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603_O_Hgemonas_-_Makiabelh

603_O_Hgemonas_-_Makiabelh

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Published by: Vaggelis Konstantinou on Sep 10, 2011
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:NIKO'TO :NIKO

IMAKIABEITI MAI
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-{,uto ro 8t6}1o tou Nrxo},6 MoxtoB6},r ypdrptnxe oro 1513, e$rivrc cr<pr6drgyp6vto petd tnv utrilon tng K<rlvsrqrl.vorinoLng. O tittrog tou ntov "Il principe", 6n_ .lo6n "O npiyrnncgo, rpuorr6 dMa:ote crpori eiye rn eurotol.ng pe o6nyieg yro Tnv opydvoron rng 6rnropnpn uxnong rpos rov 6vov eni6ofo ny6,tn, p6hg Z.!, rtiov rore, tov Lorenzo B' (1492-'1j19) tov Me6ir<<^lv, Aorjro tou Ouppuivo. To reipevo 6e rpdvnr<er6roitepo Xpnotpo orov crro_ 6errn rou, crpot u60ave 6$r yp6vrc petd. Anpooterltnre 6e otn Pdrpn arq 1532, n6vte yp6vtc petd to Odvoro tou r6rou tou MorraB6Lr.'Ertote rot eni ordlveg qnot6.Leoe oqreio cwd.ey6pevo rct cprpr-l.ey6pevo. Xtnv EMd6o perorppdoTnKr -r<or on6 tov Nir<o Ko(ow(dr<n-, ng neproo6repes eopss F€ rov tittro "O HyepGrv", ucp6tr to 6pyo aneuOrivetot, 6yt p6vo otov cp_ trr6 ono6eKTn rou, cMd oe 6norov qorei efouoia, ovefcptntoE T6uou, Xpovou ror tp6nou. Ilopd tn 6roypovrr6Tnrq Tou rerp6vou Kor rou ouy_ ypcp6c tou (BL. "O Machiavelli oto ouyxpovo Marketing & Managemenf", er<66oergflepid\ous, 2002) 6ev undpyer alrrprBotrio 6tr <,rgr<eipevo, 490 Xp6vro onpepa petd tn ouyypopri tou, 6nog r<arrd0e dLLo r<eipevotng ntrrnioE Tou, npoKarlr6vou vo Fnoproet vs lertoupynoer orls Fepss FaS To i6ro anoreLeopattrd Fe rnv enoyir tng eprpdvrong tou, 0a ypera(6tav oty;gpovn er6onr<n ovtrpet<ilnton. O MaxtoBeLr u6,po on6 To 6Tr, 6uog eivot rpuorr6, Xpnotporrotei. ro ouvTortrr<6 K<rrrrrv cro0nnrn rou ypqntori tr6you tng enoynE rou, 6rcv0i.(er to reipevo pe oa>peio rotoprr<irv cvorpopdrv, oTnv upoon60et6 tou vo rd-

NIKOAO MAKIABEAI

var rov cvoyvdrotn vo r<ata).dBerrotrutepo out6 nou 06_ l,ar vq rou rr€1. H ncpd0eon 6pog o).arv outrilv Ta>vrropo6etypdtov onpepc, putrdr<er tov cvcyvciroTn cvti va tov 6reunotrrlver. flp6rerrcl" yr<r npoypctc tng enoyng ereivng, nou ouv66olvov oTnv Ita).io erei.vou rou Kc1_ pori, oto onoiq avop6,povtot up6oono r<cr yeyov6Tc, npopovrilg onpovrucd yrs rnv euoyn toug, cD.d XopiS, on6 6,tr rpovnxe otn ouvdyero, 6tcXpovtr<n rotopun ep_ Be}ero ro naplooorspo, ps onot6,Leopo vo Fnv 6youv rptdoet og epdg K<rrv<r rpovtd(ouv to i6rq evte).drEdyval_ oTo oTo onpeprv6 ovoyv<iotn, cl,).o K<rrn pe).6tn toug pdtrtrov ueprttn yro rnv totoprrn r<croptron tou. 'Etot otrg Fep€S FoS, oro cpyu<6 r<eipevo, or uno0n_ r<eg cv 06,Lete, ou6qerg tou MqrrqBdtrr pot6(ouv pe n, ot 6ropdvttc 6tdouapro os F1<ruln0cSpo ovtoptiv .otop,rdrv 6rnynoeov. M6Xpr t<irpc to upoBtrnpo ol.tr,1r"trrr.t6Tov pe To vcr ouvo6e{rovtor ot er66o€rs Tou "HyeF6vo" ou6 6vq peydtro cpr0p6 unoonper<ioeov Kcr1rqporo_ purilv. H 6r6oon nou 6,Xere otc y6prc oog npoteiver dL_ .Lov tp6ro: flopcLeiuer ro rotopmd uopc6eiypoto, er<t6gan6 r<drorct rou avo(pepovr<rrornv EMd6a -crpycio r<ot ve6_ Tspn-, Ko1 rpoor<rOei va petoqpdoer oe el).nvrr<6 tr6yo onpeprv6, dlreoo Kor pruoT6. flcpd),trn),o 6ev ferpeuyer orlte r<at' e_Ldyrotovau6 to cpyrx6 retpevo. Kpotd to vonporo ov6,ucrpc, Kor rn 6opn tou BrBl.iou,i6to pe eKeivn tng np<btng er6oong. (Duotr<dn ncpoOeon uoLrtrr<bv nopc6erypdTov Ko1 n ouox€Tlon rns upoypottr<6tntog tnE rotopios r<c1 TnS Oeopicg, 6ev eivqr tuyoio oTo Mcr<rqB6,Lt, ovtr0etog ouote).ei tn p60o6o tou. Ee quTn rnv oy6on o i6rog enrrpu)dooer yrcr rov eout6 Tou ro p6Lo tou efoteprrori ncpctnpntn Fs rnv ovefdptntn an6 ta yeyov6ta rrpoocr_ rrrr<6tnto. Auoqeriyet vc r<dvercfrotroynoers, Tou oprotv or 6tqnrotdroerg. M60o6og uou cr<irvegopy6tepo, orrg

Xnpepo o Mor<raB6. TrSropctnpnoerg Tou McrrtoB€.6ou ct6vo. a-L.Luppeva.M. o ouoioE ptnpn 6uvcrt6tnta-eiye vc ywrpi(et oe 6Ln rous rnv 6rtoon to totoprr<d yeyov6rc. r<or rou Frropsi 6rat vq enrBeBqr6ver pe rov rrlo dpeoo tp6no.Avtr0erog.loiarteg. or6po Kc1 TnS enoyng rou.Ld r<at rou Fnopei vc nopcroLou0et ng ndtrtrrdg rct roiv<.E. tocrs ueproo6tepo uopd uot€.vot qvqyKoio o Hydtns Kc1 vq eivat ror vo uopclrdver evdpetog. Ko1 or61rn FtxpoTepn vo ro ofroloynoer. ou0ctpeoic n cnororrn tng pcrrtoBetrtr<ngOeopiag on6 tq npoypattkd ueptotctrrd rrou rnv entbeBor6vouv..Lt. o onoiog nyeitor n Oe}'er vc nynOei evog peydtrou n prrp6repou rrir.o eivor rpovepd. tou Al Jazeera.vc KsTnyopnOei o Mor<raBel. Itq to ov n (crn n i6rc. 6ev puopei.Xerrn 6uvot6tnto vo .EIXATOIH 9 p6peS pog.o.ouOeivo eyet onnynon.rvmeg efetrtfiers rns sroyrig tou p6oo tou CNN.ei. IIou 6yer ornv yorptg upooXripcto r<o[ cvooto]. rot crs Kolvovtotroymn 0ealpic. t6ioE n norvovrr<ri.itn. cl-trd otov on). Mrfuorg l.r.6ov p6vo oe Hyepoveg. Ener6n 6prs. eivor ox-Lnpn nor ovn0rrn.otn6v onotel. o i6rog entpdver nog ei. 0c unootnpryOei.oiartn napopever eui yr}retieg ror n crv0p<ilnrvnVUXn. Ag pn Inolrovotpe uog o ouyyporgdog otov "Hyep6vo. p6oc cu6 tnv i6ra rou rnv enoyri. 6oo ovctr-).Lr efcr<ol. otnv enoyn nou 6). Xtov.eg enoyr lros.6 nd\. ov 6ev 6. nou 6yt p6vo eyer 6r6oy0ei toropi. M6vo nou 6ev aueuOrjvetor d. ot onoieg ncpolr6vouv eu( rrsvTcK6orc Xp6vra cvql. Tou Internet Ko1 ev6g otdLelo:rou nLn0oug M. 6FrS. corpcL<ilg. oMd ror entpekbg r<c.to totoptxd ncpo6eiyporo FnpooTd oto pdtro rou roOnpepwd.Lou cvOpcilnorvn or6pn otov notritn uou Xperd(erar Fro pe0o6o yro vo rcto}dBet tr yivetcr oto noLrttr<6 ornvrr<6 tng euoyng tou." oueuOtivetol orov eni6ofo ny6tn tou 1. eforpetrrd wnFspop€vo uro nolirn.

vTqr<ooiov Xpovov. ol'l. ener6n oroxos tou Hyepovo 6ev eivo1 vq o<ioer tnv rqruyn tou. yrc out6 tou ouvlord vo po0er vo yivetar dgo yperco0ei r<ar L6arv r<qt q}euot.S Tou <Tulou t<.xd ovelopTnTou cvOp<3nou. ouote}et ei. to i6ro oupBoiver Ksr F€ toug ny6teg tng enoynE poE. uotrt rpoolr6 otrtroote on6 trE oye6ov 66. nOrr<n.c to npdtog Tou Kc1 Tnv eunpepio rtov unnr<6orv tou.L<.r 0etopei rt'>s To vo ouv66erE uoLtttr<n r<cr n0tr<n. Kor rotoypdrper yro tov Hy6tn. ol. Avti0etc unyov prpooTo 6oor ny6teg eOeoov trg rr<ov6tnt6. feyoptotn qn6 tov nol.6yto" or(orro. 6av txouv nopd vo ovotpefouv oTo opxu<o r<eipevo.:v n. upopul.g toug r<qr tnv xoLn TouS TUXn oTnv unnpeoiq tou ). .re qvrrqvoTnTo. oritarE n dtr-L<og.Lnvrn6g petoppdoerg rou Fexpl onpepo.-Lovtog ereivn tnv enoyn nvsuFott.Ld r<crr tov -Lentopepertilv tng IotopioE.r<oe).ou0<irvtcE tnv eurtcy6. To i6ro ouv€BnKa Kqr p€ rous ny€r€S tov te}eutqirov ne. ev6eyop6voE r<o06trou evdpatog. ooor otnprfov tnv eLeuOepio Tou ovar6. 6yr r<ct' cvdyr<n yrc vct ro uroOetnoet r<oveig. flotog on6 touE eurtuynp6voug oriyypovoriE tou ny6teg dl. Atowitong Bitoog .}. cqou 6rr<6 tou eivqr to "o oKon6s oyrd(er to p6oo". Kr out6. <Dovtd(opor 6tr orlte o Mar<raBe}r 0o eiye cvtippnon yro Tnv er<6oyn tou "Hyep6vq> Tou rrou 6yete oto y6pto ocrs.g tou Oupovtopori tnE euoyng tou. Ano eret rot n6po or epooT6.vou r<Iqorr<ou nerpdvou.rv".cou.oooovTos toug 0eopous ncr ntun<irvtos Tn 6rcrp0opa pe' 6uoro peoo.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 10 anopcnptverol rrsploroolaKd cn6 ttE opsrds 6ev 0a napcpeiver yro notrri nydtng Ko1 rn 06on tou 0a r<ata}dber evog oLtrog.). pto 6rr<n tou.-L<irvov0pdlnalv.. flooo pdtr-Lov rou n npoo€yyron ev6g t6oo uotruou(ntnp6.oote nnye pupootd onol. ouoteLei. O Marrob6). eiTe unonproia.

}.tt etvor oiyoupor nog 0o Tov €uxoplotnoel t6tort6pog.Lo. ontlg dtroyc. 8€.ptmo vo oas npoorpdpo rdtt.dyroto 6eiypc rng erripnonE pou. epnerptc nou on6rtnoc 6Xr p6vo (<bwas y1o uolLd yp6vtc 6in). rpuotrd.r r<otrr3teporporro vo oog petcrp6po oe eLdXtoto yp6vo 6l.nc>s ro 6<bpopou eivor uotr0 ptxp6 yrc ocg.onpenetdg rou cls Hydtn.oyr(6pevos nog 6e 0c puoporioo vo Spr. E6po. ol. Bop0ttlro arpcic uqdolrota. 6u.6oro.a toug. roopnpoto pe notrrlttpoug triOoug.g0eita.d rcrr pe}er6vrqs rpoorytxd totopfo rct cpyoic r<eipeva. cvol.opnporntd Ecs. rdn ovtdfro rns peyol. 6pog nlorauar uog 0o trdBete tnv ratrootvn vo ro ouo6e. oporotroyteg. rct ndvro. rataBdtr-Lovtcg ndpc nol. ouvoto0npottoporig rot 6Io outd ta otoli6tq uou or neproo6rspor ouvn0i(ouv vc Bd(ouv oro yps- . altrd rar rrov6tepo vo enppdoar Tnv cydnn Fou o€ oog.0 NrroA6 Morrop6trr npogrov Ertropnp6tqto Aopdvroo Eov Mediruov* 'Ooor Oetrouv vo yivouv cpeorot oe 6vov Hyern 6ta}6youv yro vo Tou rdvouv 6<ipo 6. 'Opog cvdgeoo oto undpyowd pou 6e bpnra rdtt notrutrp6tepo.Lertoupyotv or ny6teg. Tnv 6nota epnetpic Fou Tnv ouyr6vtpr'roc oe evo F1rp6 retpevdrr to onoio r<orotdtrvo ornv Exl.a 6oo pdOorvo eui nol-Ld yp6vra.Lorig r6nouE r{o1 qvTrFsrclui(ovtog notrri peydtroug rw6tvoug. Ent0up6wog rr ey<ir )dBol tnv euXcpiornon v<roos va ucpouotdoo 6vc el. ou6 tnv elruerpio Fou yra to u<ilg r<worlw<rr rcr . or6. To reipev6 pou 6ev to nopoy6Froo p€ pnropeieg.

