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- Electromagnetic ﬁeld: radiation and propagation
- Electromagnetic ﬁeld fundamentals
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Review of Maxwell’s equations
- 1.2.1 Physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations
- 1.2.2 Constitutive equations
- 1.2.3 Boundary conditions
- 1.3 The conservation of energy. Poynting’s the- orem
- 1.4 Momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld
- 1.5 Time-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁelds
- 1.5.1 Maxwell’s equations for time-harmonic ﬁelds
- 1.5.2 Complex dielectric constant
- 1.5.3 Boundary conditions for harmonic signals
- 1.5.4 Complex Poynting vector
- 1.6. ON THE SOLUTION OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 27
- 1.6 On the solution of Maxwell’s equations
- Fields created by a source distribution: retarded potentials
- 2.1 Electromagnetic potentials
- 2.1.1 Lorenz gauge
- 2.2 Solution of the inhomogeneous wave equa- tion for potentials
- 2.3 Electromagneticﬁelds froma boundedsource distribution
- 2.3.1 Radiation ﬁelds
- 2.3.2 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal current element
- 2.3.3 Far-zone approximations for the potentials
- 2.4. MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR POTENTIALS 51
- 2.4 Multipole expansion for potentials
- 2.4.1 Electric dipolar radiation
- 2.4.2 Magnetic dipolar radiation
- 2.4.3 Electric quadrupole radiation
- 2.5. MAXWELL’S SYMMETRIC EQUATIONS 59
- 2.5 Maxwell’s symmetric equations
- 2.5.1 Boundary conditions
- 2.5.2 Harmonic variations
- 2.5.3 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal magnetic current element
- 2.6 Theorem of uniqueness
- 2.6.1 Non-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁeld
- 2.6.2 Time-harmonic ﬁelds
- ??Electromagnetic waves
- 3.1 Wave equation
- 3.2 Harmonic waves
- 3.2.1 Uniform plane harmonic waves
- 3.2.2 Propagation in lossless media
- 3.2.3 Propagation in good dielectrics or insulators
- 3.2.4 Propagation in good conductors
- 3.2.5 Surface resistance
- 3.3 Group velocity
- 3.4 Polarization
- Reﬂection and refraction of plane waves
- 4.1 Normal incidence
- 4.1.1 General case: interface between two lossy media
- 4.1.2 Perfect/Lossy dielectric interface
- 4.1.3 Perfect dielectric/Perfect conductor interface
- 4.1.4 Standing waves
- 4.2. MULTILAYER STRUCTURES 91
- 4.1.5 Measures of impedances
- 4.2 Multilayer structures
- 4.2.1 Stationary and transitory regimes
- 4.3 Oblique incidence
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2. GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FIELD COMPONENTS 103
- 5.2 General relations between ﬁeld components
- 5.2.1 Transverse magnetic (TM) modes
- 5.2.2 Transverse electric (TE) modes
- 5.2.3 Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) modes
- 5.3 Cutoﬀ frequency
- 5.4. ATTENUATION IN GUIDING STRUCTURES 113
- 5.4 Attenuation in guiding structures
- 5.4.1 TE and TM modes
- 5.4.2 TEM modes

R. Gómez Martín

2

Contents

0.1 Prefacio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

I

**Electromagnetic ﬁeld: radiation and propagation
**

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

3 3 3 6 8 12 14 16 18 19 20 24 25 27 29 29 32 34 38 43 45 50 51 53 55 57 59 63 64

1 Electromagnetic ﬁeld fundamentals 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Review of Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations . . . 1.2.2 Constitutive equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 The conservation of energy. Poynting’s theorem . . . 1.4 Momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . 1.5 Time-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁelds . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Maxwell’s equations for time-harmonic ﬁelds 1.5.2 Complex dielectric constant. . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Boundary conditions for harmonic signals . . 1.5.4 Complex Poynting vector . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 On the solution of Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . .

2 Fields created by a source distribution: retarded potentials 2.1 Electromagnetic potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Lorenz gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation for potentials . . 2.3 Electromagnetic ﬁelds from a bounded source distribution . . . 2.3.1 Radiation ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal current element . . . . 2.3.3 Far-zone approximations for the potentials . . . . . . . 2.4 Multipole expansion for potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Electric dipolar radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Magnetic dipolar radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 Electric quadrupole radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Maxwell’s symmetric equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Harmonic variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .2. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2. 86 4. . . . . . . .4. .2. . . . . . . . . .1 TE and TM modes. 2. . . . . . .1. .3 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal magnetic current element Theorem of uniqueness . . 2. . . 110 5. . . . . .3 Propagation in good dielectrics or insulators . . 106 5. 3. . . . 113 5. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 4 Reﬂection and refraction of plane waves 85 4. .4 CONTENTS 2. . . . 105 5. . . . . . .4 Attenuation in guiding structures . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4. . . .1 Wave equation . . . . . . . . .1 Uniform plane harmonic waves .2 General relations between ﬁeld components . .2. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Harmonic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Time-harmonic ﬁelds . .2 TEM modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5. .1 Transverse magnetic (TM) modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 Boundary conditions for TE and TM modes on perfectly conducting walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4. . . . .5 Surface resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Wave incident with the electric ﬁeld perpendicular to the plane of incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .5 Measures of impedances . . . 109 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Oblique incidence . . 3. . . . . 91 4. . . . . . .3 Perfect dielectric/Perfect conductor interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 5. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .1 Introduction . . . .2 Perfect/Lossy dielectric interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 86 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Incident wave with the electric ﬁeld contained in the plane of incidence . .2. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Stationary and transitory regimes . . . . . . . 103 5. . . . . . . 107 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 5 Electromagnetic wave-guiding structures: Waveguides and transmission lines 101 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .2 Propagation in lossless media . . . .3 Cutoﬀ frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.1. . . . . . . . 89 4. . . . . . . . 92 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .4 Standing waves . . . .2. .2 Transverse electric (TE) modes . . 93 4.2. . . . . . . 91 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Propagation in good conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Normal incidence. . . . . . . . .1 Non-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . .1 General case: interface between two lossy media . . . .6 3 ??Electromagnetic waves 3. . 115 . . 65 65 66 67 69 69 73 74 76 76 78 79 80 81 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 Multilayer structures . . . . . . . .3 Group velocity . .4 Polarization . . . . . . . . . .3 Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) modes . .

6. . . . . . . . 5 117 117 117 118 120 123 . . . 6. .2. . . . . . . .2 Rectangular waveguide . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 TE modes in rectangular waveguides . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .2. .CONTENTS 6 Some types of waveguides and transmission lines 6. . .3 Attenuation in rectangular waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TM modes in rectangular waveguides . . . .2. 6. . . . . . . . . . .

6 CONTENTS .

1.0.1 Prefacio Asignatura: Electrodinámica 4o C. Físicas Curso 2006-2007 (Granada) . PREFACIO i 0.

ii CONTENTS .

Part I Electromagnetic ﬁeld: radiation and propagation 1 .

.

Chapter 1 Electromagnetic ﬁeld fundamentals 1. Similarly. We shall see that when the energy balance is formulated. 1 According to the Helmholtz theorem a vector ﬁeld K is uniquely determined by its divergence and curl if they are given throughout the entire space and if they approach zero at inﬁnity at least as 1/rn with n > 1.2 Review of Maxwell’s equations The general theory of electromagnetic phenomena is based on Maxwell’s equations. 1. Next. This term leads us to the deﬁnition of Poynting’s vector. inside of which there exists a time-variable electromagnetic ﬁeld. together with the theory of electromagnetic behavior of matter. there appears a term representing a ﬂow of energy carried by the electromagnetic ﬁeld through the surface S that limits V . after reviewing other fundamental topics such as constitutive parameters and boundary conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with these equations at least at an undergraduate level. we ﬁnd that the electromagnetic ﬁeld also carries a momentum density. we apply the energy-conservation law to a bounded volume. and its interaction with matter. limited by a surface S. which can also be expressed in terms of Poynting’s vector. explain on a macroscopic scale the properties of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. when the law of conservation of momentum is applied to the same region.1 Introduction This chapter starts with a brief review of Maxwell’s equations. A proof of this theorem is given in Appendix ?? 3 . the relationships of this ﬁeld with its sources. which constitute a set of four coupled ﬁrst-order vector partial-diﬀerential equations relating the space and time changes of electric and magnetic ﬁelds to their scalar source densities (divergence) and vector source densities (curl) 1 . which are the fundamental laws that.

4

CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS

Maxwell’s equations are usually formulated in diﬀerential form (i.e., as relationships between quantities at the same point in space and at the same instant in time) or in integral form where, at a given instant, the relations of the ﬁelds with their sources are considered over an extensive region of space. The two formulations are related by the divergence (??) and Stokes’ (??) theorems. For stationary media2 , Maxwell’s equations in diﬀerential and integral forms are: Diﬀerential form of Maxwell’s equations ∇ · D(r, t) = ρ(r, t) (Gauss’ law) ∇ × E(r, t) = − (1.1a) (1.1b)

∂ B(r, t) (Faraday’s law) (1.1c) ∂t ∂ D(r, t) (Generalized Ampère’s law) (1.1d) ∇ × H(r, t) = J(r, t) + ∂t Integral form of Maxwell’s equations I D(r, t) · ds = QT (t) (Gauss’ law) IS B(r, t) · ds = 0 (Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds) I I

S Γ

∇ · B(r, t) = 0 (Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds)

(1.2a) (1.2b) (1.2c)

E(r, t) · dl H(r, t) · dl

= − = Z

Z

S

∂ B(r, t) · ds (Faraday’s law) ∂t

(J(r, t) +

Γ

S

∂ D(r, t) ) · ds (Generalized Ampère’s law) ∂t (1.2d)

Maxwell’s equations, involve only macroscopic electromagnetic ﬁelds and, explicitly, only macroscopic densities of free-charge, ρ(r, t), which are free to move within the medium, giving rise to the free-current densities, J(r, t). The eﬀect of the macroscopic charges and current densities bound to the medium’s molecules is implicitly included in the auxiliary magnitudes D and H which are related to the electric and magnetic ﬁelds, E and B by the so-called constitutive equations that describe the behavior of the medium (see Subsection 1.2.2). In general, the quantities in these equations are arbitrary functions of the position (r) and time3 (t). The deﬁnitions and units of these quantities are E = electric ﬁeld intensity (volts/meter; V m−1 )

2 In a stationary m edium all quantities are evaluated in a reference frame in which the observer and all the surfaces and volumes are assumed to be at rest. Maxwell’s equations for moving media can be considered in terms of the special theory of relativity, as shown in chapter ??. 3 Throughout the book, in most cases, in order to make the notation more concise, we will not explicitly indicate the arguments, (r, t), of the magnitudes unless we consider it convenient to emphasize the dependence on any of the variables.

1.2. REVIEW OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

5

B = magnetic ﬂux density (teslas4 or webers/square meter; T or W b m−2 ) D = electric ﬂux density (coulombs/square meter; C m−2 ) H = magnetic ﬁeld intensity (amperes/meter; A m−1 ) ρ = free electric charge density (coulombs/ cubic meter; C m−3 ) QT = net free charge, in coulombs (C), inside any closed surface S J= free electric current density (amperes/square meter A m−2 ). Three of Maxwell’s equations (1.1a), (1.1c), (1.1d), or their alternative integral formulations (1.2a), (1.2c), (1.2d), are normally known by the names of the scientists who deduced them. For its similarity with (1.1a), equation (1.1b) is usually termed the Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds, for which the integral formulation is given by (1.2b). These four equations as a whole are associated with the name of Maxwell because he was responsible for completing them, adding to Ampère’s original equation, ∇ × H(r, t) = J(r, t), the displacement current density term or, in short, the displacement current, ∂ D/∂t, as an additional vector source for the ﬁeld H. This term has the same dimensions as the free current density but its nature is diﬀerent because no free charge movement is involved. Its inclusion in Maxwell’s equations is fundamental to predict the existence of electromagnetic waves which can propagate through empty space at the constant velocity of light c. The concept of displacement current is also fundamental to deduce from (1.1d) the principle of charge conservation by means of the continuity equation ∂ρ ∇·J =− (1.3) ∂t or, in integral form, I dQT (1.4) J.ds = − dt With his equations, Maxwell validated the concept of "ﬁeld" previously introduced by Faraday to explain the remote interactions of charges and currents, and showed not only that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are interrelated but also that they are in fact two aspects of a single concept, the electromagnetic ﬁeld. The link between electromagnetism and mechanics is given by the empirical Lorenz force equation, which gives the electromagnetic force density, f (in N m−3 ), acting on a volume charge density ρ moving at a velocity u (in m s−1 ) in a region where an electromagnetic ﬁeld exists, f = ρ(E + u × B) = ρE + J × B (1.5)

where J = ρu is the current density in terms of the mean drift velocity of the particles5 , which is independent of any random velocity due to collisions. The

4 Given that the tesla is an excessivelly high magnitude to express the values of the magnetic ﬁeld usually found in practice, the cgs unit (gauss, G) is often used instead, 1T = 104 G. 5 In general, when there is more than one type of particle the current density its deﬁned as J = i ρi ui where ρi and ui represent the volume charge density and drift velocity of the charges of class i.

6

CHAPTER 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS

total force F exerted on a volume of charge is calculated by integrating f in this volume. For a single particle with charge q the Lorentz force is F = q(E + u × B) (1.6)

Maxwell’s equations together with Lorenz’s force constitute the basic mathematical formulation of the physical laws that at a macroscopic level explain and predict all the electromagnetic phenomena which basically comprise the remote interaction of charges and currents taking place via the electric and/or magnetic ﬁelds that they produce. From Eq. (1.6) the work done by an electromagnetic ﬁeld acting on a volume charge density ρ inside a volume dv during a time interval dt is dW = f · udtdv = ρ(E + u × B) · udtdv = ρE · udtdv = E · Jdtdv (1.7)

This work is transformed into heat. The corresponding power density Pv ( W m−3 ) that the electromagnetic ﬁeld supplies to the charge distribution is Pv = dP dW = =E·J dv dtdv (1.8)

This equation is known as the point form of Joule’s law. In applications, Maxwell’s equations have to be complemented by appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The initial conditions involve values or derivatives of the ﬁelds at t = 0, while the boundary conditions involve the values or derivatives of the ﬁelds on the boundary of the spatial region of interest. Usually, we consider the initial conditions as a form of boundary conditions and refer to the solution of Maxwell´s equations, with all these conditions, as a boundary-value problem. Next, we brieﬂy describe the physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations.

1.2.1

Physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations

Gauss’ law, (1.1a) or (1.2a), is a direct mathematical consequence of Coulomb’s law, which states that the interaction force between electric charges depends on the distance, r, between them, as r−2 . According to Gauss’ law, the divergence of the vector ﬁeld D is the volume density of free electric charges which are sources or sinks of the ﬁeld D, i.e. the lines of D begin on positive charges (ρ > 0) and end on negative charges (ρ < 0). In its integral form, Gauss’ law relates the ﬂux of the vector D through a closed surface S (which can be imaginary; Fig. 1.1), to the total free charge within that surface. Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds, (1.1b) or (1.2b), states that the B ﬁeld does not have scalar sources, i.e., it is divergenceless or solenoidal. This is because no free magnetic charges or monopoles have been found in nature (see Section 2.5) which would be the magnetic analogues of electric charges for E. Hence, there are no sources or sinks where the ﬁeld lines of B start or ﬁnish, i.e., the ﬁeld lines of B are closed. In its integral form, this indicates that the ﬂux of the B ﬁeld through any closed surface S is null.

(1. and/or displacement currents. of both currents: the free current J and the displacement current ∂ D/∂t.1: (a) Closed surface S b ounding a volume V . J. Thus. 1.1c) or (1. Ampère’s generalized law.2d).1. REVIEW OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 7 r dS S r dS Γ V S (a) (b) Figure 1. (1. (Fig.1d) or (1.1). between E and B.1c) and (1. induces an electromotive force given by the integral of the tangential component of the induced electric ﬁeld around Γ. In its R integral form. would produce an induced current that opposes the change in the magnetic ﬂux (Lenz’s law). (b) Open surface S b ounded by Γ. ¡¡ ¡Atención: las dS debe ser ds closed loop the the the Faraday’s law. In its integral form the left-hand side of the generalized Ampere’s law equation represents the integral of the magnetic ﬁeld tangential component along an arbitrary closed loop Γ and the right-hand side is the sum of the ﬂux. when it acts on charges. establishes that a time-varying B ﬁeld produces a nonconservative electric ﬁeld whose ﬁeld lines are closed.2c) represents the feature by which the induced electric ﬁeld. ∂ D/∂t. as a vector source of H. The direction of the surface element dS is given by the right-hand rule: thumb of the right hand is p ointed in the direction of dS and the ﬁngertips give the sense of line integral over the contour Γ.2. The minus sign in (1. Faraday’s law states that the time variation of the magnetic ﬂux ( B ·ds) through any surface S bounded by an arbitrary closed loop Γ. It states that the vector sources of the magnetic ﬁeld may be free currents. the displacement current performs. The line integration over the contour Γ must be consistent with the direction of the surface vector ds according to the right-hand rule. through any surface S bounded by a closed loop Γ (Fig. . 1.2c). a similar role to that played by ∂ B/∂t as a source of E. diﬀerent from Faraday’s law.1 ). constitutes another connection.

in general. which ﬂuctuate greatly over atomic distances. H m−1 ) are two constants called electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space. it is possible to achieve good results using simpliﬁed microscopic models. F m−1 ) and μ0 = 4π10−7 (henry/meter. electric permittivity ε.1). respectively. so that these contain a large number of molecules but at the same time are macroscopically small enough to represent accurate spatial dependence at a macroscopic scale. The subscript all indicates that all kinds of charges (free and bound ) must be individually included in ρ and J. To this end. Appendices ?? and ?? present a brief introduction to the microscopic theory of electric and magnetic media. The derivation of the constitutive parameters of a medium from its microscopic properties is. These equations are. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS 1. we must introduce a new macroscopic ﬁeld quantity. t) = − ∇ × B(r. t) = μ0 Jall (r. in most of the practical situations. t) ∂t ∂ E(r. t) ε0 ∂ B(r. To deﬁne the electric permittivity and describe the behaviour of the electric ﬁeld in the presence of matter.10) .1) can be written without using the artiﬁcial ﬁelds D and H. These parameters. t) = ρall (r. t) = 0 ∇ × E(r.2. ∆v. in order to make it possible to study the interaction between an electromagnetic ﬁeld and a medium and to take into account the discrete nature of matter. P (C m−2 ). and electrical conductivity σ. Fortunately. the properties of matter related to atomic and molecular charges and currents are described by the macroscopic parameters.2 Constitutive equations Maxwell’s equations (1.9b) (1. within the limits of classical electromagnetic theory. are averaged over microscopically large-volume elements. the atomic and molecular physical properties.9d) ∇ · B(r. As a result of this average. t) ∂t (1. Nevertheless. are in general smoothed point functions. t) + μ0 ε0 where ε0 = 10−9 /(36π) (farad/meter. called constitutive parameters. as ∇ · E(r. respectively. such that D = ε0 E + P (1.9a) (1.9c) (1. magnetic permeability μ.8 CHAPTER 1. an involved process that may require complex models of molecules as well as quantum and statistical theory to describe their collective behavior. called electric polarization vector. in which only macroscopic quantities are used and in which only the densities of free charges and currents explicitly appear as sources of the ﬁelds. it is absolutely necessary to develop macroscopic models to extend equations (??) and (??) and to obtain Maxwell’s macroscopic equations (1. absolutely general.

such that B H= −M (1. called the electric susceptibility of the medium.13) .2. as the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume PN∆v n=1 mn M = lim (1. in a similar way to that of the electric polarization vector. Thus we have P = ε0 χe E (1. Expression (1. such that M = χm H (1. In general. pn .11) where N is the number of molecules per unit volume and the numerator is the vector sum of the individual dipolar moments. which is expressed by the hysteresis curve.19) (1. we must introduce another new macroscopic ﬁeld quantity.17) μ0 where M is deﬁned. REVIEW OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS and deﬁned as the average dipole moment per unit volume PN ∆v n=1 pn P = lim ∆v→0 ∆v 9 (1. To deﬁne the magnetic permeability and describe the behaviour of the magnetic ﬁeld in the presence of magnetic materials.1. For many materials. M is a function of the history of B or H.16) are the relative permittivity and the permittivity of the medium. P can be considered colinear and proportional to the electric ﬁeld applied. mn contained in a macroscopically inﬁnitessimal volume ∆v.14) (1. Nevertheless.10) can be written in a more compact form as D = (1 + χe )ε0 E so that D = ε0 εr E = εE where εr = 1 + χe and ε = ε0 εr (1. many magnetic media can be considered isotropic and linear. describes the capability of a dielectric to be polarized.18) ∆v→0 ∆v where N is the number of atomic current elements per unit volume and the numerator is the vector sum of the individual magnetic moments.12) where the dimensionless parameter χe . respectively. called magnetization vector M (A m−1 ). called linear isotropic media. of atoms and molecules contained in a macroscopically inﬁnitessimal volume ∆v.15) (1.

has a very high value of the order of 107 mho m−1 . are called constitutive relations. The concept of μr requires a careful deﬁnition when working with magnetic materials with strong hysteresis. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS where χm is the adimensional magnetic susceptibility magnitude. at room temp erature. For most metals σ is a scalar with a magnitude that dep ends on the temp erature and that. and/or E and Jc . μr = 1. εr = 1.21) (1. by the phenomenological relation. positive and small for paramagnets.24) J is linearly related to E trough medium. are related by D B = ε0 E = μ0 H (1. which are associated with the microscopic resp onse of atoms and molecules in the medium. and positive and large for ferromagnets. at any point of the conducting material. E and D. or σ = σ(r). called Ohm’s law Jc = σ E so that (1. μ and σ .24) holds in a wide range of circumstances. In isotropic media all the magnitudes of interest are parallel. μ = μ(r). respectively. and therefore the ﬁelds vectors D and E.23a) (1. The relations b etween macroscopic quantities.20) Very often the relation between an electric ﬁeld and the conduction current density Jc that it generates is given. Dep ending on the characteristics of the constitutive macroscopic parameters the prop ortionality factor σ called the conductivity of the −1 −1 −1 ε.24) it may not be applicable. (1. as well as B and H. this medium can classiﬁed as: Nonhomogeneous or homogeneous: according to whether or not the constitutive parameter of ε = ε(r).24) is valid are called ohmic media.Then very often metals are considered as p erfect conductors with an inﬁnite conductivity. (1. such as semiconductors.10 CHAPTER 1.. and/or interest is a function of the p osition. in other materials. Thus B = (1 + χm )μ0 H = μr μ0 H = μH where μr = (1 + χm ) and μ = μr μ0 (1. i. Conductivity is measured in siemens p er meter −1 (S m ≡ Ω m ) or mhos per meter (mho m ). which can reach very high values in magnetic materials such as iron and nickel. being negative and small for diamagnets. However. such as ferromagnetic media.22) are the relative magnetic permeability and the permeability of the medium.20) and (1.e.13). Anisotropic or isotropic: according to whether or not the response of the medium depends on the orientation of the ﬁeld.23b) (1. . Media in which (1. The phenomenon of hysteresis may also occur in certain dielectric materials called ferroelectric (see Appendix ??).24). or free space. In a vacuum. (1. A typical example of ohmic media are metals where (1.

etc. for example. Thus we have ∇·E ∇×B = ´ ρall 1 ³ = ρ−∇·P ε0 ε0 (1. Magnetic medium: if μ 6= μ0 . the resp onse of the medium to an applied ﬁeld is not instantaneous. μ 6= μ(t) or σ 6= σ(t) Dispersive: according to whether or not. Fortunately. nonlinear crystals. ferrites. In fact. nondispersive and nonmagnetic. Indeed. Thus. in many cases the medium in which the electromagnetic ﬁeld exists can be considered homogeneous. linear and isotropic. time-invariant. For instance ε(E).25a) = μ0 Jall + μ0 ε0 ∂P ∂E ∂E = μ0 (J + + ∇ × M ) + ε0 μ0 ∂t ∂t ∂t (1. isotropic and nonmagnetic media. Most of this book concerns homogeneous.10) and (1. . except in Chapter ?? where anisotropic and magnetic materials (ferrites) are considered. for arbitrary time dep endence this expression b ecomes t P (t) = ε0 −∞ χe (t − t0 )E(t0 )dt0 Similarly for magnetization and Ohms’ law we have t M(t) = −∞ t χm (t − t0 )H(t0 )dt0 σ(t − t0 )E(t0 )dt0 J(t) = −∞ These expressions indicate that. μ(H) or σ(E) en general función de E y B?? Time-invariant: if the constitutive parameters do not vary with time ε 6= ε(t).1. this assumption is not very restrictive since many electromagnetic phenomena can be studied using this simpliﬁcation.12).24) are strictly valid only for nondisp ersive media Eﬀectively.25b) 6 Eqs (1.17).) are analysed with linear models using the so-called small-signal approach. the constitutive parameters depend on the frequency. The eﬀect of the properties of a medium on the macroscopic ﬁeld can be emphasized by expressing E and B in Maxwell’s equations (1. linear. The materials in which these parameters are functions of the frequency are called dispersive6 .1d) by (1. b ecause of the dep endence of the electric p ermittivity with frequency we generally have P (ω) = ε0 χe (ω)E(ω).1a) and (1.2. even practical cases of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through nonlinear media (semiconductors.19) and (1. Otherwise the medium is called nonmagnetic because its only signiﬁcant reaction to the electromagnetic ﬁeld is polarization. as for any physical system. μ = μ(ω) or σ = σ(ω). according to the convolution theorem. In anisotropic materials the constitutive parameter of interest is a tensor (see Chapter ??) Nonlinear or linear: according to whether or not the constitutive parameters depend on the magnitude of the applied ﬁelds. (1. REVIEW OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 11 B and H. ε = ε(ω). for time-harmonic ﬁelds.

Since both bases of the pillbox can be made as small as we like. the total outward ﬂux of D over them is (Dn1 −Dn2 )ds = (D1 − D2 )· nds.28) Base 1 Curved surface Base 2 where D1 denotes the value of D in medium 1. ∇ × M (which takes place when a non-uniformly magnetized medium exists).3 Boundary conditions As is evident from (1. 1.ds = D1 . The integral form of Maxwell’s equations can be used to determine the relations. small pillbox that crosses the interface of the two media. b esides the free current density J ( which includes the conduction current density Jc = σ E ).9a) we have ρall = ρ − ∇ · P (1.1a)-(1. by taking a shallow enough pillbox. and n is the unit ˆ normal drawn from medium 2 to medium 1.ds = ρdv (1. ε0 ∂ E/∂t and the magnetization current. B.27) In the following we will assume that there is no magnetization current.2. μ and σ also are. as shown in Fig.1d) and (1. t) = J + ∂P +∇×M ∂t (1. whereupon the sources of D reduce to the density of surface free charge ρs on the interface n · (D1 − D2 ) = ρs ˆ p ero puede sup onerse una transición rápida p ero contínua del medio 1 al 2 (1. At the limit. The boundary condition for D can be calculated using a very thin.25a) we have explicitly as scalar sources of E both the free charge ρ and the polarization or bounded density of charge.26) Similarly. μ and σ where surface density of sources may exist along the boundary. where these Dn ˆ are the normal components of D.12 CHAPTER 1.ds + D.29) 7 El teorema de la divergencia requiere que las propiedades del medio varíen de forma contínua. D and H are discontinuous at points where ε. explicitly as vector sources of B . Then in (1. . in general the ﬁelds E.24).25b). Applying the divergence theorem7 to (1. −∇ · P .9d) we have Jall (r. of the normal and tangential components of the ﬁelds at the interface between two regions with diﬀerent constitutive parameters ε. in (1.ds + D2 . the displacement current in the vacuum. 1. (1.13).2. called boundary conditions.1a) we have I Z Z Z Z D. Hence the ﬁeld vectors will be discontinuous at a boundary between two media with diﬀerent constitutive parameters. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS In (1. Then in (1. the polarization current ∂ P /∂t (which results from the motion of the bounded charges in dielectrics).20). and D2 the value in medium 2. we can disregard the ﬂux over the curved surface. we have. (1. ds is the area of each base.

normal to the interface. this ˆ can be written as n × (E1 − E2 ) = 0 ˆ (1. Hence(E1 − E2 ) · t = 0 and we conclude that the tangential components of E are continuous across the interface between two media. 1.2d). and sides of lengh dl parallel to it (Fig. (1. it can be deduced from the generalized Ampère’s law. the area ds = dldh bounded by the loop approaches ˆ zero and. Similarly the boundary condition for B can be established using the Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds (1.2: Derivation of boundary conditions at the interface of two media. as dh → 0. that ˆ ˆ (H1 · t − H2 · t)dl + contributions of sides dh Ã ! ∂D = − + J · ds ∂t (1. Since the magnetic ﬁeld is solenoidal. it follows that the normal components of B are continuous across the interface between two media (1. the ﬂux of B vanishes. From ˆ the integral form of the Faraday’s law. using the same inﬁnitesimal rectangular loop.2).32) Analogously. REVIEW OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 13 Medium 1 Medium 2 Pilbox ˆ n dh Infinitesimal loop dh dl ˆ n Figure 1.2c) and deﬁning t as the unit tangent vector parallel to the direction of integration on the upper side of the loop. Pintar solo la n hacia arriba y las ds una Hcia arriba y la de abajo hacia abajo ˆ Cuidado pilbox es con dos l Hence the normal component of D changes discontinously across the interface by an amount equal to the free charge surface density ρs on the surface boundary. we have ˆ ˆ (E1 · t − E2 · t)dl + contributions of sides dh = − ∂B · ds ∂t (1.2.30) n · (B1 − B2 ) = 0 ˆ The behavior of the tangential components of E can be determined using a inﬁnitesimal rectangular loop at the interface which has sides of lengh dh.33) . since B is ﬁnite. In terms of the normal n to the boundary.1.1b).31) In the limit. (1.

