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Roberto Casalbuoni

Dipartimento di Fisica Universit` di Firenze a Lezioni date all’Universita’ di Firenze nell’a.a. 2004/2005.

Contents

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 4 6 6 9 10 12 14 17 27 27 29 30 33 36 36 38 45 52 54 56 63

1 Notations and Conventions 1.1 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Relativity and Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 The Noether’s theorem for relativistic ﬁelds . 1.4 Field Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 The Real Scalar Field . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 The Charged Scalar Field . . . . . . . 1.4.3 The Dirac Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.4 The Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . 1.5 Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 The Scattering Matrix . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Wick’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Feynman diagrams in momentum space 1.5.4 The cross-section . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 One-loop renormalization 2.1 Divergences of the Feynman integrals . . . 2.2 Higher order corrections . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 The analysis by counterterms . . . . . . . 2.4 Dimensional regularization of the Feynman 2.5 Integration in arbitrary dimensions . . . . 2.6 One loop regularization of QED . . . . . . 2.7 One loop renormalization . . . . . . . . . . 3 Vacuum expectation values and the 3.1 In- and Out-states . . . . . . . . . 3.2 The S matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 The reduction formalism . . . . . . S . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

matrix 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

4 Path integral formulation of quantum mechanics 85 4.1 Feynman’s formulation of quantum mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.2 Path integral in conﬁguration space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

1

4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 The 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6 The 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7 The 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 The 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

The physical interpretation of the path integral . The free particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The case of a quadratic action . . . . . . . . . . . Functional formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General properties of the path integral . . . . . . The generating functional of the Green’s functions The Green’s functions for the harmonic oscillator

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91 97 99 104 107 113 116 123 123 127 129 135 137 142 145

path integral in ﬁeld theory The path integral for a free scalar ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . The generating functional of the connected Green’s functions The perturbative expansion for the theory λϕ4 . . . . . . . . The Feynman’s rules in momentum space . . . . . . . . . . . Power counting in λϕ4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regularization in λϕ4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renormalization in the theory λϕ4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

renormalization group The renormalization group equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renormalization conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application to QED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of the renormalization group equations . . . . . . . . . . The coeﬃcients of the renormalization group equations and the renormalization conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . path integral for Fermi ﬁelds Fermionic oscillators and Grassmann algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . Integration over Grassmann variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The path integral for the fermionic theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quantization of the gauge ﬁelds QED as a gauge theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-abelian gauge theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Path integral quantization of the gauge theories . . . . . . . Path integral quantization of QED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Path integral quantization of the non-abelian gauge theories The β-function in non-abelian gauge theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

152 . 152 . 156 . 160 . 161 . 167 169 . 169 . 174 . 178 180 . 180 . 182 . 186 . 196 . 200 . 204

9 Spontaneous symmetry breaking 9.1 The linear σ-model . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Spontaneous symmetry breaking . . . . 9.3 The Goldstone theorem . . . . . . . . . 9.4 The Higgs mechanism . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Quantization of a spontaneously broken 2

213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 gauge theory in the Rξ -gauge 230

9.6 ξ-cancellation in perturbation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 10 The 10.1 10.2 10.3 Standard model of the electroweak interactions The Standard Model of the electroweak interactions . . . . . . . . . The Higgs sector in the Standard Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The electroweak interactions of quarks and the Kobayashi-MaskawaCabibbo matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 The parameters of the SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Ward identities and anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1 Properties of the real antisymmetric matrices 239 . 239 . 244 . 249 . 258 . 259

A

265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

3

**Chapter 1 Notations and Conventions
**

1.1 Units

In quantum relativistic theories the two fundamental constants c e / , the light h velocity and the Planck constant respectively, appear everywhere. Therefore it is convenient to choose a unit system where their numerical value is given by c=/ =1 h (1.1)

For the electromagnetism we will use the Heaviside-Lorentz system, where we take also (1.2) 0 = 1 From the relation

0 µ0

= 1/c2 it follows µ0 = 1 (1.3)

In these units the Coulomb force is given by |F | = 1 e1 e2 4π |x1 − x2 |2 (1.4)

and the Maxwell equations appear without any visible constant. For instance the gauss law is ∇·E =ρ (1.5) dove ρ is the charge density. The dimensionless ﬁne structure constant α= is given by α= 4 e2 4π (1.7) e2 4π 0 / c h (1.6)

using it follows from (1.13) Therefore the approximate relation to keep in mind is 1 = 200 MeV · fermi. Furthermore.11) (1.Any physical quantity can be expressed equivalently by using as fundamental unit energy. using c = 3 · 1023 fermi · sec−1 (1. mass.6 · 10−13 1 MeV−1 = 197 fermi (1.17) (1.15 · 10−26 J · mt Recalling that it follows / ch = From which 1 eV = e · 1 = 1. the wave lenght of an electron is given by λe Compton = 200 MeV · fermi 1 1 ≈ ≈ 400 fermi ≈ me 0. lenght or time in an equivalent fashion.18) 5 .15 · 10−26 MeV · mt = 197 MeV · fermi 1.602 · 10−19 J 3. For instance.8) / In practice. using the fact that also the elementary particle masses are usually given in MeV . Therefore / ch = 3 · 108 mt · sec−1 · 1.58 · 10−22 sec 1 barn = 10−24 cm2 1 GeV−2 = 0.05 · 10−34 J · sec = 3.15) (1.16) (1. In fact from our choice the following equivalence relations follow ct E E Et ≈ =⇒ time ≈ lenght ≈ mc2 =⇒ energy ≈ mass ≈ pv =⇒ energy ≈ momentum ≈ / =⇒ energy ≈ (time)−1 ≈ (lenght)−1 h (1.5 MeV 0.9) (1.10) (1.12) Using this relation we can easily convert a quantity given in MeV (the typical unit used in elementary particle physics) in fermi.14) we get and Also.5 MeV (1.12) 1 fermi = 3.3 · 10−24 sec 1 MeV−1 = 6.389 mbarn (1. it is enough to notice that the product ch has dimensions [E· ].

19) where x and p are the three-dimensional position and momentum.1. 1.24) (1. −1.23) The following relations will be useful p2 = pµ pµ → − ∂ ∂ =− ∂xµ ∂xµ (1. −1. When both types of transformations are involved the total variation of a local quantity F (x) (that is a function of the space-time point) is given by ˜ ˜ ∆F (x) = F (x ) − F (x) = F (x + δx) − F (x) ∼ F (x) − F (x) + δxµ ∂F (x) = ˜ ∂xµ 6 (1. given a transformation involving both the ﬁelds and the coordinates. 3 (1. The scalar product between two four-vectors is given by a · b = aµ bν gµν = aµ bµ = aµ bµ = a0 b0 − a · b where the indices have been lowered by aµ = gµν aν (1. When the transformations are limited to the ﬁelds one speaks about internal transformations. x).22) = ∂t . if it happens that the action is invariant under this transformation.20) and can be raised by using the inverse metric tensor g µν ≡ gµν . The four-gradient is deﬁned as ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂µ = µ = . ∇ ∂x ∂t ∂x The four-momentum operator in position space is pµ → i ∂ = (i∂t . −i∇) ∂xµ (1.3 The Noether’s theorem for relativistic ﬁelds We will now review the Noether’s theorem.26) . µ = 0. More precisely. then a conservation law follows. −1). This allows to relate symmetries of the action with conserved quantities. p). pµ = (E. The position and momentum four-vectors are given by xµ = (t.21) (1.25) x · p = Et − p · x 1. (1.2 Relativity and Tensors Our conventions are as follows: the metric tensor gµν is diagonal with eigenvalues (+1. 2.

In the case we take δxµ = aµ with aµ independent on x e ∆φi = 0.28) d4 x L(φi . then ˜ SV = SV This gives rise to the conservation equation ∂µ Lδxµ + ∂L ∂L ∆φi − δxν i φi = 0 i ∂φ. and of the corresponding symmetries of the action. . x µ = xµ + δxµ ∂φ ˜ ∆φi (x) = φi (x ) − φi (x) ≈ δφi (x) + δxµ µ (1. i ∂φ. depending only on the form variation ˜ δF (x) = F (x) − F (x) Then we get ∂F (x) ∂xµ Let us now start form a generic four-dimensional action ∆F (x) = δF (x) + δxµ S= V (1.ν . N (1. x).µ .ν (1.30) ∂x If the action is invariant under the transformation.34) Pµ is the four-momentum of the system.µ 7 ∂µ J µ = 0 (1.33) Tµν is called the energy-momentum tensor of the system. From the general result in eq. In the case of internal symmetries we take δxµ = 0.µ µ ∂µ Tν = 0 (1.31) This is the general result expressing the local conservation of the quantity in parenthesis. According to the choice one does for the variations δxµ and ∆φi .The total variation ∆ keeps into account both the variation of the reference frame and the form variation of F . . one gets diﬀerent kind of conserved quantities.µ ∂φ. . (1.µ ∂φi .32) (1.27) (1. i = 1. The conserved current will be Jµ = ∂L ∂L i ∆φi = δφ .32) we get the following local conservation law µ Tν = ∂L i µ φ − Lgν . Let us start with an action invariant under space and time translations. From its local conservation we get four constant of motion Pµ = 0 d3 xTµ (1.35) .29) and let us consider a generic variation of the ﬁelds and of the coordinates. It is then convenient to deﬁne a local variation δF . ∂φi . .

In general. that is we have a conserved charge for any ∆. The coeﬃcients Σµν (antisymmetric in the indices (µ. Therefore.36) In general.41) and deﬁning (watch at the change of sign) µ µ Mµ = xρ Tν − xν Tρ − ρν ∂L ij j Σ φ ∂φi ρν . Using this equation and the expression for δxµ we get the local conservation law 0 = ∂µ = 1 2 νρ ∂L i µ φ − Lgν ∂φi . as. three of them correspond to spatial rotations.40) where we have required that the transformation of the ﬁelds is of ﬁrst order in the Lorentz parameters µν .37) For an inﬁnitesimal transformation xµ = Λµν xν ≈ xµ + with µν ν µν x (1. for instance.42) 8 . the transformation law of the ﬁelds φi under an inﬁnitesimal Lorentz transformation can be written as 1 ∆φi = − Σij 2 µν µν φj (1. Let us recall that they are deﬁned as the transformations leaving invariant the norm of a four-vector 2 x2 = x (1. ν)) deﬁne a matrix in the indices (i.µ ∂µ νρ xρ + 1 ∂L ij Σ 2 ∂φi νρ .39) We see that the number of independent parameters characterizing a Lorentz transformation is six.µ (1. The last case we will consider is the invariance with respect to Lorentz transformations.µ νρ j φ µ µ Tν xρ − Tρ xν + ∂L ij j Σ φ ∂φi νρ .µ (1. j) which can be shown to be the representative of the inﬁnitesimal generators of the Lorentz group in the ﬁeld representation.ν . As well known. a vector ﬁeld does under rotations.38) =− νµ (1. if the system has more that one internal symmetry. we may have more that one conserved charge Q. the relativistic ﬁelds are chosen to belong to a representation of the Lorentz group ( for instance the Klein-Gordon ﬁeld belongs to the scalar representation).with an associated constant of motion given by Q= d3 xJ 0 (1. whereas the remaining three correspond to Lorentz boosts. This means that under a Lorentz transformation the components of the ﬁeld mix together.

allowing the deﬁnition of creation and annihilation operators. t)]± = iδαβ δ 3 (x − y) [φα (x. [Πα (x. 1. the Dirac and the electromagnetic ﬁeld. or for an interacting ﬁeld in the interaction picture (and therefore evolving with the free hamiltonian). • construction of the Fock space through the creation and annihilation operators. Πβ (y.4 Field Quantization The quantization procedure for a ﬁeld goes through the following steps: • construction of the lagrangian density and determination of the canonical momentum density ∂L (1.47) In the case of a free ﬁeld. we can add the following steps • expansion of φα (x) in terms of a complete set of solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation. Πβ (y.43) νρ and consequently six constants of motion (notice that the lower indices are antisymmetric) Mνρ = d3 xM0 νρ (1.44) Three of these constants (the ones with ν and ρ assuming spatial values) are nothing but the components of the angular momentum of the ﬁeld. 9 . t)]± = 0. φβ (y. t)]± = 0 (1. In the following we will give the main results about the quantization of the scalar.46) (1.it follows the existence of six locally conserved currents (one for each Lorentz transformation) ∂µ Mµ = 0 (1. t). t).45) Πα (x) = ∂φα (x) where the index α describes both the spin and internal degrees of freedom • quantization through the requirement of the equal time canonical commutation relations for a spin integer ﬁeld or through canonical anticommutation relations for half-integer ﬁelds [φα (x. t).

1.57) (−) ˙ f ∗ ∂t g = f ∗ g − f˙∗ g (1. For any two solutions f and g of the Klein-Gordon equation. φ(y. φ(y. φ(y.50) d4 xL (1. a complete set of solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation is given by 1 −ikx 1 fk (x) = √ √ e . t)] = iδ 3 (x − y).49) giving rise to the canonical momentum Π= ∂L ˙ =φ ˙ ∂φ (1. the following quantity is a constant of motion and deﬁnes a scalar product (not positive deﬁnite) f |g = i where d3 xf ∗ ∂t g (−) |k|2 + m2 2π n L (1.53) corresponding respectively to positive and negative energies.56) and L being the side of the quantization box (V = L3 ).1 The Real Scalar Field + m2 )φ(x) = 0 The relativistic real scalar free ﬁeld φ(x) obeys the Klein-Gordon equation ( (1.4.48) which can be derived from the variation of the action S= where L is the lagrangian density L= 1 ∂µ φ ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 2 (1.55) (1.54) (1.51) From this we get the equal time canonical commutation relations ˙ [φ(x. t). t). t)] = 0 (1. with k 0 = ωk = and k= with Z n = n1 i1 + n2 i2 + n3 i3 .58) 10 . V 2ωk 1 ikx 1 ∗ fk (x) = √ √ e V 2ωk (1. t)] = [φ(x.52) By using the box normalization. t). ˙ ˙ [φ(x. ni ∈ Z (1.

61) using the orthogonality properties of the solutions one can invert this expression a(k) = i ∗ d3 xfk (x)∂t φ(x). a† (k )] = δ 3 (k − k ) [a(k).33) for the energymomentum tensor.59) We can go to the continuum normalization by the substitution 1 √ → V 1 (2π)3 (1. a(k )] = [a† (k).63) and obtain the commutation relations [a(k). The states a† (k1 ) · · · a† (kn )|0 (1.60) and sending the Kr¨necker delta function into the Dirac delta function. The expano sion of the ﬁeld in terms of these solutions is then (in the continuum) φ(x) = or.68) d3 x Π2 + |∇φ|2 + m2 φ2 (1.53) are orthogonal with respect to this scalar product.ni (1.67) 2 describe n Bose particles of equal mass m2 = ki .64) (1.62) ∗ d3 k[fk (x)a(k) + fk (x)a† (k)] (1. for instance 3 fk |fk = δk.69) .66) for any k.65) From these equations one constructs the Fock space starting from the vacuum state which is deﬁned by a(k)|0 = 0 (1. (−) a† (k) = i d3 xφ(x)∂t fk (x) (−) (1. and of total four-momentum k = k1 + · · · kn .k ≡ i=1 δni . (1. that for the Klein-Gordon ﬁeld is Tµν = ∂µ φ∂ν φ − from which P0 = H = d3 xT 00 = 1 ∂ρ φ∂ ρ φ − m2 φ2 gµν 2 1 2 11 (1. more explicitly φ(x) = d3 k 1 (2π)3 2ωk [a(k)e−ikx + a† (k)eikx ] (1.The solutions of eq. a† (k )] = 0 (1. This follows by recalling the expression (1.

75) 1.77) (1.2 The Charged Scalar Field The charged scalar ﬁeld can be described in terms of two real scalar ﬁelds of equal mass 2 1 L= (∂µ φi )(∂ µ φi ) − m2 φ2 (1.35)) jµ = i (∂µ φ)φ† − (∂µ φ† )φ 12 (1. t). φj (y.81) .Pi = d3 xT 0i = − d3 xΠ ∂φ .74) (1.73) (1.78) The theory is invariant under the phase transformation φ → eiα φ.4. t)] = iδij δ 3 (x − y) ˙ ˙ [φi (x. φj (y. ∂xi (P = − d3 xΠ∇φ) (1. 2 The lagrangian density becomes L = ∂µ φ† ∂ µ φ − m2 φ† φ (1. (1. φj (y. t)] = 0 The charged ﬁeld is better understood in a complex basis 1 φ = √ (φ1 + iφ2 ).70) and for the normal ordered operator Pµ we get (the normal ordering is deﬁned by putting all the creation operators to the left of the annihilation operators) : Pµ := implying d3 k kµ a† (k)a(k) (1.79) (1.76) i 2 i=1 and we can write immediately the canonical commutation relations ˙ [φi (x. and therefore it admits the conserved current (see eq.71) : Pµ : a† (k)|0 = kµ a† (k)|0 (1. t)] = [φi (x.72) The propagator for the scalar ﬁeld is given by 0|T (φ(x)φ(y))|0 = −i∆F (x − y) where ∆F (x) = − and ∆F (k) = k2 d4 k −ikx e ∆F (k) (2π)4 1 − m2 + i (1. t). t).80) 1 φ† = √ (φ1 − iφ2 ) 2 (1.

85) Using the expansion for the real ﬁelds φi (x) = we get φ(x) = 1 1 ∗ d3 k fk (x) √ (a1 (k) + ia2 (k)) + fk (x) √ (a† 1 (k) + ia† 2 (k)) 2 2 (1. t).88) (1.80). t)] = iδ 3 (x − y) and [φ(x. t)] = [φ† (x. φ† (y.with the corresponding constant of motion Q=i d3 x φ† ∂t φ (−) (1. t). t). b(k )] = [a(k). t)] = 0 (1. t).82) The commutation relations in the new basis are given by ˙ [φ(x. ˙ ∂φ Πφ† = ∂L ˙ =φ ˙ ∂ φ† (1.89) from which we can evaluate the commutation relations for the creation and annihilation operators in the complex basis [a(k). t)] = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ [φ(x.90) (1. t)] = [φ† (x. since Πφ = ∂L ˙ = φ† . t). b† (k )] = δ 3 (k − k ) [a(k).87) ∗ d3 k fk (x)ai (k) + fk (x)a† i (k) (1. b† (k )] = 0 13 (1.91) . a† (k )] = [b(k). φ† (y.83) (1. φ(y. φ(y. 2 it follows φ(x) = φ† (x) = ∗ d3 k fk (x)a(k) + fk (x)b† (k) ∗ d3 k fk (x)b(k) + fk (x)a† (k) 1 b(k) = √ (a1 (k) − ia2 (k)) 2 (1.84) Let us notice that these commutation relations could have also been obtained directly from the lagrangian (1. φ† (y.86) Introducing the combinations 1 a(k) = √ (a1 (k) + ia2 (k)).

92) Therefore the operators a† (k) e b† (k) both create particles states with momentum k. In this particular case.3 The Dirac Field The Dirac ﬁeld is described by the action S= V ¯ ˆ d4 x ψ(i∂ − m)ψ (1.ν − gν (ψ(i∂ − m)ψ) (1. For this reason we will avoid to describe this extension.94) 1. In principle.98) (1. From the general expression for the energy momentum tensor (see eq. as the original operators a† i .ν The momentum of the ﬁeld is given by Pk = d3 x T 0k =⇒ P = −i 14 d3 x ψ † ∇ψ (1.93) showing explicitly that a† and b† create particles of charge +1 and −1 respectively.33) we get µ µ ¯ ˆ ¯ Tν = iψγ µ ψ. For the normal ordered charge operator we get : Q := d3 k a† (k)a(k) − b† (k)b(k) (1. In fact a rigorous treatment requires an extension of the classical hamiltonian approach which was performed by Dirac himself.95) where we have used the following notations for four-vectors contracted with the γ matrices (1. the result one gets is the same as proceeding in a naive way.We get also 2 : Pµ := d kkµ i=1 3 a† i (k)ai (k) = d3 kkµ a† (k)a(k) + b† (k)b(k) (1.99) and using the Dirac equation µ ¯ Tν = iψγ µ ψ. ˙ ∂ψ Πψ† = ∂L =0 ˙ ∂ψ† (1. The only non vanishing propagator for the scalar ﬁeld is given by 0|T (φ(x)φ†(y))|0 = −i∆F (x − y) (1. and we will proceed as in the standard case.4. this creates a problem in going to the hamiltonian formalism.97) The canonical momenta do not depend on the velocities.100) .96) v ≡ vµ γ µ ˆ The canonical momenta result to be Πψ = ∂L = iψ † . 1.

107) The expression of J shows the decomposition of the total angular momentum in the orbital and in the spin part. M 12 ) = 1 d3 x ψ † −ix ∧ ∇ + σ ⊗ 12 ψ 2 σ 0 0 σ (1. For instance. ±n) solutions of the Dirac equation in momentum space for positive and negative energies respectively. 0.104) i 1 ¯ ¯ Mµ = iψγ µ xρ ∂ν − xν ∂ρ − σρν ψ = iψγ µ xρ ∂ν − xν ∂ρ + [γρ . ψ † (x) = 15 . n)eipx Ep (1. γν ] 2 4 Therefore the angular momentum density (see eq. 0. M 31 .108) m d(p. (1. n)e−ipx + b† (p.42)) is (1. 1). and we have deﬁned σ ⊗ 12 = (1.103) i 1 Σµν = σµν = − [γµ .102) ψ(x) (1. n)¯(p. n)e−ipx + d† (p. We will collect here the various properties of the spinors. The decomposition of the Dirac ﬁeld in plane waves is obtained by using the spinors u(p. We write ψ(x) = ±n d3 p (2π)3 d3 p (2π)3 m b(p. where Ep = |p| The four-vector nµ is the one that identiﬁes the direction of the spin quantization in the rest frame.and the hamiltonian H= d3 x T 00 =⇒ H = i d3 x ψ † ∂t ψ (1. the ¯ current ψγ µ ψ resulting from the phase invariance ψ → eiα ψ.106) where 12 is the identity matrix in 2 dimensions. ±n) e v(p. n)¯(p. The theory has a further conserved quantity. n)v(p. Then nµ is obtained by boosting from the R rest frame to the frame where the particle has four-momentum pµ .105) By taking the spatial components we obtain J = (M 23 . the ﬁeld variation is deﬁned by 1 ∆φi = − Σij 2 µν In the Dirac case one has i ∆ψ(x) = ψ (x ) − ψ(x) = − σµν 4 from which µν µν φj (1. n)u(p.101) For a Lorentz transformation.109) 2 + m2 . by quantizing the spin along the third axis one takes nµ in the rest frame as nµ = (0. γν ] ψ ρν 2 4 (1. n)eipx γ0 v u Ep ±n (1.

ψ(y. n ) = v † (p. p). n)v(p. n) = u(p. t). n)v(p. n)(ˆ + m) = 0 p ¯ p • Orthogonality u(p.95) becomes S= V ¯ ˆ ˆ d4 xψ(i∂ − eA − m)ψ (1.116) If we couple the Dirac ﬁeld to the electromagnetism through the minimal substitution we ﬁnd that the free action (1. n)u(p. t). t)]+ = iδ 3 (x − y) or ψ(x. n) + d† (p. t) + + =0 (1. n) = u ±n (1. t) and [Πψ (x. • Completeness u(p. −p). n) = v ±n The Dirac ﬁeld is quantized by canonical anticommutation relations in order to satisfy the Pauli principle [ψ(x. ψ(y. t)]+ = ψ † (x. n ) = v † (p. n)b(p. n)u(˜.110) (1. then pµ = (Ep . n ) = δnn ¯ v Ep δnn u† (p. n)¯(p.111) p+m ˆ 2m p−m ˆ 2m (1. ψ † (y. n)] (1.115) = δ 3 (x − y) The normal ordered four-momentum is given by : Pµ := ±n d3 p pµ [b† (p. n)¯(p. n)(ˆ − m) = 0 p ¯ p (ˆ + m)v(p. n ) = 0 ¯ p ˜ where. n ) = m v (p. n)u(p. n)d(p. t). if pµ = (Ep . n ) = −¯(p.117) Therefore the electromagnetic ﬁeld is coupled to the conserved current ¯ j µ = eψγ µ ψ 16 (1. ψ † (y. n)u(p.118) . n) = v (p.113) (1. t).• Dirac equation (ˆ − m)u(p.112) v(p.114) (1.

The propagator for the Dirac ﬁeld is given by ¯ 0|T (ψα(x)ψβ (y))|0 = iSF (x − y)αβ where ˆ SF (x) = −(i∂ + m)∆F (x) = and SF (k) = d4 k −ikx e SF (k) (2π)4 (1. −F 31 .126) ∂A .128) (1.125) In fact. n) − d† (p.4 The Electromagnetic Field The lagrangian density for the free electromagnetic ﬁeld. n)d(p.120) (1. Aµ and Aµ satisfy the same equations of motion and give rise to the same electromagnetic ﬁeld.122) 1.124) and E = −∇A0 − from which E = (F 10 . n) (1. n)b(p.123) L = − Fµν F µν 4 where Fµν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ (1. In fact. we ﬁnd :Q: = e = ±n d3 x ψ † ψ d3 p e b† (p. It is possible to use the gauge invariance to require some 17 .121) ˆ 1 k+m = ˆ k 2 − m2 + i k−m+i (1.119) The expressions for the momentum angular momentum and charge operators show that the operators b† (p) and d† (p) create out of the vacuum particles of spin 1/2. F 30 ).4. −F 12 ) (1. F 20 . The resulting equations of motion are Aµ − ∂µ (∂ ν Aν ) = 0 The potentials are deﬁned up to a gauge transformation Aµ (x) → Aµ (x) = Aµ (x) + ∂µ Λ(x) (1. expressed in terms of the four-vector potential is 1 (1. four-momentum pµ and charge e and −e respectively.This forces us to say that the integral of the fourth component of the current should be the charge operator. ∂t B =∇∧A (1.127) B = (−F 23 .

Another way of showing that there are only two independent degrees of freedom is through the equations of motion.130) (1.130) we see that Aµ has only two degrees of freedom.135) (1. λ = 1.131) Substituting this expression in the equations of motion we get −k 2 Aµ (k) + kµ (k ν Aν (k)) = 0 (1. Let us consider the four dimensional Fourier transform of Aµ (x) Aµ (x) = d4 k eikx Aµ (k) (1.particular condition on the ﬁeld Aµ .134) The term in b(k) cancels.136) The arbitrariness of b(k) is a consequence of the gauge invariance. k). it is easy to count the independent degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. λ = 1. 2. 2 (1. −k). k µ = (E.138) .132) Let us now decompose Aµ (k) in terms of four independent four vectors. From the equations (1. we can perform a gauge transformation in such a way that the transformed ﬁeld satisﬁes ∂µ Aµ = 0 This is called the Lorentz gauge. For instance. µ µ orthogonal to k k µ eλ = 0. which can ˜ be chosen as k µ = (E.133) µ The decomposition of Aµ (k) reads ˜ Aµ (k) = aλ (k)eλ + b(k)kµ + c(k)kµ µ From the equations of motion we get ˜ ˜ −k 2 (aλ eλ + bkµ + ckµ ) + kµ (bk 2 + c(k · k)) = 0 µ (1. therefore it is left undetermined by the equations of motion. and two further four vectors eλ (k).137) Aµ (x) → Aµ (x) + ∂µ Λ(x) then Aµ (k) → Aµ (k) + ikµ Λ(k) 18 (1.129) This is called the Coulomb gauge. For the other quantities we have k 2 aλ (k) = c(k) = 0 (1. In fact if we gauge transform Aµ (x) (1. Since in this gauge all the gauge freedom is completely ﬁxed (in contrast with the Lorentz gauge). Or we can choose a gauge such that A0 = ∇ · A = 0 (1.

µ 4 2 2 Therefore ∂L = −Aµ.143) [Aµ (x.147) We see that it is impossible to satisfy the condition [A0 (x.141) (1.140) showing that k µ Aµ (k) = 0. Due to the lack of manifest covariance of the Coulomb gauge we will discuss here the quantization in the Lorentz gauge. If we want to maintain the explicit covariance of the theory we have to require non trivial commutation relations for all the component of the ﬁeld. Therefore the choice b(k) = 0 is equivalent to the choice of the Lorentz gauge. Let us consider now the quantization of this theory.146) (1.ν + Aµ.142) (1. Πν (y.ν Πµ = It follows Π0 = ∂L = F µ0 ˙µ ∂A ∂L =0 ˙ ∂ A0 (1. we can always to choose it equal to zero.144) (1. 2. Πν (y.ν + Aν.ν Aν. t)] = [Πµ (x. Π0 (y.ν − Aν.ν Aµ. With the choice b(k) = 0.µ ][Aµ.139) Since the gauge transformation amounts to a translation in b(k) by an arbitrary function of k. t).where Λ(x) = d4 k eikx Λ(k) (1. This shows that the corresponding quanta will have zero mass. t)] = iδ 3 (x − y) 19 (1. Therefore we are left with the two degrees of freedom described by the amplitudes aλ (k). Aν (y. That is ν [Aµ (x. Furthermore these amplitudes are diﬀerent from zero only if the dispersion relation k 2 = 0 is satisﬁed. t).123) in the following form 1 1 1 L = − [Aµ. t)] = igµ δ 3 (x − y) (1. where however we will encounter other problems.ν − Aν.µ ] = − Aµ. t).145) implying (1. t). the ﬁeld Aµ (k) becomes Aµ (k) = aλ (k)eλ (k) µ (1. λ = 1.µ = F µν ∂Aµ. t)] = 0 with Πµ = ∂L ˙ ∂ Aµ To evaluate the conjugated momenta is better to write the lagrangian density (see eq.148) . (1.

153) 1 − (∂ µ Aµ )2 (1. (1. But doing so we will not recover the Maxwell equation.152) One can check that this form gives the correct equations of motion.ν Aν. ∂Aµ.ν Aν − (∂ µ Aµ. up to a four divergence.149) (just think to the Klein-Gordon case).ν + Aν.151) Then. (1.123).ν Aν − ∂ ν (∂ µ Aµ )Aν + (∂ µ Aµ )2 2 2 2 (1.µ − g µν (∂ λ Aλ ).We can try to ﬁnd a solution to this problem modifying the lagrangian density in such a way that Π0 = 0. we could add to the original lagrangian density a term of the form λ − (∂ µ Aµ )2 2 The corresponding equations of motion would be Aµ − (1 − λ)∂ µ (∂ λ Aλ ) = 0 20 (1.ν we get 0 = − Aµ + ∂ µ (∂ ν Aν ) − ∂ µ (∂ λ Aλ ) = − Aµ the term (1.154) ∂L =0 ∂Aµ (1.150) (1. we can write the new lagrangian density in the form 1 1 L = − Fµν F µν − (∂ µ Aµ )2 4 2 (1. The minus sign is necessary to recover a positive hamiltonian density. is called the gauge ﬁxing term. For instance.ν 2 (1. given in eq. in the Lorentz gauge we have Aµ (x) = 0 and this equation can be obtained by the lagrangian density 1 L = − Aµ.156) . modifying the lagrangian density in such a way to recover the equations of motion in a particular gauge. In fact from ∂L = −Aµ. More generally.144) 1 1 1 Aµ. To this end we observe that the diﬀerence between the two lagrangian densities is nothing but the second term of eq.155) 2 which is not gauge invariant. We now express this lagrangian density in terms of the gauge invariant one.ν )Aν 2 2 2 1 1 1 = ∂ µ Aµ.157) (1.µ = ∂ µ Aµ.ν Aµ. However we can take advantage of the gauge symmetry.

Notice that now k 2 = 0. the canonical commutator (1. being orthogonal to nµ are space-like.159).159) The price to pay to quantize the theory in a covariant way is to work in a Hilbert space much bigger than the physical one.161) Since the spatial gradient of the ﬁeld commutes with the ﬁeld itself at equal time. t)] = −igµν δ 3 (x − y) (1. t).153) we see that Π0 = ∂L = −∂ µ Aµ ˙ ∂ A0 (1. explicitly ˙ Π0 = −∂ λ Aλ = −A0 − ∇ · A ˙ Πi = ∂ i A0 − ∂ 0 Ai = −Ai + ∂ i A0 (1. The physical states span a subspace which is deﬁned by the previous relation. On the contrary.160) ˙ ∂ Aµ or. (1. Since we don’t have to worry any more about the operator condition Π0 = 0. n2 = 1. 2 (1. λ = 1. in the Coulomb gauge. We will come back later to the condition (1.162) To get the quanta of the ﬁeld we look for plane wave solutions of the wave equation. To avoid the corresponding problem we can ask that ∂ µ Aµ = 0 does not hold as an operator condition. Therefore kµ (λ) (λ) µ = nµ (λ) µ = 0. From eq. 0. 2.163) The four vectors µ . The canonical momentum densities are ∂L Πµ = = F µ0 − g µ0 (∂ λ Aλ ) (1. nµ = (1. Then we take two four vectors µ .since we are considering solutions of the wave equation. let us consider the unit four vector which deﬁnes the time axis. 0). Aν (y. A further bonus is that in this way one has to do with local commutation relations. but rather as a condition upon the physical states phys|∂ µ Aµ |phys = 0 (1. For instance. We need four independent four vectors in order to expand the solutions in the momentum space. then they will be chosen orthogonal and normalized in the following way (λ) (λ ) µ µ = −δλλ (1. and we will choose (λ) n0 > 0. 0. λ = 1.in the plane orthogonal to nµ and k µ . we can proceed with our program of canonical quantization.141) gives rise to ˙ [Aµ (x.158) In the Lorentz gauge we ﬁnd again Π0 = 0.In the following we will use λ = 1. In a given frame. one needs to introduce non local commutation relations for the canonical variables. This must be a time-like vector.164) 21 .

0.63) (λ) µ (k)aλ (k) =i ∗ d3 x fk (x)∂t Aµ (x) (−) (1. 0. orthogonal to nµ and lying in the plane (k. Using the orthogonality of the (λ ) µ ’s we ﬁnd µ (−) ∗ (1.165) with (3) (3) (3) µ µ (λ) µ .166) By construction µ is orthogonal to the previous conditions. 0) and k µ = (k. 0.Next. n) . we have (1) µ = (0. 0. 0). For any ﬁxed µ. Then they satisfy the completeness relation (λ) (λ ) µ ν gλλ = gµν (1. 0.174) d3 x (λ ) (k)fk (x)∂t Aµ (x) aλ (k) = igλλ and analogously a† (k) = igλλ λ d3 x (λ ) µ (k)Aµ (x)∂t fk (x) (−) (1. (3) µ = (0. (2) µ = (0. and we get (3) µ This four vector is completely ﬁxed by = kµ − (n · k)nµ (n · k) (1.169) and linearly independent. we deﬁne a unit space-like four vector. this expansion is the same as the one that we wrote for the Klein-Gordon ﬁeld. nµ (3) µ = 0 (1. 0.172) where we have included the hermiticity condition for Aµ (x). from eq. 0). k).173) with the functions fk (x) deﬁned as in eq.175) 22 . 1) (1.53).167) As a last unit four vector we choose nµ (0) µ = nµ (1. = −1 (1.168) These four vectors are orthonormal (λ) (λ ) µ µ = g λλ (1. (1. Then.170) In the frame where nµ = (1. 1. (1.171) The plane wave expansion of Aµ is Aµ (x) = d3 k 2ωk (2π)3 3 (λ) µ (k) λ=0 aλ (k)e−ikx + a† (k)eikx λ (1. with the (λ) substitution µ aλ (k) → a(k). 1.

a† (k )] = −gλλ δ 3 (k − k ) λ Analogously [aλ (k). However. So we will try to modify the condition in a linear one ∂ µ Aµ |phys. let us notice that formulated in the way we did. a† (k )] = λ = ∗ d3 x d3 y − fk (x)f˙ (y) igµν gλλ k (λ ) µ (λ ) µ (λ ) ν (k) (k )gλ λ δ 3 (x − y) ∗ − f˙k (x)fk (y) −igµν gλλ (k) (λ ) ν (k )gλ λ δ 3 (x − y) (1.178) The commutation rules we have derived for the operators aλ (k) create some problem. are physical states. Not even the vacuum state satisﬁes it.182) λ=0 23 . it could destroy the linearity of the Hilbert space.From these expressions we can evaluate the commutator [aλ (k). a† (k )] = 0 λ λ (1.181) But this would be a too strong requirement. This problem does not come out completely unexpected. our expectation is that only the transverse states (λ = 1.177) (1. λ|1. a† (k )|0 λ d3 k |f (k)|2 (1. For the moment being we have ignored the gauge ﬁxing condition phys|∂ µ Aµ |phys = 0. being bilinear in the states. Therefore the relevant thing is to show that the states satisfying the Lorentz condition have positive norm. 2). λ = = d3 k d3 k f (k)f (k ) 0|aλ (k)a† (k )|0 λ d3 k d3 k f (k)f (k ) 0|[aλ (k). Let us consider a one-particle state |1. aλ (k )] = [a† (k). In fact. = 0 (1.176) = − ∗ d3 x fk (x)i∂t fk (x)gλλ (−) and using the orthogonality relations for the functions f )k [aλ (k).180) d3 k f (k)a† (k)|0 λ (1. but its meaning is that only part of the total Hilbert space is physical. µ (k)aλ (k)e (−) Aµ (x) = (A(+) (x))† (1. To discuss the gauge ﬁxing condition. if we consider the positive and negative frequency parts of the ﬁeld A(+) (x) = µ d3 k 2ωk (2π)3 3 (λ) −ikx . λ = its norm is given by 1.179) = −gλλ Therefore the states with λ = 0 have negative norm.

and with n3 longitudinal photons (that is with polarization µ (k)).190) More generally we can make the following observation. For instance Na† (k)|0 = − 0 d3 k a† (k )[a0 (k ). a† (k)]|0 = a† (k)|0 0 0 0 (1.188) Let us denote by Φk (n0 . and require ∂ µ A(+) (x)|phys.187) (1.183) (1. kµ (0) µ = (n · k) (1. we get kµ from which [a0 (k) − a3 (k)]|phys.|(∂ µ A(+) + ∂ µ Aµ )|phys.189) These states have vanishing norm ||Φk ||2 = 0 (m) (1. (1. = 0 µ This allows us to satisfy automatically the original requirement (−) phys. = 0 µ (1. a† (k ) − a† (k )] = −δ 3 (k − k ) + δ 3 (k − k ) = 0 0 3 (3) µ d3 k e−ikx kµ 2ωk (2π)3 λ=0.186) (1. and it ensures that N has positive eigenvalues. Then the following states satisfy the condition (1.it is possible to weaken the condition.192) 24 . Let us consider the number operator for scalar and longitudinal photons N= d3 k (a† (k)a3 (k) − a† (k)a0 (k)) 3 0 (1. 0) 3 m! (1.167).183) Φk (m) = 1 † (a0 (k) − a† (k))m Φk (0. = 0 Notice that [a0 (k) − a3 (k).191) Notice the minus sign that is a consequence of the commutation relations.3 (λ) µ (k)aλ (k) (1.185) = −(n · k). n3 ) the state with n0 scalar photons (that is with polarization (0) (3) µ (k)).184) (+) To make this condition more explicit let us evaluate the four divergence of Aµ i∂ µ A(+) (x) = µ Using eq.

| d3 k ωk λ=1 a† (k)aλ (k)|phys. Of course. For instance. consider the hamiltonian.187)).195) A generic physical state with zero transverse photons is a linear superposition of the previous states ci |ϕi (1. the coeﬃcients ci .Let us consider a physical state with a total number n of scalar and longitudinal photons. = phys.|H|phys.197) The proof that a physical state has a positive norm can be extended to the case in which also transverse photons are present. but this is not going to modify the values of the observables.199) Since on the physical states a0 and a3 act in the same way.200) 25 .198) One can easily show the hamiltonian is given by the sum of all the degrees of freedom appearing in Aµ 1 H = 2 = 3 dx : i=1 3 3 2 ˙ ˙ A2 + (∇Ai )2 − A2 − ∇A0 : i 0 d3 k ωk : λ=1 a† (k)aλ (k) − a† (k)a0 (k) : 0 λ (1. Then ϕn |N|ϕn = 0 (1.0 (1.193) since a0 and a3 act in the same way on a physical state (see eq. Then ϕn |ϕn = δn. (1. appearing in the expression of a physical state. λ (1.194) Therefore all the physical states with a total deﬁnite number of scalar and longitudinal photons have zero norm. except for the vacuum state (n = 0). we have H = = ˙ d3 x : [Πµ Aµ − L] : 1 1 ˙ ˙ d3 x : F µ0 Aµ − (∂ λ Aλ )A0 + Fµν F µν + (∂ λ Aλ )2 : 4 2 (1. we get 2 phys. It follows n ϕn |ϕn = 0 (1. are completely arbitrary.196) |ϕ = c0 |ϕ0 + i=0 This state has a positive deﬁnite norm ϕ|ϕ = |c0 |2 ≥ 0 (1.

Consider the following matrix element ϕ|Aµ (x)|ϕ = n. we can always choose |ϕ proportional to |ϕ0 .The generic physical state is of the form |ϕT ⊗ |ϕ . this does not mean that we are always working in the restricted physical space.201) Since Aµ change the occupation number by one unit and all the states |ϕn have zero norm (except for the state with n = 0).196). the only non vanishing contributions come from n = 0.c.c. that is it corresponds to perform a gauge transformation.208) 26 . (1.168) we have (3) µ + (0) µ = kµ (k · n) (1.205) from which ϕ|Aµ (x)|ϕ = ∂µ Λ(x) with Λ(x) = d3 k 2ωk (2π)3 1 (ic c1 e−ikx f (k) + c. (1. This is crucial for the explicit covariance and locality of the theory. m = 1 and n = 1. because in a sum over the intermediate states we need to include all the degrees of freedom.] (1. since Λ=0 (1. m = 0 ϕ|Aµ (x)|ϕ = c0 c1 0| d3 k 2ωk (2π)3 e−ikx [ (3) µ (k)a3 (k) + (0) µ (k)a0 (k)]|ϕ1 + c.207) It is important to notice that this gauge transformation leaves Aµ in the Lorentz gauge.167) and (1.) n·k 0 (1. contributes to the evaluation of an observable quantity .203) + (0) −ikx f (k) µ (k)][c0 c1 e + c.m cn cm ϕn |Aµ (x)|ϕm (1. Since only |ϕT . It corresponds to add to Aµ a four gradient.c.206) (1.202) In order to satisfy the gauge condition the state |ϕ1 must be of the form |ϕ1 = and therefore ϕ|Aµ (x)|ϕ = d3 k 2ωk (2π)3 [ (3) µ (k) d3 q f (q)[a† (q) − a† (q)]|0 3 0 (1. a very simple interpretation. The arbitrariness in deﬁning the state |ϕ has.204) From eqs. in fact. with |ϕ deﬁned as in eq. (1. However.

The amplitude is Sf i = Φf |Φ(+∞) (1.216) . It follows that our ideal description will be correct only if these times are much bigger than the typical interaction time of the scattering process. ideally. (1. in QED we will have to specify how many electrons.214) We will deﬁne the S matrix as the operator that give us |Φ(+∞) once we know |Φ(−∞) |Φ(+∞) = S|Φ(−∞) (1. Once we know Φ(+∞). we are interested to evaluate the probability amplitude of detecting at t = +∞ a given set of free particles speciﬁed by a vector state Φf .5 1.172) one gets immediately the expression for the photon propagator 0|T (Aµ (x)Aν (y)|0 = −igµν By deﬁning D(x) = and D(k) = − we get 0|T (Aµ(x)Aν (y)|0 = igµν D(x − y) (1. the spin projection of fermions and the polarization of the photons.215) The amplitude Sf i is then Sf i = Φf |S|Φi 27 (1.211) 1.210) d4 k e−ikx (2π)4 k 2 + i (1.1 Perturbation Theory The Scattering Matrix In order to describe a scattering process we will assign to the vector of state a condition at t = −∞ |Φ(−∞) ≡ |Φi (1. From the expansion in eq. In practice the preparation and the detection processes are made at some ﬁnite times.212) d4 k −ikx e D(k) (2π)4 1 k2 + i (1. where.209) (1.213) where the state Φi will be speciﬁed by assigning the set of incoming free particles in terms of eigenstates of momentum. positrons and photons are in the initial state and we will have to specify their momenta. we will detect the ﬁnal states. The equations of motion will tell us how this state evolves with time and it will be possible to evaluate the state at t = +∞.5. For instance. spin and so on.because the momentum k inside the integral satisﬁes k 2 = 0.

Therefore Sf i is the S matrix element between free states (|Φi and Φf | are called in and out states respectively). and that it satisﬁes explicitly the boundary condition at t = −∞. In the interaction representation deﬁned by 0 |Φ(t) = eiHS t |ΦS (t) .217) 0 where the index S identiﬁes the Schr¨dinger representation and HS is the free hamilo tonian. 0 0 O(t) = eiHS t OS (t)e−iHS t (1. also the S matrix enjoys the same property.224) It follows that if the theory is Lorentz invariant. The result in terms of ordered T -products is ∞ +∞ (−i)n +∞ S =1+ dt1 · · · dtn T H I (t1 ) · · · H I (tn ) (1. the state vectors satisfy the Schr¨dinger equation with the interaction hamilo tonian (evaluated in the interaction picture) ∂ (1.223) If there are no derivative interactions we have +∞ −i S=T e dt H I (t) −∞ +i =T e d4 x Lint (1.220) n! −∞ −∞ n=1 The T -product of n terms means that the factors have to be written from left to right with decreasing times. then T H I (t1 ) · · · H I (tn ) = H I (t1 ) · · · H I (tn ) (1. The motivation for introducing the T -ordered exponential is that it satisﬁes the following factorization property t3 t3 t2 O(t)dt T e t1 O(t)dt =T e t2 O(t)dt T e t1 (1.218) |Φ(t) = HI |Φ(t) ∂t whereas the operators evolve with the free hamiltonian.221) This result can be written in a more compact form by introducing the T -ordered exponential +∞ −i S=T e dt H I (t) −∞ (1. if t1 ≥ t2 ≥ · · · ≥ tn . To evaluate the S matrix we ﬁrst transform the Schr¨dinger equation in the interaction representation in an o integral equation i |Φ(t) = |Φ(−∞) − i t −∞ dt1 H I (t1 )|Φ(t1 ) (1. 28 .222) This expression is a symbolic one and it is really deﬁned by its series expansion. The perturbative expansion consists in evaluating |Φ(t) by iterating this integral equation. For instance.219) One can verify that this is indeed a solution.

225) in a series of j(x) and compare term by term. it is enough to consider all the possible contractions of the ﬁelds appearing in the T -product.230) 29 . Let us now expand both sides of eq. The T -product of two ﬁeld operators is sometimes called the contraction of the two operators. We get T (φ) = : φ : (1.227) T (φ1 φ2 φ3 ) = : φ1 φ2 φ3 : + i=j=k=1 : φi : 0|T (φj φk )|0 (1. By taking the VEV of these expression. from the last of the previous relations we get 4 0|T (φ1φ2 φ3 φ4 )|0 = i=j=k=l=1 0|T (φiφj )|0 0|T (φk φl )|0 (1. (1. These V EV s satisfy an important theorem due to Wick that states that the T -products of an arbitrary number of free ﬁelds (the ones we have to do in the interaction representation) can be expressed as combinations of T -products among two ﬁelds. Therefore to evaluate the VEV of a T -product of an arbitrary number of free ﬁelds.225) where φ(x) is a free real scalar ﬁeld and j(x) an ordinary real function. We will use the simpliﬁed notation φi ≡ φ(xi ). The Wick’s theorem is summarized in the following equation −i T e −i =: e d4 x j(x)φ(x) d4 x j(x)φ(x) 1 − :e 2 d4 x d4 y j(x)j(y) 0|T (φ(x)φ(y))|0 (1.5.226) T (φ1 φ2 ) = : φ1 φ2 : + 0|T (φ1φ2 )|0 3 (1.229) 0|T (φiφj )|0 0|T (φk φl )|0 and so on. For instance. fermionic and photon ﬁelds. and recalling that the VEV of a normal product is zero. The Wick’s theorem is then obtained by expanding both sides of this equation in powers of j(x) and taking the VEV of both sides. that is in terms of Feynman propagators.1. The previous formula can be easily extended to charged scalar.2 Wick’s theorem The matrix elements of the S matrix between free particle states can be expressed as vacuum expectation values (VEV’s) of T -products. we get the Wick’s theorem.228) 4 T (φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 ) = + : φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 : + i=j=k=l=1 : φi φj : 0|T (φk φl )|0 (1.

This gives a minus sign any time we have a permutation of the fermion ﬁelds which is odd with respect to the original ordering. 4) appearing on the right hand side. = −ie φ† ∂µ φ − (∂µ φ† )φ Aµ + e2 A2 φ† φ Therefore the electromagnetic ﬁeld is coupled to the current jµ = ie φ† ∂µ φ − (∂µ φ† )φ (1. For the fermions one has to remember that the T -product is deﬁned in a slightly diﬀerent way.3 Feynman diagrams in momentum space We will discuss here the Feynman rules for the scalar and spinor QED.232) 1. Let us recall that the electromagnetic interaction is introduced via the minimal substitution ∂µ → ∂µ + ieAµ For instance.234) (1.233) but another interaction term appears (the seagull term). As an illustration the previous formula becomes 4 0|T (ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 ψ4 )|0 = i=j=k=l=1 σP 0|T (ψi ψj )|0 0|T (ψk ψl )|0 (1. k.5. for the charged scalar ﬁeld we get 1 Lfree = ∂µ φ† ∂ µ φ − m2 φ† φ − Fµν F µν → 4 1 → [(∂µ + ieAµ )φ)]† [(∂ µ + ieAµ ) φ] − m2 φ† φ − Fµν F µν 4 The interaction part is given by Lint. 2. l) with respect to the fundamental one (1. 3.238) (1.235) (1. In the spinor case we have a simpler situation 1 1 ¯ ˆ ¯ ˆ ˆ Lfree = ψ(i∂ − m)ψ − Fµν F µν → ψ(i∂ − eA − m)ψ − Fµν F µν 4 4 giving the interaction term ¯ Lint = −eψγµ ψAµ 30 (1.237) . j.An analogous theorem holds for the photon ﬁeld.236) (1.231) where σP = ±1 is the sign of the permutation (i. More explicitly 0|T (ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 ψ4 )|0 = − + 0|T (ψ1 ψ2 )|0 0|T (ψ3ψ4 )|0 0|T (ψ1 ψ3 )|0 0|T (ψ2ψ4 )|0 0|T (ψ1 ψ4 )|0 0|T (ψ2ψ3 )|0 (1.

bosons 1 2EV ext. At the same time we measure momenta and polarizations of the ﬁnal states. after extraction of the factor (2π)4 δ 4 ( p) in (1. . The Feynman amplitude M (often one deﬁnes a matrix T wich diﬀers from M by a factor i) can be obtained by drawing at a given perturbative order all the connected and topologically inequivalent Feynman’s diagrams. The diagrams are obtained by combining together the graphics elements given in Figures 1. For this reason it is convenient to work in a momentum representation. 1. etc.5. The result for a generic matrix element of the S matrix can be expressed in the following form f |S|i = (2π)4 δ 4 ( in pin − out pout ) ext.5.1 . polarization. 31 .Graphical representation for the vertices in scalar and spinor QED.1 and 1.2 . .239) VE Here f = i.In a typical experiment in particle physics we prepare beams of particles with definite momentum.239).5. fermions m M (1. 1.2.5.Graphical representation for both internal and external particle lines. The amplitude M is given by the sum of the amplitudes associated to these diagrams. Fermion line Photon line Scalar line Fig. QED vertex Scalar QED seagull Fig. and we are using the box normalization.

3 . This gives rise automatically to the conservation of the total four-momentum.5.A fermion loop can appear inside any Feynman diagram (attaching the rest of the diagram by photonic lines). The 32 . 1. Fermion loop Fig. ﬁeld. where p and p are the momenta of the scalar particle (taking p ingoing and p outgoing) • For each seagull term in scalar QED a factor 2ie2 gµν (2π)4 δ 4 ( • for each vertex in spinor QED a factor −ieγµ (2π)4 δ 4 ( ingoing in pi − out pf ) pf ) pi − outgoing • Integrate over all the internal momenta with measure d4 p/(2π)4 .5. 1.m.3) .4.At each diagram we associate an amplitude obtained by multiplying together the following factors • for each ingoing and/or outgoing external photon line a factor λ (or its comµ plex conjugate for outgoing photons if we consider complex polarizations as the circular one) • for each ingoing and/or outgoing external fermionic line a factor u(p) and/or u(p) ¯ • for each ingoing and/or outgoing external antifermionic line a factor v (p) ¯ and/or v(p) • for each internal scalar line a factor i∆F (p) (propagator) • for each internal photon line a factor ig µν D(p) (propagator) • for each internal fermion line a factor iSF (p) (propagator) • for each vertex in scalar QED a factor −ie(p + p )(2π)4 δ 4 ( in pi − out pf ). The correspending graphical element is given in Fig. 1.5. • In a graph containing closed lines (loops). In the following we will use need also the rules for the interaction with a static external e. a factor (−1) for each fermionic loop (see Fig.

243) .rule is to treat it as a normal photon.242) where M is the Feynman amplitude which can be evaluated by using the rules of the previous Section. pi ) which collide and produce a set of ﬁnal particles with four momenta pf = (Ef . the probability per unit time of the transition is given by w = |Sf i |2 with w = V (2π)4 δ 4 (Pf − Pi ) i 1 2V Ei 33 f 1 2V Ef (2m)|M|2 fermioni (1. Therefore.241) where q is the momentum in transfer at the vertex where the external ﬁeld line is attached to. since the static external ﬁeld breaks translational invariance. Furthermore the conservation of the total four momentum gives a term (2π)4 δ 4 ( i pi − f pf ).240) µ (q) 2EV with the Fourier transform of the external ﬁeld Aext (q ) = µ d3 qe−iq · x Aext (x ) µ (1.4 .5. 1. The upper end of the line can be attached to any fermion line. Fig. If we exclude the uninteresting case f = i we can write Sf i = (2π) δ 4 4 i pi − f pf fermioni m VE 1/2 bosoni 1 2V E 1/2 M (1. From the rules of the previous Chapter we know that each external photon line contributes with a factor (1/2V E)1/2 . . whereas each external fermionic line contributes with (m/V E)1/2 . 1.4 The cross-section Let us consider a scattering process with a set of initial particles with four momenta pi = (Ei . except that one needs to substitute the wave function of the photon 1/2 1 (λ) (1. Also. pf ).5. Let us consider the typical case of a two particle collision giving rise to an N particles ﬁnal state. we loose the factor (2π)3 δ( in pin − out pout ).Graphical representation for an external electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Furthermore.250) Notice that the dependence on the quantization volume V disappears. Since in the volume V the momentum is given by p = 2πn/L. since in our normalization we have a particle in the volume V . 34 . which is obtained by integrating the previous expression over all the ﬁnal momenta.244) w gives the probability per unit time of a transition toward a state with well deﬁned quantum numbers.where. the number of ﬁnal states is given by L 2π 3 d3 p (1.249) vrel vrel f (2π)3 We obtain dσ = V vrel 1 V d 3 pf V (2π)4 δ 4 (Pf − Pi ) 2 (2π)3 4V E1 E2 1 4E1 E2 vrel (2m) fermioni f f f 1 2V Ef 3 (2m)|M|2 fermioni = (2π)4 δ 4 (Pf − Pi ) d pf |M|2 (2π)3 2Ef (1.247) d3 x m † u (p)u(p) = 1 VE (1. and has the dimensions of a length to the square [t−1 2 t] = [ 2 ] (1. for reasons of convenience. For the bosons this follows from the normalization condition of the functions fk (x). but we are rather interested to the ﬁnal states having momenta between pf and pf + dpf . For the fermions recall that in the box normalization the wave function is m u(p)e−ipx EV from which d3 xρ(x) = V V (1. in the ﬁnal equation.246) In fact the ﬂux is deﬁned as vrel ρ = vrel /V . the total cross-section. is Lorentz invariant. as it should be.245) The cross-section is deﬁned as the probability per unit time divided by the ﬂux of the ingoing particles. and vrel is the relative velocity of the ingoing particles.248) Then the cross-section for getting the ﬁnal states with momenta between pf e pf +dpf is given by V V V d 3 pf dσ = w dNF = w (1. we have written 1 m = (2m) VE 2V E (1.

from which E1 E2 |vrel | = E1 m2 = |p1 | = m2 |p1 | = m2 E1 2 E1 − m2 1 2 m2 E1 − m2 m2 = 2 1 2 (p1 · p2 )2 − m2 m2 1 2 (1.252) We see that also this factor is Lorentz invariant.251) E1 E2 but in the frame where the particle 2 is at rest (laboratory frame) we have p2 = (m2 . 0) and vrel = v1 .In fact. as it follows from the Feynman rules. Furthermore p1 p2 vrel = v1 − v2 = − (1. 35 . as the factors d3 p/2E. M is invariant.