NIKOAO MAKIABEAI

utd touE. 'H0eLo, cv undpfer xdtr nou 0a puoporio€ vtr to ndver euydproto r<orypnorpo, vo ei.vor n aLnOeto rct n rrporoTurio tov 6oov unootnpi(er. Ka06).ou 6e 0c nOetrovc Oecrpn0<b ctrc(6vcg ey<ir rrou, dv0ponoE tng r<ctciltepns Korvovlxng rdfeoE, tolg<il vo peLetnoo Kcr vo r<o6rrrouotnoo r<ov6vegnou 0c Xpnor_ ponotnoouv eutpcveig Hy6,teg, npor<etp6vou vc ruBep_ 'OFarS, vnoouv. onorg ereivor uou oXe6rd(ouv "., pu1.ro_ topic prog noLng rccteBcivouv orrs ne6td6eg yro vo 6ouv tn 6rdto$n tov Bouvor<oprp<irv oveBqivouv oto r<or Bouvd yr€r v<r 6ouv tn 6tdtofn tov r<d1rn<,rv, 6,tor cr<pt_ BrbE, ytc vo r<oro)dBetE on6truto tn rpton ev6g trciu, npenar vq ei.oor Hy6tng rou, atr-l.dKq1yro va rcro).dBerE tn pton tou Hydtn npiner vc ei.oot dv0parnog rou .Loorj. Kdtar ou6 t6toro uveripc trorn6v, cg 6er n Er_Lo_ prpotntd Xcg aut6 to 6opdrr rou rns or6lvcr. Kr cv to 6raBdoer ps rrpoooxn, 0c undpfouv ueptoo6tepeg ut0o_ v6tnteg vc lKovorrotn0ei n entOupio Fou vct 6o ttg t6_ oss op€Tss tng n_Lorotopsv€Son6 r<a}otuyio rror Frya_ Laio. Kr av roprd rpopd n Er<_Lopupotntd XoE ou6 to uqln).o Bd0po tng otpdrqrerto Btrdppo rns K<rrKqrd rcr p6pn pog, 0o pd0er n6oo cvoftouoOtirgunoFev<o rrs p€_ yd).eg r<ot 6tapr<eiErorcotuyi€,S Fou.

* Aoptwoo ruv (1492-1519): AotixaE rou Me\ircuv Ouppnivo, ereiv 21 6rav ypaqrnt<e auro ro ypappa.

H rqrdrcnon etouofoq rnq
Nc f6perg rros yto vc quor<tnoag Tnv efouoia Auo tponor ov6no0ev uuopyouv: vc rnv r<).npovopnoerE n vo Tnv xotorctnoerg. Auo p6oo av6r<o0evundpyouv: ta onl,q tq 6rKo oou n to ouLq. tov d)..L<ov. Ato npoiluo06oerg qver<q0evuudpXouv: n Tuxn n n rrqv6tntc.

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NIKOAO MAKIABEAI

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'Orqv n e€ouoio KAnpovoueirqr
'Otqv qnoKTdg tnv efouoio on6 r<-Lnpovoprd,to rpdy_ pcto eivor yrc o6vc eurotr6tepo. yu6 6rlo 6palg upot_ uo06oetg: 1.'Otr 0o rpotnoerg tc p6,oc entBd\,rig rclv rpoKqroxov oou, 2.'Ort 0a to upoooppoo€ls orls v6eg neptotdoetg. Av efoot r-Lnpovoprrog Hyetng, 6,oro n ov 6rc0d,tetg au.Ld rst p6vo nE otoryer<ir6elsyrc to p6tro oou .*o.,16rnres, Fnv qvnouyeig, pnopeig vo 6ratnpn0eis ornv efouoia yto 6ln oou rn (cln. A.tr.}'dKsr vo ydoerg tnv efouoic, oou eivqr uotrrl erirotro vo Tnv cnor<tnoerg lcvd. O rl,npovoptr6g Hy6tng 6yer, oe oxeon pe ereivov uou 6yet povog tou KqToKTrioerrnv efouoio, ptr<potepn cvd_ yrn, cI-Ld xor ).ry6tepoug tr6youE vo eivor oxtrnp6g. hc cut6 rcr eivcr neproo6tepo oycrrnrog. H efouoto on6 yevtd oe yevrd 6nptoupyei uopd6oon, 6tor petd tnv updrtn yevtd ot tdoetE yto oprproBntnon tng ouotetrotiv ncpetr06v. A.tr.}.dKcr or oMcy6g eivor yro o€vo rrlo efrol,eg, euer6n rr out6E Oearporivtct rpuorr6 6xoiopd oou crs r<-LnpovolrmoriHyetn. No €eperg 6pog 6tt, cv eioqt r}npovoprn6g Hy6rng, n r<dOe otr-Lcyn nou rdverg 0c orpnver .qvcpovn" yro rnv orxo66pnon FroS d}-Lng, nou 0q Tnv enerteivet.

trtrd$et tn (arri. trov6tepog.oyri tou Hyetn toug. ot urptot6pevor 0o rropopeivouv urproTdp€vornou. t6te oiyoupo 6)\ot toug 6ev eivot nopd petpt6tnteg.Lt0oriv. C)g v6og Hy6tng.O HTEMONAE B '0rqv n etouoio KqrqKlr6rqr Otov undpyouv noMoi 6ri0ev Hy6teg rrou oKoT(bvowcr petofr) tous yto To rroros eivot cvrilrepog. To povo nou rdvouv eivot vc npoopdpouv 06opo oToug urptotcpdvous TouS.ino06oetg: . 'Otov or uproTAFevot ntoteriouv rrcrs n ol. Kot p6vn n eprpdvton er<eivounou 6Xer to rpuotn6 ldptoFo tou Hy6tn atvct txovn vo rdver rous avsflopreig vo ncpcpeptoouv vo nepdoet Kor rous urptotolrdvous vo unor. 6w undp. To v6o Hy6tn. ereivot rou tov crv66etf. enet6n.Lutepetoer tn (arn roug. 6oeg rpop6g Kr cv onoyonreuOoriv on6 tnv d\-l.crv.otyoupo 0c Tov nouv o. n6vto 0o enr6t6rouv vo Belrttiroouv rn (cln toug d\Id(owcg Hyetn. oto Bo096 Kor lre tov tp6no uou rpcwdoTnKov. ei.get nepintoon va prop€oer vo toug o. oKoFo r<t av 6trpr rd0e np60eon. 0c pnop6oetg vo ruBepvno€rs 6veTo p6vo rdto cn6 6rio npoi. 'Ooot Hyetss Kr sv clldfouv. 6uvct6tepog r<or efunv6tepog. Or dv0paxot d\ld(ouv Hy6tn g6vo otnv uepinroon uou nroteriouv or<pd6cwo rors Fr outf rnv oMoyn Ocrratrutepetroet n (a>n toug.troyn tou Hy6tn toug 0o ro.vot rrovoi vc rn 6ter6trlioouv ox6po Kor ps tn Bio.gdptoto. cr6po rt ov 6Xetgto Lo6 Fe ro F6poS oou.

o. Av.vousoou opdoer va oe BL6. Ilpdner toug eyOporig oou v<r TouS efouderepcbvetgoLo_ x-Lnponxd. Av npoonoOnoerg vo KoroKTno€lg Tnv efouoio. ov ei_ vcr ner0cpyrroi. tro va r-uBepvnoer yperd(etar peydln tr)Xn r<or eur6efr6tntc.c6 pe ro Fepos Tou.Eror. yrod.e tnv efouoic tou. cI-Lt<ilE.o<':9. O v6og Hydtng. flp6oe$e..o lrrri orro_ KTnoouv r<ripog r<or drivopn. ps ro nou 0o ovotrdBerg tnv efouoic. ov 6ev 6Xouv 6rd0eon vo uncxorjoouv.ncpo 6trc to p6oo pe tq onoic o npoxdtoy6s oou en6Ba).oetg povdyo pir. Av rpotnoerg cv6. . H eut0upia rng e(ouoicg.oug 6ooug tov ueptdBotrov cp6.Lrrd rcrorp6perE vo rnv r<ep6ioarg. rrprv npo]dBouv vc pouvr6oouv.. ro updypoto eivor uotrrj 6rjoro).net eivor t6oo royupo <ilote vo pn pnop6oouv vs fcvaonr<iroorl. 'Etor. 0a oou npoor<o}-Ln0ouv og oupuapaoTdteE 6tror or aonpovtor nou pOovoriv to g6xlrt tote Hy6tn. 2. Mn 6rotd(ers.Ag trpclpei ocr cpeiLtr<tq crs oroorcotng._ r<n0oriv."0. oiyoupo 0c ovcrdlrrqouv Ko1. . otnv nepiuroon nou 6ev eyer to ). eivcr rdtt notrrj quorr<6 K1 <rv_ Op<irurvo. oe rpoBotvtor._ rouv vo nopcnoLouOeig trg nvnoerg toug. .pdtr . Av toug upor<c. t6te.r.. Iror-€ 6e 0o xtv6uvetoerg nor6 cu6 rnv er<6ir<nontoug. orpcvioerg tov nporctoy6 oou rcr 6l.po(rrpreg.oLl. To ytrinnpc np6. Kor r<upios v<r roporolou0ei TouS uploropdvoug tou dypunvc nponerlrdvou vq qvtr_LopBdvetor rrg avtopoieg TouS orn otrypn tng y6wnong toug r{cr vo trg xotonvi_ yer op6oog.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 1. M6vo rrou ornv cvoyv<opi(ouv ars t6toto.L6. orous urptotop6.t.teltrrd autoi 0o yivouv ot r<tiptot tng r<ctdotcons Kr oyt aori. oiyoupo 0o "" . oe cyonouv neproo6tepo Kcr. p6vo ov te.

. epyd(eror yro rnv ouror{orcorporpn tou.epog. otte tov u6Lepo tel. Er<eivog uou otnpi(er rnv ovoppiynon ev6g eni6ofou Hy6. 6tot. nou on6 ournv rou rnv npoondOerc oroKTd.rrd 0c onorpriyers Kar ro np6Btrnpc 0o oe 6yet ono6uvop6oet Fexpr vc rprdoer n <irpcuou 0c ferrvnoer o u6). Ener6n n 6tvopn.O HTEMONAE t7 Aev upener vo oprivers vo Xpovi(er evc up6Btrnpc nporerpdvou vo cnorptyerg 6vcv u6}epo. or6pn K<rryro ereivov tov ouoio Bon0noe K1 sywe Hyetng.tn. yroTi. cpyi(er va pord(er 6nonTn.

Ko1vo yiver.wpc efouoicg 0c nopopeivouv royupd.o vo nqtotruOet.Ld notrri 6uorotro vc Kpo_ tnOei on6 out6v nou Tnv Kcr6_Luo€. ror. rotctruopevou rou Hy6tn rct getd tov opovrop6 tou nepryripou rou. (' q F d gl p' o 6l f.ouOai. H 6roixnon pe uotr-Ldr<6.troug.dnof 6pog r<or r<otoluOei.rir<o}o rpotnOei on6 out6v rou rnv Kc_ vo t6. To 6ro_ Bp<opevcK€vrpo e(ouoicg o tro6g 6ev ta or<ol.( 6 n C II \' Ti e e Il I i l ( I . tov Hy6tn. orros ornv rotopio 6rou<otoe o ldtrIog Boortrrdg rous F€ no).Me 6vo ndvtpo efouoiog.prlrog E.ougeuyeveig. Me uoL). 2. o. Ko1rous d). orpou n efouoio toug 0earpeitor rqtd r<dnorov tp6no "rpuorKn. eivor notrri e. ol. opori. crpet6pou.-}.tn. enar6n. orpot r<dnorq sn6 rq r<6vtpo efouotog eivqr auKoLo vo 6rorp0cporiv. 6e 0q uudp[et dl_Ln ovri.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI To d0o ei6n tnq dloiKnonq Eyouge 6rio er6dlv 6roixnon: 1. 6nog otnv roropic 6rorrotoe o Totp_ rog oou-Ltdvog. otroug unoteLeig.vtpoefouoiog eivct pev erjnol. H 6toinnon Fr svtr r<€._ oTcon. To neptoo6repc on6 ta r6. tov roXup6 Hy6.d revtpo efouoiog K<rrrov Hyetn ouvTovtorn.t.truoe.vrpoefouoiog.I ( 1 . eivar 6rjorolo vo r<qtqtruOei.

rg nou 0a peivet otnv. rpfO dv0ponos rou 6a 6to06tet Kot t6oo ouou6cteg er oeog irov6"tt""g. Ocr np6ner vo 6totr6ye1 crs rrpoturo "or{ d'. ocv 6ouv rros o ot6yog toug nd\ri porpwos' Kt €Xowos euiyvoon t6Xpt nori pnopef ono to .efouoic neptoo6""po.1n.O IIIEMONA' H onpooiqrnq lKqv6rnlqqlou nY6rn ttg Ot neptoo6tepot dv0pouot ouvn0i(ouv-vo ptporivtct upd[etg Tclv e[truxnFav(Jv Kot-vc ant6t6rouv vo TouS p".Y1o Tov on]'orioio"o l6yo 6tr n trcv6tntd toug 6ev ayet roptd oxeon ps Tnv trov6tntq ereivov. "o BatrogTouS' oroxeuouv nohi rpntr6tepo ro onpd6t rou upoYponrd to onpeio onou bpiorerot bon06. touldXtotov udpet rdtt an6 tn PuPar6rdtoug' eivot Ot trovoi tof6teg. flora vo toug rptdoet. Ewoeitst 6tt ot updferE toug uotrt triyo ltoti6orl. O Hyetng 6pr.r. Ytort' flopoll Ocr 6e 6q pnopao".p"&o". tng Ot peydtrot llyeteg 6ev uepigevav tn 8erltepn erivotc tnv opltrri' trSyng rous' eKFsrc)\-l'eutnrov .o vo yivet roveig HY6tnE nP6net: vo 6r<r0€tet rrov6tntc ri vo 6to06tet ni. pe ereiveE ttlv npotrlflcrv T-ous.' eivot ireivos rou 0o otnpty0ei lty6tepo otnv TUXnTou.ytoti fepouv ott p6vo Fe tn vo oufnoouv ttg Oeto ev6g nto r1rntrorloToxou Frropouv nt0ov6tnteg vo netriyouv rnv cpytnn toug ent6tarfn' I.a"""-r'.r6p"Srou ovo6eiy0nrav onou6ciot.trouvvo nettitr6ouv.

c: F€. oLLd yperd(ovtat ndpc uotru r6no ylo vtr tn 6ratnpnoouv. Etnv rotrritapn uepintaron ot .riA_ tor 0q oe no). Av 6e 6to06ter tnv rr<qv6tntq vo X€rpro0ei o<ootd to uLrr<6nou Tou npooq6per n ro). Mnopeig vc o}trdfers rous Oeolrotg n pe tnv nerO<b pa n tn Bia.rapd. 'Ooor yivowor Hydteg Bcoi(ovtar rupiog otrg rrov6tn_ t6. nopd p6vo 6tov BeBarar0orjvrros or v6. r<tv6rivergcvr<or eiyov ouor6. Ot Lcoi 6ev 6Xouv otcOepc r6svud.oug.or Oeopoi te.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 20 ll' Aev opr<ai vo o6pd[er Hyetng rnv €uKcrpic nou rou ioted.vn.rn oarotn 6ro_ yeiprori tng. n eur<crpia nder yo_ p6. ucpd rpctdve otoOepd r<r rr1_ oteto toug. .trcfov. .'OXr povo eretvous rou rous oup_ q6pouv ot uatrroi Oeopoi. r<ctor<torlv tnv efouoi.oi 0"l.g touE. Me 6vsv tp6no 6rotnpeitor n efouoi. ev<bor 6eritepor 0o oe unootnpi(ouv y).rtnoeg.e n triyn.Ld rr eneivoug nou 0o tope_ LnOouv cn6 toug v6. flto 6riorol.p<boer. ev<il6oor Xpnolporoinoov ro 6eritepo.Lrr<denrr<pdrnoov.Leopc.n tou triXn. o). flro euro). 0c rdverg ey0poriEroug uovtes. flpener Ko1 vq tn 6ropop.crpou 6ev np6rertor vc o€ oTn_ pifouv.c neiOo_ vtqt an6 6vo 6npoyoyo.epdve pe truooa..o Kcr rno eurr<iv6uvo npdypc 6ev undpXer on6 to vc oltrdlets rous Oeoporigtng efouoiog nou 116_ -Lrgcn6.o pe trlyo r<6uo. H rotopio 6eiyver rrorg 6oor erpdppooov tov upcitto tp6no rct rcr6 r6troE eiyov r<artoug 0eopotg 6ev dl. Me ro nou 0c ros vo oltrdfetg touE Oeopoug.

