R Power Electronics by Prof. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT t a c r o 5 . Anantha Kumar.
K. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. – Cyclo converters.• Natural Commutation of Thyristors takes place in – AC voltage controllers. Power Electronics by Prof. T. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. MSRIT 6 . – Phase controlled rectifiers.
Power Electronics by Prof.. • Commutating elements such as inductance and capacitance are used for commutation purpose.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 7 . T. E&E Dept.Forced Commutation • Applied to dc circuits • Commutation achieved by reverse biasing the SCR or by reducing the SCR current below holding current value.
. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Line Commutation. T.Methods of Forced Commutation • • • • • • • Self commutation. MSRIT . Load Commutation.K. M. Resonant pulse commutation. 8 Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. Complementary commutation. Impulse commutation. External pulse commutation.
K.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 9 . Anantha Kumar. Power Electronics by Prof. T. E&E Dept.Forced Commutation is applied to • Choppers. • Inverters. M.
MSRIT 10 10 .Self Commutation Or Load Commutation Or Class A Commutation (Commutation By Resonating The Load) Power Electronics by Prof.. M. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar.K.
. • Oscillating current flows. MSRIT 11 11 . Power Electronics by Prof.• Circuit is under damped by including suitable values of L & C in series with load. • SCR is turned off when current is zero. T. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M.
E&E Dept. M. T.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.T i L R o a d L V + c 0 (  ) C V Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 12 12 .K. Anantha Kumar.
Expression for Current T R S) L C S S I ( S + . shows a transformed network 13 13 .. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept.+ C 0 V C(0 ) V S Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. M. T. MSRIT Fig.
V − VC ( 0 ) S I ( S) = 0 R + SL + CS CS V − VC ( 0 ) I ( S) = S = 0 RCS + S LC + 0 C V − VC ( 0 ) 0 R 0 LC S + S + L LC 14 14 Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. T.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . E&E Dept. M.K.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T. MSRIT 15 15 .V − VC ( 0 ) L I ( S) = R 0 0 S +S + L LC ) ( V − VC ( 0) L I ( S) = 0 0 R 0 R R 0 S +S + + − L LC 0 0 L L Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar..K. M.
T. Anantha Kumar. A= ) ( V − VC ( 0) L R . MSRIT 16 16 .. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept.) ( V − V ( 0) C I ( S) = L 0 R R − S + + 0 LC 0 L L 0 0 0 = A ( S +δ ) 0 +ω 0 Where.K. δ = . 0 L ω= 0 R − LC 0 L 0 Power Electronics by Prof.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. M. MSRIT 17 17 . E&E Dept. T.ω is called the natural frequency A ω I ( S) = 0 ω ( S +δ ) +ω0 Taking inverse Laplace transforms A −δ t i ( t ) = e sin ω t ω Power Electronics by Prof.K. Anantha Kumar.
. E&E Dept.∴ Expression for current V − VC ( 0 − R t ) e 0L sin ω t i( t) = ωL Peak value of current ) ( V − V ( 0) = C ωL Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 18 18 . Anantha Kumar.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. T.
.K. MSRIT 19 19 .Expression For Voltage Across Capacitor At The Time Of Turn Off T i L V R o a d L V + c 0 (  ) C Power Electronics by Prof. M. T. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
.K. MSRIT 20 20 . M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. A −δ t d A −δ t vc ( t ) = V − R e sinω t − L e sinω t ω dt ω Power Electronics by Prof. T.Applying KVL to figure vc ( t ) = V − vR − VL di vc ( t ) = V − iR − L dt Substituting for i. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar.
A −δ t A −δ t vc ( t ) = V − R e sinω t − L ( e ω cosω t −δ e −δ t sinω t ) ω ω A −δ t vc ( t ) = V − e [ R sinω t +ω L cosω t − Lδ sinω t ] ω A −δ t R vc ( t ) = V − e R sinω t +ω L cosω t − L sinω t ω 0 L A −δ t R vc ( t ) = V − e sinω t +ω L cosω t 0 ω Power Electronics by Prof. M.. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 21 21 . T.
K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. vc ( t ) ) ( V − V ( 0) e δ =V − C − t R vc ( t ) sin ω t + ω cos ω t 0 ω L SCR turns off when current goes to zero.Substituting for A. at ω t = π C − t Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. T. i. M. E&E Dept..e.. MSRIT 22 22 ) ( V − V ( 0) e δ =V − ωL R sin 0 ω t + ω L cos ω t .
.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 23 23 . M. T. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept.Therefore at turn off vc ( t ) = V − ) ( V − VC ( 0) ω e −δ π ω −δ π ω − Rπ 0ω L + ( 0 ω cosπ ) vc ( t ) = V + V − VC ( 0 e ) ∴ vc ( t ) = V + V − VC ( 0 e ) Power Electronics by Prof.
MSRIT 24 24 0 .Note: For effective commutation the circuit should be under damped. that is VC ( 00 )= V t i( t) = sin ωL LC Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. T.K. 0 R That is < L LC 0 With R = 0and the capacitor initially uncharged . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. Anantha Kumar. M.