37) ∂t ∂t where J represents the source current density distribution which is the primary origin of the electromagnetic ﬁelds8 . from Maxwell’s equations (1.36c) (1. For ﬁnite conductivity.3 The conservation of energy. since D is ﬁnite.1c) and (1. . If we assume that V contains power sources (generators) generating currents J. Poynting’s theorem Poynting’s theorem represents the electromagnetic energy-conservation law. This requires the surface to be a perfect conductor.35a) (1. the ﬂux of the surface current can have a non-zero value when the integration loop is reduced to zero. linear and isotropic ﬁnite region V bounded by a closed surface S. 8 The source current may b e maintained by external p ower sources or generators (this current is often called driven or impressed current). ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS where. we get ∇ · (E × H) = H · ∇ × E − E · ∇ × H = −H · ∂B ∂D −E · − E · (σ E + J) (1. A summary of the boundary conditions. while the induced conduction current density is written as Jc = σE (1. To derive the theorem.1d).35c) (1.35). then.34) the tangential component of H is discontinuous by the amount of surface current density Js . are particularized in (1.36d) 1. is inﬁnite.36b) (1.14 CHAPTER 1.35d) n × (H1 − H2 ) = Js ˆ n · (D1 − D2 ) = ρs ˆ n · (B1 − B2 ) = 0 ˆ Boundary conditions when the medium 2 is a perfect conductor (σ 2 → ∞) n × H1 ˆ n · D1 ˆ n · B1 ˆ n × E1 ˆ = 0 = Js = ρs = 0 (1. and consequently Js . General boundary conditions n × (E1 − E2 ) = 0 ˆ (1.35b) (1. its ﬂux vanishes. the tangential magnetic ﬁeld is continuous across the boundary.36) for the case when the medium 2 is a perfect conductor (σ 2 → ∞).36a) (1. let us calculate the divergence of the vector ﬁeld E × H in a homogeneous. Nevertheless.24). Thus n × (H1 − H2 ) = Js ˆ (1. if the conductivity σ of the medium 2. given in (1.

the location of the electric and magnetic energy has no physical signiﬁcance. in static.3. applying the divergence theorem. as a generalization of their expression for static ﬁelds.39) to steady ﬁelds do we ﬁnd ambiguous results. THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. this is a natural interpretation that does not contradict any experience. the derivates with respect to time can be written as ¶ µ µ ¶ ∂D ∂ 1 ∂E ∂ 1 2 E· = = εE · = εE E·D (1.38a) and (1. Umv .8) the left side of (1.37).39). we have Z I Z Z ∂ 1 2 σE dv − (E × H) · ds (1. This conclusion may seem questionable because it could be argued that any vector with an integral of zero over the closed surface S could be added to P without aﬀecting the total ﬂow. Nevertheless.38b) ∂t ∂t ∂t 2 ∂t 2 By introducing the equalities (1.1. we conclude that P = E × H represents the power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of P. and then rearranging terms.42) S (E × H) · ds = S P · ds (1. and magnetic energy density.40) 1 B·H (1.38b) into (1. POYNTING’S THEOREM 15 As the medium is assumed to be linear. and the third term represents the ﬂow of electromagnetic energy per second (power) through the surface S that bounds volume V . the ﬁrst term represents the change rate of the stored electromagnetic energy within the volume. .39) J · Edv = − (E · D + B · H)dv − ∂t V 2 V V S To interpret this result we accept that Uev = and 1 D·E 2 (1. stored in the respective ﬁelds. the second term represents the dissipation rate of electromagnetic energy within the volume.38a) ∂t ∂t ∂t 2 ∂t 2 ¶ µ µ ¶ ∂B ∂ 1 ∂H ∂ 1 H· = μH · = μH 2 = B·H (1. integrating over the volume V . consequently. because.41) 2 represent.39) represents the total electromagnetic power supplied by all the sources within the volume V . Thus according to (1. Deﬁning Poynting’s vector P as Umv = P =E×H we can write I (W/m2 ) I (1. the instantaneous electric energy density. Only when we try to particularize (1. Uev . Regarding the right side of (1.43) This equation represents the total ﬂow of power passing through the closed surface S and.

takes into account the ﬂow of power through S. (1. 1.47) becomes f = (∇ · D)E − B × (∇ × H) − ∂ (D × B) − D × (∇ × E) ∂t (1.48) By adding the term H(∇ · B) = 0 to this equality to make the ﬁnal expressions symmetrical. the Lorentz force density. etc. by means of the Poynting vector P. which we assume to be in free space.4 Momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld As we have seen in the previous section.46) = ∇×H − (1.39) was deduced by assuming a linear medium and that the losses occur only through conduction currents.1d) to express ρ and J as ρ = ∇·D J so that ³ ´ ∂D f = ρE + J × B = ∇ · D E − B × (∇ × H) + B × ∂t ∂D ∂t ∂ ∂B (D × B) + D × = ∂t ∂t ∂ − (D × B) − D × (∇ × E) ∂t (1.49) ∂t .39) represents an energy balance of that ﬂowing through S versus that stored and dissipated in V . when we apply the law of conservation of electromagnetic energy to a ﬁnite volume V bounded by a surface S.45) which. we will begin by expressing. let us consider Maxwell’s equations (1. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS Note that Eq. we can write the Lorentz force density as f = E(∇ · D) − D × (∇ × E) + H∇ · B − B × (∇ × H) − ∂ (D × B) (1. only in terms of the ﬁelds. it is also necessary to consider a momentum associated with the electromagnetic ﬁeld in order to guarantee the conservation of momentum. For this purpose. it is necessary to include a term that.1a) and (1. and by reordering. taking into account that B× = − (1. When there are no sources within V .5). exerted by the electromagnetic ﬁeld on the distribution of charges and current. To calculate this momentum. (1. (1. Otherwise the equation should be modiﬁed to include other kinds of losses such as those due to hysteresis or possible transformations of the electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy.44) ∂D ∂t (1.16 CHAPTER 1. We shall now see that when an electromagnetic ﬁeld interacts with the charges and currents in V .

the electric and magnetic tensors deﬁned by e Tβα m Tβα 1 = Dβ Eα − δ βα Eγ Dγ 2 1 = Bβ Hα − δ βα Hγ Bγ 2 (1. respectively. T em .4. z.50) ∂β 2 ∂β 2 c ∂t where δ βα is the Kronecker delta (δ βα = 1 if β = α and zero if β 6= α) and the indices α.50) constitute the α component of the divergence of a tensor quantity.56) m e where Tβα and Tβα represent.52) Therefore. taking into account the deﬁnition of the Poynting vector P.55) 1 1 em e m Tβα = Tβα + Tβα = Dβ Eα − δ βα Eγ Dγ + Bβ Hα − δ βα Hγ Bγ 2 2 (1. respectively.50) we have made use of the following equalities ∙ ¸ ¯ ∂ 1 ¯ 2 Eα ∇ · D − D × (∇ × E)¯ = εo Eβ Eα− δ βα E ∂β 2 α ∙ ¸ ¯ 1 ∂ ¯ 2 Hβ Hα − δ βα H = μ0 Bα ∇ · B − B × (∇ × H)¯ ∂β 2 α ¯ Pα ¯ = (1. MOMENTUM OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 17 The component α of Lorentz force density can be written.52).57) (1. ∂x ∂y ∂z em Tzx (1. . β = 1.50) and (1. deﬁned by ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 em 2 2 Tβα = εo Eβ Eα− δ βα E + μ0 Hβ Hα − δ βα H (1. as ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ fα = εo Eβ Eα − δ βα E 2 + μ0 Hβ Hα − δ βα H 2 − 2 Pα (1. and we have made use of the Einstein’s summation convention (i. we have where T em is a symmetric tensor. y.1. 3 correspond to the coordinates x.53) 2 2 1 ∂P c2 ∂t em Txy em Tyy em Tzy f = ∇ · T em − with ∇ · T em ∙ (1.. known as the Maxwell stress tensor. such that (∇ · T em )α = em ∂Tβα ∂β (1.51) D × B¯ c2 α The ﬁrst two summands in (1. 2. from (1.54) ⎤ em Txz em Tyz ⎦ em Tzz em The components of the electromagnetic tensor Tβα can be written as ⎡ ¸ T em ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎣ xx em Tyx = . To obtain (1.e. the repetition of an index automatically implies a summation over it).58) .

The momentum of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. In linear media the time-harmonic dependence of the sources gives rise . The transfer of momentum to a system of charges and currents implies a reduction in the ﬁeld momentum. and the loss of momentum by the system.e.. Thus.63) must represent another physical quantity with the same dimensions as a force. the term (1. Since the only electromagnetic force possible due to the interaction of the ﬁeld with charges and currents is F . However. given by 1/c2 times the Poynting vector. P g= 2 (1. the momentum of an electromagnetic ﬁeld can be comparable to that of particles.18 CHAPTER 1. and plays a crucial role in all the processes of interaction with matter. i. Z Z Z Z ∇ · T em dv = T em · ds = T em · n ds = ˆ fs ds V S S S (1.5 Time-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁelds A particular case of great interest is one in which the sources vary sinusoidally in time. which can be determined experimentally. in the domain of atomic phenomena.59) f dv = fs ds − 2 c ∂t V V V S where fs is the force per unit of area on S fs = T em · n ˆ and we have applied the theorem of divergence to the tensor T em i.50) over the volume V the total electromagnetic force F exerted on the volume is Z Z Z Z 1 ∂ F = (ρE + J × B)dv = Pdv (1. 1. for example by radiation.62) V Pdv (1. leaves to an increase in the momentum of the ﬁeld. is inappreciable under normal conditions and its value is often below the limits of the measurement error. Eq. This is equivalent to associating a momentum density g with the electromagnetic ﬁeld.62 represents the formulation for the momentum conservation in the presence of electromagnetic ﬁelds.61) Thus Note that the term Z 1 ∂ fs ds = F + 2 c ∂t S 1 ∂ c2 ∂t Z Z V P dv (1.64) c which propagates in the same direction as the ﬂow of energy.63) is not null even in the absence of charges and currents. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS Integrating (1. 1. the rate of momentum transmitted by the electromagnetic ﬁeld to the volume V .e.60) (1.

but also because arbitrary periodic time functions can be expanded into Fourier series of harmonic sinusoidal components while transient nonperiodic functions can be expressed as Fourier integrals.67b) (1. ω). the time-harmonic variation is expressed using the complex exponential notation based on Euler’s formula. TIME-HARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 19 to ﬁelds which. However. we will represent both complex phasor magnitudes ~ ~ (either scalar or vector) by symbols in bold. t).g. 1. Diﬀerential form of Maxwell’s equations for time-harmonic ﬁelds ~ ∇·D ~ ∇·B = ρ (Gauss’ law) = 0 (Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds) ~ = −jω B (Faraday’s law) (1.67c) (1. The real time-dependent quantity associated with a complex phasor is calculated. such as E = E(r.67a) (1. by multiplying it by ejωt and taking the real part. is expressed as 1 ~ ~ ~ E = Re{Eejωt } = (Eejωt + (Eejωt )∗ ) = E0 cos(ωt + ϕ) 2 ~ where E is the complex phasor.1a)-(1. these complex phasors may depend on the angular frequency.65). E = E(r. Maxwell’s equations in diﬀerential and integral forms for time-harmonic ﬁelds are given below. t).2d) and eliminating the factor ejωt . and ρ = ρ(r. whereas their imaginary part is discarded.66) (1. and ρ = ρ(r. Analytically.67d) ~ ∇×E ~ ∇×H ~ ~ = J + jω D (Generalized Ampère’s law) Integral form of Maxwell’s equations for time harmonic ﬁelds . can be distinguished from complex phasors which do not depend on time. time-harmonic analysis is important not only because many electromagnetic systems operate with signals that are practically harmonic. In this way. which will in general be a function of the angular frequency and coordinates. Thus. we can get the phasor form or time-harmonic form of Maxwell’s equations simply by changing the operator ∂/∂t to the factor jω in (1. In general. For example. an electric ﬁeld with time-harmonic dependence given by cos(ωt + ϕ). since the Maxwell’s equations are linear diﬀerential equations. the total ﬁelds can be synthesized from its Fourier components.1. where ω is the angular frequency. as in (1. ω). once having reached the steady state. The asterisk ∗ indicates the complex conjugate.5.1 Maxwell’s equations for time-harmonic ﬁelds Assuming ejωt time dependence. e. where it is understood that the physical ﬁelds are obtained by taking the real part. as indicated.5. and Re {} represents the real part of what is in curly brackets. ~ E = E0 ejϕ (1. time-dependent (real) quantities.65) of amplitude E0 and phase ϕ. Throughout the book. which are represented by mathematical symbols not in bold. also vary sinusoidally in time.

73a) 0 00 is the relative complex p ermittivity and χce = χcer −jχcer is the com plex electric susceptibility.68a) ~ B · ds = 0 (Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds) (1. there appear relatively strong damping forces that give rise to a delay between ~ ~ the polarization vector P and E (a phase shift between P and E).25a) and (1. within a ~ ~ given frequency range.25b) become ´ 1 ³ ρall ~ ~ = ρ−∇·P (1.5.68c) Γ S Z I ~ ~ ~ H · dl = (J + jω D) · ds (Generalized Ampère’s law) (1. 0 00 . For a medium with complex permittivity.69b) 1. the complex phasor form of the displacement current is ~ ~ ~ ~ jω D = jωεc E = ωε00 E + jωε0 E (1. Over certain frequency ranges. and consequently between E and D. there may be a phase shift between E and J c or between ~ and H which. where the dependence with the frequency of the dielectric constant is studied. At the macroscopic level this eﬀect is analytically expressed by means of a com plex p ermittivity. and to a loss of electromagnetic energy as heat in overcoming the damping forces (see Appendix ??).68b) Z I ~ ~ E · dl = −jω B · ds (Faraday’s law) (1. Similar processes occur in magnetic and conducting media. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS I I S ~ D · ds = QT (Gauss’ law) (1.71) (1.70) (1. due to the atomic and molecular processes involved in the macroscopic response of a medium to an electromagnetic ﬁeld.69a) ∇·E = ε0 ε0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ∇ × B = jωε0 μ0 E+ μ0 J all = jωε0 μ0 E + μ0 (J + jω P + ∇ × M ) (1. at the macroscopic level. is reﬂected in the corresponding ~ B complex constitutive parameters σ c = σ 0 − jσ 00 and μc = μ0 − jμ00 . expressions (1. and. εc as ~ ~ D = εc E with (1.68d) S Γ S For time-harmonic ﬁelds.2 Complex dielectric constant.20 CHAPTER 1.72) where εcr εc = ε0 − jε00 = ε0 εcr εcr = 1 + χce = ε0 − jε00 r r In general both ε and ε present a strong frequency dependence and they are closely related to one another by the Kramer-Kronig relations as is shown in Appendix ??.

deﬁned as σ ec = σ e + jωε0 (1. of the displacement and conduction current. respectively.77) where σ e is the eﬀective or equivalent conductivity σ e = σ + ωε00 (1. 1. can be written as ~ ~ ~ ~ J i = σe E + jωε0 E = σ ec E where σ ec is the complex eﬀective conductivity. while the sum.75) (1.78) which includes the ohmic losses due to σ and the damping losses due to ωε00 . called the reactive current. is the real part of the induced current J i (Fig.79) Thus a medium with conductivity σ ec and null permittivity is formally equivalent to one with conductivity and permittivity. (1. ~ ~ J d = (σ + ωε00 )E (1. ~r .74). called total induced ~ current. Thus the induced current.80) (1. .3: Induced current density in the complex plane. is ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J i = σ E + jωεc E = (σ + ωε00 )E + jωε0 E = J d + J r ~ where J d . The dissipative current can be expressed in a more compact form as ~ ~ J d = σe E (1.5.76) is the imaginary part of the induced current which is in phase quadrature with the electric ﬁeld.1. σ and εc .74) ~ in phase with the electric ﬁeld. J i . called the dissipative current.3) while J ~ ~ J r = jωε0 E (1. TIME-HARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 21 J r = jωε ' Ε Ji δd E J d = σe E Figure 1.

Pdv . the phase angle δ d between the induced and reactive currents. Thus.22 CHAPTER 1. by 0 Pdv = = 1 T 1 T Z Z T 0 T E · Ji dt = 1 T Z T 0 E0 cos ωt · (σ e E0 cos ωt + ωε0 E0 sin ωt)dt 1 T Z T 0 2 σ e E0 cos2 ωtdt = 0 E · Jd dt = 2 σe E0 2 (1. In summary.86) 0 The average power dissipated per cycle and unit volume.83) (1. this p ossibilities are can b e formally considered alternatively either as a medium of p ermittivity (1.87) .82).3). according ductivity σ e . the ratio of the dissipative and reactive currents) is called the loss tangent tan δ d = σe ωε0 (1. can be written in terms of the loss tangent as σe ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J i = σ ec E = jωε0 (1 − j 0 )E = jωε0 (1 − j tan δ d ) E = jωεec E ωε where εec is deﬁned as the eﬀective complex permittivity εec = ε0 (1 − j tan δ d ) = ε0 εer and εer = (1 − j tan δ d )ε0 r denotes the eﬀective relative permittivity.85) factor Q of the dielectric which is a Q = ω Maximun energy stored per unit volume Wv =ω 0 Time average power lost per unit volume Pdv (1.79). is given.81) and the induced current. (1. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS On the other hand. a medium ε0 and eﬀective conor as a conducting medium of εec Original medium Equivalent medium 1 Equivalent medium 2 Equivalent medium 3 Permittivity εc = ε0 − jε00 ε0 σ εec = ε0 − j(ε00 + ω ) 0 The loss tangent is equal to the inverse of the quality dimensionless quantity deﬁned as Conductivity σ σ e = σ + ωε00 0 σ ec = σ + ωε00 + jωε0 (1. 1.84) to (1.. (Fig.79) and (1. or as a dielectric medium of eﬀective p ermittivity eﬀective conductivity σ ec . due both to the Joule eﬀect and to that of dielectric polarization.82) (1.e. is called the loss or dissipative angle. and its tangent (i.8). according to (1.

Q and tan δ d . so that tan δ d = tan δ d = σe >> 1 ωε0 σ >> 1 ωε (1. in which case the reactive current coincides with the displacement current.92) ε0 If σ e = 0 (i.89) by (1. For a homogeneous conducting medium where ε0 and σ e do not depend on the position.e. If the medium is strongly lossy we have ωε0 << σ e . so that tan δ d = Or. Gauss’ law (1.87). σe << 1 ωε0 (1.3) can be writen as ∇ · E = ρ/ε0 (1. if σ = 0.95) . a medium is classiﬁed as a weakly lossy or a strongly lossy medium respectively.1a) and the continuity equation (1. dividing (1.89) Thus.90) Although both dimensionless quantities. Of this power.88) The maximum electric ﬁeld energy stored per unit of volume is Wv = 1 0 2 ε E0 2 (1. ωε0 >> σ e .93) which for good conductors where ε00 = 0. usually called good dielectrics or insulators. the part corresponding to polarization losses is 1 T Z T 2 ωε00 E0 cos2 ωtdt = 0 2 ωε00 E0 2 (1. can be used to deﬁne the characteristics of a dielectric. and the dielectric is characterized by a real permittivity ε.91) ε00 << 1 (1. Depending on whether the reactive or the dissipative current is predominant at the operating frequency.94) being practically ε = ε0 . tan δ d = 0). we have. Note that only the dissipative part of Ji contributes to the average power. Thus for weakly lossy media. the medium is termed a perfect or ideal dielectric. tan δ d = ∞) the medium is termed a perfect conductor.1.5. we have Q= 1 ωε0 = σe tan δ d (1. If σ = ∞ (i. ε0 = ε simpliﬁes to tan δ d = (1. TIME-HARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 23 where T = 2π/ω is the period of the signal. we will use the loss tangent throughout this book.e.

102c) (1. signifying that in good conductors the charge distribution decays exponentially so quickly that it may be assumed that ρ = 0 at any time.102a) (1.100) = (τ ω)−1 εω Thus the classiﬁcation of a medium as a good or poor conductor depends on whether the relaxation time is short or long compared with the period of the signal.101d) Boundary conditions when the medium 2 is a perfect conductor (σ 2 → ∞) = 0 ~ = Js = ρs.98) where ρ0 is the charge density at time t = 0.36d).96) σ e ρ ∂ρ + =0 ε0 ∂t (1. μ and σ. the loss tangent can be written as σ (1.101a) (1.3 Boundary conditions for harmonic signals For harmonic signals the boundary conditions of the normal and tangential components of the ﬁelds at the interface between two regions with diﬀerent constitutive parameters ε. become General boundary conditions ~ ~ n × (E 1 − E 2 ) = 0 ˆ ~ ~ ~ n × (H 1 − H 2 ) = J s ˆ ~ n · (D1 − D2 ) = ρs ˆ ~ ~ n · (B 1 − B 2 ) = 0 ˆ ~ n × E1 ˆ ~ n × H1 ˆ ~ n · D1 ˆ ~ n · B1 ˆ ~ (1.97) so that the expression for the decay of a charge distribution in a conductor is given by 0 ρ = ρ0 e−(σe /ε )t (1. The characteristic time τ= ε0 σe (1.24 and CHAPTER 1.101b) (1. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS σe ∇ · E = − respectively. Hence we have ∂ρ ∂t (1. For most metals τ = 10−14 s. In terms of the relaxation time. = 0 (1.35a)-(1.101c) (1.99) required for the charge at any point to decay to 1/e of its original value is called the relaxation time. tan δ d = 1.5.102d) .102b) (1. (1.

(1. it is convenient to ﬁnd.e. From (1.5. (1. The magnitude ~ ~∗ Pc = E × H (1.67d). the time-average power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of P.5.42) can be written as E P ~ ~ = E × H = Re{Eejωt } × Re{Hejωt } 1 ~ ~ ~∗ ~ = Re{E × H + E × He2jωt } 2 (1.103a) (1.1. the time-average Poynting vector over a period.106) Re{E × H } = Re{Pc } = 2 2 ~ ~ since the time average of E × He2jωt vanishes. ﬁrst.105) Re{A × B + A × B} 2 The time-average value of the instantaneous Poynting vector can be calculated integrating (1. From Faraday’s law. TIME-HARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 25 1.108b) .107) is termed the complex Poynting vector.108a) (1. the instantaneous Poynting vector (1.67c).104) where we have made use of the general relation for any two complex vectors A and B 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~∗ ~∗ Re{A} × Re{B} = ( A + A ) × (B + B ) 2 2 1 ~ ~ ∗ ~∗ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~∗ ~ ∗ = (A × B + A × B) + (A × B + A × B ) 4 4 1 ³ ~ ~ ∗ ³ ~ ~ ∗ ´∗ ´ 1 ³ ~ ~ ³ ~ ~ ´∗ ´ = + A×B + A×B A×B+ A×B 4 4 1 ~ ~∗ ~ ~ = (1. Thus the time-average of the Poynting vector is equal to one-half the real part of the complex Poynting vector For a more complete view of the meaning of the complex Poynting vector. in its conjugate complex form.e. i. Z Z T 1 T 1 ~ ~∗ ~ ~ Re{E × H + E × He2jωt }dt Pdt = Pav = T 0 2T 0 1 1 ~ ~∗ (1.103b) (1. and from Ampère’s general law.4 Complex Poynting vector In formulating the conservation-energy equation for time-harmonic ﬁelds.65) we have n o 1³ ´ ~ ~ ~ = Re Eejωt = Eejωt + (Eejωt )∗ 2 n o 1³ ´ jωt ~ ~ ~ H = Re He = Hejωt + (Hejωt )∗ 2 Thus. we have ~ ∇×E ~∗ ∇×H ~ = −jωμH ~∗ ~ ∗ ~∗ = −jωεE + J + σ E (1.104) over a period .. i. let us again formulate Poynting’s theorem particularized for sources with timeharmonic dependence.

Performing a scalar multiplication of Eq. the mean density of the 2 magnetic and electric energy. since the mean value of the square of a sine or cosine function is 1/2.112a) the ﬁrst integral.109) 2 2 The terms μH0 /4 and εE0 /4 represent.108a by H and of Eq.111) − E × H · ds S 2 which is the expression corresponding to (1.113) V represents the active mean power supplied by all the sources within V . as commented above. and subtracting the results.108b by E. By multiplying Equation (1. 1.112b) can b e easily extended to the case of lossy dielectric just substituting σ by the equivalent conductivity σ e deﬁned in (1.110) 2 4 4 2 2 ~ where J represents the complex conjugate of the current supplied by the ~∗ sources. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS 2 2 ~ ~∗ ~ ~∗ where it has been taken into account that H · H = H0 and E · E = E0 . we obtain the following two equalities Z Z Z 2 σE0 1 ~∗ ~ 1 ~ ~∗ Re (J · E)dv = − Re (E × H ) · ds (1.112a) dv − 2 2 2 V V S ¶ Z Z µ Z 1 ~∗ ~ 1 ~ H2 E2 ~∗ Im (J · E)dv = −2ω Im (E × H ) · ds μ 0 − ε 0 dv − 2 4 4 2 V V S (1.112b) The ﬁrst member of (1.78)and ε by ε0 deﬁned in (1. we get ³ ´ ~ ~∗ ~ ~ ~∗ ~∗ ∇· E×H = H ·∇×E−E·∇×H ¡ ¢ 2 2 ~∗ ~ ~∗ = −jω μH0 − εE0 − E · (J + σ E ) (1.39) in complex notation and where the ﬁrst member represents the power supplied by external sources.112a) Pa = Z 1 ~∗ ~ Re (J · E)dv 2 (1. .110) by the volume element dv. By separating the real and imaginary parts.26 ∗ CHAPTER 1.109) by 2 we get µ ¶ µ ¶ 2 2 2 1~ ~ ∗ = −2jω μ H0 − ε E0 − σE0 − 1 J ∗ · E ~ ~ E×H ∇· (1. On the right-hand side of (1. gives the 9 Expression (1. ~ 1. we obtain the complex version of the Poynting theorem ¶ Z Z Z µ 2 2 2 H0 E0 1 ³ ~ ∗ ~´ σE0 μ J · E dv = − dv − 2jω −ε dv 2 4 4 V 2 V ZV ³ ´ 1 ~ ~∗ (1. while σE0 /2 is the the mean power transformed 9 into heat within V . respectively. with H0 and E0 being the amplitude of the two harmonic ﬁelds. After dividing (1.71). integrating over an arbitrary volume V and applying the divergence theorem.

the external region is said to be a reactive charge for the sources within V . if the surface integral of Eq. It is even possible to build artiﬁcial materials. Of course. Regarding to expression (1. require theoretical knowledge of electromagnetic phenomena . the ﬁrst member µ ¶ Z 1~∗ ~ Pr = J · E dv Im (1. they present many potential technological applications. ON THE SOLUTION OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 27 power transformed into heat within V . In fact. In particular. numerical methods are fundamental for simulating and solving complex problems that do not admit analytical solutions. These media are called DNG (double-negative) metamaterials and. Examples of such as metamaterials are those characterized with both negative permittivity (ε < 0) and negative permeability (μ < 0). both of these surface integrals are non-zero and the external region becomes both an active and a reactive charge for the sources. for example. while the second represents the ﬂow of reactive power that is exchanged with the external medium through S.6 On the solution of Maxwell’s equations Despite their apparent simplicity. as well as the interpretation of the results. In general. All these circumstances make it in general necessary to use analytical. the external region is said to be an active charge for the sources within V . constitute the three pillars supporting research in Electromagnetics. which together. can vary from 0 to 107 S m−1 . which present electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature. The behavior and values of the constitutive parameters can change very signiﬁcantly in this frequency. Today numerical methods make up the so-called computational electromagnetics. the frequency range of scientiﬁc and technological interest can vary by many orders of magnitude. Conductivity. linear and isotropic media.1. owing to their unusual electromagnetic properties. numerical or experimental tools. both the development of analitycal. which can also vary by several orders of magnitude. Maxwell’s equations are in general not easy to solve. with experimental and theoretical or analytical electromagnetics. Another important factor to study the interaction of an electromagnetic ﬁeld with an object is the electrical size of the body. called metamaterials.112a) is non-zero. expanding from frequency values of zero (or very low) to roughly 1014 Hertz.6. i.114) 2 V is called the reactive power of the sources.112b) is nonzero.. 1. while the surface integral represents the mean ﬂow of power through the surface S. Similarly. On the right-hand side the ﬁrst summand is 2ω times the diﬀerence of the average energies stored in the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. semi-analytical or numerical methods appropriate to each situation. the relationship between the wavelength and the body size. there are not many problems of interest that can be analytically solved except for those presenting a high degree of geometrical symmetry.e. range. Moreover. even in the most favorable situation of homogeneous.112b). (1. If the surface integral in (1.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FUNDAMENTALS .28 CHAPTER 1.