6rcv o. r<rv6uver3etg udoerg xct vo TooKroTaigotoug i6roug toug Oeolroriguou o i6rog 0eo1ro06tnoeg.O HIEMONAE 2l M6trtg o tro6g apXi(er va.gdvet rnv niorn rou os o6vc. .Lo6g cpvc Xioer vo Fn oe ntoterler rrro. vc rou rn 6totnpnoers Fe rn bic. A-Ltrt6E.

vovror o}eg po(i <boten yeuon rous vo 6toprei 6oo ytvetct Lry6repo. yroti t6te otrot 0o ntot€.oug. H rotrn Xpnon tng BioE trg naproo6tepeg rpop6g ouo6i6er yrc 6l. enet6n cuo rp6Bo 6ev puoporiv rt erei. evtil n ror<n ypnon rns o6nyei oto vc Xdoet o Hy6tns rnv efouoio.tor rcveig 6e 0o rou ypootd euyvorpootrm.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI Itl H rar<n Xpnon rng BicE yiveTct.oieg ror qto6roxd 6nproupyeitar r-Lipo oorpdLetog orous efouoro(6p€vous. o Hydtng rdver trg op6tnteg otnv opyn r<ct 6Leg po(i. Ot orp6tnteg np6. Tnv euepyeoio o Hyerng up6. 'Otav . ev<bor euepyeoteg up6ner vc yivovtor ota6rord <iota n yeton toug vo 6ropxai neproo6tepo. r<pord. otn ouviyero ot npdfetg tou rpoivovtal crs eurpy€.uet vo yi.rqva aner6n ntov cvoyrcopsvos vo Tnv rdver rqr 6.vor vo rov epnroteuOotv. Etnv ovtiOetn nepiutoon.Vouv ncrs tnv €. euer6n otn 6ettepn nepiuroon p6vo tov i6ro tov Hy6tn 6e 0o arpal. eite on6 6ertrta tou Hyetn 6ite an6 cvrrcv6tnTo vo 6rotrnoer.uer vc rnv r<dveroe ovuuonto yp6vo rt 6yr 6rav eivqr ovoyr<cop6vog cn6 T1Sneprotdoerg.noet.ouvdXerc oto X6pr ro pcyoipr rqr 6ev pnopei vo otnptyOei orous e$ouoro(6pavous.

orita vo rotont6(etcr au6 TouS roxuporlg. enet6n tou ycpiotnne n efouoio tou on6 tnv erivoto rduorov toyupciw.O HTEMONA' 2' HnoArrrrri rnq nyeoiqq Muopei r<dnotog vo yiver Hyetng. or3te ensr6n tov auv6noe n TtXn.qupor)E efoptdtot on6 ro rrotos cn6 toug 6uo rap6i(er rdOe rpopd tnv euratpicr. ooper)ouve n0pog oe 6vov 6116 touE Kol Fe tts eul. Otqv ot toyupoi 6ouv nclg 6ev cw6Xouv vo ovtttol0otv oto tro6.l. ev<ilor toyupoi troyropdve vo xubepvoriv rar vc rotont6(ouv to )tc6. 6ote r<dto ou6 tn ortd tou v<r rdvouv ttE 6ouLer6g TouS.dBet tnv efouoio. 6yr ener6ri eivor ex rprloeog dfrog vc rnv KtrToKTnoer. n Anporpoti. 'Otov o tro6g 6et nog 6ev pnopei vo cwtotcOei otouE . flpoijnoOeon rns Angorpottrng ArcruBepvnong eivor tov Hydtn vo rov Oetrouvn o )\c6g n ot toXupoi tng rotvurviog. To ov o Hy6tng ovc6erX0ei cu6 to ). t6te prldlre yro AqrorpqtrKri AtoruB6Bvnon.oyieg tou traot tov rdvouv Hy6tn. 'Otav o HydtnE ratol. olld au6 uovnprd ouvo6euop6rm on6 t0yn. An6 tn g6vtpn otyrpouon tov'6torpopettn<irv KowG)vrrtiv 6to06oearv .o6 n ou6 toug ro. Xa rdOe xotvarvio ot 6ro06oetg trcori rat toyupriv eivor petcfrl touE owiOeteg.qori ror royuprilv tpic eivct to utOavd arotetrdopot<r: H Anotrutcpyio.o r(or n Aou6ooio. O tro6g Lcytopdat va pnv ruBepvtdTor.

Ei.oto m cv ypercoOei vtr rov efovt<iloouv.rou vcr cllproBntei npcypcrrrd tnv o(io Kr1 rrs enrtroydg tou.'Opros or toyupoi unoornplKrss oxr p6vo 0o rov eyKorql. ol*ld.pver rrs cro_ pdoerg Fovos Tou Kor yupcr rou 6e Bpior<etorrov6vog -n Bpi. Auro oupBoiver. eivqr vc rov syKoTotreirper. 6. Aev eivcr 6uvct6v vo lKqvoromoerg rous roxupoug y<. Toug roXupotE 6porg eivor uotru .Lcrou. ener6n uoi. oopeuer KUpoS oe 6vcv 6rr<6 tou Ko1 ps rnv ovoyn tarv royup<irvTov r<dverHyeg6vc.Iorig nou po.trtoto nepvlouvrcl yto ioor rou.Loori.euer6n o up<irtog 6yer vc 6ri:oar Loyoproop6 oe uol. pnopei Kqr rnv r<pcrd yro nolu. utoterjovtcs ncrs eivot rotrritspo vo 6ropevteuetqr qn6 er<eivovuopo on6 Tous roxupous.orerler 6vog Hyep6vcg to ). eivor nro eusl. uop6tt 6ev pnopei vo oto0ei otte pro onypn Xopis to Lo6 6inLa tou.Loo.Xerornv rpoypctrr<6TnTc rnv unoypdoon vq 6droet Loycptcopo roveig Hy6_ rns.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI Irl loxupoug. enet6n o oxon6g tou .1pig vo Btrorqretg . evdr ovtiOeto pnopeiE r<d}-Ltoto ro vtr lKovoromoerg to La6 Xopig vo Bldqrerg rou roXUporig.var vo 6. To yetp6repo rou puopei vc rdvar 6vog tra6g otov Hye_ p6vc tou. oav novnpoi nou eivcr.q6 6ev 6. Ouorog aveBaiver otnv nyeoiq F€ Tn Bon0eto r<ovloXUpcilv.Xer tnv oio0non nc'>s6ev rqtcut6(etcr. ev<iroto ).etrpouv oiyoupc.orovtor e}dyrotor.Lqou eivqr nro oyv6E qu6 ereivov rov royup<irvKctl To p6vo uou 06_ Let ei.Tr 6youv vo orpeLnOoriv on6 our6v.otog on6 eKeivov nou aveBoiver cu6 tnv etvorq Tou . Ouotog oveBaiver otnv nyeoio orro Tnv auvorcrtou . 0o efiowtrnoouv rrprv 6.var udpo uotrt 6uoroLo va r<ol.o6.

@c npduer o Hyetng vs eivct oiyoupog 6tt outoi or dvOponot 0o tov 6o[d(ouv ottg rc]. 'Ooot on6 rous roxuporig 6e 66vouv tnv n3.o vtdrOouv t6toitepo uflo1)eclF€vot 6tov D\6nouv ro16 on6 rdnorov yro rov ouoio ntcv oiyoupot rr(ilS 0o 6ouv r<or<6.es 6pes qutoi eivsr ereivor nou 0o tov onprbfouv npdrtot yra vo Tov r<dvouv vq rotpaxuJ[noet nopor<dtr.euOepiog. O Hy6tng np6net vo ovttperalntoer toug toyuporig.6nrous p€ rnv tt.gn tou Hy6.r Tov neioet nals Tov rppowivc (et rar vc rou 6nptoupynoar rnv aio0non tng el. oprei va Fn (ntdve unepBotrtr<6sovTono66oetE. yorpi(ovtot oe 6rlo rotnyopieg.eutoios va rous ttpd r<rr vo TouS oyand.r. Xtn 6eritepn eivcr ereivor nou To rdvouv.dKor vo toug (ntd rot roptd oupBoul. Apxei vc r<ctorp6p€. Ev to0rols Fnopsi.O HTEMONAE 27 erircotrovo tous ro}areiiet. np6.tn.'oprei vo tous 6ivet rat vs toug noipvet npov6pto r<ot ttpig KoTA ro r€. Ooot on6 rous roxuporig 66vouv tnv niyn rous F€ rnv ttyn tou Hy6tn.c yto Tov equT6 toug. Etnv npdltn eivcr ereivor nou ro rdvouv ou6 puotrcn ovov6pic n Lrnorpuyic.n. 6nlo6n outot nou npdnet va rpoBdtot rot ou6 toug ouotoug oe rd0e neptntoon np6nar vo rpuldyetct.69 Tou Fepss rct 0o tov oyvonoouv oTrSKoKeStou. f. I6iog otcrv evoE Hyetng cv<r6ery0ei o116 toug toyupor3g Ocrnp6net op6oog vc rppowioet vo xdver Kor To tra6 rpitro tou.}.net o tel.ttE 6riorol. Or dvOponot ouvn0i(ouv v. eyowos crs Kprtfpro ro ov ouprrsprpspowor Fe tp6no t6toto <bote Fe rn oTdon rous va 66vovtor ri oyt otr6tetro Fs Tn 6rrn tou triyn. 6Xt p6vo norl ror nori vo TouS epntoterietot o}..pr<r tou. enet6n sxouv peydln r66. quT6 o -La6gcyrcfio .

er "'OuoroS r<ti(er 0ep6trro oro _Loo. anet6n n efouoio tou efcpn6tor oXe66v ef olor<_\npou qu6 rnv xotrn Oetrnon rcrv ar<rrpoodrrrovrou.yovtcg ouvnOioer vc uai. o i6roE o Hyetng np6ner F€ r1S 6ratoy6g rou vo $epet vc r<pctd qrn_Ldto rpp6vnlro tou l.n tirpo. O Hydtng ruBepvd.pvouv €vTotr6g cno outorig. Xuvtcyn oFcrs Fs tnv ouoio o Loog utdvetot piLoE 6av unopyet.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI trrd(er neproo6tepo rov Hyetn rou ova6etfov or roXupoi. 6. 'OpoS.pet yiver cp€oros nopd er<eivovuou ot i6tor efdtrefov.yerrpitro to Lc6. Aev undpyet nro nl.aori.noouvuovcr oTnv ovoFrroupuotl. 6e 0o Bpe0ei upo6ope_ vos ono to Lq6 tou. Xtn 6eritepn uepiutoon n 06on tou quo6uvoprirvetot. otnv d1-rpo xri(er". 6ev uuqr<otouv oa er<eivov. euer6n or unnr<oor. 'Evog tirorog ny6tng nor6. eite eLeyyovtqs orn 6toir<non tc ud_ vr<r povos tou eiTe opi(owog er<upoo<irnouE tou.iOto noporpic quo ereivn uou tr6. 'Otqv o Hyep6vcg 6ev 6. rrou 6ev or<rd(etor trg ovono6r6g. . 6ev iyer tpdp_ FCrKoorn 6uorol. To onpeio rrou or Hy€teg nopouotove eivor 6tov udve vc petoun6noouv cn6 tn paltrop6vn 6roirnon otnv quotru_ tapyio. cv o HydtnE r<ctorp6. yra va otnpifer o ). Eurul.6ov.o vo opndfouv rnv efouoic qn6 tov Hy6tn. or onoior ouvnOog orls ovcrro6r6g n tov eynotoLeinouv n tou apnd(ouv tnv efouoio. flp6ner o HyetnE vo evepyei r<otd nepiuroon.oog 6vcv Hy6tn 0c npiner vo tov B}'6ner oE dvtpc pe r<op6rd. o taLeutoioE 6ev puopei vo avtrSpdoer etr<o}'o. Xtnv uepinroon rrou or ernp6oouor Oe_].

Etoug nouXoug Karpous 6l. 'Otov 6poE o riv6uvog nLnordoet nt o Hy6tns rous ypetooOei. toug 6yer 6troug ntotorig. o Hydtng tnv nepvd povdXc pto rpopd.'Etor. t6te Bpioxct rovrd tou etrdXtoroug.rrotrx6g Hyetng ouv66stor Fe rous r<dto on6 our6v F€ oyao€ls opotBoiag otnptfng.ot tpeyouv.or td(ouv rct 6trot Leve nog neOcivouv y1o ydpn tou Hyep6vc.O HTEMONA' 29 Xe cprpisotroug rorporig o Hyetng ndwa neptototyi(etcr cn6 ovOp<irnoug cppiBoLnE epntotoorirmg. 6l. Tnv elrnetpto rng upo6ooiog on6 toug notrri eputotor)g rou. . O yv.

enei6n toug 6. 'Otcv evcg Hy6tng eivqr rKqv6g r<or yoiper tng errrpno€<. Eivor notrri 6uor<otro vo BLdqer r<onorog evov Hyetn uou r<ovat ro}a tn 6ouLetd Tou Kr enrn-).alv.yet efoopatrioet eunpepio r<ot oorpdl. 6yt povo 6e 0o r<oto}oyioouv r1S rpooonur6g toug (npteg oTov Hy6tn.9 tou povo 6uvcperg n tou eivcr orrcpoitnto vo upootpriyer ornv uroornptfin a]-]. ener6n 0o fepet n<os. 0o toug 66oet nro notrri p€ rov Hy€rn toug.€ov 6yet tnv ovoyvdlpron Kcr rnv oydnn tov 6torrouFevov ouo our6v. H rprion torv cv0p<ilnarv eivct t6toro <irote vq qtoOqvovtar uuoypeorp6vol vo rpoolp6pouv euapyetnpoTa rpos rov Hy6tn nou uopo66. .ero. Kr 6tav uro o ey0p6g 0o eyer tponei oe puyn r<or n rcop6td toug 0o 6yet ncy6oet orro rnv rctcotporpn nou TouS npord}eoe n eniOeon tou. Or 6romorjp€vo1 Floouv Tnv ovoopd).yovrcr r<t oycuotv.. ov o Hy6. cv tou entteOei 0o onooet tc poritpo tou. 0o up6net vo (ntnoer tn Bon0e.ner vq unoorotv yto out6.rng 6ey0ei erriOeon. pnopei vo otnpry0ei otrg 6rr<6. to 6tt pn6peocv vcr Tou p<rvouv ypnorpor.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 30 Irn Ilog np6ilervq Ueupt610l n 60vopntou ny6rn H 6uvopn tou Hy6tn petptitor qu6 to crv oTnv ovdyr<n. euer6n t6te r<oveig 6e 0<l toLpnoer vo or<eptei v<r Tou r<dver r<qr<6. o). 6e 0o uuo}oyioouv T1Srpoocrrrr<69 (nptdg nou up6.up6ner vo rppovri(er vcr To $epouv 6tror or eX0poi tou. 6oo n nop6td toug eivot (eotn cu6 tnv eurOupic vo rov unepooutoOouv.etc.'Eror.tog.rg T<'rv 6rorroupev<irv Tou.tq torv 6torr<otpevov r<r ereivor.Lo qvtr06.

ener6n. 6nrog rct va rous rpdpowcr or Hyiteg touE. unnr6oug uou 6e Xpetd(etct vo ruBepvrioouv.(owor. Ot eKK-Lnorootrroi Hyeteg exouv npdtn uou 6e ypetd(erc1 vo tc urepooni.r6vou A16 6trcr ro nopandvo eforporiwct ot Hydteg rns Erxlnoicg. KcveiE cn6 toug unnr<6oug.Ld orous npoct<iruroug Oeo1ror3g tng 0pnoretog.O HTEMONAE 3t 0r nydreqrou eKKinoloottro0 Kqteotn. Fr ouotov6nnote tp6no rr ov cuToi aororiv tnv efouoic. 01 onotol eivar t6oo roXupoi r<or etvcr t6totcg rprlons uou rcpotoriv toug Hy6. Ko1 efouoiaE rrou roveiE 6e 6tar6trei. orite oTnv ofrootvn otnpi(ovtot otre otmr tr3yn. . M6vo ot 0pnoreutmot Hyeteg eivot corpctretg Kr euru- xeis. cl. 6e or6rptetot t(cv vc ferpriyet ou6 rnv e$ouoio toug.tes Ko1 rnv efouolo toug ortr6vntous.