E&E Dept..K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Power Electronics by Prof.But ω = 0 LC V t C t ∴i ( t ) = LC sin =V sin L L LC LC and capacitor voltage at turn off is equal to 0 V Fig. Once the SCR turns off voltage across it is negative voltage. MSRIT 25 25 . T. Anantha Kumar. M. shows the waveforms for the above conditions.
C u r r e n t i ωt 0 0V V π /0 π C a p a c i t o r v ωt o l t a g e G a t e p u l s π Conduction time of SCR = e ω ωt ωt −V V o l t a g e a c r o s s S C R 26 26 Power Electronics by Prof..K. Anantha Kumar. M. E&E Dept. MSRIT . Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.
E&E Dept.Problem • Calculate the conduction time of SCR and the peak SCR current that flows in the circuit employing series resonant commutation (self commutation or class A commutation). M. if the supply voltage is 300 V. Anantha Kumar. Assume that the circuit is initially relaxed.K. Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 27 27 . T. L = 5 mH and RL = 100 Ω.. C = 1µF. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
Anantha Kumar.T R L L C H0µ F 0 0Ω 0 0 m V 0= 0 0 V Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. M.K. E&E Dept. MSRIT 28 28 . T.
ω= 0 RL − LC 0 L 0 1 1 11 ω= − −0 −0 −0 0 0 × 00 × 0 × 0 0 00 × × 0 0 ω = 0. initial voltage across capacitor is zero as also the initial current through L and the expression for current i is Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 29 29 . Anantha Kumar. 0 rad/sec 000 Since the circuit is initially relaxed..K. E&E Dept. T. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
T.K. MSRIT 30 30 .111 ω 000 00 Power Electronics by Prof.V −δ t R i ( t) = e sinω t .. Anantha Kumar. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. where δ = ωL 0 L V ∴ peak value of current = ωL 00 0 IP = =0 A −0 000 0 0 00 × × 0 π π Conducting time of SCR = = = 1 msec .
K. T. E&E Dept. M. Anantha Kumar. The inductance carries an initial current of 200 A and the initial voltage across the capacitor is V. the supply voltage. Power Electronics by Prof.Problem • Figure shows a self commutating circuit. Determine the conduction time of the SCR and the capacitor voltage at turn off.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 31 31 .
T.. E&E Dept.L → IO 0 0 µ =0 0 0 V V H T i ( t ) 0 0 µ C + F − V C ( 0 = )V Power Electronics by Prof. M. Anantha Kumar.K. MSRIT 32 32 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . T.K..The transformed circuit of the previous figure is shown in figure below S L I ( S + V S C + IO ) L + V C 0 ( ) S S 33 33 0 Power Electronics by Prof. M.
E&E Dept.K. T. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT ..The governing equation is VC ( 0 ) V 0 = I ( S ) SL − I O L + + I (S) S S CS ) V VC ( 0 − + IO L S I ( S) = S 0 SL + CS V VC ( 0 ) − CS S I O LCS S I ( S) = + 0 0 S LC + 0 S LC + 0 34 34 ∴ Power Electronics by Prof. M.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. MSRIT 0 LC 35 35 . E&E Dept. M. T.V − VC ( 0 C ) I O LCS I ( S) = + 0 0 0 0 LC S + LC S + LC LC V − VC ( 0 ) SI O I ( S) = + 0 0 0 0 L S +ω S +ω V − VC ( 0ω ) SI O I ( S) = + 0 0.K. Anantha Kumar. where ω = 0 0 ω L S +ω S +ω Power Electronics by Prof.
E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof..Taking inverse LT C i ( t ) = V − VC ( 0 ) sin ω t + I O cos ωt L The capacitor voltage is given by 0 vc ( t ) = ∫ i ( t ) dt + VC ( 0 ) C0 0 C vc ( t ) = ∫ V − VC ( 0 ) sin ω t + I O cos ωt dt +V C ( 0 ) C 0 L t Power Electronics by Prof. T. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 36 36 t .K. M.
K. Anantha Kumar. T. E&E Dept. M. MSRIT 37 37 ..) 0 ( V − VC ( 0) vc ( t ) = C ω ) 0 ( V − VC ( 0) vc ( t ) = C ω t IO t C ( − cos ωt ) + ( sin ω t ) + VC ( 0 ) o ω o L IO C − ( 0 cos ωt ) + ( sin ω t ) + VC ( 0 ) L ω IO 0 C vc ( t ) = × LC sin ω t + ( V − VC ( 00 LC )) C C L vc ( t ) = IO vc ( t ) = IO L sin ω t + V − V cos ω t − VC ( 00 C ) +V C L sin ω t + ( V − VC ( 0) cos ω t + V ) C ( − cosω t ) + VC ( 0 ) ( ) cosω t + VC ( 0 ) Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
T.I0 i ( t ) Q VC ( O ) = V π/0 v c( t ) ωt ∴ we get i ( t ) = IO cos ω t & vc ( t ) = I O L sin ω t + V C 38 38 V Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. MSRIT π/0 ωt . Madhusudhan Rao Prof..K. Anantha Kumar. M.
