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# GEOMETRY SUCCESS

IN 20 MINUTES A DAY

2nd Edition

®

NEW

YORK

Copyright © 2005 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Geometry success : in 20 minutes a day—2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-526-0 (pbk.) 1. Geometry—Study and teaching. I. Title. QA461.T46 2005 516—dc22 2005047189 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Second Edition ISBN 1-57685-526-0 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

Contents

INTRODUCTION PRETEST LESSON 1 The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry Explains the basic building blocks of geometry: points, lines, rays, line segments, and planes Types of Angles Describes right, acute, obtuse, and straight angles Working with Lines Describes perpendicular, transversal, parallel, and skew lines and shows how to solve problems involving them Measuring Angles Describes how to measure and draw a variety of angles using a protractor and how to add and subtract angle measures Pairs of Angles Explains the special relationships that exist between complementary, supplementary, and vertical angles Types of Triangles Shows how to identify scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, equilangular, right, and obtuse triangles

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LESSON 2 LESSON 3

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LESSON 4

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LESSON 5

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LESSON 6

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– CONTENTS –

LESSON 7

Congruent Triangles Deﬁnes congruent triangles and shows how to prove that triangles are congruent Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem Shows how the various parts of a right triangle are related and how to use the Pythagorean theorem and its converse to solve problems Properties of Polygons Describes plane ﬁgures such as decagons, hexagons, pentagons, and octagons and shows how to ﬁnd their interior and exterior angle measurements Quadrilaterals Discusses the various properties of parallelograms and trapezoids and explains why they are quadrilaterals Ratio, Proportion, and Similarity Explains ratio, proportion, and similarity and shows how to discern if triangles are similar Perimeter of Polygons Explains how to ﬁnd the perimeter of concave and convex polygons Area of Polygons Explains how to ﬁnd the area of polygons Surface Area of Prisms Shows how to ﬁnd the surface area of prisms Volume of Prisms and Pyramids Explains how to ﬁnd the volume of prisms and pyramids Working with Circles and Circular Figures Explains how to ﬁnd the circumference and area of circles and the surface area and volume of cylinders and spheres; includes a thorough discussion of pi Coordinate Geometry Introduces coordinate geometry, describes the coordinate plane, and shows how to plot points and determine distance between two points The Slope of a Line Deﬁnes slope and shows how to determine the slope of a line

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LESSON 8

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LESSON 9

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LESSON 10

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LESSON 11

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LESSON 12 LESSON 13 LESSON 14 LESSON 15 LESSON 16

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LESSON 17

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LESSON 18

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– CONTENTS – LESSON 19 The Equation of a Line Describes the equation of a line and shows how to write equations of lines. and tangent by using right triangles 157 LESSON 20 161 POSTTEST ANSWER KEY GLOSSARY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B List of postulates and theorems from the book List of additional resources readers can consult for more information on topics covered in the book 169 179 191 195 199 v . cosine. including horizontal and vertical lines Trigonometry Basics Shows how to ﬁnd the trigonometric ratios sine.

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move on to Lesson 1. a posttest. and they have shown me how to answer these questions in a clear and understandable way. take the pretest. You’ll ﬁnd the answers in the answer key at the end of the book. an appendix with postulates and theorems. The book also includes a pretest. As you work through the lessons in this book. This book is the next best thing to having your own private tutor. Although the title of this book suggests studying each lesson for 20 minutes a day. After taking the pretest. Before you begin Lesson 1. I have learned as much from my students about teaching as they have learned from me about geometry. Taking the pretest will help you determine your strengths and weaknesses in geometry. and an appendix of additional resources for further study. vii . They have given me an insight into what kinds of questions students have about geometry. so I have included numerous ﬁgures and illustrations to help you understand the material. which will assess your current knowledge of geometry. I have tutored for 20 years and have taught adults and high school students in classroom settings for several years. During that time. The only assignment more difﬁcult than working math problems is reading about math problems. you should feel as if someone is guiding you through each one.Introduction his book will help you achieve success in geometry. T How to Use This Book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day teaches basic geometry concepts in 20 self-paced lessons. you should work at your own pace through the lessons. a glossary of mathematical terms. Reading about math is often slower than reading for amusement.

Work for understanding. which has the same format as the pretest. Why you do a math operation is as important as how you do it.– INTRODUCTION – Lessons 1–19 offer detailed explanations of basic geometry topics. This exercise applies the lesson’s topic to an activity you may encounter in your daily life since geometry is a tool that is used to solve many real-life problems. Make a commitment to improve your geometry skills. Compare your scores to see how much you’ve improved or to identify areas in which you need more practice. If you feel that you need more help with geometry after you complete this book. Make a Commitment Success in geometry requires effort. After you have completed all 20 lessons. make a commitment to spend the time you need to do a good job. but the questions are different. You can do it! When you achieve success in geometry. see Appendix II for additional resources to help you continue improving your geometry skills. and Lesson 20 introduces basic trigonometry. take the posttest. The answers to the practice problems are in the answer key located at the back of the book. At the end of each lesson is an exercise called Skill Building until Next Time. After you study the examples. you will have laid a solid foundation for future challenges and success. So sharpen your pencil and get ready to begin the pretest! viii . If you truly want to be successful. Each lesson includes example problems with step-by-step solutions. you’re given a chance to practice similar problems.

You decide when you fully comprehend the lesson and are ready to go on to the next one. 1 . While 50 questions can’t cover every geometry skill taught in this book. If that’s the case. However.Pretest B efore you begin the ﬁrst lesson. check your answers in the answer key at the end of the book. step by step. If you get a low score. this is a self-paced program. When you are ﬁnished. your performance on the pretest will give you a good indication of your strengths and weaknesses. you may need more than 20 minutes a day to work through a lesson. If you score low on the pretest. don’t despair. take the pretest in this chapter. If you score high on the pretest. Along with each answer is a number that tells you which lesson of this book teaches you about the geometry skills needed for that question. which includes 50 multiple-choice questions covering the topics in this book. Take as much time as you need to complete the pretest. you may want to ﬁnd out how much you already know and how much you need to learn. you have a good foundation and should be able to work your way through the book quickly. This book will take you through the geometry concepts. so you can spend as much time on a lesson as you need.

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13. 32. 24. 19. 5. 48. 46. 10. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 35. 39. 45. 14. 50. 42. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 18. 38. 33. 6. 20. 29. 40.– LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET – 1. 11. 47. 31. 41. 2. 21. 9. 30. 22. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 3 . 4. 12. 28. 36. 25. 15. 44. 8. 3. 7. 37. 27. 43. 17. 34. 49. 26. 16. 23.

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Which is a correct name for this line? X Y Z ↔ 5. b. has boundaries d. Which pairs of lines are parallel? r s l S T m n a. AB → c. a. d. b. XY d. lines r and s lines l and m lines r and n lines s and l 5 . d. ZX c. BA ↔ d.– PRETEST – Pretest 1. c. d. YZ ∠RST ∠TSR ∠S ∠R 6. d. Which is the correct notation for line AB? → a. has two dimensions 4. c. is a ﬂat surface b. has no thickness c. b. Which is a correct name for the angle? R a. Which is NOT a correct name for the angle? R S T a. b. AB 2. ∠R ∠T ∠TSR ∠RTS a. Which line is a transversal? r s l m n 3. AB b. c. line l line m line n line r 7. c. XZ → b. Which is not a property of a plane? a.

c. 55° 90° 75° 130° 12. 50° 65° 75° 90° a. c. b. d. Find the measure of ∠BOD. Find the measure of ∠AOD. What is the measure of ∠JTK? A J B 60˚ T K a. 90˚ C D 130˚ 55˚ B m 180˚ E O 0˚ A a. d. perpendicular intersecting parallel skew a. 90˚ C D 130˚ 55˚ B U 25˚ T 180˚ E O 0˚ A a. d. c. b. b. d. c. 180° 120° 60° 30° 6 . b. d. What is the measure of ∠RUS? R S 9. b. c. What is the best way to describe the pair of lines l and m? l 10.– PRETEST – 8. 55° 90° 75° 130° 11.

HL. HM. d. 18. 7 . Classify the triangle by its sides. AAA SAS ASA SSS 3 5 19. d. HL. 4 a. d. none of the above 16. b. BC. c. AB. LH. YZ corresponds to a. 30° 60° 120° 180° H G R Q 14. AB = 3. ∠A corresponds to a. Which postulate could you use to prove ΔFGH ≅ ΔPQR? F P a. ∠H. ∠Z. b.– PRETEST – 13. d. c. AC. b. A leg of ΔHLM is H L M a. The hypotenuse of ΔHLM is H a. BC = 7. c. b. c. What is the measure of ∠ATJ? A J B 60˚ T K 17. LM. d. ZY. Classify ΔABC with the following measurements. b. b. c. Given ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ. a. scalene b. 20. b. HM. ∠C. ∠L. d. a. c. scalene isosceles equilateral none of the above L M 15. ∠X. Given ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ. d. and AC = 7. c. ∠B. equilateral d. isosceles c.

square 25. d. Which of the following is not necessarily a parallelogram? a. b. rectangle c. quadrilateral b. trapezoid b. 23. rhombus d. octagon d. c. parallelogram c. Which ﬁgure is a convex polygon? a. 22. What is the name for a polygon with six sides? a. hexagon c. Which ﬁgure is a concave polygon? a. Which of the following is NOT a quadrilateral? a. decagon 24. square 8 . pentagon b. c. decagon d. d. b.– PRETEST – 21.

Express the ratio 3 J JL JM in simplest form. b.2 c. 15 cm 2 33. 22 yd.2 b. Find the perimeter of the polygon. a. b. 154 in. Which segment does not equal 3 m? I J K M L 2m 3m O 1m N 27.2 d. a. d.2 c. H LO HK IJ LM 9 . d. 16 in. 7 M L a. Find the area of a rectangle with base 7 inches and height 11 inches. Find the area of a parallelogram with base 5 cm and height 20 cm. Find the perimeter of a square that measures 16 inches on one side. 32 in. not enough information 31.2 32. 3 7 7 3 3 10 10 3 LM JL 30. d. c.– PRETEST – 26. 1:2 = 4:9 c. d. b. 3 7 7 3 3 10 10 3 28. 3:7 = 5:8 b. Find the area of a square that measures 11 yards on an edge. c. c.2 34. b. Which of the following is a true proportion? a. a. 6:3 = 10:6 d. c. b. 25 cm 2 d. 2 cm 2 cm 3 cm 2 cm a. 36 in. 50 cm 2 c. 2:5 = 4:10 29. 18 in. 9 cm 18 cm 36 cm 72 cm a.2 b. 121 yd. Express the ratio 3 J in simplest form. 64 in. 242 yd. 7 M L a. 100 cm 2 b. 44 yd. 77 in. a. d. c.2 d.

c. c. Use V = bh. Which quadrant would you graph the point (5. Find the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 21 inches. c. Find the volume of a prism with length 12 inches. (3.–3).14 for π.3 37. I H M L 2m 3m O K J 1m N 39.2). 57 m 3 c.88 in. 350 m 3 10 . d. 480 in. a. 40. b.4 cm 2 41. b. 40 in. c. a. 60 in.3 c. width 5 inches. IV 42. II c. a.8 cm 2 c. and height 8 inches. b. d.500 m 3 b. Find the area of a circle with a diameter of 20 cm. a. 17. (–3. Find the volume of the triangular prism. Use the formula SA = 2(lw + wh + lh) to ﬁnd the surface area of the prism. 175 m 3 d.3 b. 7 cm A 3 cm 4 cm x B a. Find the volume of a prism with base area 50 m 2 and height 7 m. d. 65.14 for π. 756. Use 3.3 d. 22 m 2 11 m 2 44 m 2 88 m 2 36.3).47 in.–6)? a.74 in. (2. 14 cm 3 21 cm 3 42 cm 3 84 cm 3 a. (–2. 129. 314 cm 2 d.– PRETEST – 35. d. 628 cm 2 b. 32. b. 31. III d.94 in. 62. The coordinates for point A are y a. 96 in. Use 3. I b. 38.–2).

d. hypotenuse. tangent. 46. Which ordered pair satisﬁes the equation 3x + 4y = 12? a. 50. c. b.–2). negative. A vertical line has a slope that is a. A line that points up to the right has a slope that is a. b. c.–3). y = –4 c. (–3. 1 x + 1 y = 7 2 3 d. (3. sine. (0. 3x + 2y 2 = 10 c. c. (0. zero. 3x + 2y = 10 11 .2) c. d. (2. d. Which of the following is a linear equation? a. 44. x = 4 b. b. negative. zero. (2. The coordinates for point B are y A 47. (1.4) d. (–2. b. cosine. 48. tangent. undeﬁned.0) b. cosine.2). positive. The ratio of the opposite leg to an adjacent leg is the trigonometric ratio a. c.3) 49.– PRETEST – 43. d. d. positive. c. sine. x 2 x =y B a. The ratio of the adjacent leg to the hypotenuse is the trigonometric ratio a. Which of the following is not a linear equation? a. b.3). 45. 3x 2 + 2y = 10 d. hypotenuse. undeﬁned. 1x0 = y b.

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L E S S O N 1 T Points The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry LESSON SUMMARY This lesson explains the basic building blocks of geometry: points. line segments. Therefore. A point is named with an italicized uppercase letter placed next to it: •A If you want to discuss this point with someone. then the rest of this lesson (and book) cannot exist either. it indicates a deﬁnite location. however. You must accept that a point exists in order to have lines and planes because lines and planes are made up of an inﬁnite number of points. this is a safe assumption to make! Let’s begin this lesson by looking at each of the basic building blocks of geometry. a corner of a room. A point has no size and no dimension. rays. and the period at the end of this sentence. the point. he term geometry is derived from the two Greek words geo and metric. A series of points are what make up lines.” 13 . has no measurement at all. and planes. and planes. lines. It also shows you the basic properties you need to understand and apply these terms. Some examples are: a pencil point. line segments.” The great irony is that the most basic building block in geometry. There are countless points on any one line. rays. It means “to measure the Earth. If you do not accept the assumption that a point can exist without size or dimension. you would call it “point A.

rays. It is an inﬁnite set of points that extends in both directions.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Lines A line is straight. If the line is named by using two points on the line. Imagine a straight highway with no end and no beginning. a small symbol of a line (with two arrows) is written above the two letters. Why would lines. or planes not exist if points do not exist? 4. For example. Are there more points on AB than point A and point B? 2. segments. but it has no thickness. Write six different names for this line. What are three examples of a point in everyday life? ↔ 3. Why do you think the notation for a line has two arrowheads? 14 . X Y Z 5. A line is named by any one italicized lowercase letter or by naming any two points on the line. this line could be referred ↔ ↔ to as line AB or line BA: A B Practice 1. it is an example of a line. How many points are on a line? 6.

but the symbol above the letters has no arrows. Name two different rays with endpoint S.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Rays A ray is a part of a line with one endpoint. A B Line Segments A line segment is part of a line with two endpoints. 8. A ruler and a baseboard are examples of line segments. Why is it important to name the endpoint of a ray ﬁrst? 9. → not ray BA. How many points are on a line segment? 15 . When you refer to a ray. Line segments are also named with two italicized uppercase letters. It has an inﬁnite number of points on it. The ray below is ray AB. you always name the endpoint ﬁrst. Why are ray AB and ray BA not the same? → → R S T 10. Flashlights and laser beams → are good examples of rays. L M N P 11. It has an inﬁnite number of points on it. Why are arrowheads not included in line segment notation? 12. This segment could be referred to as AB or BA: A B Practice 7. Name six different line segments shown.

you could call it “plane ABC.” 16 . the more common practice is to name a plane with a single italicized capital letter (no dot after it) placed in the upper-right corner of the ﬁgure as shown here: X If you want to discuss this plane with someone. you would call it “plane X. Imagine a ﬂoor that extends in all directions as far as you can see.” However.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Planes A plane is a ﬂat surface that has no thickness or boundaries. Here is what a plane looks like: B C A When you talk to someone about this plane.

– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY FIGURE NAME SYMBOL READ AS PROPERTIES EXAMPLES •A Point •A point A A B l ↔ ↔ Line AB or BA ↔ ↔ • has no size • pencil point • has no dimension • corner of a room • indicates a deﬁnite location • named with an italicized uppercase letter A B → Ray AB → line AB or BA • is straight • highway without • has no thickness boundaries or line l • an inﬁnite set of points • hallway without bounds that extends in opposite directions • one dimension ray AB (endpoint is always ﬁrst) • is part of a line • ﬂashlight • has only one endpoint • laser beam • an inﬁnite set of points that extends in one direction • one dimension • is part of a line • edge of a ruler • has two endpoints • base board • an inﬁnite set of points • one dimension • is a ﬂat surface • ﬂoor without boundaries • has no thickness • surface of a football ﬁeld • an inﬁnite set of points without boundaries that extends in all directions • two dimensions A B — Line AB or BA segment segment AB or BA Plane B A C None plane ABC or plane X X 17 .

. These ﬁve items are closely related to each other. lines. A ray is different from a segment because 16. Therefore. Without them. Later in the book. Collinear points are points on the same line. For example. . Space is the set of all possible points and is three-dimensional. A line is similar to a ray because 15. you will study three-dimensional ﬁgures—ﬁgures that occur in space. Even though you may not have heard these two terms before. Working with the Basic Building Blocks of Geometr y Points. A sphere (ball) and a cube are examples of three-dimensional ﬁgures that occur in space. A line is different from a ray because 14. One way you can see how points and lines are related is to notice whether points lie in a straight line. and planes are very important building blocks in geometry. . not a plane. Noncollinear points are points not on the same line.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Practice 13. You will use them in all the lessons that refer to plane ﬁgures—ﬁgures that are ﬂat with one or two dimensions. A ray is similar to a segment because 17. you cannot work many complex geometry problems. rays. A plane is different from a line because . a circle and a square are two-dimensional and can occur in a plane. line segments. they are called plane ﬁgures. . you probably can correctly label the following two ﬁgures based on the sound of the names collinear and noncollinear. Collinear points Noncollinear points 18 .

Practice 18. all the points are on the same plane. you may have guessed which name is correct by looking at the ﬁgures and seeing that in the ﬁgure labeled Coplanar points. In the ﬁgure labeled Noncoplanar points. Can three points be noncollinear? Why or why not? 20. see these two ﬁgures: Coplanar points Noncoplanar points Again. the points are on different planes. Can collinear points be coplanar? Why or why not? 19 .– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – A way to see how points and planes are related is to notice whether points lie in the same plane. Can two points be noncollinear? Why or why not? 19. For instance. Can coplanar points be noncollinear? Why or why not? 21.