H r<ctootporpn tou Hy6tn otnv nepirrroon outn ovobdtr-Letar ooo ovoBd). ener6n to p6vo nou rous ev6roq6. c). 0o r<dvouv ndtrr to i. 6torpopetrr<d 0o notootporpei. eite nt6.vqr dxpttoro Kr e.tn or pro0orp6pol ev<ir otov no}epo ot ey0poi tou.(ovtqs rov i6ro tov Hydtn eite d}-Loug.6rc or<ptBtbg.epog.tn 6oo o teLeutoiog 6ev rdver n6l. 'Eoto r<t ov or pro0oq6por otpotnyoi tou Hyetn eivct rr<qvoi. 'Oyr p6vo €vcg cpyny6g r<pdtoug.}. To ptoOorpoprr<d r<cr to 6sverr<o otpoteripctq ei.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 32 lg 0 ny6rnq o'r6pryuxeg Kor duvdperg rou 'Evcg Hyetng np6. Tou.per.np<ilver.urriv6uvq. Xtnv etpnvn LenLctoriv tov Hy€. 0a to Bctrat to n66ro. IIot6 6vcg gro0og proOorpopou 6ev eivct rKsv6s vct rov ndvet vc ueOqvet ylct rov Hyetn rrou Tov u]. er<eivoE 6ev puopei v<r TouS 6yer eputotootvn. To oficlpc Tou orpornyori 0c up6ner vo ro avc]. To otpotetpoto ev6g Hyitn puopei vs eivqr eite 6rnd tou eite pto0orpoprnd.epo. eire 6overopdvo cn6 dl-Lov Hyetn eite ptr<t6.olrBdver . O pro0orpopog otpctr<irtng eivor otpottdrtng tou Hy6.nat vo 6yer yepd 0epetrro.d r<cr roOe Hyetng up6uer vo 6yer og Boorr<dtou 0ep6trta rous voFous Ktr1 to otpat6.-Letat n eniOeon tou eXOpori. eivot n arifnon tng 6rivopng touE. Av 6ev eivcr rr<qvoi. Me to uou 0o fer<tvnoet o u6l.

ov 6e tou Byer mcv6g. np€. Av 6porE entp6vet vo €lgetproOorpopo otpotny6. ov Fev tou 6yet cvtrovog.net vo tov sItrdfet opeoos.O HTEMONAE !3 o {6tog. . np6.o Hy€tng.ner va tov 6eolrerioet p€ vopoug riore n efouoia Tou vq gnv fleuepdoer ta 6prc.

vouv n oe opiyyouv. 6ovetop6vn cno oltroug Hyeteg Fr rous onoioug ouvspyd(etot.Lnvur6 66orpoE.000 otpctr<irteg y1o vo uo}epnoer svovriov rcrv Ilo).te og Bon0erc.reov rov ev6qny6rn 'Evog Hyetng upduer vo 0ealpei ars rpoypotrr<d 6troriE tou av0p<iruouger<eivoug6oarv or (ar6g eivor dpeoo efcptnp6vaE. Or otpotr<ilteg ereivor ntov or np<irtor Totpnor rou eyKorootd0nr<qv oe eL.vetar 6eoptog ereivou flou Tov BonOnoe. AItrd out6 eivol rpuorr<6 ydptopc triyarv ovOp<iluov.tn eivor ytc out6v onotrritog enr(npro. orn 6eritepn cu6 tnv or<vnpicrtoug. out6g Ko1 Fovo eivat o KaT€oTpopF€vog.eoa tov O0orpav6 ooutrtdvo pe 10. vtov rnoer. H uuo6oriLaron rns Etrtrd6og orous Tor)pnoug ferivnoe 6tov o cutoxpdtopos TnS Kovotovtrvourr6Le<'lg Iodwng IT'o Kotorou(nvog npoor<d).crroL6yov. Or un6}oruor r<cr trertoupyoriv eite og r<orvoi proOorpoporei. n oe Bcpci. rqruXtr<d u}trd. Xtnv up6tn nepi. To 6nlo. H peyotrtitepn 6tvopn tou Hy6tn eivor vo ovolrualpt(er to rar<d Fs ro rrou yewrorlvtot. yi. Au6 ttg 6cverreg ouo dtr-Lov Hyetn 6uvdperg upottp6tepeg eivct or pro0opopm6g. nou nduoroE dltrog Hydtng oou 6ovei(er n y}r otporiv au6 ndvo oou.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 34 lE 0t rotnyopieq duvd. ou6 tov i6ro. Av pe tn Bon0etd touE nttnOei. . H 6overrn ou6 dMoug Hyeteg 6uvopn tou Hy€.ntoon o Hy€tng r<tv6uverieran6 to 6uvoprop6 rous.

.eitar pe tiuotc dl. Na e(etd(er ttg ordeg tng virng n tng nttog toug tbote vo puopet vc 6tonpivet tr up6uet vo ouorperiy€l r{o1 o€ Tr np6net vo rous ptpn0ei.o ndve rcl. Hy6tn 6ev €eper ou6 otpotnytxn.youv oto pucl.Lo ucpd p6vo pe ro vtr rous unrpaoui(etor Ko1 vc cvc(ntd tp6uoug y1c vo rous Betrrr6oer tn (on. y1o rn FdXn. tnv opydvcron Kc1 tn pdyn.O HTEMONAE 35 0 eror.orioetg ou6 tn otpctnytrn. FdXn. opydvoron K<rt orlte tov trpotv. peLet<ilvtog tnv Iotopio l{trr r1S updfetg taw efotpetov Hyet<irv. np6net vtr flposrorpd(etor H npoetorpoots tou Hy6tn ps tn or6rqrn.6 rous rro notrri trg onol.ron6Aeuog ny6rnq Ereivo nou ot dMor npoo6orotv on6 evov Hy6tn etvor vo Fnv ooXol. tc 6pyo Ko1 yro rn gdXn yivetcl Ko1 pa O Hyetng up6uer vo oorei tn ox6rqn tou. orite tov eputotetovtor o Hyetng . ypnyopo Xovouv tnv efouoia toug.i i 'Ouotov Ar<6po Kor orls nept66oug uou 6l.d. 'Ooot Hyeteg 6.

yro Log yra dpncyoE r<td).vcg ei6e orire n 6pc0e ov uudpyouvr or' oLnOera. To ndrg (oupe. eivct er<eivornou yti(ouvr Fe ro vou roug 6nporpotieE rcr Xpnor€.og. eivc1 Tov tp6no vo pnv eioar ro).NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 36 IF l-rqri eilqrveiTqr Kql yroti eillKpiverqr o nYdrnq floLtroi.}. dL.og yra 6ertr6g.teg. Kd0e dv0poros. dtr-Logyro rcro6ertrr6g r<r oM.o uopc ro.-tr-Log pi(epog rt oMog y1a ovorxroxepng.Loi. 'Ouotog oupilsprqrprr<rr pr xs}ootvn oe pro r<orvovic pe t6ooug. eivct rpuotr<6 vo rcrootpcrpei.erg oTo vou oou 6. ttg ouoieg otte not6 r<cv6. oyo}td(etcrr on6 toug d}-Loug t6oo y1o ro Oetrrcd 6oo rar y1o ra aprmtrr<d TnS rpooouu<6tnrdg tou.Iog yra onLcyvurog.trei ol. To up<ilto npdypo nou up6ner vo pdOerg tog Hyetng. Kor qutn oou Tn vo 1ru<ilon Tnv XpnorponoreiE n 6yr.gnyelrovieg.Tr anote. npoetorpd(er F€ oryouprd tnv npoo<. dl. ror vo Bdl. vo auoBdLers Tnv etr<6vq nou 6ivouv y1o Tov r<otr6 Hy6tn ro rrqpopt0rc. Bpior<erar notrri porcpro qn6 to n<iE 0o 6npene vo (otpe. 'Ouorog o1ruoeiTnv rpoypotrr<6rntq r<at Oel. t6iog or Hy6. d).og yro rpntro- .l.rnrxntou rotcotpopn.€ner eft6ovrr<eupdvn.Log yrc yer. uou eivor rdOe dtr. Itc vo yiverg rctrog Hyetng.woiog xr dD. rotd trg ueprotdoerg.6g. )A. nou ot€l<eTar rqrntrd ornv norvovio.og yrcr rr1ot6g r<r dtr-Logyro drpd.nOeta K<rl rptrypotrr<6tnto.ervo tn Bl.

poorog. dMog yrob. dlLog yrc vt6pnpog nt dLtrog yra FraFrnong.dror ti . Tov Hyatn 6ev updner vq rov vord(er n ywilpn uou 6youv or d}-Lor y1o rov yopcrcnpa rou..o_ oeBorlpevog xr d-\Iog yrc dutotog. cv trg cnol. Optlg bev pnopei vo 6Xerp6vo rold. ror eLcrtapotc. o-L).Iog yto cv6. .qrd otor. Yndpyouv cpet6g nou.dr<qrener6n 6e 0a puopotoe vc oro_ Oei og Hyetng p6vo pe Oettrd oro.ouOrioet.geio rns flpooonrr<6tntdg rou. To p6vo p6trnpo'rou up6ner vc eivor ro vc qvo6arKytet tc r<o). udvcr oto onoia pnopei vq Booioet tnv eutulgio tn-6rxri Tou Ko1 Tcrv unnr6ov rou.ooros Kr dl. nou tov Bon0or]v oro vs corei tnv e(ouoio tou. O r<cOevog nroretet rrc>s o Hy6tng 0c 6npene ols rpo_ oonrr6Tntc vo xoogeitot p6vo pe Oettrcd. o Hy6tng rr€pt€1 cpyd n ypnyopo oto Ldrxo. dLLog yro ar6l.O HIEMONAX 37 FyIttS. dLIog ytlo royupoyv<bpov Kr dtrtrog yrc r<otr6Botrog. 6yr p6vo ener6n eivor n qu_ t6g dvOponog.y"io oto yopoxtnpc TOU.

rpo. orponoreig Tn yevvolo6opio t6oo ydverg tn 6uvot6tnta vo Tn xpnorpolotnoerg. Og Hyep6vog 0o up6net vc o6tcqopeig yewoto6<. Xttg p6peg pas npoKorn ei6ov ot Hy6. eivor notrri Bl.teg nou 6ev uunp'Ooo or un6l. ono tpiopnd(ovtog pnopeig r<ct eiocrr yewoto6opog 06Lerg.obapo yra o6vo. ov oe uouv n 6yt Av eiocrr yewor66orpog an6 ta 6rr<d oou n opnd(ovtog Av oflo rous urptotop6vous oou. To vo oupreprrpdpeoct 6pog pe T6. rous. T6r€ pnopeig vcr eioot 6oo yewcr66opog . eioor rotcOtncop6vog.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 38 IJE Kqr flepi yevvorodopiqq gerdo0q To vo eioot yewato6opoE Hy6tng oe xdver oyonnto.oruot 6youv oBnoet.Totov tp6uo <bote vo oe vopioouv yro yewor66opo. Xpnfov yewoto6opor.

oou npooqt. orgor3. O Hyep6vas uou Booi(etcr oe )\.np6g.trd(ouv rot ouvnOog to Bd(ouv ota n66to.vor rqr t6oo ypnotpag. 'Ooo toug rdverg ra. du.L6 eivot 6rxoi oou.'Otov 6pog o riv6uvog yivet opct6g.rc. .notor y1a ro r<6p6og.npornro orropcitntn y1o vo rpctn0oriv or efouotc(oFsvor evop6vot r<otnrotoi oe ouT6v. unoKprT6s. rpe0teg.Evtoritotg. Av oav Hy6tn 6ev puoporiv vo oe oeBaotorlv. flote pn otnpi(eoor oe tr6yrcr oydnng. 6Io outd cl. ener6n or rpttrieg. puyd6eg pupoord orov riv6uvo. sup€TdBLntor. To r<ohltepo opog cno 6trc etvor va oa oyorrouv. Or tcpoyeg Kor ro Xaog BLdntouv ouvnOargto orivo}o tov efouoro(6pevov.pouv to oipo TouS.6tov trg Xperd(eoor. B}dntovtor p6vo pepovcrp6vo dtogo. Tn (arri r<orto uor6rd toug. 0o np€. evcir. 6ev puopei vq TtS Xpnotporotnoetg.O HTEMONAE 39 Eivqrrol\0repoo ny6rnqvo npoKqlei oydnn6 q6po. 6ev ei.n upoooXn yro vq Fn XpnolFonorei Tnv euon}cryvic rou Fs ldOog tp6uo.l.Letorot tnv euy6veto TnS rguyng.ov n6oouv peprrcd xerpdl. @o np6net o Hy6tng vc c6rogopei cv tov nouv or<-Lnp6 otnv nepinToon nou rpiver tn orl. 06}et peyd). Or dvOparnot eivot oydproTol. To undpyowd TouS. or orroKerpo}ropevot. O Hydtng npiner vo rgpovti(et vo 0eopeitar rprLer3ontrcXvoS Kt 6yr or<).6ytc cydunE rcotcotp6rgeror. rou onoKnouvtat pe ypnpotc rt 6yt ps To Feyo.uer ouopoitnto vc oe rpoBn0oriv.

c Kcr rpovepn tupoppn yro vo udpet 6vc rerpdl.npovoprdg.einouv 110T6.rv.et o Hy6tng toug. .d pe tp6no rou vc onorpuyet to pioog.l. O Hyetng up6. aM. otrld Botvtot ov to 06. Auto 0o ro freTriXer 6tov 6ev toug Oiyer npoooutr<d Kor rrsplouotcro.un tov e[ouotc(6pev<.ner vc rot6Xer rotrttepc rov tp6uo vo pn orpo-L-Ler uopd tov tp6uo vo 6top0<bvet ro opdtrpoto rou. cv 6ev puopei vo rep6ioet tn oyd. o rp6BoE tng trpalptos TouS ndvet vq ouyr<pctrotvror Kcn vo Fn o€ eyroto).ei to poBo. rdOe 6eopog cydung onder ouvnOclg pupootd oto up<bto npooonrr6 ouprp6. Or dvOp<onor ayonotv qv or i6ror to 06.n 6rxoro}oyi. ov undpyer uovta rotdl-Ln).r.oet to poBo. Or dvOparuor oou ouyyoporJv nro atKo}o tn 6oLorpovio tou uot6po toug ucpd Tnv oproyn tng nctprr<ng r<). po- Euet6n or dvOponor eivqr quo€rs poXOnpeg.6.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 40 Or dv0ponor Bldnrouv eurotr6tepq Kdnorov nou toug eivo1 cyorrnTog cn6 rdnotov nou TouS nporo). Euer6n ot ovOpouot e'ivqr ex tprioe<.rg 6er}ot. O Hyepovog.pov.Louv. rrp€rrer vo [poKq]..

