Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:genick at potto.com

Copyright © 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the file copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.4 February 23, 2011)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv li li 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 30 34 45 45 53 53 55 55 56 56 56 57 59 63 64 65 66 67 71 71 71 73 73 77 81

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .

CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Effects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Effects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 85 89 91 92 92 94 96 99 99 108 115 124 136 137

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4.6

4.7

I

Integral Analysis
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145 145 146 147 149 149 156 158 164 167 173 173 173 174 175 175 176 180 183 184 191 192 195

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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vi 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . 7.4.4 Simplified Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate . 7.4.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 199 212 213 213 214 215 215 216 217 218 219 220

II

Differential Analysis
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229 229 230 234 235 240 240 241 243 247 258 258 261 271 275 275 275 276 277 278 279 283 284 287 288 290 291

8 Differential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simplified Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Several Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Differential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classification of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Definitions . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Definitions 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . > ρL . . . . With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 292 294 295 297 298 305 307 307 308 310 312 318 318 319 321 324 326 329 331 333 333 334 335

A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Differential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Differentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Differential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Differential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Differential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index 337 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

viii CONTENTS .

7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . ix . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment . . . . . .22 3. . . . . . .5 1. . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . .16 1. . . . .17 1. . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . .15 1. . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in fluid mechanics The deformation of fluid due to shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3.11 1. . . . . . . . . . . .21 1. . . . . . . . . . .9 1. . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Rotating disc in a steady state . . . Description of liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 31 32 33 34 35 36 39 40 54 55 56 57 .4 Diagram to explain fluid mechanics branches .18 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 1. . . The difference of power fluids. . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . .1 1. . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 1. . . . . .20 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . Capilary rise between two plates . . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . The raising height as a function of the radius .8 1. . . . . . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . .2 3.10 1. . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii . Description of wetting and non–wetting fluids. .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 1.

.26 4. . . . . . .16 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The floating forces on Immersed Cylinder .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 4. . 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 63 64 71 74 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 84 87 89 92 93 94 94 95 96 99 100 101 103 104 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area . . .22 4. . . . . . . . . .x 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on floating body . . . . . .19 4. . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . The effective gravity is for accelerated cart . . .34 LIST OF FIGURES The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . .14 4. . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . .9 . . . .6 4. Inclined manometer . . . . . . . .21 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 4.2 4. . . . . . . . . . Inverted manometer . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 4. . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . . . . . . . . . . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area .7 3. . .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of a fluid element in accelerated system.27 4. .12 3. . . . . The varying gravity effects on density and pressure . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . .8 4. . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The effective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . Rectangular area under pressure . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . .4 4. . Pressure lines in a static constant density fluid . . . . . . . . . . . Tank and the effects different liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . . . . .1 4. . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . .12 4. . A cart slide on inclined plane .3 4. The effects of multi layers density on static forces . . . .13 4. . . . . .20 4. . . Description of parabola . . . . . . . .13 4.15 4. .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . .30 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . . The difference between the slop and the direction angle . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth layers not to scale . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4. Circular shape Dam . . .8 3. . .23 4. . .24 4. . .17 4. . .

. . .7 5. . . . . . Stability analysis of floating body .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . . . . . . . . . . The explaination for the direction relative to surface .44 4. . .4 6. .3 5. .50 5. . . . . . Stability of cubic body infinity long . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . . . 200 Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . . . .38 4.40 4. . . . . . Schematics of flow in a pipe with varying density . . .8 5. . . .41 4. . . . . . . . . .47 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to find the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . . . . . . . .36 4. Boat for example 5. . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . . . . . . The effects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . . .37 4. .4 . . . . . . Schematic of floating cubic . xi 117 125 125 126 129 129 130 131 132 134 135 137 138 139 140 141 145 146 147 148 151 154 159 164 165 166 167 168 174 177 179 181 182 183 186 187 191 193 196 197 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . .35 4. . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . 202 . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . .46 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . .7 6. . . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . A heavy needle is floating on a liquid. . . . Schematic of floating bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . Measurement of GM of floating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .11 6.4 5. . . . . . . . . Circular cross section for finding Ux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . .39 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Schematic of a thin wall floating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . . . . . .43 4.1 7. . . .49 4. . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 4. . . . . .2 5.11 5. . Three liquids layers under rotation . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .48 4. . . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet .9 6.42 4.12 7. . .14 . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Projecting pipe K= 1 . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . Counter–current flow in a can. Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 204 212 212 212 212 212 220 223 223 230 232 234 236 244 245 246 247 249 250 252 252 252 253 258 261 261 262 263 264 266 269 271 277 279 280 280 281 282 283 293 294 295 296 7. . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . Mass flow due to temperature difference . . . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . . . . . . . . . (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. . . . . . . . .6 8. .18 8. . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . .15 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . Different rectangles deformations . . Different fields of multi phase flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress creating torque . . . Stratified flow in horizontal tubes when the liquids flow is very slow. . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . Typical resistance for selected outlet configuration . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 8. . . . Kind of Stratified flow in horizontal tubes. . .04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass flow in coating process . . . . . . Mass flow due to temperature difference . . One dimensional flow with shear between plates .3 7. . . . . . . (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. .3 9. . . . Counter–flow in vertical tubes map. . . . .5 7. . .xii 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . .7 7. Plug flow in horizontal tubes with the liquids flow is faster. . . . .20 8. . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 8. . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . Tank control volume for Example 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 8. . . . .5 . .11 The mass balance on the infinitesimal control volume . . . . . . . . . . Flow between two plates when the top moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity . . . . The flow patterns in solid-liquid flow. . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates .1 9.10 8. . . . . . . . . . . Modified Mandhane map for flow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . The shear stress at different surfaces . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . A dimensional vertical flow map low gravity against gravity. . . Flow in a long pipe when exposed to pressure difference Liquid exiting a large tank trough a long tube . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” . . . .4 8. . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . .4 9. . . Liquid flow due to gravity . . .21 9. .2 9. . .

. . . . .3 A. . . . . .7 Image of counter-current flow in liquid–gas/solid–gas configurations. . .5 A. . . . . . . . A diagram to explain the flood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors .2 A. . .LIST OF FIGURES 9. . The right hand rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A. . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A. . xiii 296 297 298 298 304 307 308 314 315 316 317 335 . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . .1 A. . . . Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . .13 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 A. . . A flow map to explain the horizontal counter–current flow. . . . . . . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . .15 9. . . . . . . . . .

xiv LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. Continue . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coefficients . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. 13 13 14 15 23 35 36 41 42 43 50 68 69 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 xv . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . .

xvi LIST OF TABLES .

page 49 Internal energy. see equation (6. page 49 The shear stress Tenser. page 175 The velocity taken with the direction. see equation (8.1). page 46 xvii .26).0). page 108 The acceleration of object or system.0).11).23). see equation (2. see equation (1.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. page 173 Martinelli parameter.v. see equation (4.17).7). see equation (1. see equation (6. see equation (6. page 146 Specific pressure heat. see equation (2. see equation (2.1). page 291 The area of surface. see equation (9. page 49 Specific volume heat.38).3). page 47 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. see equation (5.22).17). page 174 Units length.136). page 191 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (2. page 71 Body force. Ti0 . see equation (6. see equation (4. Cp Cv EU bulk viscosity.43). see equation (2.101). page 45 λ M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c.. page 256 Angular Momentum.9). page 12 External forces by non–fluids means.

see equation (2.40).13). see equation (2.6).1.xviii Eu Ei G gG H h k kT L Internal Energy per unit mass. page 49 Fluid thermal conductivity.14). see equation (2. see equation (2. page 46 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (4.42). page 200 Angular momentum. see equation (4. see equation (7. see equation (1.0). page 66 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin.2). see equation (1.17).27). page 46 Specific gas constant.17).2). see equation (2. page 48 the ratio of the specific heats. page 71 Enthalpy. page 73 Subscribe says.18). page 48 Specific enthalpy.6). see equation (2. page 46 Work per unit mass.104).24). page 146 . page 12 Torque.4). page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 46 The gravitation constant.6). see equation (1.67). page 46 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (2. see equation (5. page 46 the coordinate in z direction. page 101 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. see equation (4. page 46 System energy at state i. page 12 velocity . see equation (2. see equation (4. page 48 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 90 general Body force.3). see equation (2. see equation (3.18). see equation (2.0).17).2). page 66 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. see equation (3. page 50 Entropy of the system.

3 M 362 pages) ˆ Further improved the script for the chapter log file for latex (macro) process. 2010 (3.0.3 Dec 5. Version 0. ˆ Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus. ˆ Addition of several examples integral Energy chapter.0. ˆ Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture. xix .The Book Change Log Version 0. ˆ Brought the mass conservation chapter to code.3 M 378 pages) ˆ Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system.3. ˆ additional examples in mass conservation chapter.4 Feb 23. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code.0. ˆ English and addition of other minor exampls in various chapters. 2011 (3.3. Version 0.3. 2010 (3.5 M 392 pages) ˆ Insert discussion about Pushka equation and bulk modulus.2 Nov 19.

3 M 354 pages) ˆ Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. ˆ Build the chapter log file for latex (macro) process Steven from www. 2010 (3. ˆ Improve English in static and mostly in differential analysis chapter. ˆ Improve English in several chapters. 2010 (3.0 Oct 24. Version 0. ˆ Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress. ˆ Improve English in several chapters.1 Oct 11.xx ˆ Addition of several examples. Version 0. .0. ˆ Add example. ˆ Add discussion about inclined manometer ˆ Improve many figures and equations in Static chapter.artofproblemsolving.com. ˆ Add several examples on surface tension. ˆ Improvement of properties chapter.1 Nov 12. 2010 (3. ˆ Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).3.2. LIST OF TABLES Version 0.9. ˆ Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.3 M 344 pages) ˆ Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder figure. ˆ Add to the appendix the differentiation of vector operations.3.0. ˆ Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to differential equations. ˆ Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille flow.3 M 358 pages) ˆ Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation.

2010 (2. ˆ Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. ˆ Add the macro protect to insert figure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www. 2010 (2. ˆ Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www.4 March 01. ˆ Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. ˆ Corrections to Static Chapter.com.artofproblemsolving. ˆ Add example about the the third component of the velocity. ˆ Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.2.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. ˆ Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.artofproblemsolving. ˆ English corrections. 2010 (2.8 M 241 pages) ˆ The momentum conservation chapter was released. Version 0.9 Sep 20. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir .3 Jan 01. 2010 (3.2.com.artofproblemsolving.6 March 10. ˆ Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.9 M 280 pages) ˆ The energy conservation chapter was released.2. ˆ Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. Version 0.2.com. ˆ English corrections. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.3 M 338 pages) ˆ Initial release of the differential equations chapter.9 M 280 pages) ˆ add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.

ˆ Improve the dwarfing macro to allow flexibility with sub title.1. ˆ Add some examples to static chapter.5 M 197 pages) ˆ Continue fixing the long titles issues. Version 0.1. Version 0.xxii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. ˆ English corrections. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.1. ˆ Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.9 Dec 01.6 M 183 pages) ˆ Fixing some long titles issues.1.8.1 Sep 17. 2009 (2. Two open questions were released.5 M 203 pages) ˆ First true draft for the mass conservation. ˆ Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) ˆ Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.8 Aug 6.8. 2009 (2. 2008 (2. ˆ Add the first draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. Version 0.8a July 5. ˆ Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. 2009 (2.5 Nov 01. ˆ Add an example to mechanics chapter.4 M 189 pages) ˆ Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase flow .6 M 219 pages) ˆ The mass conservation chapter was released. 2009 (2.1. ˆ Add the open question concept.

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xxiii

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Version 0.1a
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1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The ”Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as ”you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A ”Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A ”Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The ”Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The ”Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. A ”Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for

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You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

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E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. I. Preserve the section Entitled ”History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled ”History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the ”History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. K. For any section Entitled ”Acknowledgements” or ”Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. M. Delete any section Entitled ”Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ”Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

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See http://www. sublicense. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Any other attempt to copy. in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium. provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer. or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. parties who have received copies. then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate. 9.gnu.org/copyleft/. 8. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or rights.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE xxxi 7. You may include a translation of this License. the original version will prevail. ”Dedications”. the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title. is called an ”aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate. the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate. revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. If a section in the Document is Entitled ”Acknowledgements”. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License ”or any later . 10. modify. this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. TERMINATION You may not copy. or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. However. or ”History”. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new. but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. modify. and all the license notices in the Document. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders. sublicense or distribute the Document is void. and any Warranty Disclaimers.

Permission is granted to copy. we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST. with no Invariant Sections. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME.. such as the GNU General Public License.xxxii LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. or some other combination of the three. to permit their use in free software. Version 1. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.Texts.” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES.. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. and no BackCover Texts. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. replace the ”with. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. no Front-Cover Texts. If you have Invariant Sections. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”.

” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a ”major” contribution. Minor contributions (typo corrections. time. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. etc. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. date. ˆ Contact at: barmeir at gmail. 2009 xxxiii . contact info. and resources to make this a better book! ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present ˆ Nature of contribution: Original author. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. etc. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own.com ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. Dec.

ˆ Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. John Herbolenes ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Olson ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 ˆ Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Henry Schoumertate ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. ˆ Contact at: my email@provider. Richard Hackbarth ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 ˆ Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES ˆ Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Dec 2009 ˆ Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. describing how you contributed to the book. Eliezer Bar-Meir ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. ˆ Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have different counter for example.net . Dan H. Your name here ˆ Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution ˆ Nature of contribution: Insert text here.

January 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). ˆ Corretion to equation (2. (Nov 2010) .CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions ˆ R. review of statics and thermo chapters. Gupta. ˆ Tousher Yang April 2008.38) by Michal Zadrozny. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan.

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and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. As the change in the view occurred. Currently. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). In his early part of his professional life.D. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. the author’s models were used in numerical works. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Dr.E. All the models have practical applicability. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. in GM. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. R. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . For example. xxxvii . and Canada. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams.G. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. Eckert. books and software. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the field of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes fluid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. Moreover. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. Now. In the area of compressible flow. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. the critical piston velocity in a partially filled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Spain.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. British industry. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists.

He described and categorized the filling and evacuating of chamber by compressible fluid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working fluid was ideal gas. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea officer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. All the previous models for the flooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. The author lives with his wife and three children. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a finite radius. the author just know to learn quickly.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buffer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. Bar-Meir demonstrated that fluids must have wavy surface when the materials flow together. A past project of his was building a four stories house. He built a model to explain the flooding problem (two phase flow) based on the physics. . In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. practically from scratch. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno flow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two flow regimes. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that flow can turn in a sharp corner. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases.

It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. Writing a book in the technical field is not the same as writing a novel.harvard. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. There is always someone who can add to the book.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. particularly the copyright law with the “infinite2 ” time with the copyright holders. As R. one should increase wisdom. Ashcroff (see http://cyber. The first issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. xxxix .edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indefinitely with the holder (not the creator). On one hand. As individuals we have to obey the law. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. the creation of the POTTO Project. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal firm. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. Hence. Kook.org/wiki/Main Page). The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice.wikipedia. is a new idea3 . It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work.law. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. like an open source. one of this author’s sages. However.

the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected field. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identified.” American Scientist. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.html) . One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. In a way. one also begins to better understand the material. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. For some authors.ex. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that specific section (even within question/answer sections).ac. In these cases. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. Nigel R. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. While one can be as creative as possible. The social function can have at least two components. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private affair. It is not just for experts to contribute. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the first question the undersigned was asked. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. For others. For some contributors/authors. The answer varies from individual to individual. For example. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. Thus. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the effort. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. Thus. Whatever the reasons. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds.uk/bugclub/raiders. 1989 (see for information http://www. the books on compressible flow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. 77:139. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself..