His masterwork. You must also be able to understand and apply certain facts about geometry and geometric ﬁgures. B. Theorems are statements that can be proved.c. We often refer to this as Euclidean geometry. Understanding the terms of geometry is only part of the battle. The Elements. A. Here are two examples of postulates: Postulate: Two points determine exactly one line. A. A. postulates. Postulates (sometimes called axioms) are statements accepted without proof. E 20 . is the basis for many geometry books today. Postulate: Three noncollinear points determine exactly one plane. written about 300 b. C 23. E. Euclid is known for compiling all the geometry of his time into postulates and theorems. F 25. B.. D. These facts are divided into two categories: postulates and theorems. You will be using both postulates and theorems in this book. and theorems. but you will not be proving the theorems. Geometry is the application of deﬁnitions.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Postulates and Theorems You need a few more tools before moving on to other lessons in this book. D M B A F E C 22. Practice State whether the points are collinear. F 24.

three noncoplanar points 21 . B. Y. four collinear points → → ↔ ↔ 35. B. Any four points W. D. A. B. 32. D M B A F E C 26. E. and Z must lie in exactly one plane. XY and YX are the same ray. state “not possible. Draw and label a ﬁgure to ﬁt each description. E 27.” 34. Otherwise. C. F 29.– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – State whether the points are coplanar. if possible. 31. E State whether the following statements are true or false. two noncollinear points 36. 30. 33. C. XY and YX are the same segment. E 28. XY and YX are the same line. A. X. C. B.

be on the lookout for some three-legged objects that support this principle. then one of the legs is shorter than the other three. Why do you think this is true? Throughout the day. 22 .– THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY – Skill Building until Next Time When you place a four-legged table on a surface and it wobbles. The bottoms of the three legs must represent three noncollinear points and determine exactly one plane. You can use three legs to support something that must be kept steady. Examples include a camera tripod and an artist’s easel.

These different names don’t change who you are—just the way in which others refer to you. You can be named differently according to the setting you’re in. The symbol used to indicate an angle is ∠. angles for pool shots and golf shots. an angle is formed by two rays with a common endpoint. eople often use the term angle in everyday conversations. In the following ﬁgure. For example. 23 . For example. Sometimes. In geometry. only by your ﬁrst name or maybe even a nickname. You will also learn about opposite rays. The two rays→ the → of the angle. and angles for furniture placement. D R Y People call you different names at different times. they talk about camera angles. and the vertex is R.L E S S O N 2 P Naming Angles Types of Angles LESSON SUMMARY This lesson will teach you how to classify and name several types of angles. and other times. the sides are sides are RD and RY. The common endpoint is the vertex of the angle. you are referred to by your full name.

If the angle does not share the vertex point with another angle. If three letters are used to name an angle. then the middle letter always names the vertex. ∠E. X Z Y 2. then you can name the angle by that number. T A J 3. but your friends might call you by a nickname. Similar to you. an angle can be named in different ways. or ∠1. W 1 E Practice T 1. The different ways an angle can be named may be confusing if you do not understand the logic behind the different methods of naming. If a number is written inside the angle that is not the angle measurement.– TYPES OF ANGLES – you may be called your given name at work. Name the vertex and sides of the angle. Name the vertex and sides of the angle. There can be confusion sometimes when these names are different. ∠TEW. K T 1 B 24 . Name the angle in four different ways. You can name the following angle any one of these names: ∠WET. then you can name the angle with only the letter of the vertex.

D Practice H S Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 4–7.– TYPES OF ANGLES – Right Angles Angles that make a square corner are called right angles. P N O M 4. 5. They form a straight angle. Name a straight angle. Name two right angles. Name a pair of opposite rays. 7. In the following → → ﬁgure. Why is ∠O an incorrect name for any of the angles shown? 25 . 6. the following symbol is used to indicate a right angle: Straight Angles Opposite rays are two rays with the same endpoint and that form a line. HD and HS are opposite rays. In drawings.

equals 360°. Here are two examples of right angles: Obtuse Angles An obtuse angle has a measure between 90° and 180°. Here are two examples of obtuse angles: 91° 170° 26 .– TYPES OF ANGLES – Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 8 and 9. The corner of a piece of paper will ﬁt exactly into a right angle. L → M → N 8. If two rays have the same endpoints. The degree is the most commonly used unit for measuring angles. One full turn. do they have to be opposite rays? Why or why not? Classifying Angles Angles are often classiﬁed by their measures. or a circle. Here are two examples of acute angles: 45° 89° Right Angles A right angle has a 90° measure. Are LM and MN opposite rays? Why or why not? 9. Acute Angles An acute angle has a measure between 0° and 90°.

27 . Complete each statement.– TYPES OF ANGLES – Straight Angles A straight angle has a 180° measure. Name three acute angles. then ∠JOK measures ________ degrees. An angle with measure 180° is called a(n) _________ angle. 14. This is an example of a straight angle (∠ABC is a straight angle): 180˚ A Practice B C Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 10–13. Name three obtuse angles. An angle with a measure between 0° and 90° is called a(n) __________ angle. If ∠MON measures 27°. 13. An angle with measure 90° is called a(n) __________ angle. 12. J K N O L M 10. An angle with a measure between 90° and 180° is called a(n) ________ angle. 15. 16. 11. 17. Name two straight angles.

10° 20. right. 24. 90° You may want to use a corner of a piece of scratch paper for questions 22–25. 98° 19. Classify each angle as acute. 22. the word acute can mean sharp and the word obtuse can mean dull or not sharp. obtuse. 180° 21. How can you relate these words with the drawings of acute and obtuse angles? 28 . or straight. right. Classify each angle as acute. Skill Building until Next Time In conversational English. 25.– TYPES OF ANGLES – Questions 18–21 list the measurement of an angle. 18. obtuse. or straight. 23.

you will focus on two different types of intersecting lines: transversals and perpendicular lines. On a piece of scratch paper. In this lesson. You will learn properties about lines that have many applications to this lesson and throughout this book. The point where they cross is called a point of intersection. The angles formed by a pair of parallel lines and a transversal are also explained. 29 .L E S S O N 3 B Intersecting Lines Working with Lines LESSON SUMMARY This lesson introduces you to perpendicular. Most of the time you do not pay much attention to them. Two special types of intersecting lines are called transversals and perpendicular lines. You will also study nonintersecting lines: parallel and skew lines. parallel. draw two straight lines that cross. and skew lines. oth intersecting and nonintersecting lines surround you. transversal. because intersecting lines cross at only one point (unless they are the same line). you can’t. Can you make these straight lines cross at more than one point? No. They actually share this point because it is on both lines. You’ll soon start to look at the lines around you with a different point of view.

therefore. d y t r 1. Is line t a transversal? Why or why not? 4. s t m n The preﬁx trans means to cross. line s is not a transversal. In the following ﬁgure. Is line y a transversal? Why or why not? 3. Is line r a transversal? Why or why not? 30 . A transversal can cut across parallel as well as intersecting lines. Also. each at a different point. Line m is a transversal for lines s and t. as shown here: t m n Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer questions 1–4. Line s crosses lines m and n at the same point (their point of intersection). you can see that line t cuts across the two lines m and n. In the previous ﬁgure. line n is a transversal across lines s and t. Is line d a transversal? Why or why not? 2. line t is a transversal. line s is not.– WORKING WITH LINES – Transversals A transversal is a line that intersects two or more other lines.

5. In the following ﬁgure. Everyday examples of perpendicular lines include the horizontal and vertical lines of a plaid fabric and the lines formed by panes in a window.– WORKING WITH LINES – Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines are another type of intersecting lines. but it does not have to be. t l m Practice State whether the following statements are true or false. A transversal can be perpendicular to a pair of lines. 6. You could write x ⊥ y to show these lines are perpendicular. the symbol that makes a square in the corner where lines x and y meet indicates a right angle. In geometry. 7. Transversals must always be parallel. Never assume a pair of lines are perpendicular without one of these symbols. The symbol “⊥” means parallel. Right angles always measure 90°. Perpendicular lines always form right angles. you shouldn’t assume anything without being told. line t is perpendicular to both line l and line m. Perpendicular lines meet to form right angles. 31 . Also. In the following ﬁgure. lines x and y are perpendicular: y x The symbol “⊥” means perpendicular.

” Do not assume a pair of lines are parallel unless it is indicated. double arrowheads are necessary to differentiate two sets of parallel lines. Lines j and k are skew. Parallel lines are __________ coplanar. Practice Complete the sentences with the correct word: always. 9. The symbol “ ” means parallel. Lines j and k are noncoplanar lines. Sometimes. j l m k Lines l and m are parallel. Parallel lines are __________ cut by a transversal. or never. 32 . as shown in the following ﬁgure: Everyday examples of parallel lines include rows of crops on a farm and railroad tracks. sometimes. Lines j and k do not intersect.” by writing “l m. Lines l and m are coplanar lines. “Lines l and m are parallel. then they are either parallel or skew. Arrowheads on the lines in a ﬁgure indicate that the lines are parallel. One jet would pass over the other. So you can abbreviate the sentence. but their paths would not cross. 8. Lines l and m do not intersect. 10.– WORKING WITH LINES – Nonintersecting Lines If lines do not intersect. An example of skew lines is the vapor trails of a northbound jet and a westbound jet ﬂying at different altitudes. Parallel lines __________ intersect.

1 4 3 2 l 5 6 8 7 t Alternate Interior Angles m Alternate interior angles are interior angles on opposite sides of the transversal. Angles 3. 12. In the previous ﬁgure. Skew lines __________ intersect. In the following ﬁgure. and 8 are outside the parallel lines and are called exterior angles. Angles Formed by Parallel Lines and a Transversal If a pair of parallel lines are cut by a transversal. 4. To spot same-side interior angles. then eight angles are formed. angles 3 and 5 and angles 4 and 6 are examples of alternate interior angles. as shown in the following examples: 33 . line l is parallel to line m and line t is a transversal forming angles 1–8. as shown in the following ﬁgures: Same-Side Interior Angles Same-side interior angles are interior angles on the same side of the transversal. 5. To spot alternate interior angles.– WORKING WITH LINES – 11. 2. Skew lines are __________ coplanar. look for a Z-shaped ﬁgure. Angles 1. 7. and 6 are inside the parallel lines and are called interior angles. look for a U-shaped ﬁgure in various positions.

34 . look for an F-shaped ﬁgure in various positions. ∠4 and ∠5 are same-side interior angles. Examples of corresponding angles in the following ﬁgure are angles 1 and 5. look at the following ﬁgure: 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 ∠1 and ∠5 are corresponding angles. and 3 and 7. such as corresponding. ∠3 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. 4 and 8. 1 4 3 2 l 5 6 8 7 t m To spot corresponding angles. you still use the same terms to describe angles. For example.– WORKING WITH LINES – Corresponding Angles Corresponding angles are so named because they appear to be in corresponding positions in relation to the two parallel lines. 2 and 6. and same-side interior angles. alternate interior. as shown in these examples: Angles Formed by Nonparallel Lines and a Transversal Even when lines cut by a transversal are not parallel.

you will still use both postulates and theorems for applications. ∠11 and ∠14 a. Another important fact you should know is that a pair of angles whose sum is 180° is called supplementary. corresponding angles. m 1 5 2 6 n 9 13 10 14 s 3 7 4 8 11 15 12 16 t 13.___________ b. Here are the theorems and the postulate that you will apply to a ﬁgure in the next few practice exercises.___________ b.___________ 16. Theorem: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. You will apply both types of facts to problems in this book. The term used for two angles with equal measure is congruent.___________ 35 . and same-side interior angles). then (b) tell if the angles are congruent or supplementary. There are some important facts you need to know about the special pairs of angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal. ∠2 and ∠10 a. Practice In the following ﬁgure. then you are on the right track. ∠6 and ∠7 a.___________ b. If you noticed that some of those pairs of angles appear to have equal measure. Theorem: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. m n and s t. Postulate: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal.___________ 15. For questions 13–16. postulates are statements of fact that we accept without proof. Theorems are statements of fact that can be proved. then same-side interior angles are supplementary.___________ 14. (a) state the special name for each pair of angles (alternate interior angles. then corresponding angles are congruent.___________ b. Although you will not go through that process in this book. then alternate interior angles are congruent.– WORKING WITH LINES – Postulates and Theorems As mentioned in Lesson 1. ∠13 and ∠15 a. Some geometry books teach formal proofs of theorems.

Same-side interior angles differ from alternate interior angles because ______________________. Alternate interior angles differ from corresponding angles because _________________________. so m∠7 = _?_ 18. 22. Same-side interior angles are similar to alternate interior angles because _____________________. You can see the importance of parallel lines in construction. 17. m∠2 = 125°. Alternate interior angles are similar to corresponding angles because _______________________. use the measure of the given angle to ﬁnd the missing angle. so m∠7 = _?_ 20. m∠2 = 100°. Same-side interior angles are similar to corresponding angles because ______________________.– WORKING WITH LINES – For 17–20. 36 . 23. m∠5 = 110°. Are the ﬂoor beams the same distance apart at the front of the building as they are at the back? Why is this important? If they were not the same distance apart. so m∠12 = _?_ 19. 21. Building codes specify how far apart ﬂoor beams can be based on safety codes. 26. how would this affect the ﬂoor? Of course. Same-side interior angles differ from corresponding angles because ________________________. Skill Building until Next Time Look around your neighborhood for a building under construction. m∠8 = 71°. 25. the ﬂoor would sag. so m∠11 = _?_ Complete the statement for practice problems 21–26. 24.

If the sides of the angle do not reach the scale. Choose the scale that has zero at one side of the angle.L E S S O N 4 A 40 20 0 Measuring Angles LESSON SUMMARY This lesson focuses on using the protractor to measure and draw angles. When measuring an angle. or straight before measuring will help you choose the correct scale. it is not necessary to have one of the rays passing 37 . extend them. Most protractors have two scales. Here is an example of a protractor: 90 60 90 120 140 160 180 60 40 20 0 180 160 120 140 Carefully line up your protractor by placing the center point of the protractor scale on the vertex of the angle. which is the place where both sides of the angle meet. from right to left. n instrument called a protractor can be used to ﬁnd the measure of degrees of an angle. You will also add and subtract angle measures. right. obtuse. Estimating whether an angle is acute. Check to see if your measurement and estimate agree. Read the measure of the angle. one reading from left to right. and the other.

draw a ray and place the center point of the protractor on the endpoint of the ray. ∠BOC 6. D 100˚ E 135˚ B 20˚ 180˚ F O A 0˚ C 75˚ 1. Practice Using the following ﬁgure. 120 60 0 180 0 180 38 . Make a dot at that point and connect it to the endpoint of the ray. ∠AOD 4. ∠BOE 8. ∠AOE 5. The angle could be measured by counting. Putting the ray on zero simply makes the counting easier.– MEASURING ANGLES – through zero on the protractor scale. Align the ray with the base line of the protractor. ∠AOC 3. ∠BOF 9. ﬁnd the measure of each angle. ∠COE Drawing Angles You can use a protractor to draw an angle of a given size. ∠BOD 7. ∠COD 10. ∠AOB 2. Locate the degree of the angle you wish to draw. First.

125° 12.– MEASURING ANGLES – The resulting angle will have the correct degree of measurement: 60° Practice Use a protractor to draw angles with the given measures. 45° 14. 32° 13. 100° 39 . 11. 75° 15.

What relationship do you notice among the measures of the three angles? You should ﬁnd that the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠2 equals the measure of ∠XYZ. will the relationship be the same? Try it and see. m∠1 + m∠2 = m∠XYZ. ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles. ∠2. 40 . If you draw another pair of adjacent angles and measure the angles. and ∠XYZ.– MEASURING ANGLES – Adding and Subtracting Angle Measures The following ﬁgures suggest that you can add and subtract angle measures: C 180° B 2 1 O A 3 4 ∠1 + ∠2 = ∠AOC 180° – ∠3 = ∠4 Adjacent angles are two angles in the same plane that have the same vertex and a common side but do not have any interior points in common. For example. Use a protractor to measure ∠1. The letter m is used before the angle symbol to represent the word measure. Angles 1 and XYZ are not adjacent. Z 2 1 Y W X In the previous ﬁgure.

then A B O C m∠AOB + m∠BOC = m∠AOC. Examples: Find the measure of each angle. (2) If ∠AOC is a straight angle. (a) m∠1 = 40° m∠2 = 75° m∠RSW = ______ T W (b) m∠DEG = 35° m∠GEF = 145° m∠DEF = _____ G 2 1 R S D E F m∠1 + m∠2 = m∠RSW m∠RSW = 115° m∠DEG + m∠GEF = m∠DEF m∠DEF = 180° 41 .– MEASURING ANGLES – Angle Addition Postulate (1) If point B is in the interior of ∠AOC. then B A O C m∠AOB + m∠BOC = 180°.

m∠DOS = 120° m∠DOH = 70° m∠HOS = ______ D H O S 18. m∠RPM = 42° m∠MPS = ______ M R P S 42 . m∠KJB = 60° m∠BJT = 40° m∠KJT = ______ B T K J 17. 16.– MEASURING ANGLES – Practice Find the measure of each angle.

m∠CPD = ______ 22. m∠DPE = ______ 43 .– MEASURING ANGLES – 19. m∠GEO = 100° m∠GEM = 60° m∠MEO = ______ M G O E Use the following ﬁgure to answer problems 20–25. m∠BPC = ______ 21. m∠CPE = ______ 24. m∠APE = ______ 25. m∠EPB = ______ 23. C B A 35˚ P D E 20.

44 .S. 26. practice drawing several angles of different measurements.4100 of a circle.600 1. The protractor is marked in mils.200 0 The U. You may also want additional practice using your protractor. 90° angle 27. For example. 2.– MEASURING ANGLES – Use the following ﬁgure for practice problems 26–29. estimate the size of an angle created by leaving your door open part-way.400 1. 45° angle 29.000 2.800 400 3. Find the measure in mils of each of the following angles.200 800 2. 180° angle Skill Building until Next Time Look around your environment for angles and estimate their measurements. If so. 135° angle 28. Army uses a unit of angle measure called a mil. A mil is deﬁned as 6.

two pairs of vertical angles are always formed. You can ﬁnd the measurement of one angle if the measurement of the other is given. just to name two areas. and vertical angles.L E S S O N 5 W Pairs of Angles LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. then you can ﬁnd the measurement of the other. you can ﬁnd the measurement of the other three angles. the angle can be very useful for solving a variety of problems. and on road maps. supplementary angles. When two lines intersect. the applications are endless. Angles measuring 90° are essential in construction and sewing. If you know the measurement of one of these angles. Pairs of angles whose measures add up to 90° are called complementary angles. or a straight line. These pairs of angles are called supplementary angles. you will learn how to use the relationships among three special pairs of angles: complementary angles. You can see pairs of intersecting lines in fabric patterns. If you know the measurement of one angle. When two angles come together to form a 180° angle. hen two angles come together to form a 90° angle. 45 . construction sites.

W 150˚ Y 30˚ X O Z In the previous ﬁgure. 1. ∠AOB and ∠BOC are a pair of complementary angles. 46 . m∠1 = 3° Supplementar y Angles Two angles are supplementary angles if and only if the sum of their measures is 180°. ∠XOY and ∠YOZ are supplementary angles. m∠1 = 68° 3. m∠1 = 25° 5. ∠AOB and ∠D are also a pair of complementary angles. Similar to complementary angles. A 20˚ B 20˚ O C D In the previous ﬁgure. To be complementary. a pair of angles do not need to be adjacent. Practice Find the measure of a complement of ∠1 for each of the following measures of ∠1. Each angle is a complement of the other. m∠1 = 44° 2. m∠1 = 80° 4.– PAIRS OF ANGLES – Complementar y Angles Two angles are complementary angles if and only if the sum of their measure is 90°. ∠XOY is a supplement of ∠YOZ and ∠W. ∠AOB is a complement of ∠BOC and ∠D. ∠XOY and ∠W are also supplementary angles. supplementary angles do not need to be adjacent. Each angle is a supplement of the other.

they are congruent. as well as ∠2 and ∠4. m∠2 = 60° 9. Vertical Angles theorem: Vertical angles are congruent. ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles. the two pairs of vertical angles are ∠1 and ∠3. m∠2 = 155° 10. 1 4 3 2 In the previous ﬁgure.– PAIRS OF ANGLES – Practice Find the measure of a supplement of ∠2 for each of the following measures of ∠2. When two lines intersect. m∠2 = 1° Vertical Angles Vertical angles are two angles whose sides form two pairs of opposite rays. in other words. Since ∠1 and ∠3 are both supplements to the same angle. Also. m∠2 = 130° 8. 6. they have the same measurement. m∠2 = 78° 7. they form two pairs of vertical angles. 47 .