n 6eritepn orq Ktnvn.Lo xdnotov uou ntov ptoog cypipt rcrr pto6g dv0pclnog onpoivet rrarg eivcr cvoyroio vo E6per o Hyetng n6te npdner vo upotoooer rn pio rror u6te tnv d}. ener6n 6ev encprei o np<irtog.npeva puoLd t<ov dtrLov. Eivcr onopaitnto otov Hy6tn vo $6pet vc nci(ar xatrd Ko1 To p6tro tou ovOp<buouK<r1To p6tro tou rtnvoug. uou ntqv pto6E dv0pcluog r<orpto6g r<tnvog.n 6ev propei vtr rov nder poxptd.O HTEMONAE 4l Ilog np6ilervq rnpef o nydrnq r]q unooxeoerq Tou 'Ooo r<r ov eivcr cft6ucrvo os 6vov Hy6tn vo tnpei ug cnorpdoetE Tou Kor vo (et pe or<epar6rnro Kcr yrtpiE uovnprd.Lrovtdpt xar n6te o}euori.ner vo f6per uoE uudpyouv 6rio tp6nor entBotrng: O v6poE r<otn Bto. n neipo 6Xet 6eifier 6tr or npaypotrrd rponop6vot Hyeteg en6.6erfov eue}rfio otov tp6uo epoppoyng tov auorpdoe<iv touE r<or 6tr Xpnolporoinoov Tnv rrovnprd rous y1o vc yupioouv to xo}-l. O up<iltog totptd(et orous ovOpcinoug.}. Aut6 r<otrritepocn6 6loug to eincv or cpXoiot 6}-Lnveg. To otr eiXe o AyllLecg 6doro. flo}-Leg eopds 6FoS. Euet6n oE c}'e- . npooperiyoupe otn 6er)ffipn. Aev oprei vo f6per o Hydtng vo noi(et to cypigt 6tcv yperd(etot.n rprion Kor rrals n pic yorpig tnv dD. ol}d rcor nolLorig dlLoug cpyoioug nysFovss toug 6dloave yrc <rvctporpn r<ot 6t6aoratriq otov r6vtoupo Xeipovo. ha out6 ypdrqrcve or1 rov Ayr}-L6o. flpener vo pnopei vc feyopioet n6te 0o rrpera1 vo yiver . O Hy6tng np6.

enori. Kor 01 dl. eivor 6pog onopoitnto va 6tvet rnv evTrlnoon uc)s Tnv KoT€. eutong. vo Extog ouTori. 0a or<rd(er toug trur<oug.l.r<ovav nS ndper.ot.o tou Otpotog Kor orrs 6rio nepurt<iroerE. o Hyetng ng cnorpdo€. 0c pupi(etcr trE noyi6eg Kor clg .xsl. Q Arepor6tnrc. Aev eivar ndvto oncpoirnto o Hy6rng vo roT6yer oT' o). Eivar ovdyrn o Hy6tns vo $6pet vo r<atrtnrsr ttg erdoroTa npo06.E u6te eivar Lrovtdpr rcqr n6re o). 6av np6rerrol vct Tnpnoouv trE 6tr<6gTouS cnoqdoerg. eutBtdrver. 6e 0o udet ponprd.Ltovtdpr.rv6npc vo tnpei.vqr nOrr<oi.oyo pe to ouprpdpov tou 0q ntav qvn0rKn.yto cut6 0c np6net o Hy6tng vo npoooppooOei.vouv n<'lg 6ev rous ouppeprl va r1S tnpnoouv. ov aK tarv uotdpov rpi. E Iliotn orn rprtrio.oergTou Ko1 vo pnv eivcrr eprpcvd. Nc [6per eniong nog ndvta 0o uudpyouv av0ponor npo0upot vo ucifouv ro p6l. Euer6n 69o9 or ueptoo6tepot 6ev ei. 'Ouotog uoprotdvet p6vo to. E Av0ponrd ror . 6norog fiper vc ncprotdvet Fovo rnv cLauot. H ouvtoyn vo ol'Ld(er o Hy6tng tng onorpdoerg tou avd). Avti0eto.trrovtdpr. Aev €ye. ov ntov nOtr<oi or dtrIor dvOpouor.1srou 6tov ef6trrucv or troyor rou rov d. Ot n6vte opet6g uou 0a np6ner va 6etyver nog 6Xer o Hy6tng eivor: E {ruXon6vro.nOero tnv rr<av6tnro rns petdl-LofnE cu6 hovtdpr oe c}enorS.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 42 not.

euet6n ot up<btot aivct or ueproo6trpor. eu}oBrig rot 6vtog vq eivqt.. potrtg n ttXn r<ot ot dvepot rg6pouv tc npaypotq 6tot <botevs ypetootei vo pnv eivct uto. al-Ld rt autoi or tel. triOt neptoo6tepot dvOponor Bl.eutotor 6ev totrpor3v vcr ndve x6vtpo otn yv6pn tov up<btov.6nouv tr rpoiveoor. H ro-Lttepn uepiutoon Hy6tn eivot er<eivnnou 6yt cu6 npoonoinon o. 'Op.. Antro6n. Ersivor or triyot uou 6ev neiOovtor ou6 outd.69 rqitrog. ev<ir yor vtdrOouv T1 oTnv npcrypottr<6tnTo eioct.O HIEMONAE 43 tr EuLdBero.l. vcr etvcr 6tor rptroyp€vog uou.enot. t6te povo puoporiv vo onoKTnoouv un6oroon. 0o np6net vo rpcivetct uov6rpuyog. r<o). ytruropitrntog.Ldon6 Xcportnpa rcr vootponio yivetqt u6te Lrovtdpr r<or rr6te ol. vc puopei Ko1 vo f6per vo cLLo(er oTo ovTiOeto.uS p6oc tou or6pcrog. . H pd(a rrdvta poyerietcr ou6 ta rpow6pevo rot ou6 tnv enttuytc tou Hydtn. 6tov toug Bd-Letn pd(<r ytc otnprypd tng.

O Hyetng npooroterietct an6 evav r<rlx_Lo nrottirv tou.ner vo ouoperiyer 6.Bovtqr rot eivcr 6totpor vo rov urr€poolroOoriv. ooBcpornto r<cr 6tvoFn.pr oro ouprprpovro Kq1 6e rppovti(er vtr Fnv npooBdMer rous no}-Lorig. Kotcrppovnt6og yivetcr o Hy€tng uou Oecrpeitor eupetdB).a outd np6.uer vo cnor<tnoet ro oeBoop6 tov nol-L<bv <irote vo puop6oer otn ouvdyerq vq qvTrpetorrioer rn prtro6ofio tov Liyov.rr puopei vct rov Kqvar vo Byd}er ror<6 ovopc. toug eforreplKous 1{o1 TouS eooreprroriE.oeov tarv 6torroup6. 'Ooo undpyer . vc rov r<dver pront6 r<or l((ttorppovnt6o orous noL). rc0drE rcr an6 6vav rrir<-Lo rpt.onp6nero. peyolorpuyic. palOor<og. Mront6g yivetor o Hydrng nou Bd(et Xd.uet vo eivqr crroecototrr<n r<or ota0epn 16oo. 'Ol.ntog.orig. uou Kov€vos vo pnv uepvd on6 to pucl.vcrv n r<pion tou np6.6 orire vq tov efouotnoer otte vo rov petcuetoat.ctog. l. rrou rov o6. ev<b orn 6roXeipron tov r6rotirdrv uno06. updypc nou yivetcr uolu erir<o}o r<ct pe no}-LoriE tp6uoug.trov. enrn6). O Hy6tng eXer 60o er6(bv ey0porig. O Hy6tng np6.ru6qruXos Kqr qvonotpdorotog.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 44 ElE noq vq qrogefyero ny6tnq rnv n€plgp6vnon Eouioog Kq] O Hy6tng up6.uer va rc crrorpsuysr o Hy6tng oov vo nrqv or6ne}og Kcr vtr npoono0ei pe ndOe rporo vc enr6err(vrJrl psy<rl.

. euer6n oute €eper cv 0o netuyer n ouvcrllooiq oute rr rov n€p1l_lsv€1 ov crrotuyet. r<oveiE ou6 touE efoteprr<oriEeyOporig6e 0q to)4rnoet vo Oifer tov Hydtn. 'Eror. Av o Hyetng fepet ra:g or utptotdpevor tov proouv.<ilv.vot efcrpenxo cvcorpc}nE. r<cveig 5e 0q to\noer vc rov ovctp6rper. O r<uprotspos rporog . 6ev pnopei o ouvop6tns va . Kar otrg 6uo ueprnt<ioerS.i eooteprn6.Tr puopei vcr rou . eite enerdn 6ev eiyov tov <qrdl. Ener6n o Hyetng np6ner vq eivqr qyqrnros.ls otnpiXOnxcv orous roxupous Kqr qyvonoc'v rous uol\orjg pe onot6l. 0c undpyouv Ko1 or rpi-Lor. eite ener6n ntov dnerpor. Fovo Kcrr povo errer6n 0o rpoBctor tnv opyn tov uo).. Atrtrd Kq1 vcr enrTux€r.i.I<bv..rpofitrr. Ooor Hydteg ovotpdnnKcv ro 6no0ov.etqr o.eopo vq yivouv ctrro rous tetreutotoui pronroi Kqr replppovnrior. Ooo undpyouv or nrotoi KCrror rptLor oro aoor€p1Ko.O HTEMONAX 45 o nrinloE Talv nrord)v. ou_ vngl.ot . oycnn rov nolJ.pooaol oicg tou Hy6tn qn6vqvtt os Kqnorov Luvclp6tn ii. evo o. Axopo Kr ctv o Hyetng eivot npoototeupdvog crrro rous efoteptr<oriE ey0poug rou.E ouvopooieE. rcrv6uverjer ndvtq orro a.tr on6 tc r<q0nKovt6 tou puopei vo yiver 6uodpeoro vq to qva06ter oe cMoug. .p.\ntro ycpor<tnpo yro vo r<uBepvnoouv.<ilv. O ouvop6tng ei.t norl 0q tov rptdoer n opyn ralv nol\. 0o rrp€rr€rvo fepet ncrs os rd0e tou Bnpc r<puBerol 1-rt"o'or_ vopooio.rpoo_ 6<ioer y6ntpo r<or ovcyv<irpron vq to-r<potd yrq rov equtO TOU. enrBql. ov o Hyetng iilrol cryqrrnros.

Efcptdtot ou6 to nor6v 'Otav tov 6totrouFevov. etre on6 naLd eite ou6 rard epycr.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 46 To pioog npos rov Hyepovo pnopei vo npoepxrrcr. . to xq-Ld 6pyc tou Hy6tn quoBoivouv svcvtiov TOU. ot 6rorr<or3pevot eivar 6rerp0opp6vor.

Otov optog undpyet cvdyr<n ouoneiporong 6Lov.aBerE tnv efouoio.rE. oro6i6et 6tov 6l. To vq evoneiperg 6pr6eg petofu tov 6torroupav<'lv.O HTEMONAE 47 Iuvorpizovrqq ouUPoutrdg. Bpior<erg tatrrKd neproo6tepn uiotn ou6 toug 6rorrrouFsvous rou oTnv apyn 0eopouvtav rlnoutor uopd ou6 exeivoug nou qu6 tnv opyn oou 6nl.lver eyOpoug. ypetd(eTot v<r epyco0eiE y1o Tnv arr6r<rnon rripoug notrt ueptooorspo ou6 6vcv dl. vrr<rbvtoE TouS.Xero. 'Otqv n niyn 0e}et vc or Bon0noer vc uettyets. np6ner vo opon-Lioetg o). t6te 0a updner vc TouS srrlvonoerg <bote. .ooqv rnv niotn rous. cutn n tar<trrn prropei vo qro6etXOei nolu ent(npro.trverey0poug Kcrt ouyxpov<. oou otd.-Lov uou 0a yi. 'Otcv 6yerE oroKrno€r p6voE oou rnv efouoio. ert6g on6 ereivous rou Kord Tnv cvd.a nove r<oLd.l.oe Bon0o vo toug vrxnoerg.to€r o rponyorlpevoE on6 o6vo HydtnE.ver Hyetng on6 rLnpovolttr<o 6maiapa.tor to upoyva pato <iote or on-Lropevor vq eivqr povo 6rr<oi oou dv0ponor. 'OFrS Kcrrqurous Fe tov rctp6 npduer vct rous o6povonotnosrs Kor va rous ucponlloerg. Xtn ouv6. opyov<ioerE6.nrqrn rng efouoioE er6n-L<ir0nnov uu6p oou. vo oulnoerg to peyo}eio oou. rlq oe 6vqv nyeEn rnv opydvoon droirnonq rnq vto 'Otov cva). Otov n ttyn 6e oou ot6.oug 6ooug eiye on).

qS rpo€rolpd(eoot yro tnv nttc. ov rpoBdoor neptoo6tepo toug efcr_ teprrorig eyOporig ou6 toug 6torr<otpevous.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 4a 'Otcv avttperonioerg toug opytr<d uu6nroug Fe rFrnoro_ o0vn.eiqrouv Tnv aprmtrnri ]'v(ipn uou 6yerg yro outorig. uot6 6e 0o treiqrouv ot eforeprroi eX0poi nou 0q eivor up60upor vc otnpryOoriv au6 toug 6uoopeotnp6. ener6n 6ev ntov €. 'Otov I 1 ( 1 1 I ( I C I t{ T T c ( I a I K Tr . euer6n Kor 01 i6ror oroOdvovtcr ovcorpdl. aS pnv 6i_ verg r<cprd onpooio.voug 6r_ orroripevous yro vo oou ndpouv rnv efouoio.dBers Tnv efouoio.vor.Oetc.etq drore teLtrd eivat notrrl euruyeig nou Bpnr<avoe o€. Xrn ouv6yero r<oto6dMouv peydtrn npoondOero r<ct r<6no yrc vo cncl.va otnptypo. rpobdool nsproo6tepo toug 6rorroripevoug cu6 toug efoteptroriE eyOporig oou.uxaplornp€. cv eivot 6uocpeornpdvot. Eivat rrotrri nro erlrcoLovo rdvarE oLnOrvorig rpiloug toug euxaprornp6vouE sn6 to nol. H rctrritepn upootaoic oou eivcr vc Fnv eioor pront6g orous 6roxoripevoug. Avti. euer6n.r6 xcOeot<irg nopd er<eivoug uou.ytvov rpitror oou l{o1 o€ Bon0noov vc noto_}.6. pnopei vo roug rep6iosls F€ peydtrn eurotric.

opBdversKor ro nopd6etypq TnS upooonrrns oou (rnS. vc rov enorv6_ o€rs Fs t6toro tp6no dlote 6Lor vo pr}otv yto no).O HTEMONAX 49 Iuvor.lizovrqq ouUpouA6q 6vov rlq oe ny6rnylo rnv qn6rcrridn K0pouq Tiuoto 6ev puopei vo oou npoo6droet peyctrttepn ertipnon napd n enrtuyic oe 6. M6vo t6te oe er<Ttporiv. 6tcv puopeig vc eioqr ror cln0tv6g rpitrog r<qr oLn0tv6g eX0p6g. . flot€ ot onotpdoetg oou 6e 0a eivcrr 6Leg dprot€S Ka1 oclot6g. vo enr_ L6[erg ro trry6tepo o6uvnpo oe o6vq Ko1 orn pnpn oou.Tr cvo). rnv rdOe oou upd[n vc ano6etrvtetg tn qnFn rou surpu_ o0g rcct ouou6siou cvOpdlnou. Ilp6net ouvey<ig vo pnyoverieocr tp6uoug <irore F€. flpener vo 6eiyvers ncls eioor Ldtpns rns cftoorivng Kqr vo npootcteters Kol vo trpdg rous rKavor3g rcr toug dprotoug. 0o Koroorpapeig. 'Otav r<dnorog rdvet rdtr notrt rcx6. updner vq rov 11_ popnoetg Kor ov r<dverrotr uotrrj xoLo.r) Katpo yra rnv nop6pBaon oou. 'Otov 0q ovoyr<aoteig vo rcdverg rcdnoro ror<6. Av enrl6$e1s rnv ou6etep6tntc. O qiLog oou 0q oft<iroer tn Bon0etd oou Kor npdner vc Tou rn 6<iloerg.

NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 50 flpener vo fepetg n6te eivat n rctdl-LnLn ottypn yra vo r<potdg toug 6rotroupdvouE oou cnooXolnpsvous Fr yropr€S r<ot 0edpotc. E n TK TI OI K vt T 1( ei H T( o Y E f I f o T d .

Yndpyouv tpr<i:v er66v puol. E To tpito 6e'v puopei vo rpiver orite qn6 p6vo tou.oy<ilvT(Jv ouv€pyotdrv tou r<cr.erd tou. . orpot 6tov puopei vo ovol'vopi(er to oalot6 n to LdOog tov eurl. orite autd rou 01 a)').tr6 ror to tpito To cypnoto. r<oveig ou6 outorig 6ev 0o gnopei vo e). Ilp6uet vo feperg vo feXcrpi(els rous rr<ovorigouvepydteE nqr qu6 TouSlKovoug vo 6totnpeig r<ovtd oou 6ooug oou sivor nrotoi. A].).Loin r<qroi eloptdtor ononletoTtnd r<at povo on6 tn 6tr<n oou npovontrr6TNT(I. 6eutepo xa.o: I To up<irto eivqt tr<ov6 vo r<pivet p6vo tou. Kpivetg to p6). E To 6eutepo eivqr trqv6 vq rpivet tnv rpton tolv dLl.ot. vc enqwei.og r<rr ypnotpog.dOn nou 0o tov o6nynoouv ornv Kcrootporpn. Hy6tng uou 6yer enr). To r6ovtr<6 yrc svcv Hy6tn ei.ui(et ucrs Frrop€i vq tov r<opot6erper.trov evog Hy6tn nopotnp<irvros rous ouvepydteg rou Tov neprotoryi(ouv.d Ko1 pe to 6ettepo r<qvertn 6ou).O HIEMONA' 5r luvorpizovrqq ouUpoui\69 6vov rrq oe nYeTn EouqouvepYoreq rou Yrq To ov or ouvepydTss oou Byouv r<o. n vc 6top0<irvet.arv.6fer ld0oE ouvepydteE 6yer r<dvar to np<bto Kor To peyctrutepo an6 ta ). orr6te ovcyrootrxd 0o eivor rcrl. To up<ilto eivor eforpeTrr<6. ovoL6yoE.or r<pivouv.vqr vo 6rc06tet to np<ilto ei6og puol.

eite yrc tov a).ptetot xor enr6r<br<er p6vo to ouprp6pov oou Kc1 uot6 6e popr<ilver to puctro rou pr npdypcto rrou opoporiv to 6rr<6Tou. 01 suspyeoieg r6.g rcr to ofr6poto np6ner vo ei.totou ei6oug nou vo pnv Fnop€t vq otoOei r<orv<. auspy€oieEr<ornl.vqt t6totc nou vq Fnv rpoBdtcr rrs rooTsptr<eg olLoy6s.povtc va feperg nog 6ev pnopetg vc rov aputoteteoor xqt 6tr tel. Av Btr6nergto ouvepydTn vo or<dptetor neptoo6tepo rov eouT6 tou crn6 ro 6tr<d oou ouprp6.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 52 Yuopyer 6vog ctrdvOooros rponos yrc vcr xpiverE rov ouvepydtn oou.rvrrd yopig crut6g xot to ntroritn t6oo rrou vcr tou rxovouorotv r<dOe tou cvdyr<n.l.tns K<rrouvepydtng 6ev ouv66ovtor pa on6truTnS Ko1 oporBota epnloroouvn oto t6.vcv. O r<cLog ouvepydrng or<6.. Ot trp6.og n oX6on toug cuoBaivet o6uvnpn eire yro rov 6. .Lov.rr<d 0o otn rp6per. No rppovti(ers rov nrot6 ouvepydtn Ko1 vc tov r<pctdE n1oT6 pe ttpdg nor oft<bpoTc.orjtn. 'Otcv Hy6. To upooontr<6 ouprpspov.

eu0epio oTous ouv€pyateE oou va L6. vo Fnv orcorig Kcv€vov l{or v<r upoXopeig oncp6yn}.tE udpetE pro ou6rpoon.pyovtcr.or<eg eite 0q ydoerg to rtpog oou eite Kor ta 6rio.l.ve tn yv<bpn toug.ve tn yv<ipn TouS Kcr tnv o}n0eto. vo crotg ttE 1'vtirpeg touE.ner vo pordE rous ouvspycteg oou yto rdOe npcrypo.6et tn yv6pn tou on6 rp6Bo. Auat<j:vtor ooor vogi(ouv 6tr or rrsruxnpsvor ny€r€S .eg.rto oTnv epcppoyn tng. oL. Orlte va pnv euttp6nsls oTous ouvepyoteg oou vo L6.6Tnrs rou Hyep6vo r<qr uot6 n rKcrvotnro rou Hyepovo 6ev orpeil. @c up6ner vo opyi(eoor to i6ro n 6rqv r<otoLoBciverg uog r<duotog 6e oou l. eite 0a Kcrcrotporpeig on6 touE r6).Ld otn ouv6yero vo onoteqoi(erE p6vog oou.l. Mol.O HTEMONAE t3 @ tuvoryfzovtqq ouupouA6q dvqv trq oe ny6rnyrq touq r6Aor6q rou Ot r<ol. on<og r<t 6tav oou Tn ). Av npd(etg 6rorpopettr<o. ouote Oetrer o i6roE r<ot oyr 6note epotn0ei.g.eg oupBouL6.ovtqr oTnv tr<ov.vq ouvepyorn e. @c np6ner vo 6<iroerE qu6trutn e). No 6ei[erg otov r<c06. ol. @o np6. oooTn n troOog.treu0epc oou prLo t6oo neptooorepo oou ncrs 6oo nro yivetor ouo6er<t6g. qu6 6nou r<r cv npo6.er.6.d govdyo yro npoyporo rrou o i6tog rous rnv (ntdg. opei.erql orls r<oLeE oupBou). orite vc enrtpin€ls vq tnv _L6ve Xt'rpts oeBoop6 flpos To rrpoo<orro Kol rrs onorpaoetg oou.

NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 54 orpei}ouv rnv snlruxio touE oe rc}6g oupBoutr6gTou rraptBdl.vou vo errlKpqtnoouv tc)v unotroiuov. upor<etp6.tn.tn ol-Ld oto upootourr6 ouprp6pov TG)v ouvepyct<irv. O HyetnE 6ev pnopei va svq06.vog 0a tou ndper tnv efouoi.o. Xtnv np6tn nepintoon o 6.lovtos rous. orn 6eutepn ot oupBouLdg 6e 0o onoor<onotv oro ouprpspov tou Hy6.'Evog rror6g Hy6rng 6ev eivar oe 06. . eKT6S Kr ov qvcyKqotorlv vc rpcvoriv rotroi. No Oupdool ncrs or dvOporuot ndvtore ovc6err<vuovTct poyOnpoi qudvovtr orov Hy€.on vc cvtr).oet tnv dor<non rng efouoiog orite oe 6vqv otte oe uotrtrotg ouvepydteg tou.apBdvetor trg rcatrdgoupboutr6g tarv ouvepyctdrv TOU.

6oc rotrd Kt ov TouS 6r<ove oto ucrpetr06v' .og Hyetng eurBotr-Letct.lq Iuvoryizovroq ougpouA6q 6vqv qiloluxlq nY6rnYIo lnv To nto 6tc6e6opavo etrdtt<.ptotdpevot rpivouv pe peyotrut€pn ou. tov r<trrvorjpyto Hyatn Ko1 trnopovoriv tov otnpi(ouv o. pe To KUpoS Kct Tnv opxototnTct tnE otr<oyeverog tou.rportforptl H ouotuyict tvos rl.O HTEMONA' 55 oe r.r eivot ott otnv rotronctpio 6e l'oyoprd(ouv rnv r<ototyi6cr' 'EvoE v6.npovoptr<ou Hy6tn eivat 6rn-Ldota Tout on6 areivou flou KoT6r.ornpoTnto TtS rtvnoerg Tou l{c11voupY1ouHyetn rrou rrnp€ [rovos Tou tnv efouoio. eiTe Fe T1S u{ovoTnT6s "ou ti". uopa tou r-tr'npovoptKou' n<bE Or urptotopevor ev6rorpdpovtct neplooor€po yto to uepcou6vo peycLeic' Otov nepvove ottlrtpo nopo yto to otrtro.lpo t<'lv <rv0p<itn<. ev<b yalwn0nKt Fs tnv 6ev pnopeoa vo Tnv r<pctnoet Kct Tnv exoos' eivor H r<crlutepn tor<tu<n Yto vo r<potnoetg tnv efouoio otr 11016vo ltnv orpeOeiE vcr u6oerg. flou Ot goveg oorpcrl'eig p60o6or dpuvoE sivcr eKeives oou' oe o6vo tov i6ro Ko1 oTnv c$oorivn o"ttpt6o*or . Ot u.Tnot tnv efouoio Fovos efouoi<r oTo y6pro tou' ener6n. vopi(ovtcg cqe)lirg otrypn r<dnotog 0o bpeOet vo o€ ouYKpotnv te}eutoio tnoet. ano66yovtor rror 6e (ntove tiuoto roiotteplrclre.

er rduoro o}-Layn ornv ofroorlvn n oTo XqpoKrnpo tou. H ttXn eivor oov ro KoTcrorporptrderei. Etvqr rol. H tuyn orprp€r tnv oppn tng er<ei uou 6ev undpyer ofioorivn.}. onpepo 6vog Hy6rns Kor oripro vtr Koroorpt.tot up6ner vc r<dvouv Kqr Fs tnv triXn. ruvorpfzovEqq ouupouA6g 6vqv rrq oe nvernytq Env rfxn O uoltg r<6o1ro9 utotetet r<. 6.oBepn n oppn roug.rtetetcr cvol. onrc<irvouv y<ilpa Kor ro ndve piLro to porprd Kor 01 ndvteg rdvouv T6no oTnv oppn roug yopig vc ptoporiv vc rnv avor6qouv. Eivor ouXvo to rpcrv6pevo vo autuyei. 'Ouog or dvOpoluol orous ycLnvep6voug rotporig trqBoivouv ro p6tpo TouS Kar ptrdprouv npoydlpctc xor rppdyFaro y1a ro dypro uoTdpro. <ilote 6rav rpouor<iroouvvo pn otc0ei t6oo fdrppevn r<or Bl.rs n (cln pag efoptdtot rupiclg eite qn6 to @e6 eite on6 tnv n)yn.oyo Fe rn rpuoloyvcll-rio tov norp<irvr<r otripovo oe eraivov rou orc qepoipotd tou 6rXoyvopotv ot xcrpoi.6tuxog o Hyetng nou 6ruye vc ouvrorprdfet rov tp6uo vc pnopei vq uo). .rpetcr Xopis yro out6 vc rptoi.vo uotdpto nou 6tcv cypretouv rotax-Lu(ouve xdpuoug.d aqnvet oe pas vs rovoviooupe rrs dtrIeg prods. toor<i(ouve 66vTpo Ko1 KTioFoTc. H oLnOerq eivor narg n ttyn opi(er trg pro6g pog npdfetg o}. ener6n leper uog erei 6e rptrdytnr<cv npoy<ilForo Ko1 rppdypctc yro vo tn Boordfouv.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 56 I Ef.

vor crv Oeg vc rnv efouotd(etg up6ner vo Tnv ytuudg Kq1 v<r Tn onp6Xvetg.Lcxtu<6g. . cyander toug veopotg. anet6n eivct l. H t0Xn etvor yuvoit{o Ko1.ty6tepo enrrpu.Lotnov vs eioor otn (cln oou oppnn169 ncpd eurrpu. Xnpooio 6xet cv on6 triyn n eutloyn n ercdotote ouFreprpopd tou torprd(et pe rtg enrtoy6s r<'rv rorp<bv.O HTEMONAE t7 Enlrooia 6ev 6Xerornv ernruxia rou Hy6rn ov enr6r<irer TouS oKorrorig tou pe uepiorerqn ri u6rptsl Fs ro porirpc o' ouTorig. ov 6yet unopovn n Brd(atot. ov coxei bicr n pe t6. Eivot npotrp6tepo . uro dypror K<rrrrlo totrpnpoi.Lcr<Trroi. H ttyn ocv yuvairo uou eivot.yvn nuBepvd. oc yuvoino uou ei.

er 6vc^otlverpo vc pog^6eifer to 6p6pojvo rdver pro u6tpc vo Bydl. Mnopei trorn6v o @e6gvo cvoifer tn 0d).NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 58 EItr ilporpon6q ueAiovf.er vep6.Leio tng 66[og nou FoS ovnrer. Fqs! to un6l.oooc vc nepdooul. 'Opo:S. vo otei.otnc up€uer vcr ro rdvoupe epeig.l. p6vor KC .l€. vc Bp6[er pdwl i[ oupcvorl.rKofq yrq ny6req O @e6g 6e 06trer vo rdver tq udvta yrc troyoprcop6 gcg y1a vtr poS orFoei tnv eLeuOepio rng Boritrnong !n r<ci to peyo.

rollJffi:lTffi:ill:l'.Kol r.: trq Tnz@fi NrroA6 rou Morrop6Ar .