The Feynman diagram for the Coulomb scattering at the third order in the electric charge and at the ﬁrst order in the external ﬁeld.p ' ' ' p b) p' k p. 2. p p' = p. 36 .p a) p k c) p' p-k k+q p. . 2.1 .1. and we assume that the external ﬁeld is weak enough such to take only the ﬁrst order.k k p.1 Divergences of the Feynman integrals Let us consider the Coulomb scattering.Chapter 2 One-loop renormalization 2.p p p. we can easily see that the relevant Feynman diagrams are the ones of Fig.p p p p'. If we expand the S matrix up to the third order in the electric charge.k p' k p.1.k p.p ' ' ' p p' p.1 .p ' ' d) Fig.

To show this.3) or Σ(p) = i (2. from which we get an expansion of the type ephys = e + a2 e3 + · · · = e(1 + a2 e2 + · · ·) (2.7) i (−ieγ µ )Aext (p − p)u(p) µ p −m+i ˆ q =p −p (2. the integrand behaves as 1/k 3 and the integral diverges linearly. This is done assuming that the amplitude is linear in ephys .9) d4 k 1 1 γµ γν Tr ˆ+q−m k−m+i ˆ (2π)4 k ˆ (2. to deﬁne the physical electric charge of the electron.1.The Coulomb scattering can be used. p)u(p)Aext (p − p) µ 37 (2. Analogously one can check that all the other third order contributions diverge. for instance the self-energy contribution to one of the external photons (as the one in Fig.5) (2. We have Ma = u(p )(−ieγ µ )Aext (p − p) ¯ µ where ie2 Σ(p) = i d4 k −ig µν (−ieγν ) (−ieγµ ) 2 4 (2π) k +i p−k−m+i ˆ ˆ d4 k 1 1 γµ = −e2 γ 4 µ k2 + i (2π) p−k−m+i ˆ ˆ d4 k p−k+m ˆ ˆ 1 γµ 2 γµ 4 2 − m2 + i (2π) (p − k) k +i i p−m+i ˆ ie2 Σ(p) u(p) (2. The ﬁrst problem we encounter is that we would like to have the results of our calculation in terms of measured quantities as ephys . in principle. 2.1) in terms of the parameter e which appears in the original lagrangian. k. Let us write explicitly the amplitudes for the other diagrams ¯ Mb = u(p )ie2 Σ(p ) Mc = u(p )(−ieγ µ ) ¯ where ie2 Πµν (q) = (−1) i d4 k i Tr (−ieγ µ ) (−ieγ ν ) 4 ˆ+q−m+i ˆ−m+i (2π) k ˆ k (2. but. ρ q2 + i (the minus sign originates from the fermion loop) and therefore Πµν (q) = i The last contribution is ¯ Md = u(p )(−ie)e2 Λµ (p . the coeﬃcient of the expansion are divergent quantities.2) (2.8) . consider.4) For large momentum.6) −igµν 2 νρ ie Π (q)Aext (p − p)u(p).1a). This could be done by inverting the previous expansion. and here comes the second problem.

1). That is we give a prescription in order to make the integrals ﬁnite. This bring us to the other problem. this cancellation is not obvious at all. We will say that the theory is renormalizable when this dependence cancels out. in a simpliﬁed context. We will give these criteria without a proof but we will try only to justify them On a physical basis. As far QED is concerned we will study in detail the renormalization at one-loop. (2.10) The problem of the divergences is a serious one and in order to give some sense to the theory we have to deﬁne a way to deﬁne our integrals. as for instance QED.11) d4 k i −igαβ i (−ieγ α ) γµ (−ieγ β ) 2 4 ˆ (2π) k +i p −k−m+i ˆ p−k−m+i ˆ ˆ (2. We will not discuss the renormalization at all order and neither we will prove which criteria a theory should satisfy in order to be renormalizable. the inversion of eq. Consider again the Coulomb scattering. otherwise we would have to look for some physical meaning of the regularization procedure we choose. as we shall see later by the more convenient means of dimensional regularization. a priori we will introduce in the observables a dependence on the renormalization procedure.12) VE where M(1) = u(p )(−ieγ µ )u(p)Aext (p − p ) ¯ (2. and removing the cut-oﬀ (that is by taking the limit for the cut-oﬀ going to the inﬁnity). Of course. (f = i) m Sf i = (2π)δ(Ef − Ei ) M(1) (2. However there is a restrict class of renormalizable theories.1.where e2 Λµ (p . p) = −i d4 k α 1 1 1 γµ γα 2 γ 4 ˆ (2π) k +i p −k−m+i ˆ p−k−m+i ˆ ˆ (2. as introducing an ultraviolet cut-oﬀ. the previous considerations. the result should be ﬁnite. At the lowest order the Feynman amplitude in presence of an external static electromagnetic ﬁeld is simply given by the following expression (see Fig. p) = or Λµ (p .2 Higher order corrections In this section we will illustrate. This can be done in various ways. 2. or. Thinking to the regularization in terms of a cut-oﬀ this means that considering the observable quantities in terms of ephys . and in fact in most of the theories this does not happen. Since now the coeﬃcients are ﬁnite we can indeed perform the inversion and obtaining e as a function of ephys and obtain all the observables in terms of the physical electric charge (that is the one measured in the Coulomb scattering).1).13) µ 38 . However. we want that the theory does not depend on the way in which we deﬁne the integrals. By doing so. This is what is called the regularization procedure of the Feynman integrals. 2.

20) The sum gives a result very similar the to one obtained from M(1) alone. For instance.17) −ig µν ext = u(p )(−ieγµ )u(p) 2 ¯ (−ijν (p − p)) q +i (2. 2. Since we have Aµ = jµ we can invert this equation in momentum space. 0) (2. The lowest order result is at the order e2 in the electric charge. ﬁeld.1c gives one of these contribution. However the result is tied to a theoretical equation evaluated at the lowest order in e.14) is the Fourier transform of the static e. and again extract the value of e from the data. In the case of a point-like source. the diagram in Fig.15) µ 4π|x| For the following it is more convenient to re-express the previous amplitude in terms of the external current generating the external e.m. This is usually referred to as the vacuum polarization contribution and in this Section we will consider only this correction.16) gµν ν j (q) q2 + i (2. but with the photon propagator modiﬁed in the following way −ig µν −ig µν −ig µρ 2 −ig λν −ig µν −ie2 Πµν → + (ie Πρλ (q 2 )) 2 = + q2 q2 q2 q q2 q4 (2.6) and (2. In order to get a better determination one has to evaluate the higher order corrections.21) 39 . In this way we get a measure of the electric charge. This contribution is given in eqs. (2. the next-to-leading contributions ar at the order e4 .m. of charge Ze we have Ze Aext (x) = (− .18) (2. ﬁeld.and Aext (q) = µ d3 x Aext (x)e−iq · x µ (2. This quantity could be measured and then we could compare the result with the theoretical result obtained from the previous expression.1.19) From these expressions one can get easily the diﬀerential cross-section dσ/dΩ.7). 0) (1) (2. by getting Aµ (q) = − from which M with ext jµ (x) = (Zeδ 3 (x). just to exemplify how the renormalization procedure works. The total result is M(1) + Mc = u(p )(−ieγµ )u(p) ¯ −ig µν −ig µρ 2 −ig λν + 2 (ie Πρλ ) 2 q2 + i q +i q +i xt (−ijν (q)) (2.

2.2.26) Summarizing the propagator undergoes the following modiﬁcation −ig µν −ig λν → [1 − e2 I(q 2 )] q2 q2 This relation is shown in graphical terms in Fig.27) + Fig. In fact.23) p4 The corresponding divergence is only logarithmic.25) For small values of q 2 (−q 2 << m2 ) one can expand the logarithm obtaining I(q 2 ) ≈ 1 Λ2 1 q2 log 2 + 12π 2 m 60π 2 m2 (2. We will see that the correct behaviour is given by d4 p (2. The total result is then ¯ M(1) + Mc = u(p )(−ieγ0 )u(p) −i q2 1− e2 Λ2 e2 q 2 log 2 − 12π 2 m 60π 2 m2 (−iZe) (2. the real divergence is weaker due to the gauge invariance.2.1.As discussed in the previous Section Πµν is a divergent quantity. By evaluating it with a cut-oﬀ we get Πµν (q 2 ) = −gµν q 2 I(q 2 ) + · · · (2. 2.1 . at high values of the momentum it behaves as d4 p p2 (2. they do not contribute to the ﬁnal result. but in any case the integral is divergent.The vacuum polarization correction to the propagator. As we shall see later on. This follows by evaluating the integral by cutting the upper limit by a cut-oﬀ Λ.24) The terms omitted are proportional to q µ q ν .22) and therefore it diverges in a quadratic way. and since the photon is always attached to a conserved current. . The functions I(q 2 ) can be evaluated by various tricks (we will evaluate it explicitly in the following) and the result is 1 Λ2 1 I(q ) = log 2 − 2 2 12π m 2π 2 1 dz z(1 − z) log 1 − 0 q 2 z(1 − z) m2 (2.28) 40 . (2.

The graphs in Fig. It follows that the parameter e. must diverge for Λ → ∞. the divergent part coming from the self-energy and vertex corrections cancel out (see later).29) In term of eR and taking into account that we are working at the order e4 we can write e2 q 2 −i (1) M + Mc = uf (ieR γ0 )ui 2 1 − R 2 2 (−iZeR ) ¯ (2. We have seen that the measured electric charge is diﬀerent from the quantity appearing in the expression of the vertex. 2. but this time we will measure eR . Rather the class of renormalizable theories (that is the theories for which the previous procedure is meaningful) is quite restricted. is a ﬁnite quantity. Furthermore. On the contrary. It must be stressed that the quantity that is ﬁxed by the experiments is not the ”parameter” e appearing in the original lagrangian. In the previous example we were using q → 0. the divergence which we have obtained in the amplitude.2 sum up to give (omitting the contribution of the fermionic 41 . 2. but rather eR . the various terms in the expansion turn out to be ﬁnite and the theory is said to be renormalizable.30) q 60π m Now we compare this result with the experiment where we measure dσ/dΩ in the limit q → 0. Notice that in this expression there are no more divergent quantities. We can extract again from the data the value of the electric charge. It will be convenient in the following to call this quantity eB (tha bare charge). Neglecting other corrections the total amplitude is given by Fig.2. Therefore the procedure outlined here has meaning only if we start with an inﬁnite charge. Said that. is compensated by the divergence implicit in e. Let us consider now a process like e− µ− → e− µ− . We will deﬁne the charge by choosing an arbitrary value of the square of the momentum in transfer qµ . For the moment being we have included only the vacuum polarization corrections. rather than eR as done previously. In fact renormalizability is not a generic feature of the relativistic quantum ﬁeld theories. In this way the renormalized charge depends on the scale µ. As we have noticed the ﬁnal expression we got does not contain any explicit divergent quantity. also eR . which is obtained from the experimental data. the renormalized charge will be called e. If this is possible. such that Q2 = −q 2 = µ2 . except that we need to introduce a renormalized charge eR given by e2 Λ2 eR = e 1 − log 2 12π 2 m 1/2 (2.in the limit q → 0 the result looks exactly as at the lowest order. since they have been eliminated by the deﬁnition of the renormalized charge. This means that the quantity e is not really deﬁned unless we specify how to relate it to measured quantities.2.2. however if we restrict our problem to the charge renormalization. the renormalization procedure is a way of reorganizing the terms of the perturbative expansion in such a way that the parameter controlling it is the renormalized charge eR . In other words. This relation is usually referred to as the renormalization condition. As already stressed this is not automatically satisﬁed.

As we know I(Q2 ) is a B B divergent quantity and therefore the amplitude is not deﬁned. We can easily invert by series the eq.33).32) This expression looks as the lowest order contribution to the propagator be deﬁning the renormalized electric charge as e2 = e2 [1 − e2 I(µ2 ) + e4 I 2 (µ2 ) + · · ·] B B B (2. (2.33) obtaining at the order e4 e2 = e2 [1 + e2 I(µ2 ) + · · ·] B 42 (2. However. we get the amplitude in the form M(eB ) = e2 F (Q2 )[1 − e2 I(Q2 ) + e4 I 2 (Q2 ) · · ·] B B B (2. e− e− eB e− eB eB eB eB eB q eB + eB eB + eB eB eB + µ− µ− µ− Fig.34) where e2 F (Q2 ) is the amplitude at the lowest order in e2 .31) By considering only the gµν contribution to Πµν .The vacuum polarization contributions to the e− µ− → e− µ− scattering. by calling it F (Q2 ). following the discussion of the previous Section we can try to re-express everything in terms of the renormalized charge (2.2 . lines..35) .) e2 B −ig λν −ig µρ −ig λσ −ig τ ν −ig µν −ig µρ 2 + 2 (ieB Πρλ ) 2 + 2 (ie2 Πρλ ) 2 (ie2 Πστ ) 2 +· · · B B q2 q q q q q Q2 =µ2 (2.33) Since the fermionic contribution is the same for all the diagrams.2. we get e2 B −igµν 1 − e2 I(q 2 ) + e4 I 2 (q 2 ) + · · · B B q2 Q2 =µ2 (2. 2.

38) µ 3π µ dz z(1 − z) log Q2 α log 2 + · · · 3π µ and in this limit MR (e) = e2 F (Q2 ) 1 − (2.36) dz z(1 − z) log 1 + 0 Q2 z(1 − z) m2 (2.25) for I(Q2 ) we get I(Q2 ) = 1 Λ2 1 log 2 − 2 2 12π m 2π 1 (2. This equation is the prototype of the renormalization group equations. This follows from MR (e) = M(eB ) and on the observation that M(eB ) does not depend on µ. when we change the deﬁnition scale µ. e is deﬁned through the eq. This can be formalized in a way that amounts to introduce the concept of renormalization group that we will discuss in much more detail later on.33) and therefore it depends also on µ. we see that this is given by the tree amplitude e2 F (Q2 ) times a geometric series arising from the iteration of B 43 .37) Since the divergent part is momentum independent it cancels out in the expression for MR (e). What is going on is that the implicit dependecnce of e on µ cancels out the explicit dependence of MR (e). Going back to the original expression for M(e0 ). and tells us how we have to change the coupling. µ) By diﬀerentiating this expression with respect to µ we get dM(eB ) ∂MR ∂MR ∂e = + =0 dµ ∂µ ∂e ∂µ (2. the renormalized charge e will be measured through the cross-section. by deﬁnition. and therefore. it will be ﬁnite. Therefore. Furthermore. Evaluating I(Q2 ) − I(µ2) per large Q2 (and µ2 ) we get e2 (I(Q2 ) − I(µ2 )) = − 2α π 2α → − π 1 0 1 0 m2 + Q2 z(1 − z) → m2 + µ2 z(1 − z) Q2 α Q2 dz z(1 − z) log 2 = − log 2 (2. let us be more explicit by writing M(eB ) = MR (e(µ). but actually this is not the case.41) (2. (2. In fact.By substituting this expression in M(e0 ) we get M(eB ) = e2 [1 + e2 I(µ2 ) + · · ·]F (Q2 )[1 − e2 I(Q2 ) + · · ·] = = e2 F (Q2 )[1 − e2 (I(Q2 ) − I(µ2 )) + · · ·] ≡ MR (e) From the expression (2. In fact.40) This equation say formally that the amplitude expressed as a function of the renormalized charge is indeed independent on µ. the charge renormalization makes the amplitude ﬁnite.39) At ﬁrst sight MR (e) depends on µ.

By using eq. (2.47) It follows that the true expansion parameter in the perturbative series is the running coupling e(Q2 ). e2 (Q2 ) = e2 [1 − e2 I(Q2 ) + e4 I 2 (Q2 ) + · · ·] = B B B e2 B 1 + e2 I(Q2 ) B (2. it comes natural to deﬁne a coupling running with the momentum of the photon. therefore the perturbative approach looses validity for those values Q2 of such that α(Q2 ) ≈ 1.49) (2.38) we obtain α(Q2 ) = α(µ2 ) Q2 α(µ2 ) log 2 1− 3π µ (2.42) Also this expression is cooked up in terms of the divergent quantities eB and I(Q2 ). Therefore. e2 B 1 e2 (µ2 ) = 1 + I(µ2 ) e2 B (2.44) By using this result we can write MR (e) as MR (e) = e2 (Q2 )F (Q2 ) (2.46) − 1 e2 (µ2 ) = I(Q2 ) − I(µ2 ) (2. in terms of the bare one e2 (µ2 ) = e2 B 1 + e2 I(µ2 ) B (2. e(µ2 ). This can be shown explicitly by evaluating the renormalized charge.50) 44 . but again e2 (Q2 ) is ﬁnite.48) We see that α(Q2 ) increases with Q2 . that is when 1− or 3π Q =e µ2 2 Q2 α(µ2 ) log 2 = α(µ2) 3π µ 1 −1 α(µ2 ) (2.45) = 1 + I(Q2 ).43) We can put the last two equations in the form 1 e2 (Q2 ) and subtracting them 1 e2 (Q2 ) we get e2 (Q2 ) = e2 (µ2 ) 1 + e2 (µ2 )[I(Q2 ) − I(µ2 )] (2.the vacuum polarization diagram.

51) Actually α(Q2 ) is divergent for 3π Q2 2 = e α(µ ) ≈ e1291 ≈ 10560 2 µ (2.52) This value of Q2 is referred to as the Landau pole. 2. in fact.53) 45 . We will show now that at one-loop the divergent contributions come only from the three diagrams discussed before. which is not true in scalar QED).3 The analysis by counterterms The previous way of deﬁning a renormalizable theory amounts to say that the original parameters in the lagrangian. that is from the vaccum polarization contribution. We get D = 4 − IF − 2IB (2. because they have to be ﬁxed by the experiments (renormalization conditions). which however are arbitrary. and by deﬁnition they have the same operator structure of the original terms in the lagrangian.For α(µ2 ) ≈ 1/137 we get Q2 ≈ e1281 ≈ 10556 µ2 (2. We will see that in the so called non-abelian gauge theories the running is opposite. that is the theory becomes more and more perturbative. as e. In particular. see later). The inﬁnite contributions are called counterterms. Then one can try to separate the inﬁnite from the ﬁnite part of the parameters (this separation is ambiguous. let us deﬁne D as the superﬁcial degree of divergence of a one-loop diagram the diﬀerence between 4 (the number of integration over the mimentum) and the number of powers of momentum coming from the propagators (we assume here that no powers of momenta are coming from the vertices. In fact. This discussion shows clearly that the behaviour of the running coupling constant is determined by I(Q2 ). We see that the theory will be renormalizable if the counterterms we add to make the theory ﬁnite have the same structure of the original terms in the lagrangian. On the other hand. However they can also be regularized in the same way as the other integrals. α(Q2 ) increases with Q2 since in the expression e2 (µ2 )(I(Q2 ) − I(µ2 )) the coeﬃcient of the logarithm is negative (equal to −α(µ2 )/(3π)). by increasing the energy. This means that the coeﬃcients of these counterterms have to be inﬁnite. should be inﬁnite and that their divergences should compensate the divergences of the Feynman diagrams. the procedure of regularization can be performed by adding to the original lagrangian counterterms cooked in such a way that their contribution kills the divergent part of the Feynman integrals. if this is the case. they can be absorbed in the original parameters. Therefore in the case of QED the perturbative approach maintains its validity up to gigantic values of the momenta.

2 from which 1 IB = EF . if at each vertex there are Ni lines of the particle of type i.56) From these equations we can get V . Πµν (q) e Λµ (p . the other will contain the counterterms. For instance the diagram of Fig. Therefore the 46 . since the trace of an odd number of γ matrices is zero. In fact. Furthermore. To realize this program we divide up the lagrangian density in two parts.where IF and IB are the number of internal fermionic and bosonic lines. can be absorbed in the wave function renormalization of the photon (the mass of the photon is not renormalized due to the gauge invariance).3. In such a case one has only to show that eliminating these three divergences (primitive divergences) the theory is automatically ﬁnite.55) 3 D = 4 − EF − EB (2. but it can be made ﬁnite if the previous functions are such. This is trivial at one-loop. IF and IB in terms of EF and EB 1 IF = EF + EB . In general (Furry’s theorem) it follows from the conservation of charge conjugation. In particular we will show that the divergent part of Σ(p) can be absorbed into the deﬁnition of the mass of the electron and a redeﬁnition of the electron ﬁeld (wave function renormalization). all the diagrams with an odd number of external photons vanish.1.54) Also. The divergence in Πµν . V = 2IB + EB (2. 2. p) goes into the deﬁnition of the parameter e. 2. the photon self-energy. 2 V = EF + EB (2.58) 2 It follows that the only one-loop superﬁcially divergent diagrams in spinor QED are the ones in Fig. there are only three divergent one-loop diagrams and all the divergences can be brought back to the three functions Σ(p). V equal to the number of internal lines V = IF + IB (2. This does not mean that an arbitrary diagram is not divergence. the eﬀective degree of divergence can be less than the superﬁcial degree. p).3.57) (2. since the photon is an eigenstate of C with eigenvalue equal to -1. We will call also the original parameters and ﬁelds of the theory the bare parameters and the bare ﬁelds and we will use an index B in order to distinguish them from the physical quantities. And ﬁnally the divergence of Λµ (p . In fact. gauge invariance often lowers the divergence. Also the vacuum polarization diagram has an eﬀective degree of divergence equal to 2. Going through the loop one has to have a number of vertices. one written in terms of the physical parameters. then we have Ni V = 2Ii + Ei from which 2V = 2IF + EF .1 with four external photons (light-light scattering) has D = 0 (logarithmic divergence). Therefore. but gauge invariance makes it ﬁnite.

2. 47 1/2 Z2 = (1 + B). we have omitted the gauge ﬁxing term.62) Aµ = Z3 Aµ B 1/2 (2.1 . Deﬁning the renormalization constant of the ﬁelds Z1 = (1 + D).60) and we have to require that la sum of these two contributions should coincide with the original lagrangian written in terms of the bare quantities. for sake of simplicity.The superﬁcially divergent one-loop diagrams in spinor QED two pieces of the lagrangian should look like as follows: the piece in terms of the physical parameters Lp 1 1 ¯ ˆ ¯ Lp = ψ(i∂ − m)ψ − eψγµ ψAµ − Fµν F µν − (∂µ Aµ )2 (2.. = iB ψ ∂ψ − Aψψ − Fµν − (∂µ Aµ )2 − eDψ Aψ 4 2 (2.61) where.3.t. Z3 = (1 + C) (2.t. we write the bare ﬁelds as ψB = Z2 ψ. Adding together Lp and Lc.59) 4 2 and the counter terms piece Lc. we get 1+C ¯ˆ ¯ ¯ Fµν F µν + gauge − ﬁxing L = (1 + B)iψ ∂ψ − (m + A)ψψ − e(1 + D)ψγµ ψAµ − 4 (2. EF 0 EB 2 2 D 0 4 0 2 0 1 2 1 0 Fig.t. C E ¯ˆ ¯ ¯ˆ Lc.63) .

µν FB + gauge − ﬁxing (2.64) and putting m+A eZ1 mB = . one would get a diﬀerent bare electric charge for the two particles. which come about when removing the regularization. and then remove the regularization. one would have to tune the bare electric charge at diﬀerent values in order to get the same physical charge. We will see later how this works in practice at one-loop level. Since the separation of an inﬁnite quantity into an inﬁnite plus a ﬁnite term is not well deﬁned. The part containing the counter terms is determined. Notice that the division of the parameters in physical and counter term part is well deﬁned. as the muon. . are cancelled out by the counter term contributions. Notice that although the counter terms are divergent quantity when we remove the cut oﬀ. one in the coupling and the other in some parameter (regulator) which deﬁnes the regularization. This looks very unnatural. Therefore if we consider the theory for a diﬀerent particle. Summarizing. we will order them according to the power of the coupling in which we are doing the perturbative calculation. because the ﬁnite piece is ﬁxed to be an observable quantity. the relation between the bare and the physical electric charge is universal (that is it does not depend on the kind of charged particle under consideration). but the gauge invariance of the theory implies that at all the perturbative orders Z1 = Z2 .. phrased in a diﬀerent way.66) B 4 So we have succeeded in the wanted separation. After evaluating a physical quantity we remove the regularization. and as such they depend on the electron mass.we obtain m+A ¯ eZ1 ¯ 1 µν ¯ ˆ L = iψB ∂ψB − ψB ψB − ψ γ ψ Aµ − FB..65) 1/2 Z2 Z2 Z3 we get 1 µν ¯ ˆ ¯ ¯ L = iψB ∂ψB − mB ψB ψB − eB ψB γµ ψB Aµ − FB. That is we have a double limit.µν FB + gauge − ﬁxing 1/2 B µ B B Z2 4 Z2 Z3 (2. at ﬁxed regulator. to ﬁx the ﬁnite part. The order of the limit is ﬁrst to work at some order in the coupling. eB = (2. Another observation is that Z1 and Z2 have to do with the self-energy of the electron. by requiring that the divergences of the Feynman integrals. B. which has the same interactions as the electron and diﬀers only for the value of the mass (mµ ≈ 200me ). Before going into the calculations for QED we want to illustrate some general results about the renormalization. As a consequence 1/2 eB = e/Z3 . This requirement gives the renormalization conditions. one starts dividing the bare lagrangian in two pieces. are determined recursively at each perturbative order in such a way to eliminate the divergent parts and to respect the renormalization conditions. Then we regularize the theory giving some prescription to get ﬁnite Feynman integrals. If one considers only theory involving scalar. The counter terms A. order by order. Or. and since Z3 comes from the photon self-energy. we use the renormalization conditions. 48 .

In fact each monomial Oi will appear multiplied by a coupling gi L= i gi Oi (2. we see that dim[φ] = dim[Aµ ] = n − 1. The mass dimensions of the ﬁelds can be easily evaluated from the observation that the action is dimensionless in our units / (h = 1). coming from the propagators. dim[(∂ µ Aµ )2 ] = 4 (2. in 4 dimensions the bosonic ﬁelds have dimension 1 and the fermionic 3/2. deﬁned as dn x L (2. Looking at the kinetic terms of the bosonic ﬁelds (two derivatives) and of the fermionic ﬁelds (one derivative). It turns out also that these are renormalizable theories ( a part some small technicalities). In the case of the electron self-energy (see Figs.72) (2.69) The condition on the dimensions of the operators appearing in the lagrangian can be translated into a condition over the coupling constants. In QED the only couplings are the mass of the electron and the electric charge (2.1b) one has an integration over the four momentum p and a behaviour of the integrand.73) that is the couplings must have positive dimension in mass are to be dimensionless.70) therefore dim[gi ] = 4 − dim[Oi ] The renormalizability requires dim[Oi ] ≤ 4 from which dim[gi ] ≥ 0 (2. ¯ dim[ψγµ ψAµ ] = 4. as 1/p3 . it is not diﬃcult to construct an algorithm which allows to evaluate the ultraviolet (that is for large momenta) divergence of any Feynman diagram. Then.1.1. giving a linear divergence (it turns out that the divergence is only logarithmic).67) has a mass dimension n. the lagrangian density. in n space-time dimensions.68) In particular. since all the terms in the lagrangian density have dimensions smaller or equal to 4 ¯ dim[ψψ] = 3. 2. Therefore. From this counting one can see that only the lagrangian densities containing monomials in the ﬁelds with mass dimension smaller or equal to the number of space-time dimensions have a ﬁnite number of divergent diagrams.fermion and massless spin 1 (as the photon) ﬁelds. we see that QED is renormalizable.71) 49 . 2 dim[ψ] = n−1 2 (2.1a and 2.

76) Lint = −g2 (ψψ)2 At one loop the theory gives rise to the divergent diagrams of Fig. the divergences. but the second one needs a new counter term ¯ δg5 (ψψ)5 (2.3.77) −δg2 (ψψ)2 The other two need counter terms of the type ¯ ¯ δg3 (ψψ)3 + δg4 (ψψ)4 (2. order by order. = i δgiOi (2.75) we can choose the δgi in such a way to cancel. In the renormalizable case. the relative coupling has dimension -2 ¯ (2. 2.3. The renormalization requirement restricts in a fantastic way the possible ﬁeld theories. Since this term has dimension 6. the number of divergent diagrams increase with the perturbative order. The theory depends on a ﬁnite number of arbitrary parameters equal to the number of parameters gi. Therefore adding to L the counter term Lc. At the end the theory will depend on an inﬁnite number of arbitrary parameters.which is dimensionless.79) This process never ends.2. Giving these facts let us try to understand what makes renormalizable and non renormalizable theories diﬀerent. The divergence of the ﬁrst diagram can be absorbed into a counter term of the original type ¯ (2.74) Here ρ has dimension 1 and λ is dimensionless. However one could think that this requirement is too technical and one could imagine other ways of giving a meaning to lagrangians which do not satisfy this 50 .3.78) These counter terms originate new one-loop divergent diagrams. if we have written the most general lagrangian. As a further example consider a single scalar ﬁeld. We see that the linear σ-models are renormalizable theories. The most general renormalizable lagrangian density is characterized by two parameters 1 1 L = ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 − ρφ3 − λφ4 2 2 (2. As an example consider a fermionic theory with an ¯ interaction of the type (ψψ)2 . In the non renormalizable case.t. as for instance the ones in Fig. At each order we have to introduce new counter terms having an operator structure diﬀerent from the original one. 2. The ﬁrst diagram modiﬁes the already introduced counter term ¯ (ψψ)4 . Therefore the theory is a predictive one. the only divergent diagrams which appear are the ones corresponding to the processes described by the operators appearing in the lagrangian.

simply requiring that it gives rise to a consistent theory at any energy.80) Analogously. Since dim g2 = −2.2 . But the cross-section has to do with the S matrix which is unitary. 2. 2. in any non renormalizable theory. a) b) ¯ ¯ Fig.3.Divergent diagrams coming from the interaction (ψψ)2 . on dimensional ground we get that the total cross-section behaves like 2 σ ≈ g2 E 2 (2. being there couplings with negative dimensions.Divergent diagrams coming from the interactions (ψψ)2 and (ψψ)4 . But suppose we try to give a meaning to a non renormalizable lagrangian. condition. a) b) c) ¯ Fig.3 ..3. Since a unitary matrix has eigenvalues of . if we consider the scattering ψ + ψ → ψ + ψ in the high energy limit (where we can neglect all the masses). 51 . the cross-section will increase with the energy. Consider again a theory with a four-fermion interaction. We will show that this does not happen.

except for very few cases the symmetries do not depend on the number of space-time dimensions.modulus 1. in the spirit of renormalization we have ﬁrst to perform the perturbative expansion and then take the limit over the cut-oﬀ. One kind of regularization which nowadays is very much used is the dimensional regularization. 2. but only for a limited range of values of the energy. Let us what is dimensional regularization about. The idea is that integrating on a lower number of dimensions the integral improves the convergence properties in the ultraviolet. The simplest of these procedures is just ∞ Λ to introduce a cut-oﬀ Λ and deﬁne our integrals as 0 → limΛ→∞ 0 ). it follows that its matrix elements must be bounded.84) with F (p. Although this procedure is very simple it results to be inadequate in situations like gauge theories. This consists in considering the integration in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions and taking the limit of four dimensions at the end.83) (2. For 52 .4 Dimensional regularization of the Feynman integrals As we have discussed in the previous Section we need a procedure to give sense at the otherwise divergent Feynman diagrams. In fact. We want to evaluate integrals of the type I4 (k) = d4 p F (p. k) (2.81) where c is some constant. Of course. It is not diﬃculty to realize that non renormalizability and bad behaviour of the amplitudes at high energies are strictly connected. This range is ﬁxed by the value of the non renormalizable coupling. In fact one can show that the cut-oﬀ regularization breaks the translational invariance and creates problems in gauge theories. For the previous example we get g2 E 2 ≤ c This implies a violation of the S matrix unitarity at energies such that E≥ c g2 (2. This way of regularizing is very convenient because it respects all the symmetries. k) ≈ p−2 or p−4 . Translating this argument in the cross-section one gets the bound σ≤ c2 E2 (2.82) It follows that we can give a meaning also to non renormalizable theories.

but it is deﬁned also for Re z < 0 where it has simple poles located at z = −n. k) = d2ω p F (p. k) is convergent. A simple example of this procedure is given by the Euler’s Γ. • At the end of the calculation take the limit ω → 2. This expression coincides with the representation for the Γ function for Re z > 0. Typically this will be for Re ω < 2. 53 .However it is easy to get a representation valid also for Re z ≤ 0.87) in the limit t → 0. • Construct an analytic function identical to I(ω. the integral is convergent in 2 and in 3 dimensions. Therefore. From this example we see that we need the following three steps • Find a domain where I(ω.89) = n=0 (−1)n αn+z + n! n + z dt e−t tz−1 The second integral converges for any z since α > 0. k) on the entire complex plane. the integral diverges as dt t1+|Re z| (2. if F (p. This complex function is deﬁned for Re z > 0 by the integral representation ∞ Γ(z) = 0 dt e−t tz−1 (2. However the result does not depend on the particular value of this parameter. k) ≈ p−4 .86) If Re z ≤ 0. Let us divide the integration region in two parts deﬁned by a parameter α α Γ(z) = 0 dt e−t tz−1 + ∞ α dt e−t tz−1 (2. Therefore it is a meaningful expression on all the complex plane z. This the Weierstrass representation of the Euler Γ(z). Then. Notice that in order to isolate the divergences we need to introduce an arbitrary parameter α. with deﬁnite singularity.85) to be regarded as a function of the complex variable ω. and as such that it coincides with I on some common domain. if we can deﬁne a complex function I (ω. k) (2.instance. then by analytic continuation I and I deﬁne the same analytic function. k) in the domain of convergence. we would like to introduce a quantity I(ω.88) Expanding the exponential in the ﬁrst integral and integrating term by term we get ∞ Γ(z) = n=0 ∞ (−1)n n! α 0 dt tn+z−1 + ∞ α ∞ α dt e−t tz−1 (2. but deﬁned on a larger domain including the point ω = 2.

98) with x = p2 .90) Let us consider the integral with N an integer number and p a vector in an Euclidean N-dimensional space.2.92) The value of the sphere surface can be evaluated by the following trick.94) The same integral can be evaluated in polar coordinates π By putting x = ρ2 we have 1 π N/2 = SN 2 ∞ 0 N/2 ∞ = SN 0 2 ρN −1 e−ρ dρ (2. with IN = SN 0 pN −1 F (p2 )dp (2. Consider +∞ I= −∞ 2 √ e−x dx = π (2.96) where we have used the representation of the Euler Γ function given in the previous Section.95) 1 xN/2−1 e−x dx = SN Γ 2 N 2 (2. Therefore 2π N/2 SN = (2. Therefore SN the surface of the unit sphere in N-dimensions. we can perform the angular integration by means of dN p = dΩN pN −1 dp where dΩN is the solid angle element in N-dimensions.5 Integration in arbitrary dimensions IN = dN pF (p2 ) (2.97) Γ N 2 and π N/2 IN = Γ N 2 ∞ 0 xN/2−1 F (x)dx (2.93) By taking N of these factors we get IN = 2 2 dx1 · · · dxN e−(x1 + · · · + xN ) = π N/2 (2. Since the integrand is invariant under rotations of the N-dimensional vector p. 54 .91) dΩN = SN . Then ∞ (2.

Then we do a change of variables p0 → ip0 .104) B(x. y) function (valid for Rex. and therefore we can extend this formula to complex dimensions N = 2ω I2ω = π ω 1 Γ(A − ω) 2 )A−ω Γ(A) (a (2. The original integral in Minkowski space is then 1 Γ(A − ω) d2ω p = iπ ω (−1)A (p2 − a2 )A Γ(A) (a2 )A−ω 55 (2.99) with p a vector in a Ndimensional Minkowski space.102) By putting x = a2 y we get IN = (a2 )N/2−A y N/2−1 (1 + y)−A dx (2. At the end we will have to consider the limit ω → 2. We can perform an anticlockwise rotation of 900 (Wick’s rotation) in the complex plane of p0 without hitting any singularity . But we know how to extend the Euler gamma-function to the entire complex plane. and we use the deﬁnition p2 → −p2 = N p2 .103) 0 and recalling the integral representation for the Euler B(x.100) where IN is an integral of the kind discussed at the beginning of this Section with F (x) given by F (x) = (x + a2 )−A (2. y) = Γ(x + y) 0 it follows 1 Γ(A − N/2) IN = π N/2 (2. A + 1.101) It follows π N/2 IN = Γ N 2 π N/2 Γ N 2 ∞ 0 xN/2−1 dx (x + a2 )A ∞ (2. · · · (2. y > 0) ∞ Γ(x)Γ(y) = tx−1 (1 + t)−(x+y) dt (2.The integrals we will be interested in are of the type (M ) IN = dN p (p2 − a2 + i )A (2. A + 1.105) Γ(A) (a2 )A−N/2 We have obtained this representation for N/2 > 0 and Re(A − N/2) > 0. obtaining i=1 i IN (M ) =i dN p = i(−1)A IN (−p2 − a2 )A (2.108) .106) This shows that I2ω has simple poles located at ω = A. · · ·.107) Therefore our integral will be perfectly deﬁned at all ω such that ω = A.

.6 One loop regularization of QED In this Section we will regularize.For the following it will be useful to derive another formula.115) (2.109) (2. in order to deﬁne the counter terms we will determine the expressions which become divergent in the limit of ω → 2.110) (2. is the Euler-Mascheroni constant. that is Σ(p). it will be useful to recall the expansion of the Gamma function around its poles Γ( ) = where γ = 0. Furthermore. then 1 Γ(A − ω) d2ω p = iπ ω (−1)A 2 + 2p · k + k 2 − a2 )A 2 )A−ω (p Γ(A) (a from which d2ω p Γ(A − ω) 1 = iπ ω (−1)A (p2 + 2p · k + b2 )A Γ(A) (k 2 − b2 )A−ω Diﬀerentiating with respect to kµ we get various useful relations as d2ω p and pµ pν π ω (−1)A =i (p2 + 2p · k + b2 )A Γ(A)(k 2 − b2 )A−ω 1 × Γ(A − ω)kµ kν − gµν (k 2 − b2 )Γ(A − ω − 1) 2 d2ω p −kµ Γ(A − ω) pµ = iπ ω (−1)A (p2 + 2p · k + b2 )A Γ(A) (k 2 − b2 )A−ω (2. Πµν (q) e Λµ (p.111) (2. by using dimensional regularization. Let us put in the previous equation p = p + k and b2 = −a2 + k 2 . and for (n ≥ 1): Γ(−n + ) = where ψ(n + 1) = 1 + (−1)n 1 + ψ(n + 1) + O( ) n! 1 1 +···+ −γ 2 n (2.5772. the relevant divergent quantities in QED.114) 1 − γ + O( ) (2.116) 2.113) (2.112) Since at the end of our calculation we will have to take the limit ω → 2. It will be also convenient to introduce a parameter µ such that these quantities have the same dimensions in the space with d = 2ω as in d = 4.. p ). 56 .

The algebra of the Dirac matrices is also easily extended to arbitrary dimensions d. For instance, starting from [γµ , γν ]+ = 2gµν (2.117) we get γ µ γµ = d and γµ γν γ µ = (2 − d)γν (2.119) Other relations can be obtained by starting from the algebraic properties of the γ-matrices. Let us start with the electron self-energy which we will require to have dimension 1 as in d = 4. From eq. (2.4) we have Σ(p) = iµ4−2ω p−k+m ˆ ˆ 1 d2ω k γµ 2 γµ 2ω 2 − m2 + i (2π) (p − k) k +i (2.120) (2.118)

In order to use the equations of the previous Section it is convenient to combine together the denominators of this expression into a single one. This is done by using a formula due to Feynman 1 = ab which is proven using 1 1 1 1 1 = − = ab b−a a b b−a and doing the change of variables x = az + b(1 − z) We get

1 b a 1 0

dz [az + b(1 − z)]2

(2.121)

dx x2

(2.122)

(2.123)

Σ(p) = iµ4−2ω

0

dz

p−k+m ˆ ˆ d2ω k γµ γµ (2π)2ω [(p − k)2 z − m2 z + k 2 (1 − z)]2

(2.124)

The denominator can be written in the following way [...] = p2 z − m2 z + k 2 − 2p · kz (2.125)

**and the term p · k can be eliminated through the following change of variables k = k + pz. We ﬁnd [...] = (p2 − m2 )z + (k + pz)2 − 2p · (k + pz)z = k − m2 z + p2 z(1 − z) (2.126)
**

2

57

It follows (we put k = k)

1

Σ(p) = iµ

4−2ω 0

dz

ˆ d2ω k p(1 − z) − k + m ˆ γµ 2 γµ 2ω 2 z + p2 z(1 − z)]2 (2π) [k − m p(1 − z) + m ˆ d2ω k γ γµ 2ω µ [k 2 − m2 z + p2 z(1 − z)]2 (2π)

(2.127)

**The linear term in k has vanishing integral, therefore
**

1

Σ(p) = iµ

4−2ω 0

dz

(2.128)

**and integrating over k
**

1

Σ(p) = iµ By deﬁning

4−2ω 0

dz

Γ(2 − ω) p(1 − z) + m ˆ 1 γµ 2 iπ ω γµ 2ω 2 z(1 − z)]2−ω (2π) Γ(2) [m z − p

(2.129)

= 4 − 2ω we get

1

Σ(p) = −µ

0

dz

p(1 − z) + m ˆ 1 π (4− )/2 Γ( /2)γµ 2 γµ 4− (2π) [m z − p2 z(1 − z)] /2

1

(2.130)

**Contracting the γ matrices Σ(p) = − we obtain Σ(p) =
**

1

1 Γ( /2) 16π 2 1 Γ( /2) 16π 2

dz(4πµ2 ) /2

0

( − 2)ˆ(1 − z) + (4 − )m p 2 z − p2 z(1 − z)] /2 [m

(2.131)

×

0

m2 z − p2 z(1 − z) dz[2ˆ(1 − z) − 4m − (ˆ(1 − z) − m)] p p 4πµ2 m2 z − p2 z(1 − z) 4πµ2

− /2

(2.132)

**Deﬁning A = 2ˆ(1 − z) − 4m, p and expanding for → 0 Σ(p) = = = − =
**

1 2A 1 + 2B − γA 1 − log C dz 2 16π 0 2 1 1 2A dz − A log C + 2B − γA 2 16π 0 1 1 [ˆ − 2m + γ(ˆ − 4m)] p p (ˆ − 4m) − p 2 8π 16π 2 1 1 m2 z − p2 z(1 − z) dz[ˆ(1 − z) − 2m] log p 8π 2 0 4πµ2 1 (ˆ − 4m) + ﬁnite terms p 8π 2

B = −ˆ(1 − z) + m, p

C=

(2.133)

(2.134)

58

Consider now the vacuum polarization (see eq. (2.8)) Πµν (q) = iµ4−2ω = iµ4−2ω 1 1 d2ω k γµ γν Tr 2ω ˆ+q−m k−m ˆ (2π) k ˆ 2ω ˆ ˆ ˆ d k T r[γµ(k + m)γν (k + q + m)] (2π)2ω (k 2 − m2 )((k + q)2 − m2 )

(2.135)

**Using again the Feynman representation for the denominators
**

1

Π (q) = iµ

µν

4−2ω 0

dz

ˆ ˆ ˆ T r[γµ(k + m)γν (k + q + m)] d2ω k (2.136) (2π)2ω [(k 2 − m2 )(1 − z) + ((k + q)2 − m2 )z]2

We write the denominator as [...] = k 2 + q 2 z − m2 + 2k · qz (2.137)

through the change of variable k = k − qz we cancel the mixed term obtaining [...] = (k − qz)2 + 2(k − qz) · qz + q 2 z − m2 = k + q 2 z(1 − z) − m2 and therefore (we put again k = k) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ d2ω k T r[γµ(k − q z + m)γν (k + q (1 − z) + m)] (2π)2ω [k 2 + q 2 z(1 − z) − m2 ]2 0 (2.139) Since the integral of the odd terms in k is zero, it is enough to evaluate the contribution of the even term to the trace

1 2

(2.138)

Πµν (q) = iµ4−2ω

dz

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ T r[...]even = T r[γµ(k − q z + m)γν (k + q (1 − z)]pari + m2 T r[γµγν ] ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (2.140) = T r[γµkγν k] − T r[γµ q γν q ]z(1 − z) + m2 T r[γµ γν ] If we deﬁne the γ as matrices of dimension 2ω × 2ω we can repeat the standard calculation by obtaining a factor 2ω instead of 4. Therefore T r[...]even = 2ω [2kµ kν − gµν k 2 − (2qµ qν − gµν q 2 )z(1 − z) + m2 gµν ] = 2ω [2kµ kν − 2z(1 − z)(qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) − gµν (k 2 − m2 + q 2 z(1 − z)](2.141) and we ﬁnd Πµν (q) = iµ4−2ω 2ω 2kµ kν d2ω k (2π)2ω [k 2 + q 2 z(1 − z) − m2 ]2 0 2z(1 − z)(qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) gµν − − 2 2 + q 2 z(1 − z) − m2 ]2 2 z(1 − z) − m2 ] [k [k + q dz 2pµ pν Γ(1 − ω) = −igµν π ω 2 1−ω [p2 − a2 ]2 (a ) 59

1

(2.142)

From the relations of the previous Section we get d2ω p (2.143)

1 Γ(1 − ω) = −iπ ω 2 1−ω (2.144) 2] −a (a ) Therefore the ﬁrst and the third contribution to the vacuum polarization cancel out and we are left with d2ω p [p2 d2ω k 1 2ω [k 2 + q 2 z(1 − z) − m2 ]2 (2π) 0 (2.145) Notice that the original integral was quadratically divergent, but due to the previous cancellation the divergence is only logarithmic. The reason is again gauge invariance. In fact it is possible to show that this implies q µ Πµν (q) = 0. Performing the momentum integration we have Πµν (q) = −iµ4−2ω 2ω (qµ qν −gµν q 2 ) dz 2z(1−z) iπ ω Γ(2 − ω) 2ω [m2 − q 2 z(1 − z)]2−ω (2π) 0 (2.146) By putting again = 4 − 2ω and expanding the previous expression

1 1

whereas

Π (q) = −i2µ

µν

4−2ω ω

2 (qµ qν − gµν q )

2

dz z(1 − z)

1

Π (q) = 2µ 2 =

µν

2− /2

(qµ qν − gµν q )

2 0

Γ( /2) π 2− /2 dz z(1 − z) 4− [m2 − q 2 z(1 − z)] /2 (2π)

− /2

1 m2 − q 2 z(1 − z) 2 2− /2 2 (qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) dz z(1 − z)Γ( /2) 16π 2 4πµ2 0 2 = (4 − 2 log 2)(qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) 16π 2 1 2 (2.147) dz z(1 − z)( − γ) 1 − log C × 2 0

where C is deﬁnite in eq. (2.133). Finally Πµν (q) = 8 1 − 4γ − 4 log 2 (q q − gµν q 2 ) dz z(1 − z) 2 µ ν 8π 1 (qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) = 2π 2 γ m2 − q 2 z(1 − z) 1 − − dz z(1 − z) log × 3 6 2πµ2 1− 2 log C

(2.148)

or, in abbreviated way Πµν (q) = 1 1 (q q − gµν q 2 ) + ﬁnite terms 2 µ ν 6π (2.149)

**We have now to evaluate Λµ (p , p). From eq. (2.11) we have Λ (p , p) = −iµ
**

µ 4−2ω

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1 d2ω k α p − k + m µ p − k + m γ γ γα 2 (2π)2ω (p − k)2 − m2 (p − k)2 − m2 k 60

(2.150)

**the general formula to reduce n denominators to a single one is
**

n

i=1

1 = (n − 1)! ai

1 n 0

δ(1 − n βi ) i=1 dβi [ n βi ai ]n i=1 i=1

(2.151)

**To show this equation notice that
**

n n ∞ n 0 i=1

i=1

1 = ai

− dαi e

αi ai

i=1

(2.152)

**Introducing the identity 1=
**

0

∞

n

dλδ(λ −

i=1

αi )

(2.153)

**and changing variables αi = λβi
**

n n

i=1

1 = ai

∞ n 0 i=1

n

dαi dλδ(λ −

i=1 n

− αi )e

n

αi ai

i=1

∞ n

=

0 i=1

dβi λ

n dλ

λ

−λ e

βi ai

i=1

δ(1 −

i=1

βi )

(2.154)

**The integration over βi can be restricted to the interval [0, 1] due to the delta function, and furthermore
**

∞ 0

(n − 1)! dλλn−1 e−ρλ = ρn

(2.155)

**In our case we get Λµ (p , p) = −2iµ4−2ω × d2ω k (2π)2ω
**

1 1−x

dx

0 0

dy (2.156)

ˆ γ α (ˆ − k + m)γ µ (ˆ − k + mγα p p ˆ [k 2 (1 − x − y) + (p − k)2 x − m2 x + (p − k)2 y − m2 y]3

**The denominator is [...] = k 2 − m2 (x + y) + p2 x + p y − 2k · (px + p y) Changing variable, k = k + px + py [...] = (k + px + p y)2 − m2 (x + y) + p2 x + p y − 2(k + px + p y) · (px + p y) 2 (2.158) = k 2 − m2 (x + y) + p2 x(1 − x) + p y(1 − y) − 2p · p xy 61
**

2 2

(2.157)

162) Γ( /2)( − 2) γµ 2 0 dx 0 dy 1 [m2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy] /2 1 1−x 1 2 = dx dy − γ [4 − 4 ]γµ 32π 2 0 0 m2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy 4πµ2 1 1−x 1 1 1 = 2 γµ − (γ + 2)γµ − 2 γµ dx dy 8π 16π 2 8π 0 0 62 − /2 .Letting again k → k Λµ (p . p) = −2iµ4−2ω d2ω k (2π)2ω 0 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ p ˆ p γ α (ˆ (1 − y) − px − k + m)γ µ (ˆ(1 − x) − p y − k + m)γα × 2 [k − m2 (x + y) + p2 x(1 − x) + p 2 y(1 − y) − 2p · p xy]3 dx dy 1 1−x (2. Λµ . p) = µ 2 1 4π 2− /2 1 1−x (2. Separating the divergent piece.160) Λ(1) (p . Λµ = Λ(1) + Λ(2) µ µ we get for the ﬁrst term 1 1−x (2. the term in k 2 is logarithmically divergent. whereas the remaining part is convergent. from the convergent one.159) The odd term in k is zero after integration. (1) (3) Λµ . p) = −2iµ4−2ω µ dx 0 0 dy d2ω k (2π)2ω kλ kσ [k 2 − m2 (x + y) + p2 x(1 − x) + p 2 y(1 − y) − 2p · p xy]3 1 1−x iπ ω (−1)3 1 = −2iµ4−2ω dx dy − Γ(2 − ω) Γ(3) 2 0 0 γ α γλ γ µ γ λ γα [m2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy]2−ω ω 1 1−x 1 4−2ω 1 = Γ(2 − ω) dx dy µ 2 4π 0 0 γ α γλ γ µ γ λ γα (2.161) [m2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy]2−ω γ α γλ γµ γσ γα Using the relation γ α γλ γ µ γ λ γα = (2 − d)2 γ µ we obtain ( = 4 − 2ω) Λ(1) (p µ 1 .

2. i i i + ie2 Σ(p) +··· p−m p−m ˆ ˆ p−m ˆ (2.168) µ 8π where the functions with the superscript f represent the ﬁnite contributions. 2.164) (2. p) = µ (2. p) = − 4 dx dy 8π 0 Γ(3) 0 α p ˆ p ˆ γ (ˆ (1 − y) − px + m)γ µ (ˆ(1 − x) − p y + m)γα 2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy m 1 1−x 1 dx dy = − 16π 2 0 0 γ α (ˆ (1 − y) − px + m)γ µ (ˆ(1 − x) − p y + m)γα p ˆ p ˆ 2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy m (2. As shown in eq.167) 6π 2 1 Λµ (p .The loop expansion for the electron propagator. at the same order in the perturbative expansion SF (p) = i p−m ˆ 1+ e2 Σ(p) p−m ˆ 63 −1 = i p − m + e2 Σ(p) ˆ (2. from which.2). p) (2. In fact we have (see Fig.170) . (2.7.169) Fig. the eﬀect of Σ(p) is to correct the electron propagator.165) 2.1 . p) = 2 γµ + Λf (p . Let us start discussing the electron self-energy.7 One loop renormalization 1 (ˆ − 4m) + Σf (p) p 2 8π We summarize here the results of the previous Section Σ(p) = Πµν (q) = (qµ qν − gµν q 2 ) (2.7.166) 1 + Πf (q) ≡ (qµ qν − gµν q 2 )Π(q 2 ) (2.1): SF (p) = .163) 1 γµ + ﬁnite terms 8π 2 In the convergent part we can put directly ω = 2 Λ(2) (p µ 1 1−x i iπ 2(−1)3 .× log and ﬁnally m2 (x + y) − p2 x(1 − x) − p 2 y(1 − y) + 2p · p xy 4πµ2 Λ(1) (p .

and iB p to p. 2. ˆ ˆ . These can be easily evaluated noticing that the expression of the propagator. consistently with our expansion we have taken only the ﬁrst order terms in A and B.3.2 .175) We can now ﬁx the counter terms by choosing B=− e2 8π 2 1 + F2 m µ (2. taking into account (L1 )ct . 2.2.172) (L1 )ct modiﬁes the Feynman rules adding two particles interacting terms. At this order we get SF (p) = i i i + ie2 Σ(p) + iB p − iA ˆ p−m p−m ˆ ˆ p−m ˆ (2. ˆ The propagator at the second order in the coupling constant is then given by adding the diagrams of Fig. -iA iBp / Fig.171) This allows us to deﬁne the counter terms to be added to the lagrangian expressed in terms of the physical parameters in such a way to cancel these divergences ¯ˆ ¯ (L1 )ct = iB ψ ∂ψ − Aψψ (2.7.176) 64 .174) and the correction to the free propagator is given by e2 Σ(p) + B p − A = ˆ e2 +B p− ˆ 8π 2 e2 m + A + ﬁnite terms 2π 2 (2. We can associate to these two terms the diagrams of Fig.The counter terms for the self-energy (p in the ﬁgure should be read as / p). 2. is i i Bp − A ˆ ≈ 1− (1 + B)ˆ − (m + A) p p−m ˆ p−m ˆ i i i ≈ + (iB p − iA) ˆ p−m p−m ˆ ˆ p−m ˆ (2.173) where. with contributions −iA to the mass term.7.Therefore the eﬀect of the divergent terms is to modify the coeﬃcients of p and m: ˆ −1 iSF (p) e2 = p − m + e Σ(p) = p 1 + 2 ˆ ˆ 8π 2 e2 −m 1+ 2 2π + ﬁnite terms (2.7.

The ﬁrst one is 0 = Γ(2) (ˆ = m) = p from which e2 Σf (ˆ = m) − p The second condition is e2 e2 (ˆ−4m)+e2 Σf (ˆ = m)− 2 p p 8π 2 8π 1 + F2 p + ˆ me2 2π 2 1 + Fm (2. = Fig. However they can be determined by the renormalization conditions.3 .181) ∂Γ(2) (p) ∂p ˆ (2. p = m. 2.180) me2 me2 F2 + Fm = 0 8π 2 2π 2 =1 p=m ˆ (2. given −1 ˆ ˆ iSF (p) ≡ Γ(2) (p) = p − m + B p − A + e2 Σ(p) (2. that is by ﬁxing the arbitrary constants appearing in the lagrangian. In fact.177) with F2 andFm ﬁnite for → 0.. for p = m ˆ (2.182) 65 .7. the propagator coincides with the ˆ free propagator i .179) SF (p) ≈ p−m ˆ From here we get two conditions.178) we can require that at the physical pole. A=− me2 2π 2 1 + Fm m µ (2. Notice also that these two functions are dimensionless and arbitrary up to this moment.The second order contributions at the electron propagator.

Notice that these conditions of renormalization have the advantage of being expressed directly in terms of the measured parameters. as the electron mass. M. −igµν −igµλ 2 λρ −igρν + ie Π (q) 2 + · · · q2 q2 q (2. because giving a small to the photon and letting it to zero at the end of the calculations gives rise to ﬁnite results. As far as the vacuum polarization is concerned.The loop expansion for the photon propagator. 2. However these are harmless divergences.185) 2 q q We see that the one loop propagator has a divergent part in gµν .7. From this point of view one could avoid the problems mentioned above by choosing a diﬀerent point of renormalization.183) One should be careful because these particular conditions of renormalization gives some problems related to the zero mass of the photon. Πµν gives rise to the following correction of the photon propagator (illustrated in Fig. It follows that we should add to Lp 1 1 1 L2 = − Fµν F µν − (∂µ Aµ )2 = Aµ gµν Aν 4 2 2 (2.4 .184) Fig. However. Therefore the propagator is not any more in the Feynman gauge.which gives e2 ∂Σf (p) ∂p ˆ p=m ˆ − e2 F2 = 0 8π 2 (2.186) 66 .7. but they can be correlated to the actual parameters by evaluating some observable quantity. from which Dµν (q) = −igµν −igµλ −igρν + +··· (ie2 )(q λ q ρ − g λρq 2 )Π(q 2 ) 2 2 q q q2 −igµν qµ qν 1 − e2 Π(q 2 ) − i 4 e2 Π(q 2 ) + · · · = (2.4) Dµν (q) = . In fact one ﬁnds some illdeﬁned integral in the infrared region. In this case the parameters comparing in Lp are not the directly measured parameters. and also divergent and ﬁnite pieces in the term proportional to the momenta. one could renormalize at an arbitrary mass scale. 2.