19. 20. 18. Complementary angles must be acute. B C A O D E 11. 16. 17. 15. Two acute angles are always complementary. 12. A pair of vertical angles can be supplementary. 22. 21. Name a pair of complementary angles. A pair of vertical angles can be complementary. Two acute angles can be supplementary. Supplementary angles must be obtuse. 13. 23. 48 . 14. Name two supplement angles of ∠DOE. Any two right angles are supplementary. Complementary angles can be adjacent. Name two pairs of vertical angles. Supplementary angles can be adjacent. Vertical angles must have the same measure.– PAIRS OF ANGLES – Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 11–13. State whether the following statements are true or false.

or you could draw your own. ∠1 and ∠3 are vertical angles. 25.– PAIRS OF ANGLES – 24. You may use the lines in a ﬂoor tile. Skill Building until Next Time Find a pair of intersecting lines. A common error is assuming that any pair of angles that are “across from each other” are vertical. 1 5 2 4 3 26. Measure the four angles that the intersecting line forms to conﬁrm the Vertical Angles theorem. An acute and an obtuse angle are always supplementary. a piece of furniture. Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problem 26. Congruent complementary angles each measure 50°. Name three other pairs of nonadjacent angles that are also not vertical. In this ﬁgure. 49 . a fabric design. Angles 2 and 4 are not vertical angles.

.

isosceles. You can classify triangles by the lengths of their sides. 51 . Each of the triangles discussed in this lesson has special properties that will help you solve problems.L E S S O N 6 I Classification by Sides Types of Triangles LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. however. t would be difﬁcult to name an occupation where classifying triangles is a required skill. it is a skill that will help you solve complex geometry problems. On the next page are three examples of special triangles called equilateral. and scalene. you will learn how to classify triangles according to the length of their sides and their angle measurements.

The symbol for congruent is ≅. 52 . three hatch marks are made on each congruent side. You’ll see these hatch marks in most geometry books.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – Isosceles two ≅ sides Equilateral three ≅ sides Scalene no sides congruent To show that two or more sides of a triangle have the same measurement. Sometimes. isosceles. two hatch marks are made on each congruent side. and sometimes. a hatch mark is made through the congruent sides. You can match up the number of hatch marks to ﬁnd which sides are congruent. or scalene. Practice Classify each triangle shown or described as equilateral. 1. 4 4 4 2.

BC = 10. 7. 11 8 5 5. 6. and DF = 10. ΔABC with AB = 10. 53 . ΔXYZ with XY = 7. and AC = 8. 5 3 4 4. ΔDEF with DE = 6. EF = 8. and XZ = 7.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – 3. YZ = 7.

vertex angle. 8. Example: A legs: AC and AB vertex angle: ∠A C B base angles: ∠B and ∠C base: BC Practice Name the legs. The other two angles are called the base angles. the side opposite the vertex angle is called the base. and base of the isosceles triangles. Did you know that the parts of an isosceles triangle have special names? The two congruent sides of an isosceles triangle are called the legs. Some geometry books deﬁne isosceles as having at least two congruent sides. we will deﬁne isosceles as having exactly two congruent sides. base angles. And ﬁnally. For our purposes. X legs: ______ vertex angle: _______ base angles: _______ base: ______ Y Z 9.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – Isosceles Triangles Isosceles triangles are important geometric ﬁgures to understand. R S legs: ______ vertex angle: _______ base angles: _______ base: ______ T 54 . The angle formed by the two congruent sides is called the vertex angle.

D F legs: ______ vertex angle: ______ base angles: ______ base: ______ E Classification by Angles You can also classify triangles by the measurements of their angles.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – 10. You can also use two small curves to show that angles are congruent. 6 6 5 Acute three acute angles Equiangular three ≅ angles Right one right angle Obtuse one obtuse angle To show that two or more angles of a triangle have the same measurement. 55 . and obtuse. They are called acute. a small curve is made in the congruent angles. equiangular. Here are four examples of special triangles. right.

20° 135° 25° 56 . 60° 60° 60° 13. or equiangular. 70° 55° 55° 12. 11. 14.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – Practice Classify each triangle shown or described as acute. right. obtuse.

ΔGHI with m∠G = 20°. 23. 16. 57 . A triangle cannot have more than one right angle. 19. m∠S = 45°. An isosceles triangle may also be a right triangle. 21. 20. 25. 22. 17. 18. ΔMNO with m∠M = 130°. State whether the following statements are true or false. and m∠T = 55°. and m∠I = 90°. and m∠O = 20°. A triangle can have two obtuse angles.– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – 15. It is possible for an obtuse triangle to be isosceles. An equilateral triangle is also an equiangular triangle. ΔRST with m∠R = 80°. m∠H = 70°. An equilateral triangle is also an acute triangle. It is possible for a right triangle to be equilateral. It is possible for a scalene triangle to be equiangular. m∠N = 30°. 24.

– TYPES OF TRIANGLES – Skill Building until Next Time A triangle is called a rigid ﬁgure because the length of at least one side of a triangle must be changed before its shape changes. To prove the strength of a triangle. what shape do you see? The view of the dollar bill from the side shows several triangles. Bridge the cups with a dollar bill. Now try to balance the box of toothpicks on the folded dollar bill. When you look at the folded dollar bill from the side. Notice the triangles you can see in ﬂoor and roof trusses. This is an important quality in construction. place two glasses about four inches apart. Then try to balance a box of toothpicks on the dollar bill without the box of toothpicks touching the glasses. Fold the dollar bill like a fan. 58 .

L E S S O N

7

C

B A

Congruent Triangles

LESSON SUMMARY

This lesson will help you identify corresponding parts of congruent triangles and to name the postulate or theorem that shows that two triangles are congruent.

ongruent triangles are commonly used in the construction of quilts, buildings, and bridges. Congruent triangles are also used to estimate inaccessible distances; for example, the width of a river or the distance across a canyon. In this lesson, you will learn simple ways to determine whether two triangles are congruent. When you buy ﬂoor tiles, you get tiles that are all the same shape and size. One tile will ﬁt right on top of another. In geometry, you would say one tile is congruent to another tile. Similarly, in the following ﬁgure, ΔABC and ΔXYZ are congruent. They have the same size and shape.

Y

C

X

Z

59

– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES –

Imagine sliding one triangle over to ﬁt on top of the other triangle. You would put point A on point X; point B on point Y; and point C on point Z. When the vertices are matched in this way, ∠A and ∠X are called corresponding angles, and AB and XY are called corresponding sides. Corresponding angles and corresponding sides are often referred to as corresponding parts of the triangles. In other words, you could say Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent (CPCTC). This statement is often referred to by the initials CPCTC. When ΔABC is congruent to ΔXYZ, you write ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ. This means that all of the following are true: ∠A ≅ ∠X AB ≅ XY ∠B ≅ ∠Y BC ≅ YZ ∠C ≅ ∠Z AC ≅ XZ

Suppose instead of writing ΔABC ≅ ΔXYZ, you started to write ΔCAB ≅ _____. Since you started with C to name the ﬁrst triangle, you must start with the corresponding letter, Z, to name the second triangle. Corresponding parts are named in the same order. If you name the ﬁrst triangle ΔCAB, then the second triangle must be named ΔZXY. In other words, ΔCAB ≅ ΔZXY. Example: Name the corresponding angles and corresponding sides.

S F

R

T

G

E

ΔRST ≅ ΔEFG Solution: Corresponding angles: ∠R and ∠E; ∠S and ∠F; ∠T and ∠G Corresponding sides: RS and EF; ST and FG; RT and EG

Practice

**For practice problems 1–6, complete each statement; given ΔJKM ≅ ΔPQR.
**

J P

M

R

K

Q

60

– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES –

1. ∠M corresponds to ∠_______. 2. ∠P corresponds to ∠_______. 3. ∠Q corresponds to ∠_______.

4. JK corresponds to ______. 5. RQ corresponds to ______. 6. PR corresponds to ______.

**For practice problems 7–10, complete each statement, given ΔGFH ≅ ΔJFH.
**

F

G

H

J

7. ΔFGH ≅ Δ______ 8. ΔHJF ≅ Δ______

9. ΔFHJ ≅ Δ______ 10. ΔJFH ≅ Δ______

**Side-Side-Side (SSS) Postulate
**

If you have three sticks that make a triangle and a friend has identical sticks, would it be possible for each of you to make different-looking triangles? No, it is impossible to do this. A postulate of geometry states this same idea. It is called the side-side-side postulate.

Side-Side-Side postulate: If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

**Take a look at the following triangles to see this postulate in action:
**

B S

A

C

R

T

ΔABC ≅ ΔRST

61

– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES –

The hatch marks on the triangles show which sides are congruent to which in the two triangles. For example, AC and RT both have one hatch mark, which shows that these two segments are congruent. BC is congruent to ST, as shown by the two hatch marks, and AB and RS are congruent as shown by the three hatch marks. Since the markings indicate that the three pairs of sides are congruent, you can conclude that the three pairs of angles are also congruent. From the deﬁnition of congruent triangles, it follows that all six parts of ΔABC are congruent to the corresponding parts of ΔRST.

Practice

**Use the following ﬁgure to answer questions 11–15.
**

R

8 10 T 6 S

8

V 6

11. RS corresponds to _______. 12. TS corresponds to _______. 13. RV corresponds to _______.

14. Is ΔRTS ≅ ΔRVS? 15. Is ΔRSV ≅ ΔRTS?

**Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Postulate
**

If you put two sticks together at a certain angle, there is only one way to ﬁnish forming a triangle. Would it be possible for a friend to form a different-looking triangle if he or she started with the same two lengths and the same angle? No, it would be impossible. Another postulate of geometry states this same idea; it is called the side-angleside postulate.

Side-Angle-Side postulate: If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

62

63 . 19. BC corresponds to _______. The side is called an included side. What kind of angles are ∠ACB and ∠ECD? 17. the triangles are congruent. Is ΔACB ≅ ΔEDC? Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Postulate There is one more postulate that describes two congruent triangles. Angle-Side-Angle postulate: If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle.– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES – Look at the following two triangles to see an example of this postulate: F P G H Q R ΔFGH ≅ ΔPQR Practice Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 16–20. Is ∠ACB ≅ ∠ECD? 18. Angle-side-angle involves two angles and a side between them. 20. CE corresponds to _______. D A C E B 16.

Is ΔRTS ≅ ΔRQS? 24. ∠QSR corresponds to ∠______. 27. T R S Q 21. 23. 26. 64 .– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES – Take a look at the following two triangles: E D S R F T ΔDEF ≅ ΔRST Practice Use the ﬁgure below to answer practice problems 21–25. ∠TRS corresponds to ∠______. 28. Is ∠T ≅ ∠Q? State which postulate you would use to prove the two triangles congruent. 22. Is ΔSRT ≅ ΔSQR? 25.

30. Skill Building until Next Time A carpenter’s square is a tool used in carpentry. as well as for wallpaper hanging. W X Y Z a) Which postulate can you use to show that ΔWXY ≅ ΔWZY? b) Why is ∠XWY ≅ ∠ZWY? 65 .– CONGRUENT TRIANGLES – 29. A carpenter’s square can be used to bisect an angle at the corner of a board. Mark point Y and draw WY. Put the carpenter’s square on a board so that XY = YZ. you may either have a carpenter’s square or may be able to borrow one from a neighbor. With the recent craze for home improvement. Similar tools are used for arts and crafts projects. Get a carpenter’s square and mark equal lengths WX and WZ along the edges.

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The hypotenuse is always the longest of the three sides.L E S S O N 8 T Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. he right triangle is very important in geometry because it can be used in so many different ways. you will learn the special names for the sides of a right triangle. The Pythagorean theorem is just one of the special relationships that can be used to help solve problems and ﬁnd missing information. You will also learn how to use the Pythagorean theorem to find missing parts of a right triangle and to determine whether three segments will make a right triangle. regardless of what position the triangle is in. It is important that you can correctly identify the sides of a right triangle. Parts of a Right Triangle In a right triangle. the sides that meet to form the right angle are called the legs. 67 . Right triangles can be used to ﬁnd solutions to problems that contain ﬁgures that are not even polygons. The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.

Name the hypotenuse. Name the legs. H L M 5.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – leg leg hy e us ten po se tenu y po h hypotenuse leg leg leg leg Practice ΔABC is a right triangle. Name the hypotenuse. Name the legs. Name the hypotenuse. 2. 4. ΔPQR is a right triangle. Name the legs. ΔHLM is a right triangle. 6. R P Q 3. A B C 1. 68 .

It would be helpful for you to learn the ﬁrst sixteen perfect squares. It is not necessarily important that you memorize the chart. you multiply it by itself. it looks like this: 52 = 5 × 5 = 25. When completed. For example. It can be written as the product of two equal factors. NUMBER SQUARE 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 9 25 36 7 8 49 81 10 11 12 144 169 14 15 16 196 100 69 . since two is the exponent (the small raised number). or ﬁve times ﬁve. A common mistake is to say that you multiply by two.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – Review of Squares and Square Roots Before you study the Pythagorean theorem. Complete the chart. which is twenty-ﬁve. To square a number. But the exponent tells you how many times to use the base (bottom number) as a factor. Twenty-ﬁve is a perfect square. they “undo” each other. the following chart will be a useful reference. Practice 7. Even the most basic calculators can help you determine squares and square roots of larger numbers. Just like addition and subtraction are inverses. let’s ﬁrst review squares and square roots. In other words. but you need to understand how the numbers are generated. Written algebraically. 52 means two factors of ﬁve. so are squares and square roots.

) is given credit for originating it. the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse.c. Any unknown length can be found if you can make it a part of a right triangle.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – The Pythagorean Theorem The Pythagorean theorem is one of the most famous theorems in mathematics. then you subtract the square of the leg from the square of the hypotenuse. You only add the squares of the legs when you are looking for the hypotenuse. Evidence shows that it was used by the Egyptians and Babylonians for hundreds of years. c a b a2 + b2 = c2 The Pythagorean theorem can be used to solve many real-life problems. You only need to know two of the sides of a right triangle to ﬁnd the third unknown side. Another common mistake is forgetting to take the square root as your ﬁnal step. 12 9 13 5 c b a2 + b2 = c2 12 2 + 9 2 = c 2 144 + 81 = c 2 225 = c 2 225 = c 2 15 = c a2 + b2 = c2 5 2 + b 2 = 13 2 25 + b 2 = 169 b 2 = 144 b 2 = 144 b = 12 70 . Examples: Find each missing length. You just need to remember that you are not solving for the square of the side. A common mistake is always adding the squares of the two known lengths. The Greek mathematician Pythagoras (circa 585–500 b. If you know the hypotenuse and one of the legs. Pythagorean theorem: In a right triangle. but for the length of the side.

c = ______. a = 7. 13. right. 8 c 15 9. then the triangle is a right triangle. Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem Another practical use of the Pythagorean theorem involves determining whether a triangle is acute. 8. 71 . c = 41. b = 4.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – Practice Find each missing length. This involves using the converse of the Pythagorean theorem. or obtuse. Converse of the Pythagorean theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two shorter sides. a = ______. c = ______. 6 10 b 11. b = 9. b = 24. a = 3. 12. 15 a 12 10.

then the three sides with lengths of 6. 5 13 12 15. Note that c represents the length of the longest side in each triangle. and 4 make a right triangle. 4. 15 20 24 72 . 5 4 3 c2 52 25 a2 + b2 32 + 42 9 + 16 Since 25 = 9 + 16. Determine whether the triangles are right triangles. then the three sides with lengths of 5. and 5 do not make a right triangle. Here is another example: 6 4 5 c2 62 36 a2 + b2 42 + 52 16 + 25 Since 36 ≠ 16 + 25.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – Examples: Determine whether the following are right triangles. Practice The lengths of three sides of a triangle are given. 14. 3.

15. a c b c2 < a2 + b2 73 . 41 Acute and Obtuse Triangles If you have determined that a triangle is not a right triangle. 39 19. 24. 40. then the triangle is acute. 25. 9 18. 5. 7. 36. then the triangle is obtuse. 7 17. then you can determine whether it is an acute or obtuse triangle by using one of the following theorems: Theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side is greater than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides. 9. a c b c2 > a2 + b2 Theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side is less than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – 16.

c2 24 2 576 576 Since 576 < 625. 28 25. right. 2. 7 74 . 40. b = 20. 7. this is an acute triangle. 13 22. 20. Example: In ΔABC. 5. or obtuse. c2 9 81 81 Since 81 > 74. b = 7. 10 24. 6. the lengths of the sides are c = 9. 50. 12. 50 21. 7 26. 7. the lengths of the sides are c = 24. Example: In ΔABC. 8. Practice a2 + b2 15 2 + 20 2 225 + 400 625 a2 + b2 52 + 72 25 + 49 74 The length of three sides of a triangle are given. 11 23. 11. a = 5. 30.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – Let’s take a look at a couple of examples to see these theorems in action. 10. a = 15. 14. Classify each triangle as acute. 10. this is an obtuse triangle.

Solve the problem when the ladder is 3 feet from the building. How far up a building will an 18-foot ladder reach if the ladder’s base is 5 feet from the building? Express your answer to the nearest foot. How many can you ﬁnd? Measure the three sides of the triangle to make sure it is a right triangle. Why would it be impractical to solve the problem if the base of the ladder was closer than 3 feet from the building? Skill Building until Next Time Look around your home for examples of right triangles.– TRIANGLES AND THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM – Use the following ﬁgure to answer question 27. 75 . 27. 5 ft. 18 ft.

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L E S S O N 9 T Properties of Polygons LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. The line segments are called sides that intersect only at their endpoints. he word polygon comes from Greek words meaning “many angled. Polygons Not polygons 77 .” A polygon is a closed plane ﬁgure formed by line segments. You will also learn how to identify concave and convex polygons. you will learn how to determine if a figure is a polygon. which are called vertex points. You will learn how to classify polygons by their sides and how to find the measures of their interior and exterior angles.

4. 78 . 3. In other words. 2. a concave polygon. A concave polygon has at least one place that “caves in. it would ﬁt snugly without gaps.” Convex polygons Practice Concave polygons Classify each ﬁgure as a convex polygon. if you wrapped a rubber band around a convex polygon.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – A polygon is convex when no segment connecting two vertices (vertex points) contains points outside the polygon. 5. or not a polygon. 1.

7.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – 6. The endpoints of a side are called consecutive or adjacent vertices. 9. 8. Parts of a Polygon Two sides of a polygon that intersect are called consecutive or adjacent sides. 79 . The segment that connects two nonconsecutive vertices is called a diagonal of the polygon.

to name just a few examples. you name its consecutive vertices in clockwise or counterclockwise order. or ACEDB. A E B D C You cannot skip around when you name a polygon.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Naming Polygons When naming a polygon. DEABC. you cannot name the polygon BDEAC. or EDCBA. ECBAD. NUMBER OF SIDES POLYGON 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 triangle quadrilateral pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon nonagon decagon 80 . Here are a few of the ways to name the following polygon: ABCDE. Polygons are classiﬁed by their number of sides. For example.