1 1 1 1µ Power Electronics by Prof.0 ω tO = 1 × π 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 . T. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 39 39 .K. M.Turn off occurs at a time 'tO ' so that ∴ π ω tO = 0 0π ..1 seconds .1 1 1 1 1 −0 −0 −0 tO = 1 × π ×1 11= 1. Anantha Kumar.0 tO = = 0 π LC .
Anantha Kumar. MSRIT .0 00 00 V 0 + 0 = 0.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. E&E Dept. T.and the capacitor voltage at turn off is given by vc ( tO ) = I O vc ( tO ) vc ( tO ) L sin ω tO + V C −0 0 ×0 0 0 0 = 00 0 × sin 0 + 00 0 0 −0 0 ×0 0 0 = 0.0 40 40 Power Electronics by Prof.K.
Power Electronics by Prof.Problem • In the circuit shown in figure V = 600 volts. MSRIT 41 41 . C=50µF and the current through the inductance at the time of SCR triggering is IO = 350 A. initial capacitor voltage is zero. L = 20 µH. M. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Determine – Peak values of capacitor voltage and current – Conduction time of T1.K.. T.
L → 0 I V
T
0
i ( t ) C
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
42 42
The expression for i ( t ) is given by C i ( t ) = V − VC ( O ) sin ωt + I O cos ωt L It is given that the initial voltage across the capacitor VC ( O ) is zero. C ∴ i( t) =V sin ωt + I O cos ω t L
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT 43 43
i ( t ) can be written as C i ( t ) = I +V sin ( ω t + α ) L
0 O 0
where α = tan
−0
IO V
L C and ω =
0 O
0 LC
0
The peak capacitor current is
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
C I +V L
44 44
Anantha Kumar. M. MSRIT . vc ( t ) = IO )= Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept..Substituting the values. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. the peak capacitor current 0 × 0 −0 0 0 0 0 = 0 0 + 00 × 0 0 = 00. T.K. 0 A 00 0 −0 0 ×0 0 0 The expression for capacitor voltage is vc ( t ) = I O L sin ω t − ( V − VC ( 0) cos ω t + V ) C L sin ω t − V cos ω t + V C 45 45 with VC ( 00 .
Anantha Kumar. Where β = tan − 0 L C IO L The peak value of capacitor voltage is = V + I +V C Substituting the values. M. T.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.1 1 = 11 V −0 0 ×0 0 0 Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.This can be rewritten as C V 0 0L vc ( t ) = V + I O sin ( ω t − β ) + V . MSRIT 46 46 . the peak value of capacitor voltage 0 0 O 0 × 0−0 0 0 0 0 = 00 + 00× 0 0 + 11 11 + 11 11.1 1 = 1..
When the capacitor current becomes zero the SCR turns off.K.To calculate conduction time of T1 • The waveform of capacitor current is shown in figure. C a p a c i t o c u r r e n t α 0 π − α 47 47 ωt Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. T. E&E Dept.. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT .
E&E Dept.∴ conduction time of SCR L IO C −0 π − tan V π −α = = 0 ω LC Power Electronics by Prof. T.K. MSRIT L IO C Substituting the values α = tan −0 V 48 48 . M.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.
.11 radians 0 0 ω= = = 111 rad/sec 11.e. 00 = = 1. 1 11 11 .1 i.1 µ sec 11 000 00. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. T. MSRIT 49 49 −0 .1 LC 0 × 0−0× 0 ×0−0 0 0 0 0 ∴ conduction time of SCR π − 0 00 . M. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar.00 0 ×0 0 0 0 α = tan 00 0 ×0−0 0 0 0 0 α = 1.0 −0 Power Electronics by Prof..
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. M.Resonant Pulse Commutation (Class B Commutation) L T a b i C V F W D IL L o a d 50 50 Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. T.. E&E Dept. MSRIT .
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. MSRIT 51 51 . E&E Dept. • Current in LC oscillates when SCR is ON. • ‘T’ turns off when capacitor discharges through thyristor in a direction opposite to IL Power Electronics by Prof. • Initially ‘C’ is charged to ‘V’ volts with plate ‘a’ as positive. T.• Series LC circuit connected across thyristor ‘T’.K. Anantha Kumar..
MSRIT π ω t ∆t 52 52 . E&E Dept.K. Anantha Kumar.. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.G t0 V a t e p u l s e o f S C R π C a p a c i t o va b r v o l t a g t e t tC Ip i IL Power Electronics by Prof. T.
T.IS C R T h y r i s t o r C u r r t V o l t a g S C R e a c r o s s t Power Electronics by Prof.. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. MSRIT 53 53 . E&E Dept.K.
E&E Dept. MSRIT 54 54 . tc is the time taken for the capacitor voltage to reach 0 volts from − V volts and it is derived as follows Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. T. the Circuit Turn Off Time Assume that at the time of turn off of the SCR the capacitor voltage vab ≈ −V and a constant load current I L flows.K.Expression For tC ..
M..I L tc 0 V = ∫ I L dt = C0 C VC tc = seconds IL For proper commutation tc should be greater than tq .K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Magnitude of I p the peak value of i should be greater than the load current I L . Anantha Kumar. T. E&E Dept. Expression for i is derived as follows Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 55 55 tc .