192) −igµν qµ qν (1 − C) − i 4 (C − E) q2 q (2.the two counterterms E −C (∂µ Aµ )2 2 (2. we can look at these two contributions as perturbations to the free lagrangian.191) We can now choose E = 0 and cancel the divergence by the choice C=− e2 + F3 6π 2 m µ (2. or evaluate the eﬀect on the propagator. We have Dµν (q) = qµ qν −igµν −igµν qµ qν ˜ ˜ 1 − F3 − e2 Πf − i 4 F3 + e2 Πf ≡ [1 − Π] − i 4 Π 2 2 q q q q (2.189) The free propagator. as it follows from the gauge invariance.195) 67 . The result is α=− q 2 (1 i . the term proportional to qµ qν is saturated with q =p −p (2. + C) β=− i C−E 4 (1 + C)(1 + E) q (2. Let us see what the full propagator says about the mass of the photon. bay taking into account the Dirac equation. since this choice does not change the physics. if we have a vertex with a virtual photon (that is the vertex is connected to an internal photon line) and two external electrons. This is because the terms proportional to qµ qν .188) C E (L2 )ct = − Fµν F µν − (∂µ Aµ )2 = −C 4 2 1 1 Fµν F µν + (∂µ Aµ )2 4 2 − We solve this equation by putting Dµν (q) = α(q 2 )gµν + β(q 2 )qµ qν Substituting in the previous equation we determine α e β. The eﬀect of these two terms to the equation which deﬁnes the propagator in momentum space is λ [(1 + C)q 2 gµν − (C − E)qµ qν ]D νλ (q) = −igµ (2.194) u(p )γµ u(p). and evaluate the corresponding Feynman rules.187) As for the electron propagator.193) In fact we are free to choose the ﬁnite term of the gauge ﬁxing. and then expand in the counter terms. ¯ The result is zero. including the corrections at the ﬁrst order in C and E is Dµν (q) = and the total propagator Dµν (q) = −igµν qµ qν [1 − e2 Π(q 2 ) − C] − i 4 [e2 Π(q 2 ) + C − E] 2 q q (2.190) (2. For instance. and the conservation of the electromagnetic current.

we get Πf (q) ≈ − and ˜ Π(q) ≈ from which Dµν 1 2π 2 γ 1 + log 6 6 m2 2πµ2 + 1 2π 2 1 dz z 2 (1 − z)2 0 q2 +··· m2 (2. e2 /4πr. This is part of a rather general aspect of renormalization which says that if the regularization procedure respects the symmetries of the original lagrangian.198) from which F3 = −e2 Πf (0) For small momenta we can write dΠ (q) ˜ Π(q) ≈ e2 q 2 dq 2 f q 2 =0 (2.200) since F3 is a constant. Therefore this is modiﬁed by a constant term in momentum space. which are symmetries at the classical level.where ˜ Π = e2 Πf + F3 (2.196) At the second order in the electric charge we can write the propagator in the form Dµν (q) = −i qµ qν ˜ gµν + 2 Π(q) ˜ q q 2 (1 + Π(q)) (2. since Π(q 2 ) is ﬁnite for q 2 → 0.197) ˜ and we see that the propagator has a pole at q 2 = 0. Therefore the photon remains massless after renormalization. Using the expression for Πf from the previous Section. All the anomalous symmetries can be easily identiﬁed in a given theory. the symmetries are preserved at any perturbative order. An exception is the case of the anomalous symmetries. the propagator has the free form. gives rise to the Coulomb potential. that is ˜ Π(0) = 0 (2. Also in this case we will require that at the physical pole. but are broken by the quantum corrections.199) (2. or by a term proportional to the delta function in the real space ∆12 = e2 dt e2 e4 e2 d4 q −iq(x1 − x2 ) 1 =− − e − δ 3 (r) (2π)4 q 2 60π 2m2 4πr 60π 2 m2 (2. q 2 → 0.202) e2 q 2 gµν + gauge terms = −i 2 1 − q 60π 2 m2 (2.204) 68 .201) e2 q 2 60π 2 m2 (2.203) The ﬁrst term. 1/q 2 .

The counter term to add to interacting part of Lp ¯ Lint = −eψγµ ψAµ (2. but it is important since the agreement between experiment and theory is of the order of 0. The contribution we have just calculated is only −27. We have seen that the divergent (1) contribution is Λµ (p .205) p is ¯ (L3 )ct = −eDψγµ ψAµ The complete vertex is given by (see Fig. This equality follows from the conservation of the current. The total Lamb shift is the sum of all the self-energy and vertex corrections. 2.208) with F2 the same as in eq. (2.5) −ie γµ + e2 Λµ + Dγµ .The one loop vertex corrections. and therefore we can use the arbitrariness in the ﬁnite part of the vertex counter term to guarantee it. (2.1 MHz.This modiﬁcation of the Coulomb potential modiﬁes the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. We have now to discuss the vertex corrections. p). and it is one of the contributions to the Lamb shift.5 .7).9 MHz.207) (2.7. which produces a splitting of the levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 . and this is proportional to γµ .210) ˆ 69 . The one-loop vertex is then F2 (Λµ ) = γµ + e2 (Λf − 2 γµ ) (2. and turns out to be about 1057. The reason is that with this choice we get the equality of the wave function renormalization factors Z1 = Z2 .206) (counter-term) Fig.7.209) µ 8π One can see that this choice of F2 is such that for spinors on shell the vertex is the free one u(p)(Λµ ) u(p)|p=m = u(p)γ µ u(p) ¯ ¯ (2. We ﬁx the counter term by D=− e2 1 + F2 8π 2 (2.1 MHz. 2.

216) in the limit p → p and for on-shell momenta. For momenta (2) on shell.. and in the previous limit they have to build up the free vertex.214) (2. p)u(p) ¯ µ (1) (2. we can bring p to act on ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ the spinor at the right of the expression.219) 70 α . Therefore we will ignore all the terms proportional to γµ and we will take the ﬁrst order in the momentum q..213) (2. because it implies that the coupling with the electromagnetic ﬁeld is just e σµν F µν (q) 2m (2.] = m2 (x + y) − m2 x(1 − x) − m2 y(1 − y) + 2m2 xy = m2 (x + y)2 In order to evaluate the numerator. let us deﬁne ¯ p ˆ p ˆ Vµ = u(p )γ α [ˆ (1 − y) − px + m] γ µ [ˆ(1 − x) − p y + m] γα u(p) (2.212) An analogous operation on the barred spinor leads to the result. We observe also that the Gordon identity shows immediately that g = 2. In fact Λµ contributes only to the terms in γµ .We will evaluate now the radiative corrections to the g − 2 of the electron. obtaining ˆ ¯ ˆ ˆ Vµ = u(p ) myγ α + 2(1 − y)p − γ α px γ µ [mxγα + 2(1 − x)pα − p yγα] u(p) (2.215) To evaluate the correction to this term from the one loop diagrams. and an analogous equation for p .218) (2. which the Dirac equation predicts to be equal to be two.217) Using pγα = −γα p + 2pα. Here g is the gyromagnetic ratio. the denominator of Λµ is given by [. and p on the spinor at the left. To this end we ﬁrst need to prove the Gordon identity for the current of a Dirac particle pµ + pµ i + σµν q ν u(p) u(p )γµ u(p) = u(p ) ¯ ¯ (2.211) 2m 2m con q = p − p. as implied by the renormalization condition. it is enough to evaluate the matrix element e2 u(p )Λ(2) (p . For the proof we start from pγµ u(p) = (−mγµ + 2pµ )u(p) ˆ and γµ pu(p) = mγµ ˆ Subtracting these two expressions we obtain γµ u(p) = pµ i − σµν pν u(p) m m (2.

and eliminating the further contribution in γµ we obtain ¯ e2 u(p )Λ(2) (p .224) )Λ(2) (p µ 1 1−x e2 4 (y − xy − x2 ) .223) and for the piece which does not contain γµ Vµ = 4m¯(p ) pµ (y − xy − x2 ) + p (x − xy − y 2) u(p) u Therefore the relevant part of the vertex contribution is e u(p ¯ 2 µ µ µ (2.221) (2.222) (2.225) + p (x + y)2 By changing variable z = x + y we have 1 1−x dx 0 1 0 dy y − xy − x2 = (x + y)2 1 1 dx 0 x dz 1−x x − 2 z z = 0 [−(1 − x) log x + x − 1] x2 x2 x2 log x − + −x 2 4 2 1 = −x log x + x + from which = 0 1 4 (2. p)u(p)|mom.226) e2 u(p )[pµ + p µ ]u(p) ¯ (2.220) (2.229) . p)u(p) → − dx dy u(p ) pµ ¯ 16π 2 0 m (x + y)2 0 2 µ (x − xy − y ) u(p) (2.228) Finally we have to add this correction to the vertex part taken at p = p. which coincides with the free vertex u(p )[γµ + ¯ pµ + pµ i ie2 σµν q ν ]u(p) = u(p )[ + ¯ 16π 2 m 2m 2m 71 1+ e2 8π 2 σµν q ν ]u(p) (2.227) 16π 2 m Using the Gordon in this expression. ie2 u(p )σµν q ν u(p) ¯ → 2m 16π (2. p)u(p) → − µ ¯ e u(p 2 )Λ(2) (p µ .Making use of γα γ µ γα = −2γ µ γα γµ γν γ α = 4gµν ˆ ˆ p ˆ γα pγ µ p γ α = −2ˆ γ µ p we get Vµ = u(p ) − 2m2 xyγ µ + 2my(1 − x)(−mγ µ + 2pµ ) ¯ − 4my 2p + 2mx(1 − y)(−mγ µ + 2p ) + 4(1 − x)(1 − y)m2 γ µ − 2y(1 − y)m2 γ µ − 4mx2 pµ − 2m2 x(1 − x)γ µ − 2xym2 γ µ u(p) (2. magn.

233) 72 . we get g α =1+ + O(α2 ) 2 2π (2.4) × 10−9 π (2.Therefore the correction is e e α → 1+ 2m 2m 2π Recalling that g is the ratio between S · B and e/2m.49( )3 + · · · = (1159652. Actually we know the ﬁrst three terms of the expansion α + 1.230) This correction was evaluated by Schwinger in 1948.232) to be compared with the experimental value 2 α 1 1α ath = (g − 2) = − 0.2) × 10−9 (2.231) (2.32848 2 2π π aexp = (1159652.4 ± 0.4 ± 0.

Symanzik and Zimmermann).217) by sending the free hamiltonian into the full hamiltonian. (3. There exists a nondegenerate Lorentz invariant states of minimum energy. It should be also kept in mind that since no exact solution of an interacting ﬁeld theory is known. Such a formulation is called LSZ (from the authors l (Lehaman.3) (3. that is the operators will be time-dependent and evolving with the full hamiltonian. p0 ≥ 0 (3. we assume that the corresponding energy is zero P0 |0 = 0 From eq. our assumptions are: 1. In the following we will work in the Heisenberg picture.2) . This formalism is based on a series of very general properties as displacement and Lorentz invariance.1) we get also P|0 = 0 → Pµ |0 = 0 73 (3. we are not sure that the assumptions we are going to make are consistent.1) 2. Said that. (1. It is interesting to see how far one can go in determining the features of a ﬁeld theory by using only invariance arguments. The eigenvalues of the four-momentum lie within the forward light cone p2 = pµ pµ ≥ 0. This is called the vacuum state Φ0 ≡ |0 By convention.4) (3.1 In. Formally this representation can be obtained from eq.and Out-states For the future we will need a formulation of ﬁeld theory showing that any S-matrix element can be reduced to the evaluation of the vacuum expectation value of a T product of ﬁeld operators.Chapter 3 Vacuum expectation values and the S matrix 3.

Remember that the pion is not a stable particle and decays into µ + νµ with ¯ −8 a lifetime of the order of ≈ 2 · 10 sec. However we mentioned also the pions. The same argument can be applied to quarks and leptons that will be the main actors in the following. there exists a stable stae of single particle Φ1 ≡ |p (3. For each stable particle of mass m. xxx Continuum xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx sin gl E 2m xx xx m p xx xx Vacuum Fig. to say that the arguments presented here can be applied (in the appropriate range of energy) also to composite particles. by neglecting the weak interactions (responsible for the decay) we can assume that the pion is stable. .Energy-momentum spectrum for particles of mass m.Since pµ = 0 is a Lorentz invariant condition. Therefore. 4. (mπ ≈ 140 MeV ). it follows that Φ0 appears as the vacuum states in all the Lorentz frames.5) where Φ1 is a momentum eigenstate with eigenvalue pµ such that p2 = m2 . Neglecting the complications from the zero mass states we can add a further requirement: the vacuum and the single particle states give a discrete spectrum in pµ . That is we introduce a ﬁeld for each particle.1. 3. 3.1 . Ideally these experiments are realized by preparing at 74 ep ar tic le sta te . For instance.. assuming that the interactions do not modify the spectrum in a violent way. the case of the π mesons is given in Fig. but this number is very large with respect to the natural decay frequency 1/mπ ≈ 5·10−24 sec. Notice that this assumption is very much in the spirit of perturbation theory. 3. The main tools of investigation in the ﬁeld of elementary particle physics are the scattering experiments.

6) 2. the scattering process will occur around the time t = 0 (assuming this as the time scale) and then we will measure the outgoing particles at a time T . In particular. φin (x) must satisfy the free Klein-Gordon equation (for a scalar ﬁeld. That is assuming that they do not interact each other (this requires that the particles are well separated in space). These particles will interact with a target at some ﬁnite time. the particle will travel since it will reach the target where it will be subject to the interaction with the atoms of target itself.7) ∂φin (x) ∂xµ (3. with respect to translation it must satisfy [Pµ . Having prepared the electron in the initial state at the time −T . or the Dirac free equation for a spinor ﬁeld.8) 75 . In real life the times t = ±∞ correspond to laboratory time. For instance. imagine an electron prepared in an eigenstate of momentum p. φin (x) must transform as the corresponding φ(x) with respect to the symmetries of the theory. etc. That is we prepare the beam at some ﬁnite time −T . This is one of the reasons why analyzing a scattering process it is always convenient to quantize in a box of the dimension of the experiment itself (that is about the distance between the source of the beam and the detector). The free ﬁelds that we are going to use will be denoted by φin (x) for t → −∞ and by φout (x) for t → +∞. that is one has always to remember that the experiments is taking place between to ﬁnite times −T and T . After that scattering process we imagine that at t = +∞ the emerging particles will behave again as free particles. In order that the in. impinging over an atom. as we know. The interaction time will be of the order of the time necessary to cross the atomic dimensions for the case of a single scattering. The interacting ﬁeld φ(x)) can be thought of as constructed in terms of these free ﬁelds operators and such that at t → ±∞ it reduces to φout (x) or φin (x). except that they will be subject to the self-interaction which. or. The ideal description considered before can be considered as correct if the interaction time ∆t around t = 0 is much smaller that T .and out-ﬁelds describe correctly the incoming and outgoing free particles we have to require some properties. In conclusion we can think to describe the particles at t = ±∞ in terms of free ﬁelds. In particular we will require 1. of the order of the thickness of the target for a multiple scattering. at maximum.t = −∞ a system of free particles. cannot be neglected. Here there is a further simpliﬁcation that we are doing since in a ﬁnite time or a ﬁnite volume we cannot prepare a state of deﬁnite momentum.) corresponding to the physical mass m ( + m2 )φin (x) = 0 (3. ] = −i equivalent to require φin(x + a) = eiP · a φin (x)e−iP · a (3. The same consideration holds for the energy. After that we will let again the electron to move freely since it will reach the detector where we will measure its properties as momentum and polarization.

10) and using the Klein-Gordon equation (p2 − m2 ) p|φin(x)|0 = 0 (3. From our starting hypotheses we have that this is the state of single particle with mass m.12) 1 e−ikx . let |p an eigenstate ofPµ with eigenvalue pµ .15) d3 x ∗ ∂fk (x) ∂xi ∂ φin (x) − ∂x0 ∗ ∂ ∂fk (x) ∂x0 ∂xi = −ki ain (k) ∗ Since fk (x) and φin (x) both satisfy the free Klein-Gordon equation. φin(x)]|0 = pµ p|φin(x)|0 (3. This follows immediately. (3.11) We see that the only state that φin(x) can create out of the vacuum is the one with pµ such that p2 = m2 . By using these two properties it follows at once that the in-ﬁeld creates from the vacuum the physical one particle state from the vacuum. we see that the operators deﬁned in eq.13) Inverting this relation. we ﬁnd ain (k) = i from which [Pi . In particular they can be Fourier expanded φin(x) = with fk (x) = ∗ d3 k ain (k)fk (x) + a† (k)fk (x) in (3. ain (k)] = = − ∗ d3 x fk (x) ∗ ∗ d3 x fk (x)∂0 φin(x) − ∂0 fk (x)φin (x) (3. We have ∂ −i µ p|φin(x)|0 = p|[Pµ . The same properties are required for the out-ﬁelds.14) are time independent. by 76 .Notice that this requirement implies that we have taken into account the selfinteractions of the ﬁeld which are responsible for the mass renormalization (we will mention the wave function renormalization later). Since the in.14) ∂ ∂φin (x) ∂x0 ∂xi − ∂ ∗ f (x) ∂x0 k ∂φin (x) ∂xi φin (x) (3.and out-ﬁelds are free ﬁelds we can apply all the corresponding formalism. In fact. (2π)3 2ωk ωk = k 2 + m2 (3.9) ∂x By applying −i∂/∂xµ once more. we ﬁnd − p|φin (x)|0 = p2 p|φin(x)|0 (3.

in|k1 . otherwise. ain (k)] = −kµ ain (k) Also. For instance. We get also (3. ain (k1 )a† (k2 )]|0 = (k2 − k1 )µ ain (k1 )a† (k2 )|0 in in in (3. ain (k)] = = − ∗ d3 x fk (x) 3 ∂ ∂φin (x) ∂x0 ∂x0 − ∂ ∗ f (x) ∂x0 k ∂φin (x) ∂x0 φin (x) (3. it follows [P0 . in = 0 unless M = N and the set (p1 . Pµ a† (k1 )a† (k2 )|0 = [Pµ . kN . · · · . · · · .25) where j(x) (the scalar current) contains the self-interactions of the ﬁelds and possible interactions with other ﬁelds in the theory.18) (3.23) since.22) By using the condition on the spectrum of the momentum operator we get also ain (k)|0 = 0 (3.recalling that if φ1 (x) and φ2 (x) are both solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation. by hermitian conjugation we get [Pµ . Using this. and therefore the charge Q= d3 xj0 (3.24) p1 .21) (3. · · · . Let us now look for a relation between the in. this state would have a negative eigenvalue of the energy. a† (k1 )a† (k2 )]|0 = (k1 + k2 )µ a† (k1 )a† (k2 )|0 in in in in in in Pµ ain (k1 )a† (k2 )|0 = [Pµ .20) It follows that a† (k) creates states of four-momentum kµ whereas ain (k) annihilates in states with momentum kµ .16) ∂x ∂x is a conserved current.and the φ-ﬁeld. The ﬁeld φ(x) will satisfy an equation of the type ( + m2 )φ(x) = j(x) (3. a† (k)] = kµ a† (k) in in (3. · · · . kN ). then the four-vector ∂φ1 ∂φ2 jµ = φ1 µ − µ φ2 (3. We need to solve this equation with the 77 . pM ) is identical to the set (k1 .17) is a constant of motion.19) dx ∗ ∂fk (x) ∂x0 ∂ φin (x) − ∂x0 ∗ ∂ ∂fk (x) ∂x0 ∂x0 = −k0 ain (k) In conclusion [Pµ . pM .

29) The need of Z in this context. 78 .26) t→−∞ t→−∞ t→+∞ t→+∞ The solution for φ(x) is then φ(x) = √ Zφin (x) + d4 y∆ret (x − y. t)) (3.26). t) an arbitrary normalizable solution of the Klein-Gordon equation ( + m2 )f (x) = 0 Then the asymptotic condition is formulated as √ lim α|φf (t)|β = Z lim α|φf (t)in |β t→−∞ t→−∞ (3. m2 )j(y) (3. t)φ(x. This is because it is not possible to isolate the operator φ(x) from the scalar current j(x) at t = −∞.and out-ﬁelds. Notice that in writing the previous equation we have included the eﬀects of mass renormalization inside the current j(x). deﬁned by ( + m2 )∆ret (x. The correct way of doing it is ﬁrst to smear out the ﬁeld over a space-like region φf (t) = i d3 x (f ∗ (x. cannot hold as an operator statement. see eq.31) (3. is because we want the the in-ﬁeld properly normalized in order to produce single particle states. In fact. However the statement can be given in a weak form for the matrix elements. but φ(x) may create out of the vacuum states other than the single particle state.and out-ﬁelds but it will diﬀer by a factor Z. Therefore. for x0 < 0 (3. since this includes also the self-interactions. It can be shown that the asymptotic condition (3. both 1|φin(x)|0 e 1|φ(x)|0 have the same x-dependence (they must be both proportional to exp(ipx).6)). m2 ) is the retarded Green’s function. the required asymptotic conditions are √ √ lim φ(x) = lim Zφin(x). m2 ) = 0. t) − ∂0 f ∗ (x.28) with f (x. (3. and therefore the normalization of the two previous matrix elements cannot be the same. m2 ) = δ 4 (x) such that ∆ret (x. The function ∆ret (x.boundary conditions at t = ±∞ relating φ(x) with the in.30) (3. but we know that at the same time we have also a wave function renormalization. Therefore asymptotically the ﬁeld φ(x) cannot be the √ √ same as the in.32) where |α and |β are any two normalizable states. lim φ(x) = lim Zφout (x) (3. t)∂0 φ(x. where Z is the wave function renormalization.27) We will see in a moment the meaning of Z in this context.

40) We can also deﬁne an operator S transforming the in-states into the out-states β. In particular we can ﬁnd a relation between the in.39) out out The probability amplitude is given by the S matrix elements Sβα = β. m2 ) = 0. m2 ) (3. in (3. m2)j(y) (3.35) + m2 )∆adv (x.and out-ﬁelds φ(x) = where ∆adv (x. ( for x0 > 0 (3. in ≡ |α. · · · . pn . m2 ) = δ 4 (x) √ Zφout (x) + d4 y∆adv (x − y. After the scattering process we are interested to evaluate the probability amplitude for the ﬁnal state to be a state of non-interacting particles described by the outoperators |p1 . m2 ) − ∆ret (x − y.Similar considerations can be made for the out-ﬁeld.36) with ∆(x − y.27) we ﬁnd √ √ Zφin (x) = Zφout (x) + d4 y∆(x − y.34) (3. m2 ) = ∆adv (x − y. out = a† (p1 ) · · · a† (pn )|0. pn .42) From the deﬁnition we can derive some important properties for the operator S (3. in|S = β. out|α.33) is the advanced Green’s function.38) where α stands for the all collection of the quantum numbers of the initial state. 3. out| such that Sβα = β. · · · . in in in (3.2 The S matrix We have shown in the previous Section that an initial state of n non-interacting particles can be described by |p1 . in|S|α. out ≡ |β. (3. in (3. By comparing this expression with eq. m2 )j(y) (3.37) The construction of the out-operators of creation and annihilation goes along the same lines discussed for the in-operators. in = a† (p1 ) · · · a† (pn )|0.41) 79 . out (3.

(3. out|φout (x)|α. This follows from the very deﬁnition (3.45) (3. it follows |S00 | = 1. in = |p. out|φout = β. 80 .to the out-ﬁelds φin(x) = Sφout (x)S −1 In fact. out|φout |α. In an analogous way the stability of the one particle state requires |p. in But β. out from which showing that β.46).51) (3.50) and the unitarity of S we get |α. as it follows from the fact that transform in.1. in = β. in ≡ |0 2. out −1 (3.41) implying S † |α. in|φin S Then β.48) (3. in = |α.52) (3.50) (3. 4. let us consider the following matrix element β.into outﬁelds having the same Lorentz properties. out = δαβ SS † = 1 (3. S is Lorentz invariant. in = β.53) 5. in = β. in|Sφout (x)|α. in|SS †|α. in|Sφout |α. The operator S maps the in.43) By choosing the phase equal to zero we get |0. in = S † |α. The S is unitary. in|φin(x)S|α. out = S|α. out 3. For the same reason the S matrix is invariant under any symmetry of the theory. Since the vacuum is stable and not degenerate. out|φout is an out-state and therefore β. and therefore 0in|S = 0out| = eiφ 0in| (3. out|α.47) (3.44) From eq. out = |0.49) (3. in = β.46) (3. in which shows the relation (3.

(3. out|a† (p) − a† (p)|α. p. out|a† (p)|α. out|a† (p)|α. in (3. out|φin(x) − φout (x)|α. in i d3 x fp (x) lim − 0lim + √ x0 →+∞ x →−∞ Z ∂ fp (x) β. Here we will consider the case of scalar particles. in out out in β − p. out|α.57) By using the identity +∞ d4 x −∞ ∂ g1 (x) ∂x0 ∂ g2 (x) − ∂x0 81 ∂ g1 (x) g2 (x) = ∂x0 . out|φ(x)|α. in − i d3 x fp (x) ∂x0 ∂ − fp (x) β.54) where |α. Let us start considering the following S matrix element Sβ.αp = β. in β − p. in is the state of a set of particles α plus an additional incoming particle of momentum pµ . in ∂x0 (3. We have denoted |β − p. p. in − ∂x0 = ∂ β. in β. in in β. We want to show that.3. out|φ(x)|α. in + β. in (3. out|α. φin (x) and φout (x) are solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation. Therefore we are allowed to make the following substitutions (in the weak sense. in ∂ β. out the outstate obtained by removing the particle with momentum pµ . out|α.56) obtaining β. but the formalism can be easily extended to other cases. by using the asymptotic condition. since we are taking matrix elements) 1 lim φin(x) = 0lim √ φ(x) x →−∞ Z 1 lim φout (x) = 0lim √ φ(x) x0 →+∞ x →+∞ Z x0 →−∞ (3. Let us consider the following identities β. p. if present in the state.14). it is possible to extract the particle of momentum pµ from the state by introducing the corresponding ﬁeld operator. out|α. out|α. otherwise it must be taken as the null vector. out|φin(x) − φout (x)|α.55) ∂x0 = = = where we have used the adjoint of eq. As we know the integral appearing in the previous expression is time-independent since fp (x). p.3 The reduction formalism In this Section we will describe a systematic way of evaluating the S matrix elements in terms of the vacuum expectation values of T -products of ﬁeld operators.

with p the momentum of a single particle. out|φ(x)|α. in = β − p. in = β − p. in γ.58) d4 x [g1 (x)¨2 (x) − g1 (x)g2 (x)] g ¨ we can write β. Let us see also the case in which we want to extract from the previous matrix element an out-particle. out|(φout (y)φ(x) − φ(x)φin(y))|α. in = γ. out|φ(x)ain(p )|α. in Z (3. in i ¨ d4 x β. out| fp (x)φ(x) − fp (x)φ(x) |α. out|φ(x)|α. out|φ(x)|α. in i ¨ ¨ + √ d4 x β. out|α. in + γ. in (3. in γ. out|α. p. p . out|φ(x)|α − p .62) ∂y 0 p = = + − Using again the time independence of the integral we have γ.59) Z = By using the Klein-Gordon equation for fp (x) we get β. p. Let us suppose that the out state is of the type β = (γ. out|[φout (y)φ(x) − φ(x)φin (y)]|α. out|α. out|α. out|α. p ).and out-particles from the states. This exercise is interesting because it shows how the T -product comes about.63) . out|(φout (y)φ(x) − φ(x)φin(y))|α. in (3. in + √ Z Integrating by parts β. out|[aout (p )φ(x) − φ(x)ain (p )]|α. in = γ. in 1 lim − lim γ. in β − p.= = x0 →+∞ +∞ −∞ lim − 0lim x →−∞ d3 x g1 (x) ∂ g2 (x) − ∂x0 ∂ g1 (x) g2 (x) ∂x0 (3. We want to extract this particle from the state β.60) (3. out|aout (p )φ(x)|α. out|α. in = √ Z y0 →+∞ y0 →−∞ 82 (3. out|T (φ(y)φ(x))|α. in ∂ γ. out| fp (x)φ(x) − (∇2 − m2 )fp (x) φ(x) |α.61) We can iterate this procedure in order to extract all the in. in i + √ d4 xfp (x)( + m2 ) β. p. in i d3 y fp ∗ (y) ∂y 0 ∂ ∗ f (y) γ.

qn . out|φ(x)|α − p . out| fp (y) 2 T (φ(y)φ(x)) − fp (y)T (φ(y)φ(x)) |α. Therefore we have shown that it is possible to evaluate all the S matrix elements once one knows the vacuum expectation values of the T -products (called also the n-point Green’s function). pm . in ∂y 0 p γ. in ∂2 i ∗ ¨∗ √ d4 y γ.64) d4 yfp (y)( + m2 )y γ. (3. out|α. in i d4 xfp (x)( + m2 )x γ. out|φ(x)|α. p. out|q1 . in = i √ Z m+n m.and eq. in d3 y fp (y) lim − 0lim 0 →+∞ y →−∞ ∂y 0 Z y ∂ ∗ f (y) γ. for spinor ﬁelds. · · · . in i ∗ √ (3. out|T (φ(y)φ(x))|α. in Z + − = + = + Substituting inside the (3. in (3. in = γ. out|α−p. in ∂y0 Z γ. qm ) and in (p1 . spinors times plane waves) and to the Klein-Gordon operator the corresponding wave / operators (for the spinor case the Dirac operator (i∂ − m)). in + √ Z 2 i √ + d4 xd4 y Z ∗ fp (x)fp (y)( + m2 )x ( + m2 )y γ. out|T (φ(y)φ(x))|α. out|φ(x)|α − p . 83 .58) β.n ∗ d4 xi d4 yj fqi (xi )fpj (yj )( i. out|α. · · · . out|φ(x)|α − p .j=1 + m2 )xi ( + m2 )yj · (3. in . we can reduce further the matrix elements of the type β. √ the Dirac case one In √ √ halso to change i/ Z to −i/ Z2 for fermions and to +i/ Z2 for antifermions.66) 0|T (φ(y1) · · · φ(yn )φ(x1 ) · · · φ(xm ))|0 If some of the qi ’s are equal to some of the pj ’s. out|T (φ(y)φ(x))|α.61) β.65) More generally if we want to remove all the particles in (q1 . · · · . out|φ(x)|α − p . · · · . in = β − p. where Z2 is the wave function renormalization for the spinor ﬁeld. pn ) with the condition pi = qj we get p1 . The result obtained here can be easily extended to generic ﬁelds simply by substituting to the wave functions fp (x) the corresponding solutions of the wave equation (for instance. out|T (φ(y)φ(x))|α. in ∂ i ∗ √ γ.

a n-point Green’s function. can be obtained in the context of the path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics. 84 .We will show in the following that a simple technique to evaluate perturbatively the vacuum expectation value of n ﬁelds.

Although the path integral formulation (as the Feynman’s approach is usually called) is just a diﬀerent way of formulating quantum mechanics.1) for ∆t inﬁnitesimal.1 Feynman’s formulation of quantum mechanics In 1948 Feynman gave a formulation of quantum mechanics quite diﬀerent from the standard one. In order to derive the Feynman’s formulation we will start studying a quantum system described by one degree of freedom. to the probability amplitudes (remember that the probability is the square of the amplitude). for one degree of freedom. In fact we will show that the Feynman’s formulation can be derived from the usual formulation of quantum mechanics.Chapter 4 Path integral formulation of quantum mechanics 4. First of all we notice that the quantum mechanical problem is to evaluate 85 . is given by the eiS where S is the classical action to go from q at the time t to q at the tome t + ∆t. which was obtained directly from the physical idea that the probability amplitude to go from one state to another can be obtained by summing together all the possible ways with an appropriate weight. This formulation did not make use of operators and of Schr¨dinger o equation. but rather it was giving an explicit expression for the quantum-mechanical amplitude. although using a mathematical formalism which was far from being well deﬁned. the probability amplitude q . t + ∆t|q. The key observation to get the appropriate weight was taken by the Dirac’s book where it was shown that. t (4. Also it is one the few methods which can be used for studying situations outside the perturbative approach. and we will see later how this can be extended also to inﬁnite degrees of freedom as needed in quantum ﬁeld theory. at the beginning of the 70’s it turned out to be a crucial tool for the quantization of gauge theories. This was as apply the ordinary composition laws in probability theory.

This can be evaluated in any basis. tk + |p. t |qn−1 . making use of the canonical commutation relations for p and h q. t p. t = qk+1 . t . p)(tk + − t) ˜ qk+1. 0 86 (4. t |q.2) It will be convenient to work in the Heisenberg representation.2) can be evaluated by slicing the time interval t − t in inﬁnitesimal pieces and using the completeness relation. its matrix elements are given by q . 0 (4.9) (remember / = 1). p)(tk + − t) qk+1. 0|p. tk (4. q)(tk + − t) |p. t ≥t (4. tk (4. t = eiHt |q. which is given by the propagator. The matrix element (4. p). we get q .the time evolution.6) dqk k=1 k=0 (4. 0 e−iH+ (qk+1 . t ˜ 1 − iH+ (qk+1 .7) We have still to evaluate the matrix element (4. but now for an inﬁnitesimal time interval . tk + |p. The states of the previous equation are deﬁned as eigenstates of the operator q(t) at the time t. t where tk = t + k . t1 |q. t |q. tk = ˜ ˜ dp qk+1. t|qk . tk + |qk . that is using timedependent operators q(t). tn−1 qn−1 . 0|p.5) t0 ≡ t. the hamiltonian can be written in such a way that all the operators q are at the left of all the operators p. for instance in conﬁguration space. By doing so we get ˜ qk+1 . let us use again the completeness in momentum space with states taken ˜ at a time t in between tk e tk+1 : qk+1 . 0|e−iH(p.2).10) . The result will be denoted by the symbol H+ (q. t q (4. tn−2 · (4. t = n→∞ lim dq1 · · · dqn−1 q . tk+1 |qk . t = |q. n−1 · · · q1 . tn−1 |qn−2 . t = lim n→∞ n−1 tn ≡ t qk+1 . that is q(t)|q.3) It follows immediately that the relation between these states at diﬀerent times is given by |q. t |q. tk + |p. Therefore q .8) The mixed matrix elements can be written as ˜ ˜ qk+1 .4) for a time independent hamiltonian. 0 (4.

q) deﬁned by putting the operators q to the right of p by using the canonical commutation relations. p) (4. p) ≡ H(qk . tk 1 ˜ √ ei(pqk+1 − H+ (qk+1 . diﬀerent functions.15) it is reasonable to deﬁne a variable velocity as qk = ˙ and write Hc (qk+1 . p) are.16) dp i L(qk . p) and H+ (q.18) q . Coming back to (4. pk ) k=0 e (4. qk .19) is the lagrangian in phase space. p) (4.12) where H− is the eigenvalue of the operator H− (p. t where dp i (p(qk+1 − qk )/ − Hc (qk+1 . p) = (H+ (qk+1 . t |q.20) 87 .14) (4.The function H+ (q. qk . in general. p) are the same operator. Notice that although H(q. p)(tk+1 − t)) 2π 1 ˜ √ ei(−pqk − H− (qk . p) the operators q and p with their eigenvalues. p)(t − tk )) 2π (4.18) we obtain n−1 n−1 n−1 qk+1 − qk (4. p)) 2 → 0 we have qk+1 . tk + |qk . p) e 2π (4. t|qk . tk + |qk . tk + |qk . Therefore qk+1 .11) (4. H(q. p)) e 2π (4. tk → δ(qk+1 − qk ) (4. tk + |p.7) and using (4. p) + H− (qk . In this way we get ˜ qk+1. t and ˜ p. t = lim n→∞ dqk k=1 dpk 2π k=0 i L(qk . p) e H+ (q. qk . p) is obtained by substituting in H+ (q.13) Since in the limit 1 Hc (qk+1 . p) is nothing but the hamiltonian of the system evaluated in the phase space. tk where ˙ L(qk .17) In the same limit H(qk . p) = pqk − H(qk . By choosing ˜ t = (tk + tk+1 )/2 and the previous two equations. we get qk+1 .

as it required by the uncertainty principle. p) = The momentum integration can be done naively n−1 p2 + V (q) 2m p2 + V (q) 2m (4. 4.22) dq(t ).23) The asymmetry between the integration in q(t) and p(t) implies that the integral is not invariant under a generic canonical transformation.2 Path integral in conﬁguration space The path integral in eq.In the limit. t = where dµ(q(t)) = i dµ(q(t))dµ(p(t))e dtL(q. p) = H− (q.t q . p) = In such a case H+ (q. Notice that the integration is made over all the functions q(t ) such that q(t) = q e q(t ) = q . the multiple integral in eq. p) = H(q. t |q. p) t (4. (4. t |q.20) is called the functional integral and we will denote it symbolically as t q .t q.21) In the limit n → ∞.25) q . therefore we get the canonical action t S= t dt L(q. t = · = · n→∞ n−1 lim dqk k=1 dpk i[pk (qk+1 − qk ) − p2 /2m − (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2] k e = 2π k=0 n−1 n→∞ lim dqk k=1 1 2π 2mπ i n n−1 2 e(−2m/i )(qk+1 − qk ) /4 k=0 e−i (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2 = 88 .20) can be easily written as a functional integral in conﬁguration space when the hamiltonian of the system is of the type H(q. On the contrary there are no limitations on p(t ). the argument of the exponential gives the integral between t and t of the lagrangian in the phase space.24) (4. t<t <t dµ(p(t)) = t≤t ≤t dp(t ) 2π (4. (4. p) (4.

N H(qi . let us recall the boundary conditions q(t) = q. . Therefore we will write ˙ t q . t |q.32) 89 . q) ˙ t (4. t |q.31) 2m i=1 the expression (4.27)) which was originally formulated by Feynman. q(t ) = q (4. In fact it has a simple physical.28) where L(q. But before discussing the interpretation let us notice that for N degrees of freedom and with hamiltonians of the type N p2 i + V (qi ) i = 1.29). which also can be easily generalized to an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. pi ) = (4.= · n→∞ n−1 lim m 2iπ n n−1 dqk k=1 2 ei [m((qk+1 − qk )/ ) /2 − (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2] (4. q) ˙ t (4.t q. .30) It is the expression (4.29) can be easily generalized. For discussing the interpretation of the expression (4. . However for arbitrary system one has to start with the formulation in the phase space of the previous Section.29) with the functional measure given by D(q(t)) = lim m 2iπ n n−1 n→∞ dqk k=1 (4. q) is the lagrangian in conﬁguration space.t q . t = lim m 2iπ n n−1 n→∞ n−1 dqk k=1 · We have also n−1 n→∞ i e [m((qk+1 − qk )/ )2 /2 − (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2] k=0 (4.26) k=0 with the result q .27) lim k=0 m 2 qk+1 − qk 2 − V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ) = 2 t dtL(q. . t = i D(q(t))e dtL(q.29) (really deﬁned by (4.

. Each of these amplitudes (neglecting the normalization factor m/2iπ ) is given by the exponential of i times the action evaluated along the path. 90 . 4.1. 4.1 .27) by many inﬁnitesimal straight paths as shown in Fig. t' t q q' Fig. Therefore the interpretation is that in order to evaluate the amplitude to go from (q. Furthermore we need to sum (or integrate functionally) over all the possible paths joining the two given end points.The Feynman deﬁnition for the path integral. where S is the classical action evaluated along the path.2. t ) is obtained by multiplying together the amplitudes corresponding to the inﬁnitesimal straight paths. (4.29) is nothing but the action evaluated for a continuous path starting from q at time t and ending at q at time t . In a more concise way one says that the amplitude to from one point to another is obtained by summing over all the possible paths joining the two points with a weight proportional to the exponential of iS. t) to (q . The expression in the exponent of (4.2. This path is approximated in eq.

By counting the electrons with the detectpr D we can determine. with both slits open.3 The physical interpretation of the path integral Feynman arrived to the path integral formulation in conﬁguration space on a more physical basis. 4.3.3. 4.The double slit experiment.4. First of all he knew that the amplitude for inﬁnitesimal time diﬀerences is proportional to the exponential of iS. • Each electron must go through the slit 1 or through the slit 2. as a function of x.1. Let us consider the classical double slit experiment. going through one of the two silts A or B.1.The experimental probability distribution. In order to explain this distribution it would seem reasonable to make the following assumptions: .2 . 4. From that one can derive directly the ﬁnal formula in the following way.2. The electrons come out of the slit A and arrive to the screen C. 4.1 .3. how many electrons arrive on C. as illustrated in Fig.3. with S the classical action evaluated along the inﬁnitesimal path.3. and therefore the probability distribution of the electrons on the screen C. D 1 x S 2 A B C Fig. Under the conditions of Fig. P x Fig. . P . where S is the electron source. one gets the distribution given in Fig. where they are detected by D. 4. that is with both slits 1 and 2 open. 91 .

He says that it is still possible to speak about trajectories of the electron if one gives up to the usual rules of combining probabilities. this is the result that one obtains when doing the experiment with a further detector telling us which of the holes have been crossed by the electron. That is it does not make sense.The experimental probability distributions. the total amplitude for the process is given by the sum of the amplitudes corresponding to the two diﬀerent possibilities.3. . This point of view requires taking into account diﬀerent type of alternatives according to diﬀerent experimental settings. but the result that we get follows from our ignorance about the path followed by the particle. 4. In fact. under such circumstances.3. We see that P = P1 + P2 .• As a consequence the probability for the electron to reach the screen at the point x must be given by the sum of the probability to reach x through 1 with the probability to go through 2. In fact. quantum mechanics tells us that the usual rules for combining together probabilities are correct. P2 P1 x Fig. P1 and P2 obtained keeping open the sli1 1 or the slit 2 respectively. These hypotheses can be easily checked by closing one of the two slits and doing again the experiment. Only in this case one would get P = P1 + P2 . quantum mechanics tells us that we can say that an electron went through one of the two slits with absolute certainty. In particular one deﬁnes the following alternatives 92 . unless we measure it. On the contrary the experiment tells us that when we do not detect the hole crossed by the electron. The Feynnman’s interpretation is a little bit diﬀerent although at the end the theories turn out to be equivalent. Therefore. therefore one of our hypotheses must be wrong. that is P = |A|2 = |A1 +A2 |2 = |A1 |2 +|A2 |2 +A1 A2 +A1 A2 = |A1 |2 +|A2 |2 = P1 +P2 (4.3. deﬁne a concept as the path followed by a particle. The results obtained in the two cases are given in Fig. 4.3 . only if we detect its passage through the slit. This means that with this experimental setting the interference gets destroyed.33) The two expressions diﬀer for a term which is not positive deﬁnite and which is the responsible for the interference pattern.

if we denote by A(x. y) the amplitude for the electron to reach x going through the hole placed at a distance y from the center of B. (4.38) We can continue by using more and more screen of type B with more and more holes. There are situations in which one may have both type of alternatives.36) Therefore the probability rules are strictly related to the experimental setting. Exclusive alternative . For instance. if we want to know the total probability of having an electron in C within the interval (a. From this point of view it is well conceivable to speak about trajectories of the electron. For instance one we use a detector to determine the slit crossed by the electrons. suppose that we want to evaluate the amplitude to go from S to the screen C when the screen B is eliminated. This can be done by increasing the number of holes in the screen B.We will speak about exclusive alternatives when we use an apparatus to determine the alternative chosen by the system. In this case we associate to each alternative an amplitude Ai and assume that the total amplitude is given by the sum of all the amplitudes Ai A= i Ai (4.1. In this case the total probability will be given by b P = a dx|A1 (x) + A2 (x)|2 (4. having a detector in C and not looking at the slit crossed by the electrons.37) Since the alternatives of getting the electron at diﬀerent points in C are exclusive ones. y) (4. For instance. That is we can construct a lattice of points between A and C and construct 93 . P = i Pi . the total amplitude will be given by A(x) = dyA(x.34) 2.35) The total probability for the process is evaluated as P = |A|2 = | i Ai |2 (4. In this case the total probability is given by the sum of the probabilities corresponding to the diﬀerent alternatives. Interfering alternatives . b).This is the situation where the alternative chosen by the system is not detected by an experimental apparatus. but we have to associate to each possible path an amplitude and then sum all over the possible paths. Then.

4. and for each of these paths the amplitude is proportional to exp(iS) where S is the action for the inﬁnitesimal path. for the single path C the amplitude will be given by exp(iS(C).4. C) (4. This is important because in many cases the simple result outlined above is not the correct one. For instance.3. as shown in Fig. C From this point it is easy to get the path integral expression for the total amplitude. except for a proportionality factor.all the possible paths from A to the point x on C joining the sites of the lattice. Therefore.4 .41) 94 .39) C . This is the ﬁnal result.3. By denoting with C the generic path we get that the total amplitude is given by A(x) = A(x. This is easy to get if one starts from the phase space formulation.39). D C1 S C2 x A Fig. The canonical momentum is given by p = mqf (q) ˙ and the corresponding hamiltonian is H= 1 p2 + V (q) 2mf (q) (4. 4.42) (4.40) where f (q) is an arbitrary function of q. consider the following lagrangian L= m 2 q f (q) − V (q) ˙ 2 (4.The lattice for the evaluation of equation (4. since each path is obtained by joining together many inﬁnitesimal paths.

where qk = (qk + q ¯ qk+1 )/2. t = lim n−1 n→∞ dqk k=1 · dpk i[pk (qk+1 − qk ) − p2 /(2mf (¯k )) − (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2] q k (4.t q .29) t q . In the continuum limit we have n−1 n→∞ lim f (¯k ) = q k=0 n→∞ lim e 1 2 n−1 log f (¯k ) q k=0 n−1 = log f (¯k ) q 1 δ(0) = e2 t = where we have used n−1 n→∞ n→∞ lim e 1 2 dt log f (q) t k=0 (4. but the integration measure must be determined by using the original phase space formulation. t = lim mf (¯k ) q 2iπ n n−1 n→∞ n−1 dqk k=1 · i e [mf (¯k )((qk+1 − qk )/ )2 /2 − (V (qk+1 ) + V (qk ))/2] q k=0 (4.45) with L(q. q) ˙ t (4. Therefore.44) We can rewrite this expression in a way similar to the one used in eq.t q. t |q.43) e 2π k=0 This expression is formally the same as the one in eq. (4. Therefore we get q q .48) 95 . n→∞ lim δhk = δ(th − tk ) (4.20) we get n−1 q .40). (4.47) t lim = k=0 t dt .Notice that for qk ≈ qk+1 we have f (¯k ) ≈ (f (qk ) + f (qk+1 ))/2. t = i D(q(t))e dtL(q. t |q. q) given in (4.26) after sending m → mf (¯k ).46) The formal expression for the path integral is always the same. t |q. (4. form eq. but the functional measure is now ˙ D(q(t)) = lim mf (¯k ) q 2iπ n n−1 n→∞ dqk k=1 (4.

The classical path (the one making S stationary) is t xclass (t) = x0 (4.50) t0 The corresponding value for S is 1 S(xclass ) = m 2 t0 0 1 x2 q2 = m 0 ˙ 2 t0 (4. Around this point the phases will add coherently. We get ∆S = m/6. of the order of one. many paths may contribute / to the amplitude.53) (4. S(Cclass )// . For instance. as it follows from dimensional arguments.49) The reason why we say that this is a quantum modiﬁcation is because the second term must be proportional to h. Let us recall that the amplitude for a single path is exp(iS(C)// ) (where we have h put back the factor h). for an electron m ≈ 10−27 gr. whereas they will cancel going away from this point due to the fast variation of the phase. and the amplitude gets contribution h only from the classical path. we get ∆S = 1. and ∆S = h/6. However. For a macroscopical particle (m ≈ 1 gr and times of h about 1 sec) the typical action is about 1027 / . Roughly we can expect that the coherence eﬀect will take place for those paths such that their phase diﬀers from the stationary value.6 · 1026/ and this / h non-classical path can be safely ignored. 96 . for instance.Therefore the result can be also interpreted by saying that the classical lagrangian gets modiﬁed by quantum eﬀects as follows i L → L − δ(0) log f (q) 2 (4. take a free particle starting from the origin at t = 0 and arriving at x0 at the time t0 .52) Let us take t0 = 1 sec and x0 = 1 cm. To ﬁnd the total amplitude we must sum over all the possible / paths C. t2 x(t) = x0 2 t0 The corresponding action is 2 x2 S(x) = m 0 3 t0 and we get 1 x2 ∆S = S(x) − S(xclass ) = m 0 6 t0 (4. For a macroscopic particle (say m = 1 gr) and recalling that h ≈ 10−27 erg·sec. / An interesting question is how one gets the classical limit from this formulation. It follows that in the microscopic world.54) (4. Since the amplitudes are phase factors the will cancel except for the paths which are very close to a stationary points of S.51) Let us now consider another path joining the origin with x0 as.

59) 2πi = m m 2πi(2 ) 1 2 2 eim(q2 − q0 ) /(2(2 ) Multiplying by the exponential depending on q2 and integrating over this variable we get 2πi m 2πi = m = 2πi m m 2πi(2 ) m 2πi(2 ) 3 2 1 2 2 2 dq2 eim[(q3 − q2 ) + (q2 − q0 ) /2]/(2 ) 1 2 2πi(2 ) 3m 1 2 1 2 2 eim(q3 − q0 ) /(2(3 )) m 2πi(3 ) 2 eim(q3 − q0 ) /(2(3 )) (4. after n − 1 steps we ﬁnd n−1 n−1 dqk k=1 i e m((qk+1 − qk )/ )2 /2 k=0 1 2 = 2πi m n 2 m 2πi(n ) 97 2 eim(qn − q0 ) /(2(n )) (4.55) since the lagrangian is 1 ˙ (4.56) L = mq 2 2 The integrations can be done immediately starting from the gaussian integral ∞ −∞ 2 dxeax + bx = 2 π − e−b /4a . In this case we can easily make the integrations going back to the original deﬁnition (eq. The expression we wish to evaluate is n−1 q .57) which allows us to evaluate the expression 2 2 dxea(x1 − x) + b(x2 − x) = − π ab(x1 − x2 )2 /(a + b) e a+b (4. t = lim n→∞ m 2iπ n n−1 dqk k=1 i e m((qk+1 − qk )/ )2 /2 k=0 (4.60) By repeating this procedure. (4.27).58) let us start by integrating q1 2 2 dq1 eim[(q2 − q1 ) + (q1 − q0 ) ]/(2 ) = iπ im(q2 − q0 )2 /(2(2 ) e m (4.4. t |q. a Re a ≤ 0 (4.4 The free particle We shall now consider the case of the one-dimensional free motion.61) .

65) Scl = t m 2 m (q − q)2 qcl dτ = ˙ 2 2 (t − t)2 t dτ = t m (q − q)2 2 (t − t) (4.t 0. t = 2πi(t − t) 1 2 eiScl (4. t) = 2πit 98 1 2 q .62) This expression can be generalized to a free system with N degrees of freedom N N 2 qi . t = Notice also that m 2πi(t − t) im e (qi − qi )2 /(2(t − t)) i=1 . but we will limit ourselves to notice that the formulations agree in the free case. 0 = For the free particle we get m ψ(q. one could formulate quantum mechanics directly in terms of the path integral. t = δ(q − q) (4.68) mq 2 i e 2t (4. Then we deﬁne the wave function as ψ(q . t ) for the free particle is given by qcl (τ ) = q + The corresponding classical action is t τ −t (q − q) t −t (4.The ﬁrst factor in the right hand side of this equation cancels out an analogous factor in the integration measure (see eq.64) The classical path connecting (q. However we will not do it here.69) . that is that the amplitude is proportional to the exponential of iS with S the action evaluated along the classical path.55)) m q .67) We shall see that for all the lagrangians quadratic in the coordinates an in the momenta this result. t) to (q . t) = (0. i = 1. t |q. t = 2πi(t − t) 1 2 2 eim(q − q) /(2(t − t)) (4.66) Therefore our result can be written as m q . N (4. is generally true. · · · . t |qi . t |q. (4. t ) = q . It is not diﬃcult to show that it is possible to recover all the results of the ordinary formulation and prove that one has complete equivalence. for instance (q. t |q. Of course. t |0. 0).0 D(q(t))eiS (4.63) t →t lim q . we take a ﬁxed initial point of propagation.

This is indeed the wave function for a free particle in conﬁguration space.72) Since this is a translation the functional measure remains invariant.29) means ηk = qk − qcl k .71) To evaluate the integral (4. t) = 2πit 1 2 mq 2 i dq e−ipq e 2t = m 2πit 1 2 2πit m 1 2 p2 t −i e 2m = e−iEt (4. as it can be checked by going in the momentum space m ψ(p.78) .77) (4. We then perform the change of variables η(τ ) = q(τ ) − qcl (τ ) which in terms of our original deﬁnition (4. n − 1 (4. k = 1.71) d [mq + b(τ )q + d(τ )] − [b(τ )q − c(τ )q − e(τ )] = 0 ˙ ˙ dτ that is ˙ m¨ + bq + d + cq + e = 0 q ˙ (4.76) (4.5 The case of a quadratic action In this Section we will consider the case of a quadratic lagrangian for a single degree of freedom (it can be easily extended to many degrees of freedom) 1 1 ˙ L = mq 2 + b(τ )qq − c(τ )q 2 + d(τ )q − e(τ )q − f (τ ) ˙ ˙ 2 2 (4.73) Let us denote by qcl (τ ) the solution of the classical equations of motion satisfying the boundary conditions qcl (t) = q.70) where E = p2 /2m. 4. (4. The new variable η(τ ) satisﬁes the boundary condition η(t) = η(t ) = 0 The lagrangian in terms of the new variables is given by 1 1 ˙ ˙ L(q) = L(qcl + η) = L(qcl ) + mη 2 + bηη − cη 2 2 2 + dη − eη + mqcl η + bqcl η + bηqcl − cqcl η ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 99 (4.75) qcl (t ) = q (4. · · · .29) let us start by the Euler-Lagrange equations associated to eq.74) (4.

80) 2 2 Therefore we can write the path integral as follows t q . let us notice that the term bη η is a trivial one. First. By using the boundary conditions for η we get 1 1 ˙ (4.t 0. through ˙ an integration by part d 1 2 1˙ bη η = ˙ (4.82) bη − bη 2 dτ 2 2 and deﬁning ˙ c=c+b ˜ (4.79) ˙ ˙ ˙ q L(q) = L(qcl ) + mη 2 + bηη − cη 2 + dη − eη − m¨cl + bqcl + cqcl η 2 2 Recalling the equations of motion for qcl and performing a further integration by parts we ﬁnd 1 1 ˙ L(q) = L(qcl ) + mη 2 + bηη − cη 2 + dη − eη − −d − e η ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 1 1 = L(qcl ) + mη 2 + bηη − cη 2 ˙ ˙ (4. t |q.t i D(η(τ ))e t 1 1 ˙ ( mη 2 + bη η − cη 2 )dτ ˙ 2 2 (4. For the future purposes of extension of this approach to ﬁeld theory.81) Notice that here all the dependence on the variables q and q is in the classical action. However it is important for systems with a ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom and therefore we will give here an idea how one can evaluate it in general. In fact the path integral which remains to be evaluated depends only on t and t due to the boundary conditions satisﬁed by η.83) In this way we get t n−1 n→∞ i t 1 2 1 2 mη − cη dτ = ˙ ˜ 2 2 = = lim i k=0 n−1 m 1 (ηk+1 − ηk )2 − ck ηk ˜ 2 2 2 im i 2 2ηk − 2ηk ηk+1 − ck ηk ˜ 2 2 2 (4. t = eiScl (q.85) η=⎢ · ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ · ⎦ ηn−1 100 .84) n→∞ lim n→∞ lim iη ση k=1 T where we have used the boundary conditions on η (η0 = ηn = 0) and we have introduced the vector ⎤ ⎡ η1 ⎢ η2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ (4.Inside the action we can integrate by parts the terms containing both qcl and η. this term turns out to be irrelevant. since we can absorb it into a re-deﬁnition of c(τ ). q ) 0.