15. 13. 10. 11.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Practice Name each polygon by the number of sides. 14. 12. 81 .

– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – Which of the following are acceptable names for each polygon? P S D G Q R E F U T 16. UTSPQR Finding the Measure of Interior Angles There are two theorems that you can use to ﬁnd the measure of interior angles of a convex polygon. put the vertex points together. DGFE 17. One theorem works only for triangles. Tear off the three angles or points of the triangle. 180° You can ﬁnd the sum of the interior angles of a convex polygon if you know how many sides the polygon has. cut a triangle from a piece of paper. RQSPUT 21. Remember that a straight angle is 180°. FDGE 18. as shown in the following ﬁgures. therefore. The other theorem works for all convex polygons. Look at these ﬁgures. Theorem: The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°. including triangles. UPQRST 20. EFGD 19. Let’s take a look at the theorem for triangles ﬁrst. They will form a straight line or straight angle. Without overlapping the edges. To illustrate this. Do you see a pattern? 180° 360° 540° 82 . the three angles of a triangle add up to 180°.

Solution: n = 12 S = 180(n – 2) S = 180(12 – 2) S = 180(10) S = 1. When you return to your starting point. As you reach each vertex point. Finding the Measure of Exterior Angles Use this theorem to ﬁnd the measure of exterior angles of a convex polygon.800°. To illustrate this theorem. Look for a pattern in the number of sides a polygon has and the number of triangles drawn from one vertex point. Since each triangle has 180°.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – The diagram suggests that polygons can be divided into triangles. Theorem: The sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon is always 360°. picture yourself walking alongside a polygon. 83 . You can write this as a general statement with the letter n representing the number of sides of the polygon. You will always have two fewer triangles than the number of sides of the polygon. multiply the number of triangles by 180 to get the sum of the interior angles. Theorem: If a convex polygon has n sides. you will turn the number of degrees in the exterior angle. then its angle sum is given by this formula: S = 180(n – 2) Example: Find the sum of the interior angles of a polygon with 12 sides.800 Therefore. you will have rotated 360°. the sum of the interior angles of a 12-sided polygon is 1.

there are three right angles and two congruent obtuse angles.– PROPERTIES OF POLYGONS – This ﬁgure shows this theorem using a pentagon. The home plate used in baseball and softball has this shape: As you can see. 84 . Complete the table for convex polygons NUMBER OF SIDES 6 10 14 16 Interior Exterior Sum Sum 23. Do you see that this would be true for all polygons as stated in the theorem? Practice 22. What are the measures of the two obtuse angles? Skill Building until Next Time Observe your surroundings today and see how many examples of convex and concave polygons you can ﬁnd.

and design. The diagram shows that an isosceles is one type of trapezoid. a square is also a rectangle and a rhombus. you will learn how to name and classify special quadrilaterals. the ﬁgures become more specialized as the chart ﬂows downward. 85 .L E S S O N 10 Q Quadrilaterals LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. The diagram on the next page shows the characteristics and relationships among the special quadrilaterals. Parallelograms have two pairs of opposite parallel sides. A square is a parallelogram with four congruent angles and four congruent sides. Trapezoids are quadrilaterals that have only one pair of opposite parallel sides. rectangles. which is one type of quadrilateral. squares. Parallelograms branch off in two special categories: rectangles and rhombuses. You will also learn how to use the special properties associated with parallelograms. uadrilaterals are one of the most commonly used ﬁgures in buildings. A rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides. In other words. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four congruent angles. The other main branch of quadrilaterals consists of parallelograms. Quadrilaterals branch off in two distinctive branches: parallelograms and trapezoids. architecture. and trapezoids. rhombuses. All four-sided polygons are classiﬁed as quadrilaterals. If the trapezoid has congruent legs. then the ﬁgure is an isosceles trapezoid. In other words.

9. 4. All trapezoids are quadrilaterals. All isosceles trapezoids are quadrilaterals. 7. All quadrilaterals are squares. 10. 3. 86 . 5. All squares are rhombuses. All rectangles are quadrilaterals. All parallelograms are squares. All rhombuses are squares.– QUADRILATERALS – Quadrilateral four sides Parallelogram two pair of ll sides Trapezoid one pair ll sides Rectangle four ≅ ∠í s Isosceles Trapezoid ≅ legs Rhombus four ≅ sides Square four ≅ ∠’s four ≅ sides Practice Use the diagram to determine whether each statement is true or false. All squares are trapezoids. 2. All parallelograms are rectangles. 1. 8. All rectangles are parallelograms. 6.

120° 60° 60° 120° Theorem: Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. The properties are also useful to determine measurements of angles. 87 . Theorem: Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. Theorem: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent. and diagonals of parallelograms. Theorem: Consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supplementary. Properties of Parallelograms Deﬁnition: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel.– QUADRILATERALS – Properties of Parallelograms The following properties of parallelograms will help you determine if a ﬁgure is a parallelogram or just a quadrilateral. sides.

W 90˚ 45˚ O 6 2 Y Z WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE m∠XWZ = 90° + 45° =135° m∠XYZ = 135° m∠WXY = 45° m∠WZY = 45° WO = 2 ZO = 6 Angle-Addition-Postulate Opposite angles are congruent. Examples: BMAH is a parallelogram. Diagonals bisect each other. Consecutive angles are supplementary. Opposite sides are congruent.– QUADRILATERALS – Note that diagonals of a parallelogram are not necessarily congruent. Opposite angles are congruent. Opposite angles are congruent. Consecutive angles are supplementary. X WXYZ is a parallelogram. B H 135˚ 3 M WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE 5 A BM = 3 BH = 5 m∠M = 135° m∠A = 45° m∠B = 45° Opposite sides are congruent. because it is a common error. Watch out for this. Diagonals bisect each other. 88 . Opposite angles are congruent.

m∠SRQ 89 .– QUADRILATERALS – Practice Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd each side length and angle measure for parallelogram ABCD for questions 11–15. m∠D Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd each side length and angle measure for parallelogram PQRS for questions 16–20. m∠B 14. m∠PQR 19. OR 18. m∠SPQ 20. P Q 5 7 O 15˚ 40˚ S R 16. SQ 17. DC 13. A 12 B 8 115˚ C D 11. m∠A 15. BC 12.

Since a square is both a rectangle and a rhombus. therefore. Diagonals of a rhombus bisect the angles. Opposite angles are congruent. ABCD is a rhombus. Examples: NEWS is a rectangle. remember that these ﬁgures are all parallelograms. However. N E 6 20˚ S WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE X W XE = 6 NW = 12 ∠NES = 20° ∠NSW = 90° Diagonals bisect each other. First. Theorem: The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. rhombus. Diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. because these ﬁgures are special parallelograms. they possess the same properties of any parallelogram. Deﬁnition of a rectangle. 90 . Consecutive angles are supplementary. when formed by parallel lines. and they bisect the angles of the rhombus. Alternate interior angles are congruent. B A E 30˚ C D WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE m∠BEC = 90° m∠DCE = 30° m∠BAD = 60° m∠ABC = 120° m∠ADC = 120° Diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular. Theorem: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular.– QUADRILATERALS – Other Special Properties The rectangle. Opposite angles are congruent. a square possesses these same special properties. and square have a few other special properties. they also have additional special properties.

QS 22. m∠RPS Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the angle measures for rhombus GHJK for questions 25–30. P 25˚ Q O 13 R S 21.– QUADRILATERALS – Practice Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the side length and angle measures for rectangle PQRS for questions 21–24. OP 23. m∠JMK 28. m∠HJK 30. m∠QSR 24. m∠MGK 26. m∠GHJ 27. m∠GKH 91 . H G 58˚ M J K 25. m∠GJK 29.

– QUADRILATERALS – Use the following diagram to answer question 31. For example. and a quadrilateral. 92 . Explain how this Venn diagram and the ﬂow chart shown at the beginning of this lesson show the relationships among quadrilaterals. Then go down your list and see how many correct geometric names you can give for each item you named. Skill Building until Next Time Look around your environment to ﬁnd examples of quadrilaterals and make a list of them. the state of Tennessee is a quadrilateral that is also a parallelogram. Quadrilaterals Parallelograms Trapezoids Isosceles Trapezoids Rhombuses Sq ua re s Rectangles 31. The Venn diagram shown in practice problem 31 may be useful to you. a parallelogram. Your desktop may be a rectangle.

Measurements of distances such as heights of tall buildings and the widths of large bodies of water can be found using similar triangles and proportions. You will also learn how to determine if two ratios are a proportion and how to use proportions to solve problems. you will learn how to determine if two triangles are similar. Similar triangles can be used to ﬁnd indirect measurements. Interior designers use scale drawings of rooms to decide furniture size and placement. The ratio of x to y can be written x or x:y. atios and proportions have many applications. you will learn how to write and simplify ratios. y 93 . In addition. Let’s begin by looking at ratios. and Similarity LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. Architects use them when they make scale models of buildings. Proportion. Ratios are usually expressed in simplest form. If you compare two quantities.L E S S O N 11 R What Is a Ratio? Ratio. then you have used a ratio. A ratio is the comparison of two numbers using division.

they are equal to each other. A statement that two ratios are equal is called a 4 6 2 proportion. 10 K KB BT BT KB BT KT 5 B T 1. A proportion can be written in one of the following ways: 2 4 = 3 6 or 2:4 = 3:6 The ﬁrst and last numbers in a proportion are called the extremes. PROPORTION. then ad = bc. The middle numbers are called the means. 2. 7 D R DR RY 11 Y (a) (b) RY DR (c) DR DY Solutions: (a) 7 11 (b) 11 7 (c) 7 18 Practice Express each ratio in simplest form. AND SIMILARITY – Examples: Express each ratio in simplest form.– RATIO. 94 . What Is a Proportion? Since 2 and 3 are both equal to 1 . c If a = d . b If a:b = c:d. then ad = bc. 3. the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. 3 = 4 means 6 8 extremes 4:6 = 2:3 means extremes Means-Extremes Property In a proportion.

4. AND SIMILARITY – Examples: Tell whether each of the following is a proportion. Examples: Solve each proportion. you can ﬁnd the fourth part by using the means-extremes property. 9. 7. When three parts of a proportion are known. PROPORTION. (a) 3 = 1 (b) 2:5 = 4:10 (c) 1 = 2 6 2 3 9 Solutions: (a) 3 2 = 6 1 (b) 2 10 = 5 4 (c) 1 9 = 3 6=6 20 = 20 9≠6 yes yes no Practice 2 State whether each of the following is a proportion. 2:3 = 3:2 Solving Proportion Problems Proportions can also be used to solve problems. 12:16 = 9:15 6. 2 7 = 4 14 5. 8. 12.– RATIO. x 8 8 y 2 7 = = = 1 2 2 11 8 z 10. a (a) 4 = 120 (b) 7 = x Solutions: (a) 2x = 4 10 2x = 40 x = 20 Practice 12 21 (c) 5 = 2 15 y (b) 21a = 7 12 21a = 84 a=4 (c) 5y = 2 15 5y = 30 y=6 Solve each proportion. 2 5 8 b 9 x = = = a 20 4 7 36 4 95 . 11.

Examples: Are these triangles similar? (a) B E Solutions: (a) ∠A ≅ ∠D. then their third angles must also be congruent. can you ﬁnd the measurement of the third angle? Yes. If you know the measurements of two angles of a triangle. and the sideangle-side postulate. AA postulate 80 60 A 40 T Z 96 . The three methods are called the angle-angle postulate. PROPORTION. two ﬁgures are similar if you can show that the following two statements are true: (1) Corresponding angles are congruent. if two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. AND SIMILARITY – Triangle Similarity You can prove that two ﬁgures are similar by using the deﬁnition of similar. In other words. AA postulate C A D X J 60 Y (b) (b) m∠J = 180 – (60 + 40) m∠J = 80 ΔAJT ∼ ΔYZX. from Lesson 9.– RATIO. (2) Corresponding sides are in proportion. This will help you understand the next postulate. vertical ∠’s are ≅ ΔABC ∼ ΔDEC. Angle-Angle postulate (AA postulate): If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. given ∠BCA ≅ ∠ECD. In addition to using the deﬁnition of similar. the side-side-side postulate. you can use three other methods for proving that two triangles are similar. you know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. You should know that the symbol used for similarity is ∼. Therefore. then the triangles are similar.

AND SIMILARITY – Practice State whether the triangles are similar. 97 . N 50˚ K 50˚ J 70˚ M O 70˚ L 14. PROPORTION. 120 25 45 120 16. B E 20 A C D 21 F 15. 13.– RATIO.

– RATIO. could you use to prove that the triangles are similar? (a) 12 4 16 3 ? = 12 16 3 × 16 = 4 × 12 48 = 48 SAS postulate 3 4 (b) 6 25 8 10 15 20 6 15 ? = 10 25 6 15 ? = 280 8 20 ? = 10 25 6 × 25 = 15 × 10 150 = 150 SSS postulate 6 × 20 = 15 × 8 120 = 120 8 × 25 = 20 × 10 200 = 200 98 . then the triangles are similar. if any. Side-Angle-Side postulate (SAS postulate): If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding included angles are congruent. PROPORTION. then the triangles are similar. Examples: Which postulate. AND SIMILARITY – Here are two more postulates you can use to prove that two triangles are similar: Side-Side-Side postulate (SSS postulate): If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional.

but the included ∠’s are not necessarily ≅ none Practice Which postulate. if any. could you use to prove that the triangles are similar? 17.– RATIO. 18. PROPORTION. AND SIMILARITY – (c) 9 3 7 8 10 4 ? = 190 3 × 10 = 4 × 9 30 ≠ 36 none 3 4 (d) 2 30° 4 30° 6 3 2 ? 4 3 =6 2×6=3×4 12 = 12. 99 .

20 110 15 6 100 8 100 . 7 4 8 6 22. PROPORTION. AND SIMILARITY – 19. 21.– RATIO. 75 85 20 20.

101 . ﬁnd two objects that are fairly close to each other. PROPORTION.– RATIO. AND SIMILARITY – 23. A ﬂag pole or a light post would be good choices. Measure the length of the shadows of the short and the tall objects. One should be short enough to measure with a measuring tape. 10 5 4 8 24. Solve by using the means-extremes property. The other should be too tall to measure with a measuring tape. 10 7 21 30 5 15 Skill Building until Next Time Outside your school. Some good choices would be a stop sign or a ﬁreplug. Set up a proportion: height of the ﬂag pole shadow of the ﬂag pole = height of the stop sign shadow of the stop sign Replace the height of the ﬂag pole with x and the other parts of the proportion with the measurements that you found.

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Crown molding around a room and a fence around a garden are just two examples of where you might need to ﬁnd a perimeter. You can ﬁnd the perimeters of polygons. Carpenters and landscape architects use perimeters on a regular basis. erimeter is found by measuring the distance around an object. You simply add all the lengths of the sides of an irregular shape to ﬁnd its perimeter. Examples: Find the perimeter of each polygon. (a) (b) 5 2 3 4 103 .L E S S O N 12 P 6 cm 2 cm 5 cm 1 cm 4 cm Perimeter of Polygons LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. you will learn how to find the distance around convex and concave polygons. You will also learn how to use formulas to find the perimeter of polygons. which have a uniform shape by using formulas.

3 3 3 3 9 2.– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – Solutions: (a) (b) perimeter = 1 + 4 + 2 + 5 + 6 = 18 cm 7 3 4 5 7 2 3 2 4 5 perimeter = 7 + 7 + 5 + 4 + 2 + 3 = 28 Practice Find the perimeter of each polygon. 1. 3 5 5 5 104 .

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – 3. Here are the most commonly used perimeter formulas: Square Rectangle Regular pentagon l s w s p = 4s p = 2l + 2w or p = 2(l + w) p = 5s 105 . Using a standard formula for a particular shape is faster and easier than adding all the sides. 5 4 2 1 3 Perimeter Formulas For certain shapes. 4 3 2 5 4 9 6 4. you can ﬁnd the perimeter in a more efﬁcient manner.

where n = number of sides and s = the length of each side. In other words. p = ns. So if you know the length of one side of a regular polygon.– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – Examples: Use a formula to ﬁnd each perimeter. You can choose which one is easier for you. all you need to do to ﬁnd its perimeter is multiply the number of sides by the length of a side. 106 . (a) (b) 8 cm 3 cm 7 cm p = 4s p = 4(8) p = 32 cm p = 2l + 2w or p = 2(l + w) p = 2(7) + 2(3) p = 2(7 + 3) p = 14 + 6 p = 2(10) p = 20 cm p = 20 cm Either of these formulas will always work. (c) 4 cm p = 5s p = 5(4) p = 20 cm A regular polygon is a polygon with all angles congruent and all sides congruent.

107 .– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS – Practice Use a formula to ﬁnd the perimeter of each polygon. 7. regular nonagon: s = 7 ft. 8. rectangle: l = 12 in. 5. 9 ft. 11. 6. regular octagon: s = 10 in. 12. square: s = 20 cm 10. w = 6 in. 4 in. 7 in. 5 cm 3 cm 8 cm 9..

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Working Backward

You can also use a perimeter formula to ﬁnd the length of one side of a polygon if you know the perimeter and work backward. Examples: (a) Solutions: (a) p = 4s 20 = 4s s = 5 cm

s

p = 20 cm s = _____

(b) (b) w = 5 p = 2l + 2w 32 = 2l + 2(5) 32 = 2l + 10 22 = 2l l = 11

w

5

p = 32 w = _____ l = _____

l

(c)

regular hexagon p = 24 mm

(c) p = 6s 24 = 6s s = 4 mm

108

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Practice

**Find the length of the indicated side(s). 13.
**

1m

16.

**p = 12 m w = _____ l = _____ 14. p = 32 yd. s = _____ 17. equilateral triangle: p = 60 cm s = _____
**

10 cm

18. regular octagon: p = 80 cm 19. regular hexagon: p = 48 cm

s = _____ s = _____ s = _____

p = 30 cm w = _____ l = _____ 15.

20. regular decagon: p = 230 cm

p = 35 in. s = _____

109

– PERIMETER OF POLYGONS –

Find answers to these practical problems. 21. Suppose you want to frame an 8-inch by 10-inch picture. How much molding will you need to buy?

22. A fence must be placed around your vegetable garden. The dimensions of the garden are 30 feet by 10 feet. How much fencing will you need?

23. You have a square dining room that you would like to trim with crown molding. If the length of the room is 17 feet, how much crown molding should you purchase?

24. Suppose you want to hang Christmas icicle lights around your house. If your house is 32 feet by 40 feet and one package of lights is 9 feet long, how many packages of lights should you buy?

**Skill Building until Next Time
**

Use a tape measure to ﬁnd the perimeter of your room, the door of your room, and a window in your room. Use formulas when possible.

110

L E S S O N

13

P

Area of Polygons

LESSON SUMMARY

In this lesson, you will learn how to use formulas to find the area of rectangles, parallelograms, triangles, and trapezoids. You will also learn how to use the formulas to work backward to find missing lengths of polygons.

eople often confuse area and perimeter. As you learned in Lesson 12, perimeter is the distance around an object. In this lesson, you’ll work with area, which is the amount of surface covered by an object. For example, the number of tiles on a kitchen ﬂoor would be found by using an area formula, while the amount of baseboard used to surround the room would be found by using a perimeter formula. Perimeter is always expressed in linear units. Area is always expressed in square units. It should be obvious that you could not measure the amount of surface that is covered by an object by simply measuring it in one direction. You need to measure the object in two directions, like a square. A ﬂat surface has two dimensions: length and width. When you multiply a number by itself, the number is said to be squared. In the same way, when two units of measurement are multiplied by each other, as in area, the unit is expressed in square units. By looking at a tiled ﬂoor, it is easy to see that area refers to how many squares it takes to cover a surface.