For example.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. The books are used in more than 165 different countries around the world. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. .” In this process. Thus. Even if not complete. These books should be considered more as a project than to fit the traditional definition of “plain” books. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. Thus. the chapters on Fanno flow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. while in other cases only the gate keeper. graphs and etc. NASA Langley Research Center. some errors are possible and expected. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. Every month people from about 110 different countries download these books. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “flesh and skin. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. etc. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)).CREDITS xli process. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. The book on compressible flow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). Potto books on compressible flow and fluid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. In addition. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. Unlike a regular book.000 copies a month. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible flow tables collection in the world). But more than that. many algorithms for calculating Fanno flow parameters which are not found in any other book. Farassat. Additionally. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Nevertheless. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. These data (tables. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books.

and all of the examples and data (tables. a process in which books . LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0 0.1 0.0.1 0.0.0. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.2 0.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download      Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi flow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY first chapter 0. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. but it has roots in the way science progresses. figures.0.0 0. and ˆ the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.1. But such a thing is hard to define and should be enough for this stage.) are already presented.0. advanced topics. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).xlii Table -1.0 0.4.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: ˆ The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.8. other definitions give merely a hint on the status. ˆ in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage.0.3 0.0 0. However.0.0. ˆ in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. While some terms are defined in a relatively clear fashion. and special cases. etc. Books under development in Potto project.0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.01       TelAviv’notes 0.

Schlichting. Further. and Microsoft Word software. Again. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative effort of many individuals. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. who passed way some years ago. creating diagrams and figures. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. only LTEX. 6 Originally authored by Dr. pieces of material and data can be used by different books. A new version is created every several years. Abiword. many of whom volunteered to help. are not appropriate for these projects. which include the actual writing of the text. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. especially LTEX. i. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. But more A than that. and perhaps troff. writing examples.e. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects.. . such as OpenOffice. The text processes.CREDITS xliii have a new version every a few years. because of the open nature of this project. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Word processors. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. However.

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3M The topic of fluid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. Version 0.Prologue For This Book Version 0.1.1 April 22. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Now. and electrical engineering. and civil engineering. Even in this early development stage. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. In fact. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations.8 August 6. so much energy). While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. 2008 pages 189 size 2. in this version. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. While the emphasis is somewhat different in this book. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xlv . the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. chemical engineering. it is very satisfying for the author.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. This author was bothered by this explanation. 2008 pages 151 size 1. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel flow. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. aerospace engineering.

and their colleagues. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. the previous book. Eckert. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase fluid. An introduction to multi–phase flow. When the Static Chapter was written. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. met its opposition. ideal flow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).R. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics.xlvi LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this field. Clearly. not a traditional topic. must be taught in engineering classes. With all the above. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. In writing the chapter on fluid statics. Eckert. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. multiphase is an advance topic. Indeed. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. At this stage. it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the field but change some of the way things are taught. For example. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. The next topic is statics. As traditional texts in this field.G. as a traditional textbook. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The next two chapters will deals with open channel flow and gas dynamics. In this book it is hoped to insert. on compressible flow. aside from his research activity. . he just doesn’t know from where and what. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. show me what is wrong”. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). Today. this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. deals with a basic introduction to the fluid properties and concepts (under construction). The book is organized into several chapters which. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. The topic of fluid mechanics was chosen just to fill the introduction chapter to compressible flow. this is the only reply. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. Ernst Schmidt. Up to Egret’s book. However. One of the difference in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase flow. will be presented next (again under construction). It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. however.

There are numerous books on fluid mechanics but none of which is open content. xlvii .” Later. and hope to find a way to use gaspell.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible flow book. The approach adapted in this book is practical. multi–phase flow chapter was written. In writing this book. The chapters are not written in order. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The structure of Hansen. This author was influenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. Of course. The spell checking was done by ispell. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. this book avoids this kind of issues. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. Streeter and Wylie. The first 4 chapters were written first because they were supposed to be modified and used as fluid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaffolding for this book. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly different from other books because the usability of the computers. and is copyleft by him. The figure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. So. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. Otherwise. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. The graphics were done by TGIF. and more hands–on approach. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). The figures were done by gle. it was assumed that introductory book on fluid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems.

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and there were words.9 Reading everything will. describes the fundamentals of fluid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. the present." 8 . This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are.Preface "In the beginning. Nevertheless. This book is only to explain his power. there is a limit on how much effort I was able to put into the book and its organization. which can be very useful for many. the book is not well organized. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the fluid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. and emptiness was upon the face and files. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. This book contains many worked examples. increase your understanding of the many aspects of fluid mechanics. Let This book. etc. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. of the bits moved upon said. without form. marked with a Mata mark. you can read just chapter (4). the POTTO project was and void. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. naturally. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. this manuscript is first and foremost a textbook. However. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. I believe professionals working in many engineering fields will benefit from this information. say. the power and glory of the mighty God. if you need information about. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. For example. And the Author there be words. Moreover. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. 9 At 8 To xlix . The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. statics’ equations. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. physics. Like all volunteer work.

They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. LTEX knowledge. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. . I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one.com”. errors. Naturally. This material never went through a close content review. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. more mathematics (or less mathematics). In practice. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. ideas. isn’t it?). this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). I am interested in it all. literature review is always good. ignore them please. G. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. more fundamental material. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. 10 Dr. please drop me a line. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. rewritten sections. R. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). There are also notes in the margin. Incorrect language. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. Dr. Eckert. graphic ability. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. and assistance. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. E.l LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. If you have Internet e-mail access. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. whose work was the inspiration for this book. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. Several people have helped me with this book. or proofreading. ideas for new areas to cover. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. graphic design. If you want to be involved in the editing. However. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices.com”. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . directly or indirectly. editing. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s).

Additional material can be provided to give a different angle on the issue at hand. there are specific issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. Specific missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. question. Material can be further illuminate. It is hoped that the style file will be converged to the final form rapidly. illustration or photo of experiment. mistakes. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. li . Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. many chapters are missing. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. These omissions. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. At this stage. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. Nevertheless.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved.

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Furthermore.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic situations. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity.). The fluid mechanics study involve many fields that have no clear boundary between them. flow in enclose bodies. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. and statical conditions in continuous material. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. Researchers distinguish between orderly flow and chaotic flow as the laminar flow and the turbulent flow. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. fluid statics. In fact. The fluid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase flow and multiphase flow (flow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power fluids) fluids which will be defined later. For example. This study area deals with many and diversified problems such as surface tension. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in fluid mechanics) 1 . glass appears as a solid material. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. the boundary between the solid mechanics and fluid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1.1 for the complex relationships between the different branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a fluid mechanics problem. etc. flow stability. After it was established that the boundaries of fluid mechanics aren’t sharp. motions. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. or flow round bodies (solid or otherwise).

air with dust particle). engineers in software company (EKK Inc. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. Or.1. For example. when a general model is need because more parameters are effecting the situation. flow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example.com/HTML ) analyzed a flow of a complete still liquid assuming a . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. -1. Moreover. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some effects can be neglected. After it was made clear that the boundaries of fluid mechanics aren’t sharp. http://ekkinc. isn’t sharp because fluid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the flow and switch from a single phase flow to a multi phase flow. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between fields. Diagram to explain part of relationships of fluid mechanics branches.2 CHAPTER 1.

conflicts with the reality. Yet. etc.1. These two approaches have justifications and positive points. The first approach introduces the fluid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. the knowledge of fluid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. “The theory of fluids must necessarily be based upon experiment. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. and D’Alembert. Newton. Later. Bernoulli family. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase flow. When cities increased to a larger size. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the fluid mechanics.C. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. boundary layer and internal and external flow . This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving fluid problems. He also made several attempts to study the flight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply.) on the principles of buoyancy. chapters on open channel flow (as a sub class of the multiphase flow) and compressible flow (with the latest developments) are provided. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. The first progress in fluid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the first chambered canal lock near Milan. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of fluid mechanics materials. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent flow model. As in thermodynamics. The ideal flow (frictionless flow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. Reviewing many books on fluid mechanics made it clear. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. two different of school of thoughts were created: the first be- . turbulence. Before dealing with the boundaries. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. At some point. and continue with Empirical Analysis. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of fluid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. Naturally. This book attempts to find a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented first (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Differential analysis. For example.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. aqueducts were constructed.2. Thus. there isn’t a clear winner. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. For example. to be followed by stability. 1. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. the simplified private cases must be explained. Euler. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Differential Analysis. Torricelli. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. After his initial work.

creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. were Brahms. Dubuat. Rayleigh. Fanning. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Bhuckingham. Thus. At the end of the twenty century. Ganguillet. On the theoretical side. Coulomb. Fabre. Weisbach. However. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. Perhaps the most radical concept that effects the fluid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern fluid mechanics. many call Prandtl as the father of modern fluid mechanics. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). the demand for vigorous scientific knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every fluid was created by the expansion of many industries. d’Aubisson. first Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real fluid motion. von Karman. and Poisseuille. On the “experimental” side. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the field. Rankine. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory flow (1894). Taylor. Hagen. There are many open source programs that can analyze many fluid mechanics situations. resistance by Darcy. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing specific cases. after World War Two. Rose. Stanton. there are many . Bossut. the empirical formulas generated by fitting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Gas Dynamics. the way how it was calculated changed. Hydraulics. for example. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. and Kelvin. and many others. Chezy. and Manning. This problem led to two consequences. transformed the fluid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. and Aeronautics. at the same time proposed many correlations to many fluid mechanics problems. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of fluid mechanics. In the middle of the nineteen century. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. mainly in pipes and open channels area.4 CHAPTER 1. Meyer. Dupuit. which describes the flow (or even Euler equations). and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Helmhoitz. Kirchhoff. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. considerable contribution were made by Euler. as in thermodynamics. Prandtl and his students Blasius. Therefore. The experimentalists. But. people cannot relinquish control. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the fluid mechanics. La Grange. Thus. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. The Navier-Stokes equations. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics.

no shear stress is applied. Hence. then the change of volume is at best 5%. Later. 1. For example. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. assuming turbulent flow for still flow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. which is force per area has a new meaning. sharp even though in reality this difference isn’t sharp. This difference can be. The pressure component in the area . Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). for most practical purposes considered. the pressure has three components. In this book. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area.3. EKK. The gas fills the volume and liquid cannot. and it is referred to the direction of the area. Thus. The second quantity discussed here is the area. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. The first is force which was reviewed in physics. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). For example. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. But below the critical point. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does fill the entire volume). It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest.3 Kinds of Fluids Some differentiate fluid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. So. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). The difference between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. under certain limits. In the best scenario.1. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. It is a known fact said that the fluid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a finite deformation which does not change with time. For the discussion here. Inc). Thus. The area is measured in [m2 ].g it has a direction. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. It must be remember that force is a vector. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. these kinds of areas should be addressed infinitesimally and locally. e. This differentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. the pressure will not affect the volume. the emphasis is on the physics. The unit used to measure is [N]. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. these programs are as good as the input provided. The traditional quantity.1). In gaseous phase. The main difference between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost fix volume. The fluid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. if the change of pressure is significantly less than that. any change in pressure directly affects the volume.

The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. the density remains constant. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. When this assumption is broken. that is. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in fluid mechanics. h is the distance between the plates.3. Figure 1. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. U0x F However. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ].2) Where A is the area. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are significant (see Figure 1. After certain sample size. h) (1. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. fluid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. -1. the F denotes the force. From solid mechanics study. Different from solid.2.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. In this discussion.3). . isn’t it?). In solid mechanics. Thus.6 CHAPTER 1. -1. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. (1. here it will be treated as a separate issue. then. the velocity of the plate increases also. it was shown that when the force per area increases. the density is defined as Fig. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). The other two components are referred as the shear stresses.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). the aim is to develop differential equation. 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. (1. F.

1.9) Combining equation (1.11) . δt is d = U δt (1. applying the coefficient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.4.8) From equation (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.3) (1. The deformation of fluid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.4) (1. Hence. -1.9) with equation (1.5) From equations (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was defined as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.4.7) From Figure 1. d = U δt = h δβ (1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. the regular approximation provides Fig. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length. In steady state.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.10) If the velocity profile is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).4) and (1.

is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between fluid molecules. Assume steady state conditions. Equation (1. The property of viscosity.45[N ] h 0. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Example 1.2[m] and 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. when the outer cylinder remains stationary.1[m] diameters with height of 0.12) Newtonian fluids are fluids which the ratio is constant. Many fluids fall into this category such as air. The units of shear stress are the same as flux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly.6)) F = 1 × 1.8 CHAPTER 1.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C fills the space between two concentric cylinders of 0.10) referred to as Newtonian fluid. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. This approximation is appropriate for many other fluids but only within some ranges. These cohesion and interactions hamper the flux in y–direction. the following can be written (see equation (1. Solution Assuming Newtonian flow.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is filled with glycerin. Solution .1 [m]. the viscosity is the resistance to the flow (flux) or the movement. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.01 End Solution Example 1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. Thus.069 × 0.5 A µU ∼ = 53. water etc. In fact. which is exhibited by all fluids. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. Some referred to shear stress as viscous flux of x–momentum in the y–direction.5 m/sec.

In liquids. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t . This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. and it resists the flow. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. while in the dU liquids. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. However.13 h 0.1).5 Viscosity 1.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. Thus.1 × 12/60 = 0. thus. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of flow. The different of power fluids families. the Fig. In gases.986 0. temperature variation has an opposite effect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases.5. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. The difference is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. The same way as in example (1. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0.1.5.5. in gases. -1. Thus. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature.4 ¡ M= ∼ .4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.

The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. Not all the materials obey this relationship.5. On the liquid side below the critical point. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. Figure 1. K) in equation (1. both materials are only a function of the temperature. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian fluid and K becomes the familiar µ. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. the pressure has minor effect on the viscosity. -1.7. Well above the critical point. The viscosity coefficient is . 1.10 CHAPTER 1. -1. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. the coefficient depends on the velocity gradient.13) The new coefficients (n. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig.5).6. From the physical point of view.13) are constant. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . It simply depends on the structure of the flow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase flow. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear.

e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.0022 0. Skalny.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.0016 0. In the simple case.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.8. 1 C. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. this kind of figures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.0028 0.5). eds.1. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.000025 0.13) are referred to as purely viscous fluids. However.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. For example.0004 0.0006 0. When n is below one. 1.003 0. The reason for this new definition is that some experimental data are given in this form. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1. the liquid is dilettante. S.0008 0.0024 0.7. de Larrard and N.0012 0. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . the fluid is pseudoplastic. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). VISCOSITY 11 always positive. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. F. [m2 /sec]. is above one. This fact explains Fig. Materials Science of Concrete VI.of the temperature.. When n.0002 5. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic fluids (see Figure 1. cosity is defined as 0. -1. Many fluids satisfy the above equation. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. for most practical purposes. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.0026 0. The general relationship for simple Bingham flow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1.5. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian fluid for large shear stress.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature. However. Ferraris.e-05 0. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a fluid. These results also explained better using the new definition. Martys. The kinematic vis.000015 0.002 0.5.0018 0. Mindess and J.0014 0.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.

the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.00001827 × × 0. For isothermal flow.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.9.002 0. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. -1.710−5 .555 × 800 + 120 800 524.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.1. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.1 Example 1.12 CHAPTER 1. . have expressions that provide an estimate.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.0015 The absolute viscosity of many fluids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. T T0 3 2 (1.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.07 3 2 ∼ 2. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.001 0.555 × 524. Use the data provide in Table 1.9. For many gases. 2008 0.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.8 and Fig. Water viscosity as a func1. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.5.07 + 120 µ = 0.

0001781 0.1.0001254 Table -1.2.5.07 527.0002018 0.00001827 0. The list for Sutherland’s equation coefficients for selected materials.67 528. VISCOSITY 13 ––– ––– coefficients chemical ––– ––– formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.00001720 0.0000203 0.0000109 0.99 526.0000146 0.00001480 0.67 524.67 518. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000076 0.00000982 0. .05 528.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.0000876 0.93 540. Viscosity of selected gases.1.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.