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. M.K. T.. Anantha Kumar.The LC Circuit During The Commutation Period L T C i + V C(0 − = V I ( S ) S L 0 T ) +  C S V S 56 56 LC Circuit Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT Transformed Circuit .
Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 57 57 . E&E Dept. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof..V CS s I ( S) = = 0 0 S LC + 0 SL + Cs V S V 0 I ( S) = = × 0 0 0 L 0 S + LC S + LC LC VC Power Electronics by Prof. M.K.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. MSRIT . M. T. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept. 0 V LC 0 I ( S) = × × L S 0+ 0 0 LC LC 0 C LC I ( S) = V × L S 0+ 0 LC Taking inverse LT C i ( t) = V sinω t L 58 58 Power Electronics by Prof..
M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT .0 Where ω = LC V or i( t) = sin ω t = I p sin ω t ωL ∴ C Ip =V amps L 59 59 Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar.. T.K.
E&E Dept. M. T.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.Expression For Conduction Time Of SCR Conduction time of SCR π = + ∆t ω −0 I L sin I π p = + ω ω Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 60 60 .K.
M.K. E&E Dept.Alternate Circuit For Resonant Pulse Commutation T C 0 iC ( t ) iC ( t ) T 0 IL a b L ) T 0 − + V C(0 V F W D L O A D Power Electronics by Prof.. MSRIT 61 61 . T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.
K.. • To turn off T1. M. • T1 is conducting & IL is constant. • iC(t) flows opposite to IL & T1 turns off at iC(t) = IL Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.• Initially C charged with polarity as shown in figure. Anantha Kumar. T2 is fired. T. E&E Dept. MSRIT 62 62 .
T. E&E Dept.dt C 0 C vc ( t ) = ∫ VC ( 0 ) sin ωt. M.K. MSRIT 63 63 .ic ( t ) = I p sin ω t C Where I p = VC ( 0 & and the capacitor voltage ) L 0 vc ( t ) = ∫ iC ( t ) .. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.dt C L vc ( t ) = −VC ( 0cos ωt ) Power Electronics by Prof.
MSRIT 64 64 . E&E Dept.Instant at which the thyristor turns off is at t0 & t0 I L = I p sin LC C I p = VC ( 0 ) L Power Electronics by Prof.K. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. M. Anantha Kumar.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M.K. Anantha Kumar. T. E&E Dept. MSRIT 65 65 .. IL L or t0= LC sin V ( 0 C ) C & the corresponding capacitor voltage is −0 vc ( t0) = −V0= −VC ( 0cos ωt0 ) Power Electronics by Prof.
M. E&E Dept.Expression For tC Assuming a constant load current I L which charges the capacitor CV0 tc = seconds IL Normally V0≈ VC ( 0 ) For reliable commutation tc > tq tC depends on I L & becomes smaller for higher values of I L Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 66 66 .K. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar..
T. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. E&E Dept.. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT .C u r Cr ( e t )n t i t V v t0 V 0 C a p a c i t o r o l t aa b g e v t V C(0 tC ) 67 67 Power Electronics by Prof.
MSRIT 68 68 . Anantha Kumar.. M. T.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept.Resonant Pulse Commutation With Accelerating Diode Power Electronics by Prof.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. T. MSRIT 69 69 . Anantha Kumar.D 0 iC ( t ) T C + V C(0 V ) T 0 0 L iC ( t ) T IL 0 F W D L O A D Power Electronics by Prof.K. M. E&E Dept.
. E&E Dept.• Diode D2 connected as shown to accelerate discharge. iC(t) flows through D2 until current reduces to IL at time t2. Anantha Kumar. M. • Once T1 is off at t1.K. Power Electronics by Prof. T2 self commutates. MSRIT 70 70 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T. ‘C’ charges through load. • T2 turned on to turn off T1. • From t = t2 . • But thyristor recovery process low hence longer reverse bias time.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof.. Anantha Kumar. T.iC IL 0 V C t 0 V V C t0 ( O ) tC t0 t 0 Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 71 71 . M.K. E&E Dept.
if the load current IL is 200 A and 50 A. Power Electronics by Prof. The initial capacitor voltage VC(O)=200V. Determine the circuit turn off time tC. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. C = 30µF and L = 3µH. E&E Dept. T. MSRIT 72 72 . M.Problem • The circuit in figure shows a resonant pulse commutation circuit.. Anantha Kumar.
Anantha Kumar. M.K. E&E Dept..T C − + V C(0 V ) T 0 0 L iC ( t ) T IL 0 F W D L O A D Power Electronics by Prof. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 73 73 .
M. E&E Dept.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.Capacitor current ic ( t ) reaches a value I L at t = t0 when T0 turns off IL L t0= LC sin V ( 0 C ) C −0 When I L = 000 A. Let T0 be triggered at t = 0 00 0 0−0 0 × 0 −0 −0 −0 t0= 1 1 × 1 ×1 sin × 1 1 1 .00 0 LC 0 0−0× 0 ×0 −0 × 0 0 0 Power Electronics by Prof. T.K. MSRIT 74 74 . Anantha Kumar.1µ = 1 1 sec −0 00 0 × 0 0 0 0 0 0 ω= = = 0 0 ×00rad / sec .