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A = bh Examples: Find the area of each rectangle. w. A = bh A = 10(2) A = 20 ft. Length. and width. and the height is often called the width. The sides perpendicular to the base are referred to as the height. This book uses base and height. (a) 8 cm 5 cm A = bh A = 5(8) A = 40 cm 2 (b) 2 ft. l. are used in the same manner as base. the base can be any side. Here is a useful theorem you can use to ﬁnd the area of a rectangle. h. The height is referred to as h. 10 ft. b. l. w.– AREA OF POLYGONS – Finding the Area of a Rectangle For a rectangle. The base length is represented by b.2 112 . The base is often called the length. Theorem: The area (A) of a rectangle is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h). and height.

Examples: For each rectangle. 2. 4 cm 3.– AREA OF POLYGONS – Practice Find the area of each rectangle. 1m 7 ft. 16 m 3 ft. (a) Solution: A = bh 32 = 8h h = 4 cm h 8 cm A = 32 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ 113 . 14 in. Finding the Length of an Unknown Side of a Rectangle You can also use the area formula for a rectangle to ﬁnd the length of an unknown side if you know the area. ﬁnd the length of the indicated sides. 1. 6 cm 14 in. 4.

A = 150 cm 2 b = _____ h = 10 cm 15 m A = 75 m 2 b = _____ h = _____ Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Parallelogram Any side of a parallelogram can be called the base.2 b = _____ h = _____ 6. b A = 84 ft. ﬁnd the length of the indicated side(s).– AREA OF POLYGONS – (b) Solution: A = bh 84 = b(12) b = 7 ft 12 ft. h 8. The altitude is a segment perpendicular to the base. 114 . b 7. 5.2 b = _____ h = _____ Practice For each ﬁgure.2 b = 4 yd. h = _____ 7 in. The height is the length of the altitude. A = 25 yd. A = 56 in.

Solution: A = bh A = 12(9) A = 108 in. h 10 cm 5 cm A = 40 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ Solution: A = bh 40 = 10 h h = 4 cm 115 .– AREA OF POLYGONS – h h b b Draw an altitude of a parallelogram. then look at the following theorem.2 Find the indicated lengths. Theorem: The area (A) of a parallelogram is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h). b h h b h b b h Using this information. Cut along the altitude to separate the parallelogram into two pieces. You’ll ﬁnd that the base and height of the rectangle coincide with the base and altitude of the parallelogram. can you predict the area formula of a parallelogram? Take a moment to make your prediction. 9 in. 12 in. Fit the two pieces together to form a rectangle. A = bh Examples: Find the area of the parallelogram.

5 ft. Practice Find the indicated information. A = _____ b = _____ h = _____ A = 28 ft. 11. Recall that the base and height must be perpendicular to each other.2 b = _____ h = _____ Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Triangle Look at the following ﬁgures and try to predict the area formula for a triangle. 116 . 6 cm 3 cm 5 cm 12 cm h 8 cm A = _____ b = _____ h = _____ 10. 8. h h h b Now see if your prediction is correct by reading the theorem on the next page.– AREA OF POLYGONS – Note that 5 cm is unnecessary information for this problem. 9. h 7 ft.3 mm 5 mm A = 60 cm 2 b = _____ h = _____ 12.

12 in. 7 cm 10 in. h = 7 feet 16. 7 cm 15. 5 in.2 Practice A = 1 bh 2 A = 1 (7)(4) 2 A = 14 cm 2 Find each area. (a) (b) 4 cm 6 in. 117 .– AREA OF POLYGONS – Theorem: The area (A) of any triangle is half the product of its base length (b) and height (h). Triangle: b = 10 feet. h = 26 inches 6 cm 14. Triangle: b =13 inches. A = 1 bh 2 A = 1 (10)(6) 2 A = 30 in. A = 1 bh 2 Examples: Find the area. 13.

A = 51 in. h = ______ Finding the Area and Unknown Sides of a Trapezoid Can you predict the area formula for a trapezoid? Look at these ﬁgures: A b2 B h D C D C A B A C h b1 b1 1 A = 2 b1 h b2 1 A = 2 b2 h Area of the trapezoid = area of two triangles = 1 b1h + 1 b2h 2 2 = 1 h(b1 + b2) 2 Theorem: The area of a trapezoid is half the product of the height and the sum of the base lengths (b1 + b2). b 6 in. 17.2 b = ______ 17 ft. h A = 68 ft. 19. h 11 cm A = 77 cm 2 h = ______ 18. A = 1 h(b1 + b2) 2 118 .– AREA OF POLYGONS – Find the indicated length.

20.– AREA OF POLYGONS – Examples: Find the area or indicated length. b1 12 m 9 cm 15 m 15 cm A = _____ A = 90 cm 2 b1 = _____ 119 . 7m 21. (a) 7 cm (b) 10 cm 6 cm 16 cm 130 cm2 b1 12 cm A= A= A= A = 57 cm 2 1 2 h(b1 + b2) 1 2 (6)(7 + 12) 1 2 (6)(19) A = 1 h(b1 + b2) 2 130 = 1 (10)(b1 + 16) 2 130 = 5(b1 + 16) 130 = 5b1 + 80 50 = 5b1 b1 = 10 cm Practice Find the area or indicated length.

and a triangular scarf. 10 in.2 Skill Building until Next Time Try to ﬁnd an object shaped like each of the polygons in this lesson. 24. a table leg shaped like a trapezoid. a square ﬂoor tile. h 15 in. 8 in. 8 in. a quilt piece shaped like a parallelogram. A = 75 h = _____ in. 25.– AREA OF POLYGONS – 22. h = 6 cm b1 = 5 cm b2 = 10 cm A = ______ 18 in. Examples would be a rectangular window pane. Measure and ﬁnd the area of each. A = 92 m h=8m b1 = 14 m b2 = ______ A = _____ 23. 120 .

The edges are the segments formed by the intersection of two faces of a solid ﬁgure. The faces are parts of planes that form sides of solid ﬁgures. A rectangular prism has eight vertices. cereal boxes. You might need to wrap a package for Christmas. Vertices are the points where the edges meet. A rectangular prism has twelve edges. Examples are bricks. right rectangular prism is a shape you see every day. A rectangular prism has six faces. it is necessary to completely cover these objects. or make a label for a box. and some buildings. Sometimes.L E S S O N 14 A Surface Area of Prisms LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. determine how much siding is needed to cover a house. you will learn how to identify various parts of a prism and how to use formulas to find the surface area of a prism. 121 .

– SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS – Example: face B A F E H D edge G vertex C ABCD is a face CG is an edge G is a vertex Edges that are parallel to each other have the same measurements. Example: M L O 6 cm N Q P 3 cm S R 2 cm PQ = 2 cm LO = 3 cm LP = 6 cm 122 .

KL = ______ 3. How many edges does a rectangular solid have? 8. and you will have six rectangles. H G J 5 in. GK = ______ 5. or you could use a formula. 123 . N I 1. LM = ______ 7. fold out all the sides. You could ﬁnd the area of each rectangle and add up all their areas to obtain the total area.– SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS – Practice State the length of each side. K 9 in. HL = ______ 2. 3 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 You could make a chart to help you organize all the faces. How many faces does a rectangular solid have? 9. GJ = ______ 4. L M 4 in. JL = ______ 6. How many vertices does a rectangular solid have? Using a Formula to Find the Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism You can take a box apart. You will have three pairs that are the same size.

5 cm 2 cm 3 cm l = 3 cm. = 2(6 + 10 + 15) S. = 2(lw + wh + lh) h w l Example: Find the surface area of the rectangular prism.A. S.A. = 2[(3)(2) + (2)(5) + (3)(5)] S.A.A. = 62 cm 2 124 .A. = 2(31) S. and the length (l) times the height (h).A.) of a rectangular prism is twice the sum of the length (l) times the width (w). = 2(lw + wh + lh) S. the width (w) times the height (h).– SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS – Theorem: The surface area (S. w = 2 cm. h = 5 cm S.A.

w = 10 ft. e e e Theorem: The surface area of a cube is six times the edge (e) squared. 10. w 1 in..A. 7 ft.. 4 ft. 6 cm 2 cm 11 cm 14. = 6e 2 125 .– SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS – Practice Find the surface area of each rectangular prism. h = 5 in. 1 ft. h = 4 ft. l = 5 ft.. S. l 3 in. h 2 in. The Surface Area of a Cube A cube is a special rectangular prism. w = 3 in. 12. 8m 11. 15.. l = 9 in. All six faces have the same area. All the edges of a cube have the same length. 3m 5m 13.

3 cm S. Use the formula to ﬁnd its surface area. Now take a break and drink the juice. e = 5.2 Find the length of each edge.A. 2 in. Unfold the empty juice box. 17. and height. Find the area of the rectangles. 18. = 54 cm 2 Practice Find the surface area of each cube. 7m 20. The surface area of a cube is 486 ft. 4 ft. 126 . Skill Building until Next Time Take a juice box and measure its length.A.8 cm 21. 16. = 6(9) S.– SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS – Example: Find the surface area of the cube. = 6(3) 2 S. 6 cm 19. = 6e 2 S.A.A. Compare the two answers. width.

When we refer to prisms in this lesson. Just like an ice tray is ﬁlled with cubes of ice. you will concentrate on the volume of right prisms. Bases of oblique prisms do not form right angles with their sides. Prisms can have bases in the shape of any polygon.L E S S O N 15 W Volume of Prisms Volume of Prisms and Pyramids LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. and so on. you can assume we mean a right prism. A right prism is a prism with its bases perpendicular to its sides. you will learn how to find the volume of prisms and pyramids using formulas. A prism with a rectangle for its bases is called a rectangular prism. meaning they form right angles. A prism with triangles for its bases is referred to as a triangular prism. An example of an oblique prism is the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Volume is expressed in cubic units. volume tells you how many cubic units will ﬁt into a space. 127 . A polyhedron is a three-dimensional ﬁgure with all surfaces that are polygons. you are looking for the volume of a prism. A prism with hexagons as its bases is called a hexagonal prism. Prisms can be right or oblique. A prism is a polyhedron with a pair of parallel bases. hen you are interested in ﬁnding out how much a refrigerator holds or the amount of storage space in a closet. In this lesson.

V = Bh Examples: Find the volume of each prism. then multiply by the height (h) of the ﬁgure. use the formula for that shape. (a) 6 in. The area of the base of a rectangular prism is the length times the width. This same approach can also be applied to other solid ﬁgures. 12 in. multiply the length (l) by the width (w) and by the height (h). the same length and width used with the height to ﬁnd the volume. However. V = lwh V = (12)(6)(6) V = 432 in. but not all. Theorem: To ﬁnd the volume (V) of any prism. if you do know how to ﬁnd the area of the base (B). then it is possible to ﬁnd its volume. In other words. the area of the base (B) times the height. V = lwh The volume of a rectangular prism could also be stated in another way. you studied ways to ﬁnd the area of most polygons.3 128 . if you are given the area of the base and the height of the ﬁgure. In Lesson 13.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Theorem: To ﬁnd the volume (V) of a rectangular prism. multiply the area of a base (B) by the height (h). Likewise. 6 in.

Solution: V = Bh V = (30)(5) V = 150 ft. Solution: First. ﬁnd the area of a base. 3 in.3 (c) B = 30 ft. 2 A = 1 (3)(4) 2 A = 1 (12) 2 A = 6 in. B. As you remember from Lesson 13. becomes the base. h = 10 m Solution: V = Bh V = (42)(10) V = 420 m 3 129 . V = Bh V = (6)(6) V = 36 in. in the volume formula V = Bh.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – (b) 4 in. 6 in.3 (d) Prism: B = 42 m 2. the formula for ﬁnding the area of any triangle is A = 1 bh. A.2 The area.2 h = 5 ft.

9 in. 24 cm2 7 cm 8. Prism: B = 85 m2. 12 in. 4 in. Prism: B = 80 cm2. 10. 2. 10 ft. 5. 10 ft. 1m 2m 16 m 5 cm 7. h = 8 m 6m 130 . h = 12 ft. 1.2 3 in. 30 m2 7 cm 7 cm 5m 4. 5 ft. h = 14 cm 11. 6. 12 in.2. 3. 6 ft. 6m 6m 12. 8 ft. 9. Prism: B = 48 ft. 4 ft.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Practice Find the volume of each prism.

13.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Volume of a Cube Recall that the edges (e) of a cube all have the same measurement. therefore. 3 ft. then you will have the formula for the volume of the cube. Cube: e = 4 in. if you replace the length (l ). V = e3 Example: Find the volume of the cube. Theorem: The volume of a cube is determined by cubing the length of the edge. 131 . 16. and height (h) with the measurement of the edge of the cube. width (w). V = e 3. Cube: e = 9 cm 14. 5m V = e3 V = (5) 3 V = 125 m 3 Practice Find the volume of each cube. 10 m 15.

you would ﬁnd that it would take three of the pyramids to ﬁll the prism. one-third of the volume of the prism is the volume of the pyramid.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Volume of a Pyramid A regular pyramid is a polyhedron with a base that is a regular polygon and a vertex point that lies directly over the center of the base. width. Solution: V = 1 Bh 3 V = 1 (36)(8) 3 V = 96 ft.2 V = 1 Bh 3 V = 1 (50)(9) 3 V = 150 in. h = 8 ft. h h w l l w V = lwh or V = Bh Examples: Find the volume of each pyramid. and height.3 132 .2. (a) h = 6 cm V= 1 1 3 lwh or V = 3 Bh 3 cm 5 cm V = 1 lwh 3 V = 1 (5)(3)(6) 3 V = 30 cm 3 (b) h = 9 in. In other words.3 (c) Regular pyramid: B = 36 ft. 50 in. If you have a pyramid and a rectangular prism with the same length.

h = 5 ft. h= 10 m 18. h = 12 in. Regular pyramid: B = 3 cm2. 17. h= 6 in. h = 8 ft. h = 1 cm 133 . h = 9 cm B = 36 ft. 25. Regular pyramid: B = 156 ft. 23. 24. Regular pyramid: B = 64 in. h = 15 m 81 m2 6m 6m 22. 10 in.2.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Practice Find the volume of each pyramid. 20. 51 cm2 10 in.2 8 cm 8 cm 21.2. h= 5 cm 19.

Compare the two volumes. Measure the length. width. and height of the stick of crackers and ﬁnd its volume. 134 . Now measure the length. the kind with four packages of crackers inside.– VOLUME OF PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS – Skill Building until Next Time Take a box of saltine crackers. and height of the cracker box and ﬁnd its volume. width.

A rational number is a number that can be written as a ratio. mathematicians approximated the value of the ratio of the distance around a circle to the distance across a circle to be approximately 3.14. These are not the values of π. π= circumference diameter The most commonly used approximations for π are 272 and 3. the value of π has been computed to over ﬁfty billion decimal places. You will also learn to use formulas to find the circumference and area of circles. With the recent progress in computers. You may have a π key on your calculator. 135 .000 years ago. This key will give you an approximation for π that varies according to how many digits your calculator holds. π.L E S S O N 16 B Working with Circles and Circular Figures LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. Over 2. π has been computed in various ways over the past several hundred years. and the volume of cones. π (pronounced “pie”). a fraction. efore you begin to work with circles and circular ﬁgures. or a terminating or repeating decimal. π is an irrational number. this value was named with the Greek letter π. but there is still no termination or repeating group of digits. you will learn about the irrational number. you need to know about the irrational number. but no one has been able to ﬁnd a decimal value of π where the decimal terminates or develops a repeating pattern. The exact value of π is still a mathematical mystery. the surface area and volume of cylinders and spheres. only rounded approximations. Years later.

14 for π in the formula. the amount of lace edge around a circular skirt can be found by using the circumference formula.4 cm 136 . Use the approximation of 3. A radius is the distance from the center to the edge. (a) 10 cm Solution: Use the C = πd formula.14). since the diameter of the circle is given. then the approximation of π times the diameter of the circle gives you the circumference of the circle. it’s time to start working with circles.14 for π.14)(10) C ≈ 31. Examples: Find the approximate circumference of each circle. Since π is the ratio of circumference to diameter. C = 2πr C ≈ 2(3. The diameter of a circle is the distance across a circle through its center. One-half the diameter is equal to the radius or two radii are equal to the length of the diameter. The amount of fencing for a circular garden is another example of when you need the circumference formula.4 cm (b) 5 cm Solution: Use the C = 2πr formula. The symbol ≈ means approximately equal to. after you substitute the value 3. There are many reasons why people need to ﬁnd a circle’s circumference. you should use ≈ instead of =. since the radius of the circle is given. C = πd C ≈ (3.14)(5) C ≈ 31.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Circumference of a Circle Now that you know about the irrational number π. For example. The distance around a circle is called its circumference. d = 2r or r = 1 d 2 Here is a theorem that will help you solve circumference problems: Theorem: The circumference of any circle is the product of its diameter and π.14 (and not exactly equal to 3. C = πd or C = 2πr Since π is approximately 3.

you should divide it by two or multiply it by one-half to obtain the radius. take a look at the following ﬁgure. They are the same only when the radius is two. two times a number and the square of a number are very different. Area of a Circle To understand the area of a circle. not the diameter. Imagine a circle that is cut into wedges and rearranged to form a shape that resembles a parallelogram. 1.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Notice that these two circles have the same circumference because a circle with a diameter of 10 cm has a radius of 5 cm. 11 in. Some people will mistakenly think that squaring the radius and doubling it to get the diameter are the same. You pick which formula to use based on what information you are given—either the circle’s radius or its diameter. 137 . r = 25 m 2. h=r b = 1 C = 1 (2r) = r 2 2 Theorem: The area (A) of a circle is the product of π and the square of the radius (r). Practice Find the approximate circumference of each circle shown or described. Otherwise. Use 3.14 for π. 15 ft. d = 7 m 4. so if you are given the diameter. 3. A = πr 2 Notice that this formula squares the radius.

7. 5. (a) 6 cm A = πr 2 A ≈ (3.04 cm 2 (b) 14 in. 8m 138 .14 for π.14)(36) A ≈ 113.14)(49) A ≈ 153.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Examples: Find the approximate area for each circle. r = 13 cm 8. Use 3. d = 24 in.14)(7) 2 A ≈ (3. r = 1d 2 r = 1 (14) 2 r = 7 in.14)(6) 2 A ≈ (3.2 Practice Find the approximate area for each circle shown or described. 10 ft.14 for π. 6. Use 3.86 in. A = πr 2 A ≈ (3.

