Eliminate the middleman; skip the warmup 1) Prepositional phrases – of, in , to, for, with , on, by, at, from, as , into, about, like, after

, between, through, over , against, under, out of, next to, upon a. Connecting words – who or which, because & subordinators 2) A noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence 3) Additive phrases do not change the number of subjects a. Examples: along with, in addition to, as well as, accompanied by, together with, including 4) Only ‘and’ can change a singular subject in to a plural one Either….or \ neither…nor 1) Find the noun nearest to the verb a. Collective nouns are considered singular b. Indefinite pronouns are usually singular, they end in –one, -body, -thing (everyone, nobody, anything) c. SANAM – singular or plural i. Some, any, none, all, more/most d. Each and every – always singular verb form e. Quantity words – the number is singular; a number takes the plural form f. Fractions and percents – majority, minority & plurality can be singular or plural g. The noun in the “of + prepositional phrase” indicates singularity or plurality Parallelism 1) Comparable sentence parts must be structurally and logically similar a. Parallel markers Marker Example Marker And X and Y Not only…but also X, Y, and Z Rather than Both/and Both X and Y From/to Or X or Y Either…or Either X or Y Not…but Not X but Y 2) Parallel clauses should start with the same word 3) Lists with ‘and’ List X and Y X, Y, and Z X, Y, Z, and W The GMAT always lists a comma before the ‘and’ in 3 and 4 item lists

Example Not only x but also Y X rather than Y From X to Y

they.  is it correct? i. him. Object – pronouns can be the objects of verbs or prepositions i. Me. us. it. they. his. you. The antecedent must agree in number with the pronoun 7) Pronoun case a. whose d. their 8) Demonstrative pronouns a. A pronoun position in on e clause may often be presumed to: i. I. whom c. her/hers. their/theirs. Nouns with possessive cases are often poor antecedents 1. those.4) Linking verbs To Be Is Are Was Were Am Been Be Being Other Linking Verbs Appear Become Feel Grow Look Remain Represent resemble Other Linking verbs Seem Smell Sound Stay Taste Turn 5) Pronouns a. you/yours. them. these. he. who b. she. they or them instead . her. they. their. that. them. it. our/ours. Take the possessive noun out of the possessive case e. Refer to the subject of a parallel clause ii. Possessive – pronouns indicate ownership of similar relation i. It. New copies with that or those must agree in number with the previous version. Subject – pronouns can be the subjects i. What is the antecedent? – the antecedent to which you want to refer must actually be in the sentence and be functioning as a noun 6) Antecedents and Pronouns a. Gasoline … expensive. Make sure the antecedent makes sense in place of the pronoun. and then the prnoun has only one possible antecedent b. if you have to change the number repeat the noun **Do not sure this or these to replace nouns **Do not use that or those to replace nouns use it. IT ( pronoun replaces the noun – gasoline) now consumes… Gasoline is the ANTECEDENT of the pronoun ‘it’ b. Deadly Five it. them.  can be used as adjectives **that or those can indicate a “new copy” or copies of the antecedent **it or they mean the same actual thing as the antecedent b. This. its. we. its. My/mine. its. you.

Simple Tense Simple present I play… Simple past I played… Simple future I will play… b. so that 12) Which vs present participle(+ing ending) a. Who is used as the subject of the verb in a relative clause i. while. That or whom can be dropped when the modified noun is the object k. if. where . Whom is used as the object of the verb or of a preposition j. Adverbs often end in –LY c. Noun modifiers are often introduced by relative pronouns which. When can be used to describe time. adjectives modify ONLY nouns or pronouns. **put commas between nonessential modifiers and their nouns b. Touch Rule: a noun and its modifier should touch each other f. Non-Essential a. Adjectives and adverbs are one word modifiers. that. Where can only modify a noun place! It CANNOT modify a metaphorical place such as a condition. **use which ONLY to refer to the noun immediately preceding it. who. **put NO commas between essential modifiers and their nouns Which & that i. The (ing) form works best when you want to express the result of the main clause 13) Verb tense. whom. never refer to an entire clause b. can also be changed to ‘in which’ 10) Essential vs. use simple present . Subordinators include: because. unless. subordinator b. Progressive Tenses Present Progressive I am playing… Past Progressive I was playing… Future Progressive I will be playing… I. whose. A noun used to modify another noun is called a APPOSITIVE e. when ↘**Relative clauses – clauses led by ‘that’ CANNOT modify people** g. Use THAT + NO commas if the modifier is essential 11) Verb Modifiers – modify only verbs a. mood & voice a. situation or state of mind l. adverbs modify anything BUT a noun or pronoun b. The GMAT likes adjectives + adjectives + noun or adverbs + adverbs + noun d. do not use the progressive for general definitions. although. Use WHICH + commas if the modifier is nonessential ii. prepositions. Which & whom sometimes follow prepositions h. Adverbs.9) Modifiers a.

