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Creep

Creep
What is Creep: It is the slow& progressive deformation of material with time under a constant stress at temp. approx. above 0.4 Tm Creep Failure: rupture or excessive distortion Examples: Many materials at high temperatures Concrete and wood under long term loading Frozen soil under long term loading
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Objectives
Identify the primary mechanisms of creep deformation Determine the threshold temperature for creep for an alloy of known melting temperature Use creep data to determine creep model parameters Read and apply a creep rupture curve
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Creep Test

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Creep Curve

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Minimum Creep Rate

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Fatigure and Creep

Minimum Creep Rate is highly sensitive to Temperature

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Effect of Temperature

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Relation Between Minimum Creep rate & stress

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Effect of stress at constant Temperature

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Creep fracture

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Creep Failure

Figure : Linear into accelerating growth function

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Mechanisms of Creep
High rates of diffusion permit reshaping of crystals to relieve stress Diffusion significant at both grain boundaries and in the bulk High energy and weak bonds allow dislocations to climb around structures that pin them at lower temperature
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Mechanisms of Creep

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Recovery of Strain after Unloading

After unloading, some of the strain is recovered, but an appreciable plastic strain has become permanent.
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Stress Relaxation
If the material is subjected to a fixed strain at an initial stress, the load required to maintain the strain is progressively decreasing with time.

Relaxation of 0.35% Cabon Steel at 455oC


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How to Determine Stress-Relaxation?

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Conclusion
Unlike repeated loads of fatigue, creep affects the entire body of the material under stress instead of producing a localized rupture.

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Referances
www.google.com Material science and metallurgy by- V. D. Kodgire Engineering Materials by-Michael F. Ashby Mechanical properties of Engineered Materials by-Wole Soboyejo

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