It has a circular top and bottom.A.A. S.6 S. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh S. ≈ 2(3.A.52 + 188. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh Examples: Find the surface area of each cylinder. ≈ 2(3.A. 4 cm (a) 5 cm S.14 for π. it is shaped like a rectangle.A.14)(3) 2 + 2(3.) of a cylinder is determined by ﬁnding the sum of the area of the bases and the product of the circumference times the height. Picture a paper towel roll.14)(4) 2 + 2(3. ≈ 226.92 ft. 10 ft.A.A. ≈ 244.14)(3)(10) S.08 cm 2 (b) 3 ft.A.48 + 125.2 139 .4 S.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Surface Area of a Cylinder When you are looking for the surface area of a cylinder. = 2πr 2 + 2πrh S. πr 2 b bh h πr 2 Same as the C of a circle 2πr Surface area of a cylinder = area of two circles + area of rectangle = 2πr 2 + bh = 2πr 2 + 2πrh Theorem: The surface area (S. The area of the curved surface is hard to visualize when it is rolled up. you need to ﬁnd the area of two circles (the bases) and the area of the curved surface that makes up the side of the cylinder. ≈ 100. The area of the curved surface is the area of a rectangle with the same height as the cylinder.14)(4)(5) S. ≈ 56.A. S.A. When you unroll a sheet of the paper towel. and the base measurement is the same as the circumference of the circle base. Use 3.

10 in. V = Bh or V = πr 2h Examples: Find the volume of each cylinder. 9. h = 3 cm 12 m 10. Use 3. Theorem: The volume (V) of a cylinder is the product of the area of the base (B) and the height (h).14 for π. (a) 3 cm 9 cm V = πr 2h V ≈ (3.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Practice Find the surface area of each cylinder shown or described..34 cm 3 140 . Cylinder: r = 6 ft.14)(3) 2(9) V ≈ (3.14 for π. h = 16 ft. Volume of a Cylinder Similar to ﬁnding the volume of a prism. the base of a cylinder is a circle. 12. 1m 11. you can ﬁnd the volume of a cylinder by ﬁnding the product of the area of the base and the height of the ﬁgure. Cylinder: d = 18 cm. Use 3.14)(9)(9) V ≈ 254. Of course. 7 in. so you need to ﬁnd the area of a circle times the height.

14)(6) 2(8) V ≈ (3..32 in. 5 cm 14. 3m 12 m Volume of a Cone A cone relates to a cylinder in the same way that a pyramid relates to a prism. V = πr 2h V ≈ (3. then it would take three of the cones to ﬁll the cylinder. Cylinder: d = 22 ft. r h h r V = Bh or V = πr 2h V = 1 Bh or V = 1 πr 2h 3 3 141 . 13. h = 24 in. 8 in. Cylinder: r = 5 in.14 for π.3 Practice Find the volume of each cylinder shown or described. 9 cm 15. In other words.14)(36)(8) V ≈ 904. the cone holds one-third the amount of the cylinder.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – (b) 6 in. Use 3. 16.. If you have a cone and a cylinder with the same radius and height. h = 12 ft.

13 in.3 Practice Find the volume of each cone shown or described. 3 in. Cone: d = 14 ft. 17. S. 6m 19.) formula for a sphere is four times π times the radius squared. 7 in. (Make sure it does not have Mark McGwire’s autograph on it ﬁrst!) When you lay out the cover of the ball. A sphere is most likely to be called a ball..A. Use 3. 4m 18.A. Recall that the formula for ﬁnding the area of a circle is A = πr 2. V = 1 πr 2h 3 V ≈ 1 (3. 5 in. it roughly appears to be four circles.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Example: Find the volume of the cone.94 in. = 4πr 2 142 . Cone: r = 3 cm.14 for π. Use 3. Try to ﬁnd an old baseball and take the cover off of it. h = 5 ft. Surface Area of a Sphere A sphere is the set of all points that are the same distance from some point called the center.14 for π. Theorem: The surface area (S.14)(3) 2(7) 3 V ≈ 65. h = 9 cm 20.

21.14 for π. Use 3. Volume of a Sphere If you were the ﬁlling balloons with helium. 23. The height of each pyramid represents the radius (r) of the sphere. The sum of the areas of all the bases represents the surface area of the sphere. Volume of each pyramid = 1 Bh 3 Sum of the volumes = n 1 Br 3 = = = 1 3 (nB)r 1 2 3 (4πr )r 4 3 3 πr Substitute r for h of n pyramids Substitute nB with the S. of a sphere 143 .24 cm 2 Practice Find the surface area of each sphere shown or described. = 4πr 2 S.A. Sphere: r = 16 cm 24. ≈ (4)(3. 16 in. it would be important for you to know the volume of a sphere. Use 3.A. To ﬁnd the volume of a sphere. 7m 22. ≈ 50.14)(2) 2 S. picture the sphere ﬁlled with numerous pyramids.14 for π.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Example: Find the surface area of the sphere.A.A. 2 cm S. Sphere: r = 20 ft.

08 cm 3 Practice Find the volume of each sphere shown or described. Measure the height and radius of the cylinder. Skill Building until Next Time Find an example of a cylinder—an oatmeal box would be a good choice. 144 .14)(9) 3 3 V ≈ 3052. Use 3.– WORKING WITH CIRCLES AND CIRCULAR FIGURES – Theorem: The volume (V) of a sphere is determined by the product of 4 π times the radius cubed. 3 V = 4 πr3 3 Example: Find the volume of the sphere. Use 3. 26. 7 in. 9 cm V = 4 πr 3 3 V ≈ 4 (3. Use the formulas in this lesson to ﬁnd the surface area and volume of the cylinder. 5m 27.14 for π. Sphere: r = 12 m 28. Sphere: d = 9 ft.14 for π. 25.

On a coordinate plane. The vertical axis on the coordinate plane is called the y-axis. You will also learn how to plot or graph points on a coordinate plane and name the coordinates of a point. y-axis. A grid map uses a horizontal and vertical axis in a similar manner as a coordinate plane. The distance between two points will also be found using a formula.0) Quadrant III Quadrant IV 145 .L E S S O N 17 I Coordinate Geometry LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. The point where the two axes cross is called the origin. the horizontal axis is called the x-axis. then you have probably read a road map or grid map. you will learn to identify the x-axis. and the four quadrants on a coordinate plane. f you have ever been the navigator on a road trip. y-axis Quadrant II Quadrant I x-axis origin (0. the origin.

The point C is on the x-axis. do not move right or left. Point B is in quadrant IV. The coordinates (x. The ﬁrst number is the x-coordinate. but do not move up or down.0) and point D(0. go right 2 units. The coordinates of the origin are (0. The second number is the y-coordinate. go left 4 units and up 1.y) of a point are an ordered pair of numbers. Label the point B.–6). On which axis will each point be? Solution: y right 2 C x down 6 D To graph point C.– COORDINATE GEOMETRY – The two axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions. from the origin. Some points may be graphed on the axes also. The point D is on the y-axis. Label the point D. Label the point C. which are called quadrants. Point A is in quadrant II. In which quadrant would you ﬁnd each point? Solution: y A up 1 left 4 right 5 down 3 B x To graph point A(–4. start from the origin. go right 5 units and down 3. To graph point D. Example: Graph point C(2. The quadrants are numbered counterclockwise beginning with the upper-right region.1). from the origin. from the origin. Example: Graph point A(–4. Label the point A. 146 .–3). To graph point B(5.1) and point B(5. move 6 units down.0).–3).

5) 9. A(–6. Graph and label each point. D(–5. K(2. B(6. C(4.6) 6. H(–2.2) 2. J(3.– COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Practice Draw a set of axes on graph paper.–5) 16. B(6. C(4.–2) 11.–1) 10. L(0.4) 3. K(2.0) 19.–5) 147 .0) 12. F(–3. L(0. H(–2. G(1.–2) 23.–5) Identify which quadrant or axis in which the point lies for the following points: 13.0) 7. A(–6.4) 8. D(–5.–5) 17. F(–3. 1.4) 15. J(3.0) 24.6) 18.–1) 22. I(–1.4) 20.5) 21.–5) 5. G(1. I(–1. E(0. E(0.–5) 4.2) 14.

1) C(0.–2) E(2. C 28.4) D(–4.– COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Finding the Coordinates of a Point Each point on the coordinate plane has its own unique ordered pair. B 27.2) B(–3. You can think of an ordered pair as an address. Now that you have located a point. H 148 . D 29. E y H A x C G F D B 25. you can also ﬁnd the coordinates of a point on a graph.–3) F(5.0) State the coordinates of each point. Example: State the coordinates of each point. F 31. y C A B F D E x Solution: Practice A(2. E 30. G 32. A 26.

y1) and B(x2. you can use the Pythagorean theorem. in the following ﬁgure.4) and S(–3.– COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Finding the Distance between Two Points You can easily count to ﬁnd the distance between two points on a horizontal or vertical line. you won’t be able to use the Pythagorean theorem all the time. Since ΔXYZ is a right triangle.y2) is d= (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2 Example: Find the distance between R(–3. XY = 3 and YZ = 4. However. you cannot ﬁnd XZ simply by counting. However. x1 y1 x2 y2 R(–3. Theorem: The distance d between any two points A(x1. y X Y Z x XZ2 = 3 2 + 4 2 XZ2 = 9 + 16 XZ2 = 25 XZ = 5 Of course. For example. Solution: It helps to label the coordinates of the points before you insert them into the formula.–7) d= d= d= d= (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2 (– 3 – (– 3))2 + (– 7 – 4)2 (–3 + 3)2 + (–11)2 02 + 121 d = 121 d = 11 149 . you can use the following formula to ﬁnd the distance between any two points.4) S(–3.–7).

construct a coordinate plane for the map and determine the distance between two locations that are on the diagonal street.–8) and (–6.6) Skill Building until Next Time Examine a city map to see if there are any streets that cut diagonally across horizontal and vertical streets. (3. If so.–4) 36. (–1.– COORDINATE GEOMETRY – Practice Find the distance between the points with the given coordinates.–2) and (–5.5) and (–1. 150 . 33.5) 34. (3.4) 35.–6) and (4. (–3.

negative. When a line points up to the right. The slope of a line is determined by the ratio of its rise to run. you will learn how to determine the slope of a line from its graph or from two points on the line.L E S S O N 18 T to the left. always count the run before you count the rise. it has a positive slope. A line with a negative slope points up 151 . zero. or undefined. You will also learn how to tell by sight if the slope of a line is positive. The Slope of a Line LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. When looking at a line on a coordinate grid. he slope of a line is the measure of its steepness.

– THE SLOPE OF A LINE – Examples: Find the slope of each line. (a) y run rise V W x Solution: Slope of VW = (b) y rise run = 1 3 X rise run Y x Solution: Slope of XY = rise run = –3 5 152 .

y x x 3. y 5. y 6. y x x 153 . y 4. y x x 2.– THE SLOPE OF A LINE – Practice Find the slope of each line. 1.

y y x x The horizontal line has a slope of zero. the vertical line has an undeﬁned slope (sometimes said to x rise y have “no slope”). so run = 0 . You may think that zero slope and an undeﬁned slope are the same thing. since it doesn’t make sense to take something and divide it up into zero parts. In this case. but ask yourself if you would prefer to drive on a road with a speed limit of zero or a road with no speed limit.) On the other hand. since the rise is equal to zero. o slope ero slope 154 . and a number divided by zero is said to be undeﬁned.– THE SLOPE OF A LINE – Special Cases of Slope You may be wondering what the slope is for horizontal and vertical lines—these two types of lines do not slant up toward the left or the right. The following illustrations may help you remember which type of line—horizontal or vertical—has an undeﬁned (no slope) or a slope of zero. You can see that these are very different. They are special cases. so run = 0 = 0. (Remember that anything divided by rise zero equals zero. the run is equal to zero.

– THE SLOPE OF A LINE –

Practice

Tell whether the slope of each line is positive, negative, zero, or undeﬁned (no slope). 7. 10.

11.

8.

12. 9.

Using a Formula

You can also use a formula to determine the slope of a line containing two points, point A(x1,y1) and point B(x 2,y2). Here is the formula: slope =

y2 – y1 x2 – x1

Example: Find the slope of the line through P(–6,5) and Q(–2,–1). Solution: Begin by labeling the coordinates before you insert the values into the formula. x 1y1 x 2 y2 P(–6,5) Q(–2,–1) Slope =

y2 – y1 x2 – x1

=

–1 – 5 –2 – (–6)

=

–6 –2 + 6

=

–6 4

=

–3 2

155

– THE SLOPE OF A LINE –

Practice

Use a formula to ﬁnd the slope of the line through each pair of points. 13. (0,0) and (5,6) 14. (–3,–2) and (–4,–3) 15. (1,–3) and (–1,–3) 16. (5,–6) and (–2,8) 17. (–2,2) and (–2,3) 18. (–3,0) and (–7,–3) 19. (8,–5) and (–10,7) 20. (5,6) and (–1,6)

**Skill Building until Next Time
**

Locate a set of steps near your home or school. Measure the rise and run of the set of steps. Use these measurements to ﬁnd the slope of the steps.

height (rise)

length (run)

156

L E S S O N

19

P

**The Equation of a Line
**

LESSON SUMMARY

In this lesson, you will learn how to identify linear equations. You will also learn how to use the equation of a line to find points on the line. You will also determine if an ordered pair is on a line using the equation of the line.

eople often make comparisons among numbers. For example, a nurse looks at a patient’s temperature over a period of time. A salesman will compare commissions from sports cars and family vans. These types of comparisons can often be graphed in a straight line to make predictions about future events. This straight line may be created by using a linear equation.

**What Is a Linear Equation?
**

The standard form for a linear equation is Ax + By = C, where A, B, and C are constants; A and B cannot be zero at the same time. Linear equations will not have exponents on the variables x and y. The product or quotient of variables is not found in linear equations. Take a look at the examples of linear and nonlinear equations on the next page.

157

– THE EQUATION OF A LINE –

Linear equations 2x + 3y = 7 x = –3 y=

2 3x + 4

Nonlinear equations 2x 2 + 3y = 7

–3 y

=x

y2 = 2 x + 4 3 xy = 7

y=7

Practice

**Identify each equation as linear or nonlinear. 1. x – 3y = 0 2. 3y2 = 2x 3. x 2 + y 2 = 49 4. x + y = 15 5. x + y = 15 6.
**

1 y

=2

7. 1 x = 36 3 8. 4x – 7y = 28

Points on a Line

When you graph points on a coordinate plane, you can easily see if they could be connected to form a straight line. However, it is possible for you to determine if a point is on a line or satisﬁes the equation of a line without using a coordinate plane. If the ordered pair can replace x and y, and make a true statement, then the ordered pair is a point on the line. Examples: Determine if the ordered pairs satisfy the linear equation 2x – y = 4. (a) (2,2) Solution: 2x – y = 4 ? 2(2) – 2 = 4 ? 4 – 2 =4 2≠4 no; (2,2) is not on the line 2x – y = 4. (b) (0,–4) Solution: 2x – y = 4 ? 2(0) – (–4) = 4 ? 0 + 4 =4 4=4 yes; (0,–4) is on the line 2x – y = 4.

158

1) 11. Graph each equation. (3. y=x+4 Solution: x –2 0 2 y x+4 y (x. (0.y) x x+4 y 2 4 6 (x.0) Graphing Linear Equations You can graph any linear equation you want by choosing several x or y coordinates to substitute into the original equation. 9.–3) 2 16. ( 5 .4) 14.6) –2 –2 + 4 0 0+4 2 2+4 2 x –2 –2 2 159 .–2) 10. You could choose any values you want and get a solution that would be an ordered pair or point on the line.3) 2 12.–1) 15. (10.–4) 13.2) (0.– THE EQUATION OF A LINE – Practice Determine if the ordered pairs satisfy the linear equation 2x + 5y = 10. (15. (5. Example: Find three ordered pairs that satisfy the equation. (–5. (– 5 .y) (–2. let’s use the x-values. This is easier if you organize your work into a table. but for this example.4) (2. and then solve the equation to ﬁnd the other variable.

Find at least three ordered pairs (t.y) 18. y = –x x 2 0 –2 –x y (x.d) that satisfy the formula and graph the line. Then graph each equation.y) 19. 17.– THE EQUATION OF A LINE – Practice Find three ordered pairs that satisfy each equation. 160 . y = 4x – 5 x 1 0 –1 4x – 5 y (x. y = 2x + 4 x –2x + 4 y 1 0 –1 (x.y) 20. y = 2x + 3 x 2 0 –2 2x + 3 y (x.y) Skill Building until Next Time The distance that a lightning ﬂash is from you and the time in seconds that it takes for you to hear the thunt der clap can be written in the following linear equation: d = 5 .

These two legs have special names in relation to a given angle: adjacent leg and opposite leg. you will learn how to write the trigonometric ratios sine. The word trigonometry comes from the Greek language. For example. Measurements sometimes cannot be made by using a measuring tape. it could be found by using trigonometric ratios. however.L E S S O N 20 P Trigonometry Basics LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson. The other two sides of the triangle are called legs. cosine. the distance from a ship to an airplane can’t be measured this way. 161 .” Recall that the hypotenuse is the side of the triangle across from the right angle. The word adjacent means beside. and tangent for a right triangle. it means “triangle measurement. You can see in the ﬁgure on the next page how the legs are named depending on which acute angle is selected. roperties of similar right triangles are the basis for trigonometry. so the adjacent leg is the leg beside the angle. The opposite leg is across from the angle. You will learn how to use the trigonometry ratios to find unknown angle or side measurements.

333 3 (b) sin B = hyp = 3 = 0.800 5 = 3 = 0. tan A (b) sin B. cosine. cos A. cos B.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – A hypotenuse opposite A adjacent adjacent hypotenuse opposite Sine.600 5 = 4 ≈ 1.800 5 cos A = tan A = adj hyp o pp adj opp = 3 = 0.600 5 cos B = tan B = adj hyp o pp adj = 4 = 0. A 3 5 C 4 B (a) sin A.750 4 162 . tan B Solution: opp (a) sin A = hyp = 4 = 0. and tangent ratios for the acute angle A in a right triangle are as follows: e leg sin A = opposietnuse hypot cos A = ad jacent leg hypotenuse op te tan A = adjpaocseint lleg eg Examples: Express each ratio as a decimal to the nearest thousandth.

tan Y 4. tan Z Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 7–12. cos Y 3. sin Z 5. sin Y 2. cos Z 6. X 12 Y 5 13 Z 1. cos L 9. cos N 12. sin N 11. Use the following ﬁgure to answer practice problems 1–6. L 24 M 7 25 N 7. tan N 163 .– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Practice Express each ratio as a decimal to the nearest thousandth. sin L 8. tan L 10.

500 0.532 0.934 0.000 164 .956 0.819 0.777 0.669 0.559 0.829 0.875 0.344 0.656 0.951 0.682 0.445 0.629 0.799 0.906 0.454 0.602 0.899 0.946 0.466 0.810 0.883 0.342 0.707 0.707 0.727 0.743 0.914 0.866 0.391 0.869 0. Scientiﬁc calculators also have functions for the trigonometric ratios.839 0.891 0.545 0.754 0.766 0.675 0.309 0.616 0.588 0.839 0. Part of a trigonometric table is given here.900 0. ANGLE SIN COS TAN 16° 17° 18° 19° 20° 21° 22° 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 29° 30° 31° 32° 33° 34° 35° 36° 37° 38° 39° 40° 41° 42° 43° 44° 45° 0.700 0.488 0.384 0. Consult your calculator handbook to make sure you have your calculator in the degree.364 0.470 0.276 0.306 0.966 1.358 0.809 0.325 0.921 0.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Using a Trigonometric Table Trigonometric ratios for all acute angles are commonly listed in tables. and not the radian setting.940 0.530 0.485 0.961 0.292 0.404 0.731 0.649 0.643 0.287 0.407 0.625 0.515 0.933 0.695 0.326 0.423 0.857 0.781 0.577 0.927 0.601 0.510 0.848 0.438 0.375 0.755 0.788 0.719 0.424 0.574 0.554 0.