86) G(t . We get n−1 dηk k=1 T eiη ση = n−1 dζk k=1 T eiζ σD ζ = n−1 k=1 π = (−iσk ) π n−1 2 det(−iσ) (4. t) = lim then n→∞ n→∞ m 2πi n π n−1 det(−iσ) 1 2 = lim n→∞ m 1 1 2i n−1 2πi ( m ) det(−iσ) det(−iσ) (4. t) ≡ 0.89) 1 2 We get G(t . t).92) ⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ · ⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ cj ˜ (4. ζ = Uη.93) ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· · · · · cj−1 ˜ ··· 0 101 . let us ⎡ 2 −1 0 · · · 0 ⎢ −1 2 −1 · · · 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 2 · · · 0 Pj = ⎢ ⎢ · · · ··· · ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 · · · −1 0 0 0 ··· 0 m 2πif (t .91) G(t .87) Since σ is a symmetric matrix.90) 2i m n−1 (4. t) = lim Let us deﬁne f (t .t i D(η(τ ))e m 2πi n 2 t 1 1 ˙ ( mη 2 + bη η − cη 2 )dτ ˙ 2 2 n−1 T eiη ση = n→∞ lim dηk k=1 (4. are real and the Jacobian of the transformation is one. t) deﬁne (for j = 1. n − 1) ⎤ ⎡ c1 0 0 ˜ 0 0 ⎢ 0 c2 0 0 0 ⎥ ˜ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥ ˜ ⎢ 0 0 c3 ⎥− m⎢ · · · ⎥ · · ⎢ ⎣0 0 0 2 −1 ⎦ −1 2 0 0 0 (4. t) = In order to evaluate f (t .and the matrix ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 2 −1 0 · · · 0 0 0 c1 ˜ ⎥ ⎢ −1 2 −1 · · · 0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎢ 0 −1 2 · · · 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥− ⎢ · ⎢ σ= · · ··· · · · ⎥ 2⎢ · 2 ⎢ · ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎣0 0 0 · · · −1 2 −1 ⎦ 0 0 0 · · · 0 −1 2 0 Therefore t 0. since det|U| = 1.t 0 c2 ˜ · · 0 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· · ··· · · · · cn−2 ˜ ··· 0 0 0 · · 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ cn−1 ˜ (4. · · · . it can be diagonalized by an orthogonal transformation σ = U T σD U (4.88) The eigenvectors of σ.

It is convenient to put this expression in the form pj+1 − 2pj + pj−1 2 =− cj+1 pj ˜ m (4. It follows lim ∆ pj = →0 dφ(τ ) dτ (4.101) The equation (4.96) m Therefore we ﬁnd the recurrency relation pj+1 = 2− 2 m cj+1 pj − pj−1 .94) det(−iσ) = pn−1 (4.102) therefore we get the following diﬀerential equation for φ(τ ) c(τ ) ˜ d2 φ(τ ) φ(τ ) =− 2 dτ m 102 (4. n − 1 (4. pj is given by p1 = 2 − p2 = p3 = 2 m c1 ˜ 2 2− 2− m 2 c2 p1 − 1 ˜ c3 p2 − p 1 ˜ (4.103) .99) a time τ = t + j .98) It is also convenient to introduce the ﬁnite diﬀerence operator ∆pj = pj+1 − pj (4.95) For the ﬁrst values of j. · · · .and pj = det|Pj | Clearly 2i m n−1 (4. ˜ j = 1.97) where we deﬁne p0 = 1. and a function φ(τ ) such that lim pj = φ(τ ) →0 (4.98) can be written as ∆2 pj−1 = − cj+1 pj ˜ m (4.100) in the limit in which we keep τ ﬁxed.

104) Recalling eq.91) we have f (t . for quadratic lagrangian we get the general result q . dφ(τ ) |τ =t = 1 dτ (4. t) (4. t |q. We need only to evaluate f (t .106) 1 sin ω(τ − t) ω 1 sin ωT ω (4. dτ 2 from which φ(τ ) = by putting T = t − t: f (t . Examples: The free particle.110) (4. t) = lim pn−1 = φ(t ) →0 (4. t) = φ(t) = 0. dτ 2 with solution φ(τ ) = τ − t from which f (t . dφ(τ ) |τ =t = 1 dτ (4.Furthermore.107) m eiScl 2πif (t . t = with f (t .105) Therefore.112) 103 . (4. The harmonic oscillator. t) = φ(t ). φ(τ ) satisﬁes the following boundary conditions φ(t) = lim p0 = 0 →0 2 p1 − p0 dφ(τ ) |τ =t = lim = lim 2 − c1 − 1 = 1 ˜ →0 →0 dτ m (4. In this case b = 0 and c = mω 2 . The function φ(τ ) satisﬁes d2 φ(τ ) = 0.111) (4. t).108) φ(t) = 0.109) (4. t) = t − t in agreement with the direct calculation. Therefore d2 φ(τ ) = −ω 2 φ(τ ).

113) and substituting inside the lagrangian 1 1 1 ˙ L = mq 2 − mω 2 q 2 = mω 2 (A2 − B 2 ) cos 2ω(τ − t) − 2AB sin 2ω(τ − t) 2 2 2 (4.6 Functional formalism The most natural mathematical setting to deal with the path integral is the theory of functionals. the space of the square integrable real functions of a real variable. For instance. The general solution is given by q(τ ) = A sin ω(τ − t) + B cos ω(τ − t) From the boundary conditions A= q − q cos ωT .115) q(t ) = q (4. Therefore a real 104 .117) Recalling the following integrals t t sin 2ωT dτ cos 2ω(τ − t) = .To evaluate the classical action we need to solve the classical equations of motion m¨ + mω 2 q = 0 q with boundary conditions q(t) = q. that a law which associates a number to each point of the manifold. 4.119) In the limit ω → 0 we get back correctly the free case. sin ωT B=q (4. t = i mω (q 2 + q 2 ) cos ωT − 2qq mω 2 sin ωT e 2πi sin ωT (4. A real functional is deﬁned as an application from a space of functions (and therefore an ∞-dimensional space) to R1 . Recall that a function is simply a mapping from a manifold M to R1 . The concept of functional is nothing but an extension of the concept of function. There are many spaces of functions.114) (4.118) we get Scl = and q . t |q.116) (4. 2ω t t dτ sin 2ω(τ − t) = 1 − cos 2ωT 2ω (4.120) 1 mω (q 2 + q 2 ) cos ωT − 2qq 2 sin ωT (4.

ηn ) ≡ F (ηi ). We need to understand how a functional varies when we vary the function. · · · . If we denote the space of functions by L. · · · .123) • L=L2 [−∞. η2 . In this approximation we can think of the functional F as an application from Rn → R1 . Then we can approximate a function η(t) with a convenient limit of its discrete approximation (η1 . +∞]= the space of the integrable functions in R1 with respect to the measure w(x)dx: +∞ F1 [η] = dxw(x)η(x) −∞ (4.125) dxη 2 (x) (4.122) L → R1 (4. η∈L (4. and take an interval (t.124) F3 is the functional that associates to each continuous function its value at x0 . a real functional is the mapping F : We will make use of the notation F [η]. The next step is to deﬁne the derivative of a functional. +∞]= space of the square integrable functions in R1 : 1 − F2 [η] = e 2 • L=C= space of the continuous functions: F3 [η] = η(x0 ) (4. For instance consider functions from R1 to R1 . A simple way of understand this point is to consider some path on the deﬁnition manifold of the functions.121). F. F [·]. That is F [η] → F (η1 . · · · .121) to denote the functional of deﬁned in eq.127) Let us put Ki = 1 ∂F ∂ηi (4.functional associate a real number to a real function. as we did for deﬁning the path integral. t ) of R1 made of many inﬁnitesimal pieces.128) 105 . (4. Examples of functionals are • L=L1 [−∞. ηn ) obtained by evaluating the functions at the discrete points in which the interval has been divided. n (4. i = 1.126) Then we can consider the variation of F (ηi ) when we vary the quantities ηi n F (ηi + δηi ) − F (ηi ) = j=1 ∂F (ηi ) δηj ∂ηj (4.

137) In this way F3 looks formally as a functional of type F1 . and δF3 [η] = δ(x − x0 ) δη(x) 106 (4.132) let us now evaluate the functional derivatives of the previous functionals: δF1 [η] = giving δF1 [η] = w(x) δη(x) Then 1 − δF2 [η] = e 2 dxη 2 (x) (− η(x)δη(x)) (4. (4.where is the inﬁnitesimal interval where we evaluate the discrete apoproximation to the function. n (4. i = 1.138) . · · · . = n−1 ηi = η(xi ).134) w(x)δη(x)dx (4.130) Since δη(x) is the variation of the function evaluated at x.131) δη(x) In other words. for → 0 n F (ηi + δηi ) − F (ηi ) = j=1 Kj δηj → Kδηdx (4.135) (4. Then.133) and therefore δF2 [η] = −η(x)F2 [η] δη(x) (4. to evaluate the functional derivative of a functional we ﬁrst evaluate its inﬁnitesimal variation and then we can get the functional derivative by comparison with the previous formula.129) that is δF [η] = K(x)δη(x)dx (4. Looking at the eq.128) we get δF [η] 1 ∂F (ηi ) = lim →0 δη(x) ∂ηi xn − x1 . xi = x1 + (i − 1) . we will deﬁne the functional derivative as δF δF [η] = δη(x)dx (4.136) In order to evaluate the derivative of F3 let us write F3 [η] = η(x)δ(x − x0 )dx (4.

or from a manifold M to a manifold N.140) dxdyK(x. We get ∂L d ∂L δS = − δq(t) ∂q(t) dt ∂ q(t) ˙ (4. q)dt ˙ (4.141) A further example is the action functional.145) All these deﬁnitions are easily generalized to the case of η a function from Rm → Rn .144) Starting from the functional derivative one can generalize the Taylor expansion to the functional case. We obtain δF4 [η] =− δη(x) dyK(x.Let us consider also 1 − F4 [η] = e 2 then 1 − δF4 [η] = e 2 dxdyK(x. y)η(x)η(y) (4. In fact the action is a functional of the path t S[q] = t L(q. y)η(x)η(y) (− dxdyK(x. y)η(y)F4[η] (4.142) By varying it t δS[q] = t ∂L ∂L δq + δ q dt = ˙ ∂q ∂q ˙ t t ∂L d ∂L − ∂q dt ∂ q ˙ δqdt (4.143) Since we consider variations with respect to functions with ﬁxed boundary conditions. y)δη(x)η(y)) (4.139) where we have used the symmetry of the integral with respect to x ↔ y.7 General properties of the path integral In this Section we would like to stress some important properties of the path integral. This generalization is called the Volterra expansion of a functional ∞ F [η0 + η1 ] = k=0 1 k! dx1 · · · dxk δ k F [η] δη(x1 ) · · · δη(xk ) η1 (x1 ) · · · η1 (xk ) η=η0 (4. we have δq(t) = δq(t ) = 0. 4. namely 107 .

.t” i dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))e t Ldτ t × = i dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))e Ldτ t” dq” q .7. t |q.t i dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))e q”. and eventually integrating over all the possible intermediate points q” (see Fig.The factorization of the path integral. In equations we get t” t qt q .It follows immediately from the deﬁnition that q(τ ) → q(τ ) + η(τ ). t' t" t q' q q" Fig.7.147) as it follows from the factorization properties of the measure dµ(q(τ )) = t<τ <t dq(τ ) = dq” t<τ <t” dq(τ ) t”<τ <t dq(τ ) 108 . π(t ) (4.1 .t q .1)). t”|q. t |q”.t” Ldτ + i t t” t” Ldτ = dq” q. t = q. sum up over all the paths fromq a q” and from q” to q . 4. 4.• Invariance of the functional measure under translations . η(t) = η(t ) = 0 for any π(t). p(τ ) → p(τ ) + π(τ ). t” q”.t q”.146) • Factorization of the path integral. t (4. From the very deﬁnition of the path it follows that in order to evaluate the amplitude for going from q at time t to q at time t we can ﬁrst go to q” to a time t ≤ t” ≤ t .

t (4. t |q(t”)|q.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t”). Now let us study the average value of q(t1 )q(t2 ) con t ≤ t1 .t” dq” q. By proceeding as before we will get the expectation value of q(t1 )q(t2 ) if t1 ≥ t2 . To this end we will consider expressions of the type (which will be called the average value of F ) q . t |q(t”)|q”. t Since |q.t” dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t”) dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS (4. t”|q. as deﬁned in (4. Let us start with q .t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS = q q .151) since q(t) satisﬁes the boundary conditions q(t) = q.148) It is clear that the factorization property is equivalent to the completeness of the states. t |q. t |q”.t q.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))F [q(τ ).68) satisﬁes the Schr¨dinger equation.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t”) = = dq” q .t q. p and of their time derivatives.t q.t q .t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t”) = · = q”. p(τ )]eiS (4. t ≤ t” ≤ t (4.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t ) = q q .t q. t” q”.150) q.dµ(p(τ )) = t≤τ ≤t” dp(τ ) = t≤τ ≤t” dp(τ ) t”≤τ ≤t dp(τ ) (4. t is an eigenstate of q(t) it follows q . t q .149) where F is an arbitrary functional of q. t2 ≤ t . q(t ) = q .t We begin by the observation that q . By using the factorization we get q . Using these properties it is possible to show that the wave function.t q.t q”.152) dq” q . t”|q. t (4. or q(t2 )q(t1 ) if 109 .153) Therefore the average value of q(t”) evaluated with exp(iS) coincides with the expectation value of the operator q(t”). o The next important property of the path integral is that it gives an easy way of evaluating expectation values. t” q” q”.

157) If the functional depends also on the time derivatives a certain caution is necessary.t q. t (4.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 )q(t2 ) = q .t2 ≥ t1 . ˙ For instance.t q . t |T q(t1 )q(t2 ) |q.t q.t q.t ∞ 1 k! q=0 dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 ) · · · q(tk ) dt1 · · · dtk δ k F [q] δq(t1 ) · · · δq(tk ) q . t2 ≤ t ): q .t ∞ dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))F [q]eiS dt1 · · · dtk δ k F [q] δq(t1 ) · · · δq(tk ) = · = k=0 k=0 q . t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tk ))|q.156) T (F [q]) ≡ k=0 1 k! dt1 · · · dtk δ k F [q] δq(t1 ) · · · δq(tk ) T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tk )) q=0 (4.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 )q(t2 ) ˙ q(t2 + ) − q(t2 ) dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 ) = lim →0 q.t q. t (4.155) Let us now consider a functional of q(t)such to admit an expansion in a Volterra’s series q .154) Analogously q .159) 110 . let us study the average value of q(t1 )q(t2 ) (t ≤ t1 .t q. In terms of the T -product we get q .t = lim = 1 →0 q . t |T (q(t1 )q(t2 )|q. t ∞ (4. t |T q(t1 )q(t2 + ) − T q(t1 )q(t2 ) |q.158) d q .t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ) = q . t dt2 Let us deﬁne an ordered T -product (or covariant T-product) as T q(t1 )q(t2 ) = ˙ d T q(t1 )q(t2 ) dt2 (4. t (4. t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|q. t q=0 1 k! ≡ where q . t |T (F [q])|q.

Then it is not diﬃcult to show that for an arbitrary functional of q(t) e q(t) one has ˙ q .t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ )) q.165) q .p η(t) i q . the commutation relations and so on so forth. The fundamental relation follows from the following property of the path integral q . q]eiS = q . At the end one has to integrate again by parts.t The importance of this relation follows from the fact that we can use this relation to get all the properties of quantum mechanics by selecting the functional F in a 111 . pk ) ⎥ ⎥ 1 ∂ ⎢ ⎢F (q1 .t q . (4. q])|q. The T product is obtained as in (4.p A[q + η] = dµq.t q.t q . q] in a Volterra’s series of q and q. To this end one has to deﬁne the integral in an appropriate way as it will be shown later on).161)we get a relation which is the basis of the Schwinger’s formulation of quantum mechanics.t q. In fact.161) This is a simple consequence of the deﬁnition of the path integral and of the functional derivative ⎡ ⎤ n−1 n−1 n→∞ n−1 lim dqk k=1 k=0 dpk 2π ⎢ i L(qk .163) It follows for an inﬁnitesimal function η such that η(t) = η(t ) = 0 δA[q] dt δq(t) q. t (4. t ˙ ˙ (4. t |T (F [q.156). · · · .t q.t q .t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))F [q. t = − q .158). The power of this formulation of quantum mechanics comes about when we want to get the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics as the equations of motion for the operators. inte˙ ˙ grating by parts and using (4.160) The proof can be done by expanding F [q.p A[q] = dµq.162) ⎥ ∂qk ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (of course we are assuming that the integrand goes to zero for large values of the qi ’s. p(τ )]eiS = 0 δq(τ ) (4.p = dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ )) (4.t δ F [q(τ ). qn−1 )e k=0 ⎥ = 0 (4. On the other hand the previous equation follows from the invariance under translation of the functional measure. t |T δF [q] δq(τ ) |q. t |T F [q] δS δq(τ ) |q.t q.161).164) Proving the validity of eq.p A[q]+ dµq.t (4. that is dµq. (4. By performing explicitly the functional derivative in eq. let us introduce the following notation dµq.

let us consider the following action t S= t 1 2 mq − V (q) dt ˙ 2 (4.173) .168) For simplicity. t = i q . t δ(t1 − t2 ) δq(t2 ) δS δq(t2 ) (4. t |T δS |q.171 ˙ q −mδ(t1 − t2 )[q(t1 ). With the choice F [q] = q we get q .convenient way. For instance. p(t)] = i 112 (4.174) ∂V ∂q(t2 ) = −iδ(t1 − t2 ) (4.175) (4.166) that is the quantum equations of motion. t = 0 δq(t1 ) (4.167) and since this relation holds for arbitrary states T q(t1 ) = iδ(t1 − t2 ) (4. by choosing F [q] = 1 we get q . we get ˙ [q(t).172) Inserting this inside the eq. q(t1 )] + T (q(t1 )¨ (t2 )) q (4. mq(t)] = i Therefore we get the canonical commutator [q(t).171) ˙ ˙ q = δ(t1 − t2 )q(t1 )q(t2 ) + δ(t1 − t2 )q(t2 )q(t1 ) + T (q(t1 )¨ (t2 )) ˙ = δ(t1 − t2 )[q(t1 ).170) ∂V (q) = −iδ(t1 − t2 ) ∂q(t2 ) By using the deﬁnition of the T -product we get T (q(t1 )¨ (t2 ) = q d2 T (q(t1 )q(t2 )) dt2 2 d2 = [θ(t1 − t2 )q(t1 )q(t2 ) + θ(t2 − t1 )q(t2 )q(t1 )] dt2 2 d − δ(t1 − t2 )q(t1 )q(t2 ) + δ(t1 − t2 )q(t2 )q(t1 ) = dt2 ˙ ˙ + theta(t1 − t2 )q(t1 )q(t2 ) + θ(t2 − t1 )q(t2 )q(t1 ) from which (4.169) then ∂V (q(t2 )) δS = − m¨(t2 ) + q δq(t2 ) ∂q(t2 ) T q q(t1 ) m¨ (t2 ) + (4. q(t2 )] + T q(t1 ) m¨ (t2 ) + and using the equations of motion. (4. t |T q(t1 ) δS |q. t |q.

180) J=0 Now we want to see how it is possible to bring back the evaluation of the matrix element in (4. t q .t q.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiSJ (4. t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|q. t |q. t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|q. t = 1 i n δn q .181) dq dqΦ0 (q . t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|q.8 The generating functional of the Green’s functions In ﬁeld theory the relevant amplitudes are the ones evaluated between t = −∞ and t = +∞. t) 113 .182) (4. t ) q .176) Here |0 is the ground state of system. t Φ0 (q. by introducing the generating functional q .179) and J(τ ) is an arbitrary external source. t) = e−iE0 t q|0 = q|e−iHt |0 = q.4. t where SJ = t q . to a single degree of freedom) 0|T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|0 (4.t dµ(q(τ ))dµ(p(τ ))eiS q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ) (4. t |T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|q. t δJ(t1 ) · · · δJ(tn ) J (4. Therefore we will consider matrix elements of the type (limiting ourselves.177) These matrix elements can be derived in a more compact form.176) to the knowledge of the generating functional.t J = q. for the moment being. Notice that more generally one can consider the matrix element q . t|0 (4. t|0 then 0|T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|0 = = dq dq 0|q . We have seen that using the reduction formulas we are lead to evaluate the vacuum expectation value of T -products of local operators. By diﬀerentiating this expression with respect to the external source and evaluating the derivatives at J = 0 we get q . Let us introduce the wave function of the ground state Φ0 (q.178) t dτ [pq − H + Jq] ˙ (4. t q. t |q. t = q .

That is we want to prove the following relation Z[J] = lim eiE0 (t − t) q . t |q . t |q. Then.190) dq dq Φ0 (q)Φ0 (q )Φ0 (q . t = n (4. (4. we can write q . t = t →−i∞ lim Φn (q )Φn (q )eiEn t e−i(En − E0 )t = n = Φ0 (q )Φ0 (q )eiE0 t = Φ0 (q . t q . t = J J Φ0 (q (4. t |q . t J Φ0 (q. t ) q . that is Z[J] = It follows 0|T (q(t1 ) · · · q(tn ))|0 = 1 i n dq dqΦ0 (q .t ) = (4.185) wit q and q arbitrary and with the ground state wave functions taken at t = 0.186) Φn (q )Φn (q )e−iEn (t − t ) (4. the generating functional of the vacuum amplitudes. t |q. t |q .189) Φn (q )Φn (q)e−iEn (t − t) and t→+i∞ lim e−iE0 t q . To this end let us consider an external source J(t) vanishing outside the interval (t . t |q. t (4. t t →−i∞ Φ0 (q)Φ0 (q ) J t→+i∞. t .183) (4. t ) with t > t > t > t. t )Φ0 (q) And ﬁnally we get the result imt→+i∞. t |q.184) J=0 We want to show that it is possible evaluate Z[J] as a path integral with arbitrary boundary conditions on q and q . t) = 0|0 δn Z[J] δJ(t1 ) · · · δJ(tn ) J (4. t with q .191) = Φ0 (q)Φ0 (q )Z[J] 114 .188) (4.t →−∞ eiE0 (t − t) q .187) Since E0 is the lowest eigenvalue we get t →−i∞ lim eiE0 t q . t |q . t |q. t J q . t ) q . t |q. t |q . t = q |e−iH(t − t ) |q = n J = dq dq q . t )Φ0 (q ) Analogously q .Next we deﬁne the functional Z[J]. t |q. t = t→+i∞ lim Φn (q )Φn (q)e−iEn t ei(En − E0 )t = n = Φ0 (q )Φ0 (q)e−iE0 t = Φ0 (q .

195) − V (q) (4. i dq 1 )=− m dτ 2 dq dτ 2 (4.200) 115 . the relevant physical quantities are the ratios 0|T (q(t1) · · · q(tn ))|0 = 0|0 1 i n δn 1 Z[J] Z[0] δJ(t1 ) · · · δJ(tn ) (4. More generally dq (4.t Z[J] = t→+i∞.193) where N is a J-independent normalization factor.τ D(q(τ ))e (L(q.τ ZE [J] = τ →+∞.194) Consider for instance the case 1 dq L = m( )2 − V (q) 2 dt from which L(q.τ ZE [J] = τ →+∞. Therefore it is physically irrelevant.199) LE = −L(q. In fact.192) J=0 where the J-independent factor cancels out.Let us notice again that the values q and q are completely arbitrary.198) Notice that the euclidean lagrangian coincides formally with the hamiltonian. i τ dq ) + Jq)dτ dτ (4. Then we can write t q .τ −SE + D(q(τ ))e τ Jqdτ τ (4. i ) dτ Therefore q .197) LE dτ (4. This expression suggests the deﬁnition of an euclidean generating functional ZE [J]. This is obtained by introducing an euclidean time τ = it (Wick’s rotation) τ q .t →−i∞ lim N q.τ →−∞ lim N q.τ →−∞ lim N q. and furthermore that the coeﬃcient in front of the matrix element is J-independent.t i D(q(τ ))e (L + Jq)dτ t (4.196) It is then convenient to deﬁne the euclidean lagrangian and euclidean action 1 LE = m 2 SE = τ dq dτ τ 2 + V (q) (4.

206) where we will try to arrange x0 (τ ) in such a way to extract all the dependence from the source J out of the integral.9 and.9 The Green’s functions for the harmonic oscillator It is interesting to evaluate the generating functional for the harmonic oscillator starting from both the equations (4.204) 1 2 i − mωq ωt e 2 e2 1 2 1 mq − mω 2 q 2 + Jq dτ ˙ (4.Since e−SE is a positive deﬁnite functional. Then. t) = π mω Φ0 (q .185) and (4. t)dqdq 1 i − mωq 2 − ωt e 2 e 2 1 4 (4.τi =iti Since the values of q and q are arbitrary a standard choice is to set them at zero.201) J=0.200).205) 2 2 t In this calculation we are not interested in the normalization factors but only on the J dependence. for the moment being. where we do not need to specify the boundary conditions Z[J] = with mω Φ0 (q.the vacuum expectation values of the operators q(t) can be evaluated by using ZE and continuing the result for real times δ n Z[J] 1 Z[0] δJ(t1 ) · · · δJ(tn ) = (i)n J=0 δ n ZE [J] 1 ZE [0] δJ(τ1 ) · · · δJ(τn ) (4. the path integral turns out to be well deﬁned and convergent if SE is positive deﬁnite. t )eiSJ Φ0 (q. We have 1 1 arg = − mω[x(t)2 + x2 (t )] − mω[x0 (t)2 + x2 (t )] − mω[x(t)x0 (t) + x(t )x0 (t )] 0 2 2 116 .202) (4. let us consider the argument of the exponential in eq.207) t t 1 2 1 mq − mω 2 q 2 + Jq dτ ˙ 2 2 (4.203) (4. t ) = π and SJ = t 1 4 D(q(τ ))Φ0 (q .183). (4. 4. (4. let us neglect the time dependent terms from the oscillator wave functions 1 2 arg = − mω(q 2 + q ) + i 2 let us perform the change of variable q(τ ) = x(τ ) + x0 (τ ) (4. Let us start from eq.

t + i t t 1 1 mx2 − mω 2 x2 dτ + i ˙ 2 2 mxx0 − mω 2 xx0 + Jx dτ ˙˙ t t 1 2 1 mx − mω 2 x2 + Jx0 dτ ˙ 0 2 0 2 (4.214) Keeping in mind the boundary conditions (4.208) + i t Integrating by parts the last integral can be written as im[xx0 ]t − i ˙ t t t [m¨0 + mω 2 x0 − J]xdτ x (4.211) 1 J m (4.213) (4.211) cancels the mixed terms 1 1 arg = − mω[x2 (t) + x2 (t )] − mω[x2 (t) + x2 (t )] 0 0 2 2 t 1 1 ˙ + i [ mx2 − mω 2 x2 ]dτ 2 2 t t 1 1 ˙0 + i [ mx2 − mω 2 x2 + Jx0 ]dτ 0 2 2 t Integrating by parts the last term we get 1 1 ˙0 [ mx2 − mω 2 x2 + Jx0 ]dτ = 0 2 2 t t 1 1 1 i [− mx0 (¨0 + ω 2 x0 − J) + Jx0 ]dτ + m[x0 x0 ]t = x ˙ t = 2 m 2 2 t 1 i t mω[x2 (t ) + x2 (t)] + = Jx0 dτ 0 0 2 2 t i t (4.210) In this way. and therefore 1 arg = − mω[x2 (t) + x2 (t )] + i 2 t t 1 1 i ˙ [ mx2 − mω 2 x2 ]dτ + 2 2 2 117 t Jx0 dτ t (4. (4.212).215) . ˙ ix0 (t) = −ωx0 (t) ˙ (4.209) and choosing x0 as a solution of the wave equation in presence of the source J x0 + ω 2 x0 = ¨ we get im[x(t )x0 (t ) − x(t)x0 (t)] ˙ ˙ Let us take the following boundary conditions on x0 : ix0 (t ) = ωx0 (t ).212) (4. the term (4.213). the term coming from the integration by parts cancels the second term in eq.

220) The constants A e B are ﬁxed by the requirement that ∆(τ ) satisﬁes eq. Therefore we have ∆(τ ) = Aθ(τ )e−iωτ + Bθ(−τ )e+iωτ (4.219) These equations are easily solved fort t > s and t < s ∆(τ ) = Ae−iωτ . ∆(τ ) = Be+iωτ .The J dependence is now in the last term.212).226) 118 .217) with d2 i + ω 2 ∆(τ − s) = − δ(τ − s) 2 dτ m ˙ i∆(t − s) = ω∆(t − s). and ﬁnally 1 θ(τ )e−iωτ + θ(−τ )e+iωτ 2ωm The functional we were looking for is ∆(τ ) = 1 − Z[J] = e 2 t t (4.223) (4. The ﬁrst two term give rise to the functional at J = 0.224) A= 1 2ωm (4.218).210) with boundary conditions (4. For t < τ < t this solution can be written as t x0 (τ ) = i t ∆(τ − s)J(s)ds (4.216) with x0 (τ ) solution of the equations of motion (4. We have ˙ ∆(τ ) = (A − B)δ(τ ) − iAωθ(τ )e−iωτ + iBωθ(−τ )e+iωτ and ˙ ¨ ∆(τ ) = (A − B)δ(τ ) − iω(A + B)δ(τ ) − ω 2∆(τ ) from which A = B. and we can extract it from the integral.218) and (4.221) τ >0 τ <0 (4.225) dsds J(s)∆(s − s )J(s ) Z[0] (4. (4. We obtain i Z[J] = e 2 t J(τ )x0 (τ )dτ t Z[0] (4. ˙ i∆(t − s) = −ω∆(t − s) (4.222) (4.

231) we get − from which DE (ν) = 1 dνe−iντ [ν 2 + ω 2 ]DE (ν) = − δ(τ ) m 1 1 2 + ω2 2πm ν 119 (4.231) lim DE (τ ) = 0 (4.229) 1 J m Let us now deﬁne the euclidean Green’s function q − ω2q = − ¨ d2 1 − ω 2 DE (τ ) = − δ(τ ) 2 dτ m with the boundary condition τ →±∞ (4.227) The analogue calculation in the euclidean version is simpler since the path integral is of the type already considered (quadratic action) ZE [J] ≈ e−SE (cl) (cl) (4.230) is +∞ q(τ ) = −∞ DE (τ − s)J(s)ds (4. We have already noticed that here the boundary conditions are arbitrary and therefore we choose q(τ ) → 0 for τ → ±∞.We see that ∆(s − s ) is the vacuum expectation value of the T -product of the position operators at the times s and s : ∆(s − s ) = − δ 2 Z[J] 1 Z[0] δJ(s)δJ(s ) = J=0 0|T (q(s)q(s ))|0 0|0 (4. (4. the solution of the eq.232) then.233) We can evaluate DE (τ ) starting from the Fourier transform DE (τ ) = Substituting inside (4.236) .235) dνe−iντ DE (ν) (4.228) Here SE is th euclidean classical action.230) (4.234) (4. we have to solve the equations of motion in presence of the external source δ SE − δq(τ ) that is +∞ −∞ Jqdτ = −m¨(τ ) + mω 2 q(τ ) − J = 0 q (4.

τi =iti J=0 (4.240) and therefore 1 ZE [J] = e 2 It follows +∞ Jqdτ −∞ 1 Z[0] = e 2 +∞ −∞ J(s)DE (s − s )J(s )dsds Z[0] (4.238) By doing the same calculation for τ < 0 we ﬁnally get DE (τ ) = The classical action is given by +∞ +∞ 1 −ω|τ | e 2mω (4.245) δ 2 ZE [J] 1 =− ZE [0] δJ(τ1 )δJ(τ2 ) (4. The result is DE (τ ) = 1 e−ωτ 1 −ωτ (−2πi) = e 2πm (−2iω) 2mω (4. (4.242) and using the eq.218) we obtain ∆(t) = with (−ν 2 + ω 2 )∆(ν) = − that is ∆(ν) = dνe−iνt ∆(ν) i 2πm (4. Since it satisﬁes eq.239) SE − Jqdτ = −∞ −∞ 1 1 1 1 ¨ − m q − ω 2q + J q − Jq dτ = − 2 m 2 2 +∞ Jqdτ −∞ (4.244) To compare these two expressions let us introduce the Fourier transform of ∆(t).243) J=0.247) .201) 1 δ 2 Z[J] Z[0] δJ(t1 )δJ(t2 ) we get ∆(t) = DE (it) (4.246) 1 i 2 − ω2 2πm ν 120 (4.237) To evaluate this integral we close the integral with the circle at the ∞ in the lower ν-plane for τ > 0 or in the upper ν-plane for τ < 0. (4.241) δ 2 ZE [J] 1 ZE [0] δJ(s)δJ(s ) J=0 = DE (s − s ) (4.and DE (τ ) = 1 2πm +∞ dν −∞ ν2 1 e−iντ + ω2 (4.

for t > 0 by closing the integral in the lower plane we get i 1 1 −iωt (−2πi) e−iωt = e 2πm 2ω 2mω . (4.9.The integration path for equation (4. since we do not encounter any singularity (see Fig.Whereas eq. this expression has two poles at ν = ±ω.246) we need to deﬁne the singularities present in the denominator. In order to reproduce the euclidean result. Im ν (4. (4. We would get the same result by integrating along the real axis but translating the denominator of +i ( > 0) in such a way to move the pole at ω in the lower plane and the one at −ω in the upper plane.251) Therefore we have shown how it works the analytic continuation implicit in eq. it is necessary to specify the integration path as in Fig.244).248) −ω +ω Re ν Fig.237) does not present any problem (ν 2 + ω 2 > 0). in eq. Performing the change of variable ν = iν ∆(t) = − 1 2πm +∞ −∞ e+ν t dν = DE (it) −ν 2 − ω 2 (4.2) ∆(t) = i 2πm +i∞ −i∞ e−iνt dν ν 2 − ω2 (4. By doing so we have also seen that the Feynman prescription (the +i term) is equivalent to the euclidean formulation. In fact.250) We have omitted here the limit since the expression is now regular.9. 4.245). 4.9. For instance. One could arrive to this connection also 121 .1 . 4.249) With this prescription we can safely rotate the integration path anti-clockwise by 900 . We get ∆(t) = lim + →0 i 2πm +∞ −∞ e−iνt dν ν 2 − ω2 + i (4. and therefore we need to specify how the integral is deﬁned. (4.1.

The Wick rotation in the ν-plane.. Im ν − ω + iε ω − iε Re ν Fig.252) e 2 with i − m(ω 2 − i ) e 2 q 2 (t)dt (4.253) Therefore the Feynman prescription is there to make the integral convergent. in the case of quadratic actions.9. 4. the path integral can be formulated as an euclidean integral. making it a well deﬁned mathematical expression. Therefore we have shown that. 1 − m e 2 q 2 (t)dt (4. since we will be expanding around the quadratic case. by noticing that the Feynman prescription is equivalent to substitute in the path integral the term i − mω 2 q 2 (t)dt (4. 122 .254) The same convergence is ensured by the euclidean formulation.2 . This fact is enough to guarantee that all the manipulations that we make with the path integral in the perturbative expansion are well deﬁned.

3) Since ϕ(x. t) (5. As it is well known this can be seen by looking for the normal modes. t)q(k .1 The path integral for a free scalar ﬁeld We will extend now the previous approach to the case of a scalar ﬁeld theory. t)|2 − ωk |q(k. t)q(−k. Here we will denote the classical ﬁeld by ϕ(x). t)q(−k. For a neutral particle this is a real function. (5. We will show later how to extend the formulation to the case of Fermi ﬁelds. t) − (|k|2 + m2 )q(k. t)q(k . t) ˙ ˙ (2π)3 (2π)3 + (k · k − m2 )q(k.1) we get S = 1 2 d4 x V d3 k d3 k [q(k. t) is a real ﬁeld (5.5) . t) (5. let us consider the Fourier transform of the ﬁeld ϕ(x. and its dynamics is described by the lagrangian S= V d4 x 1 ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ − m2 ϕ2 ≡ 2 t dt t d3 x 1 ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ − m2 ϕ2 2 (5.2) By substituting inside eq.1) A free ﬁeld theory can be seen as a continuous collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators. t) = 1 (2π)3 d3 keik · x q(k. t)]eik · x + ik · x 1 = 2 t dt t d3 k [q(k. t)|2 . To this end. We have denoted the quantum operator by φ(x). Let us start with a free scalar ﬁeld. ˙ 32 (2π) 123 (5.4) 2 ωk = |k|2 + m2 and S= t t dt d3 k 1 2 |q(k. t)] ˙ ˙ (2π)3 q ∗ (k.Chapter 5 The path integral in ﬁeld theory 5. t) = q(−k.

ωk )J(k. t) = l(−k.6) We are now in the position of evaluating the generating functional Z[J] by adding an external source term to the action S= V d4 x 1 ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ − m2 ϕ2 + Jϕ 2 (5. t) = −m(−k. t) + iy(k. t). t) J(k. t) ˙ 2 (5. t)|2 − ωk |q(k. t)|2 + J(−k. t). ωk )l(k. The equations of motion are 2 q (k.226) 1 − 2 t t dsds J(s)∆(s − s )J(s ) → 1 2 t →− dsds t d3 k l(k. t) (or a pair of real oscillators)). t) (5. t) and J(k. t). l(k.10) Now we can use the result found in the previous Section for a single oscillator.12) d4 xd4 yJ(x)∆F (x − y.7) From the Fourier decomposition we get t S= t dt d3 k (2π)3 1 2 |q(k. t)q(k. t) into their real and imaginary parts q(k.9). ωk )eik · (x − y) J(y) (2π)3 (5. t) + im(k. Let us separate q(k. Going back to J(x. t) = x(k. (5.8) where we have also expanded J(x) in terms of its Fourier components. s ) (2π)3 + m(k. s ) (2π)3 (5. t) + ωk q(k.Therefore the system is equivalent to a continuous set of complex oscillators q(k. we get − 1 2 ≡− d4 xd4 yJ(x) i 2 d3 k ∆(s − s . s)∆(s − s . ωk )m(k. t) = x(−k. it will be enough to take the mass equal to one and sum over all the degrees of freedom. (4. t) m(k.9) It follows from the reality conditions that the real parts are even functions of k whereas the imaginary parts are odd functions x(k.11) where we have made use of eq. t) = l(k. t) = 0 ¨ (5. y(k. In particular we get for the exponent in eq. t) = −y(−k. t) (5. s ) = − 1 2 t dsds t d3 k J(−k. s)∆(s − s . m2)J(y) 124 . s)∆(s − s .

the generating functional is i − Z[J] = e 2 In particular we get 1 δ 2 Z[J] 1 0|T (φ(x1)φ(x2 ))|0 = − 0|0 Z[0] δJ(x1 )δJ(x2 ) 1 ZE [J] = e 2 where J=0 d4 xd4 yJ(x)∆F (x − y. Therefore.21) .18) For the future it will be convenient to use the following notation for the N-points Green’s functions 0|T (φ(x1 ) · · · φ(xN ))|0 (5.14) i Z[J] = 1− d4 x1 d4 x2 J(x1 )J(x2 )∆F (x1 − x2 ) Z[0] 2 1 − d4 x1 d4 x2 J(x1 )J(x2 )∆F (x1 − x2 ) 8 · d4 x3 d4 x4 J(x3 )J(x4 )∆F (x3 − x4 ) + · · · 125 (5. k).14) = i∆F (x1 − x2 .where we have deﬁned xµ = (x.19) G(N ) (x1 . xn ) n! 0 By comparison with the expansion of eq. m2)J(y) ZE [0] (5. with the result d4 xd4 yJ(x)G0 (x − y. m2 )J(y) Z[0] (5.13) Again we have put k µ = (ν. xN ) = 0|0 In the free case we can get evaluate easily the generic G(N ) In fact G0 (the index recalls that we are in the free case) is obtained by developing the generating functional Z[J] = Z[0] ∞ ∞ (N ) d4 x1 · · · d4 xn J(x1 ) · · · J(xn ) n=0 (i)n 0|T (φ(x1 ) · · · φ(xn ))|0 ≡ n! 0|0 (5. ωk )eik · x = lim →0+ (2π)3 d4 k i e−ikx 4 k 2 − m2 + i (2π) (5. (5. · · · . m ) = 4 k 2 + m2 (2π) We go from Minkowskian to the Euclidean description through the substitution 2 −i∆F → G0 (5. s ) and i∆F (x.17) G0 (x.16) d4 k 1 e−ikx (5.15) We could repeat the exercise in the euclidean formulation.20) ≡ n=0 d4 x1 · · · d4 xn J(x1 ) · · · J(xn ) (i)n (n) G (x1 . m2 ) (5. y µ = (y. s). m2 ) = d3 k ∆(s. · · · .

· · · . · · · . To evaluate G0 we have ﬁrst to notice that (N ) all the G0 ’s are symmetric in their arguments. Therefore it is natural to introduce a functional generating only the connected Green’s functions. (5.The two point Green’s function G0 (x. In the free case we can put . x3 . 5.The expansion of the four point Green’s function G0 (x1 . (2) (2n) 5. x4 ).Since Z[J] is even in J we have G0 (2) (2k+1) (x1 . Z[J] = eiW [J] 126 (5. x2 .1 . G0 will be given by Fig. Therefore we write d4 x1 · · · d4 x4 J(x1 ) · · · J(x4 )∆F (x1 − x2 )∆F (x3 − x4 ) = 1 3 d4 x1 · · · d4 x4 J(x1 ) · · · J(x4 ) ∆F (x1 − x2 )∆F (x3 − x4 ) (5.1. x1 x2 + x1 x2 + x1 x2 x3 x4 x3 x4 x3 x4 (4) Fig.24) If we represent G0 (x. 5. .1. x y (2) Fig.22) For G0 we get back eq.1. x2k+1 ) = 0 (4) (5.1.13).25) . We will call disconnected a diagram in which we can isolate two subdiagrams with no connecting lines. y) by a line as in Fig. 5. x4 ) = − ∆F (x1 − x2 )∆F (x3 − x4 ) + ∆F (x1 − x3 )∆F (x2 − x4 ) + ∆F (x1 − x4 )∆F (x2 − x3 ) (2) (4) (4) (5. Therefore G0 is given by a combination of products of n two point functions.23) + ∆F (x1 − x3 )∆F (x2 − x4 ) + ∆F (x1 − x4 )∆F (x2 − x3 ) It follows G0 (x1 . therefore in order to extract the coeﬃcients we need to symmetrize. y). We see that in the free case all the non vanishing Green’s functions are disconnected except for the two point function.2 .5.2 since it is obtained in terms of products of G0 .

x3 ) + G(1) (x3 )G(2) (x1 . c c c c c (3) (3) (1) (2) G (x1 . x2 ) + G(1) (x1 )G(1) (x2 ) ≡ G(2) + G(1) . etc. That is W [J] is deﬁned through eq. xn ) we decompose the set (x1 . xn ) in all the possible subsets. (5.29) The index ”conn” denotes the connected Green’s functions. · · · . and then we write G(n1 ) (xp1 . x2 . xn ) = . · · · . To deﬁne Gc (x1 .25). x2 ) = G(2) (x1 . x3 ) +G(1) (x2 )G(2) (x1 . In the next Section we will see that this property generalizes to the interacting case. x3 ) + Gc (x1 )Gc (x2 . · · · . xqn2 ) · · · G(nk ) (xr1 . (5. 5.30) On the right hand side we have used a symbolic notation by adding together the (n) topological equivalent conﬁgurations. pn1 . · · · .with W [J] = − and we have 1 2 d4 x1 d4 x2 J(x1 )J(x2 )∆F (x1 − x2 ) + W [0] (5.26) 1 δ 2 Z[J] Z[0] δJ(x1 )δJ(x2 ) =i J=0 δ 2 W [J] δJ(x1 )δJ(x2 ) J=0 = −i∆F (x1 − x2 ) (5. · · · .31) where we sum over all the indices ni such that n1 + · · · + nk = n and over all the permutations from 1 to n of the indices in the set p1 . and its Volterra expansion gives rise to the connected Green’s functions ∞ iW [J] = n=0 (i)n n! d4 x1 · · · d4 xn J(x1 ) · · · J(xn )G(n) (x1 . · · · . x2 ) + G(1) (x1 )G(1) (x2 )G(1) (x3 ) ≡ c c c c c c c ≡ G(3) + 3G(1) G(2) + G(1) c c c c 3 2 Let us start by deﬁning recursively the connected Green’s functions. c c G(2) (x1 . xrnk ) c c c (5. · · · .2 The generating functional of the connected Green’s functions G(1) (x1 ) = G(1) (x1 ) ≡ G(1) . x2 . xpn1 )G(n2 ) (xq1 . x3 ) = Gc (x1 . xn ) c (5. xn ) = c 1 0|T (φ(x1) · · · φ(xn ))|0 0|0 conn (5.27) Therefore the derivatives of W [J] give the connected diagrams with the proper normalization(that is divided by 1/Z[0]). Notice that once we ﬁnd the connected Green’s functions the theory is completely solved. A graphical 127 G(n) (x1 . · · · .28) where G(n) (x1 . since the generating functional is recovered by exponentiation of W [J]. · · · .

We will limit ourselves to an explicit check up to the 4th order. 5.2. we get Z[J] = Z[0] ∞ n=0 (i)n n (n) J G = ei(W [J] − W [0]) n! = exp iG(1) J + c ≈ + + + i2 (2) 2 i3 (3) 3 i4 (4) 4 G J + Gc J + Gc J + · · · 2! c 3! 4! 2 3 4 i i i 1 + iG(1) J + G(2) J 2 + G(3) J 3 + G(4) J 4 c c c 2! 3! 4! c 1 2 (1) 2 2 i4 (2) 2 4 i4 i Gc J + Gc J + i3 G(1) G(2) J 3 + G(1) G(3) J 4 c c 2! 4! 3 c c 1 3 (1) 3 3 3 4 (1) 2 (2) 4 i Gc J + i Gc Gc J 3! 2 1 4 (1) 4 4 i Gc J + · · · 4! 128 .1. By using these deﬁnitions it is not diﬃcult to check that W [J] is the generating functional of the connected Green’s functions. description is given in Fig.1 .The connected Green’s functions. It (n) is enough to compare the expansion of Z[J] in series of Gc with the expansion from the G(n) .2. By deﬁning G(0) = 1 and using the same symbolic notation as before. 5. This can be done by induction.. xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx = c xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx = c + c c xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx c c = c + 3 c + c c xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx c c = c + 3 c + 4 c + c c c c + 6 c c + c Fig.

37) 129 .33) the quadratic part of the action. S0 . Z0 [J] is the generating functional for the free case.33) where V (ϕ) is the interaction potential.3 The perturbative expansion for the theory λϕ4 S= V Let us consider an interacting scalar ﬁeld.14). (5.= 1 + iJG(1) + c + i2 2 G(2) + G(1) c c 2! i3 3 (3) 3 J Gc + 3G(1) G(2) + G(1) c c c 3! i4 4 (4) 2 2 4 + J Gc + 3G(2) + 4G(1) G(3) + 6G(1) G(2) + G(1) + · · · (5. We take advantage of the following identity valid for any functional F iS + i D(ϕ(x))F [ϕ]e 1 δ = F i δJ d4 xJ(x)ϕ(x) d4 xJ(x)ϕ(x) (5. from the interacting part and then we use the previous identity Z[J] = N iS + i D(ϕ(x))e −i D(ϕ(x))e d4 xV d4 xJ(x)ϕ(x) d4 xJ(x)ϕ(x) = N −i = e d4 xV (ϕ) iS0 + i e 1 δ i δJ Z [J] 0 (5. evaluated in eq.36) Notice that we have suppressed the temporal limits in the expression for the generating functional.34) V (ϕ) = ϕ4 4! The derivation of the perturbative expansion is very simple in this formalism. The action will be of the type d4 x 1 ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ − m2 ϕ2 − V (ϕ) 2 (5. Therefore we get −i Z[J] = eiW [J] = Z[0]e d4 xV 1 δ i − i δJ e 2 d4 xd4 yJ(x)∆F (x − y)J(y) (5.35) iS + i D(ϕ(x))e We separate in eq.32) c c c c c c 4! 5. (5. A typical example is the theory λϕ4 with the potential given by λ (5.

At the second order in δ we get 1 W [J] = W0 [J] − i δ − δ 2 + · · · 2 (5. For the following calculation it will be useful to introduce the following shorthand notation d4 x1 · · · d4 xn F (x1 .38) This gives rise to the following expression for the generating functional of the connected Green’s functions ⎡ ⎛ ⎤ ⎞ 1 δ −i V ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ i δJ W [J] = −i log ⎣eiW0 [J] + ⎝e − 1⎠ eiW0 [J] ⎦ −i V ⎢ −iW0 [J] ⎜e = W0 [J] − i log ⎣1 + e ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ 1 δ i δJ ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ ⎟ − 1⎠ eiW0 [J] ⎦ (5. Notice also that the expansion is in term of the interaction lagrangian. (5.40) This expression can be easily expanded in V .39) (5. · · · . · · · . the functional δ[J] can be in turn expanded in a series of the dimensionless coupling λ δ = λδ1 + λ2 δ2 + · · · It follows 1 2 W [J] = W0 [J] − iλδ1 − iλ2 δ2 − δ1 2 130 +··· (5. eq.37) can be rewritten in the following way −i V Z[J] = eiW [J] = e −i V = e 1 δ i δJ 1 δ i δJ i − J(1)∆F (1.In this expression we have suppressed the mass in the argument of ∆F .42) Let us now consider the case of λϕ4 . xn ) Then. by deﬁning ⎛ ⎞ 1 δ −i V ⎜ ⎟ i δJ − 1⎠ eiW0 [J] δ[J] = e−iW0 [J] ⎝e (5. 2)J(2) e 2 Z[0] eiW0 [J] (5.44) .41) we see that we can expand W [J] in a series of δ. In fact. xn ) ≡ F (x1 .43) (5.

3)∆(y. 2)∆(x. 3.47) The quantity δ2 can be made in terms of δ1 by writing δ2 = − 1 e−iW0 [J] 2(4!)2 1 δ i δJ 1 δ i δJ 4 4 eiW0 [J] e−iW0 [J] eiW0 [J] δ1 1 δ i δJ 4 eiW0 [J] (5. x)∆(x.Then.43) we get i δ1 = − e−iW0 [J] 4! 1 δ i δJ 4 eiW0 [J] 4 1 e−iW0 [J] δ2 = − 2 2(4!) 1 δ i δJ 1 δ i δJ 4 eiW0 [J] (5. y) (5. from eq. 4)J(1)J(2)J(3)J(4) 4! + 6i ∆(y. 4 is understood. 3)∆(x. 1)∆(x. 1)∆(x. 1)J(1)eiW0 [J] δJ(x) δ2 eiW0 [J] = (−i∆(x. 4)J(1)J(2)J(3)J(4))eiW0 [J] where the integration on the variables 1. 2)J(1)J(2) δJ(x)4 (5. (5.46) +∆(x. 3)J(1)J(2)J(3) eiW0 [J] δ4 eiW0 [J] = (−3∆(x.49) δJ(x)4 = 131 . x) − ∆(x.45) By using the following list of functional derivatives δ eiW0 [J] = −i∆(x. 2)J(1)J(2)) eiW0 [J] 2 δJ(x) δ3 eiW0 [J] = − 3∆(x. 2)∆(x. 1)∆(x. x)2 + 6i∆(x.48) i −iW0 [J] e = − 2(4!) Then we have 1 δ i δJ 4 eiW0 [J] δ1 δ 3 eiW0 [J] δδ1 δ 4 eiW0 [J] δ1 + 4 δJ(x)4 δJ(x)3 δJ(x) δ 2 eiW0 [J] δ 2 δ1 δeiW0 [J] δ 3 δ1 + 6 +4 δJ(x)2 δJ(x)2 δJ(x) δJ(x)3 4 iW0 [J] δ δ1 + e (5. 2. y)∆(y. we obtain δ1 = − i ∆(y. x)∆(x. 2)∆(y. 1)∆(y. 1)∆(y. 2)J(1)J(2) − 3 ∆2 (y. 1)∆(x. 1)J(1) δJ(x)3 + i∆(x.

By using the expression for δ1 and eqs. y)∆(y. y) + ∆(x. x)∆(x. 1)∆(x. x)∆(2. 3)J(1)J(2)J(3) · 4∆(y. x)∆(x. 3)∆(y. 4) 72 ∆(y. y)∆(y. x)∆(y. 1)∆(x. 6)J(4)J(5)J(6) (5. 3)∆(y. x)∆(y. 2)J(2) 2 6 4 i 2 J(1)∆(1. 5)∆(y. 6)J(4)J(5)J(6) + 12i∆(y. 2)∆(y. x)∆(3. y)∆2(y.and therefore δ2 = 1 2 i −iW0 [J] δ 3 eiW0 [J] δδ1 4 δ1 − e 2 2 · 4! δJ(x)3 δJ(x) δeiW0 [J] δ 3 δ1 δ 2 eiW0 [J] δ 2 δ1 +4 + 6 δJ(x)2 δJ(x)2 δJ(x) δJ(x)3 δ 4 δ1 + eiW0 [J] δJ(x)4 (5. y)∆(y. 4)J(2)J(3)J(4) 12 1 J(1)J(2)∆(1. 1)J(1) + i∆(x.50) 2 The δ1 gives a disconnected contribution since there are no propagators connecting the two terms. 4)J(3)J(4) + 6 − i∆(x. 4)∆(y. 2)J(2) 8 1 J(1)∆(1. y)∆(y. x)∆ (x. y) ∆(y. y)∆(x. x)∆(y. y)∆(y.46) we get 1 2 δ2 − δ1 = 2 i i = − − 2 · 4! 4! 4 − 3∆(x. x) − ∆(x.52) = + + + − · 132 . x) (5. (5. 2)∆(x. x)∆(x. (5. x)∆2 (x. x) ∆3 (x. x)∆(2. 4)J(4) 12∆2 (y. 3)∆(y. x)∆(x. x)∆(x. x)∆(y. 1)J(1) 24∆3 (y.44). 5)∆(y. 2)J(2) + 24∆4 (y. In fact the previous expression shows that δ2 contains a term which 2 cancels precisely the term δ1 in eq.51) By omitting the terms independent on the external source we have 1 2 δ2 − δ1 = 2 1 1 i J(1)∆(1. 4)J(3)J(4) 16 i J(1)J(2)J(3)∆(1. y)∆(y. x) + 4 − i∆(x. 2)J(1)J(2) + 12i∆(y.

There are four ways to attach the the vertex at the ﬁrst propagator and three for the second. The numerical factors appearing in eq.3. 5.1) are given in terms of two elements. by diﬀerentiating functionally eq.3. y). the internal one. 5.53) J=0 1 3 ∆ (x − y) 6 F 1 ∆F (x − y)∆F (x − x)∆F (y − y) ∆F (y − x2 ) 4 λ2 − i d4 xd4 y∆F (x1 − x)∆2 (x − y)∆F (y − y)∆F (x − x2 ) F 4 . and the vertex at x.54) x1 xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xx x x x2 = x1 x x2 x + x x1 x xx xx x xx xx x2 + xx xx y xx xx + x1 x x xxx xx y xx xx xx xx + x2 xx xx x1 x x x x2 + xx xx x1 x x x xx xx y x2 xx xx Fig. In Fig.1 . This diagram contains the two external propagators. To get the numerical factor we count the number of ways to attach the external propagators to the vertex. (5.Now. as we see the result has an easy interpretation. The analytic expression is obtained associating a factor i∆F (x − y) to each line connecting the point x with the point y.44) and putting J = 0 we can evaluate the connected Green’s functions.55) 4! 2 133 . Therefore 1 1 ·4·3 = (5. recalling that iG(2) (x1 . xx xx (5. x2 ) c we get G(2) (x1 . The diagrams of Fig.3. corresponding to the lines and the vertex (n) λϕ4 corresponding to a point joining four lines. (5. after that we have only a possibility to attach the vertex at the internal propagator.54) can be obtained by counting the possible ways to draw a given diagram. 5. In order to get Gc we have to draw all the possible connected diagrams containing a number of interaction vertices corresponding to the ﬁxed perturbative order. For instance let us consider the diagram of Fig.The graphical expansion for the two point connected Green’s function (2) Gc (x. and a factor (−iλ/4!) for each interaction vertex.3. For instance. 5. x2 ) = i∆F (x1 − x2 ) − c − iλ2 + d4 xd4 y∆F (x1 − x) λ 2 d4 x∆F (x1 − x)∆F (x − x)∆F (x − x2 ) δ 2 W [J] = δJ(x1 )δJ(x2 ) (5. the propagator ∆F (x − y).1) we give a graphical form to this expression.2.

5. xx xx xx xx x x1 xx xx xx xx y x x2= x1 x x x x x y xx xx y xx xx x2 Fig.How to get the numerical factor for the ﬁrst order contributions to (2) Gc (x1 . .56) . where the factor 1/4! comes from the vertex. x2 ). xx x xxxxxxx xx 4 xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxxxx x xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx x 2xx xx xx x x1 xx x1 xx xx xxx xx 4 xx xx = 3 x 2xx xx x1 x x x xx x 3 x1 xxxx xx xx y xx xx + x x 2xx x1 + x x xx xx x4 + xxx xx 3 x1 xx xx + x 2xx xx x1 xx xx + x 2xx xx xx xxxx y xxx xx 4 + xx x xx 3 x y xx x x 2x xxx xx 4 xx xx xx x xx x1xx x xx x xx 4 xx x 3 x 2xx xx xx xx xx xx xxy xx xx xxx 3 xx x xx 4 x 4 + y x xx xx xx y x + x3 xx xx xx x 2xx + x xxx xx 3 x1 xx + x 2xx x xx xx xx xx xxx 4 y x x x3 (4) Fig..3. 5.3.The graphical expansion up to the second order of Gc (x1 . There are four ways to attach the ﬁrst vertex to the ﬁrst propagator and four for attaching the second vertex to the second propagator. Three ways for attaching the second leg of the ﬁrst vertex to the second vertex and two ways of attaching the the third leg of the ﬁrst vertex to the second one.3. We proceed in the same way for the diagram of Fig.3 . x3 .3.2 .4 . 5. xx xx xx xx x1 x xx xx xx xx x x x2 = x1 xx xx x x xx xx x xx xx x2 Fig.How to get the numerical factor for one of the second order contribu(2) tions to Gc (x1 . Therefore we get 1 4! ·4·4·3·2= 134 1 6 (5.3. x2 . x2 ). x4 ). 5. .