001194 0. .069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.000647 0.200 0.3.986 5-20 0.01915 0.54 1.15-0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.084 0.6 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.072 0.000946 0. Viscosity of selected liquids.001547 0.05 0.14 CHAPTER 1.000245 0.098 0.

10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.7685 36. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).10. May 1995 p.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.3 5. The lines of constant relative pressure.1. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.016 4.00 30.3 28.04 Tc [K] 33.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.636 58. In Figure 1.4 190. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the first solidification appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). 19.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.5.0 0. -1. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. cation (mushy zone). Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.9 15 Table -1.07 16.8823 73.01 32.4.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature. Tr .26 44.97 44.40685 22.0 18. Pr = P/Pc are drawn. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.C.183 39. Government Printing Office.5 1. The lower pressure is.8 132 304.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.256425 48. Vol. In this graph.0 15. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.4 305. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” fluids where information is limit. Furthermore.83865 46. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.944 131. if one point is well documented.47 2.S.003 20. then the critical . other points can be estimated. Washington D.54 15.2 154.6 26.865925 50.0 21.Fig.7 647.5 2. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. for practical purpose. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. Furthermore. Figure 1.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian fluid for many applications. this graph also shows the trends.289945 27. Even when there is a solidifi.4 or similar information.3 19. 258.9696 2.5 151 289.4 49. The second way.358525 48. ∼ 1[bar].

when none is available.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.15 ∼ 2. Example 1.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. Rev. Even for homogeneous mixture. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr figure 1.41 154.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.18) The third way. In this book. 26 No. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. Makita.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1. 2 1956.35[Bar] Tc = 154.35 373.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. .20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.11 (1.2 = 21.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .4 50.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. For most 3 Kyama. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].

2 Pr=0. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. 2008 Fig. xi is the mole fraction of component i. and µi is the viscosity of component i.21) where Φi j is defined as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. -1. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.11.5. . cases. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. The subscript i should be used for the j index.1.22) Here. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.

0000203 0.18 6 CHAPTER 1.12. -1.4 Tr=1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. Mole Fraction. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0. µ 0. 28.8 Viscosity.2 Tr=1. 2008 Fig.1 Tr=1.00001754 .6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. M 32.2 0. x 0. Example 1.

25) .86 1. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.143 0. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. This equation (1.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0. An example for values for this formula.23)  τxy dy 1 + τs   Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.0 µi /µj 1.0024 0.0000203 0.0000181 0.0 19 µmix ∼ 0. Reiner and Phillippoff suggested the following formula   1 µ0 − µ∞  τ  xy dUx µ + 2  = ∞ (1.0 1. in theory. µ0 = 0.0 1.0 + 0.0 1.001 kN .8 × 1. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.8 × 0.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.996 1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.0000182 .8 × 1.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.0 Φij 1.0215 N sec .2 × 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.1. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.996 + 0.0000073 kN .12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. m2 Figure 1.0024 0.2 × 1. It this method the following is defined as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.875 1. End Solution In very low pressure.2 × 0.157 .00105 N sec . m2 m2 and τs = 0. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.5.

The surface is covered with oil film.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1.7: A square block weighing 1. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31. hence.c) Example 1.20 and CHAPTER 1.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a fixed cylinder of 0.a) . The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick.2 [m].VI. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec]. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders. dU ∼ 0.101 − 0.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.VI.1 × π × 0. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity profile in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state.1[m/s] (1.26) Example 1.4 revolution per second.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0.VII. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.1 − 0 (1. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero.2 = dr End Solution dU dr (1. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder.VI. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.

6. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as R R (1. In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius. U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3 21 (1. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. r and expression has to be developed for it. .VII. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω. The edge effects can be neglected. Rotating disc in a steady state.13.b) The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1.b) (1.1 × 30. FLUID PROPERTIES The total fiction force is then f = τ A = 0.c) End Solution 1.VIII.VII. -1.c) End Solution Example 1.VIII. In addition the differential area also increases and is a function of r.VIII. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. The rest of the properties lumped into this section.1.6 Fluid Properties The fluids have many properties which are similar to solid. Solution δ Fig.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap.a) T = 0 2 r τ dA = 2 0 2µr ωr 2 π r dr δ (1.

IX.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.IX. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C. Example 1.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.22 CHAPTER 1.d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α.IX. State your assumptions.6. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1. Examples to described usage of property are provided. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume.e) . The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric.9: A steel tank filled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C.IX. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1. For this example.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables.IX.a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 (1.c) E − ∆P E (1.IX. it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 .b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1.

06 1.74 [MPa] 4. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries).5.064 [MPa] In the literature.60 1.80 1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.52 26.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1. The bulk modulus is defined as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.1. The .97 2.49 0.34 1. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraffin Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.10 1.5 2.3 4.00 [MPa] Est 78. Table -1.5 0.2-28. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.5.6.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.096 K Pc 57.79 K na 647.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.28 2. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to fit energy–volume data.20 1. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law). FLUID PROPERTIES 23 1.32 1.03-4.109 [MPa] na 22.6.3 [Mpa] nf 7. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. additional expansions for similar parameters are defined.49 [MPa] 6.5 [Bar] 172.15-2.62 1.09 1.

34) T Equation (1. In contrast.32) On constant pressure lines.35) The last equation (1.33) From equation (1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. .34) indicates that relationship for these three coefficients is βT = − βv βP (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1. and therefore equation (1. Another definition is referred as coefficient of tension and it is defined as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1. These definitions are related to each other. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS thermal expansion is defined as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer. dP = 0.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v dv dT =− P =const v (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.24 CHAPTER 1. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and specific volume as P = f (T.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).

b) ∆P ∆V /V (1. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1.14.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.XII. Solution Using the definition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . Two liquid layers under pressure.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. Solution Using the definition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285. -1. FLUID PROPERTIES 25 Example 1.a) air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig.12: Two layers of two different liquids are contained in a very solid tank. Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.6.15 109 . State your assumptions.XII.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 .11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.00035 End Solution Example 1. The new pressure is P1 .01 = 2. .1.14.

a) . P1 = P0 + ρ g h.c) End Solution Example 1. then a piston at one end of the cylinder is pushed in until the pressure inside the vessel has increased by 1000 kPa.2 ∗ 101 0. calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods.31 m3 is to be tested.12.26 CHAPTER 1. In some places the ocean deepth is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers). and that one is 0.14: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1. P1 = −BT ∆V /V with the suggested solution of I am assuming that I have to look for ∆V as that would be the water that comes out causing the change in volume. How many liters of water come out? Relevant equations and data suggested by the user were: BT = 0.2x101 0N/m2 . a safety plug on the top bursts. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored.655L right? In this post several assumptions were made.XIV. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure. ∆V = −V (∆P )/BT = −1. What is the correct way to solve this problem. So with this bulk modulus. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1. The vessel is entirely filled with water.2x101 0)∆V = 6.XII. is 0. Anything else would give a wrong answer in the system. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom. Suddenly. Solution For the the first method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.31(1000)/(0.13: In internet the following problem (whith latex modification) was posted which related to Pushka equation. Example 1. For this example.55 ∗ 10− 7 Another user suggest that: We are supposed to use the bulk modulus from our textbook. A cylindrical steel pressure vessel with volume 1.

c) yields ρ(x) = g V −V Equation can be rearranged to be ρ(x) = V 1− m g BT x 0 m x ρ(x)dx BT (1.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV. .XIV.e) to 1− g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.XIV.XIV.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .e) 0 Equation (1.d) =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ(x)dx 1− ρ0 g BT x ρ(x)dx 0 (1.c) Combining equation (1. It is convenient to change further equation (1.f) The integral equation (1.j) construction .h) The solution is (1.6.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV.f) can be converted to differential equation when the two sides under differentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.b) with equation (1. FLUID PROPERTIES 27 The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.i) or rearranged as ρ= 4 Under (1.1.g) (1.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.

e) is ρ0 B T ρ0 =⇒ ρ= g (1.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1. the density at the bottom using equation (1.k) In the “constant” density approach.XV. The speed of sound at any depth point. the salinity can be complity ignored.XV. However. is c= BT = ρ0 B T BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.XIV.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propogate from the surface to a depth D penpendicular the surface. That is the density is function of the depth. For the purpose of this excerss. the desnitsy is different for evry point since the density varies and the desnity is a function of the depth.c) . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ0 x + BT (1.l) ρ0 B T BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1. Solution The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point.XV.XIV.b) The time the sound travel a small intervel distance. For constant bulk modulus.15: Water in deep sea undergoes compresion due to hydrostic pressure. Assume that no variation of the temperatuere.XIV. x.28 CHAPTER 1.XIV. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1.

36) The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present.d) BT − g ρ0 x 0 ρ0 The solution of equation (1.g) 1.XV.37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented.f) (1. In case the total change isn’t.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1. another approach with taking into account the energy-volume is needed.2.1.XV.XV.6. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added in special way.XV. The definition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure. Thus.6. in special mixture.27) or (1.38) (1.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D t= = √ BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard caclulation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. FLUID PROPERTIES 29 The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of infinitesimal time D dx t= (1.37) .XV.36) into equation (1.

x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V . Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and bubbles.30 CHAPTER 1. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface.40) Rearranging equation (1. . surface tension.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. Hence. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). This explanation is wrong since it is in conflict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. In many (physics. and fluid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.43) End Advance material 1.41) Equation (1.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence.39) Where x1 . There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension.

The forces in scribing principals radii.47) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. A soap bubble is made of two layers. -1. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. the equation (1.7.48) Example 1. Condℓ2 sider a small element of surface.46) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. In the vertical direction. Furthermore. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). . Thus. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C.16: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. When the surface tension R2 dℓ1 is constant. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side R1 is Po .15.44) can be simplified as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. The first case is for an infinite long cylinder for which the equation (1.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.1. Surface tension control volume analysis dethe surface tension. The second with two equal radii. Thus. inner and outer. the horizontal forces x cancel each other because symmetry.45) predicts that pressure difference increase with inverse of the radius.44) For a very small area. the pressure difference has to balance Fig.45) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of infinite and radius of finite size.45) Equation (1. SURFACE TENSION 31 The relationship between 2dβ1 the surface tension and the presy sure on the two sides of the sur2dβ2 face is based on geometry.

02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . However. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is infinity.d) (1.17: A Tank filled with liquid. r.e) End Solution Example 1.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube.02[m] σ 1.16.c) b & W g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & Or after simplification h= 2σ gρr (1.XVI.XVI. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it.XVI. -1. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.021[m]. It can be assume that the h 0. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable different the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1. Estimate the depression size.49) .5 Fig. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The inner diameter is 0.32 CHAPTER 1. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. Glass tube inserted into mercury.16).b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magnified glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 ∼0 (1.XVI.XVI.

Capilary rise between two plates. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity. It is worth noting that for very slow process. The relationship between pressure difference and the radius is described by equation (1.05[N/m]. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwords) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1.51) resutls in h= 2 × 0. The question when the curveture should be ansered in the Dimentional analysis and for simplification this effect is neglected. Solution In Figure 1.17. that is the work is done on the system. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . ℓ h Fig. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ.18: Calcualte the rise of liquid between two dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1. -1.51) . Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force). It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curveture on the upper part.47) for reversible process.001[m]. End Solution Example 1. SURFACE TENSION 33 The minimum work will be for a reversible process. It can be noticed that the work is negative.05 = 0.7.52) 2σ ρg (1. The reversible process requires very slow compression.50) Where. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the final stage. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. the contol volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected. Cumpute the value for sufrace tension of 0.8 × ×1000 (1. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1.001 × 9.17. Thus. Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which different from simple one dimensional case. the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0.1. the pressure above and below and surface tension.17 exhibits the liquid under the current study.

conG sider the point where three phases became in contact. the solid phase. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simplified as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig.54) (1.XIX.19: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders.18.34 CHAPTER 1. Solution The difference lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise.XIX.XIX.XIX. In Figure 1. equation (1.b) can be simplified 2σ h= (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS End Solution Example 1. This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.53) . liquid. -1. Thus. For example. and gas can be ignored. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β (1.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1.b) (1. Forces in Contact angle.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1.7.18.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle.

So. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. thus.5 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] .53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β 35 (1. a contact angle is created to balance it. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. chemical component Steel Steel.74 to π/3.19. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. gas medium and the solid surface.Fig. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting.7 π/4. On the other hand. The gas solid surface tension is different from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.6. The surface tension forces must be balanced.76 to π/3. water is described in many books as a wetting fluid. -1. The contact angle for air. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. There is a common definition of wetting the surface. SURFACE TENSION substituting equation (1. Thus.7 π/6 to π/4. thus depend on the locale non–wetting fluids. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid.1. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid Wetting solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry.19). The surface tension is a molec.55) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. For example.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Contact Angle π/3. Table -1. This statement is correct in most cases. the solid reaction force must be zero.83 π/3. the wetness of fluids is a function of the solid as well.7. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.53). structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures.74 π/4. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon.54) into equation (1. however.83 π/4.

1975 2 Bergles A. “Effect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. To solve the shape of the liquid surface.” Chem. (continue) chemical component Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle mN m π/3.. Vol. Symp. G. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii.T. F. Warrier. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. E. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . the pressure difference between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. I. 56. E. 5 Labuntsov D. In Figure 1. The contact angle for air. Ser.I. Siegel...20.4 π/3. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.. Y.. pages 1465-1470.517.36 CHAPTER 1. 4 Arefeva E.N.20.372.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. 6 Basu. V. and Ostrovsky. G. R. -1. K.20 describes the raising h P0 P0 P0 Fig. R. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.. V.. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1. C. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. vol 1 pp 365 . Energetika I transport. 124. N. 9. J.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. 8 Wang. Vol.. . ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer.I.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. Pages 509 . 3 Tolubinsky. 7 Gaetner.. and Dhir.” J. Eng. pp. W. papes 717 -728. No 1. A. Prog.6. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. M. (1993). H. Keshock (1975) “Effects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. ASME. K. Heat Transfer.. and Dhir. J. No 12. and Westwater. Aladev O. V. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. and Rohsenow W. Heat Transfer 115. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. Description of liquid surface..

58) is non–linear differential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ 1+ dh dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 (1. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure difference will be explained in more details in Chapter 4).59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1.46) is applicable to it. ρ = σ R(x) (1. and x+2dx) and thus finding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1.20).1. Equation (1.60) .56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1.46) and using the pressure difference yields g h(x). h = h(x).56) The radius of any continuous function.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.57) into equation (1. is the atmospheric pressure. x+dx. SURFACE TENSION 37 of the liquid as results of the surface tension.57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. Appalling equation (1. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. Substituting equation (1. The pressure. on the gas side.7.

60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 dh (1.62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.67) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.62) After the integration equation (1.61) into 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1. constant = −1 . The differential dh is h.63) At infinity. . the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. Using dummy variable and the ˙ ¨ ˙ identities h = ξ and hence. Equation (1.61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx 5 This 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. Shamefully.38 CHAPTER 1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.64) Equation (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.64) is a first order differential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 .

21. In that case equation (1. that information conflict each other and no real information is available see Table 1. Furthermore.70) Where ∆ρ is the difference of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube. . The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that affects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.68) Equation (1. However. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1. h But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Theory contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.7.6. otherwise it will not be there. The raising height as a function of the radii. This book is introductory. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { (1. 1. However. SURFACE TENSION or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 39 = dx −1 (1.69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.71) 6 Actually.1.1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume).68) can be integrated to yield   dh    = x + constant   2   1    −1 2   1 − 2h Lp - (1. there are information about the contact angle.1. Fig. -1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .7. in reality there is no readily information for actual contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful 0 R to show the treads.