313 .900 (b) cos A = 0. cos A = 0. cos A = 0. (a) sin A = 0. sin A = 0.384 22. B 16 A 5 C Solution: The sin A involves the two lengths known. Example: Find m∠A. tan 17° 19. sin 18° 14.306 Finding the Measure of an Acute Angle The trigonometric ratio used to ﬁnd the measure of an acute angle of a right triangle depends on which side lengths are known. sin A = hyp = 165 opp 5 16 ≈ 0. cos 27° 16. sin 32° 15. sin A = 0.719 Example: Find m∠A.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Example: Find each value. 13. tan 36° 18.375 24.788 23. (a) cos 44° Solution: (a) cos 44° = 0.656 Solution: (a) m∠A = 41° Practice (b) tan 42° (b) tan 42° = 0.485 20. tan A = 0.743 21.731 (b) m∠A = 43° Use the trigonometric table or a scientiﬁc calculator to ﬁnd each value to the nearest thousandth or each angle measurement rounded to the nearest degree. tan A = 0. cos 40° 17.

and can be used to ﬁnd an angle measure when the sine is known. Example: Find m∠C.313 has been rounded to the nearest thousandths place.326 } difference 0. 10 7 A A 12 5 27. B 8 A 11 C Solution: The tan C involves the two lengths known. 8 A 28.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Note that the ≈ symbol is used in the previous solution because the decimal 0.313 is closer to 0. 1 10 2 A 166 . Practice Find the measure of ∠A to the nearest degree. m∠A ≈ 18° to the nearest degree.313 sin 19° = 0. which means inverse sine.727 Using the tan column.004 sin A ≈ 0. m∠C = 36°. tan C = o pp adj = 8 11 ≈ 0. the tan–1 button on a scientiﬁc calculator can be used to ﬁnd an angle measure when its tangent is known.013 Since 0. A scientiﬁc calculator typically includes a button that reads sin–1. you’ll ﬁnd: sin 18° = 0. you’ll ﬁnd: tan 36 = 0.309. Again. 26. Using the sin column of a trigonometric table. 25.727 Therefore.309 } difference 0.

(a) 35° x 10 Solution: sin 35 = 0.883 = 9 x = 0.574) x ≈ 5.7 (b) x 10 x 10 28° x 9 Solution: cos 28 = 0.2 9 x 9 x 167 .883 x ≈ 10. Example: Find the value of x to the nearest tenth.574 = x = 10(0.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Finding the Measure of a Side The trigonometric ratio used to ﬁnd the length of a side of a right triangle depends on which side length and angle are known.

hypotenuse x adjacent 168 . x 38° 29° 3 Skill Building until Next Time Find a set of steps near your home or school. 29.– TRIGONOMETRY BASICS – Practice Find the value of x to the nearest tenth. Then use cosine to ﬁnd the angle of elevation of the steps. There are building codes that limit the angle of elevation of a set of steps to help prevent accidents. 8 42˚ x 30. 14 20˚ x 31. Measure the length of the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 5 x 32.

While the format of the posttest is similar to that of the pretest. After you complete the posttest. N 169 . Along with each answer is a number that tells you which lesson of this book teaches you about the geometry skills needed for that question.Posttest ow that you have completed all the lessons. it is time to show off your new skills. If you still have weak areas. check your answers with the answer key at the end of the book. The posttest has 50 multiplechoice questions covering the topics you studied in this book. go back and rework the applicable lessons. Take the posttest in this chapter to see how much your geometry skills have improved. the questions are different.

.

25. 49.– LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET – 1. 10. 13. 33. 42. 15. 16. 7. 20. 19. 8. 36. 28. 31. 23. 34. 17. 14. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 18. 44. 27. 26. 47. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 35. 5. 12. 41. 6. 2. 24. 4. 3. 32. 9. 37. 21. 43. 11. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 171 . 48. 50. 38. 29. 22. 39. 40. 45. 46. 30.

.

∠N = 65°. right c. acute b. In the ﬁgure. and 10. ∠XWZ = 130° and ∠YWZ = 70°. b. Three sides of a triangle are 6. equiangular 6. d. a. greater than 90. less than 180 c. obtuse d. 130° 50° 40° 120° 2. d. less than 180 d. b. obtuse d. what type of triangle is it? a. d. 60° 55° 50° 65° 7. greater than 90. Classify ΔMNO with ∠M = 25°. b. What is the range of degrees for an acute angle? a. d. straight 173 . right c. ∠4 and ∠5 ∠4 and ∠8 ∠4 and ∠6 ∠4 and ∠1 a. less than 360 3. What is the measure of ∠MOL? M 50˚ P N O L 5 6 7 8 a. greater than 0. and ∠O = 90°. b. AAA SAS ASA SSS a.– POSTTEST – Posttest 1. less than 90 b. Which pair of angles are supplementary? 1 2 3 4 4. acute b. greater than 0. c. What is the measure of ∠XWY? X Y 5. c. Which postulate would you use to prove ΔMNO ≅ ΔRST? M N S R T O W Z a. c. 8. c.

Find the perimeter of a rectangle with base 5 cm and height 20 cm. d.2 b. 508. I b. Find the surface area of a cube that measures 5 inches on an edge. 150 in. Opposite sides are congruent. Find the area of a triangle with a base that measures 35 feet and height 10 feet. d. 2 c.52 cm 3 d. Use S. 50 cm d. c. 3194. IV 17. III d. Find the volume of the pyramid. 25 11 25 5m 6m = x 100 . 100 cm b.– POSTTEST – 8.5 ft. 350 ft. b. 70 ft. 30 in. 60 m 3 180 m 3 30 m 3 36 m 3 11.14 for π. The diagonals are congruent. 3. 56. Which of the following is a property of rectangles? a. d.2 d.2 d. Which of the following is not an acceptable name for the pentagon? M O E 13.2 c. d. Use 3. b. MESHO SEMOH HEMOS HOMES 9.2 c. 11 d.3).2 15. Solve for x: a. a. a.51 cm 3 c. 4 c. Find the volume of a cone with radius 9 cm and height 2 cm. c. 6m H S a. a. 44 b. 25 cm c. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (1. 55 cm 12. all of the above 10.2 14. c. 169. a. b. 900 in. II c. a. 4 5 b.A.68 cm 3 b. 175 ft.2 b. Opposite sides are parallel.2) and (3. 300 in.56 cm 3 16. a. 1 2 5 4 174 .8)? a. = 6e 2. In which quadrant will you graph the point (–4.

d. d. (1. A. what is the measurement of ∠LMO? O 45˚ 5 6 7 8 L M N a. d. acute b. C. c.0) b. straight 24. obtuse d. What is the sin B for this ﬁgure? A 5 B 22. C. acute right obtuse straight 3 C 4 a. d. What is the measurement of ∠AOC? A B 20.–4) d. b. (2. In the ﬁgure ∠OMN = 45°. Which ordered pair does not satisfy the equation 2x – y = 6? a.–6) c. b. c. c. b. A a. E D. d. 20° 80° 60° 85° 21. What type of angle is shaped like a corner of a piece of paper? a. c. (3. B. d. C B. b. Which of the following sets of points are collinear? B A C E D O 20˚ 40˚ C a. What is the correct classiﬁcation for the angle? a. b. c. C. Which pairs of angles are congruent? 1 2 3 4 25. b. 120° 125° 130° 135° . c.6) 19.– POSTTEST – 18. 4 3 3 4 3 5 4 5 23. (0. D B. right c. ∠1 and ∠2 ∠1 and ∠4 ∠1 and ∠3 ∠1 and ∠7 175 a.

c. vertical complementary supplementary adjacent E H G 27.– POSTTEST – 26. leg vertex angle base angle base 31. b. straight 32. b. 90° c. d. and 10. b. What is the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a convex quadrilateral? a. d. right c. c. ΔDRY is an isosceles triangle. Three sides of a triangle are 7. what type of triangle is it? a. 140˚ 20˚ 20˚ a. c. 360° 176 . c. What type of angles are ∠MON and ∠LOP? M 50˚ P N 29. d. acute right obtuse equiangular 8 28. 45° b. 2 14 12 10 D Y a. d. obtuse d. acute b. AAA SAS ASA SSS 30. 180° d. What is the best name for ∠D? R a. d. Classify the triangle in the ﬁgure by its angles. b. Find the missing length. c. Which postulate would you use to prove ΔEFH ≅ ΔGFH? F O L a. b. 6 x a. 7.

c. Find the surface area of a right rectangular prism with length 4 m. 7 m 177 . 12 41. 36. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent.A. Find the volume of a pyramid whose base has an area of 17 in. d. 64 m 2 b. ABCD is a square. Which of the following is not true? A B 38. Use the formula S. How many faces does a cube have? a. 8 d. 36 = 36 3.– POSTTEST – 33. c.1 cm 3 b. a. 21 m c. b. 3 ft. 51 in. Find the perimeter of a regular pentagon that measures 3 ft. 14 m d. 17 in. m∠BCD = 90° AB ≅ AC m∠AXB = 90° AC ≅ BD 12 y 39. Diagonals of a parallelogram are congruent. 37.3 d. 126 m b.5 cm 3 35. = 2(lw + wh + lh).3 b. Which of the following is not a property of parallelograms? a. a. 22 72 cm 2 36 cm 2 18 cm 2 cm 2 X D C a. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. 141. a. 12 ft. 32 m 2 40. b. 3 c. 34. 20 in. a. 235. 78. 112 m 2 c. c. 3 in. d. 15 ft. c. 56 m 2 d. d.3 42. on each side. 47. a.3 c. 1 d. 9 ft. Solve for y: a. Find the area of the trapezoid in the ﬁgure. width 2 m. 12 b. 6 c.2 and whose height is 3 in. Find the volume of a cylinder with radius 5 cm and height 3 cm.5 cm 3 c. 6 cm 4 cm 12 cm a. Use 3.14 for π. b. d. and height 8 m.3 cm 3 d. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel. 4 b. b. Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose perimeter is 42 m.

14 for π.84 in. C C. Use d = (x 2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2. 2 c. D A.2). In the following ﬁgure. D A. 4 3 3 4 3 5 4 5 50. d. the y-value is ____ in the equation –x + y = 5. A. 9 b. 631. opposite leg hypotenuse adjacent leg hyp otenuse opp osite leg adjacent leg adjacent leg opp osite leg 49. 1 b.–4). 3 d.– POSTTEST – 43. b. c. Find the surface area of a sphere with an 8-inch radius. c. What is the trigonometric ratio for sine? a. c. b.96 in. 2 3 3 2 –2 3 –3 2 c. –1 48. 1 4 –1 4 a.2 c. what is the tan A? A 5 B 3 C 4 a. 1 c. Use 3. a. If the x-value is 4. 4 45. a.01 in. –4 b. Find the slope of the line in the ﬁgure. Find the distance between (1.12 in. D 178 .2 b.2 d. d. Which of the following sets contains noncollinear points? B A C E D 46. C. b. a. a. 47.2) and (3.2 44. a. 803. d. 200. B. b. 5 d.0) and (–1. 25. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (0. 4 c. d. d.

c Lesson 10 5. a Lesson 13 12. a Lesson 10 4. a Lesson 1 23. d Lesson 16 20.Answer Key Pretest If you miss any of the answers. c Lesson 8 39. c Lesson 15 17. d Lesson 7 38. b Lesson 5 33. c Lesson 2 25. b Lesson 5 32. a Lesson 6 15. d Lesson 11 8. a Lesson 9 2. d Lesson 3 27. 21. a Lesson 13 11. b Lesson 13 13. c Lesson 7 36. c Lesson 4 31. a Lesson 5 34. d Lesson 9 1. c Lesson 12 10. c Lesson 15 18. a Lesson 7 37. b Lesson 6 35. c Lesson 16 179 . c Lesson 11 6. d Lesson 4 30. b Lesson 9 3. b Lesson 3 28. b Lesson 12 9. c Lesson 8 40. c Lesson 1 24. d Lesson 15 19. b Lesson 11 7. a Lesson 3 29. d Lesson 14 14. d Lesson 1 22. d Lesson 2 26. a Lesson 14 16. you can ﬁnd help for that kind of question in the lesson shown to the right of the answer.

JT 3. Lesson 2 1. MP.– ANSWER KEY – 41. More than one angle uses the letter O as a vertex. XY. NP. Lines. sides: JA . LM. Here are a few: pupil of the eye. coplanar points can be noncollinear because two points could be on one line with a third point being in the same plane but not on the same line. d 46. The endpoint is the beginning of a ray. yes 27. Not possible. d 49. collinear points must be coplanar because if a line is in a plane. They have starting points and stopping points. They are different because they have different endpoints and extend in different directions. a line has one dimension. d 42. SR. no 28. An inﬁnite number of points are on a line segment. segments. No. There are many examples of a point in everyday life. ∠PON (∠NOP) and ∠POM (∠MOP) 5. 9. a third point could be off the line. 26. there are countless points on any line. 4. 20. ∠KBT. sides: YX. 35. 7. ZX 5. Vertex: Y. ∠TBK. even if it is not drawn. Yes. no 24. XZ. 15. and planes are made up of a series of points. true 31. False. Yes. rays. true 33. ZY. d 48. 14. even if it is not drawn. A plane has two dimensions. c 50. ∠MON (∠NOM) 6.” the location of a city on a map. 21. 12. An inﬁnite number of points are on a line. yes 23. →→ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ ↔ 18. Vertex: J. the dot above the letter “i. MN. 17. remember that any two points determine a line. Yes. ON and OM 7. therefore. b Lesson 17 Lesson 17 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 20 Lesson 1 1. a 45. YZ. Yes. 34. then all points on that line are in the same plane. yes 25. LN. ∠1 4. any three points are coplanar. d 47. YZ → → → → 2. Line segments do not extend indeﬁnitely. ST 8. a ray has one endpoint. → → 180 . YX. 22. A ray extends indeﬁnitely in one direction. The notation for a line has two arrowheads because a line extends forever in both directions. no 29. Yes. 2. a 44. 30. 13. false 32. but a segment has two endpoints. but not always. 16. and a freckle. ∠B. any two points can be connected to form a line. 10. A line has no endpoints. A line and a ray both have an inﬁnite set of points. 6. LP 11. Yes. sometimes they do. 3. b 43. remember that any three noncollinear points determine a plane. 19. Both have an inﬁnite set of points. no one would know which ∠O you meant. Here is one possible answer: 36.

congruent 16. line y cuts across lines t and r. straight 17. Same-side interior angles. Same-side interior angles are supplementary. 63° (180°-27°-90°) 14. not two different points. Corresponding angles. never 13. line t intersects lines d and y at the same point. the symbol means perpendicular. No. obtuse 18. transversals can be perpendicular. Both pairs of angles are on the same side of the transversal. true 6. Yes. Corresponding angles. Alternate interior angles are congruent. 100° 18. never 12. Same-side interior angles are supplementary. 10. acute 19. 160° 9. congruent Lesson 4 1. ∠NOL. 109° 19. 20° 2. They are both pairs of congruent angles when formed by parallel lines and a transversal. ∠NOM 11. Lesson 3 1. 3. straight 20. 115° 8. they don’t share the same endpoint. always 9. ∠MOL 12. 45° 181 . 26. acute 17. 110° 20. sometimes 11. ∠NOK. 55° 6. ∠MOJ. obtuse 24. right 25. congruent 14. 25. False. 4. they may not form a line. 100° 4. 55° 21. 80° 7. ∠JOK. Alternate interior angles are both “inside” the parallel lines. 5. 9. both same-side interior angles are interior while corresponding angles have one angle “inside” and one “outside” the parallel lines. Yes. supplementary 15. line d cuts across lines t and r. but they do not have to be perpendicular. 2. right 15. No. straight 16. Yes. 135° 5. 60° 11. acute 23. 24. 25° 10. right 22. Alternate interior angles. 7. obtuse 21. No. 75° 3. False. Also.– ANSWER KEY – 8. 22. 23. never 10. line r cuts across lines d and y at two different points. ∠KOL. Corresponding angles are congruent. Corresponding angles are a pair of angles with one angle “inside” the parallel lines and one “outside” the parallel lines. 8. ∠MOK 13. They are both pairs of interior angles.

false 17. 100° 17. 138° 19. 102° 7. Lesson 5 1. ∠1 and ∠4 75° 13. 3. scalene 4. isosceles 6. ∠AOE and ∠COD. true 19. 179° 11. ∠BOC and ∠COD 13. 125° 15. ∠3 and ∠5. equilateral 8. 55° 21. true 18. true 15. 22° 3. 800 mils 29. ∠EOD and ∠AOC 14. 100° 14. false 24.600 mils 27. isosceles 3. 180° 23. 50° 18. false 16. 87° 6. 125° 24.200 mils Lesson 6 1. 2. ∠2 and ∠5. 32˚ 16. false 21. 10° 4.400 mils 28. 120° 9. equilateral 2. false 26. 46° 2. true 20. 35° 20. 1. scalene 5. 145° 25.– ANSWER KEY – 12. false 25. true 23. true 22. 65° 5. 25° 10. 50° 8. ∠AOE and ∠COD 12. scalene 7. 35° 26. legs: XY and YZ vertex angle: ∠Y 182 . 90° 22.

17 9. legs: RS and ST vertex angle: ∠S base angles: ∠R and ∠T base: RT 10. PR and RQ 4. ∠QRS 22. SAS 27. no 25. SSS 30. equiangular and acute 13. no 16. ASA 29. 8 Lesson 7 1. ΔFJH 8. true 24. true 13. obtuse 16. ∠J 3. obtuse 15. vertical angles 17. yes 26. ΔGFH 11. right 18. acute 12. JM 7. false 25. MK 6. true 19. true 23. PQ 5. 9 10. no (should be ΔACB ≅ ΔECD) 21. HL and LM 6. CD 20. ∠K 4. ΔHGF 9. false 22. yes 15. yes 18. HM 7. acute 17. Number Square 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 7 49 8 64 8. ASA 28. VS Number 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Square 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 183 .– ANSWER KEY – base angles: ∠X and ∠Z base: XZ 9. right 14. ΔFHG 10. true 20. AC 3. ∠TSR 23. RT 14. RS 12. AB and BC 2. legs: DE and EF vertex angle: ∠E base angles: ∠D and ∠F base: DF 11. false 21. AC 19. ∠R 2. SAS Lesson 8 1. yes 24. PQ 5.

Number of sides 6 10 14 16 Interior ∠ sum 720 1. When the ladder is placed 3 feet from the 3 building. no 18. not a polygon 10. each obtuse angle equals 135°. true 2. yes 20. right 21. true 6. octagon 184 Lesson 10 1. yes 17. the ladder extends a little over 17 feet up the building. it reaches about 17 4 feet up the building. obtuse 23. acute 26. 12 13. obtuse 27. Home plate is a pentagon. no 22. false 5. yes 19. right 25. yes 17. hexagon 15. 40 13. yes 19. true 7. not a polygon 2.440 2. acute 22. no 21. Lesson 9 1. true 4. concave polygon 8. true 9. S = 180(n – 2) S = 180(5 – 2) S = 180(3) S = 540 3(right angles) + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 3(90) + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 270 + 2(obtuse angles) = 540 –270 (subtract the 3 right ∠’s to see how much of the original 540 is left) 2(obtuse angles) = 270 obtuse angle = 135 (divide by 2 because the two angles share the 270 evenly) Therefore. convex polygon 7. When the ladder is placed 5 feet from the building. convex polygon 5. triangle 12. 65° . false 10. You can check to see that your answer is correct: 90 + 90 + 90 + 135 + 135 = 540. It would be impractical to place the ladder that close or even closer because it would not be stable. pentagon 13. no 16. false 3. 8 12. false 8.– ANSWER KEY – 11. yes 15. obtuse 24. yes 20. heptagon 14. 5 12.520 Exterior ∠ sum 360 360 360 360 23. so use the formula with n = 5. no 18. concave polygon 4.160 2. convex polygon 3. quadrilateral 11. false 11. You would not go very far up the ladder before you would be falling back down! 16. 25 14. not a polygon 9. not a polygon 6.