K.11 V0= 00 0 0. Anantha Kumar.1 µ sec 11 00 0 Power Electronics by Prof.At t = t0the magnitude of capacitor voltage is. MSRIT 75 75 −0 .0 Volts & CV0 tc = IL 0 ×0 ×00 0 0 0 0. T..0000 cos .0 tc = = 1. V0= VC ( 0cos ωt0 ) i. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.e. E&E Dept. M.. V0= 0000 × 0× .000000 × −0 V0= 11 1 11 1 × .
. M. Anantha Kumar.When I L = 00 A 0 0 0−0 0 × 0 −1 −1 −1 t0= 1 1 × 1 × 1 sin × 1 1 1 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.00 0 0 × = 0 Volts CV0 0 ×0−0× 00 0 0 0 tc = = = 00 sec 0µ IL 0 0 It is observed that as load increases the value of tc reduces. MSRIT 76 76 . Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. T.00 0 .11 = 1 1 µ sec −0 00 0 ×0 0 0 0 V0= 00 0 0 ×00× 0 0 ×0 −0 = 00 0 00 0 cos .K.
K. T. MSRIT 77 77 .Problem Repeat above problem For I L = 000 an antiparallel diode D0 is A if connected across thyristor T0as shown in figure Power Electronics by Prof.. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
MSRIT 78 78 . Anantha Kumar.. T.D 0 iC ( t ) T C + V C(0 V ) T 0 0 L iC ( t ) T IL 0 F W D L O A D Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. M.K.
I L = 00 0A Let Capacitor current iC ( t ) reaches the value I L at t = t0 , when T0 turns off ∴ IL t0= LC sin VC ( O )
−0
T0 be triggered at t = 0
L C
1 1 1 1 −0 1 × 1 −0 −0 −0 t0= 0 0 × 0 ×0 sin × 0 0 0 −0 00 0 × 0 0 0 0 t0= 1 1 sec .1 µ
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT 79 79
0 0 ω= = −0 −0 LC 0 0 × 0 ×0 × 0 0 0 0 ω = 1 1 × 1 radians/sec .11 1 At t = t0 VC ( t0) = V0= −VC ( O ) cos ω t0 VC ( t0) = −11 1 1.1V VC ( t0) = −00 ( 0 0 ×0 × 0 0 0 ) 0 cos .00 0 .0 × 0
0 −0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT 80 80
iC ( t ) flows through diode D0 after T0 turns off. iC ( t ) current falls back to I L at t 0 . t0 = π LC − t0 t0 = π 0 0 × 0 × 0 − 0 0 0 × 0 0 0 .0 × 0
−0 −0 −0
t0 = 0.0µ sec 00 0 0 ω= = −0 −0 LC 0 0 × 0 ×0 × 0 0 0 ω = 0 0 ×00 rad/sec. .00 0
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT 81 81
At t = t0 VC ( t0) = V0 = −00 0 0 × 0+0× 0.0 × 0−0 0 cos .00 0 00 0 VC ( t0) = V0 = 11 1 1.1 V tC = 0.0 secs 0µ
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT 82 82
∴ tC = t1− t1= 1.1 × 1−0− 1 1 1−0 11 1 .1 × 1
Problem
• For the circuit shown in figure calculate the value of L for proper commutation of SCR. Also find the conduction time of SCR.
0µ V =0 0 V R
L
F
L i IL
83 83
Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
0 0 Ω
K. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept.The load current V 0 0 IL = = =0 Amp RL 0 0 For proper SCR commutation I p . M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . I ∴I p = 0 Amps 84 84 Power Electronics by Prof.. T. should be greater than I L Let I p = 0L . the peak value of resonant current i.
K.. T. Anantha Kumar.0 0 0 = = 111 11 rad/sec −0 −0 LC 0 ×0 × 0 0 . M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . E&E Dept.0 0 × 0 85 85 Power Electronics by Prof.Also V Ip = = ωL V C =V 0 L ×L LC −0 ∴ ω= 00 × 0 0 0× = 0 L L = 0 mH .
MSRIT 86 86 .. Anantha Kumar.Conduction time of SCR IL −0 0 sin sin I π p= π + 0 = + ω ω 111 111 11 11 π +0 0 .00000 seconds 000 00 =00 . E&E Dept. T.K. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.00 = radians = 0 .0 msec −0 Power Electronics by Prof.
M.Problem • For the circuit shown in figure given that the load current to be commutated is 10 A. Obtain the proper values of commutating elements. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Power Electronics by Prof. turn off time required is 40µsec and the supply voltage is 100 V. T.K.. MSRIT 87 87 . E&E Dept.
. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar.K. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.C =0 0 0 V V L i IL IL Power Electronics by Prof. M. MSRIT 88 88 .