Chapter 2

**Fields created by a source distribution: retarded potentials
**

In this chapter, we introduce the scalar electric and magnetic vector potentials as magnitudes that facilitate the calculation of the ﬁelds created by a boundedsource distribution, paying special attention to the radiation ﬁeld. Finally, we extend Maxwell’s equations, in order to make them symmetric, by introducing the concept of magnetic charges and currents.

2.1

Electromagnetic potentials

A basic problem in electromagnetism is that of ﬁnding the ﬁelds created for a time-varying source distribution of ﬁnite size, which we assume to be in a nonmagnetic, lossless, homogeneous, time-invariant, linear and isotropic medium. Figure 2.1 represents such a distribution, where, as usual, the coordinates associated with source points, J = J(r0 , t0 ), ρ = ρ(r0 , t0 ), are designated by primes, while those associated with ﬁeld points or observation points P (r, t) are without primes. In the following, we will assume the medium surrounding the source distribution to be free space, i.e. μ = μ0 , ε = ε0 , although of course all the resulting formulas remain valid for media of constant permittivity and permeability, provided that ε0 is replaced by εr ε0 and μ by μr μ0 . While the expressions for the ﬁelds can be derived directly from their sources, the task can often be facilitated by calculating ﬁrst two auxiliary functions, the scalar electric potential Φ = Φ(r, t) and the magnetic vector potential A = A(r, t) (Fig. 2.2). Once the potentials are obtained, it is a simple matter to calculate the ﬁelds from them. In this section, we formulate the general expressions for these potentials. Since, according to (1.1b), the divergence of the magnetic ﬁeld B is always 29

30CHAPTER 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL

P

l

r r r J (r ', t ); ρ (r ', t )

V'

r R

S

r r' θ

ˆ r

dV '

r r

O

Figure 2.1:

Time-varying source b ounded distribution

V0

dinates associated with source points of currents and charges resp ectivelly are designated by primes, while the associate primes.

of maximun dimension l. The coorJ = J(r0 , t0 ), and ρ = ρ(r0 , t0 ), with ﬁeld p oints, P (r, t), are without

ρ ( r ', t ), J ( r ', t )

r

r r

r r E; B

r Φ, A

Figure 2.2: Quitar o poner argumentos pero uniﬁcar

2.1. ELECTROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS

31

zero, we can express it as the curl of an electromagnetic vector potential A as B =∇×A Inserting this expression into (1.1c) we get µ ¶ ∂ ∇× E + A =0 ∂t (2.1)

(2.2)

Since any vector with a zero curl can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar function Φ, called the scalar potential, we can write E+ or E = −∇Φ − ∂A ∂t (2.4) ∂ A = −∇Φ ∂t (2.3)

where ∂ A/∂t is the nonconservative part of the electric ﬁeld with a non-vanishing curl. When the vector potential A is independent of time, expression (2.4) reduces to the familiar E(r) = −∇Φ(r). According to the relations (2.1) and, (2.4) the ﬁelds B and E are completely determined by the vector and scalar potentials A and Φ. However, the ﬁelds do not uniquely determine the potentials. For instance, it is clear that the transformation (2.5) A = A0 + ∇Ψ where Ψ = Ψ (r, t) is any arbitrary, single-valued, continuously diﬀerentiable, scalar function of position and time that vanishes at inﬁnity, leaves B unchanged B = ∇ × A = ∇ × A0 + ∇ × ∇Ψ = ∇ × A0 Inserting (2.5) into (2.4), it follows that µ ¶ ∂Ψ ∂ A0 E = −∇ Φ + − ∂t ∂t (2.6)

(2.7)

so that the value of E, obtained from A0 , also remains unchanged provided that Φ is replaced by the scalar potential Φ0 = Φ + ∂Ψ ∂t (2.8)

Thus diﬀerent sets of potentials A and Φ give rise to the same set of ﬁelds1 B and E. The joint transformation (2.5) and (2.8) leaves the electromagnetic ﬁeld

1 The liberty to select the value of A is understandable taking into account that by (2.1) the magnetic ﬁeld ﬁxes only ∇ × A. However, Helmholtz’s theorem posits that, to determine the (spatial) behavior of A completely, ∇.A (which is still undetermined) must also be speciﬁed. Thus, we can choose it in any way we consider suitable for facilitating the calculation of the electromagnetic ﬁelds.

it is covariant. The degree of freedom provided by the gauge transformations facilitates the calculation of the potentials and hence of the ﬁelds because. Fortunately.4). as shown in (??). (1. using (??) and rearranging terms.9) to the inhomogeneous Helmholtz wave equations ∂2A − ∇2 A = μ0 J ∂t2 ρ ∂2Φ μ0 ε0 2 − ∇2 Φ = ∂t ε0 μ0 ε0 (2.1) and (2.e. if it holds in one particular inertial fram e then it automatically holds in all other inertial frames. second-order partial-diﬀerential equations ∙ ¸ ∂2A ∂Φ 2 μ0 ε0 2 − ∇ A = μ0 J − ∇ ∇ · A + μ0 ε0 ∂t ∂t ∙ ¸ ρ ∂ ∂2Φ ∂Φ 2 + ∇ · A + μ0 ε0 μ0 ε0 2 − ∇ Φ = ∂t ε0 ∂t ∂t (2. we can always take advantage of the freedom in choosing the potentials so that they fulﬁl the Lorenz condition and consequently simplify Eqs (2.10) called the Lorenz gauge (or Lorenz condition)2 . To this end.1d). we get two. the ﬁelds are easily derived by diﬀerentiation from (2.. A0 and Φ0 . 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL invariant.11) for the potentials are uncoupled and each one depends on only one type of source. and the function Ψ is called the gauge function. as we will show below.9b) These equations could be considerably simpliﬁed if we could force (without changing the ﬁelds) the potentials to satisfy the auxiliary relation ∇ · A + μ0 ε0 ∂Φ = 0 ∂t (2. and Gauss’ law. let us consider two potentials.1a).11b) The advantage of having applied the Lorenz condition is that the equations (2. once the potentials are known. also called the Lorenz condition. (1.1 Lorenz gauge Inserting (2. coupled. It remains to be shown that it is always possible to force the potentials to satisfy the Lorenz condition (2.10). An example of gauge transformation is the Lorenz gauge. . which fulﬁl Equations (??) and (??) and check whether it is possible 2 A very interesting prop erty of the Lorenz condition is that.9a) (2.11a) (2.32CHAPTER 2. The diﬀerent forms of choosing the potentials A and Φ leaving the ﬁelds unchanged are called gauge transformations.4) into the generalized Ampère’s law. i. This makes it easier to calculate the potentials than the ﬁelds (see Section ??).1.1) and (2.

8) into (2.14a) (2.2. we get ∇2 A0 − μ0 ε0 ∇2 Φ0 − μ0 ε0 ∂ 2 A0 ∂t2 ∂ 2 Φ0 ∂t2 ¶ µ ∂Φ0 ∂2Ψ = −μ0 J + ∇ ∇ · A0 + ∇2 Ψ + μ0 ε0 − μ0 ε0 2 ∂t ∂t (2. By inserting (2.17) . ELECTROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS 33 to select them so that they satisfy equations (2. and their solutions.12a) and (2.14b) where the symbol ¤ represents the D’Alembertian operator deﬁned by ¤ ≡ ∇2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂t2 (2.16) (2.12a) ¶ µ ρ ∂ ∂Φ0 ∂2Ψ = − − ∇ · A0 + ∇2 Ψ + μ0 ε0 − μ0 ε0 2 ε0 ∂t ∂t ∂t (2. respectively. given that the scalar function Ψ is arbitrary. which are provided in the next section. They take the form ∇2 A − 1 ∂2A c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2Φ ∇2 Φ − 2 2 c ∂t = ¤A = −μ0 J = ¤Φ = − ρ ε0 (2.5) and (2.11b) are the inhomogeneous wave equations for the potentials.14b) simplify to ~ ∇2 A + ω2 ~ ~ A = −μ0 J c2 ω2 ρ ∇2 Φ + 2 Φ = − c ε0 (2.11).1.18a) (2.13) Thus (2. meaning that A0 and Φ0 fulﬁl the Lorenz condition.14a) and (2.9) and by rearranging.11a) and (2.18b) ~ jc2 ∇ · A ω (2.10) for harmonic ﬁelds simpliﬁes to ~ jω ∇·A+ 2 Φ=0 c such that Φ= while (2.12b) and.11b). Expressions (2.12b) become (2. rep√ resent waves propagating at the velocity c = 1/ μ0 ε0 ' 3 × 108 m/s of light in free space.11a) and (2. we can choose it as the solution to the diﬀerential equation ∇2 Ψ − μ0 ε0 ∂2Ψ ∂Φ0 = −∇ · A0 − μ0 ε0 ∂t2 ∂t (2.15) The Lorenz gauge (2.

This fact denotes the non-physical nature of Φ since real physical magnitudes can change only after a delay determined by the propagation time between the perturbation and the measurement point. According (2. 3).34CHAPTER 2. From (2. however. a time change in ρ implies an instantaneous change in Φ. 2. in which ∇ · A = 0. the superposition principle and consider a source distribution .19) (2.4) and the curl of (2. but it should be made clear that the E and H ﬁelds calculated from the potentials with the Coulomb or Lorenz gauges must be identical.20) = −μ0 J As can be seen from (2. where the potentials are used to describe the interaction of the charges with the electromagnetic ﬁeld instead of being used to calculate the ﬁelds. t) = ∇2 Ψ(r. while the sources coordinates are r0 . By taking the divergence of (2. (i = 1. t) − 1 ∂ 2 Ψ(r. 2. To facilitate the solution of this equation. 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL In addition to Lorenz’s gauge. The complete solutions of the inhomogeneous wave equations for the potentials (2.2 Solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation for potentials Let us now calculate the expression of the potentials created by an arbitrary bounded source distribution (charges and currents) in an unbounded homogeneous. time-invariant. is considerably more diﬃcult to calculate. linear and isotropic medium of conductivity zero that we assume to be free space (Fig. For instance. The next section is devoted to ﬁnding these particular solutions.19). other gauge conditions may sometimes be useful.14) we see that the scalar potential Φ as well as each of the three components Ai . t of the ﬁeld point. in quantum ﬁeld theory. and taking into account the generalized Ampère’s law and Gauss’ law .21) where the operator ¤ acts on the coordinates r. we can easily see that with Coulomb’s gauge the expressions for the potential wave equations are ∇2 Φ = − ∇2 A − 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂2A − 2∇ 2 ∂t2 c c ∂t ρ ε0 (2. it is useful to use Coulomb’s gauge. of the vector potential A satisfy inhomogeneous scalar wave equations with the general form ¤Ψ(r.14) are linear combinations of the particular solutions and of the general solutions for the corresponding homogeneous wave equations.19). t) c2 ∂t2 (2. we can use. In this book we will use only the Lorenz condition.1). The vector potential. which express the potentials in terms of integrals over the source distributions J and ρ. in Coulomb’s gauge the scalar potential is determined by the instantaneous value of the charge distribution. t0 . t) = −g (r. owing to the linearity of the problem. using an equation similar to Poisson’s expression in electrostatics.1).

because of the homogeneity of the space. t).2. between the point source and the observation or ﬁeld point and on the time diﬀerence τ = t − t0 . t0 ) = −δ(r − r 0 )δ(t − t0 ) c2 ∂t2 (2. Thus. t0 ) − ∇2 G = ∂2G ∂τ 2 = 1 ∂ 2 (RG) R ∂R2 ∂2G ∂t2 (2.28) 2 ∂R c ∂τ 2 3 Note that Eq. then the solution of (2. which.25a) (2. Thus G(r.23) can be written. The function G(r.e.22) t0 =−∞ V0 where V 0 is a volume containing all the sources. t) as constructed from a sum of weighted space-time Dirac delta function sources. (2.25b) b) The second step is to ﬁnd Ψ(r. t) and G(r. R = |r − r 0 |. generated by the space-time Dirac δ−function source. r 0 . r 0 . τ ) and (2. 2 R ∂R c ∂τ 2 (2. Owing to the linearity of the problem and. ¤G(r. located at position r 0 and applied at time t0 which obeys the inhomogeneous wave equation 1 ∂ 2 G(r. τ ) = 1 ∂ 2 (RG) 1 ∂2G − 2 = 0.27) represents the spatial and temp oral convolution of g(r. so too does Ψ(r.24) 2 R ∂R c ∂τ 2 where. t0 ) δ(r − r 0 )δ(t − t0 )dv 0 dt0 (2. using Green’s method in the time domain. δ(r − r 0 )δ(t − t0 ). must be a spherical wave centred at position r 0 at time t0 . t. r 0 . as 1 ∂ 2 (RG) 1 ∂2G ¤G(R. t. (2. i. (??).2. This function depends on the relative distance.23) and satisﬁes the boundary conditions of the problem.22). t. from (2. t) .21) can be solved in two steps. t. SOLUTION OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS WAVE EQUATION FOR POTENTIALS35 g (r. t0 ). τ ) = − 2 = −δ(R)δ(τ ) (2. if the solution of (2. t.24) simpliﬁes to ¤G(R.23) is G. (2. using spherical coordinates.. r 0 . t0 ) G(R. τ )dv 0 dt0 . r 0 . G(r. To ﬁnd the Green’s function let us consider ﬁrst a general point R 6= 0 such that equation (2. t. t0 ) = ∇2 G(r. r 0 . t) from Green’s function. Z t Z g (r. a) The ﬁrst step is to calculate the response. as follows. t0 ) is called Green’s free-space function. t) = g (r 0 .26) t0 =−∞ V0 Because G fulﬁls the boundary conditions.27) Multiplying this equation by R and deﬁning G0 = RG we have the homogeneous wave equation 1 ∂ 2 G0 ∂ 2 G0 − 2 =0 (2.21) is 3 Z t Z Ψ= g (r 0 . t0 ) = G(R.

26) is termed the advanced potential and is a function of the value of the sources at the future observation instant.36) . τ ) = f (τ − R/c) h(τ + R/c) + R R (2. we have f (τ − R/c) = and the solution of (2. since ∇2 (1/R) = −4πδ(R) and dv 0 = 4πR2 dR.32) (2. the second integral can be eliminated and therefore f (τ ) = δ(τ ) 4π (2.24) is given by G(R.36CHAPTER 2. Thus. we have µ ¶ 1 ∂ 2 G(R. τ ) = δ(τ − R/c) δ(t − t0 − R/c) = 4πR 4πR (2.30) we must consider only the retarded f (τ − R/c)/R solution as physically meaningful.29) G0 (R. τ ) dv 0 ∇2 G(R. To determine f (τ − R/c)/R. respectively. according to which the potential at (t.34) As R → 0.37) δ(τ − R/c) 4π (2. we integrate the diﬀerential equation (2. − Z 4πf (τ )δ(R)dv 0 + V0 4π c2 Z R V0 ∂ 2 f (τ ) dR = −δ(τ ) ∂τ 2 (2. Thus. τ ) = f (τ − R/c) + h(τ + R/c) where f (τ − R/c) and h(τ + R/c) are two arbitrary functions of their respective arguments and they represent waves propagating along R in the positive and negative directions. is (2.35) As the function f depends on τ − R/c and f (τ ) = f (τ − R/c)|R=0 .30) The potential that results from substituting Green’s function h(τ + R/c)/R in (2. in (2.33) or. as can be veriﬁed by direct substitution.23) in a very small volume around the singular point R = 0.31) (2. taking into account that for R → 0 the function G behaves as f (τ )/R. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL The general solution of the above expression. Therefore G(R. τ ) − 2 c ∂τ 2 V0 R→0 µ ¶ ¶¶ Z µ µ f (τ ) 1 ∂ 2 f (τ ) 2 ∇ − 2 2 dv 0 = R c ∂τ R V0 Z = − δ(r − r 0 )δ(τ )dv 0 = −δ(τ ) Z V0 (2. This advanced potential is clearly not consistent with our ideas about causality. r) can depend only on sources at earlier times.

t − R/c) 0 [g] 0 (2. t0 ) (2. In the following the physical magnitudes evaluated in retarded times are shown in brackets. other conditions must be imposed to ensure that the only possible solution of (2.10). That is [J ] = J(r .39). which generally diﬀer for each source poin. t0 ) = ρ(r 0 . t) = 0 can be added in order to arrive at other possible solutions of (2. respectively. t) = g (r 0 .21).41b) dv 4π V 0 R [g] = g(r 0 . t0 ) c is the value of the source densities evaluated at the retarded times t0 = t − R/c. we have Z t Z δ(τ − R/c) 0 0 Ψ(r.39) the solutions to the inhomogeneous equations for the potentials are Z 1 [ρ] 0 Φ (r. we ﬁnally ﬁnd that. It should be noted that (2.39) is a particular solution of (2.21) . Thus.39) Ψ(r. to which a complementary solution of the homogeneous wave equation ¤Ψ(r. t − R/c) 0 0 0 where (2. SOLUTION OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS WAVE EQUATION FOR POTENTIALS37 This is Green’s time-dependent retarded function. By analogy with (2. t ) = J(r . by the values of the the charge and current densities at the source points evaluated at previous times t0 . t) = (2.2. 4πR t0 =−∞ V 0 and.38) dv dt . together with the continuity equation. the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation for potentials is given by Z Z 1 1 g (r 0 .40) ) = g(r 0 . 4π V 0 R 4π V 0 R R (2. Expressions (2. Substituting this function in (2. which takes into account the time needed for the electromagnetic perturbation to reach the observation point from the point source. t) = (2. which are called retarded potentials. It is easy to check that these potentials. R/c being the delay time due to the ﬁnite propagation velocity of the electromagnetic perturbations. t) = dv = dv . integrating in t0 . at a given time t. verify Lorenz’s condition (2.41a) dv 4πε0 V 0 R Z [J] 0 μ0 A (r.43) are the charge and current densities. which in general are diﬀerent for each source point.26).41b).41a) and (2. t − where the bracket symbol [ ] indicates that the enclosed magnitude must be evaluated at the retarded time t0 = t − R/c.2. evaluated in the retarded times t0 . t − R/c) [ρ] = ρ(r 0 . under the assumption of causality. indicate that the potentials created by a distribution at the ﬁeld point P are determined.42) (2.

For sources with time-harmonic dependence © ª ρ(r 0 .48) V0 and transforming the integrand by the vector analysis formulas (??) and (??) of Appendix ??. we can directly ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld equation h i ⎛ ⎞ ∂J Z [J] × R 1 ∂t × R ⎠ 0 μo ⎝ + dv (2.47b) where where k = ω/c = 2π/λ is the wavenumber in the unbounded medium and λ is the wavelength in the medium. These conditions.41b) into (2. t) = 4π V 0 R3 c R2 4 An alternative way of obtaining the electromagnetic ﬁelds is indicated in Section ??.47a) (2. .39). t) = Re ρ(r0 )ejωt ) (2. Magnetic ﬁeld Starting from the equation B =∇×A= μo 4π Z ∇× [J] 0 dv R (2.44) ~ (2.45) J(r 0 .39).3 Electromagnetic ﬁelds from a bounded source distribution The ﬁelds created by a bounded source distribution (charges and currents in free space) of arbitrary time dependence can be determined by inserting (2. with Ψ = 1/R and A = J.46b) ρ(r )e 4πεo V0 R ~ A(r) = Φ(r) = Z μo 1 ~ 0 −jkR 0 J(r )e dv 4π V 0 R Z 1 1 ρ(r 0 )e−jkR dv 0 4πεo V 0 R (2. becomes a phase shift given by kR.38CHAPTER 2. Next.41a) and (2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL is (2. when multiplied by ω. establishing the uniqueness of (2. can be found in Appendix ??. For harmonic signals the time delay R/c. t) = = Re{A(r)ejωt } (2.46a) Re 4π V0 R ½Z ¾ © ª 1 1 0 jω(t− R ) 0 c dv Φ(r. t) = Re{J(r 0 )ejωt } the expressions of the retarded potentials Φ and A simplify to ¾ ½Z μo 1 ~ 0 jω(t− R ) 0 ~ c dv J(r )e A(r. 2.4).49) B(r. we ﬁnd the expression for the magnetic ﬁeld ﬁrst and for the electric ﬁeld afterwards4 . t) = Re = Re Φ(r)ejωt (2.1) and (2.

As this term decreases with 1/R2 . Expression (2. when the sources do not change with time (i. its contribution is appreciable only at short distances. and consequently its contribution to the magnetic ﬁeld predominates at long distances from the sources. The radiation term. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION39 h i where [J] is the retarded current density at the source point r 0 and ∂ J/∂t = ∂[J]/∂t0 = ∂[J]/∂t is its time derivative at the instant t0 = t − R/c. Bbs : Bbs μ = o 4π Z [J] × R 0 dv R3 (2. Brad : μ = o 4πc Z h ∂J ∂t Brad V0 R2 i ×R dv 0 (2.3. The Biot-Savart term. which are deﬁned below.49) simpliﬁes to the Biot-Savart expression of magnetostatics Bbs μ = o 4π Z J ×R 0 dv R3 (2.50) V 0 which is formally analogous to the Biot-Savart expression of magnetostatics.4) and (2.52) V 0 Electric ﬁeld From (2.51) which depends on 1/R.2.49) can be written as the sum of the two components B = Bbs + Brad .. At the static limit. for a stationary current distribution) equation (2.54c) R R cR2 ∂t .e. although here with the sources evaluated at the retarded times.53) V 0 Taking into account that ∂/∂t0 = ∂/∂t and that ∇Ψ (R) = (dΨ/dR)∇R we have ! Ã [ρ] R ∂ [ρ] 1 1 R ∇ = [ρ] ∇ + ∇ [ρ] = [ρ] − 3 + 2 (2.41) we see that 1 E=− 4πε0 Z [ρ] μ ∇ dv 0 − 0 R 4π 0 V Z ∂ [J] 0 dv ∂t R (2.54a) R R R R R ∂R ∙ ¸µ ¶ ∂ [ρ] ∂ [ρ] dt0 ∂ρ 1 = = − (2.54b) ∂R ∂t0 dR ∂t c ! Ã ∙ ¸ [ρ] R ∂ρ R ∇ = [ρ] − 3 − (2.

Therefore. and integrated over an external surface that encloses the sources in which [J] = 0. generalizing to three dimensions and inserting the result in (2. for example the x component Z Rx 0 ∇ · [J]dv 0 R2 c Z Z Z [J] Rx · ∇0 2 dv 0 − c R [J] Rx · ∇0 2 dv 0 c R Z µ ¶ Rx [J] dv0 R2 c − = = V0 V0 V0 ∇ · 0 where we have used (??). we need to transform the integrand of this expression by developing ∇0 ·[J] as5 R·[ ∂ J ] ∂t [∇0 · J ] = ∇0 · [J ] − (2.53). FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL which. applied the divergence theorem. we get ´ ³ ´⎞ ⎛ ³ Z Z 2 [J] · R R − [J] R · R [ρ] R 0 ⎝ ⎠ dv0 + dv + 4πεo E = R3 cR4 0 0 V V ³h i ´ ∂J Z ×R ×R ∂t 1 dv 0 (2.57) The calculation of the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side can be facilitated by calculating just one component.56) cR thus we can rewrite the third term on the right-hand side of (2. which depends on the distance as 1/R. t) = 4πε0 V 0 R3 c R R c To get the exact form of the radiation term.40CHAPTER 2.55). when substituted in (2. gives h i ⎛ ⎞ ∂J Z [ρ] R 1 ∂t R h 0 i⎠ 0 1 ⎝ − 2 dv (2.58) 2 cR cR4 0 V V 0 · ∇0 t0 = (∇0 · J)t0 − R· ∂t0 cR ∂[J] ∂[J] ∂t0 · ∇t0 = (∇0 · J)t0 + R cR · ∂[J] ∂t0 (∇0 · J)t0 = [∇0 · J] = ∇0 · [J] − .59) + 2 c V0 R3 · [J] = (∇0 · J)t0 + Thus 5 ∇0 ∂[J] ∂t0 Z [J] [J] 1 0 0 = Rx · ∇ Rx dv + · ∇0 2 dv 0 2c c R V0 R V0 ³ ´ ⎛ ⎞ Z 2 [J] · R Rx ⎝− [Jx ] + ⎠ dv 0 = (2.55) as Z Z Z R h 0 i 0 R 0 ∇ · J dv = − ∇ · [J]dv 0 + 2 R2 c V0 R c V0 ³h ∂J ∂t − V0 c2 R3 i ´ ·R R dv 0 (2.55) − 2 ∇ ·J E(r. and taking into account the continuity equation ∇ · J = −∂ρ/∂t.

which depends on 1/R.60) Ec = 4πεo V 0 R3 This term is similar to the static Coulomb’s expression except concerning the time delay. Coulomb’s term. Ei .51). ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION41 which can be expressed as the sum of the three components E = Ec + Ei + Erad .56) we have ! Z t Ã Z t R·[ ∂ J ] 0 0 0 ∂t [∇ · J ]dt = − (2.61) Ei = 4πεo V 0 cR4 cR2 Because of their dependence on 1/R2 .3. by using the continuity equation. Erad .62) This term.2.58). In fact.60) and (2. Ec . Induction term. Radiation term. from (2. which are deﬁned below. Together with (2. the electric ﬁeld can be expressed only in terms of the current density. At the static limit. Z 1 [ρ] R 0 dv (2. ´ ⎛ ³ ⎞ Z 2 [J] · R R 1 [J] ⎠ 0 ⎝ − dv (2.64) ∇ · [J ] − [ρ] = − dt0 cR −∞ −∞ Inserting (2.59) simpliﬁes to Coulomb’s expression of electrostatics Z 1 ρR 0 E= dv (2. the contribution to the ﬁeld of the terms (2.64) into (2.63) 4πεo V 0 R3 Alternatively.59) and operating in a similar way to (2. expression (2.65) 4πεo c2 V 0 R3 . this component is of interest in radiation phenomena (see next subsection) . ³h i ´ ³h i ´ ∂J ∂J Z Z ×R ×R ×R ×R ∂t ∂t 1 μ dv 0 = 0 dv 0 Erad = 4πεo c2 V 0 R3 4π V 0 R3 (2. we obtain another alternative expression for the electric ﬁeld created by a bounded source distribution ´ ⎛ ³ ⎞ Z Z t 3 [J] · R R [J ] 1 ⎝ E = − 3 ⎠ dt0 dv 0 4πεo V 0 −∞ R5 R ´ ⎛ ³ ⎞ Z 3 [J] · R R 1 [J] ⎠ 0 ⎝ dv + − 4πεo V 0 cR4 cR2 ³h i ´ ∂J Z ×R ×R ∂t 1 1 + dv 0 (2.61) decrease quickly with distance. is the electric ﬁeld component that predominates for long distances.

66a) (2. the ﬁeld expressions (2.69a) V0 = Z (2.68a) − dv 4πεo V 0 R c R ´ ⎛ ³ ⎞ Z Z ~ 2 J ·R R ~ 1 1 J ⎠ −jkR 0 ρR −jkR 0 ⎝ = e e dv + − dv + 4πεo V 0 R3 4πεo V 0 cR4 cR2 ³ ´ Z ~ J ×R ×R jk e−jkR dv 0 (2.66b) ~ = −∇Φ − jω A µ ¶ and equation (2.62) become ~ B ~ E = jωμo 4πc jωμo 4π ~ J × R −jkR 0 e dv R2 ³ ´ ~ J ×R ×R e−jkR dv 0 R3 (2.68b) + 4πεo c V 0 R3 ³ ´ ⎞ ⎛ Z ~ 3 J ·R R ~ j J ⎝ ⎠ e−jkR dv 0 + = − 4πωεo V 0 R3 R5 ´ ⎛ ³ ⎞ Z ~ 3 J ·R R ~ J ⎠ −jkR 0 1 ⎝ − e dv + 4πεo V 0 cR4 cR2 ³ ´ Z ~ J ×R ×R jk e−jkR dv 0 (2.59) and (2.49) for the magnetic ﬁeld becomes μ ~ B= o 4π Z ~ (J × R) 1 jk + 2 3 R R e−jkR dv 0 V0 while the diﬀerent expressions for the electric ﬁeld.55).69b) V0 . (2. respectively. ~ E = ρ e−jkR R 0 dv + R3 V0 Ã ! Z ~ jk ρ R J(r 0 ) e−jkR 0 (2. (2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL Fields created by a time-harmonic source distribution For time-harmonic dependence of the sources.51) and (2.65) become.42CHAPTER 2.4) and (2.68c) + 4πεo c V 0 R3 1 4πεo Z Z ~ E ~ E and the radiation ﬁelds (2.1) simplify to ~ B ~ E ~ = ∇×A (2.