65° 16. b = 8 in. 90° 28. SAS. b = 15 m. 55° 19. 8. 65° 25. 17. 23. 13. w = 5 cm. 63 ft. 33 4. 80 in. 26 cm 9. 5 18. 64° 27. = 4. AA. 30 5. 8. h = 5 m 7. 16 m 2 3. 18 cm 7. SSS Lesson 12 1. s = 8 yd. 11. yes 14. or SSS 19. 58° 26. 125° 20. 13 23. b = 15 cm . s = 20 cm 18. AA 20. SAS 24. s = 7 in.2 5. 10 5 5 10 5 15 = = 3. SAS 18. none 23. s = 8 cm 20. 2. y = 44 9. 115° 15.25 yd. a = 8 11. 36 in. 26 22. 36 ft. l = 5 m 14. b = 14 12. 22 in. s = 23 cm 21. 6. 36 3.. 36 in.– ANSWER KEY – 14. 125° 21. 24 cm 2 2. no 6. h = 6. 80 ft. none 185 2 1 1 2 1 3 Lesson 13 1. x = 1 13. yes 17. 6. 21 2. 58° 29. 16. l = 10 cm 15. 22. 24. no 16. AA 21. s = 10 cm 19. x = 4 8. 21 ft. no 15. 12. 80 cm 10. yes 5. 116° 30. 25° 24. 32° 22.2 4. no 7. 14 17. 196 in. 68 ft. z = 28 10. h = 7 in. w = 1 m. 16 packages Lesson 11 1.

36 in.3 24. A = 45 in. A = 30 in.3 5. b = 6 cm. 108 m 3 6.2 9. 174 in. 220 ft.2 12.3 mm. A = 104 in. 432 in. b = 17 in.3 2.3 7. 12 edges 8. b = 8 cm.5 mm2. 1. A = 169 in. 22 in. 9 in.2 16. h = 3 cm 10. 2. 200 cm 2 14. 27 ft. 5 in. 680 m 3 13.96 m 2 7.32 m 2 11.96 ft. h = 4 ft.64 m 2 10. 120 cm 3 8. 1.2 16. 9 in. 8 vertices 10.120 cm 3 11. 24 in.2 6. 60 ft. b = 8. A = 132 m 2 21. 6 faces 9.2 15.66 cm 2 8.08 in. A = 24 cm 2.2 23. 416 ft. 47. 19.3 12. 576 ft. 200. b2 = 9 m Lesson 15 1. 6e2 = 486. 452.2 19.2 25.000 m 3 14.2 15.3 16. 3. 81. 294 m 2 20. 20. 270 cm 3 22. 3.2 186 . 2. 343 cm 3 4. e = 9 ft. A = 35 ft. 4. 7.3 21. 240 ft. 158 m 2 13. 157 cm 5. 530. 201. 96 ft.2 17.84 cm 2 21. 828. h = 8 ft. h = 10 cm 12. 150 m 3 9. b = 7 ft. 5.98 m 4. 6. 1 cm 3 Lesson 14 1.16 in. 32 m 3 3. e2 = 81.3 15. h = 6 in.. 747. 4 in.– ANSWER KEY – 9. A = 41. 128 in. h = 14 cm 18. 729 cm 3 17. 192 cm 3 18.5 ft.1 ft. Lesson 16 1.3 20. 400 in. 69. 21. 100 ft. 64 in.3 25. 4 in. 180 cm 3 19. 24. 78 ft. b1 = 5 cm 22.2 17. 78. A = 21 cm 2 14.2 11.3 10. 5 in. h = 5 mm 11. 13. 85 cm 3 23. 216 cm 2 18.

3 22. 6 5 14. III 7. B(1. 1 3 2 –1 = –2 4 –1 = –4 3 2 2 1 8 = 4 2 –5 13. – 2 3 20. 1. 5 36. 3.12 m 3 15. III 17. 1. x-axis 24.234.– ANSWER KEY – 12.2 23. 1. 256.44 m 2 22.4) 33.884 in.2 17.24 cm 2 13. 100. y E H G A F I L D C K J x B 1.48 m 3 18.03 m 3 27. positive 11. 1 15. H(3.3 16.2 25. 3 4 19.436.3 m 3 26. –2 17. 5. 1. C(4.36 cm 2 24. 0 16. II 21. 678.7 cm 3 14.–5) 27. I 20.–4) 29. 0 187 . 381. 4.78 cm 3 20. y-axis 25. 4 34.84 in. 340. 2.3 21. undeﬁned (no slope) 18.0) 28.215. F(0. 13 Lesson 18 Lesson 17 1–12. 803. I 15.17 m 3 19.51 ft. II 14.6) 30. 523.559. 10 35. 84.43 ft.–1) 32. 339.271.56 cm 3 28.256 ft. zero 10. undeﬁned (no slope) 12.–2) 31. IV 23. 4. G(6. positive 8. negative 13. negative 9. 7.28 ft. 6. D(–6. 615. A(–4.2) 26. x-axis 19. y-axis 18. 3. IV 16. E(–2.

yes 14.–5) (–1.7) (0. linear 5.–2) (0. linear 6. yes 13.3) (–2. no 11. nonlinear 3.–1) (0.4) (–1.–1) –2 –2 2 (1. linear 9. yes 17.–9) 188 . 18.0) (–2. no 12.– ANSWER KEY – Lesson 19 1. linear 2.2) 19. yes 10.6) 20.2) (0. y y –2 2 x 2 –2 2 x –2 –2 2 (1. nonlinear 7. y 2 x –2 –2 2 (2. nonlinear 4. linear 8. no 15. 2 x y (2. yes 16.

9. d Lesson 19 19.1 31. c Lesson 14 14. c Lesson 20 20. 13.891 16. d Lesson 13 13. d Lesson 16 16. 21° 22.280 ≈ 3.4 189 . 3. 3. 12. d Lesson 12 ≈ 0. 2. d Lesson 8 31. 7.385 = 2.– ANSWER KEY – Lesson 20 1. 7. c Lesson 6 29. b Lesson 3 22. c Lesson 6 28.280 = 0. d Lesson 9 33. c Lesson 12 12. b Lesson 7 7. 17° 25. 5 13 12 13 5 12 12 13 5 13 12 5 7 25 24 25 7 24 24 25 7 25 24 7 Posttest If you miss any of the answers. 37° 27. d Lesson 4 26.429 13. you can ﬁnd help for that kind of question in the lesson shown to the right of the answer. b Lesson 10 35. 5. 1. c Lesson 17 17. b Lesson 6 6. 11. 23° 28. a Lesson 11 11.766 17. 30° 29. c Lesson 7 30. b Lesson 2 24.530 15.2 30. c Lesson 2 23.309 14. c Lesson 8 32. 8.960 = 0. 22° 24.417 ≈ 0. 4. a Lesson 5 27. c Lesson 3 2. 38° 23. 0.400 = 0. a Lesson 4 4. a Lesson 15 15. c Lesson 18 18. 10.960 ≈ 0. b Lesson 8 8. d Lesson 1 21.923 ≈ 0. 8. d Lesson 10 34. 0. d Lesson 10 10. c Lesson 4 25.2 32. 42° 21. 0. 0. 6. c Lesson 9 9.306 19.385 ≈ 0.923 ≈ 0. 0. 45° 26. b Lesson 5 5.292 = 0. 0. 29° 20.727 18. a Lesson 2 3. c Lesson 11 36.

b 41. b 42. d Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 20 Lesson 1 190 . c 39. c Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 16 44. b 47. a 49. b 40. a 48. d 43.– ANSWER KEY – 37. b 45. a 50. c 38. b 46.

the third side is called the base of the isosceles triangle.Glossary Acute angle: An angle whose measure is between 0° and 90°. Cube: A rectangular prism in which all faces are congruent squares. Diagonal of a polygon: A segment that joins two nonconsecutive vertices of the polygon. Diameter of a circle: A segment that joins two points on the circle and passes through the center. Base of a trapezoid: Either of the parallel sides. Coordinate plane: A plane that contains a horizontal number line (the x-axis) and a vertical number line (the y-axis). Coplanar points: Points that lie on a plane. Area is expressed in square units. Area: The amount of surface in a region. Base of a cone: Its circular face. Every point in the coordinate plane can be named by a pair of numbers. Angle: A ﬁgure formed by two rays or two segments with a common endpoint. Circle: All points in a plane that are the same distance from some point called the center. Base of an isosceles triangle: In an isosceles triangle with two congruent sides. Circumference: The distance around a circle. Collinear points: Points that lie on a line. Complementary angles: Two angles whose measures total 90°. Congruent (≅): Being the same or equal to. Acute triangle: A triangle with three acute angles. 191 . Corresponding parts: Any pair of sides or angles in congruent or similar polygons having the same relative position. Cosine (cos): The ratio of the length of the leg adjacent to an acute angle of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. Coordinates (x.y): An ordered pair of numbers used to name (locate) a point in a plane. Base angles of an isosceles triangle: The two angles that have the base as part of one side.

Ratio: A comparison of two numbers by division. two-dimensional figure formed only by line segments that meet at points called vertices. Noncoplanar points: A set of points through which a plane cannot be drawn. the ratio of a to b is denoted by a .14. a:b. Face: A part of a plane forming a side of a threedimensional ﬁgure. Protractor: An instrument used to measure angles. Intersecting lines: Lines that meet in one point. Postulate: A statement that is accepted without proof. A square is a special type of rectangle. Pi (π): The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs. Parallelogram ( ): A quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides parallel. Equiangular triangle: A triangle with all angles equal. Pythagorean theorem: For any right triangle. Measure of an angle: The number of degrees of an angle. Right angle: An angle whose measure is 90°. closed. Point: An undeﬁned term for a ﬁgure that indicates a deﬁnite location. Proof: A convincing argument. Perpendicular (⊥): Lines. The endpoint is named ﬁrst. It extends indeﬁnitely in one direction. Means: The second and third terms of a proportion. Line (↔): A line is an undeﬁned term for a set of points that extend indeﬁnitely in two directions. Obtuse angle: An angle whose measure is between 90° and 180°. Radius of a circle: A segment joining the center of the circle to any point on the circle. Rectangles. or rays that intersect to form right angles.– GLOSSARY – Edge: A segment formed by the intersection of two faces of a three-dimensional ﬁgure. Linear equation: An equation whose graph is a line. 192 . Polyhedron: A three-dimensional ﬁgure in which each surface is a polygon. Isosceles triangle: A triangle with two congruent sides. Octagon: A polygon with eight sides. and squares are special types of parallelograms. Opposite rays: Two rays that have a common endpoint and form a line. Hypotenuse: The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle. Quadrant: One of the four regions. The most commonly used approximations for π are 272 and 3. A square is a special type of rhombus. Obtuse triangle: A triangle with one obtuse angle. Plane: An undeﬁned term for a ﬂat surface that extends indeﬁnitely in all directions. Ray (→): Part of a line with one endpoint. Quadrilateral: A polygon with four sides. labeled I–IV. Perimeter: The distance around a two-dimensional ﬁgure. Noncollinear points: A set of points through which a line cannot be drawn. Radius of a sphere: A segment joining the center of the sphere to any point on the sphere. If b ≠ 0. rhombuses. Graph of an equation: The geometric ﬁgure that contains all the points whose coordinates make the equation a true statement. Extremes: The ﬁrst and fourth terms of a proportion. Rhombus: A parallelogram with four congruent sides. Rectangle: A parallelogram with four right angles. segments. Shown by the notation m∠ABC. Right triangle: A triangle that contains one right angle. into which the coordinate axes divide a coordinate plane. Equilateral triangle: A triangle with all sides equal. Proportion: A statement that two ratios are equal. Hexagon: A polygon with six sides. Polygon: A simple. Regular polygon: A polygon in which all sides are congruent and all angles are congruent. Pentagon: A polygon with ﬁve sides. or b a to b. Legs of a right triangle: Sides that determine the right angle. A ray is named by its endpoint and any other point on the ray. Parallel lines ( ): Coplanar lines that do not intersect.

Vertical angles are congruent. Supplementary angles: Two angles whose measures total 180°. Theorem: A statement that can be proved. A segment is named by its endpoints.x 2) and (y1. Scalene triangle: A triangle with no sides equal. Triangle: A polygon with three sides. Sides of an angle: The rays that meet to form an angle. It is also the ratio of rise to run. The square root of 25 is 5 because 5 × 5 = 25. Square root ( ): The positive number which when squared gives the original number as a product. Skew lines: Two lines that are not coplanar and do not intersect. Sine (sin): The ratio of the length of the leg opposite an acute angle of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. Trigonometry: Mathematical principles based on the properties of similar right triangles. A square can also be deﬁned as a parallelogram that is both a rectangle and a rhombus. Trapezoid: A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of opposite sides parallel. Slope of a line: The measure of the steepness of a line. y –y Straight angle: An angle whose measure is 180°. Transversal: A line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at different points. then the slope of the line is x 2 – x1 . provided x1 ≠ x 2. if a line contains points (x1. Square: A parallelogram with four right angles and four congruent sides. Run: The horizontal distance from a given point to a second given point.– GLOSSARY – Rise: The vertical distance from a given point to a second given point. 2 1 Sphere: A ﬁgure in space whose points are the same distance from a particular point. Vertical angles: Two angles whose sides form two pairs of opposite rays. Volume is expressed in cubic units. Square of a number (n 2): A number multiplied by itself. Also. This point is called the center. 193 . Vertex: The intersection of two sides of a polygon.y2). Volume: The amount of space in a solid. Segment: Part of a line with two endpoints. Tangent (tan): The ratio of the length of the leg opposite an acute angle of a right triangle to the adjacent leg.

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A P P E N D I X

A

Postulates

Chapter 1

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Postulates and Theorems

Two points determine exactly one line. Three noncollinear points determine exactly one plane.

Chapter 3

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If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then corresponding angles are congruent.

Chapter 4

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If point B is in the interior of AOC, then m AOB + m BOC = m AOC. (see page 41 for diagram) If AOC is a straight line, then m AOB + m BOC = 180°. (see page 41 for diagram)

Chapter 7

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If three sides of one triangle are congruent with three sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent (SSS postulate).

195

– APPENDIX A: POSTULATES AND THEOREMS –

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If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent (SAS postulate). If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle, the triangles are congruent (ASA postulate).

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Chapter 11

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If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle, then the triangles are similar (AA postulate). If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, then the triangles are similar (SSS postulate). If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding included angles are congruent, then the triangles are similar (SAS postulate).

triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two shorter sides, then the triangle is a right triangle. If the square of the length of the longest side is greater than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two shorter sides, then the triangle is obtuse (c2 > a2 + b2). (see page 73 for diagram) If the square of the length of the longest side is less than the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two other sides, then the triangle is acute (c2 > a2 + b2). (see page 73 for diagram)

Chapter 9

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The sum of interior angles of a triangle is 180°. If a convex polygon has n sides, then its angle sum is given by the formula S = 180(n – 2). The sum of exterior angles of a convex polygon is always 360°.

Chapter 10

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Theorems

Chapter 3

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■

■ ■ ■

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If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then alternate interior angles are congruent. If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then same-side interior angles are supplementary.

Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. Consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supplementary. Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular, and they bisect the angles of the rhombus.

Chapter 13 Chapter 5

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**Vertical angles are congruent.
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Chapter 8

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Pythagorean theorem: In a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse (a2 + b2 = c2). Converse of the Pythagorean theorem: If the square of the length of the longest side of a

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The area (A) of a rectangle is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h): A = bh. The area of a parallelogram (A) is the product of its base length (b) and its height (h): A = bh. The area (A) of any triangle is half the product of its base length (b) and its height (h): A = 1 bh. 2 The area of a trapezoid is half the product of the height and the sum of the base lengths (b1 + b2): A = 1 bh(b1 + b2). 2

196

– APPENDIX A: POSTULATES AND THEOREMS –

Chapter 14

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Chapter 16

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The surface area (S.A.) of a rectangular prism is twice the sum of the length (l) times the width (w), the width (w) times the height (h), and the length (l) times the height (h): S.A. = 2(lw + wh + lh). The surface area of a cube is six times the edge (e) squared: S.A. = 6e2.

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Chapter 15

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To ﬁnd the volume (V) of a rectangular prism, multiply the length (l) by the width (w) and by the height (h): V = lwh. To ﬁnd the volume (V) of any prism, multiply the area of the base (B) by the height (h): V = Bh. The volume of a cube is determined by cubing the length of the edge: V = e3.

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The circumference of any circle is the product of its diameter and π: C = πd or C = 2πr. The area (A) of a circle is the product of and the square of the radius (r): A = πr2. The surface area (S.A.) of a cylinder is determined by ﬁnding the sum of the area of the bases and the product of the circumference times the height: S.A. = 2πr2 + 2πrh. The volume (V) of a cylinder is the product of the area of the base (B) and the height (h): V = Bh or V = πr2h. The surface area (S.A.) formula for a sphere is four times π times the radius squared: S.A. = 4πr2. The volume (V) of a sphere is determined by the product of 4 π times the radius cubed: V = 4 πr3. 3 3

Chapter 17

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The distance d between any two points A(x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) is d = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2 .

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Your local high school is a valuable resource.A P P E N D I X B M Additional Resources any resources are available to help you if you need additional practice with geometry. A college may be another good source for locating a tutor. Also. Colleges are also a valuable resource. The geometry books listed on the next page provide helpful explanations or practice sets of problems. Most high school math teachers would assist you if you asked them for help with a lesson. If you need a tutor. To ﬁnd out what is available in your community. call your local college’s math department or learning center. 199 . They often have learning centers or tutor programs available. You may also be able to borrow a textbook from your local high school. You could also check the classiﬁed ads in your local newspaper or the yellow pages to search for a tutor. Check your local bookstore or library for availability. If you would like to continue working geometry problems on your own. the teacher may be able to suggest one for you. your local bookstore or library has books that can help you. a teacher may provide you with practice sets of problems on a lesson that proved difﬁcult for you.

Freeman) 2003. Schaum’s Outline of Geometry. 200 . Geometry for Dummies. Third Edition. Understanding. Painless Geometry. Lynette. Geometry. (New York: Wiley. (New York: For Dummies) 2001. Geometry: A SelfTeaching Guide. Slavin. John & Sons) 2004. Third Edition: Seeing. Wendy. Long. Steve. (New York: W. Jacobs.H. (Hauppauge: Barron’s Educational Series) 2001. Rich. and Ginny Crisonino. Doing. Barnett. Harold R. (New York: McGraw-Hill) 1999.– APPENDIX B: ADDITIONAL RESOURCES – Arnone.