know. Past Perfect Formed by: had + past participle Defines when 2 actions have taken place in the past at different times  it is the “past of the past” Past Perfect simple past ↓ ↓ --------------------------------------------↑ ↑ ↑ Earlier past later past now II. 14) Tense Sequence a. GMAT prefers simplicity I. Present perfect Formed by: Have/had + past participle I. The present perfect indicates either a continued action or a continued effect of a completed action **if you use ‘since’ or ‘or + ‘within. use simple future III. Defines an action that started in the past but continues in to the present -----The action or it’s effect---- ------------------------------------------↑ ↑ Moment in the past now II. then we move the tenses back one step in time . Perfect tenses – use only when necessary. infinitives.do not use present progressive to indicate future actions. If you make a statement report using a reporting verb like announced. verbs that express states do not normally use the progressive voice. such as state verbs ie: include. signify Keep verb tenses consistent!!! Verb tenses MUST agree with their subjects! c.’ you must use present perfect!** Completed time period uses simple past Use present perfect when describing a completed action when on e action is earlier than another in –ING forms. and subordinate clauses d.

This form occurs after. 2. he would feel good. and requests formed with verb +THAT Hypothetical subjunctive a. if. The command subjunctive 1. as if. The usual sequences are either: Present + future or Past + conditional 15) Subjunctive mood a. then he will feel good. then conditional If John practiced hard tomorrow. then he feels good.Back i. Uses the bare form of the verb – drop the ‘to’ verb = the simplest present form except no –s on the 3rd person singular and the verb ‘to be’ which = be . Simple present----------------------------simple past Simple past---------------------------------past perfect Simple future------------------------------conditional tense – ‘would’ + verb b. then conditional perfect If John had practiced hard yesterday. Unlikely or unreal conditions. usually following after ‘if. then + can or may (can or may cause uncertainty) If John practices hard. then he may feel good. 5) Case that never happened(in the past): If past perfect. then he would have felt good. or as though and is equivalent to the simple past or every verb except ‘to be’ the form were is always used If…then constructions 5 rules 1) General rule with no uncertainty: If +present tense. Avoid mixing present tenses with conditional! Also. Used with bossy verbs such as require or purpose i. 3) Particular case with no uncertainty = the future: If present tense. The agency required that Gary be ready before noon.’ b. 2) General rule with some uncertainty: If present tense. Proposals. Command subjunctive is the mood taken if you were commanding Gary directly 3. avoid mixing past tenses with future tenses! c. then future tense If John practices hard. desires. then present tense If John practices hard. 4) Unlikely case(in the future): If hypothetical subjunctive.