51) and (2. r and R become parallel.72) Since the reference origin is close to or within the source distribution. which depend on 1/Rn (n > 1). in the modulus of the contribution of each source point to the total ﬁeld. If the ﬁeld point is far away from any source point such that r >> r0 . ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION43 2.72) as a series in powers of the small parameter r0 /r and take only the linear terms of the expansion ¶1/2 µ r02 r · r0 r · r0 =r− ˆ R = r 1−2 2 + 2 + .62) which greatly simplify the calculations. 2.2. then it is possible to make some general approximations in the expressions (2.e. For time-harmonic ﬁelds. where l is the largest dimension of the source distribution. this condition becomes R >> λ Examining the total ﬁelds (2. which depend on 1/R. far away from the sources. Let us select the reference origin close to or within the source distribution. ' r − r 0 · r = r − r 0 cos θ r r r (2. in the expressions (2.71) Hence.3.49) and (2. wave zone and Fraunhofer zone..1 as ¡ ¢1/2 R = |r − r 0 | = r2 − 2r · r 0 + r02 (2.51) and (2. are negligible compared to the radiation terms. This is equivalent to ignoring. Thus. The zone where the radiation ﬁelds predominate can be called by several names: far zone. the radiation term predominates when distances from the sources are great compared to any wave-length involved.1 Radiation ﬁelds is fulﬁlled for any of the inﬁnitesimal volume elements into which the source can be subdivided. at lower frequencies) and there is no far zone at the static limit. To conﬁrm this.. the diﬀerence in the distance . or equivalently r >> l.1). (Fig.74) in the denominator. 2.62). let us write R in Fig.65) generated by a bounded distribution of sources with arbitrary time dependence. we ﬁnd that in general the near-zone terms.70) ¯ ¯ ¯d[J]/dt¯ (2.3. Note that the far zone is farther away from the sources at lower time dependence (i..73) where θ is the angle between r and r0 . This approximation is equivalent to ˆ considering that. we can calculate the radiation ﬁelds at distances r >> r0 by expanding the binomial (2. (2. we can make the approximation R'r (2.51) and (2.62). when the condition ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯[J]¯ ¯ R >> c ¯ (2. as r0 /r << 1.

1).76) In the retarded time. given that the largest dimension of the source distribution is l. t0 = t − R/c. They are related by ˆ (2.79b). the approximation (2.80a) 4πr V 0 Z Z jωμo jkη o ~ ~ ˆ ~ ˆ B rad = J × r e−jkR dv 0 = J × r e−jkR dv 0 (2. Z ³ ´ jωμo ~ ~ ˆ E rad = J × r × r e−jkR dv 0 ˆ (2. (2. Thus.73). for time-harmonic dependence. The other. One. 2. using the approximations (2. is the time needed for the electromagnetic ﬁeld to reach the ﬁeld point from the origin of the coordinates.51) and (2.81) E = η0H × r .79a) (2. r/c. 0 Therefore.77) the integrands of the radiation ﬁelds (2. Thus (2.75) (2. t0 + r c·ˆ ) 1 0 × r × rdv 0 ˆ ˆ 4πεo c2 r V 0 ∂t μo 4πcr Z 0 (2.74) and (2. for the delay time. has a magnitude of r 0 · r/c ∼ l/c << r/c ˆ (2.77). t0 + r c·ˆ ) 0 × rdv 0 ˆ ∂t V0 Ã ! 0 Z r ∂ J(r 0 .70) becomes ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯[J]¯ ¯ r >> c ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯d[J]/dt¯ and (2.78) Hence.44CHAPTER 2.80b) 4πcr V 0 4πcr V 0 A comparison of Eqs.71) becomes r >> λ (2. shows that the radiation ﬁelds are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.74) is not valid because the sources can be very sensitive to small changes in the delay time R/c. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL travelled by the signal. represents the time necessary for ˆ the propagation of the electromagnetic perturbation within the geometric limits of the source distribution. r 0 · r/c. Therefore t0 = t − R r 0 cos θ r r0 · r ˆ =t− + = t0 + 0 c c c c (2.79a) and (2. at distances r >> r 0 we need to keep at least the two linear terms of the expansion (2.77) where t0 = t − r/c.62) simplify to Brad Erad = = r ∂ J(r 0 . the retarded time has two components. This term.79b) or. from (2. (Fig.

Thus.65). b) r >> l . as ∆z ∆z < z0 < 2 2 z J(r.85) The ﬁelds of this current element can be easily calculated by substituting (2. 2.3) and to have arbitrary time dependence.2 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal current element The simplest case of a bounded source distribution is that of an inﬁnitesimal current element i(t).83) and the total ﬂow of power passing through the closed surface S situated in the far-ﬁeld zone is Z t −∞ Z S Prad · dsdt = Z t −∞ Z S (Erad × Hrad ) · dsdt (2.3. in terms of the Dirac delta function.2. the assumptions involved in using (2.77). we have .79) and (2. where l is the largest dimension of the source distribution which allows us to make the approximations (2. This current is mathematically deﬁned. According to Poynting’s theorem the total radiated energy passing through the unit area perpendicular to the direction of the vector Erad × Hrad is given by Z t −∞ Prad dt = Z t −∞ (Erad × Hrad )dt (2. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION45 where the ratio η 0 is deﬁned as η0 = E H = (μo /εo ) 2 = 120π 1 Ω (2.80) to calculate the radiation ﬁelds created by a bounded source distribution in the far-ﬁeld zone are: a) r >> (c |[J]| / |d[J]/dt|) or. t) = i(t)δ(x0 )δ(y 0 )ˆ − (2.3.85) in (2. which is assumed to be oriented on the z axis (Fig. equivalently.74) and (2. 2.84) In summary.82) and is called the intrinsic impedance of free space.49) and (2. r >> λ for any wavelength of the radiation spectrum which allows us to neglect 1/r2 terms.

equations (2.86b) 4πεo c2 r dt © ª For time-harmonic dependence of the current element. .86b) simplify to where [i] = i(t − r/c).3: Inﬁnitesimal current element solo campos de radiacion ¡ ¡¡falta la r del radio vector del punto campo Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal current element with arbitrary-time dependence: H(r. t) = ∆z 1 d [i] (ˆ × (ˆ × z )) = r r ˆ 4πεo c2 r dt ¶ µ ∆z 1 d [i] [i] z ˆ + 2 (ˆ × r) = 4π cr dt r ¶ µ ∆z 1 d [i] [i] ˆ (2.86a) + 2 sin θ ϕ 4π cr dt r µ Z t ¶ ∆z [i] 1 [i] dt + 2 (3 (ˆ · r) r − z ) + z ˆ ˆ ˆ 4πεo r3 −∞ cr µ Z t ¶ [i] 1 ∆z [i] dt + 2 (2 cos θ r + sin θˆ ) + ˆ θ 4πεo r3 −∞ cr ∆z 1 d [i] sin θˆ θ (2.86a) and (2. i = Re Iejωt .46CHAPTER 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL z Hϕ Eθ θ Δz / 2 i (t ) −Δz / 2 ˆ r y x Figure 2. t) = E(r.

3. atravezados por las líneas de campo magnético. que se propagan hacia el inﬁnito ( i.87a) (2. pp 259 del panofsky : -Como puede verse en la ﬁgura las lineas de campo de raciación representa una familia de lazos.87b) These expressions can be also derived directly from the vector potential (2. Note that there is not radiation in the direction in which the current element is pointing. which in this case simpliﬁes to Z A=z ˆ μ0 4π ∆z 2 − ∆z 2 [i] 0 [i]μ0 ˆ dz ' z ∆z r 4πr (2. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION47 Figure 2.e.2. waves see chapter tal) Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal current element with time-harmonic dependence: ~ H(r) = ~ E(r) = µ ¶ −jkr I∆z 1 e jk 1 + sin θ ϕ ˆ 4π jkr r Ã ! 1 e−jkr I∆z 1 jkη 0 1 + − sin θ ˆ + θ 2 4π jkr (kr) r Ã ! 1 e−jkr I∆z 1 jkη 0 − cos θ r ˆ 2 2π jkr (kr) r (2. the magnetic ﬁeld is given by6 .88) Thus.4: Radiation ﬁeld separates from the source and propagates to inﬁnity Dibujar el dipolo.41b).

we have7 Z 1 t ∇ × H(r.e. taking into account that from (1. 8 The time varying electric dip ole is deﬁned as two time varying charges of opp osite m agnitude ±q(t) separated by a constant distance ∆z much less than the ﬁeld p oint r. 7 Note that once calculed H = 1/μ ∇ × A we can obtain E using (1. using spherical coordinates. formed by two point charges with values of +q(t) 6 For a given vector ﬁeld A.87a). the line element dl and the ﬁeld are parallel i.90) which of course coincides with (2. Then in θ ˆ this region predominates the Er = E · r comp onent and consequently the electric ﬁeld lines close( see Fig 2.67d) and taking 0 into account that. The radiation electric ﬁeld has ˆ and r components. t) dt (2. i(t) = dq(t)/dt. p(t) = q(t)∆z . Thus we do not need necessarily to calculate Φ to obtain the ﬁelds.1d) or (1.4) as would b e exp ected from M axwell’s equations since. at any p oint.89) where we have applied the vector identity (??) and taken into account that the curl of a constant vector is zero. dl × A = 0. The electric ﬁeld (2. there only exist curl sources. the ﬁeld lines are deﬁned by the condition that. the ﬁelds created for such accelerated charges need from the theory develop ed in Chapter ??.90). the magnetic ﬁeld has only ϕ comp onent and consequently their ﬁeld ˆ lines are closed around the Z axis. from Eqs (2.94) where p = q 4 z is the dipole moment of a time-varying electric dipole8 . FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL H = 1 1 1 1 ∇×A= ∇ × (Aˆ) = z (∇A × z + A(∇ × z )) = ˆ ˆ ∇A × z ˆ μ0 μ0 μ0 μ0 (2. we have i4z = dq dp 4z = =p ˙ dt dt (2.48CHAPTER 2.e.91) E= 1 1 ∇×H = ∇ × (∇ × A) jε0 ω jk (2.86a). . Alternatively it would b e p ossible to model the oscillating dip ole as two constant p oint charges of opp osite sign separated by oscillating distance ∆z(t). we get H = = µ ¶ 1 ∆z ∂ [i] ∇A × z = ˆ r×z ˆ ˆ μ0 4π ∂r r ¶ ¶ µ µ ∆z 1 d [i] [i] ∆z 1 d [i] [i] ˆ ˆ ˆ − − 2 r×z = + 2 sin θϕ 4π cr dt r 4π cr dt r (2. Hence. However.. we have E= or 1 ε0 ∇ × H dt = c ∇ × (∇ × A) dt (2. For the ﬁeld created by a current element.93) E(r. The dipole moment p(t) is given by the magnitude of the charge times the distance ∆z b etween them and the deﬁned direction is toward the positive charge i. in source-free regions. in source-free regions. although ˆ θ the radiation electric ﬁeld has only ˆ comp onent which b ecomes null in the region θ → 0. outside the sources.1d). the so-called Hertzian dipole. t) = ε0 −∞ From the relation between the charge and current.86b) can be calculated from (2.92) for arbitrary or harmonic time dep endence respectively.

96) into (2.87a) and (2.98b) The radiation ﬁelds created by an inﬁnitesimal current element can be expressed.2. from (2.3. I= jωp 4z (2.86a) and (2.86a) to (2. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM A BOUNDED SOURCE DISTRIBUTION49 and −q(t) and the dot indicates diﬀerentiation with respect to time. for time-harmonic dependence.99b) . Thus the time-varying current element is equivalent to i(t) = or.95) Introducing (2.87b). and (2. Radiation ﬁelds created by an inﬁnitesimal current element: For arbitrary-time dependence Hrad Erad = = ∆z 1 d [i] sin θˆ ϕ 4π cr dt ∆z 1 d [i] sin θˆ θ 4πεo c2 r dt (2.95) into (2.99a) (2.97a) (2.97b) Fields created by a Hertzian dipole with time-harmonic dependence: ~ H ~ E jωp 4π p 4πε0 p 2πεo µ ¶ −jkr 1 e + jk sin θϕ ˆ r r µ ¶ −jkr jk 1 e + − k2 sin θˆ + θ 2 r r r µ ¶ jk e−jkr 1 + cos θˆ r r2 r r = = (2.87b).98a) (2.86b). in terms of its current amplitude or of its equivalent dipolar moment.96) 1 dp 4z dt (2. we get the ﬁeld created by an inﬁnitesimal current element (hertzian dipole) in terms of its dipole moment as: Fields created by a Hertzian dipole with arbitrary-time dependence: µ ¶ 1 [p] [¨] ˙ p + sin θˆ ϕ 4πr r c µ ¶ ˙ [p] [p] [¨] 1 p + θ + 2 sin θˆ + 4πrε0 r2 rc c µ ¶ [p] [p] 1 ˙ + cos θˆ r 2πrεo r2 rc H E = = (2.

97a) to (2. we have the radiation ﬁelds in terms of its equivalent Hertzian dipole: Radiation ﬁelds created by an electric dipole: For arbitrary-time dependence Hrad Erad = = 1 [¨] p sin θϕ ˆ 4πr c 1 [¨] p sin θˆ θ 4πrε0 c2 (2.59) for the ﬁelds due to an arbitrary source distribution of ﬁnite size are of theoretical and sometimes of practical interest.49) and (2. 2.102a) (2.62).41b). it is much easier to calculate the ﬁelds created by a given source distribution via the potentials. This can be seen simply by comparing the complexity of the expressions for these ﬁelds. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL For time-harmonic dependence ~ H rad ~ E rad = = I∆z e−jkr jk sin θˆ ϕ 4π r e−jkr I∆z jkη 0 sin θˆ θ 4π r (2. However. In the far zone. as indicated in Fig.98b).41a) and (2.3. except for the case of the inﬁnitesimal current element.77) for the potentials. the integrands of the retarded potentials (2.103a) Z Z 0 0 0 ˆ 0 J(r . t) = ρ(r 0 .101a) (2. (2. t0 + dv ' )dv 0 4πε0 V 0 R 4πε0 r V 0 c (2.100a) (2.74) and (2. Hence. t ) 0 μ0 μ r ·r A (r. this argument continues being true even when we are interested only in the radiation ﬁelds. t0 + dv ' 0 )dv (2.49) and (2. t0 ) 0 ˆ 0 1 r0 · r Φ (r.103b) 0 4π V 0 R 4πr V 0 c . with those for the potentials (2.41) simplify to Z Z 1 ρ(r 0 . we can make the approximations (2. Because of the vector product in the integrand of (2.50CHAPTER 2.102b) More details about this elemental radiators and how they can be physical approximated are given in subsubsection ?? of chapter ??. t) = J(r 0 . 2.51) and (2.3 Far-zone approximations for the potentials The general expressions (2.59).100b) and from (2.101b) For time-harmonic dependence ~ H rad ~ E rad = − = ωpk e−jkr sin θˆ ϕ 4π r −pk2 e−jkr sin θˆ θ 4πε0 r (2.2.

MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR POTENTIALS The magnetic ﬁeld can now be calculated from (2. If the time variations of the sources are harmonic the expressions (2.107) which. leads to (2.108a) e Φ = 4πε0 r 0 Z V 0 μ0 −jkr ~ ~ J(r 0 )ej k·r dv 0 (2.104) μ dv − 0 4π V0 where. the second term can be ignored since it depends on 1/r2 . However. in order to calculate the radiation ﬁelds.103b) or (2. (2.4 Multipole expansion for potentials In many cases. if we assume that the charge distribution does not change appreciably over time .108c) μ0 c The radiation electric ﬁeld can be calculated from (2. we need to carry out the integration in (2.107) or (2. For example.108c) simply using (2.1). t0 + 0 r Z V 0 ∇× J(r 0 .79a).108b) in order to calculate the vector potential. we cannot make any approximation concerning the potentials other than those assumed above.105) V0 ˆ Furthermore. using (??). t0 + 0 r r 0 ·ˆ r c ) dv 0 (2.107) become Z 0 1 −jkr ρ(r 0 )ej k·r dv 0 (2.4.2. we have ∇× J (Ψ) = ∇Ψ×dJ/dΨ with Ψ = t0 +r 0 · r/c. t0 + 0 r r 0 ·ˆ r c ) 0 r 0 ·ˆ r c ) dv 0 Z J(r 0 . from (??).81). t0 + 0 r r0 · r r ∂ J(r 0 .103a) . t0 + 0 r0 · r 1 ˆ ) × ∇ dv 0 c r (2. it follows that ∇ × J(r 0 . 2. as would be expected. t0 + r c·ˆ ) ˆ 0 ) = −∇ × c c ∂t 0 r ∂ J(r 0 . as B = ∇×A= = μ0 4π Z V0 51 μ0 4π ∇ × J(r 0 . such as the study of most antennas.103b) and (2. 0 Thus. t0 + r c·ˆ ) r ˆ 0 = − × c ∂t 0 (2.108b) A = e 4πr 0 V jω ~ H = − r×A ˆ ~ (2.106) and therefore H =− 1 ∂A r× ˆ μ0 c ∂t (2. and therefore 1 ∇×A = H= μ0 4π Z ∇ × J(r 0 . if we are interested only in the radiation ﬁeld.

52CHAPTER 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL l/c, we may expand the integrands of (2.103) in a Taylor series about t0 in terms 0 of the parameter r 0 · r/c. For example, for the vector potential, we have ˆ ¯ r0 · r ∂ J(r 0 , t0 ) ¯ ˆ r0 · r ˆ ¯ ) = J(r 0 , t0 ) + + ... (2.109) J(r 0 , t0 + ¯ 0 0 ¯0 0 c c ∂t0

t =t0

r where we have omitted higher-order terms in r 0 ·ˆ/c. Thus after inserting (2.109) in (2.103b), we can write A as the power-series expansion A ' A1 + A2 + ... = ¯ Z Z μ0 ∂ J(r 0 , t0 ) ¯ μ0 ¯ J(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 + ¯ 0 ¯0 4πr V 0 4πcr V 0 ∂t0

t

=t0 0

r 0 · rdv 0 + ... ˆ (2.110)

If the time dependence of the sources is sinusoidal the condition that the source distribution does not change appreciably over time l/c is equivalent to assuming that l/c << T (where T is the period of the signal) or equivalently l/λ << 1, i.e., that the dimension of wavelength is much greater than that of the source distribution λ >> l (2.112) In this case, we can perform the series expansion

0 1 r 0 ej k·r = ejkˆ·r ≈ 1 + jkˆ · r 0 − k2 (ˆ · r 0 )2 + ... r r 2

Therefore the ﬁrst two terms of the expansion (2.110), A1 and A2 , are given by Z μ0 A1 = (2.111a) J(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 0 4πr V 0 ¯ Z ∂ J(r 0 , t0 ) ¯ μ0 ¯ A2 = r 0 · rdv 0 ˆ ¯ ¯0 0 4πcr V 0 ∂t0 t =t0 ¯ Z ¯ ∂ μ0 0 0 0 0¯ = ˆ (2.111b) J(r , t )r · rdv ¯ 0 4πcr V 0 ∂t t0 =t0

0

(2.113)

which, after substituting in (2.108b), leads to ~ ~ ~ A = A1 + A2 + ... where ~ A1 ~ A2 Z μ0 e−jkr ~ J(r0 )dv 0 4π r 0 V Z μ e−jkr ~ r J(r0 )ˆ · r 0 dv 0 = jk 0 4π r 0 V = (2.115a) (2.115b) (2.114)

2.4. MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR POTENTIALS which are the Fourier transforms of (2.111a) and (2.111b), respectively. Of course, there are analogous expressions for the terms of Φ Φ = Φ1 + Φ2 + ... ¯ Z Z 1 1 ∂ρ(r 0 , t0 ) ¯ 0 0 0 ¯ = ρ(r , t0 )dv + r 0 · rdv 0 + ... ˆ 4πε0 r V 0 4πε0 cr V 0 ∂t0 ¯t0 =t0

0

53

(2.116)

where Φ1 Φ2 = =

Note that, since the contribution of each point source to the integral in (2.117a) is evaluated at the same time t0 , this integral represents the total 0 charge of the source distribution. Thus, if the net charge of the distribution is zero, we have Φ1 = 0. If the net charge is not zero, the constant, the electrostatic potential Φ1 created by that charge depends on r−2 and consequently it does not contribute to the radiation. The expansion (2.110) allows us to decompose the electromagnetic ﬁeld created by a time-varying source distribution of ﬁnite dimension in terms of elementary time-varying source distributions, called electric and magnetic multipoles, located at the origin. This is similar to the well-known multipolar expansion of the electrostatics (or magnetostatics) to decompose the ﬁeld created by a stationary source distribution of charge (or current) in terms of electric (or magnetic) multipoles. However, now the original distribution is time-varying and produces both electric and magnetic ﬁelds. Thus, as result of the expansion, we will obtain both, electric and magnetic multipoles. To verify this, we next analyze the ﬁrst two terms, (2.111a) and (2.111b), of (2.110).

**Z 1 ρ(r 0 , t0 )dv0 0 4πε0 r V 0 ¯ Z ∂ρ(r 0 , t0 ) ¯ 1 ¯ r 0 · rdv 0 ˆ 4πε0 cr V 0 ∂t0 ¯t0 =t0
**

0

(2.117a) (2.117b)

2.4.1

Electric dipolar radiation

The evaluation of the term (2.111a) of the power-series expansion of A can be R facilitated by calculating just one component of V 0 J(r 0 , t0 )dv0 , for example the 0 x component Z Z Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jx (r , t0 )dv = ˆ J(r , t0 ) · xdv = J(r 0 , t0 ) · ∇0 x0 dv 0 0 V0 V0 V0 Z Z ³ ´ = ∇0 · x0 J(r 0 , t0 ) dv 0 − x0 ∇0 · J(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 0 0 0 0 V V Z = − x0 ∇0 · J(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 (2.118) 0

V0

since

Z

V0

³ ´ ∇0 · x0 J(r 0 , t0 ) dv 0 = 0 0

(2.119)

54CHAPTER 2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL as can be seen by applying the divergence theorem and by integrating over an external surface, where J(r 0 , t0 ) = 0, that encloses the sources. Therefore, 0 generalizing to three dimensions we have Z J(r

V0 0

, t0 )dv 0 0

=−

Z

V0

r 0 ∇0 · J(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 0

(2.120)

**and using the equation of continuity ∇0 · J(r 0 , t0 ) = − 0 we get Z Z J(r
**

0

∂ρ(r 0 , t0 ) 0 ∂t

(2.121)

V0

, t0 )dv 0 0

=

Z

r0

V0

∂ρ(r 0 , t0 ) 0 0 dv ∂t

(2.122)

**which, when substituted in (2.111a), gives A1 = μ0 4πr r0
**

V0

μ ∂ ∂ρ(r 0 , t0 ) 0 0 dv = 0 ∂t 4πr ∂t

Z

V0

r 0 ρ(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 0

(2.123)

R The integral V 0 r 0 ρ(r 0 , t0 )dv0 is by deﬁnition the electric dipole moment, [p], 0 evaluated at the retarded time t0 , of the time-varying source distribution, i.e., 0 [p] = Thus we have μ ∂[p] μ [p] A1 = 0 = 0 4πr ∂t 4πr The magnetic radiation ﬁeld, from (2.107), is given by r × [p] ˆ [p] sin θ =− = ϕ ˆ 4πrc 4πrc

·· ·· ·

Z

V0

r 0 ρ(r 0 , t0 )dv 0 = 0

Z

r r 0 ρ(r 0 , t − )dv 0 c V0

(2.124)

(2.125)

Hrad

(2.126)

where we have assumed the direction of p parallel to the polar z axis. This expression, as might be expected, coincides with the radiation term, (2.101a), of (2.97a). From (2.126), the electric radiation ﬁeld, given by (2.101b), can be obtained using (2.81). Of course the corresponding expressions for timeharmonic ﬁelds are given by (2.102a) and (2.102b). Therefore, in a preliminary approximation, the original source distribution can be replaced by an electric dipole located at the origin of coordinates.

134) For time-harmonic dependence.2.128) (2. t0 ) · r ˆ ˆ 0 0 2 ´´ ´ 1³ ³ ³ 1 = ˆ r × J(r 0 . we have −k2 m sin θ −jkr ˆ ~ H rad = θ e 4πr (2. of the source distribution. t0 )(ˆ · r 0 ) = J(r 0 .129) can be written as A2m = where [m] = Z (2. evaluated at the retarded z time t0 . t0 )(ˆ · r 0 ) + r 0 J(r 0 .130) The integral (2.135) . we get A2 = A2m + A2q where A2m and A2q μ ∂ = 0 8πcr ∂t Z μ = 0 8πcr Z ´ ³ ∂ r × J(r 0 . t0 )(ˆ · r 0 ) + r 0 J(r 0 . t0 ) · r dv0 0 r 0 μ0 ∂[m] ×r ˆ 4πcr ∂t r 0 × J(r 0 .131) (2. 0 the magnetic radiation ﬁeld given by (2.127) Then. t0 )(r 0 · r) + r 0 J(r 0 . t0 ) · r 0 r 0 0 2 ´´ ³ 1³ + J(r 0 . t0 ) × r 0 dv 0 ˆ 0 ∂t (2. can be facilitated by expressing the integrand as follows ´´ ³ 1³ ˆ ˆ J(r 0 .107) is Hrad ·· 1 1 [m] = sin θˆ θ r × (ˆ × [m]) = ˆ r 4πc2 r 4πr c2 ·· (2.4. MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR POTENTIALS 55 2. t0 ) × r 0 + ˆ J(r 0 .2 Magnetic dipolar radiation The analysis of the term (2. t0 )(r 0 · r) − r 0 J(r 0 .111b).81) the electric radiation ﬁeld is given by Erad = − μ0 [m] sin θˆ ϕ 4πr c ·· (2.129) V0 V0 ´´ ³ ³ ˆ J(r 0 . t0 ) 0 0 dv 2 (2.133) From (2. under the assumption that m = mˆ. Thus. substituting in A2 .132) V0 is by deﬁnition the magnetic dipolar moment about O. t0 ) · r 0 0 r 0 2 2 (2.4.

for the circular current loop.101a)-(2. becomes m=i Z r 0 × dl = iS 2 (2.137) V0 These expressions are similar to (2. the radiation ﬁelds (2. In this expression. Fig.101b) and (2. as we will see in the next section.133)-(2. Otherwise the one due to the magnetic moment may be ignored. (2. which were obtained for the electric ﬁeld of the radiation of the electric dipole. ??. Jdv has been changed to idl.138) Γ where Γ is the countour of loop and S is the vector area of the surface subtended by the contour Γ.140a) (2.132).136) where (2. and using Ep and Em to indicate the amplitudes of the electric radiation ﬁelds from an electric and a magnetic dipole. for arbitrary time dependence. for time-harmonic dependence 0 become ~ H rad E rad = = −k2 IS sin θ −jkr ˆ θ e 4πr 2 k IS sin θ ˆ η 0 e−jkr ϕ 4πr (2.140b) It should be mentioned that the magnetic moment is important only when there exists no radiation of the electric moment of the system.136). respectively.139a) (2. we have Eprad c¨ p = (2.102b).139b) μ S [ i] = − 0 sin θˆ ϕ 4πr c where i is evaluated at t0 . The surface vector S is directed normal to the loop according to the right-hand rule for the direction of the current in the loop. (2. can be written. Eﬀectively. These equations. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL and k2 m sin θ ~ E rad = ˆ η0 e−jkr ϕ 4πr m= ~ Z ~ r 0 × J(r0 ) 0 dv 2 (2. In the particular case of a current loop of radius a .134). comparing Eqs.141) Emrad m ¨ .56CHAPTER 2. as Hrad Erad = S [ i] sin θˆ θ 4πr c2 ·· ·· (2. there exists a duality in the analysis of the electric and magnetic dipoles. Thus. In fact. for which the current i does not change appreciably over time a/c (or equivalently a << λ for any frequency involved).

5: Poner m = iS . Hacer el dibujo igual que el del electrico or for time-harmonic variation with both dipoles oscillating at the same frequency. for u << c.143b) V0 V0 V 0 2.137) we have m0 p0 and consequently m0 ∼ up0 (2. poner i en vez de I y el contour Γ. A2q . Thus from (2. (2.4.4. of A2 in (2.143a) (2.144) where u is the velocity of motion of the charges. the magnetic dipolar radiation may be ignored in comparison with the electric dipolar radiation.2. cp0 Eprad = (2. A circular loop of current in the x-y plane y dibujar camp os como en el elemento de corriente.e. = = Z Z r 0 × J0 0 1 dv = 2 2 ρ0 r0 dv 0 Z ρ0 r0 × udv0 (2.142) we have.. MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR POTENTIALS 57 P z r I m O θ a R y x Figure 2. but to see this we must transform it further. To this end let us .130).145) Eprad >> Emrad i.142) Emrad m0 Since from (2. is associated with the electric quadrupole radiation.3 Electric quadrupole radiation The second term.