apros Kc1 fpcppot6og.o Xrvropio (oupntoponrd otnv touoOeoiq 6nou ertutriooetor ro 6pyo rou H llupd rng Marato6o{iag).to tng Pouev. Morog: o T(rpotropo XoBovopol. Auooto). otnv flrdroq vtel.r469 1. Iovoudprog: en6otpeqra oTn Ol.n otn IaLIio.6tn rns rpooonrr6tntcg Kor rns 6p6ong tou Koioopo Bopyto.Luttopori. H uo}rnr<n rptlooorpio Tou Msr<roBe). uunp(e pdptupog Tcrv ysyovorolv rrou o6nynoov oto Oovoto tou Bopyia.opevtio. . Tou Mupotoro}ivt rot enarpeLn0nre ouo enionpc ypcutd nct r<eipevcuou eiye otn 6ro0eon tou.n otn Popovic <og6rn. Aeutepn quootol. Xuv66euoe tov flduo loul.r ennpedotnre onopoototrrd on6 tn pe).502 1. tou Bor<ndl{rou. Anoototrn otn IoLLta 6nou ouvqvtn0nr<e pe tov Aou6oBiro IB' Kor rov Kcp6rvd).olpevtia. yewnOnr<e otn OLopevtic o yrog ev6g rptclyori 6rr<nyopourou tcLotnopnOnre y1o v<r tou efoorpatrioer prc xcLn ernoi6euon. Er<ei.494 1498 1500 1. <DeBpouoprog: Avtptdvr 6ropi(etor lpoppoo t6og tng Anpor<poticg.nrp0n oE undl-Lnl.og orro rov Mopto6Lo Brpyitrro Avtptdvr otn Aeutepn KoyreLopio. 'Hp0e oe encrpn Fr ro epya rou fletpdpyn. flovtpeuetor tnv Mapteto Kopoivr.ro B' otnv up<iltn er<otpcteio npoon. Ot M66rr<orer6r<by0nr<cvcuro rn (Dl. O MoxrcBe).o r<ot 6uo ouo6oi tou rcto6rr<d(ovrol oa <rflctyxovrop6r<qrrrot6nrv 0cvottilvovTcl ornv nupd.LopoTlKos ovttnp6oornos tou Kaioapc Bopyio.503 1.504 1505/6 J Mctou. O MorrqB6trr 6ro6ayerql rov Avtprovr c>S Aeritepog Koyr<e).t npooel.

eu€otpeqrov pe tnv uuootnprfn tou rouovrr<ou otpatot. Or M€. Arp60nr<eetrerl0epoE petd tnv er<. r<crroT6nlv oTnv Auotpia. prp€S.'Yotepc <rno Frpu€S XTnKe toug Me6ir<oug. to .NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 62 r506 r507 1508 1.otperqre oto Eov Kqotdvo r<ot 6yporqre rov Hyepova.5r1. to ouoio 6yrve 6er<t6. H {D}.to onoio uo}'6pnoe yro Tnv xordl. opydvcloe €vo o<irpone(rr<ou.n otn loLLi. o MorraB6Lr ucriOnr<e au6 ta roOnr<owo tou ener6n OeclpnOnr<e Anpor<pctrr<6g nar onoorip0me oto rtnpc Tou KovTo orov Xav Kqordvo.6uror.<opevtio 6nouoe tov Eovtepi. Bqocviotnr<e oro strappado (ptc ratoorceun pe tpoyotri.vov Ew6.erirnrov oyetrrcd pe 6. ps ra y6pro 6ep6vc ni. tov Koyr<eLdplo rng @Lopevtiog. @utrcri(etcr Fs rnv r<otnyopic 6tr ouppetei. rcr petd toug one}eu0eparvov Bioto.p Xovtepivr. Or M6. to 1509.5 1519 Aer6pBptog: un6Bc).Loyn tou Kcp6rvd). oto Mnotrt(ovo.6tr<or tov oupBoul.oo otnv nLdtn.6pou. 't5r2 r513 151.e 6vc oy66ro-up6toon ovcyvrilprons Tcrv otpotrotrr<<irv otov fft€.trn tou Autor<pdtopo Mafrprlrovot. pe ouot6).va v6o otivtoypo yro rnv (DLopevric.rou I<odwn r<ov Me6ixarv og Ilouo.eopo KoTo Tnv [Tdron vs ondve or <irportouE) rot' encvdLnrqrtv.eutoia ouootol.ortopdvouE.o.6evctv ps oyorvrd toug rpul.peto tn virn tng Iepng PoporrnE Xuppoyicg oto flpdro.eg au' 6nou 6. 'Eypcrpe ro epyo Mav8payopaE.Xe oa ouvarlrooio not os cuotuynpdvo npofir<ounpc.vr ror uno66. Og Koyretrdptog rt. Tpitn r<ortel. AuootoLn otnv au.>vnpoopoto 6ropro1r6. Eu6.nrpn tnE Ili(og.o tou flo).

npnE Z'tpoatlsBe tov MomoB6). r520 1.apewiag. Anpooi.epou Kcr rng Zurtg rou Kaotpouroo Kaorparave. Tou (ntnOnre vo ypdqrer tnv Iotopia tng (D).etnoet tc teiyn tng (Dtrcrpevtiog ror petd tov €otetle vo Bon0noar rov rotoprr6 @pcvtoeoro lrourtoopwivt.euonrngTeyvng tou llo). O K). ntcv tc pova6rrd tpio epyo rou rrou er<660nrcav 6oo ntqv ev (aln.on}nptoaero 1525.526 1.r yto vc pel. tnv ouoiq o).527 .O HIEMONA' 63 ouoio ncr np6orpepa oto 6pyo rou A6yot. pa(i pe rov Mav6pay6pa. Autd to 6pyo. Il60ove arrg 22 louviou.

0r poor16g nUepopnvieq ornv e€6Ar€n UqKlopeArrrig rnq oK6qnq guoo^oYfoq Kolrng oxerlrcfiq .

nrpOnoov 'Ivtef (tov qnoyootov enionpo rctdtroyo p€upevcrv B$tri<.t1tou. eipct novoupyos. Ot opor (Iepo-Nrr" ror "6rqBoLos" ovdyovror oTnv eLrooBetrovn enoXn oTnv Ayytrio r<qr qnetd}'eocv ouvcbvupo tou Nrr<ol. p6oo rou 6pyou rou Ile6po vre PrBqwev6.o to reipevc tou Mar<ra6el.t neprel. Or Iouqvoi Inooutteg enrt€OnKav orov Mqr<roBe). gsions o OpdvorE Mn6rrov oXotrlooe: "AroOqv6poote euyvcrpoouvn upos tov Mcr<toB6l.og upoteotdvrng Ouyevotos. anet€On oto MortoBdl.ouE oulryporpeig cutnE tng tofnE. Fs To 6.r rct o).nppoon o "6o}orp6vog Mor<taB€Lr" Kq1 6vqs crn6 toug npoeg qncvTder: "Eipot nol.rtrr<6g.o Mqr<raB6.tnoE".L-tria.r Kc1 ornv enrppon uou qororjocv or r66eE Tou.ptprTol o' cut6v pe rnv 6.r K<r1oTrS cu6rqretg tou.l. T1S onoieE ei6e vc npooalnorrolouvrol otn 6ranuB€pvnon tng Arr<atepivnE tarv Me6ir<ov.pyo tou "Avtr-Mqr<rab6. O Oui}rop Xoifinnp anE Eu9upeg Kupd\eg tou fouiv$oop ova.tpa Tratadoro de la religion.576 r595 r598 O Hyepovag er660nre otn P<ilpn rsvr€ Xpovrc peto to Oovoto tou Mor<roB6trr.trt". otn fo.r532 r536 1559 1. .rv tng Ka0otrrr<ng Er<xtrnoiag!). O Kop6tvdtrrog flotr rcqtc6irooe rov Hyepova. 'O).Lr r<at tov €pyov tou. ouyypqpecE lwor<evtrog Zcvtrye. M6vo tpio ou6 to 6pyc tou 6npooretOnxqv r<qtd tn 6tdpr<erc tnE (<ong rou Kcr ro rrlo onFovTtr<6 ono outd ntqv H Ttyvn tou llo). eipcr pcr<rcBe). O ldM. or onoior ovotyto ror y<opig v<r Kpqrouv T<r npooynpotq 6nL6vouv 6 uepryporpouv tr r<ovouv or dvOpt'rno1 Kqr oxr tr up6ner vq Kqvouv> (Wooton 7994).

yroti nioreuqv 6tr e(vor evog rpd. rro (Curry 1. otov dpytocv vc overp€. Or Aeou6tr6os pov pdvr<e. H dnoqn autn ex_Lc1_ r<erirnre r<ar 6ro660nKe rreploo6tepo ou6 tov Xnrv6(o Kqr rov pouoo<ir. o Nte prBovtsvalpo K<rr o KLepivte. @iyte r<cr Xdpwep ir<pwcv tov Mor<roBeh og eOvirrotn ou1rypap6.uovrcr ptc evcrlrivn Iepgavio (fensen 1960). tou onoiou n tprtrooorpic unnpfe Xpnorgn y1a rnv petavcuotre6wetc Eupdlnn.\afe yy6Fn rat 6ntrooe 6tr o MonoBdl. Xto te. O Btt6pro Atrrprepr 6npooieuoerc tpyo Del Anpooteri0nK€ ro 6pyo tou K}oouvtro K-Le_ l-r€vrs El machievelismo (O degollado Kopotopnpivog MonroBeLropoE).NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 68 1637 7740 1796 r824 7827 principe e delle lettere.Log 6pog prog pc_ l(pos nopopovng ornv efouoio.82f .r o<rv rov povc6rr6 ctrn_ 0tv6 Ito. oro ouoio enqr_ vorioe rov Hyepoya crs ootrpc r<cr yopcrrn_ pro€.ooopos nou uro_ trpo ror efeutetrl(er tn Opnoraio. 6tt n 6torp0opd tou McnoBdl. poBorivtov r6roitepo tov Mcr<rqB6trr. ro ouoio 6nlrootet_ Onre oto Edinburgh Review. tov Mdptto rov 1. Tov Mar<taB6).Lio tng Avcyiwnons. X6yr<etr.99r.r eiye 6i_ 18 18 18 \t 1 .L6 rpr}ooorpo. O A6p6og Mor<oLeI unootnptfe oto 6.o.pyo tou Essay on Machiavelli.t ntcv ouputopo Tns auoyng Tou K(lr ctvTlKo_ t6ntpt(e tn (<^ln Kctr r1S r<orvcrvrr<6g ouv_ Onr<eg otnv Itq. O @per6eptr<ogB'tng Ilpooiog (erivnoe prc euionpn opvntrr<n 6uorpnprottrn exotpcteic r<qtd tou Mor<toBdLt Kor rou Hyep6va (O Avrtpat<taBehr6g). el. ev<ir eur_ 6or<tpd(er tnv qvdrrtufn tou roolnr<ori e0vr_ r<ou r<potouE. Kot 01 6uo.

ttu<ng rrov6Tnros.tn udv<o otov Mor<toB6Lr. O flqoKouo). O Muepvt unootnprf. otov ov6ptop6.raison d' 6tat*" nopouoto(er tov Mqr<toBe). nYeTtS o}'orl'npottotr o Xtol. IIoLLag 6npooreup€veE petreteg nepf "evoyng tou no}6pou>) <ofroKctToorco€ov". To l.oxlnpcloe tn 6rotptBn Tou. O <Dper6epir<ogMdwtne otn pe).opeutei ou6 to n-Lcioro TnS ovcys\-vnoror<ng Itotriog. qv crno6e. r<otor<or yopiE vonpo.920-L940 O Mouootrivr 0edtpnoe rov Hyepovs tvqv o6nyo uol.O HTEMONA' 69 1.-Loug (Skinner Kq1 Tpoflorotn0nre 1981).e otr o MqKtaB6trr nqt to ypoutd rou Ffloporiv vo slpopl-loorouv g6vo oe ouyr<er<prp6vn enoyn r<ot ycbpo ror 6n n or<6rqrnTou.tv r<ot ollol . r<oO<bgunnp[e orpooralg6.o6o[ieg ytc rn ouYXpovn Itotriq. flote 6ev o).oyxn. n ouoia ntov pto 'Htov yvtoot6 pe}6.r clg 6vcv eOvrrrotn rprtr6ootpo pe rpr).t clg onlreto ovotpopog (fensen 1960).ooe tnv ta}'rKn avouoinon tnE Itotrlcg r<or tpvnoe tov MontqBetrr <lg evov qn6 touE euyeveoTspous rotptcllteg.vos ornv r<at otnv efunvo6o otn ). xpnolpo- 1888 1891 1918-24 uoinoov tov MontaB€).6tn rou oX€1924 trra pe tnv 6woto . 1.t arg eprrvsuoTn TnS evvolos Tou xpcttoug K(lt rns sppqvtons rns "realpolitik".npng o1ryLtr<n petorppoon err6o0nxe ro 1892. H n).e Br).nyer 6reotpopp6vn euryeipnpo qut6 utoOetn0nr<e otn ouvdyeto qu6 nol. "6re0vous norrng" Kqt (clolpqotottr<otntqsD. notpi6o.opr eYpoqe r<ot 6npooieuoe ro epyo H Zun rat n EnoyA tou Za$ovapotra xor nepr6ypoq€ rov Mcr<roB6l.817-83 O Nte Xovr<ttg ter<pnpi.

O Aeovdpvto 'Ol. 1945 1958 1.p6toe to . tov Nta Bivtor r<cr rov fo_ trrtrato.964 Curry 1995' Jacobi 1996).nrrTo. o Kraft (1.r 6re0ete evo ovefdptnto. unoornprfe 6tr -neproo6tapo on6 otroug outorig uou ouvn_ 0og ouv66ovtqr Fs rn y6vwron tov oriyypovolv €[loTnp<ilv. Err660nre ro spyo tou Avtovr T(il Management and Machiavelli. cwi0eta.OepeIialoe rnv eurotngn rns noLrtrrng.tr. Kctd tov i6ro tp6no.ot rou. 'Er<cve tnv eprpdvron tng otnv Ayylic n 6nporprlng petdrppoon rou Hyepoyc o116 rov T(opt( Mnou.orc (1.6vo syxslpi6to y1o yndvyrotep" (yro nopd6erypc. O lrdpet Mcrivyrl}et uuootnprfe 6n O Hyep6vag Oearpor3vtcv ndvtq pro odtrpo xar 6va BrBtrio cvex6orotroyrnot ycpcrtnpc. 1. unootnpi(ovrog 6Tr n cvtrrerpevrr6tnto tou McrroB6trr up6rr€r vo 6repeuvn0ei nepcrt6. F€ rn 6trn rou peOo6otroyia.94.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 70 r<<irvr<o0eot<iltr. aI-Ld nor6 6ev ncpc6o0nre orous Me6ir<oug. rcr to oroprpiotnr<e yro vo 6rcor<e6d(ero i6tog xor or rpil. xoO<irg n F€0o6otroyio tou ono6ety0nre t6oo nporoter). 60eoe ta Oepetrrcrng oriyXpovng eurotnpng.961. Xrn ouv6Xetc.)dornoe rpttrr<n oto ouyKsKprpsvo royuprop6.po. O Mn6pvapvt Xo. ro onoto r6. o Mo_ rroBe}r Fs Fra rropopolo npoodyyron tou av0p<irnrvou ei6ouE Ko1 Tcrv Oeolrrirv.951. cpep6). np6talva rov Hyepova oS .ngp6vn 6oo rqr rcrv nrproootdpov ou6 rous ouyxp6voug tou. €rnornFovrr6 nvetpo r<ot or<prBrig 6nog o lotrrtroiog.rttr<ng.rv Octpo(ov tov Hyepova xot Oe<ipnoov rov MsnoB6trr auOevtiq ornv dornon nol.o MartsBdl.