The four point function can be evaluated in analogous way and the result is given in Fig. 5.3.4. Of course we can get it by functional diﬀerentiation of W [J]. The ﬁrst order contribution is G(4) (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) = −iλ c d4 x∆F (x1 − x)∆F (x2 − x)∆F (x3 − x)∆F (x4 − x) (5.57)

where the numerical coeﬃcient is one, since there are 4 · 3 · 2 of attaching the vertex to the four external lines.

5.4

The Feynman’s rules in momentum space

The rules for the perturbative expansion of the Green’s functions in space-time that we got in the previous Section can be easily extended to the momentum space. We will consider again the two point function given in eq. (5.54) where we will take (2)(i) separately the various contributions in λ that we will denote by Gc , where i (2) stands for the power of λ. let us also deﬁne the Fourier transform of Gc (x1 , x2 ) as G(2) (p1 , p2 ) = c Then we get G(2)(0) (p1 , p2 ) = (2π)4 δ 4 (p1 + p2 ) c and G(2)(1) (p1 , p2 ) = c λ i d4 p −ip(x1 − x) = −i d4 x1 d4 x2 d4 xeip1 x1 + ip2 x2 e 2 (2π)4 p2 − m2 + i d4 k −ik(x − x2 ) d4 q i i · e 4 q 2 − m2 + i 4 2 − m2 + i (2π) (2π) k 4 4 4 d p d q dk λ (2π)4 δ 4 (p − k)(2π)4 δ 4 (p1 − p)(2π)4 δ 4 (p2 + k) = −i 2 (2π)4 (2π)4 (2π)4 i i i · (5.60) 2 − m2 + i q 2 − m2 + i k 2 − m2 + i p The product of the δ 4 functions may be rewritten in such a way to pull out the overall four-momentum conservation (2π)4 δ 4 (p1 + p2 )(2π)4 δ 4 (p1 − p)(2π)4 δ 4 (p − k) By integrating over p and k we get G(2)(1) (p1 , p2 ) c λ = −i (2π)4 δ 4 (p1 +p2 ) 2 i 2 p1 − m2 + i

2

d4 x1 d4 x2 G(2) (x1 , x2 )eip1 x1 + ip2 x2 c i − m2 + i

(5.58)

p2 1

(5.59)

(5.61)

i d4 q (5.62) 4 q 2 − m2 + i (2π)

Also in momentum space we can make use of a diagrammatic expansion with the following rules: 135

• For each propagator draw a line with associated momentum p (see Fig. 5.4.1). .

:

i ___________ 2 _ p m2 + iε

Fig. 5.4.1 - The propagator in momentum space. • For each factor (−iλ/4!) draw a vertex with the convention that the momentum ﬂux is zero (see Fig. 5.4.2). .

p1 p

4

λ : _ i __ , p1 + p 2 + p 3 + p4 = 0 4!

p

2

p

3

Fig. 5.4.2 - The vertex in momentum space. • To get Gc draw all the topological inequivalent diagrams after having ﬁxed the external legs. The number of ways of drawing a given diagram is its topological weight. The contribution of such a diagram is multiplied by its topological weight. • After the requirement of the conservation of the four-momentum at each vertex we need to integrate over all the independent internal four-momenta with weight d4 q (5.63) (2π)4 A more systematic way is to associate a factor iλ − (2π)4 δ 4 ( pi ) 4! i=1

4 (n)

(5.64)

to each vertex and integrate over all the momenta of the internal lines. This gives automatically a factor

n

(2π) δ (

i=1

4 4

pi ),

(n = numero linee esterne)

(5.65)

corresponding to the conservation of the total four-momentum of the diagram. By using these rules we can easily evaluate the 2nd order contribution of Fig. 5.4.3. 136

.

p1

q1 q2 q3

p

2

**Fig. 5.4.3 - One of the second order contributions to Gc . We get 4×4×3×2× − iλ 4!
**

2

(2)

i 2 p2 − m2 + i

3

i=1

d4 qi i 2 (2π)4 qi − m2 + i p2 1 i − m2 + i

·(2π)4 δ 4 (p1 − q1 − q2 − q3 )(2π)4 δ 4 (q1 + q2 + q3 − p2 ) = ·

i=1

1 λ2 (2π)4 δ 4 (p1 + p2 ) 2 6 (p1 − m2 + i )2

3

d4 qi i 2 (2π)4 qi − m2 + i

(2π)4 δ 4 (p1 − q1 − q2 − q3 )

(5.66)

5.5

Power counting in λϕ4

We start by going to the euclidean formulation. Let us denote the time by tR . The relation with the euclidean time is tE = itR . Recalling from the Section 4.9 that for the harmonic oscillator of unit mass one has (we have deﬁned xR = (tR , x), xE = (tE , x)) i∆F (xR ) = = d3 p 2 ∆(tR , ωk )eip · x = (2π)3 d4 p e−ipE xE

E (2π)4

d3 p 2 DE (tE , ωk )eip · x (2π)3 (5.67)

p2 + m2 E

where pE = (EE , p), and we have used eq. (4.237) for unit mass and with ν = EE . From this we get the following modiﬁcations to Feynman’s rules in the euclidean version • Associate to each line a propagator p2 1 + m2 (5.68)

137

• To each vertex associate a factor − λ 4! (5.69)

This rule follows because the weight in the euclidean path-integral is given by e−SE instead of eiS . The other rules of the previous Section are unchanged. The reason to use the euclidean version is because in this way the divergences of the integrals become manifest by simply going in polar coordinates. We will now in the position to make a general analysis of the divergences. For simplicity we will consider only scalar particles. First of all consider the number of independent momenta in a given diagram, or the number of ”loops”, L. This is given, by deﬁnition, by the number of momenta upon which we are performing the integration, since they are not ﬁxed by the four-momentum conservation at the vertices. Since one of this conservation gives rise to the overall four-momentum conservation we see that the number of loops is given by L = I − (V − 1) = I − V + 1 (5.70)

where I is the number of internal lines and V the number of vertices. As in Section 2.3 we will be interested in evaluating the superﬁcial degree of divergence of a diagram. To this end notice that • The L independent integrations give a factor of space-time dimensions.

L k=1

dd pk where d is the number

• Each internal line gives rise to a propagator containing two inverse powers in momenta I 1 (5.71) 2 p + m2 i=1 i Given that, the superﬁcial degree of divergence is deﬁned as D = dL − 2I (5.72)

Notice that D has to do with a common scaling of all the integration variables, therefore it may well arise the situation where D < 0 (corresponding to a convergent situation), but there are divergent sub-integrations. Therefore we will need a more accurate analysis that we will do at the end of this Section. For the moment being let us stay with this deﬁnition. We will try now to get a relation between D and the number of external legs in a diagram. By putting VN equal to the total number of vertices with N lines we have (see Section 2.3) NVN = E + 2I 138 (5.73)

with E the number of external legs and I the number of internal ones (recall we are dealing with scalar particles only). Eliminating I between this relation and the previous one, we get 1 (5.74) I = (NVN − E) 2 from which D = d(I −VN +1)−2I = (d−2)I −d(VN −1) = This relation can be rewritten as 1 D = d − (d − 2)E + 2 In particular, for d = 4 we have D = 4 − E + (N − 4)VN (5.77) N −2 d−N 2 VN (5.76) d−2 (NVN −E)−d(VN −1) (5.75) 2

For the λϕ4 theory this relation becomes particularly simple since then D depends only on the number of external legs D =4−E (5.78)

Therefore the only diagrams superﬁcially divergent, D ≥ 0, are the ones with E = 2 and E = 4. As noticed before, this does not prove that a diagram with E > 4 or D < 0 is convergent. Let us discuss more in detail this point. Let us consider the diagram of Fig. 5.5.1, and let us suppose that the diagrams 1 and 2 have degrees of superﬁcial divergence D1 and D2 respectively. Since they are connected by n lines, we have n − 1 independent momenta, and therefore .

1 D1 n

2 D2

Fig. 5.5.1 - Two diagrams connected by n-lines. D = D1 + D2 + 4(n − 1) − 2n = D1 + D2 + 2n − 4 (5.79)

Therefore we may have D < 0 with D1 and D2 positive, that is both divergent. However for n > 1 we have D ≥ D 1 + D2 (5.80) 139

5. We begin with the 3-particle reducibility. . we must have N > 4. 5. We will now stay with the λϕ4 theory. the one-particle reducible diagrams can be easily reconstructed from the 1PI’s. in order to have a complete classiﬁcation of the divergences.3. 140 .3 .5. In this case we have D1 = 0 and D2 = 1 − N. 3-particle reducible diagrams.5. In fact. xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Fig.5. In this diagram we have a primitively divergent four point function and a diagram with D < 0 which can be again analyzed in the same way. 5. . In Fig. and therefore it cannot give rise to divergences.81) In order the superﬁcial degree of divergence is negative.One-particle reducible Feynman’s diagram. we need D1 or D2 to be negative enough to overcome the other. In analogous way we look for two-particle reducible diagrams with D < 0 and we extract contributions of the forms given in Fig 5. we can consider the 2-.5. To exclude the case n = 1 means to consider only the one-particle irreducible (1PI) Feynman’s diagrams. After that we look for the diagrams having D < 0 but yet divergent.2 . for the nature of the vertex it is impossible to have a connected 4-particle irreducible diagram. 1 xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx N Fig.4.2 we give an example of a one-particle reducible diagram. therefore D = D 1 + D2 + 2 = 3 − N (5. Then.and therefore in order to have D < 0 with 1 or 2 being divergent diagrams. Furthermore. The reason of excluding these diagrams from our considerations is that the momentum of the internal line connecting the two diagrams is ﬁxed. The idea is simply to look for the reducibility of the diagram.5.Three-particle reducible Feynman’s diagram. In this case we look for diagrams of the type of Fig. 5.

The second diagram has again D2 < 0 and we can iterate the procedure. In general we can look at this question by studying the equation for the superﬁcial divergence that we got before 1 D = d − (d − 2)E + 2 141 N −2 d−N 2 VN (5.. By proceeding in this way we see that truly convergent diagrams do not contain hidden two and four point divergent functions. 5.5. valid in any ﬁeld theory and it says that a Feynman diagram is convergent if its superﬁcial degree of divergence and that of all its subgraphs are negative.4 .83) requiring N > 2. we say that the theory is renormalizable. In the ﬁrst case we have D1 = 2 and D2 = 2 − N. 1 xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx N 1 xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx N Fig.82) Again this requires N > 4.or 2-particle reducible parts containing two-and four-point divergent functions. In the second case we have D1 = 0 and D2 = 2 − N.Two-particle reducible Feynman’s diagram. therefore D = D 1 + D2 = 2 − N (5. If it happens that all the divergent diagrams (in the primitive sense speciﬁed above) correspond to terms which are present in the original lagrangian.84) . therefore D = D 1 + D2 = 4 − N (5. This turns out to be a general theorem due to Weinberg. What we have shown is that for the λϕ4 theory in 4 dimensions a 1PI Feynman diagram is convergent if D < 0 and it cannot be split up into 3. In the case of the λφ4 theory the Weinberg’s theorem tells us that all the divergences rely in the two and four point functions.

here too it is convenient to introduce a dimensionful parameter µ in order to be able to deﬁne a dimensionless coupling λnew = λold (µ2 )ω−2 Then the action will be (λ = λnew ) S2ω = d2ω x 1 1 λ ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ + m2 ϕ2 + (µ2 )2−ω ϕ4 2 2 4! (5.For d = 4 we recall D = 4 − E + (N − 4)VN (5. let us consider the action in dimensions d = 2ω S2ω = d2ω x 1 1 λ ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ + m2 ϕ2 + ϕ4 2 2 4! (5. must be less or equal to 4. dim[λ] = 4 − 2ω (5.86) 5.91) The Feynman’s rules are slightly modiﬁed 142 .92) (5. and therefore the action S2ω should be h dimensionless.and fourpoint Green’s functions by using the dimensional regularization.6 Regularization in λϕ4 In this Section we will evaluate the one-loop contributions to the two.two. meaning that the dimension N of the vertex operator. An interesting case is the one of the theory λϕ3 in 6 dimensions. ϕN .87) and the only divergent functions are the one. To this end.88) In our unit system we have (/ = c = 1). For d = 6 we get D = 6 − 2E + (2N − 6)VN and for N = 3 D = 6 − 2E (5. We can have a renormalizable scalar theory only for N ≤ 4. and we recall that for the scalar ﬁeld we have dim[ϕ] = From this it follows at once that dim[m] = 1. (5. In d = 6 we have dim[ϕ] = 2 and again in order to have renormalizability we must have that the dimensions of the vertex operator must be less or equal to 6.89) As we did in QED for the electric charge.90) d −1=ω−1 2 (5. Therefore we have inﬁnite divergent diagrams and the theory is not renormalizable.and three-point ones. As discussed in Section 2.85) We see that D increases with VN for N > 4.3 this allows to evaluate the dimensions of the ﬁelds.

we will do all the calculation in the euclidean version.6.6. p2 1 1 1 T2 2 + m2 p1 + m2 (5.1 . 5.5 we gave the relevant integrals both in the euclidean and in the minkowskian version. We start our calculation from the ﬁrst order contribution to the two-point function corresponding to the diagram (tadpole) of Fig.1.95) p p 1 p 2 Fig.• The scalar product among two four-vectors becomes a sum over 2ω components.97) 32π 2 2−ω m2 143 .The one-loop contribution to the two-point function in the λϕ4 theory. 5.93) pi ) = 1 (5.96) For ω → 2 we get T2 ≈ − λ m2 1 4πµ2 + ψ(2) + · · · + · · · × (−1) 1 + (2 − ω) log 2 2 2 (4π) m 2−ω 4πµ2 1 λ + ψ(2) + log = m2 +··· (5. • In the loop integrals we will have a factor d2ω p (2π)2ω and the δ function in 2ω-dimensions will be deﬁned by d2ω pδ (2ω) ( i (5. Remember that in Section 2. with T2 = 1 (−λ)(µ2 )2−ω 2 λ m2 2 (4π)2 4πµ2 m2 1 πω λ 1 d2ω p = − (µ2 )2−ω Γ(1 − ω) 2 1−ω 2ω p2 + m2 2ω (2π) 2 (2π) (m ) 2−ω = − Γ(1 − ω) (5.94) • The coupling λ goes into λ(µ2 )2−ω . Also. This is given by (2π)2ω δ (2ω) (p1 + p2 ) .

with an amplitude 4 (2π) δ with 1 T4 = (−λ)2 (µ2 )4−2ω 2 2ω (2ω) (p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 ) p2 k=1 k 1 T4 + m2 (5.. 5. The corresponding diagram is given in Fig. through the equation (see Section 2. This expression has a simple pole at ω = 2 and a ﬁnite part depending explicitly on µ2 .102) .2 .98) d2ω k 1 1 . (2π)2ω k 2 + m2 (k − p)2 + m2 p = p1 + p2 (5.99) We reduce the two denominator to a single one. it is possible to translate k into k − p(1 − x) obtaining T4 = λ2 2 4−2ω (µ ) 2 1 dx 0 1 d2ω k 2ω (2π) [k 2 + m2 + p2 x(1 − x)]2 144 (5.100) [(k 2 + m2 ) + (1 − x)(p2 − 2k · p)]2 0 dx [x(k 2 m2 ) 1 the denominator can be written as (k 2 + m2 ) + (1 − x)(p2 − 2k · p) = [k − (1 − x)p]2 + m2 + p2 (1 − x) − p2 (1 − x)2 = [k − (1 − x)p]2 + m2 + p2 x(1 − x) (5.6.The one-loop contribution to the four-point function in the λϕ4 theory. 5. p 1 p-k p4 p 2 k p 3 Fig. Let us consider now the one-loop contribution to the four-point function.101) Since our integral is a convergent one.2.6) 1 1 = 2 + m2 (k − p)2 + m2 k = = 1 + + (1 − x) ((k − p)2 + m2 )]2 0 1 1 dx 2 + m2 ) + (1 − x) (k 2 + m2 − 2k · p + p2 )]2 [x(k 0 1 1 dx (5.6.

105) 1 4πµ2 λ2 + ψ(1) + 2 + log 32π 2 2 − ω m2 1+ 1+ 4m2 p2 4m2 p2 4m2 1 + 2 log p +1 −1 +··· (5.107) depending on the renormalized parameters m and λ and ﬁeld ϕ. a 1+a−1 0 The ﬁnal result is T4 ≈ (µ2 )2−ω − a>0 (5.7 Renormalization in the theory λϕ4 In order to renormalize the theory λϕ4 we proceed as in QED.103) (5. and in the counterterms contribution 1 1 δλ Lct = δZ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ + δm2 ϕ2 + µ4−2ω ϕ4 2 2 4! The sum of these two expressions 1 (λ + δλ) 4−2ω 4 1 µ ϕ L = (1 + δZ)∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ + (m2 + δm2 )ϕ2 + 2 2 4! 145 (5.By performing the momentum integration we get λ2 T4 = (µ2 )4−2ω 2 In the limit ω → 2 T4 ≈ 1 1 dx λ2 2 2−ω 1 + (2 − ω) log µ2 (µ ) + ψ(1) 2 2−ω 2 0 (4π) m2 + p2 x(1 − x) × 1 − (2 − ω) log 4π 1 2 1 m2 + p2 x(1 − x) 2 2−ω λ + ψ(1) − dx log ≈ (µ ) 32π 2 2 − ω 4πµ2 0 1 0 dx 1 Γ(2 − ω) ω 2 + p2 x(1 − x)]2−ω (4π) [m (5.108) .104) Also the x integration can be done by using the formula √ 1 √ 1+a+1 4 dx log 1 + x(1 − x) = −2 + 1 + a log √ . expressed in terms of bare couplings and bare ﬁelds in a part 1 1 λ Lp = ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ + m2 ϕ2 + µ4−2ω ϕ4 2 2 4! (5.106) 5. That is we split the original lagrangian.109) (5.

113) L = ∂µ ϕB ∂ µ ϕB + m2 ϕ2 + ϕ4 B B 2 2 4! B The counter-terms are then evaluated by the requirement of removing the divergences arising in the limit ω → 2. if we redeﬁne couplings and ﬁelds as follows 1/2 ϕB = (1 + δZ)1/2 ϕ ≡ Zϕ ϕ (5. 5.111) (5. 5.115) with = 4 − 2ω and F1 an arbitrary dimensionless function Adding the contribution of the counterterm to the previous result we get G(2) (p1 . represented in Fig.110) (5. The divergent part can be taken in care by the counterterm δm2 which produces an additional contribution to the one-loop diagram. 5. We choose the counterterm as 2 1 2 2 λ m2 δm ϕ = + F1 ω.112) m2 + δm2 −1 = (m2 + δm2 )Zϕ = 1 + δZ λ + δλ −2 λB = µ4−2ω = µ4−2ω (λ + δλ)Zϕ 2 (1 + δZ) m2 B In fact 1 λ0 1 (5.7. by summing up .1 .114) p1 + m2 − T2 p2 1 Therefore.7.2. p2 ) = (2π)2ω δ 2ω (p1 + p2 ) c p2 1 1 1 1 + 2 (−δm2 ) 2 2 −T 2 +m p1 + m p1 + m2 2 (5.The contributions to the teo-point connected Green’s function. 2 m2 2 64π 2 µ ϕ2 (5.1) G(2) (p1 . p2 ) = (2π)2ω δ 2ω (p1 + p2 ) c 1 1 1 + 2 T +··· 2 2 2 p2 + m2 +m p1 + m 1 1 ≈ (2π)2ω δ 2ω (p1 + p2 ) 2 (5. From the results of the previous Section. xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx = xx xx + xx xx xx + + xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx + xxxxxx xxxxxx Fig.gives back the original lagrangian.116) 146 . all the 1PI contributions we get the following expression for the two-point connected Green’s function (see Fig. except for a ﬁnite part which is ﬁxed by the renormalization conditions. the eﬀect of the ﬁrst order contribution is to produce a mass correction determined by T2 .7.

5. at the order λ we have G(2) (p1 .120) This choice determines uniquely the F1 term.The Feynman’rule for the counterterm δm2 . u = (p1 + p4 )2 (5..119) This expression has a pole in Minkowski space.118) The ﬁnite result at the order λ is then G(2) (p1 . Consider now the four-point connected Green’s function. Now the combination δm2 −T2 is ﬁnite and given by δm2 − T2 = λ m2 m2 F1 − ψ(2) + log 32π 2 4πµ2 (5.7. Notice that at one loop there is no wave function renormalization. t. p2 ) = (2π)2ω δ 2ω (p1 + p2 ) c 1 p2 + m2 1 + 1 λ 32π 2 m F1 − ψ(2) + log 4πµ2 2 (5.2 . and we can deﬁne the renormalization condition by requiring that the inverse propagator at the physical mass is p2 + m2 phys (5. t = (p1 + p3 )2 . 5. p4 ) c × (−µ4−2ω )λ 1 − = (2π) δ 2 2ω (2ω) (p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 ) p2 k=1 k 1 + m2 (5.7. u) 2 4πµ 3 . p2 ) = (2π)2ω δ 2ω (p1 + p2 ) c p2 1 + m2 1 + δm2 − T2 (5. Its diagrammatic expansion at one loop is given in Fig.122) 3λ 32π 2 + ψ(1) + 2 − log 147 m2 1 − A(s.121) we get 4 G(4) (p1 . p3 . From the results of the previous Section and introducing the Mandelstam invariants s = (p1 + p2 )2 .3 (again we have included only 1PI diagrams). but this comes about at two loops. as we shall see later. p2 . However we will discuss more in detail the renormalization conditions in the next Chapter when we will speak about the renormalization group.117) Of course the same result could have been obtained by noticing that the counterterm modiﬁes the propagator by shifting m2 into m2 +δm2 . xx x = _ δm2 Fig.

t = u = 0) to be equal to the lowest phys order value 4 G(4) (p1 . p2 . 2 ϕ = µ4−2ω 4! 4! 32π 2 µ ϕ4 (5. .3 . u) 2 4πµ 3 A possible renormalization condition is to ﬁx the scattering amplitude at some value of the invariants (for instance.125) m2 1 − A(s.. 5. with A(s.u 4m2 log 1+ z 1+ 1+ 4m2 z 4m2 z +1 −1 (5.7. This counterrtem produces an additional contribution with a Feynman rule represented in Fig.123) The divergent part can be disposed oﬀ by the counterterm δλ 4−2ω 4 3λ2 2 1 m2 µ + G1 ω. xx xxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xx xx xx xx x x xx x x xx xx xx xx x x x = + xx xx xx + xx xx xx xx x x + xx xx xx xx xx + xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Fig. = _ (µ2 )2 _ω δλ Fig.The Feynman’s rule for the couterterm δλ.The one-loop expansion for the four-point Green’s function. 5. u) = z=s.4 .126) 2 +m 148 . p2 . p4 ) c = (2π) δ 2ω (2ω) (p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 ) p2 k=1 k 1 × (−µ2−4ω )λ (5.124) with G1 an arbitrary dimensionless function.7. t. p4 ) = (2π)2ω δ (2ω) (p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 ) c × 1− 3λ 32π 2 −G1 + ψ(1) + 2 − log p2 k=1 k 1 (−µ2−4ω )λ + m2 (5.4. p3 .7. t. s = 4m2 . 5. p3 . By adding the counterterm we get 4 G(4) (p1 .t.

5 .5.5 2 m2 4 λ2 m2 2 + ψ(1) + F1 − log 4(16π 2)2 4πµ2 (5. Its complete expansion up to two loops. xx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xx = xx xx xx xx + xx xx xx xx xx xx + xx xx + xx xx + xx xx xx xx + xx xx xx xx x x + a) b) + xx xx + xx x x c) d) Fig.7.7. By omitting the external propagators and the delta-function of . 5.The two-loop expansion for the two-point Green’s function. including also the counterterm contributions is given in Fig.7.128) • Contribution from the diagram c) of Fig 5. conservation of the four-momentum. We will examine only the two-point function. the various two-loop contributions are (notice that a counterterm inside a loop gives a second order contribution as a pure twoloops diagram): • Contribution from the diagram a) of Fig 5.5 − λ2 4(16π 2 )2 4 2 + 2 ψ(2) + ψ(1) − 2 log m2 4πµ2 (5.129) 149 .5 − 1 2 6m2 6m2 λ2 p + 2 + 6(16π 2 )2 2 m2 3 + ψ(1) − log 2 4πµ2 (5.5 4 2 m2 3λ2 m2 2 + ψ(2) + G1 − log 4(16π 2 )2 4πµ2 • Contribution from the diagram d) of Fig 5.130) (5. Without entering into the calculation we want now show how the renormalization program works at two loops.7.127) • Contribution from the diagram b) of Fig 5.7.In any case G1 is completely ﬁxed by this condition. 5.7.

Also. 5. b) the residuum at the pole. The previous procedure can be easily extended to higher and higher orders in the expansion in the coupling constant.6 .Insertion of counterterms in multi-loop diagrams.133) and F2 a new dimensionless function. This expression is still divergent but at the order λ2 . and are precisely these combinations which are ﬁxed by the renormalization conditions. 2 µ (5. F2 .134) (5. 2 ) 24(16π 2 )2 µ (5. the function H2 is ﬁxed by the renormalization condition on the inverse propagator.115) and 1 δm2 = m2 2 λ2 2(16π 2 )2 4 2 1 m2 + (F1 + 3G1 − 1) + F2 ω. This depends from the fact that the divergent terms are constant or quadratic in the external momentum. Therefore we can make ﬁnite the diagram by modifying at the second order the δm2 counterterm 1 δm2 + δm2 ϕ2 (5. because only particular combinations of these functions appear in the counterterms. ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ and ϕ4 . All the functions F1 . Fig. What makes the theory renormalizable is the fact that the new divergences that one encounters can all be disposed oﬀ by modifying the counterterms δm2 and λ. (5.132) 1 2 2 with δm2 given in eq. The further divergence in p2 can be eliminated through the wave function renormalization counterterm. . and therefore they can be reproduced by operators as ϕ2 .Adding together these terms we ﬁnd − p2 2λ2 1 λ2 1 λ2 + m2 [F1 + 3G1 − 1] + m2 12(16π 2 )2 (16π 2 )2 2 2(16π 2 )2 (5.131) where we have used ψ(2) − ψ(1) = 1.7. The non trivial part of 150 . Notice also that we are not introducing more and more freedom. that is 1 δZ∂µ ϕ∂ µ ϕ 2 with the choice m2 2 λ2 δZ = − + H2 (ω. which are really two conditions: a) the position of the pole.135) with H2 dimensionless. G1 H2 are ﬁnite in the limit ω → 2.

the renormalization program is just the last one.7. 151 .7. in the expression for δm2 there are not such terms.6. In the previous two-loop calculation we had no such terms but we got their strict relatives log(m2 /4πµ2 ). If present the log p2 terms would be a real disaster since they are non-local in conﬁguration space and as such they cannot be absorbed by local operators. In fact they cancel in adding up 2 the four two-loop contributions. where we have taken out all the possible external lines. For instance.6. that is one subtracts correctly also the diagrams of the type in Fig. 5. 5. These diagrams contain 1/ terms coming from the counterterms times log p2 terms from the loop integration. In fact consider diagrams of the type represented in Fig. However if one makes all the required subtractions. it is possible to show that the log p2 terms cancel out.

pn ) i=1 DF (pi )−1 (6. · · · . pn ) = (n) G1P I (p1 . · · · . This implies that also the functions Γ(n) do not depend on µ except for the ﬁeld −n/2 rescaling factor Zϕ .1) DF (p) = d2ω xeipx 0|T (ϕ(x)ϕ(0))|0 (6. λ. However the right hand side of the previous equation does not depend on the choice of the parameter µ. p2 . ω) (n) −n/2 n/2 (6. obtaining the relation −n/2 ΓB (p1 . p2 . p2 . These considerations can be condensed into a diﬀerential 152 . · · · . renormalizing the operators through the wave function renormalization (ϕB = 1/2 Zϕ ϕ).1 The renormalization group equations For the following considerations it will be convenient to introduce the one-particle irreducible truncated n-point functions Γ(n) (p1 .3) The factor Zϕ originates from a factor Zϕ coming from the renormalization (n) −1 factors in Gc and from n factors Zϕ from the inverse propagators. p2 . pn ) deﬁned by removing the propagators on the external legs and omitting the delta-function expressing the conservation of the four-momentum n n (2π) δ where 2ω (2ω) ( i=1 pi )Γ (n) (p1 . pn . and. at the same time. In the λϕ4 case. · · · . In the previous relation we must regard the renormalized parameters as function of the bare ones. we can start from the original lagrangian and evaluate them in terms of the bare couplings constants (in the case of λϕ4 .2) is the exact euclidean propagator. λB and mB ). m. this means λ and m depending on λB and mB . Of course. · · · . mB . ω) = Zϕ Γ(n) (p1 . p2 .Chapter 6 The renormalization group 6. On the other hand we can express the bare parameters in terms of the renormalized ones. µ. pn . in a renormalizable theory the Γ(n) ’s are ﬁnite by construction. λB . We have two ways of evaluating these functions.

10) . It is convenient to deﬁne the following dimensionless coeﬃcients µ µ ∂λ m = β λ. µ.9) (6. ω ∂µ µ m 1 ∂ log Zϕ µ = γd λ. . · · · . The propagator DF (p) has dimensions 2(ω − 1) − 2ω = −2. In dimensions d = 2ω the delta function has dimensions −2ω and dim[ϕ] = ω − 1. (6. · · · . and we get dim Γ(n) − 2ω = −n(ω + 1) + 2n → dim Γ(n) = n + ω(2 − n) and putting = 4 − 2ω dim Γ(n) = 4 − n + (n − 2) 2 (6.6) We can try to eliminate from this equation the term ∂/∂µ. (6. p2 .7) has dimensions n(ω − 1) − 2nω = −n(ω + 1). .3) vanishes ∂ ∂λ ∂ ∂m ∂ n ∂ log Zϕ (n) +µ +µ − µ Γ (p1 . . λ. ) = 0 ∂µ ∂s ∂m 2 153 (6. Notice that since Γ(n) is ﬁnite in the limit ω → 2. λ. ω) = 0 ∂µ ∂µ ∂λ ∂µ ∂m 2 ∂µ (6. Introducing a common scale s for the momenta we get (from the Euler theorem) µ ∂ ∂ ∂ +s +m − (4 − n + (n − 2)) Γ(n) (spi . ω) = 0 ∂µ ∂λ ∂m (6. therefore n G(n) (p1 . ω 2 ∂µ µ m µ ∂m = γm λ. To this end let us consider the dimensions of Γ(n) . ω m ∂µ µ (6. pn ) c = i=1 d2ω xi ei(p1 x1 + · · · + pn xn ) 0|T (ϕ(x1 ) · · · ϕ(xn )|0 conn. λ.8) Therefore Γ(n) must be a homogeneous function of degree 4 − n + (n − 2)/2 in the dimensionful parameters pi . µ. m.4) The content of this relation is that a change of the scale µ can be compensated by a convenient change of the couplings and of the ﬁeld normalization.equation obtained by requiring that the total derivative with respect to µ of the right hand side of eq. m. µ.5) obtaining µ ∂ ∂ ∂ +β + γm m − nγd Γ(n) (p1 . m e µ. m. p2 . it follows that also the derivative of log Zϕ is ﬁnite. pn . pn . · · · .

therefore it will be possible to express them as a Laurent series in the renormalized parameters ∞ λB = µ a0 + k=1 ∞ ak k (6. λ.6) −s ∂ ∂ ∂ +β + (γm − 1)m − nγd + 4 − n Γ(n) (spi . and allows us to evaluate them at momenta spi once we know them at momenta pi . (6. ) = 0 ∂s ∂λ ∂m (6.15) λ 1 2 λ2 4 + F1 + m2 m2 2 + (F1 + 3G1 − 1) + F2 2 2 )2 32π 2(16π δZ = − 2 λ2 + H2 2 )2 24(16π (6. For this purpose one needs to specify the renormalization conditions since these coeﬃcients depend on the arbitrary functions F1 .12) m2 B =m 2 b0 + k=1 ∞ bk k (6.11) This equation tells us how the Γ(n) scale with the momenta. To this end one needs to know the coeﬃcients β. γm and γd .17) we get for the bare parameters λB = µ λ+ 3λ2 32π 2 2 + G1 + O(λ3 ) (6. m. In order to use the renormalization group equations we need to know more about the structure of the functions β. b0 and c0 may depend on but only in an analytical way. G1 .16) (6. Recalling from the previous Section the expressions for the counterterms at the second order in λ δλ = δm2 = 3λ2 2 + G1 32π 2 (6. γd and γm . µ. Notice that a0 . · · ·.13) Z ϕ = c0 + k=1 ck k (6.14) with the coeﬃcients functions of the dimensionless parameters λ and m/µ.Since everything is ﬁnite for → 0 we can take the limit and eliminate ∂/∂µ between this equation and eq.18) 154 . We have seen that the counterterms are singular expressions in .

24) (6. γm e γd depend on both variables λ and m/µ.21) (6. On the other hand since these coeﬃcients depend on the renormalization conditions.27) 3λ2 + O(λ3 ) 16π 2 λ λ2 1 F1 + (F2 + H2 ) + O(λ3 ) b0 = 1 + 2 2 )2 32π 2(16π 12 b1 = λ λ2 λ2 + (F1 + 3G1 − 1) + + O(λ3 ) 2 2 )2 2 )2 16π 2(16π 12(16π b2 = c0 = 1 − 2λ2 + O(λ3 ) 2 )2 (16π λ2 H2 + O(λ3 ) 24(16π 2)2 λ2 + O(λ3 ) 12(16π 2 )2 c1 = − Notice that the dependence on m/µ comes only from the arbitrary functions deﬁning the ﬁnite parts of the counterterms. This is an essential feature. it is possible to deﬁne a scheme where they do not depend on m/µ.19) 2 λ2 24(16π 2 )2 (6. Callan and Szymanzik have considered a diﬀerent version of the renormalization group equations. 155 .25) (6.26) (6. In that case one can show that β and γd depend only on λ. They have considered the dependence of Γ(n) on the physical mass. since it is very diﬃcult to solve the group renormalization equations when the coeﬃcients β.20) Therefore the coeﬃcients are given by a0 = λ + a1 = 3λ2 G + O(λ3 ) 2 1 32π (6.22) (6. In their place there is a inhomogeneous term in the large momentum limit. Another option would be to try to solve the equations in the large momentum limit where the mass dependence can be neglected. This is easily understood since the divergent terms originate from the large momentum dependence where the masses can be neglected. Furthermore in their equation the terms γm and µ/∂µ do not appear.23) (6.m2 = m2 1 + B + λ2 2(16π 2)2 λ2 + 24(16π 2)2 Zϕ = 1 − λ 32π 2 4 2 2 + F1 1 + (F1 + 3G1 − 1) + F2 + H2 2 + O(λ3 ) + H2 + O(λ3 ) (6.

This is another way of saying that the ﬁnite terms in Lct are ﬁxed once we assign λ and m. The renormalization procedure introduces in the theory a certain amount of arbitrariness in terms of the scale µ and of the arbitrary functions F1 . In turn these are ﬁxed by relating them to some observable quantity as a scattering cross-section.28) therefore. comparing with eqs.2 Renormalization conditions Let us consider again the renormalization conditions.and four-point truncated amplitudes Γ(2) (p) = λ2 H 2 p2 24(16π 2)2 m2 λ + m2 1 + F1 − ψ(2) + log 32π 2 4πµ2 λ2 + F2 + · · · 2(16π 2 )2 1− 3λ 32π 2 ψ(1) + 2 − log (6. t. p2 . A F1 = ψ(2) − log m2 A . let us now discuss various possibilities of renormalization conditions (sometimes one speaks of subtraction conditions) Γ(4) (p1 . that is requiring Γ(2) (p) p2 ∼0 = p2 + m2 A pi =0 (6.29) 1 m2 − A(s. p4 ) = −µ λA where m2 and λA are quantities to be ﬁxed by comparing some theoretical A cross-section with the experimental data.31) (6. The renormalization group equations then tell us how to change the couplings when we change µ. As we have said the procedure for ﬁxing m and λ is largely arbitrary and we will exhibit various possibilities. F2 · · ·. To do that it is convenient to write explicitly the expression for the two.30) and using A(s. t. u) − G1 4πµ2 3 (6. (6. the ﬁnite part of Lct can be absorbed into a redeﬁnition of the parameters appearing in L since both have the same operatorial structure. we get A H2 = 0. p3 . Then. 4πµ2 156 GA = ψ(1) − log 1 m2 A 4πµ2 (6.30) In the two point function we have omitted the ﬁnite terms coming from the second order contributions for which we have given only the divergent part. p4 ) = −µ λ 1 − • A ﬁrst possibility is to renormalize at zero momenta. p2 .29) and (6. in order to leave invariant the physical quantities. Recall that the lagrangian has been decomposed as L = Lp + Lct (6. p3 .33) .6. u) = 6 for pi = 0. Furthermore we have to ﬁx a scale µ at which we deﬁne the parameters λ and m.32) Γ(4) (p1 .

p3 . p2 . F2 . For instance one requires Γ(2) (p) = p2 + m2 .36) This way of renormalize has however the problem of leaving an explicit dependence on the mass in the coeﬃcients of the renormalization group equations. B Γ(4) (p1 . GB = ψ(1)+2−log B2 − A(M 2 . obtaining ∞ ∞ ak (λ) ak (λ) 0= λ+ + (A + B ) 1 + (6. M 2 ) 1 4πµ2 4πµ 3 (6.34) (6. For instance we could require Γ(−p2 = m2 ) = 0 where m is ¯ ¯ (4) the physical mass and then ﬁx Γ with all the momenta on shell.35) Notice that the point chosen for the four-point function is a non-physical one. In this way the coeﬃcients ai . we get ∞ 0= where λ+ k=1 ak (λ) k +µ ∂λ 1+ ∂µ ∞ ak (λ) k (6. B B H2 = 0. for small (6. In this case we get m2 m2 1 B . · · · at each order in the expansion. let us start with the bare coupling ∞ ak (λ) (6. The Weinberg and ’t Hooft prescription allows to evaluate the renormalization group equations coeﬃcients in a very simple way.37) λB = µ λ + k k=1 Diﬀerentiating with respect to µ and recalling that λB does not depend on this variable. For instance.40) k k k=1 k=1 dak (λ) dλ → 0.Another possibility would be to ﬁx the momenta at some physical value in the Minkowski space. • To choose the subtraction point at zero momenta is generally dangerous for massless particles (in this way one would introduce spurious infrared divergences). M 2 . p4 ) = −µ λB .39) 157 . p2 = M 2 s = t = u = M2 (6.38) k=1 ak (λ) = Since β = µ∂λ/∂µ is analytic for we can write β = A + B . F1 = ψ(2)−log • The last way of renormalizing we will consider is due to Weinberg and ’t Hooft and the idea is simply to put equal to zero all the arbitrary functions F1 . bi and ci appearing in the Laurent series deﬁning the bare couplings turn out to be mass independent. As a consequence a popular choice is to subtract at an arbitrary value of the momenta.

47) (6.45) (6. we get µ 3λ2 ∂λ = β(λ) = ∂µ 16π 2 (6.46) d a1 dλ (6.51) The general solution to this equation is obtained by using the method of the ”characteristics”.52) . That is one considers the integral curves (the characteristic curves) deﬁned by the ordinary diﬀerential equations dxi (t) = βi (xi (t)) dt 158 (6.and identifying the coeﬃcients of the various powers in B+λ=0 a1 + A + Ba1 = 0 ak+1 + Aak + Bak+1 = 0 from which B = −λ A=− 1−λ We then get β(λ) = − 1 − λ and for → 0 β(λ) = − 1 − λ and 1−λ d dak ak+1 = dλ dλ d a1 − λ dλ d a1 dλ 1−λ d a1 dλ (6.43) (6. Its knowledge. In fact. The function λ(µ) is known as the running coupling constant. let us deﬁne t = log s (6. t) ∂t ∂xi (6.48) From the expression of the previous Section for a1 at the second order in λ.50) and let us consider the following partial diﬀerential equation (we shall see that the renormalization group equations can be brought back to this form) ∂ ∂ F (xi . t) = βi (xi ) F (xi .41) (6.42) (6.49) This equation can be integrated in order to know how we have to change λ when we change the value of the scale µ.44) (6. together with the knowledge of m(µ) allows us to integrate easily the renormalization group equations.

t) (6.61) ∂s and λ(s = 1) = λ.51) and therefore the general solution will be t G(xi .with given boundary conditions xi (0) = xi . 0) x x (6. λ(s). By putting t (6. In fact we can check that ψ satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation dxi (t) ∂ψ ∂ψ ∂ ψ(xi (t)) = = βi ∂t dt ∂xi ∂xi In our case the equation contains a non-derivative term ∂ ∂ G(xi . t) satisﬁes eq. λ. the amplitudes Γ(n) do not scale only with the trivial factor s4−n due to their dimensions.59) (6. due to γd = 0.52).53) (6. t) = e dt γ(xi (t )) 0 ψ(xi (t)) (6. 159 .54) is an arbitrary function to be determined by the condition at t = 0 required for F .57) we see that F (xi . m. t) = ψ(xi (t)) where ψ(¯i ) = F (¯i .60) ∂m(s) = m(s)(γm (λ(s)) − 1) (6. t) = e dt γ(xi (t )) 0 F (xi . which is necessary to compensate the variations of λ and m with the scale.55) (6. For the Γ(n) we get (t = log s) −n Γ(n) (spi . This result tells us that when we perform a re-scaling on the momenta. m(s = 1) = m.56) G(xi . t) ∂t ∂xi with γ(xi ) a given function. Then. (6. µ) = Γ(n) (pi . m(s).58) with xi (t) satisfying eq. µ)s4−ne with s s ∂λ(s) = β(λ(s)) ∂s s γd (λ(s )) 1 ds s (6. t) + γ(xi )G(xi . t) = βi (xi ) G(xi . (6. the general solution is ¯ F (xi . but that they undergo also a non trivial scaling.

we want to check that the running coupling obtained via the renormalization group equations is the same that we have deﬁned in Section 2. From Section 2.6.3 Application to QED In this Section we will apply the previous results to QED. the identiﬁcation eB = µ /2 e (1 + δZ1 ) = µ /2 e(1 − δZ3 /2) (1 + δZ2 )(1 + δZ3 /2) e2 6π 2 (6.66) Lp = ψ(i∂ − m)ψ − eµ /2 ψ Aψ − Fµν F µν 4 and δZ3 ¯ˆ ¯ ¯ˆ Lct = iδZ2 ψ ∂ψ − δmψψ − eδZ1 µ /2 ψ Aψ − Fµν F µν (6.70) e2 12π 2 We proceed as in the previous Section by deﬁning eB = µ /2 e 1 + eB = µ /2 e+ k (6.7 we recall that δZ3 = C = − and therefore (6. in particular. First of all let us start with the QED lagrangian in d = 2ω dimensions (neglecting the gauge ﬁxing terms) S2ω = Since ¯ˆ dim[ψ Aψ] = ω − 1 + 2 ω − it follows dim[e] = 2 − ω Therefore we deﬁne enew = eold (µ)ω−2 = eold µ− /2 (6. In particular.67) 4 giving ¯ˆ ¯ ¯ˆ L = i(1 + δZ2 )ψ ∂ψ − (m + δm)ψψ − e(1 + δZ1 )µ /2ψ Aψ − 1 + δZ3 Fµν F µν (6.69) where we have used δZ1 = δZ2 .2.68) 4 After re-scaling of the ﬁelds one gets back the original lagrangian via.72) 160 . with (we ignore here the gauge ﬁxing term) 1 ¯ ˆ ¯ˆ (6.65) 1 ¯ ˆ ¯ˆ d2ω x ψ(i∂ − m)ψ − eψ Aψ − Fµν F µν 4 1 2 = 3ω − 2 (6.62) (6.71) ak k (6.63) As before we write the lagrangian as Lp + Lct.64) (6.

4 Properties of the renormalization group equations µ 3λ2 dλ = + O(λ3 ) dµ 16π 2 (6.76) Integrating this equation we obtain 1 e2 (µ2 ) =− 1 log µ2 + K 2 12π (6.80) Integrating eq.e3 12π 2 Requiring that eB is µ-independent.74) e3 12π 2 The diﬀerential equation deﬁning the running coupling constant is β(e) = µ e3 ∂e(µ) = β(e) = ∂µ 12π 2 (6.79) which agrees with the result obtained in Section 2.82) . Therefore λ(µ) = λs (6. We get 1 1 1 Q2 − = − log 2 α(Q2 ) α(µ2 ) 3π µ or α(Q2 ) = 1− α(µ2 ) α(µ2 ) 3π (6. and in the limit a1 = β(e) = µ from which 1 ∂e =− ∂µ 2 1−e d de with (6.49) we get − 3 µ 1 1 = log − λ(µ) 16π 2 µ s λs 1 1− 161 3λs 16π 2 µ log µs (6. 6.78) log Q2 µ 2 (6.75) (6.81) where µs is a reference scale and λs = λ(µs ).77) where K is an integration constant which can be eliminated by evaluating e at another momentum scale Q2 .73) → 0 we get a1 (6.2. (6.

2 in the case of QED). (6. However in this case the coupling is increasing at large distances and this would be a problem for our approach based on th in.82) is called the Landau pole (see Section 2. The point λF is called a ﬁxed point since if we start with the initial condition λ = λF than λ remains ﬁxed at that value. For the λϕ4 theory and for QED the β function is positive. In this case one could solve the renormalization group equations at large momenta by using the perturbative expansion at a lower order to evaluate the β and the other coeﬃcients.and out. let us expand the β(λ) around its zero β(λ) ≈ (λ − λF )β (λF ) It follows µ dλ = (λ − λF )β (λF ) + · · · dµ (6. In this theory we can give a deﬁnite sense to the asymptotic states. and it will become inﬁnite at some value of µ. here the ﬁelds that are useful to describe the dynamics at short distances (the quark ﬁelds) cannot describe the asymptotic states. assuming the validity of the expression for the β function up to large momenta. • Suppose that β(λ) is positive at small λ and that it becomes negative going through a zero at λ = λF (see Fig. or equivalently at large distances. The pole in eq. 6. Therefore the λϕ4 theory allows a perturbative expansion only at small mass scales.85) 162 .82) should be valid for large values of λ.4. Of course there are no motivations why eq. To study the behaviour of λ around the ﬁxed point. Going back to the eq. If this happens for a ﬁnite µ we say that we have a Landau pole at that scale. • If β(λ) > 0 for any λ. the coupling constant becomes inﬁnite at the value of µ given by 16π 2 µ = µs e 3λs (6. λ increases with µ. As we shall see this is the situation in QCD.82) we see that.83) which is a very big scale if λs is small.84) (6. than the running coupling is always increasing. however if it would be negative the theory would become perturbative at large mass scales or at small distances. (6. which can be rather described by bound states of quarks as mesons and baryons.1)).states. Suppose that we start with a small λ in such a way that the perturbative expansion is sensible. Let us now discuss several possible scenarios starting from a theory where β = 0 for λ = 0. However increasing µ we will need to add more and more terms to the expansion due to the increasing of λ. The increasing of λ is related to the sign of the β(λ) function. (6.From this expression we see that starting from µ = µs .

4.1). starting from λs > λF the theory would become perturbative at large scales (see Fig.. For this reason λF is referred to as a ultraviolet (UV) ﬁxed point (see Fig.The behaviour of β(λ) giving rise to an ultraviolet ﬁxed point. 6. since the coupling goes to zero for 163 . from which dλ dµ = β (λF ) λ − λF µ Integrating this equation we get λ − λF = λs − λF µ µs β (λF ) (6. 6. Otherwise. The large scale (or small distance) behaviour of a ﬁeld theory of . About this point. In particular if λF 1 and λs < λF we would be always in the perturbative regime.86) (6. notice that λ = 0 is a ﬁxed point since β(0) = 0. β(λ) λS λS λF λS λ Fig.The behaviour of λ close to a UV ﬁxed point.2)). λ λF µS µ Fig. 6. For large values of µ we have that λ → λF independently on the initial value λs .4. this type would be dictated by the value of λF .2 .1 . In the present case the sign is negative since β(λ) > 0 for λ < λF and β(λ) < 0 for λ > λF .87) Notice that the sign of β (λF ) plays here a very important role.4. 6.4. However this is an infrared (IR) ﬁxed point.

suppose β(λ) = −aλ2 with a > 0. ` possibile ricavare. This property is known as ”asymptoyic freedom” and it holds for non-abelian gauge theories that we will describe later on in the course.µ → 0 independently on the initial value λs . Then β (λF ) > 0. but at a smaller scale than µs 1 − µ = e aλs µs Therefore the coupling increases at large distances.91) k=1 bk k ∞ + β(λ) k=1 bk k (6. For instance in d = 6 the theory λϕ3 is asymptotically free.89) (6. By expanding β(λ) around λF we get (by the same analysis we did before) λ − λF = λs − λF µ µs β (λF ) (6. • Let us consider now the case of β(λ) < 0 for small values of λ and decreasing monotonically. We say also that the ﬁxed point is repulsive since λ goes away from the ﬁxed point for increasing µ.3)).90) and we see that λ → λF µ → 0 in a way independent on λs . We diﬀerentiate the eq. (6.88) In this case λ is a decreasing function of µ and goes to zero for µ → ∞ (that is λ = 0 is a UV ﬁxed point). For instance. whereas a UV ﬁxed point is said to be attractive.92) 164 . 6. whereas it goes away from λs for increasing µ. Therefore λF is an IR ﬁxed point (see Fig.4. In higher dimensions other theories enjoy this property. becomes zero at λF and then positive.13) with e respect to µ (notice that in this renormalization scheme b0 = 1) bk ∂λ ∂m 1+ 0 = 2m + m2 k ∂µ ∂µ k=1 from which 0 = 2γm 1 + k=1 ∞ ∞ ∞ bk k (6. • Finally let us consider the case of β(λ) < 0 for small values of λ. Let us now derive the perturbative expressions for γm and γd using the same method followed for β(λ). Integrating the equation for the running coupling we get λ(µ) = λs 1 µ 1 + aλs log µs (6. Notice that also this time the running coupling has a pole. these are the only 4-dimensional theories to share this property.

95) Using the eq.46) 1 dc1 γd = − λ 2 dλ 165 (6..3 . (6. 6.24) for b1 we get for γm λ 5 γm (λ) = − 2 32π 12 λ 16π 2 2 + O(λ3 ) (6.97) ck k ck 1 γd = (A + B ) k 2 k=1 (6. λ λF µS µ Fig. where we have made use of the deﬁnition γm = (µ/m)(∂m/∂µ).93) or (6.4. (6. (6. (6.99) .96) Let us now consider Zϕ (recall that although this quantity is inﬁnite in the limit → 0. γd is ﬁnite).98) Using again the expression for β(λ) (see eq. By diﬀerentiating eq.The behaviour of λ close to an IR ﬁxed point.14) we ﬁnd (c0 = 1) 1 dλ 1 ∂Zϕ = µ Zϕ γ d = µ 2 ∂µ 2 dµ or 1+ k=1 ∞ ∞ ck k k=1 ck 1 = β(λ) k 2 k=1 ∞ ∞ (6. Using eq.46) we ﬁnd 2γm − λ db1 =0 dλ dbk d 2γm bk − 1−λ dλ dλ 1 db1 γm = λ 2 dλ λ db1 dbk bk − dλ dλ 1−λ d dλ a1 − λ dbk+1 =0 dλ a1 − λ dbk+1 dλ (6.94) and (6.

m. λF . In non abelian gauge theories there is a UV ﬁxed point at λ = 0 where γm = 0 and therefore one can neglect the masses at large momenta. (6.105) Therefore. if 1 − γm (λF ) > 0 we can safely neglect the mass on the right hand side of this equation.λ dc1 dck dck+1 = λck − dλ dλ dλ 1−λ d a1 dλ (6.100) At the lowest order. let us study the behaviour of Γ(n) when the theory has a UV ﬁxed point at λ = λF . using eq.104) Then. From this equation we understand also the reason why γd is called the anomalous dimension.59) Γ(n) (spi .106) can be rewritten (using ds/s = dλ/β) λ(s) dλ λ γm (λ ) β(λ ) (6.101) To conclude this Section. (6.103) m(s) = m(1)sγm (λF )−1 Analogously 1 s ds γd (λF ) = γd (λF ) log s s (6. msγm (λF )−1 . for large values of s (see eq.102) s ds we have (6.61)) dm = m(γm (λF ) − 1) (6. barring the case in which γm and β have simultaneous zeroes. λ. To justify why we have assumed that in the evaluation of γm and γd the only important contribution comes from λ = λF we notice that the integral s 1 ds γm (λ(s )) s (6. the integral is dominated by the points where there is a zero of the β function. µ) (6. (6. Then.107) Therefore. µ) → s(4−n−nγd (λF )) Γ(n) (pi . Since for large scales λ → λF we may suppose that γm and γd go to γm (λF ) e γd (λF ) respectively.27) we get γd = 1 12 λ 16π 2 2 + O(λ3 ) (6. 166 . integrating the following equation (see eq.

111) (6. we put β = A + B . the expression (6. obtaining a0 + Ba0 = 0 a1 + Aa0 + Ba1 + At the second order in λ B = −λ 1 + and Aa0 = − 3λ G1 32π 2 1+ 3λ G1 16π 2 −1 (6.2 a mass dependence of the coeﬃcients is introduced.114) Since the right hand side is at least of the second order in λ.12) for the bare coupling ∞ λB = µ a0 + k=1 ak k (6.5) m ∂ m (6. Similar expression can be obtained for γm e γd .5 The coeﬃcients of the renormalization group equations and the renormalization conditions We have already noticed that the coeﬃcients of the renormalization group equations depend on the subtraction procedure. let us consider.112) m (γm − 1)a0 = 0 ˙ µ 3λ G1 32π 2 ≈ −λ 1 − (6. To study better this problem. for generic renormalization conditions. Therefore.108) Diﬀerentiating with respect to µ we ﬁnd ∞ a0 + k=1 ak k ∂λ +µ ∂µ ∞ a0 + k=1 ak k ∂(m/µ) +µ ∂µ ∞ a0 + ˙ k=1 ak ˙ k =0 (6.110) = (γm − 1) µ ∂µ µ µ With a familiar procedure. using the ﬁrst two renormalization conditions considered in Section 6.6. when using subtraction procedure 167 .115) A= 16π 2 µ 32π 2 and for → 0 m 3λ2 ˙ 3λ2 G1 + (6. In particular.116) β= 16π 2 µ 32π 2 We see directly how the β function depends on the subtraction procedure. Notice also that (see eq.113) 3λ2 3λ +λ 1− G1 2 16π 32π 2 3λ m 3λ2 ˙ G1 − (γm − 1) 8π 2 µ 32π 2 (6. neglecting higher order terms we get m 3λ2 ˙ 3λ2 G1 + (6.109) where the dot stands for the derivative with respect to m/µ. (6.

it is convenient to look for solutions in a region of momenta where the masses can be neglected. Of course. m µ = λ + O(λ2 ) (6. It is possible to show that also the sign of the β function is schemeindependent. Therefore the presence of a ﬁxed point does not depend on the scheme used (at least in this approximation).117) Working in a region where we can neglect the mass we have β (λ ) = β(λ)f (λ) (6. For instance we get expressions of the type λ =f Therefore we obtain β =µ ∂λ ∂(m/µ) ˙ m ∂λ =µ f +µ f = βf + (γm − 1)f˙ ∂µ ∂µ ∂µ µ (6. Another possibility is to choose the arbitrary scale µ such that m/µ can be neglected. 168 . changing the renormalization procedure will induce a ﬁnite renormalization in the couplings.118) λ.119) and we see that a ﬁxed point at λ = λF implies a ﬁxed point in λ .such that the coeﬃcients of the renormalization group equations depend explicitly on the masses.

n (7. θi θj . n) satisfying the relations θi θj + θj θi ≡ [θi .3) from eq. · · · .2) Notice that there are no other possible elements since 2 θi = 0 (7. This type of mathematical objects form the so called Grassmann algebras. it could be nice to have such a ”classical” description for fermionic systems. i. since the path integral is strictly related to the classical description of the theory. However. In this theory one introduces anticommuting variables already at the classical level. First of all we recall that an algebra V is nothing but a vector space where it is deﬁned a bilinear mapping V × V → V (the algebra product).Chapter 7 The path integral for Fermi ﬁelds 7.1 Fermionic oscillators and Grassmann algebras The Feynman’s formulation of the path integral can be extended to ﬁeld theories for fermions. A Grassmann algebra Gn is a vector space of dimensions 2n and it can be described in terms of n generators θi (i = 1. θi . the elements constructed by all the possible products among the generators form a basis of Gn : 1. Gn .1). (7. · · · . θi θj θk . θ1 θ2 · · · θn (7. In fact it turns out that it is possible to have a ”classical” (called pseudoclassical) description in a way such that its quantization leads naturally to anticommutation relations. whereas the subset (1) generated by the product of an odd number of generators is the odd part. θj ]+ = 0. Gn . · · · .1) Then. Before proceeding further let us introduce some concepts about these algebras which will turn out useful in the following. The subset of elements of Gn generated by the product of an even (0) number of generators is called the even part of the algebra. j = 1. It follows (0) (1) Gn = Gn ⊕ Gn (7.4) 169 .

and let us try to diagonalize the corresponding annihilation operator a|θ = θ|θ (7. In this case the grading is as follows 1. t = ϕ(x)|ϕ(x).9) Then. except for the fact that these oscillators are of Fermi type. t). then deg(xy) = deg(x)deg(y) (7. Notice that this grading is also consistent with the algebra product. However it can be thought as an odd element of a Grassmann algebra. a† j + = δij (7. If x ∈ Gn . · · · . 2. t this is possible since the ﬁelds commute at equal times [φ(x. t)]− = 0 (7. that is they are described by creation and annihilation operators satisfying the anticommutation relations [ai .6) and as a consequence it is possible to diagonalize simultaneously at ﬁxed time the set of operators φ(x. Therefore it is not possible to deﬁne simultaneous eigenstates of Fermi ﬁelds.7) (7. In the case of ﬁeld theories one takes eigenstates of the ﬁeld operators in the Heisenberg representation φ(x. deg(x) = −1. we will formulate the path integral starting directly from quantum mechanics. deg(x) = +1.5) (1) (0) Since we have no time to enter into the details of the classical mechanics of the Grassmann variables.8) For greater simplicity take the case of a single Fermi oscillator.A decomposition of this kind is called a grading of the vector space.8). since if x. t). t)|ϕ(x). + ai . θn 170 (7. and let us recall that this is nothing but a set of harmonic oscillators. If x ∈ Gn . · · · . For Fermi ﬁelds such a possibility does not arise since they anticommute at equal times. Therefore the eigenvalue θ cannot be an ordinary number. as it foillows from eqs. To gain a better understanding of this point let us stay for the moment with free ﬁelds. θn = θi |θ1 . from a2 = 0. a† i j = 0.10) . y are homogeneous elements of Gn (that is to say even or odd). we must have θ2 = 0. If we have n Fermi oscillators and we require ai |θ1 . (7. aj ]+ = a† . This is true also for Fermi ﬁelds. if it is possible to assign a grade to each element of the subspaces. φ(y. Let us recall that in the Feynman’s formulation one introduces states which are eigenstates of a complete set of observables describing the conﬁguration space of the system.