151) (2. t0 ) dv 0 r 0 V0 V0 (2.150) and therefore. t0 ) 0 0 dv ∂t (2. t0 ) · ∇0 x0 dv 0 ˆ 0 0 V0 ZV Z ³ ´ ³ ´ 0 0 0 0 0 0 = ∇ · x (ˆ · r ) J(r .148b) V = − Z Z 0 V0 Z ³ ´ x0 J(r 0 .e. t0 )dv 0 r 0 V0 (2.152) . t0 )ˆ · r 0 dv 0 0 r (2.58CHAPTER 2. t0 ) · x0 dv 0 = − ˆ ˆ x0 ∇0 · (ˆ · r 0 ) J(r 0 . FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL ´ R ³ consider the x component of the ﬁrst summand of the integral V 0 J(r 0 . t0 )dv 0 r H2qrad = − r× 3 ˆ 0 8πc2 r ∂t V 0 (2. t0 ) 0 0 dv ∂t (2. is Z 1 ∂3 r 0 (ˆ · r 0 ) ρ(r 0 . substituting in (2.146) where the ﬁrst integral is null. t0 ) 0 (2. t0 ) · x dv = ˆ ˆ r · r 0 J(r 0 . t0 ) = − 0 therefore Z Jx (r 0 . t0 ) (ˆ · r 0 ) dv 0 = − r r 0 J(r 0 .107). t0 )ˆ · r 0 dv 0 0 r i. we have Z μ0 ∂ 2 r 0 (ˆ · r 0 ) ρ(r 0 . t0 ) · r dv 0 + ˆ 0 V0 x0 (ˆ · r 0 ) r ∂ρ(r 0 . Thus Z Z ³ ´ ³ ´ r · r 0 J(r 0 . t0 )dv 0 r A2q = 0 8πcr ∂t2 V 0 The magnetic radiation ﬁeld.148a) ∂ρ(r ∂t 0 .147) but ∇0 (ˆ · r 0 ) = r r ˆ ∇0 · J(r 0 . t0 ) · r dv 0 + ˆ 0 0 V0 V0 r 0 (ˆ · r 0 )· r ∂ρ(r 0 . t0 ) dv − r x0 ∇0 · (ˆ · r 0 ) J(r 0 .130). given by (2. as can be seen using the divergence theorem to convert the volume integral in a surface integral with the surface of integration outside of the source distribution. t0 )dv 0 r 0 V0 Z − x0 (ˆ · r 0 ) ∇0 · J(r 0 . t0 ) dv 0 r 0 0 0 V0 ZV = − x0 ∇0 (ˆ · r 0 ) · J(r 0 . Z Z ³ ´ ³ ´ 0 0 0 0 0 r · r J(r .149) V0 Generalizing to three dimensions Z Z ´ ³ J(r 0 .

called electric quadrupolemoment tensor of the source distribution.156) Therefore the radiation magnetic ﬁeld from a varying electric quadrupole is given by . except in free space and with no source terms.154) 3r (ˆ · r 0 ) − rr02 ρ(r 0 . MAXWELL’S SYMMETRIC EQUATIONS 59 Note that.1d) that Maxwell’s equations present a certain symmetry that. Of course..158) e 24πr The radiation electric ﬁeld can be calculated as usual by (2. However. the integrand can be written as the product of a second rank tensor Q. we would ﬁnd other multipole moments. and the vector r ˆ Z ¡ 0 ¢ r ˆ r (2. such as magnetic quadrupole radiation.5. for. since r × rr02 = 0. t0 )dv 0 0 (2. no free magnetic charges or monopoles have been found . 1 1 ∂ 3 [Q]ˆ r =− H2qrad = − r× ˆ r × [Q]ˆ ˆ r (2.155) (2.. other more complex mathematical methods provide the results more systematically. Indeed. despite many experimental attempts. is not complete because of the absence of magnetic charges and currents. 2. electric octupole radiation.157) 24πc2 r ∂t3 24πc2 r or.. time-harmonic dependence. It can be shown that quadrupole radiation ﬁelds are of the same order as the magnetic dipole moment and thus much less than that corresponding to the Hertzian dipole (Ejercicio).81). t0 ) to the integrand ˆ 0 Z ¡ 0 ¢ 1 ∂3 H2qrad = − r ˆ (2.153) 3r (ˆ · r 0 ) − rr02 ρ(r 0 . The advantage of including this term is that. t0 )dv 0 = [Q]ˆ 0 V0 The above expression can be written in a more useful form by adding the term rr02 ρ(r 0 .5 Maxwell’s symmetric equations It can be observed from (1. t0 )dv 0 r× 3 ˆ 0 2r 24πc ∂t V 0 The elements of [Q] are [Qαβ ] = Z V0 and [Q]ˆ is a vector with components r X [Qαβ ]ˆβ r α ¡ 0 0 ¢ 3xα xβ − r02 δ αβ ρ(r 0 .2. jck 3 j(ωt−kr) ~ H 2qrad = r × Qˆ ˆ r (2.1a)-(1. if we continued analyzing other terms in the expansion tal. etc. now. for this. the added term do no aﬀect to the value of the ˆ ˆ integral.

Taking the divergence of (2. To this end.161) 9 It should b e emphasized that.159b) ∇ · ∇ × E = −∇ · Jm − ∂∇ · B =0 ∂t (2.159d) Integral form of Maxwell’s symmetric equations I D · ds = QT IS B · ds = Qm S Z I Z ∂ E · dl = − Jm · ds − B · ds ∂t S Z S IΓ Z ∂ H · dl = J · ds + D · ds ∂t S Γ S (2. such existence does not violate any known principle of physics. in the following completely symmetric manner: Diﬀerential form of Maxwell’s symmetric equations ∇·D ∇·B ∇×E ∇×H = ρ = ρm = −Jm − μ0 = J + ε0 ∂E ∂t ∂H ∂t (2. A133. from a purely theoretical viewp oint. Soc. Nevertheless.160b) (2. electric as well as magnetic sources. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL in nature nor.A. although there is no exp erimental evidence for the existence of magnetic charges. to complete Maxwell’s equations we must add the necessary magnetic source terms in order to achieve complete symmetry between electric and magnetic quantities. nothing prevents us from assuming the existence of magnetic monopoles.160c) (2. we can reformulate Faraday’s law (1.M . Dirac. would magnetic currents be created9 .159c) (2.159a) (2. 60 (1931)] that the existence of magnetic monop oles with magnetic charge g would explain the quantization of the electric charge e. Proc Roy. . Dirac showed [P. therefore.1b) by introducing. In fact.159b) (2.160d) It should be emphasized that the symmetrization of Maxwell’s equations is a powerful mathematical tool which greatly facilitates the solution of many practical problems such as the radiation and scattering from aperture antennas or permeable bodies. we can rewrite Maxwell’s equations for the case that both. exist in free space.1c) and Gauss’ law for magnetic ﬁelds (1. from a purely theoretical standpoint.60CHAPTER 2.160a) (2. respectively.159c) and using (2. We refer to the magnetically charged particles as magnetic monopoles or simply monopoles. as additional source terms. on their right-hand side. hypothetical magnetic current densities Jm (V m−2 ) and magnetic charge densities ρm (Wb/m 3 ). therefore.Lond. With these new quantities included.

into the sum of two components D B ³ ´ = De + Dm = ε0 Ee + Em = ε0 E ³ ´ = Be + Bm = μ0 He + Hm = μ0 H (2.1a)(1. that is ∇ · De ∇ · Be ∇ × Ee ∇ × He = ρ = 0 ∂ He ∂t ∂ Ee = J + ε0 ∂t = −μ0 (2. H and B. E. we can apply the superposition principle and split each one of the ﬁeld quantities.165b) (2.162) which expresses the conservation of magnetic monopoles and has the same form as that for the electric charges (1.1). from (2.3).166) ∂A ∂t (2.159).164b) (2.2. In this way.164d) ∇ · Dm ∇ · Bm ∇ × Em ∇ × Hm = 0 = ρm = −Jm − μ0 = ε0 ∂ Em ∂t ∂ Hm ∂t (2.164c) (2.159) and that the set (2. added to its equivalent (2. (1.1d) and therefore can be solved as in the previous sections by means of the scalar and vector potentials Φ and A.163a) (2.165).164).167) . (2.163b) where the quantities with the e subscript depend only on the “true” electric sources ρ and J while the quantities with the m subscript depend only on the “hypothetical” magnetic sources ρm and Jm . In linear media. D.4) and (2.164) are formally identical to Eqs.164) coincides with the conventional Maxwell’s equations (2.5.164a) (2. gives (2. MAXWELL’S SYMMETRIC EQUATIONS 61 we get the equation of continuity ∇ · Jm = − ∂ρm ∂t (2. respectively.165c) (2.165d) Note that the sum of each expression (2.165a) (2. we divide Maxwell’s equations into two groups corresponding to the ﬁeld components associated with the electrical and magnetic sources. we have Be Ee = ∇×A = −∇Φ − (2. and that Eqs. Thus.

termed ”electric vector potential” F and ”magnetic scalar potential” ψ.41b) Z 1 [ρ] 0 (2.168) and where A and Φ fulﬁl the wave equations (2.14a) and (2.170) the solutions to which are the retarded potentials (2.62CHAPTER 2.172) dv 4π V 0 R The ﬁelds created by the magnetic sources ρm and Jm can be deduced by observing that equations (2.174) which are the dual expressions of (2.41a) and (2. such that A Φ Hence ψ F = = Z 1 [ρm ] 0 dv 4πμ0 V 0 R Z ε0 [Jm ] 0 dv 4π V 0 R (2.165) and vice versa with the simultaneous replacement of the following quantities. . called duals Ee He ε0 μ0 ρ J dual dual dual dual dual dual of Hm of −Em of μ0 of ε0 of ρm of Jm (2.171) Φ = dv 4πε0 V 0 R Z μ0 [J] 0 A = (2.172).164) are transformed into (2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL where ∇ · A + μ0 ε0 ∂Φ =0 ∂t (2. To calculate the ﬁelds Hm and Em we can use the same formalism deﬁning two new potentials.173) The ﬁelds Ee and He associated with the electric sources can be calculated from the magnetic vector potential A and the electric scalar potential Φ by means of (2.14b) ∇2 A − μ0 ε0 ∂2A ∂t2 ∂2Φ ∇2 Φ − μ0 ε0 2 ∂t = −μ0 J = − ρ ε0 (2.176) dual of dual of F ψ (2.169) (2.171) and (2.175) (2.172).171) and (2.

177b) H = He + Hm = −∇ψ − 1 ∂F + ∇×A ∂t μ0 (2.180).182c) = −Jsm ³ ´ n × H1 − H2 ˆ (2. The total ﬁeld H is determined analogously from (2. 2.177c) in which ψ and F satisfy wave equations that are analogous to (2.1 Boundary conditions It is easy to show.2. because once E has been calculated using (2. the total ﬁeld E produced at any point is the sum of Ee and Em given by (2.179) Thus.172) we get Dm Hm ∇ · F + μ0 ε0 ∂ψ ∂t = εo Em = −∇ × F = −∇ψ − = 0 ∂F ∂t (2.169) and (2.182a) = ρs ³ ´ n · B1 − B2 ˆ (2. by substituting the result in (2. that the boundary conditions corresponding to Maxwell’s symmetric equations are a logical extension of (1. (2.5. with Jm = 0 we obtain H. Hence E = Ee + Em = −∇Φ − 1 ∇ c2 Z ∇ · Adt − ∂A 1 − ∇×F = ∂t ε0 (2. if both current densities J and Jm exist simultaneously in a region of free space. ³ ´ n · D1 − D2 ˆ (2.180) ∂A 1 − ∇×F ∂t ε0 where Lorenz gauge Eq. it is not necessary to use the latter expression.181) In practice. by the superposition principle.35).170): ∇2 F − μ0 ε0 ∂2F ∂t2 ∂2ψ ∇2 ψ − μ0 ε0 2 ∂t = −ε0 Jm = − ρm μ0 (2.177a) (2. MAXWELL’S SYMMETRIC EQUATIONS 63 By substituting the magnitudes in the ﬁrst column of (2.5.177a). ejercicio.166) and (2. that is.177b) (2.167) and (2.174) for their duals in the equations from (2.166) to (2.159c).178) (2.173 and 2.182b) = ρsm ³ ´ n × E1 − E2 ˆ (2.182d) = Js .10) has been used to express E in terms of A and F.

47a).182d).182b) and (2. .2 Harmonic variations ~ ∇·D ~ ∇·B ¯ ¯ − n × E ¯ = Jsm ˆ S (2. Equaˆ tions (2.186c) ωε0 μ0 with the solutions to (2. FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL in which n is the normal unit vector that goes from region 2 to region 1.64CHAPTER 2. the symmetric equations (2.188) ~ while for the total ﬁeld H we have ´ 1 c2 ³ ~ ~ ~ ~ ∇ × A.184) For harmonic variations.183) S and magnetic ones 2.185a) (2.182c) and (2.187) (2.185b) (2.186a) and (2.186a) ∇2 ψ + ω 2 μ0 ε0 ψ = − m μ0 ~ ~ ~ ∇2 F + ω 2 μ0 ε0 F = −ε0 Jm (2. According to (2. ρsm and Jsm . the tangential components of the ﬁelds on a real or imaginary surface S can be written in terms of surface distributions of electric currents ¯ ¯ n × H ¯ = Js ˆ (2.189) ω ε0 (2. at the interface.159) simplify to = ρ = ρm ~ ~ = −Jm − jμ0 ω H (2. and is given by ´ c2 ³ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E = E e + E m = −j ∇ ∇ · A − jω A − ∇ × F (2.190) A is given by (2.186b) ~ j∇ · F ψ = (2. the electric vector potential F .5.186b) being Z 1 ρm e−jkR 0 ψ = dv 4πμ0 V 0 R Z ~ −jkR Jm e ~ = ε0 F dv0 4π V 0 R (2.185c) (2. H = −j ∇ ∇ · F − jω F + ω μ0 where ~ ~ ~ The total ﬁeld E produced at any point is the sum of E e and E m .182c) show the additional eﬀects of the imaginary surface magnetic charges and currents.185d) ~ ∇×E ~ ∇×H ~ ~ = J + jε0 ω E and the wave equations for the magnetic scalar potential ψ. and the Lorenz relations are ρ (2.

THEOREM OF UNIQUENESS 65 2. simultaneously.192b) ∆z 4π µ − ∆z ∆z < z0 < 2 2 (2. Maxwell’s equations and the given boundary conditions.2. In our context. we deduce that the ﬁelds generated by an inﬁnitesimal magnetic current element.191) or. we ﬁnd that di im ∆z = μ0 S (2. for time-harmonic variation ~ E ~ H = − = µ ¶ −jkr ∆zI m 1 e jk 1 + sin θ ϕ ˆ (2. Next.5. Jm (r. we establish these conditions for non-harmonic and time-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁelds.193b) Comparing the radiation terms of these equations to (2. t) = im (t)δ(x0 )δ(y 0 )ˆ z are given by.6).139a)-(2.195) 2.3 Fields created by an inﬁnitesimal magnetic current element From (2.192a) + 2 sin θ ϕ cr dt r µ Z t ¶ [im ] 1 ∆z 1 d [im ] ∆z [im ] dt + 2 (2 cos θ r + sin θˆ ) + ˆ θ sin θˆ θ 4πμo r3 −∞ cr 4πμo c2 r dt (2.6.86a) and (2.193a) 4π jkr r µ ¶ −jkr µ ¶ −jkr 1 1 e 1 1 I m ∆z e I m ∆z jωε0 1 + − 2 2 sin θˆ + θ jωε0 − 2 2 + cos θˆ r 4π jkr k r r 2π k r jkr r (2. (Fig.86b). . this means to seek the conditions for which we can state that there exists a single electromagnetic ﬁeld that satisﬁes.6 Theorem of uniqueness Whenever we have to resolve a diﬀerential equation. it is desirable to know the conditions that must be fulﬁlled in order to state that a unique solution is possible. 2.173). using the dual equations (2. I m ∆z = jωμ0 IS (2.194) dt or for time-harmonic dependence. E H = − = ¶ 1 d [im ] [im ] ˆ (2.140b).

the ﬁeld (E 0 . there exist two diﬀerent electromagnetic ﬁelds. t = t0 . FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL z − Eϕ Hθ θ Δz / 2 im (t ) ˆ r −Δz / 2 y x Figure 2. Given the linearity of Maxwell’s equations. i. (E1 and H1 ) and (E2 and H2 ). if the following are known: i) The values of the sources at each point and at each time for every t > t0 within the region. the diﬀerence between the two aforementioned ﬁelds. if we apply the Poynting theorem (1. we . must also be a solution to the problem.e. In particular. or.6. Given that. any linear combination of these two solutions must in itself be a solution. alternatively. the ﬁeld deﬁned by (E 0 = E1 − E2 and H 0 = H1 − H2 ). by showing that to assume the opposite of what is postulated would lead to a contradiction. ii) The values of the electromagnetic ﬁeld (E and H) at each point of V at the initial time t = t0 . respectively.39) to (E 0 . iii) The tangential components of the electric ﬁeld E or of the magnetic ﬁeld H on the entire the surface S for all t > t0 .1 Non-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁeld A non-harmonic electromagnetic ﬁeld that varies in a linear region V bounded by a surface S is uniquely determined from an initial time.6: solo los campos de radiacion se representan”’ 2. from the hypothesis. H 0 ). the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld E in any part of S and of the magnetic ﬁeld H in the remaining part of S. Proof This theorem can be proven by a reduction to absurdity— that is.66CHAPTER 2. which are solutions to the problem. H 0 ) is source-free in V. for all t > t0 . Thus. Let us assume that having deﬁned the three above conditions within a volume V . the sources are the same for the ﬁelds (E1 and H1 ) and (E2 and H2 ).

Proof By a reasoning similar to that used for the above case.6.196) is null. 1 0 The reason why we need the extra condition of the space to be lossy for time-harmonic signals is that.197) are positive.e. THEOREM OF UNIQUENESS get ∂ 0= ∂t Z 1 0 (E · D0 + B 0 · H 0 )dv + 2 Z σE dv + V 02 67 V I S (E 0 × H 0 ) · ds (2. alternatively.6. but using the expression (1. by deﬁnition. this equality can be fulﬁlled only when both E 0 and H 0 are null (i. the uniqueness theorem states that a ﬁeld in a lossy (σ 6= 0) 10 region is uniquely determined by the sources within the region together with the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld E or of the magnetic ﬁeld H on S. or. we see that these 0 0 two equalities imply that H0 and E0 are both equal to zero only if σ 6= 0.196) It is straightforward to show that if the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld E and/or of the magnetic ﬁeld H are uniquely determined on surface S. 2. which is what we set out to prove. This is why we started from the premise that the medium occupying the volume has a conductivity that may be arbitrarily small but which is non-zero at all points. taking into account that the initial values for t = t0 are deﬁned for all V .111). we ﬁnd that ¶ Z Z t µZ 1 0 0= σE 02 dv dt (2. .2. a pure harmonic signal has an inﬁnite duration. the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld E in any part of S and of the magnetic ﬁeld H in the remaining part of S.197) (E · D0 + B 0 · H 0 )dv + V 2 V t0 As both of the terms on the second member in (2. The ﬁeld in a lossless region can be considered the limit to the lossy case when such losses tend to zero. the ﬁnal term in (2.2 Time-harmonic ﬁelds In the case of harmonic variations. we get ¶ Z Z µ 02 02 02 μH0 σE0 εE0 0= dv + 2jω − dv (2.198) 2 4 4 V V By making the real and the imaginary parts equal to zero. when E1 = E2 and H1 = H2 ). By integrating this expression with respect to the time from t0 to t and.

FIELDS CREATED BY A SOURCE DISTRIBUTION: RETARDED POTENTIAL .68CHAPTER 2.

any wave front can be treated as a plane wave. is orthogonal to the propagation vector n at all the points on the surface.Chapter 3 ??Electromagnetic waves In chapter 2 the ﬁelds created by a bounded time-variyng source distribution were calculated and in particular we found that the radiation ﬁeld propagates energy far away from the sources. Then incidencia normal y oblicua. M oreover. Of all the possible solutions for the wave equation. source terms J and ρ may exist.1 Wave equation For time-varying electromagnetic ﬁelds it is possible to combine Maxwell’s equations to eliminate one of the ﬁelds. similarly. in general. an electromagnetic ﬁeld can puede descomp onerse como suma lineal de ondas planas ( see App endix ?? ) In this Chapter we consider this kind of waves in a linear homogeneous isotropic medium libre de fuentes. it is p ossible to demostrate that. H or E.. at any time t. to long waves (hundreds of kilometers long). desarrollo en ondas planas? Harmonic. visible light. we will examine primarily the properties of their plane-wave solutions.e. and radio waves.Electromagnetic waves are not limited in wavelength and in fact cover the sp ectrum from gamma rays (wavelengths of ¿¿¿¿ ¿¿ 10-12 cm???????) through X-rays. Taking the curl of (1. Ondas esféricas . homogeneous. a great deal of optics is founded on the plane-wave approximation and. waves for which the wave-front are planes1 . in a suﬃciently small region.1c) and using the vector relation (??) we 1 Wave-front is deﬁned as a surface that. To formulate these wave equations. For example. linear and isotropic region where.. i. ˆ 69 . microwaves. in radiocommunications the radiated ﬁeld at suﬃcient distance from the antenna can be considered to be a plane wave. in general. to obtain two uncoupled second-order diﬀerential equations. let us consider a non-magnetic (μ = μ0 ). Plane waves constitute a good approximation to actual waves in many situations because at suﬃciently large distances from the sources. one in E and the other in H. 3. known as wave equations.

1) where J and Jc are the source and induced conduction density of the currents. we get ∇2 E − μ0 σ ∂E ∂2E ∇ρ ∂J − μ0 ε 2 = + μ0 ∂t ∂t ε ∂t (3. which are expressed in terms of the .70 have ∇×∇×E CHAPTER 3. (2. and consequently their solutions take the form of the retarded vector potential given by Eq.14a). i. by means of straightforward operations. Thus. rearranging terms.5a) (3.1d). respectively. Z ∇ [ρ] + 1 c2 1 E (r.e.2) and (3.4a) (3. In source-free regions ( J = 0.3) − μ0 ε 2 = −∇ × J ∂t ∂t For a lossless media (3. except the charge and current densities induced by the presence of the ﬁelds.49) and (2. t) = dv 0 4π V 0 R h ∂J ∂t i dv0 (3. A similar equation can be written for the magnetic ﬁeld H by taking the curl of (1. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES = ∇(∇ · E) − ∇2 E = − = −μ0 ∂∇ × B ∂t ∇2 E ∂D ∂ (Jc + J + )⇒ ∂t ∂t ∂D ∂ = ∇(∇ · E) + μ0 (Jc + J + ) ∂t ∂t ∂E ∂2E ∂J 1 ∇ρ + μ0 σ + μ0 + μ0 ε 2 = ε ∂t ∂t ∂t (3.2) which is known as the inhomogeneous vector-wave equation for the electric ﬁeld.3) reduce to ∂2E ∂t2 ∂2H ∇2 H − μ0 ε 2 ∂t ∇2 E − μ0 ε = ∂J 1 ∇ρ + μ0 ε ∂t (3. ∂H ∂2H ∇2 H − μ0 σ (3.55) for the ﬁelds created by a bounded distribution of ﬁnite densities of charges and currents with arbitrary space and time dependence.5b) from which.41b). ρ = 0. we can obtain the expressions (2.4b) = −∇ × J These Eqs are analogous to the inhomogeneous wave equation for the vector potential (2. t) = − 4πε V 0 R h i Z ∇× J 1 H (r.

6a) (3. at any instant.3) simplify to ∂2E ∂E − μ0 σ ∂t2 ∂t 2 ∂ H ∂H ∇2 H − μ0 ε 2 − μ0 σ ∂t ∂t ∇2 E − μ0 ε = 0 = 0 71 (3.2) and (3. is the same at all points of the wave-front plane. these equations simplify to ∂2E ∂2E 2 − μ0 ε0 ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂2H ∂2H 2 − μ0 ε0 ∂t2 ∂ξ = = ∂2E 1 ∂2E 2 − c2 ∂t2 = 0 ∂ξ ∂2H 1 ∂2H 2 − c2 ∂t2 = 0 ∂ξ (3. are called the “telegrapher’s equations”.7c) (3.3. The solutions to these wave equations must be compatible with Maxwell’s equations and the coeﬃcients of the solutions must be derived from the boundary conditions. For nondissipative media. for example the free space. Thus.1.8b) ∂D ∂ξ ∂B ∂ξ ∂E ∂ξ ∂H ∂ξ = 0 = 0 = − ∂B ∂t ∂D ∂t (3.1).9b) . if n = ξ/ξ is the unit vector that is normal to the plane. the del ˆ operator ∇ becomes ∇ = ∂/∂ξ n and Maxwell’s equations simplify to ˆ n· ˆ n· ˆ n× ˆ n× ˆ and the wave equations become ∂2E ∂E ∂2E − μ0 ε 2 − μ0 σ 2 ∂t ∂t ∂ξ ∂2H ∂H ∂2H 2 − μ0 ε ∂t2 − μ0 σ ∂t ∂ξ = 0 = 0 (3.6.7b) (3.7d) = σE + These equations. the ﬁeld amplitude depends only on the distance ξ from the origin to the plane (ﬁg. Therefore. WAVE EQUATION constitutive parameters) the equations (3. linear and isotropic medium.7a) (3.9a) (3.6b) which are the homogeneous wave equations that determine the propagation of the ﬁelds E and H in a sourceless homogeneous.8a) (3. which describe the propagation of plane waves in a homogeneous conducting medium. Uniform plane waves are deﬁned as waves with a ﬁeld amplitude that.

propagates at velocity tal to the right without changing shape z ˆ n ξ r O y x Figure 3. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES f f (z.72 CHAPTER 3. 0) v f (z.1: The wave tal. in a lossless medium. t ) ξ ct Figure 3.2: poner plane wave front .

According to Subsection (??). (3. is given by −γ 2 σ = ω 2 μ0 (εc − j ) ω 00 σ )) ω = ω 2 μ0 ε0 (1 − j tan δ d ) = k2 (1 − j tan δ d ) = ω 2 μ0 εec = ω 2 μ0 (ε0 − j(ε + p μo ε0 (3. the values of the term j tan δ d in Eq. and thus Eq. and εec = ε0 (1 − j tan δ d ).12) where γ is in general a complex quantity called the complex propagation constant.13) (3. a complex dielectric constant. tan δ d = σ e /ωε0 . Analogously. depending on the characteristics of the medium.10) and (3.3. Equation (3. and (1.83) respectively. we have ~ ~ ∇2 H − γ 2 H = 0 (3. In a highly conductive medium tan δ d >> 1 and 1 − j tan δ d ' −j tan δ d . εc = ε0 − jε00 . which. for most metals the relaxation time τ is 10−14 s. HARMONIC WAVES 73 3. (3. for the magnetic ﬁeld.12).78).71).(1.11) which is of the same type as the one that determines the propagation of heat by conduction or by diﬀusion.81). from (3. the wave equation (3. at the operating frequency.10) can be written more concisely as ~ ~ ∇2 E − γ 2 E = 0 (3. since tan δ d = (τ ω)−1 . (1.2.14) where k=ω is the wavenumber corresponding to an unbounded lossless medium with a real dielectric constant ε0 .15) .10) where σ e = σ + ωε00 . which is a low value compared with the period for all frequencies lower than the optical ones. the loss tangent and the eﬀective complex permittivity deﬁned in (1. As commented in Subsection (??). Thus. the diﬀusion equation is adequate for metals at all these frequencies. are the eﬀective conductivity.6a) can be written as a time-independent wave equation ~ ~ ~ ∇2 E − jωμ0 σ E + μ0 ω 2 εc E ~ ~ ~ = ∇2 E − jωμ0 σ e E + μ0 ω 2 ε0 E 2~ 2 0 ~ = ∇ E + ω μ0 ε (1 − j tan δ d ) E ~ = (∇2 + ω 2 μ0 εec )E = 0 (3.10) may range from << 1 (zero for a perfect dielectric or lossless medium) to >> 1 (inﬁnite for a perfect conductor).2 Harmonic waves For time-harmonic ﬁelds.10) becomes the so-called time-independent diﬀusion equation for ~ the electric ﬁeld E ~ ~ ∇2 E − jωμ0 σE = 0 (3. when the medium presents a conductivity σ and.