22.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Capilary Height 1. Equation (1.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity effect).7 Radii [cm] May 29.71) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure.3 0.40 CHAPTER 1.1 2.function of the radius.21. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The raising height as a strong gravity effect.2 1.0 0. h is similar to equation (1.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.6 0.71).6 0.” The depression height.7. 2008 Example 1. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a different model is needed. The actual height is shown in the red line. In conclusion.71) with a minus sign. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed.21 as blue line.0728 = ∼ 2.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) Fig. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.02 cm.8 Height [cm] 0.9 1.0 0. On the other hand.4 0.8 2. For large radii equation (1. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. tremely small radii equation (1. -1.2 1.21: Calculate the pressure difference between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. . Furthermore. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.4 2. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.22. equation (1. The height based on equation (1. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.20: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure difference of 1000[N/m2 ]. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1.71) is shown in Figure 1.5 1.0 Figure 1.47).2 0. for ex. Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.22 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. For a small tube radius. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. However.

1066 -0. the pressure difference between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].0002 End Solution 41 Example 1. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Surface Tension 27.1. However. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.4 28.7.001 [m].23: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0. Therefore.1085 -0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.95 36.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.1120 -0.04 × 0. Neglect the weight of the ring.88 39. End Solution Example 1. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.20 43.0[N/m2 ] r 0.50 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C - correction mN mK n/a -0. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.7. SURFACE TENSION Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.0920 -0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. Estimate the surface tension? Solution To be continue End Solution Table -1.22: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.0728 ∼ .6 25.1291 -0.00 45.1160 . The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.

12 33.8 32.0773 -0.1295 -0.20 ∼ 21 64.1100 n/a n/a -0.1159 -0.0 22.95 34.0 12.0842 n/a -0.10 22.0 0.0777 -0.90 43.1189 .15 43.1191 -0.40 32.70 58.70 38.0966 -0.10 32.6 5.30 23.1094 -0.70 26.1484 -0.0832 -0.91 14.1308 -0.4 mN m T 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK -0.20 47.30 43.00 41.1037 -0.1118 n/a n/a -0.1063 -0.2049 -0.1372 -0.0935 -0.60 27.1172 -0.1160 -0.0902 -0.0972 -0.3 22.20 24.50 28.1011 n/a -0.1177 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulfid Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulfid Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perfluoroheptane Perfluorohexane Perfluorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Surface Tension 36.0598 n/a -0.10 29.50 41.1117 n/a -0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.067 -0.70 38.85 11.60 n/a 54-69 28.60 22.50 23.1211 -0.0890 -0.7.0-48.1484 -0.00 36.42 CHAPTER 1.12 425-465.50 24.

The surface tension for selected materials (continue) 43 chemical component Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T - correction mN mK 27 72.10 28.1104 .80 30.7. SURFACE TENSION Table -1.1514 -0.1101 -0.90 n/a -0.1.7.

44 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS .

Two. The dimensions of this material can be changed. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation.1 Basic Definitions The following basic definitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. there is a transfer of energy so that its effect can cause work.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. So. 45 .1) This definition can be expanded to include two issues. 2. it is assumed that the system speed is significantly lower than that of the speed of light. In this definition. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. The first issue that must be addressed. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. the work was defined as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. a review of several definitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. System This term will be used in this book and it is defined as a continuous (at least partially) fixed quantity of matter. Work In mechanics.

Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. . m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. From the first law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to final results. work.2) The system energy is a state property. The statement describing the law is the following.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. is the internal energy per unit mass. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. potential energy (gravity). Eu . Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. chemical potential. etc. The “new” internal energy.6) 2 (2. The kinetic energy is K.46 CHAPTER 2.5) is transformed into Spesific Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. There are several definitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. For such body force. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.3) Interesting results of equation (2. A common body force is the gravity. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration).4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.E. = mU 2 2 (2. the conservation is applied to all systems. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. and electrical energy. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. etc as long the mass remain constant the definition is not broken.

10) The time derivative operator. the integral is independent of the path. BASIC DEFINITIONS 47 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several definitions of the second law. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a fixed mass.7) In the same manner. This observation leads to the definition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. No matter which definition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.1. If there is no lost.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2.13) . D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.12) The last integral can go though several states.9) (2.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.8) For the case were the body force. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. Hence. choosing any point in time will make it correct. δQ =0 T (2. Thus differentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. Bf .

H = EU + P V The specific enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. Or in a differential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. which is the combination of already defined properties. equation (2.48 CHAPTER 2. isn’t correct.16) (2.18) the (2.19) (2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. Furthermore. Enthalpy It is a common practice to define a new property. Thus. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. the enthalpy of the system. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy.16) into (2.20) (2. The equation (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic.15) (2.21) ρ .17) is reduced to dH = V dP . it still remail valid for all situations. Thus. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.17) (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.18) For isentropic process. For reversible process equation (2. h.

the ratio of the specific heats is almost 1 and therefore the difference between them is almost zero.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is defined as Spesific Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.23) The ratio between the specific pressure heat and the specific volume heat is called the ratio of the specific heat and it is denoted as. and it is defined as P = ρRT (2.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. and specific volume define the equation of state for gases. k. The first change of the internal energy and it is defined as the following Spesific Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.2.3145 kj kmol K (2. The ratio the specific heat of gases is larger than one. pressure.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. Spesific Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.24) For solid. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.1. Commonly the difference for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. 49 Specific Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new definitions.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.26) . Normally the relationship of temperature.

29) (2.0413 1.097 18.18855 0.0416 1.20813 0.1156 10.327 From equation (2. the specific gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.04 20.970 39.2091 2.7662 1.667 1.6618 1.7164 0.667 1.999 44.289 1.2518 3.4108 1.29683 0.5482 5.29637 2.28700 0.393 1.667 1.12418 0.124 44.7354 0.003 2.183 28.07703 4.091 1.6529 0.41195 0.50 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.186 1.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.400 1.299 1.4909 1.0035 0.409 1.044 1.1.0299 1.48152 1.948 58.0849 1.5203 1. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.8418 1.51835 0.6794 1.25983 0.400 1.8723 0.14304 0.7445 1.7165 0.016 16.27650 0.01 28.7113 0.237 1.2537 1.6179 0.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.4897 1.230 31.07279 0.07 28.7448 1.9216 1.1926 14.18892 0.126 1.6385 0.013 114.29680 0. Table -2.1.054 4.5734 0.28) .27) The specific constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.400 1.3122 1.01 30.

37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can find that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2. ∆s = 0. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F. The entropy for ideal gas can be simplified as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.33) The specific heat ratio.30) Utilizing equation (2. The ratio of the specific heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesific Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.31) Cp to Spesific Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.667.35) Or using specific heat ratio equation (2.32) (2.1).38) . k value ranges from unity to about 1.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.36) (2.2.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the definition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 51 (2.1. of Classical thermodynamics.

This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and defined as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.52 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simplified version of the real behavior of real gas.39) . The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.

These concepts and definitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. R . The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results.2) Example 3. This chapter provides a review of important definitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). t in a location. 3.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the fire in a building as depicted in Figure 53 . change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3.

I. t and three equations.a).I. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.I.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.e) into (3.I. θ.I. (3.I.b) and (3. .d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b. There there are three unknowns.I. U .b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.c) can be solved explicitly. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. Calculate what is the veFig. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.I. dow.c) These nonlinear equations (3.c) b= and equation (3. For given velocity. To simplify the calculations.I.I.a) and substituting into equations (3.I. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. and time.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. Isolating t from (3.11 .a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.I.I.I.f) (3.I.54 CHAPTER 3. -3.b) and (3.1. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.

Note.2. first.Fig. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t affected by the distribu.3. the center will be defined as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. . ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated.3) z Here. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity.2. Also. fashion the center of mass can be defined in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3.4) where xi is the direction of either. In x coordinate. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. the center of mass is required to make the calculations.2. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. m is the total mass of the object. The density “normally” defined as mass per volume. -3. 3. Thus. x. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. In other words.2. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. etc. the x mass. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). The density. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). the body will not rotate. CENTER OF MASS 55 3. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. moment of inertia.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. the dV element has finite dimendV sions in y–z plane and infinitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. center of the mass and two. rho) as a function of the location. y or z. Here. In same is calculated. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.

2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.3. -3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume.7) If the density is constant then equation (3.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. equation (3.5) Fig. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. 3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. Thus equation (3.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. the body was a three dimensional shape. t. Furthermore. ρ.8) .56 CHAPTER 3. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. Moment of inertia of mass is defined as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. ρ and the thickness.2. 3. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.3 which has density. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. are constant and can be canceled. Thin body center of mass/area The density. Thus. schematic.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.

13) y’ C z Thus.3.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.9) The body has a different moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3.4.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.2. Some people define the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be defined as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.3.3. -3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.15) mation of moment of inertia.3.2 3. equation (3.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.10) 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 57 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. . The schematic that explains the sum- (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.

21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.2. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.5 and therefore.16) 3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis. -3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.22) .3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.5.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.17) equation (3.58 CHAPTER 3. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3.18) The first term in equation (3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.19) Hence. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.

the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. Fig.6. -3.7. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. dr r 3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.6. End Solution Fig. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 59 Equation (3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. -3.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. For example. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate.3.3. as shown in Figure 3.7 around x coordinate.14) as following   0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A  2 2  y +z  dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. .6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. r0 .

t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations.9. b has no effect on the error. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.60 CHAPTER 3.23) dz dIx x m  b a3  = ρdy  + z2  12 2 r r A 2   ba   A a b (3. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. I can be noticed that the error is significant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. 2 This .8. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. x can be done as following   Ixx b a3 12 (3. The results are present in Figure 3. consider a simple shape to see the effects of this assumption. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. February 28.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. -3. Ad.24) to write as t/2 Fig. -3.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3.Fig. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:fig:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.9. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 .26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.

b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3. Rectangular Moment of inertia.V. b/α. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.V.20). Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.11. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. depicted in Figure 3.10. y = αx2 . Solution dx dy y r x 61 2b 2a Fig. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one.3. Hint. Hint.11. -3. -3.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. calculate the area first.V.3.c) Example 3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. There are several ways to approach the calculation (different infinitesimal area).10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.

27) can be done in two steps first calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. Utilizing equation (3. -3.62 CHAPTER 3.7. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0. The center of every 2 element is at. Assume that base is a and the height is h. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.12.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. . Triangle for example 3.6).20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.

29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. Here only the product of the area is defined and discussed. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.3.3. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.28) For example.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. The product of inertia defined as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t different much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.30) expanding equation (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.31) A . Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. End Solution a3 h 2 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 63 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.3. the product of inertia is commonly used.

-3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. Example 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3. Product of inertia for triangle.13. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.35) referred as principle system.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part. . REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.35) System which creates equation (3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3. End Solution 3.64 The final form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.

40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. is defined as L = r × Udm (3. the system acceleration called the internal forces.4. dm. 2 (Ur × ω). for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the fluid during operation of the forces.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. Two. r × ω. ω×(r × ω). The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 65 3. Yet. F= ρ rdV V (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic field or gravity.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. thus. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.3. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur .41) . it can be treated as the regular derivative.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. ˙ 3.38) The velocity. Coriolis. Angular. stresses).36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. The same as in the dynamic class.

1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. The force can be written.43) m It can be noticed (well. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.42) where Tτ is the torque. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. in the same fashion. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. 3.42) to calculate the torque as   ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F =  x y 0  = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.44) To understand these equations a bit better. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.66 CHAPTER 3.5. .48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.40) provides   ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U =  x y 0  = (x v − y u)k (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.

3.1.5. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 67 Table -3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a . 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .

yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .68 CHAPTER 3.2.

The changes of the second derivative pressure are not significant compared to the first derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ).1.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of fluid is when the fluid is at rest or quasi rest.1. However. dy. that pressure can increase and later decrease. z). 4. a = 0. -4. The system is in a body force field.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A fluid element with dimensions of DC. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Furthermore. gG (x. y. a as shown in Figure 4.1) erated system under body forces. Description of a fluid element in accel- Equation (4. with acceleration. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. Later.g. Fig. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the first time. several assumptions must be made.1) can be reduced and simplified for the case of no acceleration. where n is the steepest 69 . In these derivations. The first assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in effective body force which is gG − a = geff y P     P+ ∂P  dy  dxdz  ∂y     P+ dy ∂P  dz  dxdy ∂z     P+ ∂P  dx dydz ∂x  dz dx z P x (4. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system.

8) (4. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. the pressure is treated. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector.6) Hence. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geff dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geff (4. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a different orientation.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction.70 CHAPTER 4. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4. it has a direction). now. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on infinitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.4) In general. Even though. If the pressure. the effective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. For example.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). P . As before.2) In the same fashion. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the infinitesimal length. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.7) .

ρ. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.8) results into three simple partial differential equations. 4.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. it will be used.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.10) and constant in equation (4. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. However. 4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. y) = constant (4.3. pressure.11) (4. . y. First. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. and temperature. The effective body force is ˆ geff = −g k (4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.4. There are fields where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.9) and substituting it into equation (4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section. For example. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement.9) Utilizing equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 Some refer to equation (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.12) (4. Traditionally.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.3. P .11) and therefore P (x.

The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes.3.15) In the literature. The difference in the .13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. A schematic to explain the measure to define h as the dependent of the fluid of the atmospheric pressure.4 are in equilibration. the right hand side of the equation (4. Figure 4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4. -4.72 CHAPTER 4.2. -4.15) is defined as piezometric pressure. Example 4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous fluid. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. It is evident from equation (4. Pressure lines in a static fluid with a constant density.

Example 4. Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4.e) RT P B VB (4. Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4.d) combining equations (4. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ].4. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C. (4.I.a) (4.I.I.I. The effective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m].f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept.b)   h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 −  mB VB  mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known. -4.3.I.I.2: .b) results in   (4. The total Fig. Calculate the air mass in chamber B. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ].I.4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m].I.a). The liquid in the two chambers is water.c) The pressure difference between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4. Assume that for accelerated cart.

74 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. The common instinct is to find that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.II. However.3: The effect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines. The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank. The difference is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4.II.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it. Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water.II.d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid). the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage. . the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4. For the case.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower. Tank and the effects different liquids.16) End Solution Example 4. -4.5.II.b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence. Part of the tank height is filled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density). FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig.

a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ htotal ¡ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ ¡ htotal (4.000179264[kPa]. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 75 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4.17) . Hence.3. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. The high of the Mercury is 0.III.3. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.4. Example 4.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.III.82[m/sec].b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height.III.3. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.2 4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.3.III. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.d) 4. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature). φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. The mercury density is 13545. Hence.c) (4.85[kg/m3 ].2. Equation (4.3. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4. The liquid is filling the tube and is brought into a steady state.

The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. Pa = 13545. h . The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.76 CHAPTER 4.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. P valve 2 1 Example 4. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . Gas The pressure. Locate the liquids surfaces.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube.39[P a] ∼ 1. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. -4.82 × 0. L.76 ∼ 101095. Solution The question is to find the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. For smaller width.85 × 9. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range. U tube is L. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side.6.000001793[Bar] which is insignificant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. Thus. The ratio of the Fig.

the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.6).3 Magnified Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure difference is very small. the pressure balance (only differences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4.2. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.3. In the previous technique. thus the height become large.7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument.3.3. The gas density is significantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other. Consider a chamber filled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4. Figure 4. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4.7.19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities difference. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that . imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).4. This technique utilizes the opposite range.Fig. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 77 4. If the pressure differences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magnified” height. -4. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. This way. In steady state. 4.2.

in writing equation (4.25) If there is a insignificant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is significant). the volume ratio.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. Additionally.22) For the small value of the area ratio. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. Additional parameter. The pressure difference can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. The equation (4.18) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig.21) equation (4.78 CHAPTER 4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.24) Some refer to the density difference shown in equation (4. For example. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a significant complications. FLUIDS STATICS two containers filled with the light density liquid.23) becomes h2 = (4. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations. In this method. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer. Inclined manometer. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height.23) A2 A1 (4. then equation (4. . 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is significantly inaccurate (first thing to be replaced on the ship). the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. -4. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4. ρ2 . will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. Here.8. With the equation for height (4. This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. Due to surface tension. Thus. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal.24) as “magnification factor” since it replace the regular density. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . (4. A2 /A1 << 1.21).19) the gas density was neglected.8).19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .

3.28) As in the previous “magnified” manometer if the density difference is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure.3. Thus equation (4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted U-tube manometer The difference in the pressure of two different liquids is measured by this manometer. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). These relationships will be used to find the functionality between pressure. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. In the gas phase.4.9). Schematic of inverted manometer. liquids and other. Thus. right leg left leg 79 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ.26) 1 a b 2 (4. 4. density and location.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4. This idea is similar to “magnified” manometer but in reversed.3. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4.27) Fig. As first approximation.30) .3. -4.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4.29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4. 4.9.

a numerical integration must be carried out. Equation (4. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.33). Z.39). FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). These deviations have a limited practical purpose.33) (4. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.34) Equation (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.32) can be expanded to show the difference to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simplified form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor  h2 P ρ0 g h −  + ··· =1+   6 P0 P0 2 (4.36) Without going through the mathematics. In general. The compressibility is defined in equation (2.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. . can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.32) and (4.30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. In these cases. the first approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.80 CHAPTER 4.34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 . The modified equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. the value of the compressibility factor.35) (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. However.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.

The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).3.42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.40) Equation (4. Fortunately. So.3.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 81 The bulk modulus was defined in equation (1. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.3. can be evaluated at any specific point.4.42) has units of length. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4. For these cases.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.28).39) Equation (4. there are two differential equations that needed to be solved. here. The governing differential density equation (see equation (1.40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. The integration constant.38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.38) The integration of equation (4.37) The variables for equation (4. the differential equation for density should be solved first.40) in equation (4. Utilizing equation (4.39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.43) . with units of length.

Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location.44) March 11. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.44) and is plotted in Figure 4.l) while here the ratio is expressed by different equations.45) Fig. -4. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. Sometimes. The difference between the two equations is the fact that Example 1. BT /g ρ0 . However.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution.47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4. Additionally.  pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).14 is more general which provided a simple solution5 . is a typical length of the problem. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4.82 This constant. The solution is presented in equation (4. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric  corrections 2 3  = z g ρ0 (4. In Example 1.46) An approximation of equation (4.10.” The method described in the Example 1. please pass this information to this author. If you know of any of these solutions or similar. The comparison between the two methods will be presented. P/BT is small (<< 1).45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4.XIV. .14 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1.14 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase.10.

Using these definitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.1 The Pressure Effects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other effects.). the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4.4 4. For h = 0.48) where h here referred to height or distance. If you feel that it is too simple. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. For example.4. the density is affected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. when the temperature field is not uniform.53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students. Here.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 83 4. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.3.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.50) with (4.52) Defining a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. Air can be a function of the temperature field and the pressure. please.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.3. For the atmosphere.51) (4.4. Hence. just ignore it.50) Separating the variables in equation (4. .

I am grateful to my adviser E.52) and reusing (the reverse definitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.G. However. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4.56) Equation (4.56) shows that the first two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. The first approximation for a small distance. Equation (4. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 . (4.57) Equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4. For engineering purposes.. It has to be inserted to make the physical significance clearer. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. h.e.84 CHAPTER 4. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − .55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas.55) It can be noticed that equation (4. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. influences at only large values of height. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.56) and (4.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coefficient).55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. .R. Equation (4. The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–fluid science.. negative direction).55) represents only the pressure ratio. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.50).55) and (4. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. It has to be noted that these equations (4. Cx . The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights..

The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). equation (2. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. -4.4. . The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. That is. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. In reality. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. Suppose that h for some reason.11. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 85 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model.25).3. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density.4. the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process. Under equilibrium. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. Thus. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). That is. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. this shock is insignificant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. The first case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. h.58) Advance material can be skipped 4. Clearly. higher heights). However.3.11) What could happen? There are Fig. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not.55) is stable and if so under what conditions. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].

62) Expanding equation (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. no significant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). From a mathematical point of view. under the above discussion and simplifications. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.64) and (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.65) .56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.55) but can be approximated by equation (4.63) provides the conditions to determine the stability. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the first term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4.86 CHAPTER 4.62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4... can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4. The process.

What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. 4. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is significantly change. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. Equation (4. 4.4.3. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. See example for the floating ice in cup.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 87 After rearrangement of the inequality (4.65) and using the ideal gas identity.5. At first glance.will not be introduced here. it is said that situation is neutral. issues. -4.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the floating ice. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. g. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . The varying gravity effects Thus. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant. the discussion is separated into two different on density and pressure.3. However.66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. the density. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n.3. Assuming that the pressure is affected by this gravity/body force. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side.12. Again. ρ and the body force. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . Thus. The gravity force can be assumed that for infinity. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. Thus. the body force is independent of the fluid. Fig. .5 Gravity Variations Effects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the fluid. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. equation (4. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself.

. This equation confirms . numerical integration is a possible solution..70) Equation (4. is employed. equation (4.69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.67) where G denotes the general gravity constant. As before. Thus. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.73) Equation (4.68) results in ln Or in a simplified form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.71) = = 1− − + . ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. Z.5. FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . This equation confirms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. equation (4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.88 CHAPTER 4.3.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. 4. The integration of equation (4.

76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied..40) is used with the hydrostatic fluid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one. 4. Derivations of the fluid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4. if applicable. As before Taylor series for equation (4.78) .000 [m].3.4.75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4. 1− − ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = + . it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.3 Liquid Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. the Cartesian coordinates provides sufficient treatment to the problem.75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4. 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 89 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.5.3. This issue is related to Pushka equation that will be discussed later..3.

Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.8) can be transformed into a different coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the effective gravity. in a two dimensional system. In general.79) where the magnitude of the effective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4.90 CHAPTER 4. Equation (4. for the effective gravity (4.7: A tank filled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. The effective gravity is for accelerated cart. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27. FLUIDS STATICS 4. The change of the acceleration from the right to left is .4. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the effective gravity.13. The solution is obtained by finding the effective angle body force. This question is one of the traditional question of the fluid static and is straight forward.80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. Thus. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) different equations. 4. Example 4. As before.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. However.1 a 5  m  sec g geff Fig. -4. The effective angle is obtained by adding vectors.81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. body forces were considered as one-dimensional. the previous derivations can be easily extended.

the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.4. Thus.83) (4.14. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. In that case the effective body moves closer to the gravity forces. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 91 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector). The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface.14.4.84) (c) . lar to the slope.82) ) F (a β The effective body force is acting perpendicu.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart.81 The magnitude of the effective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9.8: A cart partially filled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.812 = 11.Fig.01◦ g 9. Calculate the shape of the surface. If there is a resistance. If there is no resistance. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found. -4. α < β. A cart slide on inclined plane.

4.92 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the effective body force is zero. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 .2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geff 4. Expresses the relationship between the different parameters of the problem. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is difference in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. the first case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. Example 4. L from the “left” hand side.86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.15. -4. example 4. That effective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. For simplification reasons.16. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. The center of rotation is a distance.9 is provided.87) Fig. So. Solution .85) z r unit mass ω2 r g geff center of circulation Equation (4. -4. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure difference can be found.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. Schematic to explain the angular angle. CHAPTER 4.17.86) (4.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4.

How would you suggest to define the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.4.9.9 is rotating with upper part height of .4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 93 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. The distance of the infinitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. -4. It is first assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption).11: In the U tube in example 4. End Solution Example 4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. The height of the infinitesimal area is ?. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to find the gravity.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . At what rotating nt .17. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are different from each other.87) represent the pressure line. equation (4. End Solution Example 4.17 shows the infinitesimal area used in these calculations. Thus. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.

and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. -4. If this assumption is accepted. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most significant role.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic.94 CHAPTER 4. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana Bar-Meir. For the purpose of this book. In geological systems such as the Earth provide cases to be used for fluid static for estimating pressure. This explaination is provided to understand how to use the bulk Fig.9 modulus and the effect of rotation. Two different extremes can recognized in fluids between the outer core to the crust.4. outer core. there might be an additional effects which affecting the situation but these effects are not the concern of this discussion.18. what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4. In reality. Earth layers not to scale. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase. The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core. FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers. inspired from image made by user Surachit . these layers assumption will be used to do some estimates.

89) Using equation to express the pressure difference (see Example 1.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4. Thus.94) The solution of equation (4. ρ0 (4. In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r.28).45) or in approximation of equation (1.92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation.j). for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant.92) Equation (4. Again.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4. The approximate definition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 95 In the other extreme north–south does not play any effect since the radius is relatively very small. The solution of this equation obtained by differentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4.90) In equation (4. the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius.95) .93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4.XIV.4. the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4.90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location. If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1.4.14 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4. Hence. r. In that case.

R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G − (4. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core.101) Integrating equation (4.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = 3 ρ BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4. The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r     1 G  dr   ∆P = (4. Thus. End Advance material .92) has to include the rotation effects. It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity.96 CHAPTER 4. The pressure difference is due to the large radius.98) The other issue that related to this topic is. Nevertheless. What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account. the effect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced. FLUIDS STATICS These equations (4.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done.99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as ρ0 1 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core. The pressure difference is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.101) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4. The rotation affects the density since the pressure changes. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally difficulty.97)  1 2G 1 1 BT  r2    − − ρ0 2 ρ0 R 0 r .96) referred to as expanded Pushka equation. In the range between the two extreme.95) and (4. In real liquid. the flow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid flows around. The integral in equation (4.

Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure. Later.19. These calculations are divided into two categories.103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 . how the calculations can be simplified will be shown. This section deals with these calculations. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. Calculate the minimum forces. Rectangular area under pressure. M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simplified as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.5. a simple case will be examined. -4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 4. Initially.5.19.4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that fluids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. Example 4. 4.

-4. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. Additional equation is needed. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. Several rep.103) and also a center of area. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.20. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.104) . Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments.20. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. First. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally.98 CHAPTER 4. It is the total force.Fig. Looking at the above calculations.

109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.105) A+ 0   ξdA  In a final form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4. Ix x . -4.108) Fig. The integral in equation (4. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.104) can be further developed as    Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β   0 xc A 1  (4. Equation (4.21 which has two forces that balance the body. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.110) can be combined the moment and .106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Equations (4.4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.109) The moment of inertia.5. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4.21. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 In this case. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in figure 4.110) Example 4. The general forces acting on submerged area.106) and (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.

117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. additional equation is required. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. in non–symmetrical area there are two different moments and therefor three forces are required. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−.100 CHAPTER 4.110) and the total force is given by (4.114) In the solution. Ix x ρ sin β (4. the forces can be negative or positive. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4.22).113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.118) y . Thus. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4. However.111) (4. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero.116) The integral in equation (4.106).115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. Additionally.

the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 . (4. There are many combix nations of problems (e. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3.110) and (4.13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.110) and (4.106).23. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. Example 4. -4. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.4.23) for triangle 1 and 2). The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus.106). (4. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4. Example to illustrate the Fig.119) (4.22.121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.118).5. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36. metrical straight area. ξ (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density.g.

pressure centers are commonly defined.122) In the same way. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.23. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig.118). These definitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .123) . The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4.1 Pressure Center In the literature.  b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4. -4.102 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.” Thus. the pressure center in the y direction is defined as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4. The definition is derived or obtained from equation (4.5. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2  + 0 +a Ixy = 0  b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .110) and equation (4.1. The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area.

if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. the reasonable average can be used. 4. In fact. the following can be written  x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An  (4. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. .2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.4. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center definitions.129)  Ftotal = g sin β ρ1  ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An  ξ dA  10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. but constant in segments.124) according to equation (3.1.5.126) It has to emphasis that these definitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. the reader can find that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. However. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.128) As before for single density. Consider straight/flat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 .17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 103 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4.127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 . 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. the integral has be carried out. In cases where density is non–continuous. Thus. If density can be represented by average density. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. the density was assumed to be constant.5.

104 CHAPTER 4. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ .130) where the density. FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. one can find that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can find that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. The moment around axis y. h3 = 3[m].5[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. h2 = 2[m].24. a2 = 1. The forces distances are a1 = 1. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer.75[m].5[m]. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. Example 4.133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.and h4 = 4[m]. . the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. Moreover.131) After similar separation of the total integral. and b1 = 4. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 .14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur.134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.

as it can be noticed that in. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the specific height difρ4 ference to be zero). spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The effects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. Equation (4. stead of using the regular atmo.4.Fig. the first equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 105 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns. which are (4.5.133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos .133) can be used by modifying it.130).forces. -4. the following equations are obtained Thus. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.133) and (4.24. only two equations are needed.

535 A3 = 3. the pressure is treated as a scalar function. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.5355 xc3 = 4.92[N ] End Solution 4. if the y component of the force is needed.79[N ] and F2 = 958923. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig.9497 A1 = 2. So.696 A2 = 3.2892 xc2 = 3.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. outward as positive. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as .5. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.136) The result of the integral is a vector. P n dA ˆ (4. -4.137) From this analysis (equation (4. for example.215 Ix x 2 = 44.718 The final answer is F1 = 304809. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy.292 Ix x 3 = 86. The intermediate results in SI units ([m]. The forces on curved area. [m2 ].535 Ix x 1 = 14.106 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). At this stage. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. dA.25.

Equation (4. For example.139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure.15: .142) body. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. However. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 107 Fy = A P dAy (4.138) The same can be said for the x direction. Figure 4.4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Fig. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body.5. Thus. -4. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. “y z” is tan θzy = (4.26 shows a floating body with cut–out slot into it. Cut–Out Shapes Effects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. Schematic of Net Force on floating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4.26. Inside the slot. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Example 4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insignificant (neglecting the change in the density).141) and the angle in the other plane. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.

108 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4.27)). The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The gravity is 9.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m]. Compare the different methods of computations, direct and indirect. Solution The force in the x direction is

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS
δθ θ θ0 θ

Y

4[m] x direction
A θ Ax Ay

Fig. -4.27. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam.

dAx

Fx =
A

P r cos θ dθ

(4.143)

Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). The differential area that will be used is, b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.). The net force will be
θ0 P dAx

Fx =
0

ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in

The Fx =

integration

ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area, Ax (see Figure 4.28) as
Ax xc

A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc =
r

θ r2 2

Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0

r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2

Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different, why?

Fig. -4.28. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES

109

The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.0[N ] 2

Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1), clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ). The force in the y direction is the area times width. 
V A

 θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0    0 − Fy = −   b g ρ ∼ 22375.216[N ] 2  2  The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A

The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. The arc center (see Figure 4.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ
θ 2

All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.1 and 3.2. and substituting the proper values results in
Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle

4 r sin

θ 2

cos

θ 2

4 r sin

yc r =

2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos
Aarc Atriangle

θ 2

θ 2

θ

4 r sin 3θ

θ 2

This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is
Fig. -4.29. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.

yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.65174 ∼ 0.348[m]
12 Well,

it is just a demonstration!

110 The moment is

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.348 × 22375.2 ∼ 7792.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is
Ixx

b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2
xc

3

The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.21[N × m] 9

The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following
θ0
O

dF = P dA =
0

ρ g sin θ b r dθ

θ

θ/2 θ/2
π−θ 2
 ℓ = 2 r sin  

and element moment is θ 2 θ 2

θ  2

π 2

dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is
θ0

cos

dF

θ/2

M=
0

dM
θ0

Fig. -4.30. Moment on arc element around Point “O.”

or M=
0

ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin

θ 2

cos

θ 2

The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4
θ0

The vertical force can be obtained by Fv =
0

P dAv

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or
θ0 P dAv

111

Fv =
0

ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ

g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here, the traditional approach was presented first, and the direct approach second. It is much simpler now to use the second method. In fact, there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. Fv =
End Solution

To demonstrate this point further, consider a more general case of a polynomial function. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series, and thus, this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. Example 4.16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4.31 ,calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. Solution
o

y=
b

n i=1

ai x i

dA dy

y x

dx

Fig. -4.31. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations.