16) Here we have used the left-derivative on the Gn deﬁned by ∂ θi θi · · · θik = δi1 .12) (7. In this case the equation (7.14) where we have used since θ2 = a2 = 0.10) are meaningful if we identify the eigenvalues θi with the generators of a Grassmann algebra Gn .i θi1 θi3 · · · θik−1 (7.18) In the algebra G2 we can deﬁne normalized eigenstates † |θ = eθa |0 N(θ. We have also (7. The operation ” ” is deﬁned as the complex conjugation on the ordinary numbers and it is an involution (automorphism of the algebra with square one) with the property ∗ ∗ ∗ (θi1 θi2 · · · θik )∗ = θik · · · θi2 θi1 (7. In fact a|θ = a(1 + θa† )|0 = θaa† |0 = θ(1 − a† a)|0 = θ|0 = θ(1 + θa† |0 = θ|θ † eθa = 1 + θa† (7. θn But ai aj = −aj ai and therefore [θi . G2 . θ∗ ) ∈ G2 and the phase is ﬁxed by the convention (0) N ∗ (θ. · · · .15) a† |θ = a† (1 + θa† )|0 = a† |0 = ∂ ∂ (1 + θa† )|0 = |θ ∂θ ∂θ (7. θj ]+ = 0 (7.9) can be solved easily † |θ = eθa |0 (7. Then it is convenient to extend the algebra G1 generated by θ to a comples Grassmann algebra.13) where |0 is the ground state of the oscillator. θ∗ ) 171 (7. θ∗ ) (7. θn ) = θj (ai |θ1 . θn ) = θj θi |θ1 . · · · . generated by θ and θ∗ .we get ai (aj |θ1 . mathematically such an object is called a modulus over the algebra). θ∗ ) = N(θ.17) Suppose we want to deﬁne a scalar product in the vector space of the eigenstates of a (notice that these are vector spaces with coeﬃcients in a Grassmann algebra.iθi1 θi3 · · · θik ∂θi 1 2 + · · · + (−1)k−1 δik . · · · .20) .iθi2 θi3 · · · θik − δi2 .19) where N(θ.11) We see that the equations (7.

we can build up only the 2 eigenstate with eigenvalue 1. θ∗ )(1 + θ∗ θ) = N 2 (θ. since a† |0 = 0. the occupation number operator has eigenvalues 1 and 0.26) (one writes down a as the most general 2 × 2 matrix and then requires a|0 = 0. θ∗ ) 0|(1 + θ∗ a)(1 + θa† )|0 = N 2 (θ. θ∗ ) 0|eθ a eθa |0 = N 2 (θ. 1 0 a† = 0 1 0 0 (7. θ∗ ) 0|eθ a (7. θ∗ )e−θθ (7. θ∗ ) = eθθ /2 Let us recall some simple properties of a Fermi oscillator.30) 172 . a2 = 0 and a. a† + = 1). The state with occupation number equal to 1 is |1 = In this basis the state |θ is given by |θ ∗ † ∗ = eθθ /2 eθa |0 = eθθ /2 (1 + θa† )|0 ∗ ∗ θ = eθθ /2 (|0 + θ|1 ) = eθθ /2 1 ∗ θ| = eθθ /2 [ θ∗ 1 0 (7.27) 0 1 (7.29) whereas 1] (7.23) It follows ∗ N(θ.22) (7.21) the normalization factor N(θ. Therefore the space of the eigenstates of a† a is a two-dimensional space. In fact (a† a)2 = a† aa† a = a† (1 − a† a)a = a† a from which a† a(a† a − 1) = 0 (7. θ∗ ) is determined by the condition ∗ † 1 = θ|θ = N 2 (θ. a† |0 .The corresponding bra will be ∗ θ| = N(θ.25) Starting from the state with zero eigenvalue for a† a. θ∗ ) 0|(1 + θ∗ θaa† )|0 ∗ = N 2 (θ. By deﬁning the ground state as |0 = one sees easily that a= 0 0 .24) (7.28) (7.

35) by requiring dθ · θ = 1. The integral over a generic element of the algebra is then deﬁned by linearity.37) (7.34) (7. dθ]+ = [θ∗ . dθ∗ ]+ = [θ.33) Therefore the integration must satisfy dθ∗ dθ · θθ∗ = 1 dθ∗ dθ · θ = dθ∗ dθ · θ∗ = dθ∗ dθ · 1 = 0 (7. and therefore we would like its eigenstates to satisfy a completeness relation of the previous type. dθ]+ = [θ∗ . To this end we recall that the crucial element in order to derive the path integral formalism from quantum mechanics is the completeness relation for the eigenstates of the position operator dq|q q| = 1 (7.35) These relations determine the integration in a unique way. 173 dθ · 1 = 0 (7. In this space the linear combinations of the vectors are taken with coeﬃcients in G2 (or more generally in G2n ). Let us now come to the deﬁnition of the integral over a Grassmann algebra.30) satisfy 1 0 ≡ 12 (7. since they ﬁx the value of the integral over all the basis elements of G2 .32) dθ∗ dθ|θ θ| = 0 1 where the identity on the right hand side must be the identity on the two-dimensional vector space.34) and (7. (7.36) . to a vector space on a Grassmann algebra (a modulus). dθ∗ ]+ = [θ.29) and (7.We see that in order to introduce eigenstates of the operator a has forced us to generalize the ordinary notion of vector space on the real or on the complex numbers. the previous integration rules can be rewritten as integration rules over the algebra G1 requiring [dθ. Using the explicit representation for the states dθ∗ dθ|θ θ| = = = ∗ dθ∗ dθeθθ ∗ dθ∗ dθeθθ θ 1 θθ∗ θ∗ ( θ∗ θ 1 1) dθ∗ dθ θθ∗ θ∗ θ 1 + θθ∗ = 1 0 0 1 (7. we can reproduce the rules (7. Therefore we will ”deﬁne” the integration over the Grassmann algebra G2 by requiring that the states deﬁned in eqs.31) What we are trying to do here is to think to the operators a as generalized position operators. dθ∗ ]+ = 0 Then.

45) it follows dθn · · · dθ1 f (θ1 .38) ∗ dθi dθi |θ1 . · · · .39) i=1 and integration rules dθi θj = δij Assuming also [dθi . dθj ]+ = 0 (7. in )θi1 · · · θin (7.47) .46) An interesting property of the integration rules for Grassmann variables is the integration by parts formula.in fn (i1 .41) Notice that the measure dθ is translationally invariant. Its generic element can be expanded over the basis elements as f (θ1 . If we integrate f over the algebra Gn only the last element of the expansion gives a non vanishing contribution.42) (7. · · · . Noticing also that for the antisymmetry we have fn (i1 . θn | = 1 (7. θj ]+ = [dθi . · · · .40) 7.···. · · · . In fact if f (θ) = a + bθ and (1) α ∈ G1 dθf (θ) = since’ dθbα = 0 (7. · · · . · · · . θn = e i=1 with n θi a† i e i=1 |0 (7. · · · .44) Of course the coeﬃcients of the expansion are antisymmetric. · · · . n)θ1 · · · θn i1 .i2 )θi1 θi2 +· · · i1 . · · · . θn θ1 . θn ) = 0 ∂θj 174 (7.in (7. in )θi1 · · · θin = n!fn (1. θn ) = f0 + i1 f1 (i1 )θi1 + i1 .···.12 f2 (11 .43) dθf (θ + α) (7. θn ) = n!fn (1.For n Fermi oscillators we get n ∗ θi θi /2 n |θ1 . · · · . This can be seen either by the observation that a derivative destroys a factor θi in each element of the basis and therefore dθn · · · dθ1 ∂ f (θ1 . n) (7.2 Integration over Grassmann variables Let us consider the Grassmann algebra Gn .

56) Therefore the rule for a linear change of variables is dθn · · · dθ1 f (θi ) = dθn · · · dθ1 det−1 ∂θ f (θi (θi )) ∂θ (7.7). In fact. Therefore we require dθi θj = By putting dθi = k (7. (7.either by the property that the integral is invariant under translations (see the previous Section and Section 4. θi θj = cik cjh θk θh = −cik cjh θh θk == −cjh cik θh θk = −θj θi where cij is the inverse of the matrix aij .52) from which bij = (a−1 )ij dθn · · · dθ1 = det|a−1 |dθn · · · dθ1 (7.57) This rule should be compared with the one for commuting variables dx1 · · · dxn f (xi ) = dx1 · · · dxn det 175 ∂x f (xi (xi )) ∂x (7.k dθk bki ajh θh = h.40) must be required to hold in each basis.58) .55) ∂θ and dθn · · · dθ1 = det−1 ∂θ dθn · · · dθ1 ∂θ (7.53) The transformation properties of the measure are (7. We see also that ∂θ det|a| = det (7. For simplicity consider a linear transformation θi = aik θk (7.49) dθi θj = δij (7.51) we obtain dθi θj = h.48) k The eq.k bki ajh δhk = (ab)ij = δij (7. since it can be seen easily that the previous transformation leaves invariant the multiplication rules.54) where we have used the anticommutation properties of dθi among themselves.50) dθk bki (7. Let us now consider the transformation properties of the measure under a change of variable.

Therefore. (7.46) we get contribution to the integral only from the term in the n expansion of the exponential (θ T As θ ) 2 for n even. Then. In the case of n odd we get I = 0 since θ T As θ does not contain θn .61) ⎥ ⎥ · ·⎥ · ·⎦ · · by means of an orthogonal transformation S.64) The expression in the exponent is given by 1 T θ As θ = λ1 θ1 θ2 + · · · + λ n θn−1 θn . As in the commuting case. for n odd 2 2 (7.60) matrix can be reduced to the ⎤ · · · ·⎥ ⎥ · ·⎥ ⎥ · ·⎥ (7.63) (7.66) . the more important integral to be evaluated for the path integral approach is the gaussian one Aij θi θj /2 I= dθn · · · dθ1 e i.59) The matrix A is supposed to be real antisymmetric AT = −A As shown in the Appendix a real and antisymmetric form ⎡ 0 0 · 0 λ1 ⎢ −λ1 0 0 0 · ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 λ2 · ⎢ 0 −λ2 0 · As = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ · · · · · ⎢ ⎣ · · · · · · · · · · (7. for n even 2 2 1 T θ As θ = λ1 θ1 θ2 + · · · + λ n−1 θn−2 θn−1 . for n even I = = dθn · · · dθ1 eθ As θ /2 = T dθn · · · dθ1 ( θ ( n )! 2 2 1 1 T As θ ) 2 n 1 n dθn · · · dθ1 n ( )!λ1 · · · λ n θ1 · · · θn 2 ( )! 2 √2 = λ1 · · · λ n = detA 2 176 (7.65) From eq.j ≡ T dθn · · · dθ1 eθ Aθ/2 (7. let us do the following change of variables (S T )ij θj (7.We see that the Grassmann measure transforms according to the inverse jacobian rather than with the jacobian itself.62) θi = j we get θT Aθ = (S T θ )AS T θ = θ SAS T θ = θ As θ and using det|S| = 1 I= dθn · · · dθ1 eθ As θ /2 T T T (7.

A similar result holds for commuting variables. A can be diagonalized by an orthogonal transformation with the result J= T n 1 dx1 · · · dxn e−x Ad x /2 = (2π) 2 √ detA (7.70) with χi Grassmann variables.72) where we have used the antisymmetry of A and χT θ = −θ T χ. Since the measure is invariant under translations we ﬁnd I(A. let us deﬁne J= T dx1 · · · dxn e−x Ax/2 (7. χ) = T T dθn · · · dθ1 eθ Aθ/2 + χ θ (7.69) Again.71) (7. In fact.68) with A a real and symmetric matrix. the result for fermionic variables is opposite to the result of the commuting case.74) The previous equations can be generalized to complex variables † ∗ ∗ dθ1 dθ1 · · · dθn dθn eθ Aθ = det|A| (7. To evaluate this integral let us put θ = θ + A−1 χ We get 1 T 1 T θ Aθ + χT θ = (θ − χT A−1 )A(θ + A−1 χ) + χT (θ + A−1 χ) 2 2 1 T 1 = θ Aθ + χT A−1 χ 2 2 (7.75) 177 .where we have used det|As | = det|A|. J) = T T T −1 (2π) 2 dx1 · · · dxn e−x Ax/2 + J x = eJ A J/2 √ detA n (7.73) again to be compared with the result for commuting variables I(A. Then √ T dθn · · · dθ1 eθ Aθ/2 = detA (7.67) This result is valid also for n odd since in this case det|A| = 0. χ) = √ T −1 T −1 dθn · · · dθ1 eθ Aθ /2 + χ A χ/2 = eχ A χ/2 detA T (7. Another useful integral is I(A.

t = where and S= t θ ∗ (t )=θ ∗ .77) and putting 1 θ1 = √ (η + η ∗ ). one could start from the ordinary quantum mechanical description and then by using the completeness in terms of Grassmann variable.and † † † † −1 ∗ ∗ dθ1 dθ1 · · · dθn dθn eθ Aθ + χ θ + θ χ = e−χ A χ det|A| (7.t ∗ D(θ. it would be possible to derive the corresponding path integral formulation.83) D(θ. Considering a Fermi oscillator. θ∗ ) dt 2 (7.76) The second of these equations follows from the ﬁrst one as in the real case.79) θ Aθ = −iη ∗ A12 η 2 and recalling that (remember that here one has to use the inverse of the jacobian) dθ2 dθ1 = idηdη ∗ we get T dθ2 dθ1 eθ Aθ/2 = i ∗ dηdη ∗ e−iη A12 η i θ2 = − √ (η − η ∗ ) 2 (7. we will prove the ﬁrst one for the case n = 1. Starting from T dθ2 dθ1 eθ Aθ/2 = A12 (7.3 The path integral for the fermionic theories In this Section we will discuss the path integral formulation for a system described by anticommuting variables.t θ(t)=θ. We will give here only the result of this analysis.80) (7.82) 7. θ∗ )eθ θ(t )/2 + θ (t)θ/2 + iS ∗ (7.78) (7.81) and ∗ dηdη ∗eη (−iA12 )η = −iA12 (7.85) 178 . t |θ. θ∗ ) = t dθdθ∗ (7.84) i ∗ ˙ ˙∗ (θ θ − θ θ) − H(θ. It turns out that the amplitude among eigenstates of the Fermi annihilation operator is given by θ . 2 we get 1 T (7.

and correspondingly the generating functional for the free Dirac theory will be Z[η. In any case. ψ)e ¯ / ¯ [ψ(i∂ − m)ψ + η ψ + ψη] ¯ (7.89) (7. In particular. We know that this is nothing but the Dirac propagator deﬁned by / (i∂ − m)SF (x − y) = δ 4 (x − y) It follows −i Z[η. and in any case do not aﬀect the dependence of the generating functional on the external source.87) where the determinant of the Dirac operator has been included in the term at zero source. We will not insist here further on this discussion.where. It should be noticed the particular boundary conditions for the θ variables originating from the fact that the equations of motion are of the ﬁrst order. The expression is very similar to the one obtained in the commuting case if we realize that the previous formula is the analogue in the phase space using complex coordinates of the type q ± ip. η] = ¯ i ¯ D(ψ.91) Z[0] δ η(x)δη(y) η=¯=0 ¯ η 0|0 SF (x) = lim + The T -product in this expression is the one for the Fermi ﬁelds. 179 1 d4 k e−ikx = lim 4/ −m+i →0+ (2π) k ¯ d4 xd4 y η(x)SF (x − y)η(y) (7. η] = Z[0]e ¯ with k /+m d4 k e−ikx 4 k 2 − m2 + i →0 (2π) (7. for the Fermi oscillator H = θ∗ θ.88) . Using the inte¯ gration formula (7. since at the end we are interested in ﬁeld theory where only the generating functional is relevant and where the boundary conditions are arbitrary (for instance we can take the ﬁelds vanishing at t = ±∞). but all we have done in the bosonic case can be easily generalized for Fermi ﬁelds. Correspondingly we can assign only the coordinates at a particular time.73) we get formally −i 1 −(i¯) η (iη) −i¯ η η / / i∂ − m i∂ − m Z[η.86) where η and η are the external sources (of Grassmann character). The extension to the Fermi ﬁeld is done exactly as we have done in the bosonic case. taking into account that the classical ﬁeld of this case are anticommuting.90) The Green’s functions are obtained by diﬀerentiating the generating functional with respect to the external sources (Grassmann diﬀerentiation). as it follows from the derivation made in the bosonic case. In this expression we have to specify how to take the inverse operator. η] = Z[0]e ¯ = Z[0]e (7. the two point function is given by 1 δZ 1 ¯ 0|T (ψ(x)ψ(y))|0 = iSF (x − y) = (7.

The idea is 180 . This is a so called abelian symmetry since e−iαQ e−iβQ = e−i(α + β)Q = e−iβQ e−iαQ (8.1) If one has more than one ﬁeld. formulated by Weyl in 1929. It looks more physical to require the possibility of assigning the phase in an arbitrary way at each space-time point. For instance. These are transformations leaving invariant the action of the system and are characterized by a certain number of parameters which are independent on the space-time point. This way of thinking is in some sort of contradiction with causality.Chapter 8 The quantization of the gauge ﬁelds 8.3) It is also referred to as a U(1) symmetry. with φ a scalar ﬁeld. without changing the observable quantities. a term as ψ2 ψ1 φ. As a prototype we can consider the free Dirac lagrangian ¯ / L0 = ψ(x)[i∂ − m]ψ(x) which is invariant under the global phase transformation ψ(x) → ψ (x) = e−iQα ψ(x) (8.1) cannot be gauge invariant due to the derivative coming from the kinetic term.2) (8. was called gauge invariance. is invariant by choosing Q(ψ1 ) = Q(φ) = 1. The free lagrangian (8. since it requires to assign the phase of the ﬁelds simultaneously at all space-time points. This invariance.1 QED as a gauge theory Many ﬁeld theories possess global symmetries. Q is a diagonal matrix having as eigenvalues the ¯ charges of the diﬀerent ﬁelds measured in unit e. and Q(ψ2 ) = 2. The physical meaning of this invariance lies in the possibility of assigning the phase to the ﬁelds in an arbitrary way.

∂ν + ieQAν ] = ieQFµν with Fµν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ transforms in the same way Fµν → e−iQα(x) Fµν eiQα(x) = Fµν 181 (8. we need to enlarge the ﬁeld content of the theory. or under the local group U(1).10) .4) implies that under a gauge transformation. by introducing a vector ﬁeld. the covariant derivative undergoes a unitary transformation Dµ → Dµ = e−iQα(x) Dµ eiQα(x) Then. the gauge ﬁeld Aµ .9) is then invariant under gauge transformations. that is Dµ ψ(x) → [Dµ ψ(x)] = e−iQα(x) Dµ ψ(x) In this case the term ¯ ψDµ ψ (8.7) (8. Dν ] = [∂µ + ieQAµ . also the commutator of two covariant derivatives [Dµ .8) (8. To construct the covariant derivative. In order to determine the kinetic term for the vector ﬁeld Aµ we notice that eq. (8. We see also that by requiring local invariance we reproduce the electromagnetic interaction as obtained through the minimal substitution we discussed before.6) 1 = e−iQα(x) ∂µ + ieQ(Aµ − ∂µ α) ψ e from which The lagrangian density ¯ / ¯ ¯ Lψ = ψ[iD − m]ψ = ψ[iγ µ (∂µ + ieQAµ ) − m)ψ = L0 − eψQγ µ ψAµ 1 Aµ = Aµ + ∂µ α e (8. in the following way Dµ = ∂µ + ieQAµ The transformation law of Aµ is obtained from eq.4) [(∂µ + ieQAµ )ψ] = (∂µ + ieQAµ )ψ (x) = (∂ + ieQA )e−iQα(x) ψ µ µ (8.4) (8.13) (8.11) (8.5) will be invariant as the mass term under the local phase transformation.simply to generalize the derivative ∂µ to a so called covariant derivative Dµ having the property that Dµ ψ transforms as ψ. (8.12) (8.

2 Non-abelian gauge theories The approach of the previous section can be easily extended to local non-abelian symmetries. U ∈G (8.20) 182 . T B ] = ifC T C (8.15) ∂ψ. Also. eliminating the inﬁnitesimal parameter α. We notice also that gauge invariance prevents any mass term. Denoting by U the generic element of G. since the 2 local invariance implies the global ones. 1 M 2 Aµ Aµ . by using the Noether’s theorem we ﬁnd the conserved current as ∂L ¯ jµ = δψ = ψγµ (Qα)ψ (8. In a more general situation the actual symmetry could be a subgroup of U(N). The free lagrangian N L0 = a=1 ¯ / ψa (i∂ − m)ψa (8. when the masses are not all equal.14) The gauge principle has automatically generated an interaction between the gauge ﬁeld and the charged ﬁeld. (that is the vector space spanned by the inﬁnitesimal generators of the group) in the fermion representation. Therefore. in general.18) where A is a unitary N × N matrix. we will write the corresponding matrix Uab acting upon the ﬁelds ψa as A U = e−iαA T .16) 8.µ from which.The last equality follows from the commutativity of Fµν with the phase factor. We will consider the case of N Dirac ﬁelds. So we will consider here the gauging of a subgroup G of U(N). ¯ Jµ = ψγµ Qψ (8. to some reducible representation of G. For instance. the photon ﬁeld is massless. The complete lagrangian density is then 1 ¯ L = Lψ + LA = ψ[iγ µ (∂µ + ieQAµ ) − m]ψ − Fµν F µν 4 (8. The generators T A satisfy the algebra AB [T A . The ﬁelds ψa (x) will belong.17) is invariant under the global transformation Ψ(x) → Ψ (x) = AΨ(x) (8. Lie(G).19) where T A denote the generators of the Lie algebra associated to G. and we have denoted by Ψ the column vector with components ψa .

26) (8.26) implies Dµ Ψ → (∂µ + igBµ )U(x)Ψ = U(x)∂µ Ψ + U(x)[U −1 (x)igBµ U(x)]Ψ + (∂µ U(x))Ψ = U(x)[∂µ + U −1 (x)igBµ U(x) + U −1 (x)∂µ U(x)]Ψ therefore and U −1 (x)igBµ U(x) + U −1 (x)∂µ U(x) = igBµ i Bµ (x) = U(x)Bµ (x)U −1 (x) + (∂µ U(x))U −1 (x) g 183 (8. and we take the fermions in the fundamental representation. Ψ= we have ψ1 ψ2 (8. if G = SU(2). (8. that now the group does not need to be abelian. 2.19).22) 2 where σ A are the Pauli matrices.21) σA .24) Notice. A = 1.25) Let us now proceed to the case of the local symmetry by deﬁning again the concept of covariant derivative Dµ Ψ(x) → [Dµ Ψ(x)] = U(x)[Dµ ψ(x)] We will put again Dµ = ∂µ + igBµ where Bµ is a N × N matrix acting upon Ψ(x).AB where fC are the structure constants of Lie(G).27) (8.30) (8. 3 (8.31) . For instance. In components µ Dab = δab ∂ µ + ig(B µ )ab (8.28) The eq. and therefore. In the general case the T A ’s are N × N hermitian matrices that we will choose normalized in such a way that TA = 1 T r(T A T B ) = δ AB 2 (8.29) (8. means to promote the parameters αA to space-time functions αA → αA (x) (8.23) To make local the transformation (8. in general A A A A e−iαA T e−iβA T = e−iβA T e−iαA T (8.

Bν ] in components µν F µν = FC T C (8.35) (8. since it does not commute with the gauge transformation as in the abelian case Fµν = U(x)Fµν U −1 (x) The invariant kinetic term will be assumed as 1 LA = − T r[Fµν F µν ] 2 Let us now evaluate Fµν igFµν = [Dµ .42) 184 . Bµ (x)] + (∂µ αA (x))T A g (8.36) in virtue of the eq.26). (8.For an inﬁnitesimal transformation U(x) ≈ 1 − iαA (x)T A we get 1 δBµ (x) = −iαA (x)[T A . that is ([Dµ .38) (8. Bν ] or Fµν = (∂µ Bν − ∂ν Bµ ) + ig[Bµ .40) (8. In fact the quantity [Dµ . transforms as Ψ under gauge transformations.41) (8. The kinetic term for the gauge ﬁelds is constructed as in the abelian case.33) (8. Dν ]Ψ) = U(x) (igFµν ) Ψ (8. Dν ]Ψ ≡ igFµν Ψ (8.39) (8. ∂ν + igBν ] = ig(∂µ Bν − ∂ν Bµ ) − g 2 [Bµ .37) This time the tensor Fµν is not invariant but transforms homogeneously. that is (B µ )ab ≡ Aµ (T A )ab A The transformation law for Aµ becomes 1 AB δAµ = fC αA Aµ + ∂ µ αC C B g (8. Dν ]Ψ) = igFµν Ψ = igFµν U(x)Ψ = U(x)([Dµ . Dν ] = [∂µ + igBµ .32) Since Bµ (x) acquires a term proportional to T A . the transformation law is consistent with a Bµ linear in the generators of the Lie algebra.34) The diﬀerence with respect to the abelian case is that the ﬁeld undergoes also a homogeneous transformation.

with

µν AB FC = ∂ µ Aν − ∂ ν Aµ − gfC Aµ Aν C C A B

(8.43)

The main feature of the non-abelian gauge theories is the bilinear term in the preAB vious expression. Such a term comes because fC = 0, expressing the fact that G is not abelian. The kinetic term for the gauge ﬁeld, expressed in components, is given by 1 µν FµνA FA (8.44) LA = − 4 A Therefore, whereas in the abelian case LA is a free lagrangian (it contains only quadratic terms), now it contains interaction terms cubic and quartic in the ﬁelds. The physical motivation lies in the fact that the gauge ﬁelds couple to everything which transforms in a non trivial way under the gauge group. Therefore they couple also to themselves (remember the homogeneous piece of transformation). To derive the equations of motion for the gauge ﬁelds, let us consider the total action ¯ / ¯ d4 x Ψ(i∂ − m)Ψ − g Ψγµ B µ Ψ + SA (8.45)

V

where SA = − and the variation of SA

1 2

d4 x T r(Fµν F µν )

V

(8.46)

δSA = −

V

d4 xT r(Fµν δF µν )

(8.47)

Using the deﬁnition (8.41) for the ﬁeld strength we get δFµν = ∂µ δBν + ig(δBµ )Bν + igBµ δ(Bν ) − (µ ↔ ν) from which δSA = −2

V

(8.48)

d4 xT r[F µν (∂µ δBν + ig(δBµ )Bν + igBµ (δBν ))]

(8.49)

**where we have taken into account the antisymmetry properties of Fµν . Integrating by parts we obtain δSA = −2
**

V

d4 xT r[−(∂µ F µν )δBν − igBµ F µν δBν + igF µν Bµ δBν ] d4 xT r [(∂µ F µν + ig[Bµ , F µν ]) δBν ]

= 2

V

=

V

d4 x (∂µ F µν + ig[Bµ , F µν ])A δAνA

(8.50)

185

where we used the cyclic property of the trace. By taking into account also the free term for the Dirac ﬁelds and the interaction we ﬁnd the equations of motion ¯ ∂µ F µνA + ig[Bµ , F µν ]A = g Ψγ ν T A Ψ / (i∂ − m)Ψ = gγµ B µ Ψ

(8.51)

¯ From the ﬁrst equation we see that the currents Ψγµ T A Ψ are not conserved. In fact the conserved currents turn out to be

A ¯ Jν = Ψγν T A Ψ − i[B µ , Fµν ]A

(8.52)

The reason is that under a global transformation of the symmetry group, the gauge ﬁelds are not invariant, said in diﬀerent words they are charged ﬁelds with respect to the gauge ﬁelds. In fact we can verify immediately that the previous currents are precisely the Noether’s currents. Under a global variation we have

AB δAµ = fC αA Aµ , C B

δΨ = −iαA T A Ψ

(8.53)

**and we get jµ = from which
**

µν AB ¯ j µ = Ψγ µ αA T A Ψ − FC fC αA AνB

∂L ∂L δΨ + δAνC ∂Ψ,µ ∂Aν,µ C

(8.54)

(8.55)

AB In the case of simple compact Lie groups one can deﬁne f ABC = fC with the property f ABC = f BCA . It follows µν FC f ABC AνB T A = i[B ν , Fνµ ] ≡ i[B ν , Fνµ ]A T A

(8.56) (8.57)

Therefore ¯ j µ = Ψγ µ αA T A Ψ − i[Bν , F νµ ]A αA After division by αA we get the Noether’s currents (8.52). The contribution of the gauge ﬁelds to the currents is also crucial in order they are conserved quantities. In fact, the divergence of the fermionic contribution is given by ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ µ (Ψγµ T A Ψ) = −ig Ψγµ T A B µ Ψ + ig Ψγµ B µ T A Ψ = −ig Ψγµ [T A , B µ ]Ψ (8.58)

which vanishes for abelian gauge ﬁelds, whereas it is compensated by the gauge ﬁelds contribution in the non abelian case.

8.3

Path integral quantization of the gauge theories

As we have seen at the beginning of this course that the quantization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is far from being trivial, the diﬃculties being related to the gauge 186

invariance of the theory. In this Section we would like to discuss how these diﬃculties arise also in the path integral quantization. To this end let us recall the general scheme of ﬁeld quantization in this approach. First of all we will deal only with the perturbative approach, meaning that the only thing that one needs to evaluate is the generating functional for the free case. The free case is deﬁned by the quadratic part of the action. Therefore the evaluation of the path integral reduces to calculate a Gaussian integral of the type given in eqs. (7.73) and (7.73) for the fermionic and bosonic case respectively. For instance, in the bosonic case one evaluates I(A; J) =

T T T −1 (2π) 2 dx1 · · · dxn e−x Ax/2 + J x = eJ A J/2 √ detA

n

(8.59)

In our case the operator A appearing in the gaussian factor is nothing but the wave operator. The result of the integration is meaningful only if the operator A is nonsingular (it needs to have an inverse) otherwise the integral is not well deﬁned. This is precisely the point where we run into problems in the case of a gauge theory. Remember from eq. (1.132) that the wave operator for the electromagnetic ﬁeld in momentum space is given by (−k 2 g µν + k µ k ν )Aν (k) = 0 We see that the operator has a null eigenvector kν , since (−k 2 g µν + k µ k ν )kν = 0 (8.61) (8.60)

and therefore it is a singular operator. This is strictly related to the gauge invariance, which in momentum space reads Aµ (k) → Aµ (k) + kµ Λ(k) (8.62)

In fact, we see that the equations of motion are invariant under a gauge transformation precisely because the wave operator has kµ as a null eigenvector. Another way of seeing this problem is the following: in order to get physical results, as to evaluate S matrix elements, it is necessary to integrate over gauge-invariant functionals D(Aµ )F [Aµ ]eiS (8.63)

with F [Aµ ] = F [AΩ ] (here AΩ is the gauge transformed of Aµ ). But being the action µ µ and the functional F gauge invariant, it follows that the integrand is invariant along the gauge group orbits. The gauge group orbits are deﬁned as the set of points, in the ﬁeld space, which can be reached by a given Aµ via a gauge transformation. In other words, given Aµ , its orbit is given by all the ﬁelds AΩ obtained by varying the µ parameters of the gauge group (that is varying Ω), see Fig. 8.3.1. For instance, in the abelian case AΩ = Aµ + ∂µ Ω (8.64) µ 187

.

AΩ µ Aµ Ω A'µ A'µ

Fig. 8.3.1 - The orbits of the gauge group in the ﬁeld space. Since the orbits deﬁne equivalence classes (or cosets) we can imagine the ﬁeld space as the set of all the orbits. Correspondingly we can divide our functional integral in a part parallel and in one perpendicular to the orbits. Then, the reason why our functional integral is not well deﬁned depends from the fact that the integrand along the space parallel to the orbits is inﬁnite (the integrand being gauge invariant does not depend on the corresponding variables). However this observation suggests a simple solution to our problem. We could deﬁne the integral by dividing it by the integral along the part parallel to the orbit (notice that is the same as the volume of the gauge group). In order to gain a clear understanding of this problem let us consider the following very simple example in two dimensions

+∞

Z=

−∞

1 − a2 (x − y)2 dxdye 2

(8.65)

This is as reducing the space-time two two points with x and y the possible values of the ﬁeld in those points. At the same time the exponent can be seen as an euclidean action with the (gauge) symmetry xΩ = x + Ω, yΩ = y + Ω (8.66)

The integral (8.65) is inﬁnite due to this invariance. In fact this implies that the integrand depends only on x − y, and therefore the integration over the remaining variable gives rise to an inﬁnite result. In order to proceed along the lines we have described above, let us partition the space of the ﬁeld, that is the two-dimensional space (x, y) in the gauge group orbits. Given a point (x0 , y0), the group orbit is given by the set of points (xΩ = x + Ω, y Ω = y + Ω) corresponding to the line x − y = x0 − y0 , as shown in Fig. 8.3.2 We can perform the integral by integrating 188

.

y

(x Ω, y Ω)

(x 0 , y 0) x

f(x,y) = 0 x+y=c

Fig. 8.3.2 - The ﬁeld space (x, y) partitioned in the orbits of the gauge group. We show also the line x + y = c and the arbitrary line f (x, y) = 0 (dashed). along the perpendicular space, the line x + y = c (c is a constant), and then along the parallel space. It is this last integral which gives a divergent result, since we are adding up the same contribution an inﬁnite number of times. therefore the obvious way to do is to introduce as integration variables x − y and x + y, integrating only on x − y. Or, said in a diﬀerent way, perform both integrals and dividing up by the integral over x + y, which cancels the divergence at the numerator. This can be done in a more systematic way by using the following identity

+∞

1=

−∞

dΩδ

1 (x + y) + Ω 2

(8.67)

Then we multiply Z per by this factor obtaining ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 2 − a (x − y) 1 ⎦ (x + y) + Ω e 2 Z = dΩ ⎣ dxdyδ 2

(8.68)

The integral inside the parenthesis is what we are looking for since it is evaluated along the line x+y = constant. Of course the result should not depend on the choice of this constant (it corresponds to translate the integration line in a way parallel to the orbits). In fact, by doing the change of variables x → x + Ω, y →y+Ω (8.69)

189

77) .72) 1 − a2 (x − y)2 1 (x + y) e 2 2 dxdyδ (8.76) and changing the integration variable Ω → Ω + Ω 1 = ∆f (x + Ω . y) is gauge invariant. Of course we would get the same result integrating over any other line (or surface in the general case) having the property of intersecting each orbit only once.74) In the previous case we had f (x. In fact by the transformation x → x + Ω . 8.74) we get ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 2 − a (x − y) ⎦ Z = dΩ ⎣ dxdy∆f (x. y + Ω + Ω )] (8. which in the present case is isomorphic to R1 ). Multiplying Z by the expression (8. y + Ω ) 190 dΩδ [f (x + Ω. y) = 0 (8.67) we consider the following identity.75) Let us show that ∆f (x.73) Then. y Ω ) = ∆f (x.we get Z= ⎡ dΩ ⎣ dxdyδ ⎤ 1 − a2 (x − y)2 1 ⎦ (x + y) e 2 2 (8. (8. y Ω ) = (x + y)/2 + Ω = 0. y) dΩδ f (xΩ . Then. For instance.2) f (x. y) 1 = ∆f (x. y → y + Ω we obtain 1 = ∆f (x + Ω . y + Ω)] (8.71) In this way the integral is deﬁned by integrating over the particular surface x+y = 0. y + Ω)] (8. y) = 1. proceeding as in eq. we deﬁne our integral as Z = Z = VG with VG = dΩ (8. y) = (x + y)/2 = 0 giving rise to f (xΩ . y) dΩδ [f (x + Ω. from which ∆f (x.70) As promised the inﬁnite factor is now factorized out and we see also clearly that this nothing but the volume of the gauge group (Ω parameterize the gauge group. y + Ω)] e 2 (8. let us choose the line (see Fig. y)δ [f (x + Ω.3. which allows us to deﬁne a gauge invariant function ∆f (x. y + Ω ) dΩδ [f (x + Ω + Ω .

Therefore we can write δ[f (xΩ . and the solution we have given here solves also the problem of the singularity of A. (8. y)δ [f (x. y) = ∆f (x + Ω . y) = (x + y)/2. y) appears multiplied by δ[f (x.82) ∂Ω Ω=0 where f Ω = f (xΩ . As a consequence. we need to know ∆f only at points very close at the surface f (x. y Ω )] = 1 ∂f ∂Ω Ω Ω=0 δ[Ω] (8. y)δ [f (x. since by hypothesis the surface f (x. As a last remark.75) does not depend on Ω (that is is gauge invariant). integrating over x − y only. Clearly ∆f represents the answer of the gauge ﬁxing f = 0 to an inﬁnitesimal gauge transformation. y) crosses the gauge orbits only once. notice that our original integral can be written as ∆f (x.84) a singular matrix.79) Z = dΩ ⎣ dxdy∆f (x. y) = Z= with A = a2 1 − xi Aij xj d xe 2 2 (8. y) (called the Faddeev-Popov determinant) can be calculated directly from its deﬁnition. the equation f (xΩ . y Ω ) = 0 has the only solution Ω = 0. y)] e 2 (8. means to integrate only on the eigenvectors of A corresponding to non zero eigenvalues. y)] e 2 and deﬁne Z = Z = VG 1 − a2 (x − y)2 dxdy∆f (x. (8.81) giving rise to ∂f Ω (8. In fact. This can be shown exactly as we did before in the case f (x. y + Ω ) (8. 191 .80) The function ∆f (x. To this end notice that in (8. Therefore we can again factorize the integration over Ω.74) gives ∆f (x. y Ω ). ∆f (x. being the sum of inﬁnite gauge copies ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 2 − a (x − y) ⎦ (8. y) = 0. As we have already noticed the singularity of A is related to the gauge invariance.79). But in this case. y)].Comparison with eq.78) The integral inside the parenthesis in eq.83) 1 −1 −1 1 (8.

therefore it is enough to know the measure around the identity of the gauge group. We can see that ∆f is a gauge invariant functional.86) around fB (Aµ ) = 0. is given by dµ(Ω) = A. In such a case the transformation Ω can be written as Ω ≈ 1 + iαA (x)T A Since at the ﬁrst order in the group parameters ΩΩ ≈ 1 + i(αA + αA )T A (8. To write down the analogue of equation (8.87) we see that the invariant measure of the group. B B = 1.92) having the usual properties extended to the functional case. · · · .Since the solution we have found to our problem is of geometrical type.91) (8.85) where n is the number of parameters of LieG. around the identity. We start by choosing a surface in the gauge ﬁeld space given by fB (Aµ ) = 0. We have seen that we are interested in the solutions of fB (AΩ ) = 0 µ (8. since ∆−1 [AΩ µ f −1 ]= dµ(Ω)δ[fA (A(Ω µ −1 Ω) ] (8.94) . n (8. Also.74) we need also a measure on the gauge group. abelian or not.93) and changing variables Ω Ω = Ω we get ∆−1 (aΩ µ f −1 )= dµ(Ω Ω )δ[fA (AΩ )] = µ 192 dµ(Ω)δ[fA (AΩ )] µ (8.90) In this expression we have introduced a functional delta-function. This can be obtained as follows. this surface should intersect the gauge orbits only once.88) (8. deﬁned by the identity 1= dµ(Ω)δ[Ω] (8.74) 1 = ∆f [Aµ ] dµ(Ω)δ[fA (AΩ )] µ (8.x dαA (x) (8.89) It follows that for inﬁnitesimal transformations dµ(ΩΩ ) = dµ(Ω Ω) = dµ(Ω) next we deﬁne the Faddeev-Popov determinant as in (8. it is very easy to generalize it to the case of a gauge ﬁeld theory.

102) . and the inhomogeneous part gives rise to a translation. Then by performing the change of variables Aµ → AΩ . we get ⎡ ⎤ 4 i LA d x ⎢ ⎥ δ[fA (Aµ )]∆f [Aµ ]⎦ Z = dµ(Ω) ⎣ D(Aµ )e (8. and µ using the gauge invariance of D(Aµ ). the Faddeev-Popov determinant δf [Aµ ] is the answer of the gauge-ﬁxing to an inﬁnitesimal gauge transformation. therefore δ[fA (AΩ )] µ from which ∆f [Aµ ] = det δfA (AΩ ) µ δαB (8. Since in the following F will not play any particular role we will discuss only the case F = 1.Consider now the naive path integral Z= i D(Aµ )F [Aµ ]e LA d4 x (8.101) αA =0 = det −1 δfA (AΩ ) µ δαB αA =0 δ[αA ] (8.91) ⎡ ⎤ Z= ⎢ dµ(Ω) ⎣ i D(Aµ )e LA d4 x ⎥ δ[fA (AΩ )]∆f [Aµ ]⎦ µ (8.96) The functional measure is invariant under gauge transformations i Aµ → ΩAµ Ω−1 + (∂µ Ω)Ω−1 g (8.100) Once again. we deﬁne the functional integral as Z = Z→ VG Z = dµ(Ω) i D(Aµ )e LA d4 x δ[fA (Aµ )]∆f [Aµ ] (8.97) since the homogeneous part has determinant one.99) The evaluation of ∆f goes as before.98) Again. Since in the previous equation it appears multiplied by δ[fA (Aµ )].95) where F is a gauge invariant functional. We multiply Z by the identity (8. The ﬁnal expression that we get for Z is Z= δfA (AΩ ) µ D(Aµ )δ[fA (Aµ )]det δαB 193 i e αA =0 LA d4 x (8. the only solution of fA (AΩ ) = 0 in this neighborhood is µ Ω = 1. but all the following considerations are valid for an arbitrary gauge invariant F . or αA = 0. LA and ∆f [Aµ ].

we get µ 0|T ∗(F [A])|0 f1 = = dµ(Ω) dµ(Ω) −1 Ω−1 D(Aµ )δ[f1 ]∆f1 eiS F [AΩ ]δ[f2 ]∆f2 Ω D(Aµ )eiS δ[f2 ]∆f2 δ[f1 ]∆f1 F [AΩ ] (8.103) where the index f speciﬁes the gauge in which we evaluate the v.105) Ω where we have used eq.106) where in the second line we have made a further change of variables Ω → Ω−1 and used the invariance of dµ(Ω). For the purpose of building up the perturbative theory it is convenient to write the integrand of eq.107) This is the relation we were looking for.109) in the form exp(iSeﬀ ). We will prove this result by showing the relation between the v. does not depend on the gauge ﬁxing fA = 0. that is: if F [A] is a gauge invariant functional F [AΩ ] = F [A] (8. If F is gauge invariant we get at once 0|T ∗(F [A])|0 f1 = 0|T ∗ (F [A])|0 f2 (8.’s of gauge invariant quantities. Then 0|T ∗(F [A])|0 f1 = Ω dµ(Ω) 0|T ∗(δ[f1 ]∆f1 F [AΩ ])|0 f2 (8.This expression gives the right measure to be used in the path integral quantization of the gauge ﬁelds.v. Consider the identity 0|T ∗(F [A])|0 f1 = D(Aµ )δ[f1 ]∆f1 eiS F [A] Ω dµ(Ω)δ[f2 ]∆f2 (8.) of a gauge ﬁeld functional will be deﬁned as 0|T ∗ (F [A])|0 f = D(Aµ )δ[f ]∆f eiS F [A] (8.e. we can prove an important result. since it is built up in terms of the correct functional measure.91)and deﬁned f2 [A] ≡ f2 [AΩ ]. By change of variable Aµ → AΩ .v.e.104) than its v. but in terms of which we can easily construct the v. of F . (8.109) which is not gauge invariant.e.108) For the following we will deﬁne a generating functional A Zf [ηµ ] = i D(Aµ )δ[f ]∆f eiS e A d4 xηµ Aµ A (8.v. About this point. the vacuum expectation value (v. In particular.e.e.v. where Seﬀ is an eﬀective action 194 .’s of F [A] in due diﬀerent gauges.v. (8.

(8.v. with BA (x) a set of arbitrary functions independent on the gauge ﬁelds.e.107) is 0|T ∗(F [A])|0 f1 = Ω dµ(Ω) 0|T ∗(∆f1 eiSf1 F [AΩ ])|0 f2 (8.115) we ﬁnd the analogue of eq. more conveniently by choosing the gauge condition in the form fA (A) − BA (x) = 0. As far as δ[f ] it is concerned. We will discuss later the exponentiation of ∆f . or.e.95)we can show as before that the gauge volume factor factorizes. we can exponentiate it by using its Fourier representation.111) We can further multiply this identity by the following expression which does not depend on the gauge ﬁelds i − 2β D(B)e d4 x A 2 BA (x) constant = We get (8.116) showing again that the v.113) Multiplying this expression by the functional (8. for the corresponding operator. allowing us to deﬁne a class of generating functionals i D(Aµ )∆f [A]e d4 x(LA − 1 2β (fA )2 ) i e A d4 xηµ Aµ A A Zβ [ηµ ] = A (8.112) constant = ∆f [A] i − 2β dµ(Ω)D(B)e i − 2β dµ(Ω)e d4 x d4 x A Ω (fA (x))2 δ(fA − BA ) Ω (fA (x))2 A = ∆f [A] (8. deﬁning Sf = − 1 2β d4 x A (fA (x))2 (8. 195 .taking into account the gauge ﬁxing f = 0 and the Faddeev-Popov determinant.v. a gauge invariant functional gives rise to a gauge invariant v. Then ∆(f −B) [A] = det and therefore 1 = ∆f [A] Ω dµ(Ω)δ[fA − BA ] δ(fA [AΩ ] − BA ) δαB = det αA =0 δfA [AΩ ] δαB αA =0 = ∆f [A] (8.114) Finally.110) (8.

ηµ ] = N Writing SA = − 1 4 Fµν F µν d4 x = 1 2 196 d4 x Aµ (g µν − ∂ µ ∂ ν )Aν (8.126) i ¯ D(ψ.118) (8. η.4 Path integral quantization of QED Let us now discuss the path integral quantization of QED in a covariant gauge.125) .123) We extract the interaction term in the usual way −ie Z[η.8.117) (8. which is given by i ¯ D(ψ.120) 1 α(x) e 4 (8. ηµ ] = N ¯ ¯ [¯ψ + ψη + ηµ Aµ ]d4 x η (8.119) (8. ψ)D(Aµ )e d4 xL0 i δ[∂µ A ]e µ d4 x − 1 δ i δη γµ 1 δ i δη µ 1 δ i δ η Z [η.124) ¯ [¯ψ + ψη + ηµ Aµ ]d4 x η (8. ηµ ] = e ¯ with ¯ Z0 [η.121) 1 e xδ (x − y) (8. ψ)D(Aµ )e d4 xL i δ[∂µ A ]e µ Z[η. η ] ¯ ¯ µ 0 (8. η. η. η. We start from the lagrangian 1 ¯ L = ψ [iγ µ (∂µ + ieAµ ) − m] ψ − Fµν F µν 4 with Fµν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ invariant under ψ(x) → ψ (x) = e−ieα(x) ψ(x) 1 Aµ (x) → Aµ (x) = Aµ (x) + ∂µ α(x) e The Lorentz gauge is deﬁned by f (Aµ ) = ∂ µ Aµ (x) = 0 and f (AΩ ) = ∂ µ Aµ (x) + µ with δf (AΩ ) µ δα(y) = α=0 (8.122) Then the Faddeev-Popov determinant turns out to be ﬁeld-independent and it can be absorbed into the normalization of the generating functional.

we can rewrite the integral over C(x) as −i C D(C)e 1 ∂µ η µ + i CC 2 (8. η.129) i x. ηµ ] = e−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) 1 i(ηµ (x) − ∂µ C(x)) 2 ·N D(C)e (8. ηµ ] = e−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) i Aµ (x) Aµ (x) i η (x)Aµ (x) µ 2 (8.127) ·N D(Aµ )δ[∂µ A ]e e µ Then we exponentiate the δ[∂µ Aµ ] through its Fourier transform δ[∂µ Aµ ] = µ D(C)ei C(x)∂µ A (x) = µ D(C)e−i ∂µ C(x)A (x) (8. ηµ ] = e−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) ¯ 1 i Aµ (x) Aµ (x) + (ηµ (x) − ∂µ C(x))Aµ (x) ·N D(Aµ )D(C)e 2 Doing the gaussian integral over Aµ we get ¯ ¯ Z0 [η. η. ηµ ] = Z[0]e−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) e 2 197 gµν − ∂µ ∂ν 2 − ∂µ η i µ (+i) − ∂ν η i ν i µ ∂µ ∂ν ν η η 2 = e2 (8.128) obtaining the following expression for Z0 ¯ Z0 [η. η.using δ[∂µ Aµ ] and integrating over the Fermi ﬁelds we get ¯ ¯ Z0 [η.132) ην (8.133) .131) and doing again this gaussian integral we ﬁnd 1 e2 The ﬁnal result is i − ηµ ¯ ¯ Z0 [η. η .y i(η µ (y) − ∂ µ C(y)) i 1 − ηµ η µ ¯ = e−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) e 2 1 i 1 i ∂µ C η µ − ∂µ C ∂ µ C 2 · D(C)e After integrating by parts.130) (8.

114) i ¯ D(ψ.3. In fact we can write d4 xL = 1 2 d4 xAµ gµν − (1 − 1 )∂µ ∂ν Aν β (8. η. that is it satisﬁes the Lorentz condition ∂ µ Gµν (x) = 0 (8. Of course. η.139) In this case the only eﬀect of the gauge ﬁxing is to change the lagrangian L to L = L − (∂µ Aµ )2 /(2β).138) Of course. ηµ ] = Z[0]e The photon propagator in this gauge is given by 1 0|T (Aµ(x)Aν (x))|0 = iGµν (x − y) 0|0 (8. ηµ ] = N ¯ · e ¯ ¯ d4 x η ψ + ψη + ηµ Aµ (8.5. the additional term in the propagator proportional to kµ kν does not aﬀect the physics since the photon is coupled to a conserved current. η.136) (8.137) The Feynman’s rules in this gauge are the same discussed in Section 1. except for th photon propagator which is −i k2 kµ kν gµν − 2 +i (k + i )2 (8.135) Notice that this propagator is transverse. We can perform an analogous calculation but using the gauge ﬁxing in the form f − B discussed at the end of the previous Section. ψ)D(Aµ )e d4 x L − 1 (∂µ Aµ )2 2β Zβ [η.140) Therefore we have to evaluate the functional integral ¯ Z0 [η.Introducing the function Gµν = lim + →0 d4 k kµ kν gµν + 2 − 2 e−ikx 4 (2π) k +i (k + i )2 (8. that is using the generating functional (8.141) 198 .134) we write i µ ν −i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y)e− 2 η (x)Gµν (x − y)η (y) ¯ ¯ Z0 [η. the addition of this term removes the problem of the singular wave operator. ηµ ] = Ne−i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) ¯ i D(Aµ )e d4 x 1 µ A Kµν Aν + ηµ Aµ 2 (8.

Solving these equations Gµν (k) = − gµν kµ kν + (1 − β) 4 2 k k (8. In this case Gµν (x) = −gµν ∆F (x.143) (8. ηµ ] = Z[0]e where ρ Kµν Gνρ (x) = δµ δ 4 (x) (8.149) β−1 1 A − Bk 2 = 0 β β (8.142) i µν ν −i η (x)SF (x − y)η(y) e− 2 ηµ (x)G (x − y)η (y) ¯ ¯ Zβ [η.144) We can see that Kµν is non singular for β = ∞. (8.with Kµν = gµν obtaining − β−1 ∂µ ∂ν β (8.145) β−1 ρ kµ kν Gνρ (k) = δν β (8.144) gives d4 k (2π)4 or −gµν k 2 + −gµν k 2 + β−1 ρ kµ kν Gνρ (k)e−ikx = δµ β d4 k −ikx e (2π)4 (8. In fact for β → 0 i − lim e 2β d4 x(∂µ Aµ )2 → δ[∂µ Aµ ] β→0 (8.148) The singularities are deﬁned by the usual i term. Going to momentum space. eq. η. and we get Gµν (x) = lim + →0 d4 k gµν kµ kν − 2 e−ikx + (1 − β) 2 4 (2π) k +i (k + i )2 (8. m2 = 0) (8.152) 199 .3 is β = 1.147) with the coeﬃcients such that −Ak 2 = 1.5.151) The choice corresponding to the quantization made in Section 1.150) The discussion made at the beginning of this Section corresponds to β = 0 (the so called Landau gauge).146) This can be solved by writing the most general second rank symmetric tensor function of kµ Gµν (k) = Agµν + Bkµ kν (8.

it contains three-linear and fourlinear interaction terms and furthermore the Faddeev-Popov determinant typically depends on the gauge ﬁelds. As we see the parameter β selects diﬀerent covariant gauges. Separating the lagrangian in the quadratic part plus the rest. and as a consequence the β dependent part of the propagator. since the fermionic coupling is completely analogue to the abelian case.154) d4 xLA and i D(Aµ )e d4 x LA − (2) (I) Z0 [ηµ ] = N 1 2β (∂µ Aµ )2 A A i e µ d4 xηA AA µ ∆f [Aµ ] (8. Therefore we need further contributions in order to cancel the β dependent terms.153) A where LA and LA are the quadratic and the interacting part respectively. being proportional to kµ kν does not contribute. The interaction terms can be extracted by the functional integration by the usual trick iSA Z[ηµ ] = e with SA = (I) (I) (2) (I) 1 δ A i δηµ Z [η A ] 0 µ (8.155) Consider now ∆f [Aµ ]. 8.156) . In the Lorentz gauge fA [Aµ ] = ∂µ Aµ A 200 (8.This is called the Feynman’s gauge. In this Section we will consider the pure gauge case. The pure gauge lagrangian is not quadratic. which is conserved in the abelian case. The situation is quite diﬀerent in the non-abelian case where the fermionic current is not conserved since the gauge ﬁelds are not neutral. we get LA = − 1 4 µν FµνC FC C 1 AB DE = − ∂µ AνC − ∂ν AµC − gfC AµA AνB ∂ µ Aν − ∂ ν Aµ − gfC Aµ Aν C C D E 4 1 (2) AB AB DE = LA + gfC AµA AνB ∂ µ Aν − g 2 fC fC Aµ Aν AµD AνE C A B 4 (2) ≡ LA + LI (8. Such contributions arise from the Faddeev-Popov determinant. As already stressed the physics does not depend on β since the ¯ photon couples to the fermionic current ψγ µ ψ.5 Path integral quantization of the non-abelian gauge theories In the case of a non-abelian gauge theory there are several diﬀerences with respect to QED.

c )e ∗ c∗ (x)MAB (x − y)cB (y)d4xd4 y A (8. η ∗ . In order to get an expression for the generating functional which is convenient ﬁr deriving the Feynman rules. since our generating functional do not generate amplitudes with external ghosts. it is useful to give to it an exponential form. η ∗ .160) The Grassmann ﬁelds cA (x) are called the ghost ﬁelds. The action for the ghost ﬁelds can be read from the previous equation and we get SF P G = d4 xc∗ (x) δ AB A AC − gfB ∂µ Aµ cB (x) C (8.162) SF P G = −g d4 xc∗ fB ∂µ Aµ cB A C In order to deal with this interaction it turns out convenient to deﬁne a new generating functional where we introduce also external sources for the ghost ﬁelds 1 δ 1 δ (I) 1 δ (I) iSA iSF P G − . η ] = e (8. η∗.Under an inﬁnitesimal gauge transformation (for later convenience we have changed the deﬁnition of the gauge parameters. recalling from eq. i δηµ e i δη i δη ∗ Z [η.158) we have AB fC [AΩ ] = ∂µ Aµ + gfC ∂µ (αA Aµ ) + αC µ C B Then δfC [AΩ (x)] µ δαB (y) αA =0 = δBC µ 2 4 BA 4 x δ (x − y) + gfC ∂µ (δ (x − y)AA ) = MCB (x − y) (8.76)) that a determinant can be written as a gaussian integral over Grassmann variables. c∗) d4 x LA − (2) 1 2β A (∂µ Aµ )2 + ηµ Aµ A A A ∗ d 4 x c∗ cA + c∗ η A + η A cA A A 201 (8.157) (8. However this fact has no consequence. This can be done.161) The ghosts are zero mass particles interacting with the gauge ﬁelds through the interaction term (I) AC (8. η ] Z[η. δfA [AΩ (x)] µ ∆f [Aµ ] = det δαB (y) =N αA =0 i D(c.159) We see that ∆f [A] depends explicitly on the gauge ﬁelds. It should be noticed that the ghost carry zero spin and therefore in their particle interpretation lead to a violation of the spin-statistics theorem. ηµ ] = i ·e · i e D(Aµ )D(c. sending αA → gαA ) AB δAµ = gfC αA Aµ + ∂ µ αC C B (8. (7.163) µ 0 µ with Z0 [η.164) .