(3. we can easily calculate the explicit expressions for β and α β ¶1 i1/2 μ0 ε0 2 h = ω (1 + tan2 δ d )1/2 + 1 2 !1/2 Ãr p ³ σ ´2 ω μo ε0 e √ = 1+ +1 ωε0 2 !1/2 Ãr ³ σ ´2 k e = √ 1+ +1 ωε0 2 µ 0 µ (3.16b) The complex propagation constant γ is usually written as2 γ = jk (1 − j tan δ d ) 1/2 = α + jβ (3.18a) ¶1 i1/2 μ0 ε 2 h α = ω (1 + tan2 δ d )1/2 − 1 2 Ãr !1/2 p ³ σ ´2 ω μo ε0 e √ = 1+ −1 ωε0 2 !1/2 Ãr ³ σ ´2 k e = √ 1+ −1 ωε0 2 (3.15) simplify to ~ ∂2E ~ − γ2E ∂ξ 2 ~ ∂2H ~ − γ2H ∂ξ 2 = 0 = 0 (3. tal como se han calculado. from. is called the attenuation constant of the wave. Thus.74 CHAPTER 3.16a) (3. α = 0 and the phase constant becomes γ = jβ = j k. For lossless media we have σe = 0. (3.12) and (3. 2 Recordemos que los valores del factor de atenuación.17).17) where the imaginary part.1 Uniform plane harmonic waves For uniform plane waves. we have ∇2 = ∂ 2 /∂ 2 ξ and Eqs. respectively.13) and (3. to indicate their attenuative and phase meanings in wave expressions. β. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 3. vienen expresados en nepers/metro y que multiplicados por 80 868 se convierten en dB/m.18b) The dimensions of α and β are m−1 and they are referred to as neper and radian.2. is termed the phase constant. α. whereas the real part. .

taking into account (3. we see that E.19b) where the so-called complex propagation vector γ = γ n (with module γ and ˆ direction of the unit vector n normal to the wave-front planes) has been inˆ troduced and r is the position of any point on the wave-front plane so that n · r = ξ.13) and (3. The magnitudes of E. For this reason these waves are often referred to as transverse electromagnetic (TEM) ~ ~ waves. the ﬁeld module decreases from an initial given value to 1/e of this value. ˆ Equations (3. H and n are perpendicular to one ˆ ~ ~ ˆ another and that they form a right-handed system in the order E.23) where the quantity η c . is given. n. known as the complex characteristic impedance of the medium.22b) (3.16) have solutions of the form Eeγξ and Heγξ so that the instantaneous values for the ﬁelds are given by wave equations E H ~ ~ ~ = Re{Ee(jωt−γξ) } = Re{Ee(jωt−γ·r) } = Re{Ee−αξ ej(ωt−βξ) } (3.22a) (3.18a). HARMONIC WAVES 75 ~ ~ Equations (3.3. by E jωμ0 = = H γ µ μ0 εec ¶1/2 ωμ0 (β + jα) =| η c | ejθ α2 + β 2 ηc = = (3. as β is given by (3.7) the following equalities may be deduced ~ γ·E ~ γ·H = 0 = 0 ~ = jμ0 ω H ~ = −jεec ω E (3. due to the attenuation α. The penetration factor δ is deﬁned as δ= 1 α (3. From (3.22c) (3.2.20) β which in general.21) This is the distance at which. depends on the frequency (dispersive media). H are related by H= γE E = ηc jωμ0 (3.24) .22d) ~ γ×E ~ γ×H ~ ~ From these equations.19a) ~ (jωt−γξ) } = Re{He(jωt−γ·r) } = Re{He−αξ ej(ωt−βξ) } ~ ~ = Re{He (3.19) represent waves traveling at a speed given by the phase velocity vp ω vp = (3.17). H.

2 Propagation in lossless media By particularizing the above expressions for a lossless medium where.2. Thus γ = jk and δ = ∞ and Eqs (3. simpliﬁes to ³ μ ´1/2 0 ηc θ = η= = 0 ε = µ μ0 ε0 εr ¶1/2 = η0 1/2 εr = 120π εr 1/2 (3.15) simplify to ~ ~ ∇2 H + k2 H 2~ 2~ ∇ E+k E = 0 = 0 (3. tan δ d = σ e /ωε0 << 1.27) so that the impedance is real and constant. γ = jk. (3.76 CHAPTER 3. we thus have tan δ d = 0. 3. In this . in general there is a phase shift θ between E and H. η simpliﬁes to the impedance of free space µ ¶1/2 μ0 = 120π (3.3 Propagation in good dielectrics or insulators In a good dielectric (see Subsection ??) the reactive current predominates on the dissipative current and according to (1.91). in unbounded lossless media. its module and phase is given by ¡ μ0 ¢1/2 |η c | = θ ε0 σe [1 + ( ωε0 )2 ]1/4 1 δd α σe = tan−1 = tan−1 0 = β 2 εω 2 (3.28) η = η0 = ε0 ~ Consequently.29d) ~ k×E ~ k×H 3.26a) (3. ε00 = 0. there is no phase shift between E ~ and H and the attenuation is null (α = 0).25b) ~ ~ Therefore.12) and (3. and γ = k = k n.29b) (3.2.22) simplify to ~ k·E ~ k·H = 0 = 0 ~ = μ0 ω H ~ = −jεω E (3. and ˆ consequently equations (3.25). ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Thus.29a) (3. and σ = 0. when the medium is free space.26b) and the complex characteristic impedance of the medium.29c) (3. In particular.25a) (3. ε0 = ε = εr ε0 .

HARMONIC WAVES 77 ξ Figure 3.4: Uniform plane wave propagating in the +ξ direction in a lossless medium .2.3.3: Cuidado¡¡¡ estan normalizada a η0 p ossitive ξ traveling ﬁelds of a uniform plane in dissipative medium ξ Figure 3.

13) we have γ ' jk (−j tan δ d ) = jk (1 − j tan δ d ) ³ μ σω ´1/2 = (1 + j) 0 2 1/2 1/2 = jk ³ σ ´1/2 (1 − j) (1 − j) 2εω (3.32) From (3. α=β= Thus the electric ﬁeld from (3.33a) (3. we can develop the complex propagation constant (3. In this case.31b) Thus the propagation velocity can be approximated by (3. tan δ d = σ/ωε >> 1. from (1. simpliﬁes to ~ E = Re{Ee−ξ/δ ej(ωt−ξ/δ) } where δ δ= 1 = α µ 2 μ0 ωσ ¶1/2 (3.25) is usually simpliﬁed to ηc θ ' η= = 0 ³ μ ´1/2 0 ε0 (3.33b) 3.17) to get µ ¶ j tan δ d tan2 δ d 1/2 0 1/2 γ = jk (1 − j tan δ d ) = jω (μ0 ε ) 1− + + .34) and consequently from (3.30) 2 and therefore α ' β ω (μ0 ε0 )1/2 tan δ d σ e ³ μ0 ´1/2 = 2 2 ε0 1/2 ' k = ω (μ0 ε0 ) ω 1 ' β (μ0 ε0 )1/2 (3. since σ e /ωε0 << 1.93) and (3..37) .31a) (3.2. Moreover.35) (3.36) ³ μ σω ´1/2 0 2 (3.31a) it can be seen that α is small and therefore so is the wave attenuation. the intrinsic impedance of the medium (3. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES case. ' 2 8 µ ¶ j tan δ d 1/2 1− jω (μ0 ε0 ) (3.94).4 Propagation in good conductors For a good conductor (see Subsection ??) the dissipative current predominates on the reactive current and according to (1.19a).78 CHAPTER 3.17).

Thus.42) This expression for l = ∞. the complex Poynting vector (1.40) where Pav (0) is the mean power per unit area at ξ = 0. the dielectric constant and the complex impedance are reduced to µ ¶ jσ σ εec = ε 1 − ' −j (3.107). according to (1.43) since Re{η−1 } = c σe 2α (3. For a perfect conductor.21) particularized by a good conductor. simpliﬁes to 2 dP 1 σ e E0 1 2 2 = = Re{η−1 }E0 = Re{η c }H0 = c ds 4α 2 2 (3. or for a distance l such that the magnitude of the ﬁelds becomes negligible. for good conductors. Therefore Pav = 1 ~ ~∗ Re{E × H } = Pav (0)e−2αξ 2 (3. σ → ∞ and δ = 0.39) Thus the phase shift between E and H is 45o .87). respectively ηc = µ μ0 εec ¶1/2 ³ μ ω ´1/2 ³ μ ω ´1/2 ωμ0 δ = −j 0 = (1 + j) 0 = (1 + j) σ 2σ 2 (3. Thus the ﬁelds are conﬁned within a very short distance from the surface of the conductor. (1. Thus the total power per unit area transmitted by the wave to the medium along the distance ξ = l is given by dP (3. Furthermore. attenuates along the direction of propagation by the factor e−2αξ .2. as σe dP = ds 2 ÃZ l 2 (E0 e−2αξ )dξ 0 ! = 2 σ e E0 (1 − e−2αl ) 4α (3. and consequently the mean power per unit of area.44) .41) = Pav (0) − Pav (l) = Pav (0)(1 − e−2αl ) ds This can be also calculated.106). 3.3.5 Surface resistance Let us consider an area element perpendicular to the direction of propagation ξ. HARMONIC WAVES 79 is the penetration factor (3.38) ωε ω and.2. the penetration factor δ has a very low value which decreases as the frequency increases. Since the wave amplitudes of E and H decrease exponentially according to the factor e−αξ .

45) (3. i.43) simpliﬁes. Eq. What in fact happens is that a transmitter emits a given signal f (ξ. may be assigned to the signal which is usually known as a wave group or wave package.37).47) simpliﬁes to Z f (ξ. let us consider a wave group centered on a frequency ω 0 such that Aω ' 0 except for ω = ω 0 ± 4ω/2 (Fig.e. termed the group velocity.39). a medium where the phase velocity depends on the frequency.48) 4ω So far. in accordance with the scale change property of the Fourier transform. which indicates that an inverse relation exists between the duration of a signal and its bandwidth. the signal will deform as it propagates. to dP H 2 ³ μ0 ω ´1/2 1 2 = Rs H0 = 0 ds 2 2σ 2 where Rs is the so-called surface resistance ³μ ω ´1 1 2 0 = Rs = 2σ σδ and δ is the penetration factor given by (3. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES For a good conductor. the ideal situation of a pure harmonic wave which extends to inﬁnity both backward and forward in time never arises and. In practice. t) for a ﬁnite period of time that. When. such a wave could not carry information. i. expression (3. we have considered the ideal case of a plane harmonic wave. one in which the wave number and the frequency are ﬁxed. t) = Aω ej(ωt−βξ) dω (3.80 CHAPTER 3. each spectral component travels at a diﬀerent velocity and. but just the opposite. according to Fourier’s theorem. moreover. as commonly occurs in practice. Under these conditions. Given that β = β (ω). (3.47) −∞ extended to the values of ω in which Aω 6= 0.e.46) 3. 7.3 Group velocity When the signal propagates through a dispersive medium. the spectrum of the signal is narrow 3 and the transmission medium is only slightly dispersive. The velocity with which the envelope or energy of the wave group propagates in the medium is called group velocity. When this type of wave propagates through a dispersive medium.49) ∂ω ¯ω0 ∂ω 2 ¯ω0 2 3 Note that a concentration of the ﬁeld in space does not imply a concentration in the frequency spectrum. from (3. can be expanded into a continuous spectrum of amplitudes Aω such that Z ∞ f (ξ. (3. . then a single velocity. To calculate this. it can be developed into a Taylor series around the frequency ω 0 ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ∂β ¯ ¯ (ω − ω 0 ) + ∂ β ¯ (ω − ω 0 ) β (ω) = β (ω 0 ) + (3.4). as a consequence. t) = Aω ej(ωt−βξ) dω (3. the propagation velocity (phase velocity) of a harmonic wave depends on its frequency.

53) dλ ¯ dβ/dω ¯ ω0 ω0 3. then (3.48) we get f (ξ. then a pulse may travel through a dispersive medium a certain distance without a signiﬁcant change. so that all the wavelengths propagate at the same velocity vp = vg . the signal has the same amplitude as at the origin after a time t = ∂β/∂ω|ω0 ξ and a phase shift given by ∂β/∂ω|ω0 ω 0 ξ − β 0 ξ. t − (3. can be written as a function of f (0. the velocity at which the signal. it is termed normal dispersion. . propagates is ¯ dξ dω ¯ ¯ vg = = dt dβ ¯ω0 ¯ ¯ ¯ d dvp ¯ ¯ = (vp β)¯ = vp + β ¯ dβ dβ ¯ω0 ω0 ¯ ¯ dvp ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ = ¯ = vp − λ (3.50) ∂ω ¯ω0 | Z jω t− ∂β ∂ω ω ξ 0 Aω e 4ω | dω (3. Consequently. it is termed anomalous dispersion. t) = e j ∂β ∂ω ω ω 0 ξ−β 0 ξ 0 If the dispersive medium is such that the dependence of the phase velocity vp on the frequency is so slowly that we can consider (as a good approximation) that there exists a linear relation between β and ω. If this condition is not satisﬁed and the medium is very dispersive the shape of signal changes rapidly and the concept of group velocity is not longer valid.4. taking into account (3.4 Polarization As the wave equation is a linear diﬀerential equation. In an ideal dielectric where vp 6= vp (β). t) = f 0. This means that. If the phase velocity vp increases with the frequency.3. it fulﬁls the superposition principle and any sum of solutions is also a solution of the diﬀerential equation. the signal propagates without deformation.50) in (3. t) in the following way Ã ! ¯ j ∂β ω ξ−β 0 ξ ∂β ¯ ¯ ξ e ∂ω |ω0 0 f (ξ. By substituting (3. POLARIZATION 81 where β 0 = β (ω 0 ).52) ∂ω ¯ω0 If the phase velocity varies slowly with the frequency.49) simpliﬁes to ¯ ∂β ¯ ¯ (ω − ω 0 ) β (ω) = β 0 + (3.51) which. The sign of dvp /dω determines whether vg is greater or less than vp . On the contrary. when vp decreases with the frequency. and thus its associated energy.48). at a point ξ.

the electric ﬁeld delineates an ellipse or. The resulting polarization is referred to as elliptical polarization.. We will assume a homogeneous. let us consider the total time-varying electric ﬁeld.. for example.56) which is the equation of an ellipse with its major axis tilted depending on the value of δ..82 CHAPTER 3. in an electromagnetic wave the direction of the electric ﬁeld generally changes and traces out an ellipse as the wave propagates4 . we ﬁnd 2 2 Ey 2Ex Ey Ex + 2 − cos δ = sin2 δ a2 b ab (3.55b) (3. deﬁning δ = δ 1 − δ 2 as the relative phase diﬀerence between the two components and after some simpliﬁcations based on simply trigonometric identities. t) = (aejδ1 x + bejδ2 y )ej(ωt−kz) ˆ ˆ (3. as the time goes on. The angular velocity of the vector E t = Ex x + Ey y is given by ˆ ˆ dϕ Ex Ey − Ey E x d Ey ϕ= )= = (tan−1 dt dt Ex |Et |2 · · · → (3. with diﬀerent amplitudes (a and b) and phases (δ 1 and δ 2 ). equivalently. solving for cos ωt and sin ωt in terms of a and b.. let us consider the sum of two plane waves propagating in direction z (one with the electric ﬁeld lying along the x axis and the other along the y axis) at identical frequencies but.55c) Using the trigonometric identity for the sum of two angles. one in the x direction and the other in the y direction. given by ~ E(z. Each of these waves.57) where ϕ is . is said to be linearly polarized. isotropic. respectively. 4 In a unpolarized wave. in general.. The sense of rotation together with the direction of propagation deﬁne lefthanded polarized versus right-handed polarized waves. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES In particular. At the plane z = 0.. the vector E is subject to random changes of amplitud and phase . because the direction of their electric ﬁeld does not change with time.. This means that at a plane z = cte. according to the righthand rule: the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction of propagation.55a) (3. To see this.54) Let us determine the time evolution in a plane z = cte of the electric ﬁeld vector resulting from the composition of these two plane waves. that the electric ﬁeld delineates an elliptical helix in the direction of propagation.. However. which is sum of the two linearly polarized waves. we have Ex Ey Ez = a cos(ωt + δ 1 ) = b cos(ωt + δ 2 ) = 0 (3. lossless medium (although the eﬀects of losses as an exponential factor common to all the ﬁeld components do not inﬂuence the polarization)..

60) which represents the equation of a straight line b Ey = ∓ Ex a (3. with m being an integer.62b) The angle of the slope with the x axis is tan ϕ = tan (3.e. the equation (3. the wave is right-handed polarized.3.58) a2 b If a = b. 2 2 Ey Ex + 2 =1 (3. The wave is then linearly polarized and the components of E are Ex Ey = a cos(ωt − kz) = b cos(ωt − kz ± mπ) Ey b = (−1)m Ex a (3. Particular cases occur depending on the values of a. When a 6= b and δ = mπ/2.. and in the contrary case the wave is left polarized. . then 2 2 (3. ±5. When δ = ±mπ.62a) (3. ±3. b.56) becomes ∙ Ex Ey ± a b ¸2 =0 (3. and the polarization ellipse may degenerate into a centred ellipse. y directions.56) becomes a centred ellipse with the major and minor axis oriented along the x. with m = ±1.4. the polarization ellipse (3. a circle or a straight line. POLARIZATION 83 Thus.63) . δ. i.61) intersecting the origin.59) Ex + Ey = a2 which is the equation of a circumference. if the ﬁngertips are curling in the direction of the rotation of the electric ﬁeld.

84 CHAPTER 3. ??ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES .

we studied the characteristics of harmonic plane waves. has a radius of curvature much larger than the wavelength of the incident wave. when a wave propagating through a medium strikes the interface (incident wave). Thus the interface can be considered quite accurately as a plane interface. with no loss of generality. The characteristics of reﬂected and transmitted waves can be calculated from those of the incident wave by forcing the total ﬁeld on the interface to fulﬁl the boundary conditions. we will assume the interface to be parallel to the xy plane. 1 La incidencia normal tiene muchas analogías con la líneas de transmisión que se estudiarán en el capítulo Tal 85 . such as lenses and ﬁber-optic transmission lines. and now consider what happens when such waves reach the interface (assumed to be plane and indeﬁnite) separating two linear. In the following. when the interface is perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave. nonmagnetic. In general. is assumed to take place in an electrically very narrow region with a thickness much less than λ. 1 . homogeneous and isotropic dielectrics having diﬀerent electromagnetic characteristics. part of its energy is reﬂected and propagates through the same medium (reﬂected wave). We will consider ﬁrst the simplest case of normal incidence. or refracted wave). while another part is transmitted to the second medium (transmitted. i. The change in the constitutive parameters. and then the more general case of oblique incidence. This study has extensive applications in optics where the interface of many optical devices.e.Chapter 4 Reﬂection and refraction of plane waves In the previous chapter. as the wave passes from one medium to the other.

σ 2 r E xi r H yr r Ext ˆ Pt r i Hy ˆ P r r H yt Figure 4.1 4.1: Poner los vectores de pynting P El subindice de campo electrico incidente ponerlo mejor 4.1.ε 2. characterized by the parameters μ0 .ε1. εci = ε0 − jε00 . σ1 to the surface of another one with diﬀerent constitutive parameters 1 1 μ0 . REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES Medium 1 ˆ n Medium 2 μ0. the total ﬁeld in medium 1 (where z < 0) and medium 2 (where z > 0) is given by Medium 1 = E i e−α1 z e−jβ 1 z + E r eα1 z ejβ 1 z = E i e−γ 1 z + E r eγ 1 z x1 x1 x1 x1 (4. i i and σ i where subindex i (i = 1.1c) (4.86 CHAPTER 4. let us assume that a harmonic plane wave propagates through the ﬁrst medium in the positive sense of the z axis with the electric ﬁeld parallel to the x axis. Due to the discontinuity of the constitutive parameters. ε2 = ε0 − jε00 . ε1 = ε0 − jε00 . σ 2 2 2 Considering two semi-indeﬁnite lossy media that are separated by the plane z = 0. μ = μ0 . 2) refers to medium 1 or 2. General case: interface between two lossy media normally incident from a lossy media. part of the wave is propagated through medium 2 and part is reﬂected back through medium 1.1d) E x1 .1. Therefore. see ﬁgure 4.1 Normal incidence.1b) E x2 H y2 Medium 2 = E t e−α2 z e−jβ 2 z = E t e−γ 2 z x2 x2 = E t −α2 z −jβ 2 z x2 ηc2 e e = E t −γ 2 z x2 η c2 e (4.1a) H y1 = E i −α1 z −jβ 1 z x1 ηc1 e e − E r α1 z jβ 1 z x1 ηc1 e e = E i −γ 1 z x1 ηc1 e − E r γ1 z x1 ηc1 e (4.σ1 r Exr ˆ P i μ0. The wave impinges with normal incidence on this plane.

r. respectively p ¸1/2 ∙ ω μ o ε0 q βi = √ i 1 + (σ e /ωε0 ) + 1 (4. of z η ci = μ0 /εeci represents the impedance (3. The ¿¿¿sup erindices?? (medium γ i = αi + jβ i (4. . deﬁned by TL TL = 2η c2 η c2 + η c1 (4.6e) = E2t = H2t (4. In these expressions.6b) (4. E1t H1t we obtain ωi Er x1 Et x2 Hr y1 Ht y2 ωt = ωr = ω ΓL E i x1 TL E i = (1 + ΓL )E i x1 x1 −ΓL H i y1 ηc1 = TL H i y1 ηc2 = = = = (4. and t indicate the incident wave (medium 1).18a)and (3.8b) = 1 + ΓL = |TL | ejΨL If there is an impedance adaptation (η c2 = ηc1 ) then there is no reﬂected wave. For each instant of time. 87 i.6a) (4. and so all the incident energy is absorbed by the second medium. the reﬂected wave 1) and the transmitted wave (medium 2).6d) (4. by imp osing the b oundary conditions in the plane z = 0 (2.18b). NORMAL INCIDENCE.17).5b) where ΓL is the reﬂection coeﬃcient in the plane z = 0 deﬁned by ΓL = ηc2 − ηc1 = |ΓL | ejΦL ηc2 + ηc1 (4. resp ectively.1.3) i 2 p ¸1/2 ∙ ω μo ε0 q αi = √ i 1 + (σ e /ωε0 ) − 1 (4.8a) (4.5a) (4.7) and TL is the transmission coeﬃcient in the same plane.24) of medium i while γ i is the complex propagation factor (3.4) i 2 The time dependence of the ﬁelds is achieved by adding the factor ejωt to (4.1).6c) (4.182b) onto the tangential comp onents of E and H. The minus sign for the reﬂected wave of the magnetic ﬁeld is associated with the fact that the Poynting vector p the reﬂected wave propagates in the −ˆ direction.4.2) where αi and β i are the attenuation and propagation constants (3.

7) at the interface (z = 0) becomes q ec2 1 − εε1 q (4. while the reﬂection coeﬃcient Γ is discontinuous.1.9) (4.19) (4.10) (4. because the tangential components Ex1 and Hy1 are similarly continuous. the characteristic impedances reduce to 1 1 r μ0 η1 = (4. ε1 = ε0 . for the magnetic ﬁeld. we have Ei (4. Similarly.15) ΓL = ec2 1 + εε1 Since σ 1 = 0 and ε00 = 0.17) .12) H y1 = x1 e−γ 1 z (1 − Γ(z)) ηc1 The impedance associated with the total ﬁeld at a coordinate point z in the ﬁrst medium is deﬁned as ¯ E x1 ¯ ¯ = ηc1 1 + Γ(z) = ηc1 ηc2 − ηc1 tanh(γ 1 z) ηinp (z) = (4. lossless (σ1 = 0 and ε00 = 0. 4.2 Perfect/Lossy dielectric interface In the particular case in which the ﬁrst dielectric is perfect. i. γ 1 = jk1 ).e.6b).11) where Γ(z). REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES From (4. deﬁned as is the reﬂection coeﬃcient in the plane z = z.88 CHAPTER 4.16) (4. the total electric ﬁeld in the ﬁrst medium can be expressed as E x1 = E i e−α1 z e−jβ 1 z (1 + ΓL e2α1 z e2jβ 1 z ) x1 = E i e−α1 z e−jβ 1 z (1 + Γ(z)) = E i e−γ 1 z (1 + Γ(z)) x1 x1 Γ(z) = ΓL e2α1 z e2jβ 1 z (4.1a) and (4. it follows that α1 = 0 and therefore 1 and H y1 = where Γ(z) = ΓL e2jk1 z The input impedance (4.18) E x1 = E i e−jk1 z (1 + ΓL e2jk1 z ) = E i e−jk1 z (1 + Γ(z)) x1 x1 E i −jk1 z x1 e (1 − Γ(z)) η1 (4.13) simpliﬁes to η inp (z) = η 1 ηc2 − η 1 tan(k1 z) η1 − ηc2 tan(k1 z) (4.13) H y1 ¯z 1 − Γ(z) ηc1 − ηc2 tanh(γ 1 z) The impedance ηinp (z) is continuous through the interface.14) ε1 and the coeﬃcient of reﬂection (4.

From (4. The amplitude of the propagating wave is determined by the coeﬃcient of transmission. Then the ﬁelds in the ﬁrst medium are ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ = E i e−jk1 z 1 − e2jk1 z = E i e−jk1 z − ejk1 z = −2jE i sin(4.1.20b) 4. while that of the standing wave depends on the coeﬃcient of reﬂection.20a) (k1 z) x1 x1 x1 = ¢ E i ¡ −jk1 z Ei x1 + ejk1 z = 2 x1 cos (k1 z) e η1 η1 E x1 H y1 (4. we obtain the following expression for the total ﬁeld i i Ex1 (z. To examine this concept.23a) (4.21) x1 x1 By including the time dependence.e. NORMAL INCIDENCE. and assuming an initial phase ϕ = 0. a) Lossless case For the ﬁrst medium. 89 4.4.23b) .16) and (4.17) the magnitudes of the ﬁelds are E0x1 H0y1 i = E0x1 |1 + Γ(z)| 1 i = E |1 − Γ(z)| η1 0x1 (4.4 Standing waves It is well known that two waves with the same frequency that are propagating in opposite directions interfere and form what are termed standing (or stationary) waves.1. If the coeﬃcient of transmission T is null (which occurs when the second medium is a perfect conductor) the wave of the ﬁrst medium becomes a pure standing wave. the expression of the total electric ﬁeld is. let us ﬁrst consider the case in which the ﬁrst medium is lossless. E x1 = E i e−jk1 z + E r ejk1 z = (1 + ΓL )E i e−jk1 z + ΓL E i (ejk1 z − e−jk1 z ) x1 x1 x1 x1 = TL E i e−jk1 z + |ΓL | E i (ej(ΦL +k1 z) − ej(ΦL −k1 z) ) x1 x1 = |TL | E i ej(ΨL −k1 z) + 2 |ΓL | E i sin(k1 z) ej(ΦL +π/2) (4.. and then analyse the case in which the ﬁrst medium is dissipative. one in which the mean energy transported by the wave is null.22) is termed the diagram of the standing wave.22) where the ﬁrst summand of the second member corresponds to a wave that is propagating. i. while the second summand represents a standing wave.3 Perfect dielectric/Perfect conductor interface Another particular case arises when the second medium is a perfect conductor (η2 = 0) and therefore TL = 0 and ΓL = −1.1. t) = |TL | E0x1 cos(ωt − k1 z + ΨL ) − 2 |ΓL | E0x1 sin(k1 z) sin(ωt + ΦL ) (4. The envelope of the equation (4.

27) Ratio of the standing wave The relation between the maximum and minimum values of the diagram of the standing wave is called the ratio of the standing wave..25) i r and the minimum values of E0x (the maxima of H0y ). 1. by including the time dependence. assuming E0x1 > E0x1 . i. we get (4.29) i Ex1 (z.e. are given by i r E0x (z)min = E0x1 − E0x1 (4. 2k1 (4. the expression of the total electric ﬁeld in the ﬁrst medium is E x1 (z) = E i e−α1 z e−jβ 1 z + E r eα1 z ejβ 1 z = E i (e−γ 1 z + ΓL eγ 1 z ) x1 x1 x1 = TL E i e−γ 1 z + ΓL E i (eγ 1 z − e−γ 1 z ) (4. (4.30) x1 x1 and.. 1 ≤ SW R ≤ ∞ b) Lossy case In this case.31) In these media.90 CHAPTER 4. n = 0. . t) = |TL | E0x1 e−α1 z cos(ωt − β 1 z + ΨL ) + i 2 |ΓL | E0x1 sinh(γ 1 z) cos(ωt + ΦL ) (4. 1.28) Its value ranges from 1 (no reﬂected wave) to inﬁnity (pure standing wave).26) at the points zmin = − ΦL + (2n + 1) π .. and is described by SW R = r E i + E0x1 1 + |Γ(z)| 1 + |ΓL | E0x1 (z)max = 0x1 = = i r E0x1 (z)min 1 − |Γ(z)| 1 − |ΓL | E0x1 − E0x1 (4. it makes no sense to deﬁne the SW R parameter because the maxima and minima are not constant. . REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES The maximum values of E0x1 (the minima of H0y1 ) are given by i r E0x1 (z)max = E0x1 + E0x1 (4. .24) at the coordinate points zmax = − ΦL + 2nπ 2k1 n = 0..