( a ) L Also.K.. and the load current linearly charges the capacitor CV tc = seconds IL Power Electronics by Prof. T.0 C ∴ 1 ×1 = 11 .. Anantha Kumar. E&E Dept.C I p peak value of i = V & this should be greater than I L L Let I p = 0 I L ..1 1 1 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof. assuming that at the time of turn off the capacitor voltage is approximately equal to V. M. MSRIT 89 89 .
& this tc is given to be 00 µ sec.. T.0 0 L L = 1 1 ×1−0H = 1 1 mH .K. 00 0 ∴ 0 ×0 = C × 0 0 0 0 ∴ C =0F µ Substituting this in equation (a) −0 ∴ 0 0 −0 × 0 1 × 1 = 11 .1 1 1 . M. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. MSRIT .1 1 90 90 Power Electronics by Prof.1 1 1 L 00× 0 0−0 0 × 0 0 0 0 ×0 = .
. The ratio of peak resonant current to load current is 1. Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.Problem • In a resonant commutation circuit supply voltage is 200 V.K.5. M. MSRIT 91 91 . Anantha Kumar. Determine the value of L and C of the commutation circuit. E&E Dept. T. Load current is 10 A and the device turn off time is 20µs.
Given ∴ Ip IL =0 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.1 1 1 C i. MSRIT .. E&E Dept.e...K.( a ) L It is given that the device turn off time is 00 µ sec. Therefore tc the circuit turn off time should be greater than this. M. Let tc = 00sec µ & CV tc = IL 92 92 Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar..1 .0 I p = 1 I L = 1 ×1 = 1 A . Ip =V = 00 A . T.
T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar. M.0 0 0 = 00 0 0 L 0 × 0−0 .00 C 0× ∴ 0 ×0 = 0 0 0 0 ∴ C =1 µF .K.0 0 0 0 0 = 00 × 0 0 L L = 1 11 . MSRIT .11 mH 93 93 Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.1 Substituting in (a) −0 ∴ 0 × 0−0 ..
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 94 94 .. Anantha Kumar.K. E&E Dept. M.Complementary Commutation (Class C Commutation. Parallel Capacitor Commutation) Power Electronics by Prof. T.
K. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 95 95 .IL R V C T 0 0 R a b 0 iC T 0 Power Electronics by Prof. T. M.. Anantha Kumar.
Madhusudhan Rao 96 Prof. • T1 is fired. Anantha Kumar. turning ON one SCR turns off the other. M.K. • At same time ‘C’ charges towards ‘V’ through R2 with plate ‘b’ positive. T. T2 is fired resulting in capacitor voltage reverse biasing T1 and turning it off. IL flows through R1.• Two SCRs are used.. E&E Dept. • To turn off T1. MSRIT . • When T2 is fired current through load shoots up as voltage across load is V+VC 96 Power Electronics by Prof.
E&E Dept.G a t e o f0 T V C C p π u l s e 0V R0 G a t e o f0 T p u l s e t IL u r r e n t 0 V t Rh r o 0 u h V R g T0V R0 0 h R t u r r e n t0 t h r o u g t C u r r e n t0 t h r o u g h 0V R0 V R0 Power Electronics by Prof. T. M. MSRIT t 97 97 . Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K..
C u r r e n t t h r o u0 g h R t V V o l t a g e a c r o s s c a p a ac b i t o r v t . T. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 98 98 . E&E Dept.. M.V tC tC V o l t a g e0 t a c r o s s T tC Power Electronics by Prof.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
Vi is the initial voltage and τ is the time constant. C. ∴ 1 V + ( −V − V ) e = − tc R0 C − tc R0 C 99 99 =V − 1 Ve Power Electronics by Prof. vc ( t ) = 0 V f = V . τ = R0 & Vi = −V .Expression For Circuit Turn Off Time tC vc ( t ) = V f + ( Vi − V f ) e− t τ Where V f is the final voltage.. E&E Dept.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . Anantha Kumar. M. At t = tc . T.
MSRIT 100 100 tc = 0 R0 . M. T.0 − tc R0 C Taking natural logarithms on both sides −tc ln 0 = . 000 C And this time should be greater than tq of T0 .11 C This time should be greater than the turn off time tq of T0 Similarly when T0 is commutated Usually R0= R0 = R Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar.∴ V =0 Ve − tc R0 C .K.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. 0 =e .0 R0 C tc = 1 1R0 .
MSRIT 101 101 . Anantha Kumar.Problem • In the circuit shown in figure. Determine the circuit turn off time tC Power Electronics by Prof.. V = 100 volts. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept.K. M. the load resistances R1 = R2 = R = 5Ω & the capacitance C = 7. T.5 µF.
K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.1 1 Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar.11 × . E&E Dept.00 tc = 1 1 × 1 1 × 1 .R V 0 R 0 C T 0 T 0 The circuit turnoff time tc = 0 0 RC seconds . T.. M. MSRIT −0 tc = 0µ sec 0 102 102 .
K.. When it is conducting a full load current of 25 A flows. E&E Dept. T. Anantha Kumar. given that the auxiliary SCR will undergo natural commutation when its forward current falls below the holding current value of 2 mA. Also find R1. M. The minimum time for which the SCR has to be reverse biased for proper commutation is 40µsec. Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.Problem • Calculate the values of RL and C to be used for commutating the main SCR in the circuit shown in figure. MSRIT 103 103 .