propose. Active voice – subject is performing the action b. ii. request.16) 17) 18) 19) 4. **Common verbs that ONLY use command subjunctive: Demand. mandate. suggest 6. recommend. require 8. Avoid using command subjunctive after ‘Whether’ Active vs Passive voice a. insist. urge. THAT OF his brother… Or Plural: Roger’s hands like THOSE of his brother… . in gerunds ie: like swimming b. Passive voice – subject has an action performed on it by something else i. You should avoid answer choices written in the passive voice only transition verbs (verbs that take the direct objects) can be written in the passive voice i. prefer. **Verbs that only take the infinitive form: advise. want 7. iii. “The wildebeest charged…” ii. **cannot use like to compare clauses  swimming is… c. Roger’s frame LIKE his brother’s…. allow. You can correctly use ‘as’ to compare two clauses Keep comparisons parallel a. intend.P. **use ‘by’ only for the actual doer if an action. IF want is the bossy verb you must use the infinitive 1. persuade. Bossy verb + THAT + subject + command subjunctive. order. Or Singular: Roger’s frame LIKE. The V. **use ‘though’ or ‘because’ when describing any instrument or means c. The passive voice can be used when the underlined portion of the sentence contains the person or agent performing the action preceded by the word ‘by’ The grand prix WAS seen around the world by people Comparisons Comparison Signals Like As Unlike As + adjective + as More than As much as Less than As little as Faster than As fast as Different from The same as In contrast to In contrast with Like vs As a. **Verbs that take either the command subjunctive of the infinitive : Ask. The monster was beaten by the superhero. beg. stipulate. Passive voice is formed by: The verb ‘to be’ + past participle a. wants her TO go to the retreat 5. forbid. pronouns or noun phrases. dictate. Like – is a preposition and must be followed by nouns.

that. for. d. A list (X. so – coordinating conjunctions a. Colon – provides further information for what comes before it.20) Comparative and Superlative forms a. Usually followed by a conjunctive adjective (however. Choose a connector that fits logically 23) Connecting Punctuation a. Comma – do not use a comma before and to separate two verbs that have the same subject i. Do not use comparative adjectives unless you have a than in the sentence 21) Remember GMC – Grammar. unless. though. What comes before the colon MUST be able to stand alone in a sentence ii. when. concision Subject-verb agreement Parallelism Pronouns Modifiers Verb tense. before. **comma + coordinating conjunction allows two main clauses to coexist peacefully ii. but. **a subordinator is decidedly partisan. after. Sam hits more softly than Tom. therefore. Semicolon – connects two closely related statements. Y. Sam hits softly. you should be able to insert ‘namely’ or ‘that is’ after the colon i. each statement must be able to stand alone as an independent sentence i. mood and voice Comparisons idioms 22) Connecting words And. Subordinators Although. nor. Either eliminate the comma or add a subject to the 2nd verb. while d. yet. Modify –ly adverbs words by adding more i. creating a second main clause b. it achieves harmony within a sentence by reducing one of the clauses to a subordinate clause c. Whatever needs explanation should be placed as close to the colon as possible . or . because. if. When comparing 2 things use the comparative form of an adjective or an adverb b. since. meaning. in addition…) c. Two main clauses b. When comparing more than 2 things use the superlative form of an adjective or an adverb c. and Z) ii. Whenever you see ‘and’ after a comma check for 2 possibilities i. Subordinators such as ‘because’ and ‘although’ create subordinate clauses which can in turn attack a main clause with a comma i.

**semicolon connects 2 related independent clauses. **the colon always connects a sentence with further explanation 24) Quantity 1) Countable things vs uncountable things Countable modifiers Uncountable modifiers Many Much Not many Not much Few Little Fewer Less Fewest Least Number Amount Fewer than… Less than ____ amount Numerous Of patience More numerous Great / greater **Money follows uncountable 2) Words used to relate 2 things vs words used to relate 3 or more things **When comparing 2 things must use the comparative forms of adverbs and adjectives (better.iii. more. Greater or less signal a comparison between TWO things . but the 2nd does not necessarily explain the first e. but this clause must explain what precedes the colon d. must use the superlative forms Only use between with 2 people or things!! 3) The number/number of vs a number/the number of i. less etc…) **when comparing 3 or more things. ‘the number of…’ is singular  the number _____ IS ii. ‘the numbers of…’ is almost ALWAYS incorrect iv. ‘a number of…’ is plural  a number of _____ ARE iii. worse. ‘’the number of…’ is singular  the number of _____ IS 4) Increase and decrease vs greater and less a. Increase and decrease express the change of ONE thing over time b. You can put a main clause after a colon as well.

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