4.34) . the problem is analogous to the two-layer cases discussed above. tal. assuming that k1 is known and that zmin is determined experimentally (by using an appropriate device to detect the ﬁrst ﬁeld minimum). we get ΓL = where Γij = Γ12 + Γ23 e−2jkl 1 + Γ12 Γ23 e−2jkl ηj − ηi ηj + ηi (4. If k1 is not known. impinging normally from the ﬁrst medium onto the structure. we can determine the phase angle φL .2.32) where subindex 23 refers to the surface that separates medium 2 from medium 3.33) Taking into account that η inp (z) is continuous at an interface. 4. Thus η 2 is determined from this information and from expression (4. To simplify the analysis. is straightforward. as shown in Fig.33) into this equation and then operating. becomes ΓL = Γ(z = −l) = ηL − η1 ηL + η1 by introducing (4.7).35) Thus.5 Measures of impedances Assuming that the ﬁrst medium is lossless.2 Multilayer structures Let us now consider the normal incidence of an electromagnetic wave on a structure in which there are more than two media separated by parallel planes.7) at z = −l.1.34) (4. the coeﬃcient of reﬂection (4. then |ΓL | is identical r to E0 and thus we need to measure only this amplitude. Therefore. The generalization to more media. Clearly. the coeﬃcient of reﬂection in the z = 0 plane is Γ23 = η3 − η2 = Γ(z = 0) η3 + η2 (4. including the possibility of losses. for an electromagnetic wave with an amplitude of one. it can be calculated from the distance between two consecutive minima.13) for z = −l we have the load impedance η L η L = η inp (z = −l) = η2 1 + Γ23 e−2jkl 1 − Γ23 e−2jkl (4.27) the ﬁrst ﬁeld minimum occurs at φL +2k1 zmin = π. Consequently. The value of |ΓL | can be found from the ratio between the maximum and minimum ﬁeld values E0x1 max /E0x1 min = SW R = (1 + |ΓL |)/(1 − |ΓL |). from (4. Note that if the incident wave has an amplitude of one. for a wave that is propagating to the right in medium 2. we consider the case of three lossless dielectrics. Particularizing (4. MULTILAYER STRUCTURES 91 4. the amplitude of the reﬂected wave is given by (4.

34) becomes Γ= Γ12 − Γ23 1 − Γ12 Γ23 (4. Thus any material with a thickness of λ/2 is adapted so long as the impedances of media 1 and 3 are the same. It should be noted that such a regime is the limit of a transitory process involving multiple reﬂected and transmitted waves within media 1 and 2.e.) 23 21 (4. we ﬁnd that in medium 1 a reﬂected ﬁeld is given by Er x1 i = E0x1 (Γ12 + T12 Γ23 T21 e−2jk2 d + T12 Γ2 Γ21 T21 e−4jk2 d 23 +T12 Γ3 Γ2 T21 e−6jk2 d + . 4.36) Thus.2.38) (4. Half-wave layer For a half-wave layer.40) and thus ΓL = 0 irrespectively of η2 . we have (η 3 = η1 ) (4. the coeﬃcient of reﬂection must be null.34) is reduced to Γ= Γ12 + Γ23 1 + Γ12 Γ23 (4. to transmit the incident energy completely (adaptation of impedance). let us consider the normal incidence of a wave that impinges upon a structure formed of three perfect dielectrics. To illustrate this limit process. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES Quarter-wave layer For a quarter-wave layer.35) we have η2 = √ η1η3 (4.37) as a condition for impedance adaptation to exist. From the process of multiple reﬂections and transmissions.92 CHAPTER 4.39) For impedance adaptation to exist. l = λ/2 (e−2jkl = 1).41) (4. as shown in Fig. expression (4.1 Stationary and transitory regimes The above analyses are valid for monochromatic waves in a stationary regime. equation (4.42) .. the following must be fulﬁlled Γ12 + Γ23 = 0 By replacing the coeﬃcients by the values given in (4. l = λ/4 (e−2jkl = −1). i.35). tal. and so Γ12 − Γ23 = 0 Taking into account equation (4..

where the waves have been represented. in medium 1 there exists an incident and a reﬂected wave. we can see that the summands following the ﬁrst one constitute a geometric progression of common ratio Γ21 Γ23 e−2jk2 d .46) 4.3. (4. although they are shown as such in Fig Tal. by arrows (called rays) in the direction of propagation. These rays are perpendicular to the equiphase planes (wavefronts). In general. The plane of incidence is deﬁned . taking into account the equalities Γ21 = −Γ12 T12 = 1 + Γ12 T21 = 1 − Γ12 is reduced to equation (4. as usual. we make no assumption that the three rays are coplanar. In principle.??. Thus the interface can be considered very approximately as a plane interface.43) which.44) (4. has a radius of curvature much larger than the wavelength of the incident wave. such as lenses and ﬁber optic waveguides.4. OBLIQUE INCIDENCE 93 θi θr θt Figure 4.2: Poner sistemas de ejes Observing the second member. let us now consider the oblique incidence of a plane wave on a plane interface separating two media. To study the oblique incidence we will use the geometry shown in Fig.45) (4. Thus the coeﬃcient of reﬂection can be written as ΓL = Γ12 + T12 Γ23 T21 e−2jk2 d 1 − Γ23 Γ21 e−2jk2 d (4. while the transmitted (also called refracted) wave is in medium 2.3 Oblique incidence As a more general case than the normal incidence. The oblique incident has extensive applications in optics where the interface of many optical devices.34).

we get θi Nc1 sin θ = θr = θ = Nc2 sin θt (4. such that γ= Nc ω c (4.52c) γi · r = γr · r = γt · r (4.52a) (4.51) it follows that γ r = γ t = 0. respectively. .52b) (4.94 CHAPTER 4. the tangential component of the electric ﬁeld must be continuous.53) By substituting (4.49). REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES by vector γ i and by the z axis. These conditions can be satisﬁed only if ωi = ωt = ωr = ω and Since γ i lies on the y = 0 plane. together with the coplanarity of the rays.54a) (4. Thus we have γi · r γr · r γt · r = = = Nc1 ω [x sin θi + z cos θi ] c Nc1 ω [x sin θr + z cos θr ] c Nc2 ω [x sin θt + z cos θt ] c (4. and by making the coeﬃcients of x equal.49) A similar relation must be fulﬁlled between the components of the ﬁelds with respect to the y axis. Let us assume that γ i is in the plane y = 0 and forms an angle θi with the z axis.47b) (4.52) in (4. y y signifying that the reﬂected and refracted waves are coplanar with the incident wave. as Ei E r t i = Re{E0 e(jω i t−γ i ·r) = = E r r r Re{E0 e(jω t−γ ·r) } t t t Re{E0 e(jω t−γ ·r) } } (4. constitute Snell’s laws. the electric ﬁelds of the incident. and thus we have i r t Ex + Ex = Ex (4. reﬂected.50) where Nc is the complex index of refraction of the medium.47a) (4.54b) These equations.48) so that i Re{E0x e(jω i t−γ i ·r) r } + Re{E0x e(jω r t−γ r ·r) t } = Re{E0x e(jω t t−γ t ·r) } (4.47c) In z = 0. In the general case of two lossy media. from (4.51) (4. and refracted waves can be written.

For this we will assume lossless media although the generalization to lossy media is straightforward2 .5a) and (4.5b). Let us analyze ~i the problem in two stages. transmitted and reﬂected waves by making use of the boundary conditions at the interface between the two media.54b) simpliﬁes to N1 sin θ = N2 sin θt where Ni = or. (4.55) (4. Any other case can be considered a superposition of these two situations. and then where it oscillates perpendicularly to the same plane. If medium 2 is a perfect conductor (η2 = 0) then Γk = −1.56) Ni = (εri ) 2 1 (4. .58) we ﬁnd that Er k Ei k Et k Ei k η2 cos θt − η 1 cos θ η2 cos θt + η 1 cos θ 2η2 cos θ η2 cos θt + η 1 cos θ Γk τk = = = = (4. for nonmagnetic media.2) E i cos θ + E r cos θ − E t cos θt k k k 1 1 i r (E − E k ) − E t η1 k η2 k = 0 = 0 (4.59b) = r r E0k e−j k ·r From (4.57) Next we study the relations between the amplitudes of the incident. INCIDENT WAVE WITH THE ELECTRIC FIELD CONTAINED IN THE PLANE OF INCIDENCE95 For lossless media Eq.58a) (4. 4.60a) (4.59a) (4.60b) Where Γk and τ k are the coeﬃcients of reﬂection and transmisison.4 Incident wave with the electric ﬁeld contained in the plane of incidence From the continuity of the tangential components of E and H (Eqs.4. respectively. 1 c = (μri εri ) 2 vpi (4. we obtain (Fig. 9. (4.58b) where the subindex k indicates that the physical magnitude in question lies in the incidence plane and ~i Ek ~r Ek i = E0k e−j k i ·r (4.4. ﬁrstly where the electric ﬁeld E oscillates in the incidence plane.

.62a) (4.64b) ³ ´ ³ ´ i r r i i r r i ~1 E k = cos θ E0k e−j k ·r + E0k e−j k ·r x + sin θ E0k e−j k ·r − E0k e−j k ·r z ˆ ˆ (4.60b) are reduced to Er k Ei k Et k Ei k = = tan (θt − θ) tan (θt + θ) 2 sin θt cos θ sin (θt + θ) cos (θt − θ) (4.96 CHAPTER 4.63) ~i Ek = E i cos θˆ − E i sin θˆ x z k k = Er k cos θˆ + x Er k sin θˆ z (4.61) expressions N12 being the ratio of the indices of (4. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES r Ei r Hi ni ˆ nr ˆ θ θ r Hr r Er θt r Ht nt ˆ r Et Figure 4. we must replace {η.65) 2 If the medium is lossy. N12 = with η2 v2 N1 sin θt = = = η1 v1 N2 sin θ refraction of medium 1 and medium 2. γ) c .64a) (4.60a) and (4.3: cuidado con superindices y subindices. (4.62b) ~1 The total electric ﬁeld E k in medium 1 is given by ~1 ~i ~r Ek = Ek + Ek where ~r Ek Thus we have (4.. jk} by (η . ¿¿¿For lossless non-magnetic materials ?? ( μ1 = μ2 = μ0 ) such that cuidado notacion de vel fase.

but in opposite directions.69) ¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿ ¿¿From (4.68a) (4. In other words. For the case of a perfect conductor. ~1 The total magnetic ﬁeld H ⊥ in medium 1 is ~1 H⊥ i = H0⊥ e−j k ´ r 1 ³ i −j ki ·r r − E0k e−j k ·r y = E0k e ˆ η1 ³ ´ i i i (4. the term e(jωt−jk x sin θ) represents a wave that is propagating in the direction of the x axis. we ﬁnd that ´ i 1 + Γk e2jk z cos θ cos θ ³ ´ i i i = −E0k e−jk (x sin θ+z cos θ) 1 − Γk e2jk z cos θ sin θ i = E0k e−jk i E1 kx E1 kz (x sin θ+z cos θ) ³ (4. ³ i r E1 kx E1 kz i = E0k cos θ e−j k ·r ³ ´ r i i = E0k sin θ Γk e−j k ·r − e−j k ·r + Γk e−j k ·r ´ (4. it is straightforward to show that there is no energy ﬂow towards z. is transported by the traveling wave. a stationary wave overlies a traveling one such that the energy that is transported in direction z.68b) i When the time factor ejωt is introduced. . as the mean time value of Poynting’s vector towards z is zero.68b) gives us the superposition of two waves that are propagating with respect to the z axis. but there there is towards x.67a) (4.67b) and by substituting these equations in (4.4. Γk = −1 and there exits only a standing wave along the z axis.68a) or the corresponding one from (4. INCIDENT WAVE WITH THE ELECTRIC FIELD CONTAINED IN THE PLANE OF INCIDENCE97 that is.????.66a) (4. from medium 1 to medium 2.70) H0⊥ e−jk (x sin θ+z cos θ) 1 − Γk e2jk z cos θ i ·r r + H0⊥ e−j k r ·r = where the symbol ⊥ indicates that the magnitude in question is perpendicular to the incidence plane In the case of a perfect conductor.66b) Taking into account that kr · r k ·r i = −kr z cos θ + kr x sin θ = k z cos θ + k x sin θ i i (4.4.66). while the term ´ ³ i i e−jk z cos θ + Γk ejk z cos θ ejωt (4.

Eqs. (4. respectively.72) ~i E⊥ ~t E⊥ where the subindex ⊥ indicates that the physical magnitude in question corresponds to the case in which the electric ﬁeld of the incident wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.5 Wave incident with the electric ﬁeld perpendicular to the plane of incidence As above.3): ~i ~r E⊥ + E⊥ − η1 ~r E⊥ cos θ ~t = E⊥ = η2 (4. By resolving the two Eqs.98 CHAPTER 4.71).74a) (4.71) cos θt (4.70) and (4. the continuity equations are used for the tangential components of E and H and thus (Fig.73) are transformed into Er ⊥ Ei ⊥ Et ⊥ Ei ⊥ = = sin (θt − θ) sin (θt + θ) 2 sin θt cos θ sin (θt + θ) (4.74b) .73a) (4. For lossless non-magnetic materials. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES r Hi r Hr nr ˆ r Er r Ei ni ˆ θ θ θt r Et r Ht nt ˆ Figure 4. we get Γ⊥ τ⊥ = = Er η cos θ − η 1 cos θt ⊥ = 2 η 2 cos θ + η 1 cos θt Ei ⊥ Et 2η2 cos θ ⊥ = i η 2 cos θ + η 1 cos θt E⊥ (4.4: cuidado el reﬂejado tiene mal el sentido del campo electrico 4.9. (4.73b) where the parameters Γ⊥ = E r /E i and τ ⊥ = E t /E i are the coeﬃcients of ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ reﬂection and transmission.

reﬂected.74) are known as Fresnel’s formulas.5.4.62) and (4.75a) (4. The formulas (4. which give the relations between the amplitudes and phase of the incident. we arrive at the following for the total electric and magnetic ﬁelds in a lossy medium 1 ~1 E⊥ ~1 Hk i = E0⊥ e−jk = i E0⊥ η1 ³ ´ i r Ei ˆ − 0⊥ sin θ e−j k ·r + Γ⊥ e−j k ·r z η1 ³ ´ i i e−jk z cos θ + Γ⊥ ejk z cos θ y ˆ ³ ´ i r cos θ e−j k ·r − Γ⊥ e−j k ·r x ˆ i x sin θ (4. WAVE INCIDENT WITH THE ELECTRIC FIELD PERPENDICULAR TO THE PLANE OF INCIDENCE i By operating in a similar way to that described for the case of Ek . and tranmitted waves. .75b) ~ As in the case of E k . the ﬁeld behaves as a travelling wave towards x and as a travelling wave overlying a standing one towards z.

100 CHAPTER 4. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF PLANE WAVES .

a rectangular and a circular waveguide).e. In general.1 Introduction There are many engineering applications in which it is necessary to use devices to conﬁne the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in order to transmit electromagnetic energy from one point to another with a minimum of interference. their cross-sectional geometry and constitutive parameters do not change in the direction of the wave propagation z for wavelengths numerous enough to make border eﬀects negligible. when the transmission device contains two or more separate conductors the term "transmission line" is generally used instead of "waveguide".Chapter 5 Electromagnetic wave-guiding structures: Waveguides and transmission lines 5.1) shows the cross-sectional shape of some guiding transmission systems: two-wire transmission lines. radiation. That is. In hollow conducting pipes waves propagate within the tube. and two dielectric (without conducting parts) waveguides: the circular dielectric waveguide (or homogeneous dielectric rod) and the optical ﬁber. a common characteristic is that they are uniform. coaxial transmission lines formed by two concentric conductors separated by a dielectric. whereas in transmission lines formed by two or more conductors. Figure (5. Although such transmission systems can take many diﬀerent forms. In homogeneous dielectric 101 . two hollow (or dielectric-ﬁlled) metal tubes of rectangular and circular cross section (i. however. any device used to transmit conﬁned electromagnetic waves can be considered a waveguide. two planar transmission lines (the stripline and microstrip). the waves propagate in the dielectric medium between the conductors. and heat losses.

In a coaxial cable. the study of the propagation is greatly simpliﬁed when we seek other kinds of solutions called transverse magnetic (TM) modes. As shown in the next chapter. coaxial lines can guide signals of much higher bandwidths than waveguides can. and simple to match solid-state devices using printed-circuit technology. transverse electric (TE) modes. waveguides are intrinsically dispersive and consequently incapable of transmitting large bandwidth signals without distortion. The most commonly used of these are striplines and microstrips. at optical frequencies the size of a metal waveguide must be too small (in the range of the μm) and. However. As a result of the development in solid-state microwave and millimeter technology. On the other hand. the dimension of the cross section of a waveguide is related to the wavelength of the guided wave. and consequently the electromagnetic waves are conﬁned mainly within the dielectric medium. For the transmission of large amounts of power at high frequencies. Although the electromagnetic ﬁeld distribution in ideal guiding transmission systems (composed of perfect conductors separated by a lossless dielectric). For example. The ﬁeld conﬁgurations that can be supported for any guiding structure must satisfy Maxwell’s equations and the corresponding boundary conditions. On the other hand. moreover. waveguides are the most appropriate means. The diﬀerent ﬁeld distributions that satisfy this requirement are termed modes. and production costs. are relatively inexpensive to manufacture.102CHAPTER 5. powertransmission capacity. consist of a cylindrical core surrounded by a cladding and are usually circular in cross section. used mostly at optical wavelengths. planar transmission lines are used instead of waveguides in many applications because these lines are inexpensive. The light is essentially conﬁned to the core (which has a larger refractive index than the cladding) by total internal reﬂection as it propagates along the ﬁber and the wave is conﬁned without need of any conducting walls. but radiation losses (mainly at discontinuities and bends) make them ineﬃcient for transferring electromagnetic energy farther than the lower range of microwaves. Planar lines allow diﬀerent conﬁgurations. signiﬁcant wave attenuation occurs at high frequencies because of the large current densities carried by the central conductor. for very lowfrequency waveguides the cross section would be too large and thus impractical for frequencies lower than 1 GHz. or transverse electromagnetic . which are usually covered by polyethylene. Thus. The choice of a speciﬁc transmission system depends on the application and should take into account aspects such as frequency range. usually including a dielectric substrate material with a ground plane and one or more conducting strips on the upper surface. which are brieﬂy described in Section ??. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND waveguides the ﬁeld decays exponentially away from the dielectric in the transverse plane. compact. Coaxial lines and hollow metal pipe waveguides are more eﬃcient than two-wire lines for transferring electromagnetic energy because the ﬁelds are completely conﬁned by the conductors. losses.can be expressed as a superposition of plane waves. the two-wire transmission lines. which has a relatively small surface area. Optical ﬁbers. at these frequencies the study of the interaction of the electromagnetic ﬁeld with the metal walls requires of quantum mechanical theory.

1: Examples of waveguides and transmission systems: (1) Two wire transmission line (2) Coaxial transmission line (3) Rectangular waveguide (4) Circular waveguide (5) Stripline (6) Microstrip (7) Circular dielectric waveguide (8) Optical ﬁver cable. GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FIELD COMPONENTS Conductors Conductors Conductor (3) Conductor 103 (1) (2) (4) Dielectric Dielectric Dielectric Dielectric 2 Dielectric Conductors Conductors Dielectric Dielectric 1 Dielectric (5) (6) (7) (8) Figure 5.5. In this chapter. any propagating electromagnetic ﬁeld in the guiding structure can be expressed as a linear combination of these modes. These terms indicate that. The study of some speciﬁc geometries is left for the next chapter. in the +z direction. The eﬀect of lossy media is analyzed in the ﬁnal section. which depends on the cross-sectional dimension of the guiding structure. 5. the TE modes have no electric ﬁeld component.2 General relations between ﬁeld components Let us assume that a time-harmonic wave propagates along the z-axis. Nevertheless.2. there are two important properties that distinguish TEM from TE and TM modes: 1) TM and TE modes have a cutoﬀ frequency below which they cannot propagate. and the TEM modes have neither electric nor magnetic ﬁeld components. in a lossless guiding transmission system. 2) TEM modes cannot exist within a waveguide formed a single perfect conducting pipe while transmission lines can in general support TE. As discussed below. these modes form a complete set of orthogonal functions and. hence. the results can serve as a basis for structures in which the cross-section contains more than one dielectric medium. (TEM) modes. in the direction of propagation. Thus the dependence . we present some general aspects of the propagation of timeharmonic electromagnetic waves in guiding systems formed by perfect conductors and only one homogeneous lossless dielectric in which the guided ﬁeld propagates. the TM modes have no magnetic ﬁeld component. In practice. TM and TEM modes.

76) = Re ~ Hejωt H ej (ωt−β g z) 0 ~ ~ where E = E0 e−jβ g z and H = H0 e−jβ g z and β g is the wavenumber of the guided wave.104CHAPTER 5. . acts only on the axial coordinate. E t and H t . Because the geometry and constitutive parameters do not change along the z-axis.e.78) for the z ﬁeld component. ∇2 . we will ﬁrst show that it is possible to express ~ ~ ~ their transverse components. the wave equations can be written as ¡ ∇2 + k2 ¢ ½~¾ ½~¾ ¡ ¢ E E = ∇2 + h2 t ~ ~ =0 H H h2 = k2 − β 2 g 1 (5. which are determined by the geometry of the system. E z ~ and H z .77) t ∂z Since ∂/∂z ≡ −jβ g . z. One part. in terms of their z-components. i. ∂ 2 /∂z 2 . has solutions for an inﬁnite but discrete number. or H zm being the corresponding functions characteristic (eigenfunctions) which satisfy the equations (5. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND on z and time t is given by the factor ej (ωt−β g z) and the ﬁelds are of the general form ( ) ¾ ½ ~ E0 ej (ωt−β g z) Eejωt Re (5.80) ∇t + h Hz where This equation.26) into two parts. For this. By particularizing (5. ~ ~ To determine E and H.81) ∇t + h2 m H zm h2 = k2 − β 2 m gm (5. we have ¾ ½ ¢ Ez ¡ 2 2 =0 (5. 1 For example in Cartesian coordinates we have that ∇2 = t ∂2 ∂x2 + ∂2 ∂y2 ∇ = ∇t + z ∂z where ∇t = ˆ∂ ∂ x ˆ ∂x + ∂ y so ˆ ∂y .e.78) where (5. and the other.79) and k = ω(με) 2 is the wavenumber for the wave propagating in an unbounded medium of the matter which ﬁlls the transmission system. on the transverse ones t only1 .81) and the corresponding boundary conditions. m. of characteristic values (eigenvalues) hm . E0 and H0 are functions only of the transverse coordinates. ¾ ½ ¢ E zm ¡ 2 =0 (5.82) with E zm . i. when solved together with the boundary conditions of a given structure. ∂2 ∇2 = 2 + ∇2 (5. we divide the three dimensional Laplacian operator ∇2 in the homogeneous Helmholtz wave equations (3.

Thus we have jβ 1 ~ E t = − h2g ∇t E z = ∇t h2 ∂E z = ∇t ΦT M ∂z (5. as ZT M = βg ωε = ηβ g k (5. once the z components of the ﬁelds are known.85b) According to (5.67c) and (1. as ΦT M = 1 ∂E z h2 ∂z (5. we have a system of two equa~ ~ tions and two unknowns. E t and H t . GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FIELD COMPONENTS 105 Now we are going to demonstrate that. in ideal guiding ¿¿structures?? . we have ~ ∇×E ~ ∇×H ~ (∇ × E)t ~ (∇ × H)t ~ = −jωμH ~ = jωεE (5. 5. it is not possible to ﬁnd speciﬁc expressions for the ﬁeld distribution of any of these modes without previously knowing the geometry and characteristics of the transmission system.2.1 Transverse magnetic (TM) modes Let us ﬁrst consider TM modes so that Hz = 0 in (5. as E z and H z are assumed to be known.86b) where we have deﬁned the scalar potential for the TM modes.88) .80) has been solved. Moreover.86b).2.84a) (5. we can express any ﬁeld propagating in the homogeneous guiding transmission structure as a linear superposition of TE.87) ~ z To obtain (5. once equation (5.5.85).85a) ³ ´ j ~ ~ E t = − h2 ωμ∇t × H z + β g ∇t E z (5. we have used the equality ∇t × E z = −ˆ ×∇t E z and deﬁned the frequency-dependent quantity ZT M . in a sourceless region.83a) (5. as shown below. However.86a) ~ Et = 1 ZT M ~ Ht = jωε h2 ∇t ~ × E z = − jωε z × ∇t E z = h2 ˆ ωε ˆ βg z × z × Et ˆ ~ (5. we can study some of their general characteristics.84b) ~ ~ Thus. the solutions to which are ³ ´ j ~ ~ H t = h2 ωε∇t × E z − β g ∇t H z (5. Clearly. ~ ~ we can obtain E t or H t from E z and H z . TM and TEM waves or modes. the transverse components can also be calculated.83b) The transverse components of these equations can be written as ~ ~ ~ = ∇t × E z + ∇z × E t = −jωμH t ~ ~ ~ = ∇t × H z + ∇z × H t = jωεE t (5.67d). ΦT M .85). From Maxwell’s equations (1.

2. H t . with E z = 0. ~ Thus. from equations (5. we have jβ 1 ~ H t = − h2g ∇t H z = ∇t h2 ∂H z = ∇t ΦT E ∂z (5.91b) we can see that E t .83b). from (5.2 Transverse electric (TE) modes For TE modes.91a). verse components the same is true for ∇ × E.83a). taking into account that. and z form a right-handed system when the wave propagates in the z-positive ˆ direction. which has the dimensions of impedance. according to (5. H t . and z form a right-handed system when the wave propagates in the z-positive direction. (5.86a). From (5. Therefore I I ~ · dl = ~ E E t · dl = 0 (5. therefore.92) = ηk βg (5.93) ~ ~ is the wave impedance for the TE mode. H t can be expressed as the gradient of the scalar function ΦT E can be explained by Ampere’s law. in TM modes. E t can be written as the gradient of a scalar function ΦT M . we have Z I ~ ~ ˆ E · dl = 0 (5.90) Γ Γ which implies that Et is conservative and.106CHAPTER 5. . we can see that ~ ~ ˆ E t . from Stokes’ theorem.91a) g ~ ~ E t = − jωμ ∇t × H z = h2 jωμ ˆ h2 z × ~ ∇t H z = − ωμ z × H t = −ZT E z × H t ˆ ~ β ˆ (5. 5.89) (∇ × E) · z ds = S Γ 1 where S is a transverse surface normal to the z axis. is called the wave impedance for the TM modes. From (5.86b). since H has only trans~ Therefore. But Ez cannot contribute to the line integral because the integration path Γ lies on the transverse plane. This result could have been obtained by simple reasoning ~ from Faraday’s law (5. The quantity ZT M . following a reasoning similar to that used in the case of TE modes.91b) where ΦT E = is the scalar potential for TE waves and ZT E = ωμ βg 1 ∂H z h2 ∂z (5. ~ The fact that.85). ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND where η = (μ/ε) 2 is the intrinsic impedance of the dielectric that ﬁlls the transmission system. can be written as the gradient of a scalar function ΦT M .

TEM waves can be propagated along the dielectric separating the conductors. we have β 2 = k2 = ω 2 με (5.78) reduces to ~ ∇2 E t ~ ∇2 H t ~ = ∇2 E t = 0 t ~ = ∇2 H t = 0 t (5. i.96).79).94) g This means that a TEM mode in a transmission system has the same propagation constant as a uniform plane wave traveling in the unbounded dielectric ~ ~ ~ ~ between the conductors.5. When two or more separated conductors exist.e. It is straightforward from (5. the electric ﬁeld distribution in the cross-sectional plane has the same spatial dependence as the electrostatic ﬁeld created by static charges located on the conductors of the transmission system. as for example in coaxial. in the transverse plane the line integral of the electric ﬁeld is path independent and consequently voltage V and potential diﬀerence Φ2 − Φ1 will be the same. substituting these values in (5. ~ E = −∇Φ (5. . for TEM modes. Since h = 0 and E = E t and H = H t . From (5. according to the fundamental property of the gradient.98) is the wave impedance for the TEM mode.85). a TEM mode cannot exist within a waveguide formed by a single perfect conducting tube of any cross section since no electrostatic ﬁeld can exist within a sourcesless region completely enclosed by a conductor. for TEM modes.96) Hence. for TEM modes. cuidado en lo de lineas: usar Now we will demonstrate that. Consequently. two-wire or stripline transmission lines. since E z = 0 and H z = 0. Consequently. This means that.?used to derive a pair of coupled diﬀerential equations which enable us to study the propagation of these modes in transmission lines as voltage and current waves (instead of electromagnetic waves). we can get no null or trivial solutions only if h = 0.. GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FIELD COMPONENTS 107 5. and derivable from a scalar function Φ by means of the gradient function. Maxwell’s equations can be o no negritas. E is conservative. using elemental circuit theory.2. from (5.95b) Thus the distribution of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds on a transverse plane satisﬁes the same bidimensional Laplace’s equation as for the static ﬁelds.95a) (5. (5.84b) that ~ E t = −ZT EM z × H t = −ηˆ × H t ˆ ~ z ~ where ZT EM ZT EM = η = ³μ´1 2 ε (5.2. on a transverse plane. which coincides with the characteristic impedance η of the dielectric that ﬁlls the transmission system.97) (5.3 Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) modes For TEM modes.