T. M. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT . Anantha Kumar.i0 R V 0 IL R iC L =0 0 0 A V S u C x R C i l i a r y M S a i n C R 104 104 Power Electronics by Prof..K.
MSRIT 105 105 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. i1 should be less than the holding current. T. Power Electronics by Prof. M. Once the main SCR turns off the current through the auxiliary SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging current iC and the current i1 through R1.. Anantha Kumar. iC reduces to zero after a time tC and hence the auxiliary SCR turns off automatically after a time tC.In this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and the auxiliary SCR is used to turn off the main SCR. E&E Dept.
. M.0µ F 00 106 106 −0 −0 Power Electronics by Prof.Given I L = 00 A i.11 00000. T.e. MSRIT ..00 C = 0. ∴ i.K. E&E Dept. ∴ V 00 0 00= A = RL RL RL = 0 Ω tc = 1 µ sec = 1 1RL C 1 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.0000 × = × ×C 0 ×0 0 0 C= 000 × ..e. Anantha Kumar.
. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.V i0= should be less R0 than the holding current of auxiliary SCR 00 0 ∴ should be < 0 mA R0 ∴ i. 00 0 R0> −0 00 × 0 R0> 00Ω K 107 107 Power Electronics by Prof.. M. MSRIT . E&E Dept.K. T.e.
MSRIT 108 108 . Anantha Kumar.Impulse Commutation (Class D Commutation) T T V 0 0 IL V C( O L − + ) C T 0 F W D L O A D Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. M.K.. T. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
To reverse capacitor voltage T3 is turned ON. T. • T1 is conducting and carries load current IL.K. MSRIT .. M. • ‘C’ Charges through load. Anantha Kumar. • Capacitor voltage reverse biases T1 and turns it off. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao 109 Prof. • T2 self commutates. • To turn off T1.• ‘C’ charged to a voltage VC(O) with polarity as shown. 109 •Power Electronics by Prof. T2 is fired.
K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept. MSRIT 110 110 ..G a t e o f0 T p u l s e G a t e o f0 T p u l s e G a t e o f0 T t p V S C v a p a c i t o o l t a g e r t V C tC V o l t a g e0 a c r o s s T t . M. Anantha Kumar.VC Power Electronics by Prof. T.
MSRIT 111 111 tc . Anantha Kumar.K. T. M. turn off time of T0 Power Electronics by Prof..Expression For Circuit Turn Off Time tC tc depends on I L & is given by the expression 0 VC = ∫ I L dt C0 (assuming the load current to be constant) I L tc VC C VC = tc = seconds C IL For proper commutation tc > tq . Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept.
• T1 is turned off by applying a negative voltage across its terminals.. T. voltage across the load is V+VC.K. This is a disadvantage of this circuit. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 112 112 . M. Hence this is voltage commutation. For higher load currents tC is small. • tC depends on load current. • When T2 is fired. hence the current through load shoots up and then decays as the capacitor starts charging. Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.
E&E Dept.. Anantha Kumar. MSRIT 113 113 . M.An Alternative Circuit For Impulse Commutation T i 0 IT0 T V 0 V C( O + ) C _ D L IL R L Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.K. T.
load current IL flows. MSRIT 114 114 . T.K. • ‘D’ ensures bottom plate remains positive. • To turn off T1. Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.• Initially ‘C’ is charged to VC with top plate positive. M. • T1 is fired. T2 is fired. Anantha Kumar.. • ‘C’ discharges at the same time & reverses its polarity. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
Anantha Kumar.G a t e o f0 T p u l s e G a t e o f0 T p u l s e t V C C v a p a c i t o o l t a g e r t ..K.V tC T IT 0 h i s i s d u e t o i IL C u r r e n t t h r o Vu R L g h S C R t Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 115 115 . Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. E&E Dept. T.
MSRIT 116 116 . Anantha Kumar.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.0V R L IL L o a d c u r r e n t t V V o l t a g e0 a c r o s s T t tC Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.. T. M.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.Problem • An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is shown in figure. E&E Dept. MSRIT 117 117 . M.K.. R = 10 Ω and C = 10 µF. Voltage across capacitor before T2 is fired is V volts with polarity as shown. Power Electronics by Prof. T. Determine the available turn off time of the circuit if V = 100 V.
K. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.+ C + V C T 0 ( T0 0 V ) R Power Electronics by Prof. T. E&E Dept.. MSRIT 118 118 .
When T2 is triggered the circuit is as shown in figure + V C + C ( O ) i ( t ) V T 0 R Power Electronics by Prof. Anantha Kumar. M.. MSRIT  119 119 . T.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. E&E Dept.
E&E Dept.Writing the transform circuit. M.. we obtain C 0 V s − C 0 ( s + ) I ( s ) + V s − R Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT 120 120 .K. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T.