The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. The element force (see Figure 4.31) in this case is
P h dA

dF = (b − y) g ρ

dx2 + dy 2

The size of the differential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4.31). It can be noticed that the differential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. From mathematics, it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx
2

112

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS O
y

The right side can be evaluated for any given function. For example, in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx
2 n 2

dy dx ℓ dF
b

θ y

=

1+
i=1

i a (i) x (i)

i−1

x
x

The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by finding the first and positive root of the equation of
n

0=
i=1

ai x − b

i

Fig. -4.32. The difference between the slop and the direction angle.

To evaluate the moment, expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4.32). The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2

The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x

The element moment in this case is
dF 2

dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ

1+

dy dx

cos θ(x) dx

To make this example less abstract, consider the specific case of y = 2 x6 . In this case, only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that
6 6

b 2

b 2

is measured in meters. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx

units of [1/m5 ]. The derivative at x is

and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). The distance is = (b −
2 2 x6 )

+

6

b −x 2

2

4.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is
√ 6 b

113  b − 2 x6  −1 
6

b 2

−x

M=
0

(x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx

This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution. However, for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2

The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as
√ 6 b

Fv =
0

b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g

5 b6 7

7

In going over these calculations, the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. This omission saves considerable time. In fact, trying to find the center of the area will double the work. This author find this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries.
End Solution

4.6 Buoyancy and Stability
h r One of the oldest known scientific rea search on fluid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals, he was able to cap- Fig. -4.33. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. ture the essence. Here, because this material is presented in a different era, more advance mathematics will be used. While the question of the stability was not scientifically examined in the past, the floating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 . The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. To understand this issue, consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed
0 0

13 This topic was the author’s high school name. It was taught by people like these, 150 years ago and more, ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientific principles behind it. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school, perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Officers High School.

114

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

in liquid and center in a depth of, h0 as shown in Figure 4.33. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. However, on the vertical direction, the pressure on the two surfaces are different. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.144)

represents a depth (into the page). Rearranging equation (4.144) to

F = ρg (4.145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. All the horizontal forces are canceled. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides, those will cancel each other. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. For any two rectangle bodies, the horizontal forces are canceling each other. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other, the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. On the other hand, any shape is made of many small rectangles. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Thus, the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. In illustration of this concept, consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.33. The force per area (see Figure 4.34) is
P dAvertical

h0

dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ

(4.146)
r θ

The total force will be the integral of the equation (4.146) F =
0

ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ

(4.147)

Rearranging equation (4.146) transforms it to

F = rgρ
0

(h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ

(4.148) Fig. -4.34.

The solution of equation (4.148) is F = −π r2 ρ g

The floating forces on Immersed Cylinder.

(4.149)

The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. While the horizontal force is Fv =
0

(h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0

(4.150)

ρl . The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . calculate the pressure inside the container. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. the height.18: A cylindrical body. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. as a Fig. h1 t w hin h Example 4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 115 Example 4. ρw in liquid with denisty.4.17: To what depth will a long log with radius.6. Express the maximum wall thickness. -4. these examples are a must. The second example of the speed of the floating bodies. h1 has to be zero. and density. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). r. You can provide that the angle or the depth.is floating in liquid with density. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. t. floating body. Note that for the maximum thickness. ρl . Assume that ρl > ρw . Thus. shown in Figure 4.35 .35. a length. ρs liquid density. Since there are no better examples. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is  Patmos RT  A   mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. The container diameter is w. T1 for the body to float.

so that the last solution is the only physical solution. it can be inserted into the above equation. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known.116 CHAPTER 4. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simplified into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. Thus. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. hin = Example 4. the air. When the floating is under vacuum condition.19: Calculate the minimum density an infinitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t float in the normal sense.

It is reasonable as the first approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 117 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has different value from the final temperature. Thus. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simplified to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The final temperature and pressure were calculated previously. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The thickness is known.6.4. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented.

End Solution Example 4. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magnified and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. The body’s density is α ρl . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. h0 and left at rest.21: In some situations. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. it is desired to find equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape.118 CHAPTER 4. Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the .20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance.

it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. Solution In the discussion to this section.4. In the same vein. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. In this case there are two different liquid densities. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 119 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = &  $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$   4 Thus.6. What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. There are situations where density is a function of the depth.22: In the introduction to this section. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. ρl < ρs < rhoh is floating between the two liquids. Body with density between the two liquids. the body can be separated into two: one in first liquid and one in the second liquid. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4.

the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. A is canceled on both sides. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. x1 . will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained. Thus. they have to accounted for. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4.8) with a t wall thickness. For the thickness below this critical value. FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R.120 CHAPTER 4. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).XXIII.23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7. End Solution Example 4. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically.a) . However.

The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simplification equation (4.XXIII.XXIII.g) ρs The solution of (4.XXIII.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4. The last solution is the solution that was needed. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.XXIII.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4.b) Equation (4.g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.XXIII.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The first two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above.4.XXIII.h) .XXIII.e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water.XXIII.XXIII. For a given ratio of t/R.XXIII.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 121 (4. The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4.6.

XXV. πd Vw = Thus.b) (4. the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4. assume that the body is of a solid material. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i.6.XXIV. a wood wedge of wood with a fix weight/load. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4. For example. other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth).122 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4. As it was shown in the previous example.e.24 a general solution was provided. End Solution Example 4.1 Stability . Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and fix load.XXIV.c) End Solution Example 4. Find the reverse function. For simplicity. f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom.XXIV.XXV. wedge) will be located.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4.25: In example 4. These solutions are rejected.b) End Solution 4. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component.

In fact. in any of these six positions. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig. it is referred to as the neutral stable.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. However. Schematic of floating cubic. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. the body is in situation like in 4. be floating. . So. When the body is tilted at a small angle. the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location.6. These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). Small amount of tilting of Fig. it results in a flipping into the next stable position. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable.38. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. β. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 .36c. -4. B’ as shown in Figure 4.36b). the cubic results in returning to the original position. -4.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod.36c. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 123 Figure 4.4. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. That is. Schematic of floating bodies. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere.37).36c .36. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. A wooden cubic (made of pine. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. the body stability must be based on the difference between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon.37. Part of the block floats above water line. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. for example) is inserted into water. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change.

The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. and. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. B.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. This analysis is based on the difference of the displaced liquid.38. . B’. The body.38 as ∆F . move to a new buoyant center. So the perpendicular distance. shown in Figure 4.153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. Stability analysis of floating body. -4. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. BB W = M (4.124 CHAPTER 4. BB . when the body is not symmetrical.).152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. For small angle. However. BB is the distance between points B and point B’.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.38. β. when given a tilted position. should to be calculated. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F GM δF δF ∆F G dA B B’ Fig. W referred to the weight of the body. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used.

For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0. the cone has zero depth. The distance.XXVI. The angle of the cone is θ.38.b) .155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.6.156) lim (4.153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. M. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable.154) with (4.1. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3.XXVI.158) Example 4. For middle range. The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4. the cone is unstable. Looking at Figure 4. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. Solution The floating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4. The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α.4. BB can be written from equation (4.26: A solid cone floats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1). The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4. Analyze this situation. At this condition.155) And combining equations (4.a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 125 The integral in the right side of equation (4.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.

L.XXVI. is insignificant for this analysis. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples. why? . Show that the block’s length.158) requires that several quantities should be expressed.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density. Solution Equation (4.e) Substituting equation (4.126 CHAPTER 4.XXVI.XXVI. The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared.e) into (4.c) Equation (4. Where L is the length into the 12 page.d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4.c) can be simplified as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4.1 and is Ixx = La .d) yield the solution when GM = 0   ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ  d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4. Example 4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is floating in a liquid.XXVI. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3. FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4.XXVI.XXVI.f) 0= − −  =⇒ = 3 −1  4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened.XXVI.

40.0 -0.37) h1 2.9 1. L.0 0.5 -0.2 0.39. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.0 0.161) End Solution .3 1.4 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.4.2 1.1 0.8 2.159) 2.6 α = 0.160) 2 where α is the density ratio.7 0.8 Ixx 0.4 α = 0.0 1.2 Thus.6 0.8 0.1 1.8 1. − 1 (1 − α) (4.0 α = 0.0 1.9 0. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 h h1 L a Fig.4 1.2 -0.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4.6 1. Stability of Square Block 3. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.3 0.5 0.6.5 0.2 1.3 1.2 α = 0. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.1 1.5 α = 0.0 a h April 16. Stability of cubic body infinity long. -4.4 α = 0.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h  2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl -0.0 0.7 0.5 α = 0. -4. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.

8 0.0 can be expressed. Some analysis of floating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. Principle Main Axises Any body has infinite number of different axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16. For each of these axises.1 0.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. the fuel is . FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. The difference between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0.5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4.7 0. For stability analysis.3 0. 2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4. the equation is Fig.4 0. Thus. but rather practical. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. This is not a hypothetical question. it is enough to find if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2. Thus. this problem is reduced to find the stability for principle axis. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will flip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). there is a different moment of inertia. With the exception of the circular shape.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2.0 body width is not stable anymore.161) 1.0 0.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape.41. The 0. For cylinder (circle) the 0. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4.128 CHAPTER 4. In cylin1. In commercial ships.0 0.6 0. -4.2 0. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. For example.41.9 1.159)).5 0.

¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. tougher. Example 4. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.42. To find this ratio equation terms in (4. -4.6. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody . So.4.158) have to be found.42.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid.

account these shifting mass speeds.Fig. FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the definitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and defining a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .43). the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is floating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4.43. for stability analysis. here. is enough to be ig. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM .6. The movement of the load (grains. the slow reaction of the load. Moreover. For example.43. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/floating body is examined. furniture. For practical purposes. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the . Sometimes. in this analysis.1.130 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. -4. However. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. The effects of liquid movement on nored.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other floating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the floating body. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water.

The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. G1 G1 . The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations.163) Equation (4.165) A new point can be defined as Gc . the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G . This quantity.4.163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4.164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 131 outside. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank. G Gc = GG sin β (4.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. At the same time.168) .162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. is similar for all liquid tanks on the floating body. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4.6.167) If there are more than one tank partially filled with liquid.

Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. is the total weight of the floating body including measuring weight. The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the effect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. Moving the weight.170) (4.172) with equation (4. 4. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.132 CHAPTER 4. GM .171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the effect of the measuring weight. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.44. GM . design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. The engineer could Fig. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. .1. This control of the stability. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. -4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. GM . of the ship. Measurement of GM of floating body.169) Where. The angle.2 Metacentric Height.172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. equation (4. is measured as the difference in the orientation of the floating body.6.173) (4. Wtotal . θ.171) provides the solution. T a distance. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by finding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the floating body.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected.

45.45). this density change helps to increase the stability of the floating bodies. However. The center of the moment is needed to be found.1. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. Generally. After the tilting. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. all fluids have density varied in some degree. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. . is when b = 3 a.6. When the floating object is immersed into two layers. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now). There are two situations that can occur. Consider the first strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case.1. it must be taken into account.6. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated.4. Fig. However. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. For an example of such a case is an object floating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). 4. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.6. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. Thus. When the body is submerged in a single fluid layer.45. -4.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most floating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 133 The analysis of submerged bodied is different from the stability when the body lays between two fluid layers with different density. In cases where the density changes significantly.

6. End Solution . coating.176) In general. the liquid is not in motion.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4. 4.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the floating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. If the floating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother. etc. Similar situation exists in the case of floating bodies.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. the body should be accelerate. in this case. However. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. only simplified topics like constant value will be discussed.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. The basic differential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.6.1. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. Example 4. the larger GM the more stable the floating body is. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.134 4. In this section.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). Increase in GM increases the frequency of the floating body. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. Thus. the common explanation is wrong. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz.

or water over air(gas–liquid). liquid metal is injected in a cavity filled with air.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G.3. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. After certain diameter.46. For example in die casting. Taylor. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. For example. ρG . Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. -4. heavy fluid that is being placed above a lighter fluid in a gravity field perpendicular to interface.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. This condition is determined by competing . Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. For perfectly straight interface. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter fluid layer. This situation has engineering implications in several industries.7. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. However. This distortion can be as a result of heavy fluid above the lighter liquid. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. ρL . Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. For example a heavy fluid density. This analysis is referred to the case of infinite or very large surface. I.3. Thus. above lower fluid with lower density. If the surface will be disturbed. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. The simplified case is the two different uniform densities. A heavy needle is floating on a liquid. This instability deals with a dense. some of heavy liquid moves down. Example 4. In poor designs or other situations. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 135 Fig. the heavy fluid will stay above the lighter fluid.4. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid).

FLUIDS STATICS forces. Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines. and the buoyancy forces.179) According to equation (1.182) . Thus.57). The depression has different radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression.181) The pressure difference due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4.57) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. -4. x.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4.47. the surface density. equation (1. On the other hand. The first derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.178) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.180) (4. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. In that case. Thus. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal.136 CHAPTER 4. the force that acting to get the above fluid down is the buoyancy force of the fluid in the depression. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not sufficient. the situation is Fig. The fluid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to infinity. Thus. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. Thus. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. example of a cosine function will be examined.46) the pressure difference or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4.47). if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive fluid then the whole system is stable. the liquid fluid zone and vice versa.

The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4. Additionally when the depression occurs.48. The first control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. the force is ρ g h × A. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down.181) and (4. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4.4. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. the force is the integral around the depression.48. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is filling the missing portion. -4. they are not part of the control volume. Thus. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. In reality.186) . the error is not significant. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. It can be approximated as a flat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4.48. To analyze it. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a different place. At the cylinder bottom. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.185) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. At the top. This acts Fig.183) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 137 (4.7.48. For the depression. At the bottom.

49). the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.190) Fig.191) .138 CHAPTER 4.188) (4.49. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down.187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. As shown in Figure 4. The cross section of the interface.48. For the cylindrical geometry. At that case. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension. the specific radius is limited. θ = π/2.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. -4. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4.

.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. In Figure 4. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). In equation (4. σ r∼ 8 π 0. For example. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 139 The actual radius will be much larger.50. However.4 2400 × 9. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.4. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.the depression is larger for square area.49. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4.7. this angle is never can be obtained. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. Solution The depression radius is assume to be significantly smaller and thus equation (4.190) can be used. -4.191.191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees.168 by introducing experimental coefficient. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. Example 4.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].

140 CHAPTER 4. what is the difference? .S. for known geometries of the fluids. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Is there any difference if the fluids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the fluids are compressible. ω. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave.50 has three layers of different fluids with different densities. You can assume that the process is isothermal. Describe the interface of the fluids consider all the limiting cases. Is there any difference if the process is isentropic? If so. Assume that the fluids do not mix. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15. Example 4. Use the ideal gas model.32: A canister shown in Figure 4. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.

Part I Integral Analysis 141 .

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Even though this system looks reasonable. L. The Eulerian method focuses on a defined area or locaa system tion to find the needed informab tion.1. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving fluid particles. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. Ad. This name is in honored J.motion. one wants to find or predict the velocities in the system. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. The main difficulty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. This method applied and used in very few cases. 143 .1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a defined point or a defined volume. -5. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set differentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. the Lagrangian system turned out to be difficult to solve and to analyze. When the fluid system moves or changes. The main target of such analysis is to find the value of certain variables. These differential equations will be used in Fig.

the control volume is a system. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). The control volume is differentiated into two categories of control volumes. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. The control volume is a defined volume that was discussed earlier.1. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. mass. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. 5. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally.2. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. . entropy etc. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate difference between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. trol volume.1. Fig.144 CHAPTER 5. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. -5. energy. After a certain time. The difference between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”.1 represent the system. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location.2. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. momentum. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is fixed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. non–deformable and deformable. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. The coordinate system could be fixed to the conduit. At the same time. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). The green lines in Figure 5.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to define a control volume (some time more than one). The red dotted lines are the control volume.piston with in and out flow.