The Feynman’s rules for the vertices are obtained by taking the Fourier transform AB of the interaction parts (here we have written fC ≡ fABC ).Gauge ﬁeld propagator: −iδAB gµν − (1 − β) .5.169) ν.2 . η .The integration over Aµ like in the abelian case. ηµ ] = e 2 ∗ (8.5. 8. For the ghost ﬁeld we use eq. .Ghost ﬁeld propagator: iδAB . c )ei ∗ c∗ A cA + c∗ η A A +η A∗ cA − (iη A ) − =e ∗ i (iη A ) −i η A =e ∗ 1 ηA (8. k µ. kµ kν k2 + i k2 1 +i (8. A (7.168) with Gµν = δAB Gµν (x − y) AB It is then easy to read the Feynman’s rules.165) Deﬁning ∆AB (x) = −δAB lim + →0 d4 k e−ikx (2π)4 k 2 + i (8. 202 1 k2 + i (8. A Fig.167) (8.166) we get i A ν − ηµ (x)Gµν (x − y)ηB (y) −i η A ∗ (x)∆ (x − y)η B (y) AB AB e Z0 [η. For the propagators we get .76) with the result D(c. 8.1 . B k A Fig.170) B .

8. µ. B k2 Fig. A k p B q C Fig. µ.5 .Three-linear gluon vertex: gfABC (2π)4 δ 4 (k1 + k2 + k3 ) [gµν (k1 − k2 )λ + gνλ (k2 − k3 )µ + gλµ (k3 − k1 )ν ] (8. C Fig.3 . 8.Four-linear gluon vertex: 4 −ig (2π) δ ( 2 4 4 i=1 ki ) fABE fCDE (gµλ gνρ − gνλ gµρ ) (8. D k4 k3 ν.172) + fACE fBDE (gµν gλρ − gλν gµρ ) + fADE fCBE (gµλ gρν − gρλ gµν ) .5. 8.. A k1 k3 λ.Ghost-gluon vertex: −gfABC (2π)4 δ 4 (k + p − q)pµ 203 (8. A k1 ρ. C ν.171) .5. B k2 λ. µ.173) .4 .5.

Therefore we will study the deﬁnition coming from the fermionic coupling. giving rise to asymptotic freedom.When we have fermions coupled to the gauge ﬁelds we need to add the rule for the vertex (the propagator is the usual one).Fermion-gluon vertex: A −igTbc (γµ )βγ (2π)4 δ 4 (p − p − k) (8.3)) gB = µ /2 g Z1 Z2 Z3 1/2 (8. c Fig. since in these theories there is the possibility of having β < 0. b p' γ. in fact we can look at the fermionic coupling. at the trilinear or at the four-linear couplings. and it is precisely ths feature of being an asymptotically free theory that has made it very attractive phenomenologically. A k p β.174) 8. and Z@ and Z3 are the wave function renormalization constants for the fermion and the gauge particle respectively.6 .5. QCD the theory of strong interactions is in fact a gauge theory based on the gauge group SU(3). This is in fact ensured by a set of identities among the renormalization constants (Ward identities). As it is known. In this case the relation between the bare coupling and the renormalized one is the same as in QED (see Section 6. which are the analogue of the equality Z1 = Z2 in QED.175) where Z1 is the vertex renormalization constant. 8. By a simple comparison with the coupling in QED we see that in this case the rule for the vertex is . all these ways should give the same result. 204 . the theory is renormalizable by power counting. In non-abelian gauge theories there are several ways to deﬁne the coupling. If the theory is gauge invariant (and the renormalization should preserve this feature). µ.6 The β-function in non-abelian gauge theories We will skip a careful treatment of the renormalization in non-abelian gauge theories. However. since all the interaction terms have dimensions ≤ 4. On the other hand we will evaluate the beta function.

(8. We will work in the Feynman-’t Hooft gauge. . (2. we get Σ(p) = A (T A T A )ΣQED (p) = A (T A T A ) 1 (ˆ − 4m) + Σf (p) p QED 2 8π (8. From the previous expression for Σ we ﬁnd immediately (see Section 2. where all the group factors are easily evaluated. As a consequence we will need to evaluate all the three renormalization constants.1 . The Feynman rules for this diagram are the same as in QED except for the group factors. 8.1. one of the diﬀerences with QED is that now Z1 = Z2 . The one-loop contribution is given in Fig.179) 2N This result is justiﬁed by the observation that the operator A T A T A (called the Casimir operator) commutes with all the generators and therefore it must be proportional to the identity matrix. 8.180) Z2 = 1 − 2 C2 (F ) 8π with 205 . k p p p _k Fig.As we shall see.166)). we will consider the case of a gauge group SU(2) with fermions in the spinor representation.6.178) A N2 − 1 C2 (F ) = (8. Let us start with the fermion self-energy. corresponding to the choice β = 1 for the gauge ﬁeld propagator (see eq. recalling the expression for the electron self-energy in QED (see eq. In order to avoid group theory complications.176) For SU(2) we have (T A T A )ab = A A τA τA 2 2 ab 3 = δab 4 (8.6.169)).7) g2 (8.One-loop fermion self-energy.177) In the case of a group SU(N) and fermions in the fundamental representation it is possible to show that (T A T A )ab = C2 (F )δab (8. At the same time we will exhibit also the general results for a theory SU(N) with fermions in the fundamental representation (that is the one of dimensions N). Then.

The kinematics is speciﬁed in Fig. In fact all these diagrams involve the integral d2ω k k2 which. 8. 8. we see that for ω > 1 the integral vanishes.6. We will evaluate the truncated Green’s function which diﬀers by a factor ig 2 from the vacuum polarization vacuum Πµν as deﬁned in Section 2.6. = + a) + + b) + c) + d) + + e) + f) Fig. 8. in dimensional regularization gives (including a mass term) d2ω k = −iπ ω Γ(1 − ω)(a2)ω−1 k 2 − a2 (8.6.1. To this end we need the one-loop expansion of the gauge particle propagator (the vacuum polarization diagram).182) (8. The next task is the evaluation of Z3 .6.AB 1 = (−g)2 f ADC f DBC 2 −i −i d2ω k E 2ω µν (p + k)2 k 2 (2π) (8.One-loop expansion of the vacuum polarization diagram in non-abelian gauge theories.3.183) 206 ..181) By taking the limit a → 0. Since we are using dimensional regularization we can see immediately that the last three diagrams (diagrams d). 8.2 are zero (this is not true in other regularizations). e) and f)) of Fig.2 . We have ig 2 (a) Πµν. This is given in Fig. Let us begin our calculation from the gauge particle contributions to the vacuum polarization.2.

3 . Then we get (8.189) Operating this substitution into the tensor Eµν . and therefore C2 (G) is nothing but the Casimir of the adjoint.187) This result can be understood by noticing that (T A )BC = if ABC gives a representation of the Lie algebra of the group (the adjoint representation). By using the standard trick we reduce the two denominators in the integral to a single one 1 1 = 2 (k + p)2 k with k = k − pz (8.6.190) kµ kν → 2ω 207 1 dz 0 1 (k + z(1 − z)p2 )2 2 (8.186) with C2 (G) = N (8. ν Fig.188) .One-loop gauge particle contribution to the vacuum polarization. taking into account that the integration over the odd terms in k gives zero. σ k p B. ρ A. and that for symmetry we can make the substitution gµν 2 k (8. µ p D. The group factor is easily evaluated for SU(2).The factor 1/2 is a symmetry factor associated to the diagram and the tensor Eµν comes from the trilinear vertices.185) ADC DBC = −2δAB The general result for SU(N) is (taking into account that f ABC are completely antisymmetric) f ADC f DBC = −C2 (G)δAB (8.184) . p+k C. 8. It is given by σ ρ Eµν = gµ (p − k)ρ + g σρ (2k + p)µ − gµ (2p + k)σ × [gσν (p − k)ρ − gνρ (2p + k)σ + gρσ (2k + p)ν ] = gµν (p − k)2 + (2p + k)2 + 2ω(2k + p)µ (2k + p)ν − [(2p + k)µ (2k + p)ν − (2k + p)µ (p − k)ν + (p − k)µ (2p + k)ν ](8. since in this case f ABC = ABC .

µ p C k p B. we get iπ ω 1 (a) ig 2 Πµν.AB = (−1)g 2 f ACD f BDC (b) i i d2ω k (p + k)µ kν 2ω (p + k)2 k 2 (2π) (8.5 and putting everything together.One-loop ghost contribution to the vacuum polarization.191) Performing the integral over k with the formulas of Section 2. The ghost contribution is the part b) of the expansion of Fig. p+k D A. as it should be. We have ig 2 Πµν. ν Fig.4.192) By taking only the 1/ term ( = 4 − 2ω) in the expansion and integrating over z we get 19 µν 2 11 µ ν g2 (a) ig 2 Πµν. 8.6. .AB = −g 2 C2 (G)δAB (b) 1 dz 0 d2ω k kµ kν − pµ pν z(1 − z) (2π)2ω (k 2 + z(1 − z)p2 )2 (8.AB = i C2 (G)δAB g p − p p (8. in fact.4 .193) 2 16π 6 3 As we see this contribution is not transverse. 8.we get (by calling k 2 with k 2 ) Eµν = gµν k 2 6 1 − 1 + gµν p2 (1 + z)2 + (2 − z)2 2ω + pµ pν 2ω(1 − 2z)2 − 2 (1 + z)2 + (2 − z)(1 − 2z) ≡ aµν k 2 + bµν (8.6.AB = − g 2 (−C2 (G))δAB 2 (2π)2ω 1 dz ωz(1 − z)p2 Γ(1 − ω)aµν + Γ(2 − ω)bµν 0 (8. that is it is not proportional to (pµ pν − gµν p2 ).6. The relevant kinematics is given in Fig. 8.195) 208 .194) By the standard procedure we get (k = k − pz)) ig 2 Πµν. we will see that adding to this diagram the contribution of the ghost loop we recover the transverse factor.2.

200) 2 where nF is the number of fundamental representations.AB + Πµν. The leading contribution is g2 nF δAB pµ pν − gµν p2 (8. in the case of QCD. and keeping only the leading term.5 .6. Then taking the limit ω → 2. and except for the group factor is the same evaluated in Section 2. µ p p B.5.199) 12π 2 where we have used the conventional normalization for the group generators in the fermionic representation 1 T r(T A T B ) = nF δAB (8.201) (a) (b) (c) .AB = −ig 2 (b) πω C2 (G)δAB (2π)2ω 1 dz z(1 − z) ig 2 Πµν.6. 8. the one-loop leading term contribution to the vacuum polarization is given by ig 2 Πµν.6. we have three diﬀerent kind of quarks corresponding to diﬀerent ﬂavors. . Then.where we have eliminated the terms linear in k . Then. we get ig 2 Πµν. ν k Fig.AB = i (b) g2 1 1 C2 (G)δAB p2 gµν + pµ pν 2 16π 6 3 (8.196) We perform now the integral in z.AB = ig 2 T r(T A T B )ΠQED = i µν (c) ig 2 Πµν. For instance.AB = ig 2 (Πµν.AB + Πµν. we perform the integral over k 1 2 p Γ(1 − ω) − pµ pν Γ(2 − ω) 2 0 (8.AB ) p+k A.One-loop fermion contribution to the vacuum polarization. 2 (a) (Πµν.197) Putting together this contribution with the former one we get g2 5 (8.198) + = −i 2 C2 (G)δAB pµ pν − gµν p2 ig 8π 3 The fermionic loop contribution is given in Fig. 8.AB ) = −i g2 8π 2 5 2 C2 (G) − nF 3 3 209 pµ pν − gµν p2 (8.AB (b) Πµν.

206) (p − k)2 210 .205) The ﬁnal diagram to be evaluated is the vertex correction from the trilinear gauge coupling given in Fig.7.203) −ig Λf = −i 2 (T B T A T B )γ µ 8π The group factor can be elaborated as follows T B T A T B = T B (T B T A + if ABC T C ) = C2 (F )T A + if ABC T B T C 1 1 = C2 (F )T A − f ABC f BCD T D = C2 (F ) − C2 (G) T A (8. 8.6 .202) We are now left with the vertex corrections. .A = −i f g3 8π 2 1 C2 (F ) − C2 (G) T A γ µ 2 (8. The fermion contribution is given by the diagram of Fig.6. this is the same as in QED except for the group factors.6.A = (−igγν T B ) g · · ˆ −i d2ω k ik 2ω k 2 (p − k)2 (2π) ABC µν (−g)f [g (q + p − k)ρ − g νρ(p + p − 2k)µ + g ρµ (p − k − q)ν ] −i (−igγρ T C ) (8. 8.6. A p' + k B p' k p+k B p Fig. We get (q = p − p) −ig 3 Λµ.204) 2 2 Therefore we obtain −ig 3 Λµ. 8.7 we get g2 Z3 = 1 + 2 8π 5 2 C2 (G) − nF 3 3 (8. the leading contribution is g3 3 µ.By comparison with Section 2.A (8.Fermion one-loop vertex correction. Again.6.

6. comparison with Section 2.209) (8.k B k p' p-k C p Fig.A = −ig 3 (Λµ..212) g2 (C2 (F ) + C2 (G)) 8π 2 (8.One-loop vertex correction from the trilinear gauge coupling. A.175) we have 1 a1 gB = µ /2 g(1 + ∆Z1 − ∆Z2 − ∆Z3 ) = µ /2 g + 2 and collecting everything together we get a1 = − g3 16π 2 11 2 C2 (G) − nF 3 3 211 (8.7 . Since we are interested only in the divergent piece.213) (8.A + Λµ.211) g3 (C2 (F ) + C2 (G)) T A γ µ 8π 2 (8. whereas the numerator goes at most as k 2 .208) ˆ d2ω k γν k(g µν k ρ − 2g νρk µ + g µρ k ν )γρ (2π)2ω (k 2 )3 (8.A = ig 3 f ABC T B T C g The group factor gives i i f ABC T B T C = f ABC f BCD T D = C2 (G)T A 2 2 whereas the numerator gives simply −3k 2 γ µ .210) . (8. the calculation can be simpliﬁed a lot by the observation that the denominator goes as (k 2 )3 .A ) = −i g f Again. Therefore the expression simpliﬁes to −ig 3 Λµ.7 gives Z1 = 1 − Using eq. Therefore the divergent piece is obtained by neglecting all the external momenta.A = − g g3 3 C2 (G)T A γ µ (2π)2ω 2 g3 3 d2ω k = −i 2 C2 (G)T A γ µ (k 2 )2 8π 2 (8. µ p' .207) Adding up the two vertex contributions we obtain −ig 3 Λµ. 8. Then we have −ig 3 Λµ.

217) We see that QCD is asymptotically free (β(g) < 0) for nF < 33 2 (8.216) (8. that is β(g) = µ that is β(g) = − 1 ∂g(µ) =− ∂µ 2 1−g d dg 1 a1 = − (a1 − 3a1 ) = a1 2 11 2 C2 (G) − nF 3 3 (8.218) 212 .214) g3 16π 2 (8.3).215) In the case of QCD where the gauge group is SU(3) we have C2 (G) = 3 and therefore βQCD (g) = − g3 16π 2 2 11 − nF 3 (8.The evaluation of β(g) goes as in the QED case (see Section 6.

3) The condition for letting the norm invariant gives |φ + δ φ|2 = |φ|2 from which φ · δφ = 0 or.5) (9.7) =0 ji =− 213 . in components. φi This is satisﬁed by ij ij φj (9.6) (9. We will start examining the linear σ-model. with a symmetry O(N).1 The linear σ-model In this Section and in the following we will study. · · · .Chapter 9 Spontaneous symmetry breaking 9.4) (9. This is a model for N scalar ﬁelds.1) This lagrangian is invariant under linear transformations acting upon the vector φ = (φ1 . The lagrangian is given by 1 L= 2 N i=1 1 ∂µ φi ∂ µ φi − µ2 2 N i=1 λ φi φi − 4 N 2 φi φi i=1 (9. some ﬁeld theory with particular symmetry properties. from a classical point of view. φN ) and leaving invariant its norm N |φ| = 2 i=1 φi φi (9.2) Consider an inﬁnitesimal transformation (from now on we will omit the index of sum over the indices which are repeated) δφi = ij φj (9.

µ φ2 − φ2.14) It is not diﬃcult to show that these matrices satisfy the algebra [T AB . by exponentiating the inﬁnitesimal transformation one gets S=e with T (9. · · · . A.3 when we discussed the Lorentz transformations. B = 1.showing that the rotations in N dimensions depend on N(N − 1)/2 parameters.16) since the N(N − 1)/2 parameters AB are linearly independent. The Noether’s theorem implies a conserved current for any symmetry of the theory.12) =− implying that S is an orthogonal transformation. For a ﬁnite transformation we have |φ |2 = |φ|2 (9. and the only conserved current is given by 12 21 Jµ = −Jµ = φ1. O(N).8) with φi = Sij φj implying SS T = 1 In fact.11) (9.15) This is nothing but the Lie algebra of the group O(N). we ﬁnd the N(N − 1)/2 conserved currents AB AB Jµ = −iφi.9) (9.µ φ1 (9.13) which is similar to what we did in Section 3.µ µφ ) ∂(∂ i 2 AB AB Tij φj (9. N. T CD ] = −iδ AC T BD + iδ AD T BC − iδ BD T AC + iδ BC T AD (9. In this case we will get N(N − 1)/2 conserved quantities. The matrices S form the rotation group in N dimensions. Applying now the Noether’s theorem we ﬁnd the conserved current jµ = ∂L i δφi = − φi.µ Tij φj (9. N (9. It is useful for further generalizations to write the inﬁnitesimal transformation in the form δφi = ij φj =− i 2 AB AB Tij φj . · · · . and the T AB are the inﬁnitesimal generators of the group.17) In the case of N = 2 the symmetry is the same as for the charged ﬁeld in a real basis. By comparison we see that the matrices T AB are given by AB A B A B Tij = i(δi δj − δj δi ) (9. j = 1.10) (9.18) 214 . i.

we get [QA . if A is a 2 × 2 matrix with detA = 1.26) (9.27) This lagrangian is invariant under the following transformation of the matrix M M → LMR† (9.25). then τ2 AT τ2 = A−1 215 (9.29) .23) where τ are the Pauli matrices. if we have conserved currents given by A A (9. π3 . that is L.One can easily check that the charges associated to the conserved currents close the same Lie algebra as the generators T AB . Noticing that τ2 is pure imaginary. In fact.24) (9. T B ] = if ABC T C then. and that τ2 anticommutes with τ1 and τ3 .19) jµ = −iφi. using the canonical commutation relations.25) (9. π2 . QB ] = if ABC QC with QA = A d3 x j0 (x) = −i (9. More generally. We parameterize our ﬁelds in the form φ = (π1 .µ Tij φj with [T A . R ∈ SU(2).22) A particular example is the case N = 4.20) (9. σ) These ﬁelds can be arranged into a 2 × 2 matrix M = σ + iτ · π (9. we get M = τ2 M ∗ τ2 Furthermore we have the relation 1 |φ|2 = σ 2 + |π|2 = T r(M † M) 2 Using this it is easy to write the lagrangian for the σ-model in the form 1 1 1 L = T r(∂µ M † ∂ µ M) − µ2 T r(M † M) − λ T r(M † M) 4 4 16 2 (9.21) ˙ A d3 x φi Tij φj (9. σ) = (π. The reason to restrict these matrices to be special is that only in this way the transformed matrix satisfy the condition (9. τ1 and τ3 real.28) where L and R are two special (that is with determinant equal to 1) unitary matrices.

2 1 δL π = (θL ∧ π − θL σ) 2 1 δR π = (θR ∧ π + θR σ) 2 (9. but from the relation (9. 2 then we get i i 1 i δL M = (− θL · τ)M = (− θL · τ)(σ + iπ · τ ) = θL · π + (θL ∧ π − θL σ) · τ (9.26) we see that M → LMR† leaves the norm of the vector φ = (π. This shows that the two groups SU(2) ⊗ SU(2) and O(4) are homomorphic (actually there is a 2 to 1 relationship. We can evaluate the eﬀect of an inﬁnitesimal transformation.35) ijk τk i R ≈ 1 − θR · τ 2 (9.32) (9. To this end we will consider separately left and right transformations. 2 1 δπ = [(θL + θR ) ∧ π − (θL − θR )σ] 2 216 (9. since −L and −R deﬁne the same S as L and R). 2 Analogously we obtain 1 δR σ = − θR · π. that is on σ and π.30) =L (9.34) (9. the invariance group in this basis is SU(2)L ⊗ SU(2)R .31) since the L and R are independent transformations. σ) invariant and therefore the same must be true for the linear transformation acting upon the matrix elements of M.33) 2 2 2 2 where we have used τi τj = δij + i Since δL M = δL σ + iδL π · τ we get 1 δL σ = θL · π.36) (9. In fact this group and O(4) are related by the following observation: the transformation M → LMR† is a linear transformation on the matrix elements of M.38) .29) τ2 L∗ τ2 = τ2 L† τ2 = L† τ2 RT τ2 = R−1 = R† T −1 ∗ (9. for M = LMR† we get τ2 M τ2 = τ2 L∗ M ∗ RT τ2 = τ2 L∗ τ2 (τ2 M ∗ τ2 )τ2 RT τ2 and from (9.37) The combined transformation is given by 1 δσ = (θL − θR ) · π.Therefore. We parameterize the transformations as follows i L ≈ 1 − θL · τ . Therefore this transformation must belongs to O(4).

µ θL · π + π. In this case we have δσ = 0. as it follows from [QV . QR ] = 0 i j (9.50) 217 . QL ] = i i j L ijk Qk . [QV . These rotations deﬁne a subgroup O(3) of the original symmetry group O(4). πj ] = i i ijk πk .43) (9.49) These equations show that QV are the inﬁnitesimal generators of a subgroup SU(2) i of SU(2)L ⊗ SU(2)R which is the diagonal subgroup. QA ] = i i j A ijk Qk .39) as it must be for a transformation leaving the form σ 2 + |π|2 invariant.45) By taking the following combinations of the currents 1 L V R Jµ = (Jµ + Jµ ).48) and A Jµ = σ. 2 one has V Jµ = π ∧ π.µ σ − π. From the Noether’s theorem we get the conserved currents 1 1 L jµ = σ.µ 1 L A R J µ = (J µ − J µ ) 2 (9.44) Using the canonical commutation relations one can verify that the corresponding charges satisfy the Lie algebra of SU(2)L ⊗ SU(2)R [QL . σ] = 0 i (9.46) (9. In this case we have L = R and M → LML† (9. [QR .µ σ − π.41) We see that the transformations corresponding to the diagonal SU(2) are the rotations in the 3-dimensional space spanned by π. Of particular interest are the transformations with θL = θR ≡ θ.µ ∧ π (9.40) These transformations span a subgroup SU(2) of SU(2)L ⊗ SU(2)R called the diagonal subgroup.42) (9.µ π + π. QA ] = i i j V ijk Qk (9. QR ] = i i j R ijk Qk . [QA .and we can check immediately that σδσ + π · δπ = 0 (9.µ · (θL ∧ π − θL σ) 2 2 and dividing by θL /2 and analogously R Jµ = −σ. QV ] = i i j V ijk Qk .µ π − π.µ ∧ π L Jµ = σ.µ σ The corresponding algebra of charges is [QV .µ π − π. δπ = θ ∧ π (9. [QV .47) (9. [QL .

58) 218 .52) ∂φi Let us call by vi the generic solution to this equation (in general it could happen that the absolute minimum is degenerate).In the following we will be interested in treating the interacting ﬁeld theories by using the perturbation theory. In the case of the linear σ-model the energy is given by N H= d xH = 3 dx i=1 3 ∂L ˙ φ −L = ˙ i ∂ φi 1 dx 2 3 N ˙ (φ2 + |∇φi|2 ) + V (|φ|2 ) i i=1 (9.55) This equation shows that the particle masses are given by the eigenvalues of the second derivative of the potential at the minimum. In the case of the linear σ-model we have 1 λ V = µ2 |φ|2 + (|φ|2 )2 (9.53) The lagrangian density becomes 1 L = ∂µ φi ∂ µ φi − V (|φ + v|2 ) 2 Expanding V in series of φi we get 1 ∂2V V = V (|v| ) + 2 ∂φi ∂φj 2 (9. or |φ|2 = − µ2 λ (9.56) 2 4 Therefore ∂V = µ2 φi + λφi |φ|2 (9.54) φ=v φi φj + · · · (9. such that ∂V (|φ|2 ) =0 (9. this is well deﬁned only when we are considering the theory close to a minimum the energy of the system. In fact if we are going to expand around a maximum the oscillation of the system can become very large leading us outside of the domain of perturbation theory.57) ∂φi In order to have a solution to the stationary condition we must have φi = 0. it follows that the absolute minimum is obtained for constant ﬁeld conﬁgurations. Then the condition for getting a minimum is that the eigenvalues of the matrix of the second derivatives of the potential at the stationary point are deﬁnite positive. As in the quantum mechanical case.51) Since in the last member of this relation the ﬁrst two terms are positive deﬁnite. In this case we deﬁne new ﬁelds by shifting the original ﬁelds by φi → φi = φi − vi (9.

and they describe N particles of common mass m. Just as an example consider a scalar ﬁeld described by a lagrangian invariant under parity P : φ → −φ (9. in order to have a potential bounded from below one has to require λ > 0. these are given by the eigenvalues of the matrix of the second derivatives of the potential at the minimum and they are positive deﬁnite by deﬁnition.60) . The idea is very simple and consists in the observation that a theory with hamiltonian invariant under a symmetry group may not show explicitly the symmetry at the level of the solutions. The free theory is given by the quadratic terms in the lagrangian density. we must have P |0 = |0 since P commutes with the hamiltonian. is just but an example of a general phenomenon which goes under the name of spontaneous symmetry breaking of symmetry. the ﬂuctuations. µ2 cannot be identiﬁed with a physical mass. We will study this case in the following Sections. are small). • The fundamental state of the theory is degenerate and transforms in a non trivial way under the symmetry group. notice that in this case.This equation has real solutions only if µ2 /λ < 0. both the free and the interacting theories are O(N) symmetric. therefore we may have non zero solutions to the minimum condition only if µ2 < 0. However. barring a phase factor. 9.62) (9. This phenomenon lies at the basis of the modern description of phase transitions and it has acquired a capital relevance in the last years in all ﬁeld of physics.2 Spontaneous symmetry breaking In this Section we will see that the linear σ-model with µ2 < 0. But. As we shall see this may happen when the following conditions are realized: • The theory is invariant under a symmetry group G.61) (9. It follows 0|φ|0 = 0|P −1P φP −1P |0 = 0|P φP −1|0 = − 0|φ|0 219 (9. In the case of µ2 > 0 the minimum is given by φi = 0 and one can study the theory by taking the term λ(|φ|2 )2 as a small perturbation (that is requiring that both λ and the values of φi .59) The lagrangian density will be of the type 1 L = ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − V (φ2 ) 2 If the vacuum state is non degenerate. Furthermore.

In the case µ2 < 0 (degenerate case).69) For µ2 > 0 there is a unique fundamental state (minimum of the potential) φ = 0. we have P |R = |L = |R (9. if µ2 λ (9. we have (9.60).71) (9. whereas for µ2 < 0 there are inﬁnite degenerate states given by |φ|2 = φ2 + φ2 = v 2 1 2 (9.68) with v deﬁned as in (9. In fact.65) By denoting with |R e |L the two states corresponding to the classical conﬁgurations φ = ±v. This would be the case in the example (9.70) (9.67) which now does not imply that the expectation value of the ﬁeld vanishes.72) since φθ = φ. Then 0|φi|0 = 0|R−1 (θ)R(θ)φi R−1 (θ)R(θ)|0 = θ|φθ |θ i 220 (9.from which 0|φ|0 = 0 (9. this potential has two minima located at φ = ±v. So let us consider two scalar ﬁelds. φ2 ).65). and a lagrangian density with symmetry O(2) 1 λ 1 L = ∂µ φ · ∂ µ φ − µ2 φ · φ − (φ · φ)2 2 2 4 where φ · φ = φ2 + φ2 1 2 (9.66) Therefore R|φ|R = R|P −1 P φP −1P |R = − L|φ|L (9. v= − µ2 λ (9.73) where |θ is one of the inﬁnitely many degenerate fundamental states lying on the circle |φ|2 = v 2 .64) V (φ2 ) = φ2 + φ4 2 4 with µ2 < 0.74) . in the non-degenerate case we have R(θ)|0 = |0 and 0|φ|0 = 0|R−1RφR−1 R|0 = 0|φθ |0 = 0 R(θ)|0 = |θ (9. By denoting with R(θ) the operator rotating the ﬁelds in the plane (φ1 . In the following we will be rather interested in the case of continuous symmetries.63) Things change if the fundamental state is degenerate.

This follows from the existence of the tunnel eﬀect. In fact. One can describe them through the Landau free-energy. breaking in this way the symmetry. and recall that we have deﬁned the fundamental states through the correspondence with the classical minima x = x0 → |R x = −x0 → |L (9. For instance. a classical particle in a double-well potential.75) Again. the expectation value of the ﬁeld (contrarily to the non-degenerate state) does not need to vanish. The system goes from one phase to another varying the control parameters. due to the transition the hamiltonian acquires a non zero matrix element between the states |R and |L . it will perform oscillations around that point and the original symmetry is lost.with φθ = R(θ)φi R−1 (θ) = φi i (9.76) But the tunnel eﬀect gives rise to a transition between these two states and as a consequence it removes the degeneracy. These situations are typical for the so called second order phase transitions. The situation is slightly more involved at the quantum level. the order parameters were zero in the symmetric phase and diﬀerent from zero in the broken phase. as µ2 for the scalar ﬁeld. A further example is given by a ferromagnet which has an hamiltonian invariant under rotations. • Order parameters. This system has parity invariance x → −x. The equilibrium positions are around the minima positions. In the previous examples. as the expectation value of the scalar ﬁeld or as the magnetization.77) 221 . which depends on two diﬀerent kind of parameters: • Control parameters. By denoting with H the matrix of the hamiltonian between these two states. but below the Curie temperature exhibits spontaneous magnetization. we get H= 0 1 1 0 (9. If we put the particle close to x0 . Let us consider again a particle in a double-well potential. since spontaneous symmetry breaking cannot happen in ﬁnite systems. and the temperature for the ferromagnet. But the breaking is only at the level of the solutions. and the phase transition is characterized by the order parameters which assume diﬀerent values in diﬀerent phases. where x is the particle position. One can easily construct classical systems exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. the lagrangian and the equations of motion preserve the symmetry. ±x0 . and consequently to break the symmetry. The situation can be described qualitatively saying that the existence of a degenerate fundamental state forces the system to choose one of these equivalent states.

its expectation value on the vacuum must be a constant. The splitting of the fundamental states decreases with the height of the potential between two minima.The eigenvalues of H are ( 0 + 1. coming back to the scalar ﬁeld example. for inﬁnite systems. and the minimum at φ = v. for t = π/∆E the state |R transforms into the state |L . This situation gives rise to the well known eﬀect of quantum oscillations. and 1 |A = √ (|R − |L ) 2 (9. becomes inﬁnite in the limit of inﬁnite volume H(φ = 0) − H(φ = v) = − V d3 x µ2 2 λ 4 µ4 v + v = 2 4 4λ 222 d3 x = V µ4 V 4λ (9. therefore.85) .81) Let us now prepare a state.80) with eigenvalue EA = 0 − 1 . the previous mechanism does not work.83) ∆E In nature there are ﬁnite systems as sugar molecules. The state oscillates with a period given by 2π (9. In fact one observes right-handed and left-handed sugar molecules.84) T = and the energy diﬀerence between the maximum at φ = 0. The explanation is simply that the energy diﬀerence ∆E is so small that the oscillation period is of the order of 104 − 106 years.82) with ∆E = EA − ES . 0 − 1) (9. In fact.78) We have no more degeneracy and the eigenstates are 1 |S = √ (|R + |L ) 2 with eigenvalue ES = 0 (9. This is not an energy eigenstate and its time evolution is given by 1 |R. as it follows from the translational invariance of the vacuum 0|φ(x)|0 = 0|eiP xφ(0)e−iP x |0 = 0|φ(0)|0 = v (9. Therefore. by putting the particle in the right minimum. |S . We can express the states |R and |L in terms of the energy eigenstates |R = |L = 1 √ (|S 2 1 √ (|S 2 + |A ) − |A ) (9.79) + 1. at t = 0. which seem to exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking. One can show that 1 < 0 and therefore the fundamental state is the symmetric one. t = √ e−iES t |S + e−iEA t |A 2 1 = √ e−iES t |S + e−it∆E |A 2 (9. and we may have spontaneous symmetry breaking.

by choosing φl = vδlN as a representative point. We will limit ourselves to analyze the theorem in the case of a classical scalar ﬁeld theory. under the following hypotheses • The spontaneous broken symmetry must be a continuous one. which is a minimum. This theorem says that for any continuous symmetry spontaneously broken. among which φ = 0 is a maximum. • The Hilbert space of the theory must have a deﬁnite positive norm. • The theory must be manifestly covariant. The theorem holds rigorously in a local ﬁeld theory. The points of the sphere |φ|2 = v 2 are degenerate minima. since ∂2V = δlm µ2 > 0 (9.88) λ The character of the stationary points can be studied by evaluating the second derivatives ∂2V = δlm (µ2 + λ|φ|2 ) + 2λφl φm (9. we have only one real solution given by φ = 0.87) −µ2 (9.91) 223 . there exists a massless particle (the Goldstone boson). there are inﬁnite solutions.9.90) ∂φl ∂φm • µ2 < 0. we get ∂2V = 2λv 2 δlN δmN > 0 ∂φl ∂φm (9. Let us start considering the lagrangian for the linear σ-model with invariance O(N) 1 µ2 λ L = ∂µ φ · ∂ µ φ − φ · φ − (φ · φ)2 (9. the most interesting consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is the Goldstone theorem.89) ∂φl ∂φm φl = 0. In fact. v= We have two possibilities • µ2 > 0. (9.3 The Goldstone theorem From our point of view.86) 2 2 4 The conditions that V must satisfy in order to have a minimum are ∂V = µ2 φl + λφl |φ|2 = 0 ∂φl with solutions |φ|2 = v 2 .

and it is a a=1 invariant under rotations around the axis we have chosen as representative for the fundamental state. φ χ By deﬁning m2 = −2µ2 we can write the potential as a function of the new ﬁelds m4 1 V =− + m2 χ2 + 16λ 2 m2 λ χ 2 N −1 2 (9. However a residual symmetry O(N − 1) is left. b = 1.93) ⎣· · · · ⎦ ∂φl ∂φm minimo 0 0 · −2µ2 Therefore the masses of the ﬁelds φa . whereas the N − 1 rotations on the planes a − N move away from the surface of the minima. In fact the most general potential (up to the fourth order in the ﬁelds) describing N scalar ﬁelds with a symmetry O(N − 1) would depend on 7 coupling constants.96) In this form the original symmetry O(N) is broken. we have ab a b b a (9. · · · . N − 1. v).95) φ2 a a=1 +χ 2 λ + 4 N −1 φ2 a a=1 +χ 2 (9. the right ﬁelds to be used are φl − vδlN . It must be stressed that this is not the most general potential invariant under O(N − 1). Therefore spontaneous symmetry breaking puts heavy constraints on the dynamics of the system. and their mass is just given by the coeﬃcient of the quadratic term ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 · 0 ⎢0 0 · ∂2V 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ = −2µ2 δlN δmN = ⎢ Mlm = (9.98) Therefore we have N − 1 broken symmetries and N − 1 massless scalars. Clearly the rotations along the ﬁrst N − 1 directions leave the potential invariant. are given by m2 = −2µ2 (9. (0.97) Tij φj |min = i(δi δj − δi δj )vδjN = 0 since a. whereas the one we got depends only on the two parameters m and λ. This can be seen also in terms of generators.94) m2 a = 0. V depends only on the combination N −1 φ2 . Since the ﬁeld we have chosen as representative of the ground state is φi |min = vδiN . · · · . N − 1 . · · · . and aN a N N a a Tij φj |min = i(δi δj − δi δj )vδjN = ivδi = 0 (9. The generators of O(N) divide up naturally in the generators of the vacuum symmetry 224 . In fact. and χ = φN − v.92) If we are going to make a perturbative expansion.Expanding the potential around this minimum we get V (φ) ≈ V + minimum 1 ∂2V 2 ∂φl ∂φm minimum (φl − vδlN )(φm − vδmN ) (9. We have also seen that we have N − 1 massless scalars. a = 1.

0). Unfortunately in nature the only massless particles we know are the photon and perhaps the neutrinos. This is well known already for the electromagnetic ﬁeld. This is the famous Higgs mechanism. as the Lorentz one. as in the electromagnetic case. If one goes to a covariant gauge. the Goldstone bosons correspond to the generators of G which are left after subtracting the generators of H. Intuitively one can understand the origin of the massless particles noticing that the broken generators allow transitions from a possible vacuum to another. in order to have a Hilbert space spanned by only the physical states. than the theory looses the manifest covariance. which however are fermions. If µ2 < 0 the symmetry is broken and we can choose the vacuum as the state φ = (v.100) 225 . as the Coulomb gauge. in fact. In fact. it turns out that Goldstone theorem does not hold in this context.(here O(N − 1)). where one has to choose the gauge before quantization. What happens is that. if one chooses a physical gauge. The reason is that it is impossible to quantize a gauge theory in a way which is at the same time manifestly covariant and has a Hilbert space with positive deﬁnite metric. and where the physical states are extracted through a supplementary condition. But once one couples spontaneous symmetry breaking to a gauge symmetry. In general. Since these states are degenerate the operation does not cost any energy. the Goldstone bosons. gauge invariance forbids the presence in the lagrangian of terms quadratic in the ﬁelds. with non-deﬁnite positive metric. the theory is covariant but one has to work with a big Hilbert space. if we look back at the hypotheses underlying a gauge theory. if the original symmetry group G of the theory is spontaneously broken down to a subgroup H (which is the symmetry of the vacuum). The way in which the Goldstone theorem is evaded is that the Goldstone bosons disappear. the gauge bosons corresponding to the broken symmetries acquire mass. 9.4 The Higgs mechanism We have seen that the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. and. One can say that Goldstone bosons correspond to ﬂat directions in the potential. From the relativistic dispersion relation this implies that we must have massless particles. and in the so called broken generators.99) and let us analyze the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. each of them corresponding to a massless Goldstone boson. things change. Also gauge theories lead to massless vector bosons. in the case of continuous symmetry leads to massless scalar particles. v= −µ2 λ (9. at the same time. Let us start with a scalar theory invariant under O(2) 1 λ µ2 L = ∂µ φ · ∂ µ φ − φ · φ − (φ · φ)2 2 2 4 (9.

In fact. from which δχ = −αφ2 . δφ2 = αχ + αv (9. with 0|χ|0 = 0. as when we are doing perturbation theory. we get the potential (m2 = −2µ2 ) V =− 1 m4 + m2 χ2 + 16λ 2 m2 λ λ χ(φ2 + χ2 ) + (φ2 + χ2 )2 2 2 4 2 (9. How do things change if our theory is gauge invariant? In that case we should have invariance under a transformation of the Goldstone ﬁeld given by δφ2 (x) = α(x)χ(x) + α(x)v (9. in that case we can perform the following expansion ρ= φ2 + χ2 + 2χv + v 2 ≈ v + χ. if we make the theory invariant under a local transformation. we will have invariance under θ(x) → θ(x) + α(x) (9. This is better seen by using polar coordinates for the ﬁelds. In fact one can have invariance under translations of the ﬁeld.108) 226 . only if the potential is ﬂat in the corresponding direction. In other words it must be possible to eliminate the Goldstone ﬁeld from the theory. αv.104) δφ2 = αφ1 (9.103) We see that the Goldstone ﬁeld undergoes a rotation plus a translation. In fact.105) Under a ﬁnite rotation.107) Again. it follows that we can choose it in such a way to make φ2 (x) vanish.101) In this case the group O(2) is completely broken (except for the discrete symmetry φ2 → −φ2 ). This is what happens when one moves in a way which is tangent to the surface of the degenerate vacuums (in this case a circle). 2 θ≈ φ2 φ2 ≈ v+χ v (9. This has a peculiar way of transforming under O(2). θ →θ+α (9.106) It should be also noticed that the two coordinate systems coincide when we are close to the vacuum. the original ﬁelds transform as δφ1 = −αφ2 .102) Since α(x) is an arbitrary function of the space-time point. the new ﬁelds transform as ρ → ρ. This is the main reason for the Goldstone particle to be massless. The Goldstone ﬁeld is φ2 . that is ρ= φ2 + φ2 .After the translation φ1 = χ+v. 1 2 sin θ = φ2 φ2 1 + φ2 2 (9.

115) the lagrangian will depend only on the ﬁelds ρ and Aµ (we will put again Aµ = Aµ ) µ2 λ 1 1 L = (∂µ + igAµ )ρ(∂ µ − igAµ )ρ − ρ2 − ρ4 − Fµν F µν 2 2 4 4 (9.118) 227 .99) can be written as L = ∂µ φ† ∂ µ φ − µ2 φ† φ − λ(φ† φ)2 (9. The only remaining degree of freedom in the scalar sector is ρ(x).114) (9. 2 2 The O(2) transformations become phase transformations on φ φ → eiα φ and the lagrangian (9.111) (9.By choosing α(x) = −θ(x) we can eliminate this last ﬁeld from the theory. It is convenient to introduce complex variables 1 1 φ† = √ (φ1 − iφ2 ) (9. We have now to translate the ﬁeld ρ ρ = χ + v.110) We know that it is possible to promote a global symmetry to a local one by introducing the covariant derivative ∂µ φ → (∂µ − igAµ )φ from which 1 L = (∂µ + igAµ )φ† (∂ µ − igAµ )φ − µ2 φ† φ − λ(φ† φ)2 − Fµν F µν 4 In terms of the polar coordinates (ρ. θ) we have 1 φ = √ ρeiθ . Let us study the gauging of this model.116) (9.109) φ = √ (φ1 + iφ2 ).117) In this way the Goldstone boson disappears.113) (9. 0|χ|0 = 0 (9. 2 1 φ† = √ ρe−iθ 2 (9.112) By performing the following gauge transformation on the scalars φ → φ = φe−iθ and the corresponding transformation on the gauge ﬁelds 1 Aµ → Aµ = Aµ − ∂µ θ g (9.

coming from the covariant derivative.121) between the Goldstone ﬁeld and the gauge vector which makes complicate to read the mass of the states.125) the mass term for the gauge ﬁeld is given by 1 AB AB (T CD )ik φk Wµ W µCD − g 2Tij φj 8 min min 1 aN aN = − g 2 Tij φj (T bN )ik φk Wµ W µbN 2 min min 1 1 a b aN aN = g 2v 2 δi δi Wµ W µbN = g 2 v 2 Wµ W µaN 2 2 228 (9. In the case of broken symmetry (µ2 < 0). Before we had 4 degrees of freedom.124) = 0.123) (Dµ )ij = δij ∂µ + i (T AB )ij Wµ 2 B A where (T AB )lm = i(δlA δm − δm δlB ). a.120) It is instructive to count the degrees of freedom before and after the gauge transformation. After the gauge transformation we have only one degree of freedom from the scalar sector. The previous gauge transformation realizes the purpose of making that term vanish. N − 1 (9. We will consider now the further example of a symmetry O(N).100) φi = vδiN Recalling that ab Tij φj (9. two from the scalar ﬁelds and two from the gauge ﬁeld.126) . b = 1.122) g AB (9. because now it is a massive vector ﬁeld. with v deﬁned as in (9.119) 2 Therefore the gauge ﬁeld acquires a mass m2 = g 2v 2 A (9. min aN Tij φj min a = ivδi . The gauge in which such a thing happens is called the unitary gauge. but three degrees of freedom from the gauge vector. given by 1 2 2 g v Aµ Aµ (9. · · · . The lagrangian invariant under local transformations is 1 µ2 λ L = (Dµ )ij φj (D µ )ik φk − φi φi − (φiφi )2 2 2 4 where (9.and we see that this generates a bilinear term in Aµ . The result looks a little bit strange. but the reason why we may read clearly the number of degrees of freedom only after the gauge transformation is that before the lagrangian contains a mixing term Aµ ∂ µ θ (9. we choose again the vacuum along the direction N.

From the previous derivation this follows noticing that the generators of H annihilate the minimum of the ﬁelds. · · · .1 -This ﬁgure shows the various groups. Th unbroken generators in GW correspond to massless vector bosons. G. whereas the non zero action of the broken generators generate a mass term for the other gauge ﬁelds. Finally the gauge ﬁelds associated to generators of GW lying in H remain massless. H the subgroup of G leaving invariant the vacuum. the global symmetry of the lagrangian. if G is the global symmetry group of the lagrangian. H ∈ G.aN Therefore. remain massless. The broken generators do not belonging to GW correspond to massless Goldstone bosons. that is the sum is restricted to the broken directions. the ﬁelds Wµ associated to the broken directions T aN acquire a mass ab g 2 v 2 /2. associated to the unbroken symmetry O(N − 1). one can divide up the broken generators in two categories. G H GW Fig. N − 1. The broken generators in GW correspond to massive vector bosons. The situation is represented in Fig. leaving the corresponding gauge bosons massless. In fact we can deﬁne new ﬁelds ξa and χ as aN φi = e−iT ξa (χ + v) (9.4. and GW the group of local (gauge) symmetries. they have associated massive vector bosons. the symmetry of the vacuum. they have associated massless Goldstone bosons. 6. We can now show how to eliminate the Goldstone bosons. GW ∈ G. whereas Wµ .1. The other degree of freedom is in the other factor. and GW . The correspondence among the ﬁelds 229 iN . In the second category fall the other broken generators. the group of local symmetries. 9.127) where a = 1. In general. In the ﬁrst category fall the broken generators lying in GW .

134) (9.130) 9. 2 k |k| (9.129) showing that the ξa ’s are really the Goldstone ﬁelds.128) from which φi ≈ (vξa . Notice again the counting of the degrees of freedom N +2N(N − 2 1)/2 = N in a generic gauge. = 1 m |k|.131) Wµ → eiT ξa Wµ e−iT ξa − ∂µ eiT ξa e−iT ξa g This transformation eliminates the Goldstone degrees of freedom and the resulting aN lagrangian depends on the ﬁeld χ. and 1 + 3(N − 1) + 2(N − 1)(N − 2)/2 = N 2 in the unitary gauge.132) 4 2 where Wµ is the massive gauge ﬁeld (called also a Yang-Mills massive ﬁeld). E 230 i = 1. By putting k µ = (E.135) . The unitary gauge is deﬁned through the transformation φi → aN eiT ξa ij aN aN aN aN i (9. χ) can be seen easily by expanding around the vacuum aN e−iT ξa iN a ≈ δiN − i(T aN )iN ξa = δiN + δi ξa (9. We deﬁne Wµ (x) = d4 k Wµ (k)e−ikx (9.φ and (ξa .133) It is convenient to introduce a set of four independent four-vectors. The corresponding quadratic part of the lagrangian will be (we consider here the abelian case corresponding to a symmetry U(1) or O(2)) 1 m2 2 L = − Fµν F µν + W (9.5 Quantization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory in the Rξ -gauge In the previous Section we have seen that in the unitary gauge some of the gauge ﬁelds acquire a mass. on the massive vector ﬁelds Wµ and on the ab massless ﬁeld Wµ . χ + v) (9. ni). k) we introduce µ(i) µ(3) = (0. φj = δiN (χ + v) (9. The free equations of motion are ( + m2 )Wµ − ∂µ (∂ ν Wν ) = 0 Let us study the solutions of this equation in momentum space.

In fact it goes to constant for k → ∞.142) The propagator is deﬁned by the equation ( λ + m2 ) − ∂µ ∂ν Gνλ (x) = igµ δ 4 (x) (9. Then we can decompose Wµ (k) as follows Wµ (k) = Since kµ µ(λ) µ(λ) ni · nj = δij (9. When the momentum is on shell.136) aλ (k) + kµ b(k) (9.138) (9.λ =0 gλλ = g µν (9.137) = 0.142). we can deﬁne a fourth unit vector µ(0) = kµ m (9. for m = 0 the ﬁeld has three degrees of freedom with k 2 = m2 .141) Therefore the sum over the physical degrees of freedom gives 3 µ(λ) ν(λ) λ=1 = −g µν + kµ kν m2 (9.139) implying (k 2 − m2 )aλ (k) = 0. This propagator has a very bad high-energy behaviour. from the equation of motion we get (−k 2 + m2 )( µ(λ) aλ (k) + kµ b(k)) + kµ k 2 b(k) = 0 m2 b(k) = 0 (9. Therefore. the corresponding Feynman’s rule for the massive gauge ﬁeld propagator is kµ kν i − 2 (9. corresponding to transverse and longitudinal polarization.140) In this way we have four independent unit vectors which satisfy the completeness relation 3 µ(λ) ν(λ ) λ.144) Therefore.143) Solving in momentum space we ﬁnd Gµν (k) = d4 k −ikx i e 4 2 − m2 + i (2π) k −g µν + kµkν m2 (9. (9. As a consequence the argument 231 .145) g µν − k − m2 + i m2 Notice that the expression in parenthesis is nothing but the projector over the physical states given in eq.with k · ni = 0.

We will discuss this point only for the abelian case. whereas φ is the Goldstone ﬁeld. we have to take into account that the gauge invariance allows us to make diﬀerent choices of the gauge.4. but the argument cab be easily extended to the non-abelian case.149) µ2 (9.148) (9. φ2 = φ (9. Let us recall that under a transformation of O(2) the two real scalar ﬁeld of the theory transform as δφ1 = −αφ2 .151) with with m2 = −2µ2 . φ) = − 1 m4 + m2 χ2 + · · · 16λ 2 (9.for the renormalizability of the theory based on power counting does not hold any more. the potential up to quadratic terms is given by (see eq.152) (9.153) The last term is an interaction term and it does not play any role in the following considerations.101)) V (χ. we introduce the ﬁelds φ1 = v + χ. φ) − Fµν F µν 2 2 4 where. with gauge group O(2). (9. In terms of the new variables the lagrangian is v2 = − 1 1 1 L = (∂µ χ + gWµ φ)2 + (∂µ φ − gWµ χ − gvWµ )2 − V (χ. In fact we will show that there exist an entire class of gauges where the theory is renormalizable by power counting. δφ2 = αφ1 (9.150) λ Remember that χ is the Higgs ﬁeld. We see that the eﬀect of the shift on φ1 is to produce the terms 1 2 2 2 g v W − gvWµ∂ µ φ + g 2 vW 2χ 2 (9.147) Assuming that the spontaneous breaking occurs along the direction φ1 . The ﬁrst term is the mass term for the W m2 = g 2 v 2 W 232 (9. Although in the unitary gauge a spontaneously broken gauge theory does not seem to be renormalizable.146) Therefore. Let us consider the O(2) theory as presented in Section 9. in order to make it a gauge theory we introduce covariant derivatives Dµ φ1 = ∂µ φ1 + gWµ φ2 Dµ φ2 = ∂µ φ2 − gWµ φ1 with Wµ transforming under a local transformation as 1 δWµ (x) = ∂µ α(x) g (9.154) .

f = ∂ µ Wµ + gvξφ (9.3 we know that the eﬀect of such a gauge ﬁxing is to add to the lagrangian a term − 1 1 ξ ξ2 2 2 2 1 2 f = − (∂ µ Wµ + gvξφ)2 = − (∂ µ Wµ )2 − gv∂ µ Wµ φ − g v φ (9. in an example.157) + gvWµ∂ µ φ β and we see that with the choice β=ξ (9. that evaluating a physical amplitude the contribution of the Goldstone disappears. since they are coupled to the Higgs ﬁeld. after integration by parts reads ξ (9.162) 1 α(x) + gvξα(x)(χ(x) + v) g (9. In fact let us consider a gauge ﬁxing of the form f − B = 0. By proceeding as in Section 8. Finally the third contribution 1 − ξg 2v 2 φ2 2 is a mass term for the Goldstone ﬁeld m2 = ξg 2v 2 = ξm2 φ W (9.158) it cancels the unwanted mixing term. In fact remember that it disappears in the unitary gauge. Finally we have to consider the ghost contribution from the Faddeev-Popov determinant. that we got rid of by choosing the unitary gauge. We will see later.161) (9. the ghosts cannot be ignored. The second term.155) where ξ is an arbitrary parameter and B(x) is an arbitrary function.whereas the second term is the mixing between the W and the Goldstone ﬁeld. We are now in the position of reading the various propagators from the quadratic part of the lagrangian 233 . However this choice is not unique. For this purpose we need to know the variation of the gauge ﬁxing f under an inﬁnitesimal gauge transformation δf (x) = giving 1 4 δf (x) = δ (x − y) + gvξ(χ(x) + v)δ 4 (x − y) δα(y) g Therefore the ghost lagrangian can be written as c∗ c + ξg 2v 2 c∗ c + ξg 2vχc∗ c (9. as it should be.163) Notice that in contrast with QED.159) (9.156) 2β 2β 2β β 2β The ﬁrst term is the usual covariant gauge ﬁxing.160) However this mass is gauge dependent (it depends on the arbitrary parameter ξ) and this is a signal of the fact that in this gauge the Goldstone ﬁeld is ﬁctitious.

169) We see that for this class of gauges the asymptotic behaviour of the propagator is 1/k 2 and we can apply the usual power counting.167) (9.168) (9. 234 .166) (9. Of course. the singularity of the limit destroys the asymptotic behaviour that one has for ﬁnite values of ξ. Notice that the unitary gauge is recovered in the limit ξ → ∞.164) The propagator in momentum space is the inverse of the wave operator (except for a factor −i). To invert the operator we notice that it is written as a combination of two orthogonal projection operators P1 and P2 αP1 + βP2 The inverse of such an operator is simply 1 1 P1 + P2 α β Therefore the W propagator is given by i 2 − m2 k W i = − 2 k − m2 W − g µν − g µν kµkν kµ kν iξ − 2 k2 k − ξm2 k 2 W kµkν − 2 (1 − ξ) k − ξm2 W (9. Also. for ξ → ∞ the ghost and the Goldstone ﬁelds decouple since their mass goes to inﬁnity.165) (9. In this limit the W -propagator becomes the one discussed at the beginning of the Section.• Higgs propagator (χ): i k 2 − m2 k2 i − ξm2 W • Goldstone propagator (φ): • Ghost propagator (c): − k2 i − ξm2 W The propagator for the vector ﬁeld is more involved. let us collect the various quadratic terms in Wµ 1 1 1 − Fµν F µν + m2 W 2 − (∂ µ Wµ )2 W 4 2 2ξ In momentum space wave operator is 1 (g µν k 2 − k µ k ν ) − m2 g µν + k µ k ν W ξ which can be rewritten as g µν − kµ kν k2 (k 2 − m2 ) + W kµ kν 1 2 (k − ξm2 ) W 2 ξ k (9.