Anantha Kumar. 0 ) ( V + VC ( 0) I ( S) = S 0 R+ CS C ( V + VC ( 0) ) I ( S) = 0 RCS + ) ( V + VC ( 0) I ( S) = 0 RS + RC Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept. M. MSRIT 121 121 . T..K.Expression for capacitor voltage is obtained as follows. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.
Voltage across capacitor ) 0 VC ( 0 VC ( s) = I ( S ) − CS S ) ) 0 V + VC ( 0 VC ( 0 VC ( s) = − 0 RCS S S + RC V + VC ( 0 V + VC ( 0 VC ( 0 ) ) ) VC ( S ) = − − 0 S S S + RC Power Electronics by Prof.K. T. MSRIT 122 122 .. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. E&E Dept.
Anantha Kumar.K. M. T. E&E Dept..VC ( 0 ) V V VC ( S ) = − − S S+ 0 S+ 0 RC RC −t −t RC vc ( t ) = V 0 e − ) − VC ( 0e RC In the given problem VC ( 0= V ) ∴ −t RC vc ( t ) = V 1 1 − e 123 123 Power Electronics by Prof. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT .
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. T. E&E Dept. Anantha Kumar. M.The waveform of vC(t) is shown in figure V vC ( t ) t V C 0 ( tC ) 124 124 Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT .K..
. E&E Dept. MSRIT 125 125 . T. Anantha Kumar. vc ( t ) = 0 1 V 1 1 = − e 0 0 = e 0 − tc RC =e 0 − tc RC − tc RC Power Electronics by Prof. M.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.At ∴ t = tc .
Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 126 126 .Taking natural logarithms 0 −tc log e = 0 RC tc = RC ln ( 0 ) tc = 1 ×1 ×1 ln ( 1 1 1 1 ) −0 tc = 0. T. E&E Dept. M.0 sec 0µ Power Electronics by Prof.K..
Determine the minimum and maximum values of available turn off time tC. MSRIT 127 127 .. the input voltage V varies between 180 and 220 V and the load current varies between 50 and 200 A. T.Problem • In the commutation circuit shown in figure C = 20 µF. Anantha Kumar. M. E&E Dept. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Power Electronics by Prof.K.
.K. E&E Dept. T. MSRIT . Anantha Kumar. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof.T − + 0 I0 ) = V C V V C 0 ( T 0 I0 128 128 Power Electronics by Prof.
MSRIT 129 129 .It is given that V varies between 000 000 and V& I O varies between 00 000 and A The expression for available turn off time tc is given by CV tc = IO tc is max.. Power Electronics by Prof. E&E Dept.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. & IO is min. T. Anantha Kumar. when V is max. M.
E&E Dept. M. T. Anantha Kumar.K.. MSRIT . Madhusudhan Rao Prof.∴ tc max CVmax = I O min −0 And 00 0 tc max = 1 ×1 × 1 1 = 1µ sec 1 0 0 CVmin tc min = I O max tc min 00 0 = 0 ×0 × 0 0 = 0µ sec 0 00 0 −0 130 130 Power Electronics by Prof.
External Pulse Commutation (Class E Commutation) T T L T 0 0 0 V S R L 0V + A U − X C V A U X Power Electronics by Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. MSRIT 131 131 .. E&E Dept. T. Anantha Kumar.K.
E&E Dept. • T3 is fired & ‘C’ is charged to 2VAUX with upper plate positive..K. T2 is fired. Madhusudhan Rao 132 Prof. Anantha Kumar. T. M. 132 Power Electronics by Prof. MSRIT . • T2 ON results in a reverse voltage VS – 2VAUX appearing across T1. • T3 is self commutated. • To turn off T1.• T1 is conducting & RL is connected across supply.
T.K. M. Anantha Kumar.Load Side Commutation • In load side commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes place through the load. MSRIT 133 133 . Power Electronics by Prof. Examples of load side commutation are Resonant Pulse Commutation and Impulse Commutation. E&E Dept.. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Hence to test the commutation circuit the load has to be connected.
Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Power Electronics by Prof.Line Side Commutation • In this type of commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes place through the supply. Anantha Kumar.. E&E Dept. M. MSRIT 134 134 . T.K.
T.K. Anantha Kumar. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. E&E Dept. MSRIT 135 135 ..L + T V S 0 T 0 IL + _ C L r F W L OD A D T 0 _ Power Electronics by Prof.
To reverse the voltage of capacitor to 2V. T.K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. Anantha Kumar.• Thyristor T2 is fired to charge the capacitor ‘C’. E&E Dept. thyristor T3 is fired and T3 commutates by itself. Assuming that T1 is conducting and carries a load current IL thyristor T2 is fired to turn off T1. T2 is self commutated. MSRIT 136 136 . M. Power Electronics by Prof. When ‘C’ charges to a voltage of 2V..
MSRIT 137 137 . thus the discharging and recharging of capacitor is done through the supply and the commutation circuit can be tested without load. This turns off T1. E&E Dept..K. Madhusudhan Rao Prof. M. Anantha Kumar. T.• The turning ON of T2 will result in forward biasing the diode (FWD) and applying a reverse voltage of 2V acrossT1. Power Electronics by Prof.
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