Poner origen coincidiendo con el conductor¡ ¡ver dibujos de Salva. as the product LI. Therefore we have ∂V ∂I = −L (5. particularized for the source-free region.108CHAPTER 5.dl = I= Γ Γ . (1.dl = − Ex dx + Ey dy (5.101) ∂z ∂t On the other hand.100) =− dx + dy = − ∂z ∂z ∂t l l ∂z R Note that l −By dx + Bx dy is the magnetic ﬂux through the area swept. Cartesian coordinates) we have Z Z V = Φ(2) − Φ(1) = − Et . outside the conductors. (1.1d).99) l l where Φ(2) and Φ(1) are the values of the scalar function Φ at the the conductors 1 and 2 and where l is any line that joins the equipotential transverse sections of these conductors (ﬁg. This ﬂux can be expressed by using the magnetostatic deﬁnition of coeﬃcient L of self-inductance per unit of length. by the line l joining the conducting surfaces. we get Z Z ∂V ∂Ey ∂ ∂Ex −By dx + Bx dy (5.1c).2: two conductor transmission linecambiar ejes¡ ¡ Comprobar si los ejes y el texto coincide. Los conductores se ponen en negro.entero no¿ decir que c1 son los conductores y que los sentidos de la corrinte in idreccion opuesta en cada conductor son indicadas. en todo ccaso la ﬂecha de l de acuerdo con libro de siempre es al revés Then for TEM waves (using. for the source-free dielectric region. we have I I Hx dx + Hy dy (5.2). without loss of generality.102) Ht .5. Deriving with respect to z and taking into account Faraday’s law. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND y Γ l I I x C2 C1 Figure 5. along a unit of length in the direction z. from Ampere’s law.

~ E ~ ET Hn = n×E =0 ˆ ~ = n·H =0 ˆ ~ (5.102). respectively.105b) which are the coupled diﬀerential equations that voltage and current satisfy at any z cross section of an ideal line composed of perfect conductors separated by a lossless dielectric. we have I I ∂I ∂Hx ∂Hy ∂ Dx dy − Dy dx (5.105) are called ideal "transmission line equations". Equations (5. The use of these equations to study the propagation of TEM waves in transmission lines is considered in Chapter ??. Deriving with respect to z. V and I are also traveling waves. the general ~ boundary conditions on the walls require that the tangential component E T of ~ and the normal component H n of H be null. V and I must have the same z dependence as E and H. i.2). In summary.4 Boundary conditions for TE and TM modes on perfectly conducting walls For a guiding transmission system with perfectly conducting walls.104) we have ∂Φ ∂z ∂I ∂z = −L ∂I ∂t = −C ∂V ∂t (5.99) and (5. −Dy dy + Dx dx represents the ﬂow of vector D per unit length in the direction z.3: where Γ is a closed path around one of the wires (see Fig.5. from (5. Using the magnetostatic deﬁnition of capacitance C per unit length.105a) (5.104) ∂z ∂t Note that. in a similar way as above. 5.e. GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN FIELD COMPONENTS 109 R L C G Figure 5.103) = dx + dy = − ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂t Γ where. this ﬂux can be expressed as the product CV . Thus we have ∂I ∂V = −C (5.2. according (5.101) and (5. Thus. 5.2.106b) .106a) (5.

(5. we can see that E t is normal to the lines where E z = cte and. we see that ~ ˆ ∇t H z · n = H t · n = 0 ˆ (5. k2 > h2 (5.106). Given that E t and H t are perpendicular to each other.110CHAPTER 5.79) we see that. these conditions can be simpliﬁed and reduced to equivalent ones which are expressed only in terms of the z component of the ﬁelds. From (5. for TM ˆ and TE modes.112) .3 Cutoﬀ frequency From (5. However. the necessary and suﬃcient boundary conditions on the perfect conducting walls of the propagation system are Boundary conditions on the perfect conducting walls For TM modes Ez = 0 For TE modes ∂H z ∂n = 0 (5. therefore. and consequently.76) and (5. That is ∂H z ˆ ˆ = ∇H z · n = (∇t + ∇z ) H z · n = 0 ∂n (5. β g must be real.108) where we have divided ∇ into its transverse and axial components.109a) ~ which means that H t is tangencial to the conductor and therefore. the magnetic ﬁeld is tangential to the conductor and thus E z = 0 is equivalent to Eqs.111a) (5. For example for TM modes. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND where n is the unit vector normal to the conducting walls.106) are ~ fulﬁlled. For TE modes.111b) 5. to the boundary of the conductor. Taking into account (5.110) In summary. for propagation to exist. (5. as shown below.91a).107) on the perfectly conducting guide walls suﬃces to ensure that Eqs. due to the perpendicularity of the ﬁelds. (5. we have n × Et = 0 ˆ ~ (5.86a) and the gradient properties. the necessary and suﬃcient condition to ensure that Eqs. the requirement that Ez = 0 (5.106) are fulﬁlled is that the normal derivative of Hz be null on the perfect conducting parts of the guiding structure. ~ ~ since it represents a line with E z = 0.

and the corresponding wavelength λg in the ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡ ¡¡) guide is 2π λ λg = =r (5. βc = λ λc λg (5. i. from Eq. CUTOFF FREQUENCY For this reason.118) the wavenumber is imaginary for modes with frequencies below the cutoﬀ frequency fc . Thus we have k= 2π 2π 2π .5. called evanescent modes.79). (5. in the unbounded m edium ﬁlling the ( ¡¡b etter guiding structure¡¡¡) waveguide. βg = . ( ¡¡b etter guiding structure¡¡¡) waveguides behave as high-pass ﬁlters for the TE and TM modes since they cannot transmit any of these modes for which the wavelengths. the wavenumber β g can be expressed in terms of fc . Thus. from (5.118) which is greater than λ. are attenuated and cannot propagate along the guide. as βg = k s 1− µ fc f ¶2 (5.117) where vp = ω/k is the phase velocity in the unbounded medium ﬁlling the ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡¡¡) waveguide.3.114) β 2 = k2 − β 2 g c and. we have (5. According to (5.e. 2 For a guiding transmission system with more than one dielectric the cutoﬀ frequency can b e deﬁned in a diﬀerent m anner than (5.115) where λ is the wavelength of a plane wave in the unbounded lossless dielectric medium ﬁlling the ( ¡ ¡better guiding structure¡¡ ¡) waveguide.119) ³ ´2 βg fc 1− f . consequently 1 1 1 2 = 2 − 2 λg λ λc (5.116) The cutoﬀ frequency fc is deﬁned2 as fc = ωc βc vp β c = √ = 2π 2π με 2π (5. See for example Section ??. Thus. Thus. exceed the value of the cutoﬀ wavelength.117).113) is called the cutoﬀ wavenumber.79). β c . f < fc (or λ > λc ). deﬁned as βc = h = 2π λc 111 (5. These modes. and λc is the cutoﬀ wavelength. and λg is that of the wave in the guide.

3. From (5. the walls do not aﬀect the propagation and the velocity tends to vp .120a) ZT M = η 1 − f η ZT E = r (5.e. The transversal broken line corresponds to ω c = 0.122) . the expressions of the wave impedances for the TM and TE modes (5. as a reactive impedance.120a) and (5. For frequencies ω >> ω c such that their wavelengths are much smaller than the transversal ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡ ¡¡) waveguide dimensions. Es la ﬁgura de plasmas. nondispersive medium in which the wave propagates at the phase velocity vp regardless of its frequency. the waveguide behaves.2.88) and (5. respectively s µ ¶2 fc (5. we can see that ZT M < η and ZT E > η and they become imaginary below the cutoﬀ frequency. Thus. The plot of the phase constant as a function of the frequency ω (dispersion diagram) is shown in Figure 5. to an unbounded lossless.79).121) ω = ω 2 + vp β 2 c g JV: texto Dispersion diagram. The solid-line curve represents Eq.93) for ZT M and ZT E become. ver tb pp 444 del Jonk The group velocity. From (5.112CHAPTER 5. for f < fc . we obtain the dispersion relation ¡ ¢1/2 2 (5.121) and shows that the waveguide is very dispersive close to the cutoﬀ frequency ω c . ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND In terms of the cutoﬀ frequency.120b). (5. i.120b) ³ ´2 1 − fc f which is analogous to that obtained in (??) for the transverse electromagnetic waves in a nonmagnetized plasma. within the guide is given by s µ ¶2 dω fc = vp 1 − vgg = dβ g f (5. in this respect. vgg .

we have β g = k which is real and independent of the frequency.5. which has a lower dielectric loss than do conventional dielectrics. all frequencies propagate along a lossless transmission line at the same phase velocity vp as that of the unbounded homogeneous dielectric ﬁlling the waveguide and there is no cutoﬀ frequency. hay que decir TE y TM y TEM. from equations (3.1 TE and TM modes.113). we analyze the losses for TE and TM due to a non-perfect dielectric and afterward the ones due to non-perfect walls. ATTENUATION IN GUIDING STRUCTURES 113 which is always higher than that in the unbounded medium and is frequency dependent.124) For TEM modes. Then. owing to energy dissipation within the waveguide. Note that 2 vpg · vgg = vp which is smaller than the phase velocity vp in the unbounded medium. we have k2 (1 − j tan δ d ) = −γ 2 = −γ 2 + β 2 c g (5.79) and (5. The phase velocity within the waveguide( ¡ ¡better guiding structure¡¡ ¡).4.125) . as generally occurs in practice. is given by ω vp vpg = = f λg = r (5.94). these losses are assumed to be very small. (5. vpg . Dielectric Losses When the dielectric ﬁlling the waveguide is lossy the attenuation can be easily taken into account if in the expressions obtained for ideal dielectrics the real propagation constants k and β g are replaced by −jγ and −jγ g . Dielectric losses are generally negligible when ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡ ¡¡) waveguides are ﬁlled with air.. where γ = α + jβ and γ g = αd + jβ g are the complex propagation constants in the unbounded dielectric ﬁlling the waveguide and in the waveguide. respectively.4 Attenuation in guiding structures For a propagating mode an attenuation constant α.17).4. First.123) ³ ´2 βg fc 1− f (5. 5. from (5. can arise from losses in the non-perfect conducting walls (αc ) and in the non-perfect dielectric ﬁlling the waveguide (αd ). respectively. Hence single conductor ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡¡¡) waveguides are dispersive transmission systems. In any case. Thus. 5. the attenuation constant α consists of two parts α = αd + αc . Thus.

As a consequence. the attenuation factor is prop ortional to the loss tangent. The dependence of the attenuation factor αd on the frequency (assuming a range of frequencies in which the permittivity of the dielectric remain unchanged) can be deduced by substituting the expressions of tan δ d and β g . (5. From (5. J = σE = n × H) in the walls.114CHAPTER 5. The ˆ vector product of the ﬁelds E and H at the surface of the walls represents a ﬂux of power directed towards the inner of the wall. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND γ and γ g and neglecting the term α2 . in the direction of propagation. Therefore. the law of energy conservation requires that the rate of the decrease of Pav with distance along the transmission system equals the time-average power loss on the surface of the 0 walls per unit length. respectively. given by (1. because the d attenuation constant αd is very small. Pd . in (5. then. due to the losses. are associated with a tangential electric ﬁeld (i.126b) tan δ d . This power coincides with the dissipation in the conductor caused by the Joule eﬀect and is subtracted from the mode that propagates along the waveguide.78). the amplitude of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the mode are attenuated according to e−αc z . Pav will vary according to e−2αc z . and consequently the phase constant (and thus the wavelength) remains practically the same as those for a lossless waveguide.127) we can see that αd becomes very high at frequencies close to the cutoﬀ value. according to Ohm’s law. We can determine the value of αc for a given propagating mode by taking into account that the time-average power Pav transmitted through the cross-section S of the guiding transmission system is Z Z 1 ~ ~∗ Re(E t × H t ) · ds (5. the amplitude of the ﬁeld wave varies according to e−αc z . where αc is the attenuation constant due to wall losses. we have .128) Pav · ds = Pav = 2 S S Since. we ﬁnd Using the ab ove expressions for β2 c αd = k2 − β 2 g 2 (5.e. Moreover.114) for waveguides with ideal dielectric. Thus we get Thus.126b).118). (5. of the dielectric ﬁllOn the other hand.126a) coincides with Eq. becoming almost proportional to it. and afterwards increases with the frequency. Wall losses When the conductivity is ﬁnite the tangential magnetic ﬁeld induces currents which are not restricted to the surface and.127) where η is the intrinsic impedance of the dielectric given in (3. then decreases to a minimum value.91) and (5.33a) and σ e is its eﬀective or equivalent conductivity (1.126a) 2 = βg + k tan δ d = 2β g 2β g β2 c tan δ d (5. αd = σe η 2(1−(fc /f )2 ) 1/2 (5. ing the waveguide .

by Z Z 1 1 0 2 ~ ~∗ Pd = Rs H0 dl = Rs H · H dl (5. In strict terms.2 TEM modes The coupled diﬀerential equations (5.133) (5.134a) (5..46) and Γ is the cross-sectional contour of the non-perfect conducting walls.. pp 487 del Jonk: the series and shunt low-parameters r and g.4.. if the losses are small.131) 2 2 Γ Γ where Rs is the surface resistance given by (3. ATTENUATION IN GUIDING STRUCTURES 115 0 Pd = − and thus dPav = 2αc Pav dz 0 Pd 2Pav (5.. In this case. the modes we have found assuming perfect conducting walls are no longer valid since non-perfect conducting walls represent a change in the boundary conditions because in this case the tangential component of the electric ﬁeld is not null.105) for ideal transmission lines can b e easily extended to lines ε.. σ ) separating the p erfect conductors.134b) . ∂Φ ∂z ∂I ∂z ∂I ∂t ∂V = −C − gV ∂t = −L (5. However.129) (5.4. assuming that the dielectric has a conductivity σ such that with a non perfect of dielectric (constitutive parameters ∆I = gV in which g deno tes the conductance . at any z cross-section of the line..130) αc = ~ If H is the ¿¿magnetic?? ﬁeld existing near the walls.5. 5.132) This equation will b e applied in next chapter to the calculation losses for TE and TM modes in waveguides . Thus the coeﬃcient of attenuation of the n-th TE or TM mode is found to be αc = Rs 4 Γ S H·H dl Pav ·ds ∗ = Rs 2 S Γ H·H dl ∗ ∗ Re(E t ×H t )·ds (5. we can make an approximate analysis (known in M athematical Physics as "ﬁrst order p erturbation method") by assuming that the ﬁeld conﬁgurations or modes in the waveguide coincide with those found for ideal-wall ( ¡¡better guiding structure¡ ¡¡) waveguides. according to (3.. μ. the time-average power dissipated per unit of length in the walls is given.45). an additional current increment ∆I leaves .

116CHAPTER 5. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE-GUIDING STRUCTURES: WAVEGUIDES AND .

we start by solving the wave equation for the longitudinal comp onents these longitudinal ones. The transverse comp onents are then calculated from ~ E ~ H = E0 (x. and homogeneously ﬁlled with a p erfect dielectric. Following the theory develop ed in the previous chapter. we will study the common simple cases of rectangular and circular cavity resonators. After this. W ith axis chosen as shown in the ﬁgure. y)e−jβ g z = H0 (x.2 Rectangular waveguide a and Figure 6.76). the expressions for the ﬁelds in (5. when excited by an electromagnetic ﬁeld.135b) .Chapter 6 Some types of waveguides and transmission lines 6.1 shows a rectangular waveguide of sides b. Speciﬁc expressions for such modes can b e determined only when the particular geometry of the guide is given. Then. we will consider cavity resonators which are basically constituted by a dielectric region totally enclosed by conducting walls. we will study the dielectric slab waveguide. with a > b. we will give some basic ideas on propagation in strip and microstrip lines. In particular. This region.1 Introduction In the previous chapter we examined some general prop erties of the propagation m odes that may exist in an ideal guiding transmission system which has no sources and is constituted by p erfect conductors and one ideal homogeneous dielectric.135a) (6. Finally. take the form z of the ﬁeld with the corresponding boundary conditions determined by the geom etry of the system. y)e 117 −jβ g z (6. in order to calculate the TE and TM modes that can propagate in this waveguide. In this chapter we will ﬁrst analyze in som e detail the homogeneously ﬁlled rectangular and circular metallic waveguides. 6. as a simple example of non homogeneous guiding structure in which the electromagnetic ﬁeld propagates in more than one dielectric. presents resonance with a very high-quality factor Q.

137) in which X(x) and Y (y) are. 6.1 TM modes in rectangular waveguides For the TM modes.118CHAPTER 6. h by the cutoﬀ wavenumber β c and where hx and hy are the separation constants to be determined from the boundary condition (5.139c) where we have substituted. the diﬀerential equation (5.113).111a) at the guide walls. By substituting (6.80) for E z = E0z (x. This boundary condition . y) = X(x)Y (y) (6. we get 1 d2 Y 1 d2 X + + h2 = 0 X dx2 Y dy 2 (6. Next.139a) (6.137) in (5. SOME TYPES OF WAVEGUIDES AND TRANSMISSION LINES y b x z a Figure 6. it should be veriﬁed that 1 d2 X X dx2 1 d2 Y Y dy 2 h2 = −h2 x = −h2 y = β 2 = h2 + h2 c x y (6. we are going to ﬁnd the expression for these ﬁelds.1: Rectangular waveguide of width a and height b Rellenar en negro. we assume. y)e−jβ g z (6. respectively.2. according to (5.138) As each summand depends on a diﬀerent variable. for E0z .136) can be solved by using the standard method of separation of variables in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. ﬁrst for TM modes and afterwards for the TE modes. For this. solutions in the form of the product E0z (x.139b) (6. functions only of x and y.80) and dividing by E0z .

Therefore the general solution (6. As a result.142) and (6. The diﬀerent solutions achieved by giving values to ¡ πm ¢2 a + ¡ πn ¢2 b (6.137) for E0z takes the form E0z = (C1 sin hx x + C2 cos hx x) (C3 sin hy y + C4 cos hy y) (6. Thus. RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE for the geometry of Figure 6. from (6.86a) and then.143).86b).2. we ﬁnd that C2 = C4 = 0 and hx hy and thus.142) From the boundary conditions (6. for TM mn modes. (6. we have E z = Amn e−jβ g z sin πm πn x sin y a b (6.139b) are.141a) (6. by using (5. we get the following general expressions for the .143a) (6.143b) m and n are integers.141b) where the Ci coeﬃcients are arbitrary constants to be determined from boundary conditions.140) The solution of the Eqs. respectively.6. from (6.146) ~ we can obtain H t . Once we know the longitudinal component E z .139a) and (6.1 implies ⎧ ½ 0 ⎪ ⎪ x= ⎨ a ½ = 0 at 0 ⎪ ⎪ y= ⎩ b 119 E0z (6. which implies that ZT M = Ex Ey =− Hy Hx (6.144) m and n are termed TM mn modes and each set of values of m and n indicates a sp eciﬁc mode. we can calculate the trans~ verse components E t by means of (5. (6.140). X Y = C1 sin hx x + C2 cos hx x = C3 sin hy y + C4 cos hy y (6. β2 = c where = = πm a πn b (6.136).145) where the product of the constants C1 and C3 has been replaced by a new constant Amn .139c).

(E t )TE 00 = 0 and (H t )TE 00 = 0. This was to be expected . and after steps analogous to those followed for TM modes.120CHAPTER 6.111b). si subindexes or Note that.148) y=b ∂y Then.147) ³ ´ k ~ (H t )TM mn = jAmn η −1 β 2 πn e−jβ g z sin πm x cos πn y x− ˆ a c b ³ ´ b πm πn −1 k πm −jβ g z jAmn η β 2 a e cos a x sin b y y ˆ c 6. TM mn and TE mn modes.147). from (6.145). we can follow a procedure similar to that used for the TM modes but now solving for H z and imposing the boundary condition (5. we have (E z )TE 00 = 0 ~ ~ and consequently. the subindexes m and n. we get TEmn modes in rectangular waveguides (H z )TE mn = Bmn e−jβ g z cos πm x cos πn y a b ³ ´ β ~ (H t )TE mn = jBmn βg πm e−jβ g z sin πm x cos πn y x+ ˆ 2 a b c ³ ´ a β g πn −jβ z jBmn β 2 b e g cos πm x sin πn y y ˆ a b c (6. For a TMmn mode with m or n equal to zero.2 TE modes in rectangular waveguides To analyze the TE modes. using (5. for both. This.1. Hence.91a) and (5.91b). respectively. indicate the number of half-wave variations of the ﬁeld in the x and y directions.149) ³ ´ k ~ (E t )TE mn = jBmn η β 2 πn e−jβ g z cos πm x sin πn y x− ˆ b c b ³ ´a k jBmn η β 2 πm e−jβ g z sin πm x cos πn y y ˆ a a b c dedidir subindices .2. SOME TYPES OF WAVEGUIDES AND TRANSMISSION LINES components of the TM modes in a rectangular waveguide TMmn modes in rectangular waveguides (E z )TM mn = Amn e−jβ g z sin πm x sin πn y a b ³ ´ β ~ (E t )TM mn = −jAmn βg πm e−jβ g z cos πm x sin πn y x− ˆ 2 a a c ³ ´ b β g πn −jβ z πm πn jAmn β 2 b e g sin a x cos b y y ˆ c (6. there is no TM mode in which m or n is equal to zero. implies that ½ ∂H z x=0 = 0 at x=a ∂x ½ ∂H z y=0 = 0 at (6. on the guide walls. ∂H z /∂n = 0. from Eqs (6. for the geometry of Figure 6.

Cutoﬀ frequencies in a rectangular waveguide From (5.2. since a time-varying ﬁeld H should generate an electric ﬁeld E. Values of the cutoﬀ wavelengths and frequencies for several modes are (λc )TE 10 (λc )TE 01 (λc )TE 20 (λc )TE 11 vp 2a vp = 2b. This ﬁeld does not fulﬁl Maxwell’s equations.3. RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE 121 because a TM wave with Ez = 0 would degenerate to become a TEM wave which. and (6. (6. by (λc )mn = h¡ ¢ m 2 a 2 + (β g )mn ∙ ³ mπ ´2 ³ nπ ´2 ¸ 1 2 = k2 − − a b ¡ n ¢2 i 1 2 b (6. (fc )TE 20 = a = 2a. as we saw in Subsection 5.149) that either m or n may be equal to zero but not both at the same time.152a) (6. (fc )TE 10 = = (λc )TM 11 = 2ab (a2 + b2 ) 2 1 (6.2. since in this case the expression of (Hz )TE mn in (6.153c) ¡ ¢1 vp a2 + b2 2 = 2ab (6. respectively.152b) From (6.143). such that only (Hz )TE 00 exists. we see that the cutoﬀ frequency for either a TEmn or a TMmn mode is given by (fc )mn ¸1 ∙ vp ³ m ´2 ³ n ´2 2 = + 2 a b (6. Therefore the TE00 mode cannot exist.153d) . cannot propagate within a waveguide.151) where vp is the phase propagation velocity of the wave in the unbounded medium ﬁlling the waveguide. For TEmn modes.117). it is easy to see from (6.6. .153b) (6.151) we see that the cutoﬀ frequency of the modes depends on the dimensions of the cross-section of the waveguide. (fc )TE 01 = 2b vp = a.149) reduces to (H z )TE 00 = B00 e−jβ g z (6.153a) (6.150) while (Ht )TE 00 = 0 and E = (Et )TE 00 = 0. The wavelength and wavenumber in the waveguide are given. (fc )TE 11 = (fc )TM 11 Note that if a = b the cutoﬀ frequencies of TE10 and TE01 and the two modes are equal except for a rotation of π/2.139c).

The ratio of the cutoﬀ frequency of each mode to that of the TE10 mode as a function of a/b is plotted in Figure 6.TM 12 12 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1.0 22 TE . For the dominant TE10 mode the general expressions (6. we usually choose the dimensions of the guide such that a ' 2b. losses due to non-perfectly conducting walls increase as b decreases. We see that the separation of the cutoﬀ frequencies for diﬀerent modes is larger for higher values of the ratio of the a and b dimensions Note that if a ' 2b. As we will see in the next Section. mas grande las letras de las coordenadas The dominant TE10 mode In practice.154) where the constant B10 has been replaced by H0 . then (fc )TE 20 < (fc )TE 01 . only TE10 modes will propagate in the frequency range (fc )TE 10 < f < 2(fc )TE 10 . Under this condition.n 1. if a > b.2: Rectangular waveguide: ratio of the cutoﬀ frequency of several modes to that of the TE 10 mode as a function of a/b.2. Thus. The cutoﬀ frequency of the dominant TE10 mode is selected by means of the dimension a.TM TE 20 11 01 11 TE 3.149) simplify to those given in (6. Thus. at the same time.TM 21 21 TE . Moreover. SOME TYPES OF WAVEGUIDES AND TRANSMISSION LINES 9 8 7 TE 6 m.5 2 2.122CHAPTER 6. if a > 2b. such that (fc )TE 10 < (fc )TE 01 . the waveguide is usually designed so that only the TE10 mode can be propagated.5 3 TE TE 02 TE . to have the smallest losses possible. to have the greatest frequency range in which only the TE10 mode can propagate and. we usually wish to have only the mode which has the lowest cutoﬀ frequency (¿¿called fundamental or dominant mode??) propagating through the guide. then the cutoﬀ frequencies of the modes TE01 and TE20 are nearly the same and in the frequency range v/2a < f < v/2b only the TE10 mode can be propagated.5 10 4 a/b Figure 6. in the case of a rectangular waveguide. .

to obtain the attenuation due to dielectric losses. Here.132). for the denominator. respectively. in the formula (5.127). and the values of the constitutive parameters of the dielectric at the work frequency.132). the integrals of the formula (5.154) Hy = 0 Ez = 0 Ex = 0 E y = −jH0 ωμa e−jβ g z sin π x π a 6. the value of the cutoﬀ frequency of the mode.2. we will consider the particular case of the dominant TE10 mode Attenuation of the TE10 mode For the TE10 mode.155) 2π Regarding the integral of the numerator in (5.6.132) can be calculated from the general expressions for the ﬁeld components (6. For a given mode. to illustrate the procedure. Thus.2. to ﬁnd the the attenuation constant αc due to wall losses for any TE or TM mode. RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE 123 Rectangular TE10 mode βc = fc = βg = π a vp 2a H z = H0 e−jβ g z cos π x a H x = jH0 β g a −jβ z g π e q ¡ ¢2 k2 − π a sin π x a (6. we simply need to use.127) and (5. is quite laborious. However. given by (6. we have Z Z Z 1 b a PTE 10 = (Pav )TE 10 · ds = − (E y H ∗ )TE 10 dxdy = x 2 0 0 S µ ¶2 aH0 ωμabβ g (6. because in the dominant mode TE10 in a rectangular waveguide the magnetic ﬁeld H has only Hx and . though not complicated.3 Attenuation in rectangular waveguides Losses due to a non-perfect dielectric ﬁlling the waveguide and to non-perfect conducting walls can be calculated using the expressions (5.151).154).

156) H x and H z given in (6. .124CHAPTER 6. surfaces imp erfections. we ﬁnally obtain the following expression for the attenuation factor (αc )TE 10 (αc )TE 10 = Rs 1+ 2b ( fc ) a f ηb 1−( fc ) f 2 2 = 1 ηb µ μπf 2 σ(1−( fc ) ) f ¶1 ∙ 2 1+ 2b a (6.159) where While for TMmn mode is δ 0n = n 1 2 q=0 q6=0 (6.we can show that the general expresions for the attenuation constant αc due to wall losses for any TE mn mode is (µ ¶µ ¶2 2 Rs fcmn b bη r + 1+ ³ ´2 a f fcmn 1− f Ã ª) µ ¶2 ! b © b 2 2 fcmn δ 0n a ( a )m + n − ¡ b ¢2 2 f m2 + n2 a ³ ´2 ¸ fc f Np/m (αc )TE mn = (6. By substituting (6.158) Following a similar analysis. the value of αc may b e greater than the theoretical values. This eﬀect can be reduced using well polished walls.157) where the last expression is obtained from (5.160) αcT M mn = bη r b ( a )3 m2 + n2 2Rs ³ ´2 2 ¡ b ¢2 m a + n2 f mn 1 − cf (6.154) and by op erating.157) in (5.118).161) These expressions show the dep endence of the attenuation on the frequency. Reedactar: ¿ ¡¡Computed values of αc for a few TE mn and TM mn modes are given in Figure 6.132) and after operating.3In practice. this integral takes the form (Z Z Z a³ ´ ∗ 2 2 ~ · H dl = 2 ~ H |H x | + |H z | dx + Γ 0 Using the expressions of b 0 ³ ´ |H x |2 + |H z |2 dy ) (6. we obtain Z " Ã ! # " µ ¶ # 2 β2 2 2 ~ · H ∗ dl = 2H0 a 1 + g + b = 2H0 a f ~ H +b 2 2 fc β2 Γ c (6. SOME TYPES OF WAVEGUIDES AND TRANSMISSION LINES Hz components.155) and (6.

01 TE TE TE 10 20 11 5 10 20 f(GHz) 50 100 200 Figure 6.5 α (np/m) 0.6.2 0.1 TM 11 c 0.02 0.05 0.2. RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE 125 0.3: Atenuacion en guias rectangulares: a commom characteristic It tends to inﬁnite when f is close to the cutoﬀ frequency. decreases toward an optimum frequency (minimum value of αc ) an then increases almost linearly with f .

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