000 cvtituuo 6ep6vo.pnept.noe udvar ano 250.lv orpqTnyrr<bv ennpeoopori nuBepvnttr<cilv ouorpooearv rct uotrrtrr<<irv06oeov (ou<ovoprr<oir<rir<trot eurppong) Fe oKorro ro epuoprr<6 n opyovotrr<6 rep6og (Harris r<or Lock 1996). floul.6g 6toirnonE entyerpnoa('v. H €r<6oon tou 6. Euiong. To puotu<6 rns enrtuyioE.r<ivep. Machiavelli and Guicciardini. pro 6nptoupyrrcn pel.6 r<or povo6rr<o puotrr6.etn r6)v 6uo peyoL<.O HTEMONAX 7l 1965 1981 1988 r994 r994 1. O 6poE (poKlqBeLtr<o pdpr<en\ryK" stonxen qn6 tov Xdprg r<cr 6ywe r<-Lto6' ornv rrsptypcpn T<. rcr l.pyou O NeoE ManaBetrt: H Realpolitik rng Avaytvvnons yrc rous ouyWovous Mdvat(ep eivor pro erpoppoyn tov 0eopt<ilv tou Mqrro66. En6o0nr<e o ovovsa>FavosKo1 r<otroypopp6vog MaxrcBirlr tou loutov. eivot n ou6poon vo snlrrlx€tE ror 6yt n crnorpoonvcr orropuYels Tnv onotuXio.Lr oto povot(pevt tov oriyypovcrv etotper<irv. 6ywe uroxp€orlKn n gaL6tn rou oto Xdpbcpvt Kcr1 ot o)'}eg oyo). ctv updypon uudpyet 6vo t6oo onl.997 'Evoong MdvoBpoBeio tnE Apeprr<ovtxnE t(pew r<or6ywe pneot o6l.lvrrpoTonopov ouyypcrpdov tng rto}trng Avoyewnong.ep.eutopepiE Maxrc' Er<6o0nreo Kol-lqros Bitrt rou Kou6vttv X. Xt ef66ooe to 6pYo Eatppotg: Eyyetpi\rc yw rov ouryltovo MaxrcBttrt (Influence: A Handbook for the Modern Machiavelli). (McAlpine 1997: 175) . O Mdrr). Anpoorau0nr<a ro €pYo rou lr<i).

NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 72 r998 Au6qetE tou MsrrcBetrr r<dvouv rnv rFpdvton toug otrg 6tc6rr<coiegrct pe0o6ouE rou flitep Mdwe).oov. Il6pntn 5 Mopriou) . unoupyori Aveu XoprorpuLoriou tng KuBepvnons rou Epyctmori K6pFaros. (The Independent.

n oag otrE 23 rou uepcop6vou pnvo Kar €uxqplotn0nr<o . @6_ .r"p.KvsuplorrKn r<or .].10 Aer<epBpiov "1513 Efoycirtote flpdoBn...roli . Kduote OfrrS.o"-ol.". ytori erei nou nioteus ncrs 6ycoo oprotrxd tnv ertipno.d ooreite to 6npooro trertotpynpd ocg.ror] ipo0c v6. ftipr(a pe 6rio p6ypr 6[r toiytreg. OI:I ro Xent6pBpn onr<ov6pouv roOnpeptvd uopc notrt npoi. IIpdoBn tng (DLopevticg otnv Ayio flanrr<n'E6pa. sutn n o. A116 r6ra rrou pe Bpnr<ov ot peydtreg ouprpop6g r<d_ ^ Oopor ouvdyero oto efoyrr6 pou Lrrir.t €.. . "H @eio Xdprg rptdver rrdvra otnv <itpa rng..rer vo rnv orpnvoupe vq rcr rdver. H yv<bpn pou eivar vc ouveyio€T€ pe tov i6ro tp6no.in (cln -eot<.Ltronot uou ei6o nooo ro).r. oov rov lr<6to oto. rpopttov6pouv r<r 6vo oop6 r<LouBrd ornv nLdtn lrou ^o.crpevdc. 6ptroyvo trg [<bBepy6s Fou.o aoug 6popoug. oog ^ot. 0o np6. "Alrprtputovo.0 NrroA6 MorropdAr. a..ornar_ peitct ror r<oveig6ev up6rerror vo rou ro ovcyvalpioer. ouroproypotporjUevog on6 pfo eiltoroAfi 96oo rou flpog tov OPA|KIXKO BETTOPI. [. P<irpn. ovti vo pnLer<6pooteta n66ta rns. . Kr ener6n n triyn 6yer tnv nopofevrd vo 06Ler-vo rdver ts ndvto p6vn tng.a8o "rr. ener6n 6notog Ouord(etor y1o rous dlloug xor to). el. errotpl..l*rr1ro cv rotpn0nKo oTnv @tralpevrio ndvo an6 eir<oor OpaOic. *o.. <Dl. udqrote vo pou ypdrpete.rpy"_ teLeiooe..ilro.rr1r.o oog.

n petofi3 toug n pe rous yeitoveg. e6<i xar t6. Iloi(oupe r<pir<a Kor TplK-TpoK yr<r uevtcpo6er<apeg.o n rov Obi6to. . 6vc yoooun.por Lrydrt.}. L6et. 'Otror roug Otpoocrv r{c1 toug 6rovo eyOpoug pou.NIKOAO MAKIABEAI 74 . Ktrr or Bpro16g r<or or rpov€g FoS oKouyovTql Fexpr to Eqv Kqotdvo. Kdnotc ottypn spxsrol n drpc Tou eoynrori.po oto onitr tou Avt6vto lr<ourtotcpvti.1 os l_l1<r nnyn rt on6 erei oe 6vq dl. O Opo(lvo vtq flavtod. 6nL.vo 6ote'd. nrdvo rouB€vtq oTous uepcotrrotg.e. oM. rqteBaivo oto uov6oyeio. r<cr nnycivo oe 6vq Frrpo 6doog nou 6yo. 6tav noi(cFe U1a p6. Meto.'Otcv tou (nTnoct vc pe ntrnpdloer. Metd to qqynro yupvtir oto uav6oXeio. Me nrqoov to 6to6). tov fevo66yo. tov Advtn n tov lletpdpyn n r<dnorov on6 roug FrKpoTspous nornt6E ny. evo puL<'lvo K<rr 6rio rpoupvdpn6eg. rpetycl crrro ro 6oodrr Fou Kor nnyoiv<.lo 6doog nou r<pctdo y1o vo r<uvnydor. fldvtq 6ycl po(1 pou r<drroto BrBtrio.d r<dOe rpopd r<ouoto otrypn opyi(ouv ot r<oByd6es. Me to 66oo9 out6 eiyc totopieg. r<drrote opals ovoyr<ooTnrq v<r TouS no 6tt 6ev eycr oltro. Metd. n0etre vo r<pctnoer ouo to noo6 6er<o trlpeg nou Tou ypatotorioo. ArcBd(<r ro nd0n Ko1 rous dpolreg r<or ovc).r Ka1 pcts y<ilproe. vo ndper svo l_tsydtro oop6 [ri]c ycrpiE vo pou ner tiuote. 'Etor feyvr6. T6re 6e nou eiye ereivn rn TpoFouvTdvc. p<. e6tva fttrc oe 6Loug. tov TiBouM.o 6ev rdvouv ncpd vo toqKovovrqr.rtoal ytc v€a au6 ta p€pn rous Ko1 rrqpornp<il to youorq Kq1 T1S uopofevreg toug.oyi(opot ta 6rr<d gou. Erei ouvovtr6pot Fe rnv uop€c pou. IInyaivo oniTr nqr pc(l pe Tnv orKoysvero pou tp<ipe eKe'ivq rrou ro pTclxlKo uctpm6 pou rtnpc pcg 6iver.ooepo yp6vro au6 tq yopttd. nou d).to pou! EutuX<irE uou punr<e orn p6on o T(roBdwt Mar<toB€). ro0opcr pto-6uo <ilpeg pe toug $utroxorous.Leta vo oqs nor n<bg eivcr n (aln pou onpepol Ar<otote: Xnrdrvopat to npoi.vo.

rn rpt<3yetaFou. r6iorg enet6n ei_ ote 6tcyerprotng efouoiag xorvotpylos. rov "Hyep6vq". Toug crpoor<irvopat otr6te}'q.otnoer. .. rou l.oc. Tt eivar e$ouoia. enet6n 6ev guop<b vc clorpooi.6er rot o Advtng.vc ptrpo BtBlio. [. flpo_ onc0<b vc epBo0rivo oto Oipo.trconarpevn r<oOnpeptv6tntd po. ror yrc tdooeprs 6pss 6ev vr<ir0o rnv rqpqFmpn ulnfin. A)..] 6.. Nolri(o norg cut6 etvor rdtr nou npduer vo o<rs euycpr.g.trd pnuoE up6rertot va to 6taBdoerl Aoe uou out6g er<e(o Apvtrvyr<€Mr 0o to orK€lorrorn0ei r<or 0q cnoorrdo€r rr_ p6g r<or 66(eg F€ rov 6tx6 pou r6uo.] Mi). (y1n vc FLe". n6oo n6n efouoiag undpXouv.g npdrrer va Oupdoor autd uou po0oiveiS". yupvd<ooto oni. .rr<6r<r enionpo yrq vq pnopdoo va ero6l0cl ong cuL6g eneivcrv tov oorgtirvtng cpycr6Tnros _o€ ctu_ tou tou ei6oug trg cuL6. to 6r<qvc6.oet to Bpd6u. * outd' no. Aev vtp6nopor vc ouvoprl. ndvtq eipat roLo6e_ yotpevog. llou orcvrorJv.tr pou r<crpuoivo oto ypcrpeio Fou. n<. 6ev orpnvo to puctr6 Fou va pouX). Kdnoteg on6 trE or<dtperg pou Ffro_ pei. to 6otr<o tou Neporip.tdoer ror pourp<ir rnv KoKsvTpeXetc tnE poi_ pos pou. ytcti ydvetcr.trtcv6..rqv 0o enpeue . npoonoO<irvtosvo 6eiyvo euxoprornF6vog nou pe uo6onotei r<crneprp6vovtos pnos rai nduoro otrypn vr<iloertrlyn vtponn yro cut6 nou r<dver. rrdlg nctortrdtqr..ol ev6riopar yrt<ilvc Boot).pc0o. cr61rn vo touE porr<ir yrq rrs ortieg tov updfe<iw toug. va trg Bpeite r6r6ppu0peg. Kporcil r<or onpet<iroergon6 trg ouvoprtri.Kor vc tparp<itqn6 rnv rneupottnn tporpn yro tnv onoic (cr r<or y1c rnv onoiq eipcr yewnpevoE.r. Me to nou 0o n6.g ou t po(i roug.<irpc(i toug. yloTi.tor.noa Fs ro <DiLrrruoyro out6 to prr<p6 pou ipyo. cu6 . To rp6Bo tou Ocvdtou.BL6nete.uy6. Ereiv6r. Eivqr n otrypn rrou <rrro_ Bd}tro tn.g 6rqrn_ pei. feyv<b ttg orevoy<ilprss Fou.ro'"o cprapdtoo otov lou..o pdMov.O HIEMONAE /t Bournypevog 6tor otn yu6or6Tnro.

var r<dtr y1<rTo onoio 6a 0s up6uet vo opqrBol.axtoQei ro Mapno tou i6tou ypovou. Xog yorpat<b r<or0o n0e}a v<r pou yporpote tn 1. orav orts 7.ova feyivcr os ouTnv tnv n. . otte rorp6pouvo orite €nor(o.o rou 1523. orav rou avtQeoav va ypaqet rnv lotopia tng iDtrupewiag. ro (Dehpoudp.6u<oug. Av trom6v 6rdbo(cv qut6 to Brbtrio pou 0o roto.oorivng pou 0o puopouo€ vo undplet nopd n i6ta n qtdryeto pou. 0o ntcv notrri 6rior<ol. oro onoio eiye anorpaLnyrei. eiye ouA). H ouvepyaoia rou pe rous Mt$woug ennety9nxe ota 1520.n avaEtperat orn (an rou oTo xtipa tou. tn onypn nou eni ocpdvtc tpio ypovrc uop6petvo €.LqBoivave nog 6erou6.trcrv. Aurd uou eiXc otnv drpn teLer6vouv ror 6ev edpcl nooo pnoptir vo avt6fcl rprv KoTovTnoo ou6 tn ptdryero pou ovtureipevo r€ptepovnong.nqQei rat Baoavto0ei.Lrrio. Tt rotrritepog pdptupcE d}-Loote tng trpr6tntos Ko1 tng r<ol.trdo pra n6tpa.vttpog.11.v<bpn ocrg ndvo oto 06pc. ug tnonrog ouv@pooiaE t<at eiye anoqu). vopi(o.tyrc toug M6.1512 eiye et<ntoet an6 ro a{iupa rou. ouT6 ei.vte yp6vra rou oqoordr0nxa otn paldtn tov teyvrr<bv tng 6roirnong.ouv.![IKOAO MAKIABEAI 76 Ilpdner 6pog r<onou vc ro oprep<iroo. ener6n unapyet K1 ouTn n Brotrrn ovdyr<n nou Fa rototp6yer. crpori. Kqr otov rro06vo. on6pc Kr ov pe Xpnorponotnoouv y1o vc nu. Me evOraq€per notrri vq 6ouL6rg<. Engai<oon H entoto). 'Ooo 6e yro rnv evtrp6tnro Fou. 0o dpeoe vo eiXe ornv unnpsoia tou rdnotov nou oudrtnoe epuerpio pe efo6c dl.

o oilofos nyeirol f 06Jtervcr nynOef ev6g ueY6-Lou ri prxp6repou KliKltou ovgpd:uorv f oe exeivov rou xper6(etor ufa p60odo yro vcr xoto-L6$er ro nollrrK6 ti ro euxerpnoror<6 orcnvtx6tng onpeprvrig enoxfg.Kor 6xow oripepo oflfixnon. M6vo rou 6ev ofleu0u\rgrot nl\. <rveEqptlirog t6nou.6ov onoKlelorlxd oe Hyeg6veg.ey6pevo. On<og Kdl oe x60e 6)rtro Kefuevo rng nfuKfog rou. TovAop6w<o nY6rn.6oo ovoMofcotn nopop6vet enf xfuetfeg xor n crv0pcirntrm ryuxfi."Hyeu6vog)yp6ernKe orq 1513. focogueptoo6Tspo nop6 ilor6. Or r66eg rou MoxrcrB6fu ncrpog6vow enf uewox6oro xp6vra qvotrl!of<r:teq. 6xer 6gcogono6o0ei oe eMnuK6l\'6Yo onUeplv6. rpoKsludvou vo Urop6oel vo lelroupYfoer ong Udpes Uqg ro i6to onotelteopottx6 Ue rnv eroxri rng euedvtorig tou. xp6vou Kol rp6rou: orov qfilt6 rolirn. dpeoo xor peuot6. o}r}6 oe 6fiolov qoRef eEouofo. To 0r0lfo dev EeEeiwel ofTe Kor' elt6xtorov <ru6ro opxrx6 xefpevo' Kpor6 ro votluorcl ov6nogo KoI Tn 6oprl tou Sr$l'fou fdrq u' eKsivn rng npcilrng 6x6oong. ffi jiltllru rsBN960-8202-63-9 .u6fuS2I gt<ilv rpog 6vov enfdoEo B'torv Medixcov xot enf otci)vegon6Tslteoe xeipwo owr-l'ey6gevo Kol opgr-l. xp6vropet6 efrlwo oxprpci:g nrd)on rng Kovotqwryofilolng og emorofui Ue odnYieg Tnv t6te. 0o xpero(6rov oli\rxpovn exdorxf owluerd)Ilron.

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