109). and therefore one gets the wanted result. ψR = ψ 2 2 and we assume the following transformation under the gauge group ψL = ψL → eiα ψL . We will write ¯ ˆ ¯ ˆ ¯ ¯ Lf = ψL iDψL + ψR i∂ψR − λf (ψL ψR Φ + ψR ψL Φ∗ ) with Dµ = ∂µ − igWµ (9.173) ¯ ¯ 1 + γ5 + 1 − γ5 ψψ = ψ 2 2 (9.174) Therefore we will introduce a Yukawa coupling between the scalar ﬁeld and the fermions.To end this Section we observe that with this approach one is able to prove at the same time that the theory is renormalizable and that it does not contain spurious states. (9. in such a way to be gauge invariant and to gives rise to a mass term for the fermion when the symmetry is spontaneously broken.175) .177) (9. To this end we consider again the O(2) model of the previous Section. since it couples left-handed and right-handed ﬁelds. But.6 ξ-cancellation in perturbation theory In this Section we will discuss the cancellation of the ξ dependent terms in the calculation of a simple amplitude at tree level. In fact the theory is renormalizable for ﬁnite values of ξ and it does not contain spurious states for ξ → ∞. ψR → ψR where (9. and we remind that it transforms as Φ → eiα Φ 235 (9. as in eq. We will also mimic the standard model by making transform under the gauge group only the left-handed part of the fermion ﬁeld. they do not depend in particular on ξ. since the gauge invariant quantities do not depend on the gauge ﬁxing.171) (9. 9. and we add to the theory a fermion ﬁeld. In fact ¯ ψL = and therefore 1 − γ5 2 ψ = ψ† 1 − γ5 ¯ 1 + γ5 γ0 = ψ 2 2 ¯ ¯ ψ = ψL ψR + ψR ψL (9. That is we decompose ψ as ψ = ψL + ψR 1 − γ5 1 + γ5 ψ.172) A fermion mass term would destroy the gauge invariance.170) (9.176) Here we have used again the complex notation for the scalar ﬁeld.

Therefore Lf is gauge invariant. 9.179) (9. φ λf Fig. The lagrangian can be rewritten in terms of the ﬁeld ψ by writing explicitly the chiral projectors (1 ± γ5 )/2. 9.6. 9. We get ¯ ˆ 1 − γ5 ψ + ψi∂ 1 + γ5 ψ + g ψγµ 1 − γ5 ψW µ ¯ ˆ ¯ Lf = ψi∂ 2 2 2 λf ¯ 1 + γ 5 1 − γ5 ¯ ψ(φ1 + iφ2 ) + ψ ψ(φ1 − iφ2 ) − √ ψ 2 2 2 from which λ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˆ ¯ 1 − γ5 ψW µ − √f ψψ(v + χ) + iψγ5 ψφ L = ψi∂ψ + g ψγµ 2 2 (9.1 . Let us start with the Goldstone exchange. .6.The fermion-fermion scattering in the U(1) Higgs model.2.6.178) where χ + v = φ1 and φ = φ2 . .Goldstone-fermion vertex: √ γ5 2 236 . 9.2 .6.180) The previous expression shows also that the Higgs ﬁeld is a scalar (parity +1). Consider now the fermion-fermion scattering in this model at tree level. This expression shows that the fermion ﬁeld acquires a mass through the Higgs mechanism given by λf v mf = √ 2 (9. The amplitude gets contribution from the diagrams of Fig. The ξ dependence arises from the gauge ﬁeld and the Goldstone ﬁeld exchange. p' k W + q p k' φ + χ Fig. We want to show that the ξ contribution cancels out. The Feynman’s rule for the vertex is given in Fig.1. Therefore we will consider only these two contributions. whereas the Goldstone ﬁeld is a pseudoscalar (parity= -1).

3 .The corresponding amplitude is Mφ = λf √ 2 2 u(p )γ5u(p) ¯ q2 i u(k )γ5 u(k) ¯ − ξm2 W (9.6. Fig.181) where q = p − p = k − k. 9.3. The Feynman rule for the W-fermion vertex is given in Fig.185) .182) 2 q − ξmW 2 It is convenient to isolate the ξ dependence by rewriting the gauge ﬁeld propagator as 1 −i qµqν 1−ξ g µν − 2 + q µ q ν − 2 2 2 − m2 q mW mW q − ξm2 W W qµqν qµqν −i −i = = 2 g µν − 2 + 2 q − m2 mW q − ξm2 m2 W W W (9.183) The ﬁrst term is ξ independent and it is precisely the W propagator in the unitary gauge.W-fermion vertex: igγµ The corresponding amplitude is ¯ MW = (ig)2 u(p )γµ × q2 −i − m2 W 1 − γ5 2 1 − γ5 u(p) 2 1 − γ5 qµqν (1 − ξ) u(k )γν ¯ g µν − 2 u(k) (9.184) By using this relation we have 1 − γ5 1 − γ5 u(p)¯(k )γµ u u(k) = 2 2 u u = (mf )¯(p )γ5 u(p)(−mf )¯(k )γ5 u(k) ¯ q µ q ν u(p )γµ 2 λf = − √ 2 v 2 u(p )γ5 u(p)¯(k )γ5 u(k) ¯ u 237 (9. The second term can be simpliﬁed by using the identity ¯ q µ u(p )γµ = u(p ) ¯ 1 − γ5 1 − γ5 u(p) = (p − p )µ u(p )γµ u(p) = ¯ 2 2 1 − γ5 1 + γ5 p−p ˆ ˆ u(p) = mf u(p )γ5 u(p) ¯ 2 2 (9.6. . 9.

On the other hand. In fact the gauge propagator can be rewritten as −i −ig µν = 2 2 k 2 − mW k − m2 W 3 (λ) (λ ) µ ν gλλ λ. which has a propagator i (9.190) The ﬁrst piece is the propagator in the unitary gauge. 238 . In the present case this does not happens. Now let us make some comment about the result. Therefore the result is the same that we would have obtained in the unitary gauge where there is no Goldstone contribution. In QED we have used the fact that the q µ q ν terms in the propagator do not play a physical role. the term that one gets in this way it is just the one necessary to give rise to the cancellation with the Goldstone boson contribution. which however it is cancelled by the Goldstone pole which also is at k 2 = 0.since they are contracted with the fermionic current which is conserved. whereas the second piece is cancelled by the Goldstone boson contribution. For ξ = 0 the gauge propagator is transverse −i 2 − m2 k W g µν − kµkν k2 (9. In ¯ fact the fermionic current ψγµ (1 − γ5 )/2ψ it is not conserved because the fermion acquires a mass through the spontaneous breaking of the symmetry.188) This is the Feynman-’t Hooft gauge.187) This corresponds to the Landau gauge. It is also worth to compare what happens for diﬀerent choices of ξ.189) 2 − m2 k W it is to cancel the contribution of the time-like component of the gauge ﬁeld.180). which (0) is described by the polarization vector µ .λ =0 = i k 2 − m2 W 3 (λ) (λ) µ ν λ=1 + kµ kν −i k 2 − m2 m2 W W (9. Substituting this result in MW we get MW = (ig)2 u(p )γµ ¯ + −i 1 − γ5 u(p) 2 2 q − m2 W λ √f 2 2 g µν − qµqν m2 W u(k )γµ ¯ 1 − γ5 u(k) 2 (9. but we get a term proportional to the fermion mass. (9. The propagator has a pole term at k 2 = 0. Here the role of the Goldstone boson.where we have made use of eq. using m2 = g 2 v 2 we see that the last term cancels exactly the Mφ ampliW tude.186) −i g2v2 q 2 − ξm2 m2 W W u(p )γ5 u(p)¯(k )γ5 u(k) ¯ u Finally. For the choice ξ = 1 the gauge propagator has the very simple form −ig µν k 2 − m2 W (9.

**Chapter 10 The Standard model of the electroweak interactions
**

10.1 The Standard Model of the electroweak interactions

We will describe now the Weinberg Salam model for the electroweak interactions. Let us recall that the Fermi theory of weak interactions is based on a lagrangian involving four Fermi ﬁelds. This lagrangian can be written as the product of two currents which are the sum of various pieces. GF (+) LF = √ Jµ J µ(−) 2 (10.1)

Limiting for the moment our considerations to the charged current for the electron and its neutrino (here ν ≡ νe )), the current is given by

(+) ¯ Jµ = ψe γµ (1 − γ5 )ψν , (−) (+) ¯ Jµ = Jµ = ψν γµ (1 − γ5 )ψe †

(10.2)

To understand the symmetry hidden in this couplings it is convenient to introduce the following spinors with 2 × 4 components L= (ψν )L (ψe )L = 1 − γ5 2 ψν ψe (10.3)

where we have introduced left-handed ﬁelds. The right-handed spinors, projected out with (1 + γ5 )/2, don’t feel the weak interaction. This is, in fact, the physical meaning of the V − A interaction. By using ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 + γ5 ¯ L = (ψν )L , (ψe )L = ψν , ψe 2 (10.4)

239

**we can write the weak currents in the following way
**

(+) ¯ Jµ = 2ψe

1 + γ5 1 − γ5 0 ¯ ¯ γµ ψν = 2 (ψν )L , (ψe )L γµ (ψν )L 2 2 0 0 (ψν )L ¯ ¯ ¯ = 2Lγµ τ− L = 2 (ψν )L , (ψe )L γµ 1 0 (ψe )L τ± =

(10.5)

**τ1 ± iτ2 2 the τi ’s being the Pauli matrices. Analogously
**

(−) ¯ Jµ = 2Lγµ τ+ L

where we have deﬁned

(10.6)

(10.7)

In the ﬁfties the hypothesis of the intermediate vector bosons was advanced. According to this idea the Fermi theory was to be regarded as the low energy limit of a theory where the currents were coupled to vector bosons, very much as QED. However, due to the short range of the weak interactions these vector bosons had to have mass. The interaction among the vector bosons and the fermions is given by g ¯ g (+) (−) Lint = √ Jµ W −µ + Jµ W +µ = √ Lγµ (τ− W −µ + τ+ W +µ )L (10.8) 2 2 2 The coupling g can be related to the Fermi constant through the relation g2 GF √ = 8m2 2 W Introducing real ﬁelds in place of W± W± = we get W1 ∓ iW2 √ 2 (10.10) (10.9)

g¯ µ µ (10.11) Lint = Lγµ (τ1 W1 + τ2 W2 )L 2 Let us now try to write the electromagnetic interaction within the same formalism ¯ ¯ Lem = eψe Qγµ ψe Aµ = eψe Q 1 + γ5 1 − γ5 1 − γ5 1 + γ5 γµ + γµ 2 2 2 2 µ ¯ ¯ = e[(ψe )L Qγµ (ψe )L + (ψe )R Qγµ (ψe )R ]A ψe Aµ (10.12)

where

1 + γ5 ¯ ¯ 1 − γ5 ψe , (10.13) (ψe )R = ψe 2 2 where Q = −1 is the electric charge of the electron, in unit of the electric charge of the proton, e. It is also convenient to denote the right-handed components of the electron as R = (ψe )R (10.14) (ψe )R = 240

We can write ¯ ¯ (ψe )L γµ (ψe )L = Lγµ and 0 0 0 1

¯ 1 − τ3 L L = Lγµ 2

(10.15)

¯ ¯ (ψe )R γµ (ψe )R = Rγµ R from which, using Q = −1, 1¯ em ¯ ¯ τ3 Lem = e − Lγµ L − Rγµ R + Lγµ L Aµ = ejµ Aµ 2 2 From this equation we can write 1 Y em 3 jµ = jµ + jµ 2 with

3 ¯ jµ = Lγµ

(10.16)

(10.17)

(10.18)

τ3 L 2

(10.19) (10.20)

and

Y ¯ ¯ jµ = −Lγµ L − 2Rγµ R 3 These equations show that the electromagnetic current is a mixture of jµ , which is Y a partner of the charged weak currents, and of jµ , which is another neutral current. 3 The following notations unify the charged currents and jµ i ¯ τi jµ = Lγµ L 2

(10.21)

Using the canonical anticommutators for the Fermi ﬁelds, it is not diﬃcult to prove that the charges associated to the currents Qi = span the Lie algebra of SU(2), [Qi , Qj ] = i

k ijk Q i d3 x j0 (x)

(10.22)

(10.23)

Y The charge QY associated to the current jµ commutes with Qi , as it can be easily veriﬁed noticing that the right-handed and left-handed ﬁelds commute with each other. Therefore the algebra of the charges is

[Qi , Qj ] = i

k ijk Q ,

[Qi , QY ] = 0

(10.24)

This is the Lie algebra of SU(2) ⊗ U(1), since the Qi ’s generate a group SU(2), whereas QY generates a group U(1), with the two groups commuting among themselves. To build up a gauge theory from these elements we have to start with an initial lagrangian possessing an SU(2) ⊗ U(1) global invariance. This will produce 241

4 gauge vector bosons. Two of these vectors are the charged one already introduce, whereas we would like to identify one of the the other two with the photon. By evaluating the commutators of the charges with the ﬁelds we can read immediately the quantum numbers of the various particles. We have [Lc , Qi ] = and [R, Qi ] = 0 [Lc , QY ] = −Lc , [R, QY ] = −2R (10.26) (10.27) d3 x [Lc , L† a τi 2 Lb ] = τi 2 Lb (10.25)

ab

cb

These relations show that L transforms as an SU(2) spinor, or, as the representation 2, where we have identiﬁed the representation with its dimensionality. R belongs to the trivial representation of dimension 1. Putting everything together we have the following behaviour under the representations of SU(2) ⊗ U(1) L ∈ (2, −1), R ∈ (1, −2) (10.28)

The relation (10.18) gives the following relation among the diﬀerent charges 1 Qem = Q3 + QY 2 (10.29)

As we have argued, if SU(2) ⊗ U(1) has to be the fundamental symmetry of electroweak interactions, we have to start with a lagrangian exhibiting this global symmetry. This is the free Dirac lagrangian for a massless electron and a left-handed neutrino ¯ ˆ ¯ ˆ L0 = Li∂L + Ri∂R (10.30) Mass terms, mixing left- and right-handed ﬁelds, would destroy the global symmetry. For instance, a typical mass term gives ¯ mψψ = mψ † 1 + γ5 1 − γ5 1 − γ5 1 + γ5 ¯ ¯ γ0 + γ0 ψ = m(ψR ψL + ψL ψR ) (10.31) 2 2 2 2

We shall see later that the same mechanism giving mass to the vector bosons can be used to generate fermion masses. A lagrangian invariant under the local symmetry SU(2) ⊗ U(1) is obtained through the use of covariant derivatives τi i g ¯ ¯ L = Liγ µ ∂µ − ig Wµ + i Yµ L + Riγ µ (∂µ + ig Y µ ) R 2 2 The interaction term is ¯ Lint = g Lγµ τ g ¯ ¯ · W µ L − Lγµ LY µ − g Rγµ RY µ 2 2 242 (10.33) (10.32)

In this expression we recognize the charged interaction with W ± . We have also, as expected, two neutral vector bosons W 3 and Y . The photon must couple to the electromagnetic current which is a linear combination of j 3 and j Y . The neutral vector bosons are coupled to these two currents, so we expect the photon ﬁeld, 3 Aµ , to be a linear combination of Wµ and Yµ . It is convenient to introduce two orthogonal combination of these two ﬁelds, Zµ , and Aµ . The mixing angle can be identiﬁed through the requirement that the current coupled to Aµ is exactly the electromagnetic current with coupling constant e. Let us consider the part of Lint involving the neutral couplings

µ 3 LN C = gjµ W3 +

g Y µ j Y 2 µ

(10.34)

By putting (θ is called the Weinberg angle) W3 = Z cos θ + A sin θ Y = −Z sin θ + A cos θ we get 1 Y 1 Y 3 3 LN C = g sin θ jµ + g cos θ jµ Aµ + g cos θ jµ − g sin θ jµ Z µ 2 2 The electromagnetic coupling is reproduced by requiring the two conditions g sin θ = g cos θ = e (10.37) (10.36)

(10.35)

These two relations allow us to express both the Weinberg angle and the electric charge e in terms of g and g . In the low-energy experiments performed before the LEP era (< 1990) the fundamental parameters used in the theory were e (or rather the ﬁne structure constant α) and sin2 θ. We shall see in the following how the Weinberg angle can be eliminated in favor of the mass of the Z, which is now very well known. By using eq. em 3 Y (10.37), and jµ = jµ + 1 jµ , we can write 2

em 3 em 3 LN C = ejµ Aµ + [g cos θjµ − g sin θ(jµ − jµ )]Z µ

(10.38)

**Expressing g through g = g tan θ, the coeﬃcient of Zµ can be put in the form
**

3 em [g cos θ + g sin θ]jµ − g sin θ jµ =

g 3 g em jµ − sin2 θ jµ cos θ cos θ

(10.39)

from which

em LN C = ejµ Aµ +

**g g Z µ 3 em em [jµ − sin2 θ jµ ]Z µ ≡ ejµ Aµ + j Z cos θ cos θ µ
**

Z 3 em jµ = jµ − sin2 θ jµ

(10.40)

where we have introduced the neutral current coupled to the Z (10.41)

243

Notice that the eq.37) gives the following relation among the electric charge and the couplings g and g 1 1 1 = 2+ 2 (10.44) To determine the weak hypercharge. we need three broken symmetries in order to give mass to W ± and Z.47) which justiﬁes the notation φ+ for the upper component of the doublet. 244 .45) Since QY and Qi commute. so one of the components of the doublet must also be neutral. the group U(1)em must be a symmetry of the vacuum (that is the vacuum should be electrically neutral). and using again eq. we get Qem (φ+ ) = 1 1 + =1 2 2 (10. in such a way to have the corresponding gauge particle (the photon) massless.23 (10. (10. we will be left with one unbroken symmetry. than we will write Φ= φ+ φ0 (10.2 The Higgs sector in the Standard Model According to the discussion made in the previous Section. Therefore. both the components of the doublet must have the same value of QY . Assume that this component is the lower one. As we already noticed the vacuum should be electrically neutral.45).The value of sin2 θ was evaluated initially from processes induced by neutral currents (as the scattering ν − e) at low energy.42) This shows that both g and g are of the same order of the electric charge. Since SU(2) ⊗ U(1) has four generators. of Φ. (10. We get QY (φ0 ) = 2 × 0 − − 1 2 =1 (10.43) 2 e g g 10. we use the relation 1 Qem = Q3 + QY 2 for the lower component of Φ. QY . The simplest choice turns out to be a complex representation of SU(2) of dimension 2 (Higgs doublet).46) (10. To realize this aim we have to introduce a set of scalar ﬁelds transforming in a convenient way under SU(2) ⊗ U(1). that we should identify with the group U(1) of the electromagnetism (U(1)em ). The approximate value is sin2 θ ≈ 0.

In this way we get h h h VHiggs 1 m2 m2 1 m2 = − m2 v 2 + h h2 + h h |φ+ |2 + (h2 + η 2 ) + h h 8 2 v 2 2v 2 1 |φ | + (h2 + η 2 ) 2 (10. This is called the Higgs ﬁeld.58) and η. λ = m2 /2v 2 ).56) Summarizing we have three massless Goldstone bosons φ± scalar h.52) (10.50) (10.51) 0 φ+ √ √ + ≡ Φ0 + Φ v/ 2 (h + iη)/ 2 (10.57) It is also convenient to express the parameters appearing in the original form of the potential in terms of m2 e v (µ2 = −2m2 . 245 .55) From this expression we read immediately the particle masses (φ− = (φ+ )† ) m2 = m2 + = m2 − = 0 η φ φ and m2 = 2λv 2 = −2µ2 h (10. The potential has inﬁnitely many minima on the surface |Φ|2 minimum with v2 = − Let us choose the vacuum as the state 0|Φ|0 = By putting Φ= with 0|Φ |0 = 0 we get 1 1 |Φ|2 = v 2 + vh + |φ+ |2 + (h2 + η 2 ) 2 2 from which 1 µ4 1 1 + λv 2 h2 + 2λvh |φ+ |2 + (h2 + η 2 ) + λ |φ+ |2 + (h2 + η 2 ) VHiggs = − 4 λ 2 2 (10.53) (10.54) (10.The most general lagrangian for Φ with the global symmetry SU(2) ⊗ U(1) and containing terms of dimension lower or equal to four (in order to have a renormalizable theory) is LHiggs = ∂µ Φ† ∂ µ Φ − µ2 Φ† Φ − λ(Φ† Φ)2 (10. and a massive + 2 2 2 v2 µ2 = =− 2λ 2 µ2 λ 0 √ v/ 2 (10.48) where λ > 0 and µ2 < 0.49) (10.

But.As usual. Recalling that Φ ∈ (2. at any rate. 1) of SU(2) ⊗ U(1).61) (v + h)/ 2 According to our rules the exponential should contain the broken generators. Deﬁning 0 1 Φd = .63) the Higgs lagrangian remains invariant in form. In fact.127) 0 √ Φ = eiξ · τ /v (10.66) (10. Furthermore it should contain the combination of 1 and τ3 which is broken (remember that (1 + τ3 )/2 is the electric charge of the doublet Φ. h) ≈ (ξ2 .60) To study the mass generation it is convenient to write Φ in a way analogous to the one used in eq. −ξ3 .68) 1 0 246 .62) (10. Φu = (10. we have g g H Dµ = ∂µ − i τ · Wµ − i Yµ 2 2 and H LHiggs = (Dµ Φ)† D Hµ Φ − µ2 Φ† Φ − λ(Φ† Φ)2 (10. expanding around this state 1 + iξ3 /v i(ξ1 − iξ2 )/v 1 − iξ3 /v i(ξ1 + iξ2 )/v 1 i(ξ1 − iξ2 ) ≈ √ (v + h − iξ3 ) 2 √ and introducing real components for Φ (φ+ = (φ1 − iφ2 )/ 2) eiξ · τ /v 0 √ (v + h)/ 2 ≈ 1 φ1 − iφ2 Φ= √ v + h + iη 2 we get the relation among the two sets of coordinates (φ1 . We will also denote old and new gauge ﬁelds with the same symbol. −ξ1 . we promote the global symmetry to a local one by introducing the covariant derivative. (9. In fact there are τ1 . and it is conserved). h) By performing the gauge transformation Φ → e−iξ · τ /v Φ Wµ · i τ τ → e−iξ · τ /v Wµ · eiξ · τ /v + 2 2 g Yµ → Yµ ∂µ e−iξ · τ /v eiξ · τ /v (10. and τ2 which are broken. by now.67) (10. η. τ3 is a broken generator. except for the substitution of Φ with √ (0. so the previous expression gives a good representation of Φ around the vacuum.65) (10.64) 0 √ (v + h)/ 2 (10. φ2 .59) (10. (v + h)/ 2).

74) Notice that the masses of the W ± and of the Z are not independent.70) 2 2 2 Since Φd and Φu are orthogonals. The gauge interaction introduces the two gauge couplings g and g . and of the Weinberg angle.76) Let us now discuss the parameters that we have so far in the theory. in the kinetic term.35) we see that the neutral ﬁelds combination is just the Z ﬁeld. The Higgs sector brings in two additional parameters. or from the gauge coupling constants 2 g2 MW 2 = 2 2 = cos θ 2 MZ g +g (10. (10. Φ with its expectation value v (10. the mass of the Higgs.73) From eq.72) (10. (10. In this way we get g 2v 2 + 2 1 g 2 + g 2 2 2 |W | + v Z 4 2 4 Finally the mass of the vector bosons is given by 1 2 MW = g 2v 2 .69) Φ → √ Φd 2 We get −i g g τ ·W + Y 2 2 v √ Φd = −i 2 g v g g √ (τ− W − + τ+ W + ) + τ3 W 3 + Y √ Φd 2 2 2 2 g v 1 = −i √ √ W + Φu − (gW 3 − g Y )Φd (10.37) we have tan θ = g /g. which can also be expressed in terms of the electric charge (or the ﬁne structure constant). and therefore sin θ = g g2 + g 2 .75) (10. since their ratio is determined by the Weinberg angle. 247 .71) allowing us to write the mass term in the form v2 g2 + 2 g2 + g 2 |W | + (W 3 cos θ − Y sin θ)2 2 2 4 (10.the mass terms for the scalar ﬁelds can be read by substituting. the mass term is v2 g2 + 2 1 |W | + (gW 3 − g Y )2 2 2 4 From eq. cos θ = g g2 + g 2 (10. 4 1 2 2 MZ = (g 2 + g )v 2 4 (10. orthogonal to the photon.

we get ¯ ¯ LY = ge [ (ψν )L . Once the ﬁeld Φ acquires a non vanishing expectation value. +1) (10. the trilinear term generates the electron mass.9) GF g2 √ = 2 8MW 2 2 using the expression for MW . −1). R ∈ (1.mh . In fact. sin2 θ and GF . the parameters that are now used as input in the SM are α.79) to eliminate sin2 θ (10. v. The solution is that we can build up trilinear invariant terms in the electron ﬁeld and in Φ.c. and at the moment we have only an experimental lower bound on mh .65) both for Φ and for the lepton ﬁeld L. (ψe )L ] 0 √ (ψe )R + h. φ0 (10.80) The ﬁrst alternative has been the one used before LEP. and the expectation value of the ﬁeld Φ. Recalling the behaviour of the ﬁelds under SU(2) ⊗ U(1) L ∈ (2. = ge [ (ψν )L . The last problem we have to solve is how to give mass to the electron. from LEP. Φ ∈ (2.1867 ± 0. which is given by mh > 60 GeV .78) Therefore. the mass of the Z is very well known MZ = (91. g and v can be traded for e. after LEP1. GF and MZ .82) we see that the following coupling (Yukawian coupling) is invariant φ+ ¯ ¯ ¯ LY = ge LΦR + h. due to the breaking of the symmetry.83) In the unitary gauge. (10.c. The parameter v can be expressed in terms of the Fermi coupling constant GF . However.77) v2 = √ 1 ≈ (246 GeV )2 2GF (10.0021) GeV (10. which is obtained by using the transformation (10. The Higgs particle has not been yet discovered. since it is impossible to construct bilinear terms in the electron ﬁeld which are invariant under the gauge group. Another possibility is to use the mass of the Z 2 MZ = e2 1 1 πα √ =√ 2 2θ 4 2GF sin θ cos 2GF sin2 θ cos2 θ sin2 θ = 1 1− 2 1− √ 4πα 2 2GF MZ (10. −2).c.84) 248 . (ψe )L ] (ψe )R + h.81) Therefore. (v + h)/ 2 (10. we get (10. from eq. the three parameters g.

the weak transition n → p + e− + νe is ¯ obtained through ¯ (10. The proof that the renormalizability of the theory holds also in the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking (µ2 < 0) is absolutely non trivial. 10. p ≈ uud. also the Yukawian coupling has only dimension 3. with composition.91) 249 .7)) Jd with ΨL = uL dL = µ(±) ¯ = 2ΨL γ µ τ∓ ΨL 1 − γ5 2 u d (10. First of all we recall that in the quark model the nucleon is made up of three quarks.90) (10. In fact.5) and (10.88) In summary.87) LY = √ ψe ψe + √ ψe ψe h 2 2 Therefore the symmetry breaking generates an electron mass given by ge v me = − √ 2 (10.89) d → u + e− + νe and the assumption is made that quarks are point-like particles as leptons. but it can be extended in a trivial way to other lepton pairs. (10. 2 2 (10. In fact the proof was given only at the beginning of the seventies by ’t Hooft. it is natural to write quark current in a form analogous to the leptonic current (see eqs.from which ge v ¯ ge ¯ LY = √ (ψe )L (ψe )R + √ (ψe )L (ψe )R h + h. before spontaneous symmetry breaking is renormalizable. Therefore. n ≈ udd.85) Since ¯ 1 + γ5 ψe )† = ψ † 1 + γ5 γ0 ψe = ψe 1 − γ5 ψe = (ψe )R (ψe )L ¯ ¯ ¯ [(ψe )L (ψe )R ]† = (ψe e 2 2 2 (10.86) we get ge v ¯ ge ¯ (10.c. The extension to the quarks is a little bit less obvious and we will follow the necessary steps in this Section. This has been done with a theory that. we have been able to reproduce all the phenomenological features of the V −A theory and its extension to neutral currents.3 The electroweak interactions of quarks and the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo matrix So far we have formulated the SM for an electron-neutrino pair. Then.

97) µ(±) ¯ = 2QL γ µ τ∓ QL (10.101) uL dL cos θC + sL sin θC ≡ uL dC L (10. In fact. Collecting together the two currents we get Jh with QL = and dC = dL cos θC + sL sin θC L (10.98) This allows us to assign QL to the representation (2.99) 2 we get 2 1 1 QY (uL) = 2( − ) = (10. we assign them to SU(2) singlets. and sin θC = 0.92) u s with ΨL = uL sL = 1 − γ5 2 (10.95) The presence of the angle in the current was necessary in order to explain why the weak decays strangeness violating (that is the ones corresponding to the transition u ↔ s.100) 3 2 3 and (Qem (s) = Qem (d) = −1/3) 1 1 1 QY (dC ) = 2(− + ) = L 3 2 3 (10.93) Furthermore the total current contributing to the Fermi interaction had to be of the form µ µ µ Jh = Jd cos θC + Js sin θC (10.21 ± 0.03 (10. as K + → µ+ νµ ) where suppressed with respect to the decays strangeness conserving. from the hyperon decays it was known that it was necessary a further current involving the quark s. given by µ(±) ¯ = 2ΨL γ µ τ∓ ΨL Js (10.102) uR ∈ (1.94) where θC is the Cabibbo angle. ) R 3 3 250 . − ) (10. obtaining 4 2 dC ∈ (1.96) As far as the right-handed components are concerned.Phenomenologically. 1/3) of SU(2) ⊗ U(1). from 1 Qem = Q3 + QY (10.

109) .110) uL dC L .107) is proportional to sin θC cos θC . with the strength of a ﬂavour changing charged current transition as u → s. the charm. one can form two left-handed doublets Q1 = L where sC = −dL sin θC + sL cos θC L 251 (10. using BR(K 0 → µ+ µ− ). 2. s are given by τ3 3 ¯ (10. However the experimental result is that these transitions are strongly suppressed. Q2 ] = = i d3 xd3 y [Q† τ1 QL . We can compare the strength of a FCNC transition. GIM) that another quark with charge +2/3 should exist. the hadronic neutral currents contribution from quarks u.105) ¯ This gives rise to terms of the type ds and sd which produce strangeness changing ¯ neutral current transitions . which from dC† dC = d† d cos2 θC + s† s sin2 θC + (d† s + s† d) sin θC cos θC (10. Then. which is proportional to sin θC . Q† τ2 QL ] = L L d3 x Q† τ3 QL = i L d3 x Q† [τ1 .Therefore.108) This problem was solved in 1970 by the suggestion (Glashow Illiopoulos and Maiani. From this comparison we expect the two transitions to be of the same order of magnitude. τ2 ]QL L (10. But if we compare K 0 → µ+ µ− induced by the neutral current .103) jµ = QL γµ QL 2 1¯ 4 2¯ Y jµ = QL γµ QL + uR γµ uR − dC γµ dC (10. In a more general way we can get this result from the simple 3 observation that W3 is coupled to the current jµ which has an associated charge Q3 which can be obtained by commuting the charges Q1 and Q2 [Q1 . Q2 = L cL sC L (10. d. with K + → µ+ νµ induced by the charged current (see Fig. we ﬁnd Γ(K 0 → µ+ µ− ) ≤ 6 × 10−5 + → µ+ ν ) Γ(K µ (10.106) d3 x(u† uL − dC† dC ) L L L The last term is just the charge associated to a Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC).3). it is easily seen that the coupling contains a bilinear term in the ﬁeld dC given by − 1 1 2 1 ¯ ¯ − sin θ Z µ dC γµ dC + sin2 θZ µ dC γµ dC L L R R 2 3 3 (10.104) ¯ R 3 3 3 R 3 em Since the Z is coupled to the combination jµ − sin2 θjµ .

The charm was discovered in 1974.5 GeV . The mass of the top is around 175 GeV .114) allowing to get a rough estimate of the mass of the charm quark. The mass of charm was evaluated to be around 1.The neutral current ﬂavour changing process K 0 → µ+ µ− and he charged current ﬂavour changing process K + → µ+ νµ . This mechanism of cancellation turns out to be eﬀective also at the second order in the interaction.d K 0 Z s – µ + u K + W s – + µ + µ – νµ Fig. with ¯ PC −− = 1 . In fact. The same considerations apply to QY .3. the top. is the combination orthogonal to dC . mc ≈ 1 ÷ 3 GeV . the bottom or beauty. interpreted as a bound state ¯ where b is a new quark. t. when it was observed the bound state cc.1 . 10. as it should be. one can see that the two second order graphs contributing to K 0 → µ+ µ− cancel out except for terms coming from the mass diﬀerence between the quarks u and c.112) since the transformation matrix = (10. J In 1977 there was the observation of a new vector resonance. was discovered at Fermi Lab. One gets A(K 0 → µ+ µ− ) ≈ G2 (m2 − m2 ) F c u (10. Finally in 1995 the partner of the bottom. with mb ≈ 5 GeV . the Υ. bb.111) Q3 = L L L L L L But dC† dC + sC† sC = d† dL + s† sL L L L L L L dC L sC L cos θC − sin θC sin θC cos θC dL sL (10. We see that in association with three 252 . since we need a cancellation at least at the order G2 in order to cope with F the experimental bounds. As a consequence the expression of Q3 gets L modiﬁed d3 x (u† uL + c† cL − dC† dC − sC† sC ) (10. known as J/ψ.113) is orthogonal.

2. This is very important because it guarantees the renormalizability of the SM. showing that the mixing of diﬀerent quarks arises naturally from the fact that the quark mass eigenstates are not necessarily the same ﬁelds which couple to the gauge ﬁelds.121) + fR .120) We assume that the neutrinos are massless and that they do not have any righthanded partner. 2. However. uAR . Inside each generation the total charge is equal to zero. We will denote the last ones by AL = νA eA .117) e− L dA L A and the corresponding right-handed singlets (except for the neutrinos if we assume that they are massless). see later) is that the total electric charge of the ﬁelds is zero. We will complete now the formulation of the SM for the quark sector. the conservation of the currents coupled to the YangMills ﬁelds is crucial for the renormalization properties. 3 (10. L A = 1. L νµ µ− c s . dAR (10. Bell.116) L We will show later that experimental evidences for the quark b to belong to a doublet came out from PEP and PETRA much before the discovery of top. Each generation includes two left-handed doublets νA uA .119) and the right-handed singlets by eAR . L qAL = uA dA . The gauge interaction is then L = fL τ QY (fL ) ¯ Yµ γ µ fAL fAL i∂µ + g · Wµ + g 2 2 QY (fR ) ¯ fAR i∂µ + g 2 253 γ µ fAR (10.118) i 3 3 f ∈gen where we have also taken into account that each quark comes in three colors.leptonic doublets νe e− there are three quark doublets u d . Summarizing we have three generations of quarks and leptons. 3 (10. L (10. In fact 2 1 − Qf = 0 − 1 + 3 × Qtot = =0 (10. L ντ τ− t b (10.115) L . in general there are quantum corrections to the divergences of the currents destroying their conservation. A = 1. L . In fact. In the case of the SM for the electroweak interactions one can show that the condition for the absence of these corrections (Adler. Jackiw anomalies.

qAL . We recall also the weak hypercharge assignments QY ( AL ) = −1. and a Yukawian coupling given by ¯ gd qL ΦdR + h. QY (dAR ) = − 2 3 1 3 4 QY (uAR ) = 3 QY (qAL ) = (10. u. When this takes its expectation value.where fAL = AL . d. and fAR = eAR . AB (10.c. The most general Yukawian coupling among quarks and Higgs ﬁeld is then given by LY = AB i where gAB .c. u. Φ (0. with i = e. 2 254 i = e.c. are arbitrary 3 × 3 matrices. In order to give mass to the up quark we need to introduce the conjugated Higgs doublet deﬁned as ˜ Φ = iτ2 Φ = (φ0 ) −(φ+ ) (10. dAR .122) Let us now see how to give mass to quarks.125) ˜ Observing that QY (Φ) = −1. a mass term for the down quark is generated gd v ¯ gd v ¯ ¯ √ dLdR + dR dL = √ dd (10. QY (eAR ) = −2. (10. d (10.c.124) 2 2 √ corresponding to a mass md = −gd v/ 2.129) . v/ 2).123) = where√Φ is the Higgs doublet. (10. √ giving mass to the up quark.128) Therefore we obtain three 3 × 3 mass matrices v i i MAB = − √ gAB .127) Lfermion mass v =√ 2 e u d ¯ ¯ ¯ gAB eAL eBR + gAB uAL uBR + gAB dAL dBR + h. When we shift Φ by its vacuum expectation value we get a mass term for the fermions given by e u d ¯ ˜ ¯ gAB ¯AL ΦeBR + gAB qAL ΦuBR + gAB qAL ΦdBR + h. mu = −gu v/ 2. We start with up and down quarks.126) gu qL ΦuR + h. another invariant Yukawian coupling is given by ¯ ˜ (10. uAR .

by deﬁning H 2 = MM † .These matrices give mass respectively to the charged leptons and to the up and down of quarks. This follows from the polar decomposition of an arbitrary matrix M = HU (10.135) We can now express the charged current in terms of the mass eigenstates.134) −1 (10. V † = V −1 (V ) h(+) Jµ = 2¯ALγµ dAL u with dAL = VAB dBL (V ) The matrix V is called the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Each of the mass terms has the structure ¯ ψL MψR .137) (10. U = H −1 M (10.130) i where S and T are unitary matrices (depending on i) and Md are three diagonal matrices. They can be diagonalized by a biunitary transformation i Md = S † M i T (10.139) (10.133) with T = U −1 S is a unitary matrix. In fact.140) Deﬁning we get V = (S u )−1 S d . We have +(h) Jµ = 2¯AL γµ τ− qAL = 2¯ALγµ dAL = 2¯ALγµ ((S u )−1 S d )AB dBL q u u (10. and it describes the mixing among the down type of quarks (this is conventional we could 255 .131) √ where H † = H = MM † is a hermitian deﬁnite positive matrix and U † = U −1 is a unitary matrix. ψR = T ψR (10.136) (10.132) we see that H is hermitian and positive deﬁnite. if the unitary matrix S diagonalizes H we have Hd = S † HS = S † MU −1 S = S † MT (10. Then we get ¯ ¯ ¯ ψL MψR = ψL S(S † MT )T † ψR ≡ ψL Md ψR where we have deﬁned the mass eigenstates ψL = SψL . Furthermore one can take the eigenvalues to be positive.138) (10. and that U is unitary. since U † U = M † H −2M = M † M † M −1 M = 1 UU † = H −1 MM † H −1 = H −1 H 2 H −1 = 1 Therefore.

These authors discovered that the eigenstate of CP . We can see that. This means that V will depend on a number of phases given by number of phases = (n − 1)2 − (n − 1)(n − 2) n(n − 1) = 2 2 (10. M d . and the mass matrix of the down quarks. For three generations V depends on three real parameters and one phase.141) For the charged leptonic current. However one is free to choose in an arbitrary way the phase for the 2n up and down quark ﬁelds. with CP = −1 1 0 ¯ |K2 = √ |K 0 − |K 0 2 256 (10. the matrix V . it follows that the SM. In fact h(3) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ jµ ≈ uLuL − dL dL = uL(S u )−1 S u uL − dL(S d )−1 S d dL = uL uL − dL dL (10.144) 2 real parameters. By relaxing this assumption we may generate a mixing in the leptonic sector producing a violation of the diﬀerent leptonic numbers. in the case of three generations. We see that its physical origin is that. in general. in general.146) .have chosen to mix the up quarks as well). Since the invariance under the discrete symmetry CP implies that all the couplings in the lagrangian must be real. depends on n2 parameters. implies a CP violation. being unitary.142) where νL = (S e )† νL is again a massless eigenstate. there is no mixing in the leptonic sector. in 1964. It is interesting to discuss in a more detailed way the structure of the CKM matrix. there are no relations between the mass matrix of the up quarks.145) Then. Therefore the CKM matrix depends only on n2 − (2n − 1) = (n − 1)2 (10. therefore their expression is the same also in the basis of the mass eigenstates. in the case of two generations V depends only on one real parameter (the Cabibbo angle). since we have assumed massless neutrinos we get ν ν Jµ(+) = 2¯AL γµ (S e )AB eBL ≡ 2¯AL γµ eAL (10. But an overall phase does not change V . due to the unitarity of the various S matrices. In fact a real unitary matrix is nothing but an orthogonal matrix which depends on n(n − 1) (10. Therefore. among diﬀerent generations. M u . However this is tied to our assumption of massless neutrinos.143) parameters. A violation of CP has been observed experimentally by Christensen et al. In the case we have n generations of quarks and leptons. The neutral currents are expressions which are diagonal in the ”primed” states. it is impossible to choose the phases in such a way to make V real.

005 V = ⎝ 0.218 − 0.L.224 0.034 − 0.97 ± 0.9989 − 0. and from the B semi-leptonic exclusive ¯ decay B → D ν .9757 0.003 (10.07 (10.151) The elements Vub and Vcb are determined from the b → u and b → c semi-leptonic decays as evaluated in the spectator model.18 (10.02 |Vcb | and |Vcb| = 0.08 ± 0.150) (10. One gets |Vub | = 0.004 − 0.224 ± 0.0010 and |Vus | = 0.2205 ± 0. CDF (1996) has measured |Vtb | |Vtb | = 0.0018 (10.9736 ± 0.219 − 0.152) (10.036 − 0.9750 0.041 ± 0.01 ± 0.002 − 0. using the muon decay as normalization. To complete this Section we give the experimental values for some of the matrix elements of V .155) 0.046 0.148) A more recent comprehensive analysis gives the following 90 % C.014 0. The result is |Vcd| = 0.decays into a two pion state with CP = +1 with a BR 0 BR(K2 → π + π − ) ≈ 2 × 10−3 (10.016 and |Vcs | = 1. One gets |Vud | = 0.9993 257 .046 ⎠ (10. range for the various elements of the CKM matrix ⎛ ⎞ 0. if the SM is able to explain the observed CP violation in quantitative terms.9736 − 0.9745 − 0.149) The elements Vcd and Vcs are determined from charm production in deep inelastic scattering νµ + N → µ + c + X. The elements Vud and Vus are determined through nuclear β-. K− and hyperon-decays.147) It is not clear yet.15 ± 0.153) More recently from the branching ratio t → W b.224 0.154) (10.

the radiative corrections are particularly sensitive to the top mass.156) as measured from the β-decay of the muon. where we have the two gauge coupling constants g and g . However we notice that one gets informations about parameters as (mt . six mass parameters for the quarks (assuming the color symmetry) and four mixing angles. We will discuss this point in more detail at the end of these lectures. in this type of experiments can be safely neglected due to the relatively large experimental errors. in this indirect way. However. Then. Then we have the Yukawian sector. most of the experimental research of the seventies and eighties was centered about the determination of sin2 θ. the Higgs sector is speciﬁed by the parameters µ and the self-coupling λ. mh ) aﬀect only radiative corrections.1867 ± 0. MZ ). the better choice was to use quantities known with great precision related to the parameters (g. v).0021) GeV (10. Therefore. In order to test the structure of the SM the important parameters are those relative to the gauge and to the Higgs sectors. sin2 θ) to (g. with MZ = (91.10. δMZ /MZ ≈ 2 × 10−5 . As a consequence one assumes that the mass matrix for the fermions is known. the question arises about the better choice of the input parameters. v) we can use the tree level relations. before the top discovery. If we assume three generations and that the neutrinos are all massless we have three mass parameters for the charged leptons. in order to relate the set of parameters (α. We will rather use v = −µ2 /λ and m2 = −2µ2 . 258 . the mass of the Z has been measured with great precision. Before LEP1. before the top discovery. The other parameters as (mt . The situation has changed a lot after the beginning of running of LEP1. which. g . mh ) just because they aﬀect the radiative corrections. g .157) 1 137. The masses of the vector bosons can be expressed in terms of the previous parameters. We start with the gauge sector.0359895(61) (10. The choice was to use the ﬁne structure constant α= and the Fermi constant GF = 1. This was not the case till two years ago.158) Also the great accuracy of the experimental measurements requires to take into account the radiative corrections. and its mass was unknown.4 The parameters of the SM It is now the moment to count the parameters of the SM. In particular. GF . LEP1 was able to determine the top mass. Then. In fact. GF .166389(22) × 10−5 GeV −2 (10. In this case the most convenient set is (α. that is that h part of the interaction between fermions and Higgs ﬁeld giving rise to the quark and lepton masses. In fact.

These identities are nothing but the expression of the symmetry in the quantum context. let us consider the transformation of the action under the same transformation of the ﬁelds but with A → A (x) a space-time function.161) (10.162) )ij φj − i ∂L ∂φi.µ A (T A )ij ∂µ φj (10. We ﬁnd δS = where δφi. Let us consider a ﬁeld theory with a lagrangian invariant under the following global transformation φi → φi + δφi with δφi (x) = −i A (T A )ij φj (x) (10. if we take A (x) to describe a variation around the classical solutions.164) ∂L (T A )ij φj ∂φi.µ (10. that is if the 259 . it follows that the ﬁrst two terms must vanish.5 Ward identities and anomalies Up to now we have assumed that the symmetries for the classical lagrangian are still valid at the quantum level. Therefore we are left with δS = where A jµ = −i d4 x ∂ µ A A jµ (10. In fact.163) ∂L (T A )ij φj ∂µ ∂φi. This is not always so and the motivations can be easily understood.165) are the Noether’s currents after factorizing the inﬁnitesimal parameters A . However. we will see that there are situations in which the measure is not invariant and therefore the symmetry is broken at the quantum level.160) Then.10. The problem has to do with the invariance of the functional integration measure with respect to the symmetry transformation.159) d4 x ∂L ∂L δφi + δφi.µ )ij φj (10. Before dealing with this problem it will be convenient to rephrase the Noether’s theorem in a way more suitable to derive the Ward identities in a quantum ﬁeld theory.µ = −i A (T A )ij ∂µ φj − i(∂µ Substituting we ﬁnd δS = − i d4 x − i ∂L ∂φi A (T A A )(T A (10.µ ∂φi ∂φi.µ A Since for A independent on x we have δS = 0 by hypothesis.

then we must have δS = 0.169) + Z[η] = A ηi (T A )ij φj ) (10. we get iS[φ] + i D(φ)e d4 x ηi φi i e d4 x( ∂ µ A A jµ (10.170) By expanding this expression at the ﬁrst order in A (x) and using the fact that the previous expression must agree with eq.168) If we perform the change of variables φi → φi + δφi = φi − i A (x)(T A )ij φj and assume that the integration measure is invariant. Then. we get iS[φ] + i D(φ)e d4 x ηi φi A −i∂ µ jµ + ηi (T A )ij φj 0= (10.167) Let us now consider the generating functional associated to this theory iS[φ] + i D(φ)e d4 x ηi φi Z[η] = (10. for ηi = 0 we get A ∂ µ 0|jµ (x)|0 = 0 (10.168) for any A (x).173) and. We will illustrate a simple situation where the measure 260 . For instance.ﬁelds inside the currents satisfy the equations of motion. writing δS = − we get µ ∂µ jA = 0 d4 x µ A ∂µ jA (10. (10.174) This derivation is correct only if the integration measure is invariant under the change of variables (10.169).171) From this equation we can generate the Ward identities by diﬀerentiating with respect to ηi and then putting ηi = 0. diﬀerentiating N times µ A ∂x 0|T (jµ (x)φi1 (x1 ) · · · φiN (xN ))|0 N = p=1 δ 4 (x − xp ) 0|T (φi1 (x1 ) · · · (−(T A )ip j φj (xp )) · · · φiN (xN ))|0 (10.166) (10.172) By diﬀerentiating once (remember that one gets the T ∗ product) we have µ A ∂x 0|T (jµ (x)φi (y))|0 = −δ 4 (x − y) 0|(T A)ij φj (y)|0 (10.

176) As we will be interested only in checking the current conservation we can put to zero the external sources for the fermion ﬁelds (see the previous derivation). In fact for an external gauge ﬁeld we deﬁne the generating functional as ¯ ˆ i d4 x ψiDψ ¯ Z = DψD ψe (10. In the case of a zero gauge ﬁeld Aµ the eigenvalues λm are given by 2 λ2 = k0 − |k|2 m (10.183) 261 . For the following considerations the gauge ﬁeld can be taken as an external ﬁeld.177) We will show that the quantum corrections destroy the conservation law.181) where we have used a discrete notation for the eigenvalues.179) In order to evaluate the change of the integration measure it is convenient to expand ˆ the fermion ﬁeld in a basis of eigenvectors of D ˆ iDφm (x) = λm φm (x) ˜ ˜ −iDµ φm (x)γ µ = λm φm (x) (10.180) (10. but the same applies also to the quantized case.175) where Dµ = ∂µ + igAµ (10.is not invariant. The lagrangian is invariant under the global transformation ψ → eiαγ5 ψ giving rise to the classically conserved current ¯ Jµ = ψγµ γ5 ψ (10. To this end we proceed as before by performing the change of variables inside Z ψ(x) → ψ (x) = (1 + iα(x)γ5 )ψ(x) ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ(x) → ψ (x) = ψ(x)(1 + iα(x)γ5 ) The variation of the action is given by δS = ¯ d4 x α(x)∂µ (ψγ µ γ5 ψ) (10. If the gauge ﬁeld Aµ is quantized we have to insert a further functional integration in Aµ but this will not play any role in the following. Consider a massless fermion in a gauge ﬁeld.178) (10. so for simplicity we will take Aµ as an external ﬁeld.182) Notice that they become negative deﬁnite after being Wick rotated 2 2 λ2 → −k4 − |k|2 = −kE m (10.

192) The coeﬃcient of α(x) is the trace of γ5 taken over all the Hilbert space.187) d4 x φ† (x)iα(x)γ5 φn (x)an = am + m n Cmn an (10. we have det|I| = eT r log(1 + C) ≈ eT r C that is log det|I| ≈ T rC = i d4 x α(x) n (10. Then. Therefore this expression is ill deﬁned and it 262 .185) m We can evaluate the eﬀect of the change of variables on the Grassmann coeﬃcients by starting from ψ (x) = (1 + iα(x)γ5 )ψ(x) = m am φm (x) (10. from the orthogonality relation d4 x φ† φn = δmn m we get am = with Cmn = d4 x φ† (x)iα(x)γ5 φn (x) m (10. except for a possible constant we have ¯ DψD ψ = dam dbm (10. from the transformation rules for the Grassmann measure we get ¯ Dψ D ψ = 1 ¯ DψD ψ det|I|2 (10.191) φ† (x)γ5 φn (x) n (10.190) where I = 1 + C is the jacobian of the transformation.184) where am and bm are Grassmann coeﬃcients. ¯ ψ(x) = m ˜ bm φm (x) (10. Since we are interested in the inﬁnitesimal transformation.189) d4 x φ† (x)ψ (x) = am + m n (10.188) A similar transformation holds for bm .186) Then. Although the trace of γ5 is zero on the spinor space it gets multiplied by an inﬁnite factor coming from the total Hilbert space.By hypothesis the eigenvectors φm span an orthonormal basis and therefore we can ¯ expand ψ and ψ as ψ(x) = m am φm (x). Therefore.

197) (10. D ν ]− = D 2 + σµν F µν 2 2 (10. γν ]− D µ D ν 2 2 i g = D 2 − σµν [D µ . Furthermore. The evaluation of D)2 gives 1 1 ˆ (D)2 = γµ γν D µ D ν = [γµ . A natural choice for the regularization is the following φ† (x)γ5 φn (x) = lim n n M →∞ 2 2 φ† (x)γ5 φn (x)eλn /M n n (10.198) Therefore φ† γ 5 φn = n n ig 2 tr[γ5 σµν σρλ ]F µν F ρλ 8 · 16π 2 In our deﬁnitions γ5 = iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 The trace is easily evaluated by calculating ﬁrst tr[γ5 σ01 σ23 ] = −itr[γ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 γ0 γ1 γ2 γ3 ] = −4i 263 (10.199) . we would like to maintain the gauge invariance.196) The matrix element can be easily evaluated by inserting momentum eigenstates and performing a Wick’s rotation 2 x|e− /M |x = lim x→y d4 k k 2 /M 2 −ik(x − y) e e =i (2π)4 d4 kE −k 2 /M 2 M4 e E =i (2π)4 16π 2 (10.200) (10. and therefore we should regulate the expression in a gauge invariant way.193) This is in fact a convergence factor in the euclidean space. γν ]+ D µ D ν + [γµ . Therefore the leading term is obtained by expanding the exponential up to the order (σµν F µν )2 and neglecting Aµ in all the other places.194) ˆ where tr is the trace over the Dirac matrices. The previous expression can be rewritten as φ† (x)γ5 φn (x) = n n M →∞ lim 2 ˆ 2 φ† (x)γ5 e(iD) /M φn (x) n n = M →∞ 2 ˆ 2 lim x|tr γ5 e(iD) /M |x (10. Therefore we get φ† (x)γ5 φn (x) = lim tr γ5 n n M →∞ g 1 − σµν F µν 2! 2M 2 2 2 x|e− /M |x (10.195) In order to get a contribution from the trace over the Dirac indices we need at least four γ matrices.needs to be regularized.

for instance.206) vanishes for all the generators of SU(2) ⊗ U(1).204) Z= leading to the anomalous conservation law µ ∂µ j5 = − g2 16π 2 µνρλ F µν F ρλ (10. It is a crucial point in the renormalization of the gauge theories that the gauge symmetry is preserved at the quantum level. (10.and using Then 0123 = 1 we get tr[γ5 σµν σρλ ] = 4i φ† γ 5 φn = − n n µνρλ (10. T C ]+ ] (10. The ABJ anomaly is modiﬁed by a factor T r[T A [T B .207) This condition holds for any generation. whereas the other two matrices arise from the regulator.201) µν g2 32π 2 µνρλ F F ρλ (10. The previous result can be extended to the case of non-abelian chiral symmetries as. in the standard model where the SU(2) symmetry acts only on the left-handed fermions and therefore the corresponding transformations involve γ5 . in fact Qelectron + Qneutrino + 3(Qup + Qdown ) = −1 + 0 + 3 2 1 − 3 3 =0 (10.206) where the term T A comes in the chiral transformation in conjunction with γ5 . One has to check that the factor in eq.208) 264 .205) This is called the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly. It is not diﬃcult to show that this is indeed the case only if the sum of the electric charges of the fermions is zero Q=0 fermions (10.203) and after the change of variables the generating functional is given by i ¯ DψD ψe ¯ ˆ d4 x ψiDψ i e g2 ¯ d4 x α(x)(∂µ (ψγ µ γ5 ψ) + 16π 2 µνρλ F µν F ρλ ) (10.202) Therefore the determinant we are looking for is given by −i det |I| = e g2 d x α(x) 32π 2 4 µνρλ F µν F ρλ (10. It follows that the standard model is consistent only if the anomaly vanishes.

we want to show that it is possible to put it in the form (7.1) e’. We will assume also to order the matrix in such a way that all the λi are positive.3) (A.4) Notice that if n is odd. Ad has necessarily a zero eigenvalue.Appendix A A. It follows that Ad can be · · · · · · · ⎤ · ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎦ · (A. let us notice that iA is a hermitian matrix and therefore it can be diagonalized through a unitary transformation U: U(iA)U † = Ad where Ad is diagonal and real.Each submatrix of the type λi 0 0 −λi 265 (A.2) (A. The eigenvalues of iA satisfy the equation det|iA − λ · 1| = 0 Since AT = −A it follows det|iA − λ · 1| = det|(iA − λ · 1)T | = det| − iA − λ · 1| = 0 Therefore. lo written in the form ⎡ λ1 0 0 0 · ⎢ 0 −λ1 0 0 · ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 · 0 λ2 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 −λ2 · Ad = ⎢ ⎢ · · · · · ⎢ ⎣ · · · · · · · · · · (A. To this end. if λ is an eigenvalue. that we will write as (Ad )nn .61) by means of an orthogonal transformation.5) . the same is for −λ.1 Properties of the real antisymmetric matrices Given a real and antisymmetric matrix n × n A.

12) But A and As are real matrices.6) V2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ V =⎢ · ⎢ ⎣ · · with Vnn = 0 for n odd. we get ⎡ 0 ⎢ −iλ1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ V Ad V † = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ · ⎢ ⎣ · · ⎤ · ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎦ · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ⎤ · ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ · ⎥ = iAs ⎥ ·⎥ ⎥ ·⎦ · (A. Therefore (V U)(iA)(V U)† = iAs or (V U)(A)(V U)† = As (A. However being V U real and unitary it must be orthogonal.11) (A.61).7) iλi 0 (A.8) (A.10) with As deﬁned in (7.9) iλ1 0 0 0 · · · 0 0 0 −iλ1 · · · 0 0 iλ2 0 0 · · · (A.can be put in the form 0 −iλi through the unitary 2 × 2 matrix 1 i 1 V2 = √ 2 1 i In fact V2 Deﬁning λi 0 0 0 V2† = −iλi −λi ⎡ 0 V2 · · · · · · · · · · · · · iλi 0 (A. 266 . and therefore also V U must be real.

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