5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. -5. the flow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.7) .v. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.2) The change of the system mass is by definition is zero.v. according Figure 5.1) The system mass after some time. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. The mass flow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if flow out the control volume and negative if the flow is into the control volume.v.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. is made of msys = mc. CONTINUITY EQUATION 145 5. (5. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.3) The first term in equation (5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface.3). The actual velocity of the fluid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.v.1.3.5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. Thus. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3. The interface of the control volume can move. + ma − mc (5. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.3). the mass conservation will be discussed. In this chapter.

1: The density changes in a pipe.v. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.9) into equation (5. X dx L Fig. (5.8) and (5.4.3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.1. The negative sign is because flow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. due to temperature variation and other reasons.7) are similar and can be combined. t) = 1− cos . the flow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. In the same manner. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net flow in or out of the control system. ρ0 L t0 . Schematics of flow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. -5. Example 5. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.10) Equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.v.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. Substituting equation (5.146 CHAPTER 5.

10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. Express the mass flow in and/or out.v. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. dt c. r and angle. 5. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius. Using equation (5.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simplifications of equations (5.10) become conservation of the volume.3.11) is simpler than equation (5. the flow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.v. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.v. L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The flow out is a function of length.11) Equation (5.4 length is L and its area is A. . θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c. L.5.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is fixed with time. the derivative in equation (5.3. and time. Vc.v. ρ0 c. t. (5. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.v.10).10).10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are fixed in time and hence. and is the change of the mass in the control volume.3. Continuity with Fixed b. End Solution 5.c.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 147 The conduit shown in Figure 5.

c.3. Ubn dA (5. Find the height as a function of the other parameters. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the filling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . The liquid fills a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.v. Example 5.v. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero. the meaning is that volume flow rate in and the volume flow rate out have to equal.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Example 5.7 Ap .3. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c.5. (5.v. Hence. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.v.v.v.2: Liquid fills a bucket as shown in Figure 5. Physically.v. Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. the net flow (in and out) is zero.12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5.15) The meaning of the equation (5. Urn dA (5. 5.2 illustrates this point.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.1 CHAPTER 5. Sc.2.148 5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume flow into it.2. Sc.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.

v. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket.v. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. Second. Fourth. In reality. The first control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. flow in = c. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary.5. First.v. -5. liquid boundary in bucket. However. this effect can be neglected for this range which this problem. CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. c. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. the air effects are negligible. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. several assumptions must be made.2. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some influence of momentum equation). no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air.v.3. Third. In this analysis. there are no evaporation or condensation processes.5. (Uj + Ub ) dA . Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes.

7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is filled instantly.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. (5.7 Ap Ub (5.a) and (5.II. The first limit is when Ap = A/0.a) into (5.II.v. c. Uj . The reason for this difference is that the liquid already fill the bucket and has not to move into bucket. Urn dA The entrance is fixed. the side.a) To find the jet velocity. When examining solution there are two limits.v.II.II. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not infinity.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.b) The above two equations (5.II. It also interesting to point out that if the filling was from other surface (not the top surface).II. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following flow in flow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5.II.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0. e.150 CHAPTER 5.g. thus the relative velocity. mi .II. End Solution Example 5.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. Substituting the first equation.c) The solution of equation (5.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .

(Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. The right side of equation (5. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The first integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). Sc.v. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 151 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.v.5. This simplification provides very useful description for many fluid flow phenomena. End Solution 5.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simplification of the continuity equation is of one dimensional flow. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.3. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .v.3.16) . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc.2. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.

Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. -5. What happen if the h0 = 0? . min h Fig. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. Height of the liquid for example 5.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. Example 5.4. For the first case.152 CHAPTER 5. The mass flow rate out is √ function of the height.19) For incompressible flow (constant density).16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. determine the height.6.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist find the critical value of the system parameters. h as function of the time. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.4: Liquid flows into tank in a constant mass flow rate of a.16).

If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coefficient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. the governing equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= flow out b1 h flow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. For second case. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.3.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. However. the critical ratio state if the flow in is larger or lower than the flow out determine the condition of the height. If the reverse case appeared. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 153 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. Essentially.5.16) is flow out flow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the flow is only function of x coordinate. the height will increase.

y) − − (x1 . Osborne. if there will be a demand for such.24) differentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . y) = f (α. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. Nevertheless.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . This author find material just given so no questions will be asked.v f ρ Urn dA (5. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is defined as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. c.v. End Solution 5. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. For its derivative of equation (5. y) dα (5.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 .22) Initially. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. y) ∂y dy dy (5. it will be provided.154 CHAPTER 5. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. To make the previous derivation clearer. y) − f (x1 .25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. specific enthalpy. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . y) − G(x1 . This is engineering book and thus. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. . the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time.archive. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as specific entropy.23) is f (x. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained.

(5. F .5.32) . between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). F . Suppose that a fluid is flowing in a conduit.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 155 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. The intensive property. The same can be said for the other side. the flow in (or out) will be the velocity of fluid minus the boundary at x1 .25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a different variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. F . This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter.4. with time. Urn = U1 − Ub .29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a different coordinate system. F . y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. Since the change is very short (differential). Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule.v. the mass will be different and it will not be a system.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative flow of the property out.26) The first term (1) in equation (5. is then F2 dx2 dt (5. y) dx ∂y (5. f is investigated or the accumulative property. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. F .30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. The accumulative flow of the property in.

the velocity became uniform.V.v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c.13).b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.V. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. The only difference is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. Additionally.V.156 CHAPTER 5.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity profile as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .33) 5. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. t.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity profile is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration). The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. (5.a) The integration of the equation (5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. Since the time variable.V. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided.v. Example 5. Solution The velocity profile is linear with radius. Thus.c) End Solution . After magical mixing. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule.

Then assume parabolic velocity profile as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume.5. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary effect is penetrating further into fluid. right. The assumption is that fluid attaches itself to surface. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. -5. Boundary Layer control mass. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). Compare the two different velocity profiles affecting on the mass transfer. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. Example 5. In this case. and upper.5. Solution Assuming the velocity profile is linear thus. The above integrals on the . For simplicity assume slowed fluid has a linear velocity profile. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the flow as shown in Figure 5.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer.7.7. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 157 U0 o ge Ed fB r nd ou yL ay er L Fig. the left.

7 hours. Thus. and 8 hours.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) flow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic profile δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. Example 5.158 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5.1 kg/sec = = 1.8: The tank is filled by two valves which one filled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. the flow out is ( 5 + 0.1 kg/sec. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. However sometime. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the effect of flow. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. The next example deal with such reversed mass flow rate.1 ) 5.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? . The tank is 3/4 fulls.7: Air flows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel flow into the jet is at 0.13) is used.02kg/m3 AU 0.

if all the valves are open the tank will be filled. mass flow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass flow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus.5. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 159 Easier measurement of valve flow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. End Solution Example 5. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. in or out flow rate = Sc.9: Inflated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass flow. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . assume that the process is isothermal.v. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law.v boundary velocity + Sc.5. Thus. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but first the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. For simplicity.v. The time to completely filled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. Assume that the cylinder inflated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.

Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain differentiation similar to Leibniz rule.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate.v Vc.160 CHAPTER 5.v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The first term requires to find the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the first term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. Where fv is a coefficient describing the balloon physical characters. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. . Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coefficient with the right dimension. mi .

5. . Sc.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.v. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.10. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The first term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that first term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.v. ρUrn dA Vc.v. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 161 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc.5.

To relate the velocity in the z direction with the flow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. What are the units of the coefficient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coefficient in the previous problem? 5. Consider a container filled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid flows out as shown in Figure 5. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. . However. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. However.11: Solve example 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. -5. There is no general way to provide these quantities. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.S.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.8. A similar control volume construction to find the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the flow. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. Example 5. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 .10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic.162 CHAPTER 5. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that flow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to find the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume.

The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the flow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 163 (5.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. Substituting into (5.9 under the blow line. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. . Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. One zone is right to the exit with flow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right.9. The only difference is that the velocity has two different directions. Control volume and system before and after the motion.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. It can be notice that the velocity.9. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the flow in term.37) Fig. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a different control volume. -5.9.6.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label.5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.

a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5. Circular cross section for finding Ux and various cross sections. The value dS is r cos α.b) Fig.10.XII.XII.XII. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.e) (5.h) (5.XII.XII.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is defined as Ux = U dS S (5.i) Example 5.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity.XII. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.XII. -5. α provides the averaged velocity. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5.164 CHAPTER 5.13: .XII. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed.12: Calculate the velocity. sin(2α) r2 2 (5. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.f) 1 α − .XII. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations.g) Where here S represent some length.

The flow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.XIII.11. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used.7.XIII. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example.14: .7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many fluid mechanics exams is the following. Thus.a) (5. Solution X(y) x 165 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig. y velocity for a circular shape The flow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons.5. Thus. equation (5.12. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity.39) modified to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.b) 5. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the flow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). -5. every point has different velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. That is the flow field is a mirror images. Example 5.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5.

002 [m3 /s]. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that flows at a speed of 5m/s.12. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume flow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0. -5.05 m2 .a) Thus in this case.75m/sec Ain 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 = 0.166 CHAPTER 5.10 0. Schematic of the boat for example 5.05 [kg/s]. what Fig.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0. In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a different specific density at 0.15[m] ˙ ˙ (5. Assume incompressible process. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0. since the flow is incompressible flow. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec.1 + 0. Urin = Aout 0. However.14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant.05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 . the total volume flow in is equal to volume flow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe.05 = 1. Solution In the first scenario. the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat.1 [kg/s]. The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture. the flow is steady state and equation (5.05 Urout = 35 = 8.2 End Solution Example 5. If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of . The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].75m3 /sec The flow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.XV.

The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume.05 − mexit mexit = 1.XV.5. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not affected. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work.002[m/ sec] 923.07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 167 (5.1 + 0. So governing equation is (5.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 .01 [m/s]. However.15). −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0. .0003 [m]. At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0.7.XV. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).012 π (5.e) Example 5.000001 [m3 /s]. Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c. Yet. The first choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston). There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0.v. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923.7[kg/m3 ] = 0.c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and fluctuated depending on the location of the piston. If the piston is withdrawn at O.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting field.XV. I hope that no one will have teachers like him. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0.005[m] and the tip radius is 0.d) (5.XV. This part of the solution is art.

attached to the blood edge.XVII. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b. In that case. The air governing equation is blood b.XVI.5[m/s]. In this device. U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5.17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the water– jet pump. velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5.XVI.a) .d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant. For this case. in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5.b) In the case. the equation (5.XVI.15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub . In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4.XVI. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0. and two equations.a) and (5. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity.168 CHAPTER 5. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger.XVI. The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device. there are two unknowns. Using equations (5.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used.c. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood.2. MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to specific material.c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. At this stage.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained. There several coordinate systems that can used.XVI. The second part of the control volume is the air. Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside). stationary. attached to plunger. Ub and Utip .0[m/s] and U2 = 0. Later the two stream are mixed.

XVII.7.5. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 169 (5.b) .

MASS CONSERVATION .170 CHAPTER 5.

3) 171 .2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6.1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction.1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.1. the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. For several bodies (n).1 Momentum Governing Equation 6. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6.2) The fluid can be broken into infinitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.

it can be written as Fs = c.v. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. or the forces. have to be discussed.1. Sn . τ dA (6. After infinitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. Sn . Sn dA + c.1. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. Thus. The forces. 6. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. In this chapter.2 External Forces First. the terms on the left hand side.7) Fig. is made out of two components.172 CHAPTER 6. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. Thus. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. The gravity acts on all the system elements. the main body force is the gravity. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the fluid pressure. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations.1.v.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). and τ are the shear stresses. The surface “force”. -6. Again. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. Where the surface “force”. hence.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. excluding the external forces. is in the surface direction. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. are the body forces.). . Here for simplicity.

according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).1. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. c.6. With external forces equation (6.v.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. In Cartesian coordinate.v.v. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). (6. U . friction (non-fluid). Fext .v. etc. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. Thus. ducts. supporting solid structures.v. for example in the x coordinate.1.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v.v. c.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side.11) ρ U dV + c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.v. g · ˆ ρ dV i c. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–fluid elements.v.1. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6.v. c. P cos θx dA + c.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. (6.v. Equation (6. ρ U U rn dA (6. c. the components are Fx + c.13) . τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6.v.v. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. t = dt c.9) The liquid velocity. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 173 6. c.v. t dt c.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. c.v.v. 6.v.

15) 6. ρ U Urn dA (6.v. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simplified for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. g ρ dV − c. in these situations.1. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.174 CHAPTER 6.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. In this situation.v. Additionally.3.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c. equation (6.v.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simplification deals with flow under approximation of the frictionless flow and uniform pressure. a acc ρ dV (6.18) is applicable to any velocity profile and any geometrical shape.18) Equation (6. 6. τ dA = c. the mass flow rate in and out are equal. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions.v.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity profile by the following integral U = 2 (6.1. flow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. P dA + c. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4.5.6. .v. Thus.

I.2). Neglect the friction. -6.1.2.I.I. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet. Uo θ Ui F Fig b. Fig.I. Solution The velocity profile is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 175 Example 6.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle effects.a) into equation (6.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. Example 6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity profile for a circular pipe.a) Substituting equation (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.2. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.

II. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6.3 with a mass .11) can be reduced.3: Liquid flows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of flow around thin wings. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. End Solution Example 6.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. because it is a steady state. the mass flow rate remains constant. Equation (6.176 Solution CHAPTER 6. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.II.

The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].3. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v. The entrance area is 0.01 [gk/sec]. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. First. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.0015 [m3 ].b) c.0001 Equation (6.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION flow rate of 0. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.v. =0 liquid surface Fz + c.v. ρ U z · U rn dA .v. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.1.3.v.III. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.v. -6.v.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c. τ z dA = c.0001[cm2 ].v. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.3. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 177 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig. =0 c. Hence. c.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.6. τ z dA = (6.v.III. c.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6.v. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. the velocity has to be found.

MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the fluid momentum.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9.v. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.III. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.III. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used.8 × 1000× End Solution (6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6. fan etc. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes. P cos θz dA = c. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6.v. Combining all transform equation (6.v. .v.d) 6.v.178 CHAPTER 6. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the fluid outside changes only the flow direction.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours.v.III.v. Either it is assumed that some of the fluid enters into the container and fluid outside is not affected by the propeller. Improvements can be made to this analysis. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move fluids as a pump. this analysis is used for academic purposes.4 the fluid flows from the left to the right. This surface is called slip surface.4. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.III. Here. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the difficulty in understanding the velocity field. In the Figure 6.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.

Essentially. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. The difference between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. Here. and is. Thus. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6. Furthermore. the thermal energy is converted to thrust.2. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. the pressure around control volume is the same.5 is pushed by liquid jet. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. in many case more efficient.4.6. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is offered. Hence. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible flow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. -6.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller.19) 179 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. Notice that Example 6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As first approximation. In Jet propulsion. a major obstacle in the past. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the flow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insignificant. pressure drops from the calculation. this direct conversion can be. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. Calculate the friction force on the . The inlet area and exit area are different for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6.

Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. .a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume.v.v.v.180 CHAPTER 6. U 0 . namics friction is µd .4. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6.v. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. The velocity of the jet is uniform.v. -6. g ρ dV − c. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c.v. U0 . ρ U U rn dV (6. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit.v. τ dA = c. P dA + c.IV. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reflecting jet is vertical.5.

IV. 181 (6.6.b) into equation (6. This method is cumbersome in many cases.6.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. -6. The momentum flux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. End Solution 6.10).2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.2.IV. .IV.IV.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body. A rocket with a moving control volume.v. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.b) The substituting (6.

v. However. Yet. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. The difference is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. (6. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.v. This mechanism is useful for specific locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. c. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. However.24) Clearly. it can be neglected.v.26) .v. This change is minimal and for this analysis. the first term FR . In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. The oxidant and fuel flow outside. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6.23) The first term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. vanishes. ρUy Urn dA (6. the derivative with respect to time. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. c. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6.v. g ρ dV + c.v.182 CHAPTER 6. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc.2.v. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the difference can be neglected.

This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to find method of approximation for not given velocity profiles1 Example 6.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR .26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry.28). However. For which he noticed this “constant velocity.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. material that surface made and the medium it flow in altitude. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). gas flow out is constant as well. the speed (the Reynolds number).27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 183 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . As first approx˙ imation. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in configuration leads to a constant x velocity.28) Before integrating equation (6. Thus it is assume that FR = 0.2. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature.” .27) Separating the variables equation (6. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6. Thus.6. Integrating equation (6.

One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight. Solution Uo FR Fig.12) for two dimensions is used.184 CHAPTER 6.d) into equation (6. The control volume is shown in Figure 6.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. mt .V. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist.31) The relationship between the height and the flow now can be used.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. linear function of the height.d) Where B is the coefficient that has the right units to mach equation (6. -6.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.7.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.V. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.V. The frame of reference is moving with the tank.b) Where m0 is mass flow rate out. Substituting equation (6.v.a) Equation (6. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid flows out with an uniform velocity profile.v.v.a) can be transferred to dmc.V. Equation (6.7. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is filled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases. Furthermore. ρdA = 0 (6. Sc.V. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.e) .V.7.V.V. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. U0 = B h (6. the fluid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.V.V.

2. . it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). -6. The tank depth.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time. Using a similar control volume2 .e) is a first order differential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . The mass con. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 185 Equation (6.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.V.5. h. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6.8.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height. A new control volume to find the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface.8.f) into (6.V. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn . The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.Fig.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. In fact.V.6.2.V. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0   B − ¨   ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V. Perhaps surprising.V. is not relevant. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. Using this function.f) UT To find the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used.V. Substituting (6.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.V.V.

The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity profile is not given inside the control volume.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. Here this effect is neglected. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc. (6. This effect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. and the resistance due to air is negligible.v.v. mf and mt are the mass of the fluid and the mass of tank respectively. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.v.V. a Vc. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ).m) There is no mass flow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average.v. mc.v. It . This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). The momentum flow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc.v.V.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction.186 CHAPTER 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative fluid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.

dt dt dt (6. if it is the opposite the toy start to move. if the difference between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.v.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the flow out in equation (6. From equation (6.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.V.V.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc.V. The first component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).V.V.V. d Ux Ux + mc.V.r) .v.6. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc. Ux Vf Thus. However. Ux = mc.V.d) the mass flow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.2.v.v. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 187 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components. d d Ux Ux + mc.v.v.

This correction factor can be calculated by finding the relation between the two cases.s) into equation (6.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.V. the velocity profile can be estimated using the ideal fluid theory but the actual values are not known.V. End Solution Averaged Velocity! Estimates In example 6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. For example.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching. ρ Ux dV (6.V. For example.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. For these cases a correction factor can be used.V.188 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis. Here. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed   m f  t A0 B    −  A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e      ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.q) transforms it to a differential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.v.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.35) . The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.v U dV (6. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.r) and (6. There are situations where actual velocity profile is not known but is function can be approximated.V. Substituting equations (6.V. the flow profile in example 6.v U = ρ V c.

9.6. ditionally increase of velocity occur.40) . However. To demonstrate this idea.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6.v 189 U dV = c.9 commonly used in industry.39) to uniform and steady state flow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. ρ Ux dV (6. the following discussion is provided. -6. The flow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. applying equation (6. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. 6. C ρV c. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. The impeller increases the velocity of the fluid by increasing the radius of the particles.3. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.v.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6. if the density is not constant. the coefficient is not equal to one.Fig.v.36) If the density is constant then the coefficient is one (C ≡ 1).39) The angular momentum equation. Sc.

and h. Notice that tangential liquid velocity. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .p. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ .4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6.41) results in Um2 (6. Example 6. The thickness of the impeller. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6.43) The difference between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the efficiency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . Ut2 and radial component. Here it is assumed that fluid is incompressible (ρ = constant).42) (6. The height of the impeller is h.40[m]. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 .190 CHAPTER 6. r.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. U2 has two components. one the tangential velocity. The exit liquid velocity.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . Un2 . 6. The angular velocity is 1200 r.m. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6.

ˆ The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. Develop exFig. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. Liquid fills the lower part of the rocket tank. -6. Additionally. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket.4.VII.10.6. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to find the rocket Liquid acceleration. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. ˆ The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. ˆ The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. The upper part of the rocket tank is filled with compressed gas. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. ˆ The cross section of the liquid is constant.2. forces for example 6. ˆ No gas leaves the rocket. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. ˆ No resistance to the rocket (can be added). . Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. the initial take off is requires a larger pressure.3) without a solution.a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 191 6. ˆ The gas obeys the ideal gas law. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).10.7 What are the parameters that effect the problem. ˆ The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process).

b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.VII.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.VII.VII.VII. Using the above definition.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.VII.VII.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).VII. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass flow out.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.g) (6.j) .b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .VII.h) (6.VII.VII.VII. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6. equation (6. Furthermore. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.192 CHAPTER 6.d) mg R T V0g (6.

VII.8: A rocket is filled with only compressed gas.k) According to the assumption the flow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.VII.m) Example 6. Example 6.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket fly.VII. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6. End Solution (6.VII. Example 6. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 193 (6. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity. What are the parameters that effect the rocket velocity.6. 6.11: .4.4.10: For each following figures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .9: In Example 6. At a specific moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to fly.

The friction factor between the block and surface is 0. Assume that resistence between the air and the water jet is negligible. Fig. . the velocity to move the block can be obtained from the analysis of the block free body diagram (the impeging jet diagram). -6.5. Calculated the minimum height of the liquid in the tank in order to start to have the block moving? Solution The solution of this kind problem first requires to know at what accuracy this solution is needed. For great accuracy. the effect minor loss or the loss in the tank opening have taken into account. First. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. A. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6.11 Example 6. consider the unsteady effects.12: A large tank has opening with area.194 Situations CHAPTER 6. In front and against the opening there a block with mass of 50[kg].11. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. First assuming that a minimum accuracy therefore the infomration was given on the tank that it large. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is filled with liquid.

It is assumed that the two streams in the vertical cancle each other. The balance on the stream downwords (for steady state) is 2 ρ Uout ∼ ρ Vliquid g + m g = (6. In fact because the gravity the jet impeging in downwards slend direction. For very tall blocks. In cases were ρ Vliquid g > 2 ρ Uout the required height is larger.12. the forces that acts on the block in the vertical direction is can be obtained from the analysis of the control volume shown in Figure 6.12. However.XII. The jet stream has only one componet in the horizontal component. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The control volume is attached to the block. The miminum force the push the plock is ρ A Uexit 2 = m g µ =⇒ Uexit = And the velocity as a function of the height is U = h= mµ ρ2 A √ mgµ ρA ρ g h and thus (6. the gravity has effect and the effect is the direction. no matter what the height will be the block will not move (neglecting other minor effects). Hence.6. -6. if the gravity was in the opposite direction.d) Where Vliquid is the liquid volume in the control volume (attached to the block). That is the gravity has no effect on the velocity (height) required to move the block. the gravity acts on all these “streams” and eventually the liquid flows downwards. that is the same height will be required on the moon as the earth. In the oposite cases the height is smaller.XII. So. all liquid flows downwords.c) It is interesting to point out that the gravity is relavent.b) (6.a) Fig.XII. F = ρ A Uexit 2 ρ Uexit2 τw mg 195 ρ Uout2 (6. Jet impinging jet surface perpendicular and with the surface. At the exreme case. The pressure is canceled because the flow is exposed to air.XII. Yet. The jet impenged on the surface results in out flow stream going to all the directions in the block surface. End Solution .4.

MOMENTUM CONSERVATION .196 CHAPTER 6.

which were assumed in the previous chapters. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build.10) for a system is D m U2 D EU D (m g z) ˙ ˙ Q−W = + + Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. which is external force. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions.2) (7. is included on the right hand side.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.1) Equation (7. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. Moreover. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. 2 Some view the right hand side as external effects while the left side of the equation represents the internal effects. However. this law allows to solve problems.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the first law of thermodynamics1 . For example. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the effects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). The fluid.2) is similar to equation (6.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . the relationship between height and flow rate was assumed previously. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked flow. 197 . as all phases and materials. here it will be derived. For example. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here.

198

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. There are three modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection4 and radiation. In most problems, the radiation is minimal. Hence, the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7.3)

Where dq is heat transfer to an infinitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coefficient. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q=
Acv

k

dT dA dn
t
τ Sn

(7.4)

System at The work done on the system is more complicated to express than the heat transfer. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The first kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. As in the previous chapter, the surface forces are divided into two categories: one per- Fig. -7.1. The work on the control volume is pendicular to the surface and one with the done by two different mechanisms, Sn and τ . surface direction. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.1) is
dℓ

F dF

dV

S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an infinitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is
U

(7.5)

dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =−
Ac.v.
3 There 4 When

(7.6)

S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t

(7.7)

are other methods such as magnetic fields (like microwave) which are not part of this book. dealing with convection, actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the definition of system.

7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.2) for system is kT
Asys

199

dT dA+ dn

S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt
Asys

ρ
Vsys

EU + m

U2 + g z dV 2

(7.8)

Equation (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system. The system can contain solid parts as well several different kinds of fluids. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.8) and thus yields Energy Equation kT
Acv

dT dA+ dn

˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt +
Acv Acv

(7.9)

ρ
Vcv

Eu + m Eu + m

U2 +gz 2

U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA

From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations deals with the control volume. In the last term in equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.8) for more details). The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is
flow work

˙ = W ∼
S

P n · U dA − ˆ
S

τ · U n dA ˆ

(7.10)

The first term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the flow work and is
Urn

P n · U dA = ˆ
S S

P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ
S

P Ubn dA

(7.11)

Equation (7.11) can be further manipulated to become
work due to the flow work due to boundaries movement

P n · U dA = ˆ
S S

P ρ Urn dA + ρ

P Ubn dA
S

(7.12)

200

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

The second term is referred to as the shear work and is defined as ˙ Wshear = −
S

τ · U dA

(7.13)

Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ + g z dV + Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + dt V 2 U2 P + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA Eu + + ρ 2 S S

(7.14)

The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy, Eu is referred to as the enthalpy, h, which was discussed on page 48. With these definitions equation (7.14) transformed Simplified Energy Equation d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt V 2 2 U h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 S S

(7.15)

Equation (7.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. Also note that the shear work inside the the control volume considered as shaft work. The example of flow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.15). Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book, the flow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. The flow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density, the gas density is very small compared to Fig. -7.2. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density, and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. small, so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 , surface tension effects are negligible and
5 Later

a discussion about the height opening effects will be discussed.

7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

201

the liquid surface is straight6 . Additionally, the temperature is assumed to constant. The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. The conservation of the mass is d dt
V

ρ dV + ¡
dρ dt

A

ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡

(7.16)

which also can be written (because

= 0) as Urn dA = 0
A

Ubn dA +
A

(7.17)

Equation (7.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7.18)

Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7.19)

The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.20)

In this analysis, for simplicity, this quantity will be used. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the flow is symmetrical7 . However, the change of the kinetic energy due to the change in the velocity field isn’t zero. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part as shown in Figure 7.3. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side is sufficient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7.21)

6 This assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension effects zero. Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. However, in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. Hence it requires that velocity profile in x y to be parabolic. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. 7 For the mass conservation analysis, the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. However, for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero.

202 The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7.15) which is applicable to this case. The temperature is constant8 . In this light, the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ Q= = hin − hout = 0 dt (7.22)

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

Uy 1

2

Uy 1

2

Uy = 0

Ue The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. Furthermore, the shear stresses at Fig. -7.3. How to compensate and estimate the the exit are normal to the flow direction kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. hence the shear work is vanished. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. Additionally, the internal shear work is assumed negligible.
˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7.23)

Now the energy equation deals with no “external” effects. Note that the (exit) velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. Combining all these information results in
energy flow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work

d dt

V

U + g z ρ dV + 2

2

A

Pe Ue + ρ 2

2

Ue ρ dA −
A

Pa Ub dA = 0

(7.24)

Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity, Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . The pressure terms in equation (7.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe
A A

Ue dA − Pa
A

Ub dA

(7.25)

A

It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence
=0

Pa
A

Ue dA −
A

Ub dA

=0

(7.26)

8 This approach is a common approximation. Yet, why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. Clearly, the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. In this case, this change is a function of Eckert number, Ec which is very small. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser, E.R.G. Eckert. A discussion about this effect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. Some examples how to calculate these losses will be resent later on. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure.

7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The governing equation (7.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0

203

(7.27)

V

A

The minus sign is because the flow is out of the control volume. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt
V

U2 d + g z ρdV = 2 dt

V

U2 d dV + 2 dt

g z ρ dV
V

(7.28)

The second integral (in the r.h.s) of equation (7.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt
h A 0 dV

z dz dA

(7.29)

V

Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. The inside integral can be evaluated as
h

zdz =
0

h2 2

(7.30)

Substituting the results of equation (7.30) into equation (7.29) yields   V 2 d h d h dh gρ dA = g ρ  h A  = g ρ A h dt A 2 dt 2 dt

(7.31)

The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity profile. Furthermore, Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coefficient. The first integral can be estimated by examining the velocity profile effects. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV
V

(7.32)

The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V
2 2

U dV
V

V =ρ
V

U dV

(7.33)

204

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as
2

ρ U dV CF =
V

ρ U 2 dV
V

ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡
V

2

(7.34)

Here, CF is the correction coefficient. Note, the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible fluid. The correction factor for a constant density fluid is
2 2

ρ U dV CF =
V

= ρ U 2 dV

ρ ¡ ρ ¡

U dV
V

= U 2 dV

Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V

(7.35)

V

V

This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity profile. A large family of velocity profiles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional flow)11 . For a pipe geometry, the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7.36)

It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity, Uave is obtained by using equation (7.32) which yields 1/2. Substituting equation (7.36) into equation (7.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V V

=

Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯
2

= dV

3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3

(7.37)

The correction factor for many other velocity profiles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. For circular shape, a good guess number is about 1.1. In this case, for simplicity reason, it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The difference between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for different directions while in the momentum case, different directions cancel each other out.
11 Laminar flow is not necessarily implies that the flow velocity profile is parabolic. The flow is parabolic only when the flow is driven by pressure or gravity. More about this issue in the Differential Analysis Chapter. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.

43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7. not the derivation.1.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by definition) is Ub = dh dt (7.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7. is about one page. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this effect is assumed negligible and the function to be constant.39) Therefore. It must be remembered that is effect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. However. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5.7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form  2 U2 d  U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2  205 V hA (7. some other effects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this effect of the height. But in the same vain. However. .44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. 14 The solution.

48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7. .47) Equation (7.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1   A  − dt 2   dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “flow rate” transforms to 1 U dh  1 A B ¨ gh  dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h  + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2  e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.27) results in   V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ  + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of first term on l.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.206 The last term is CHAPTER 7.h. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.s.47) can be rearranged and simplified and combined with mass conservation 15 . ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 1 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.

as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16        −      - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process.58) discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. .52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 207 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7. equation (7.7.55) or              - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7. Thus define function of the height as  dh      (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2  f (h) = −  (7.52) Defining a new tank emptying parameter. Te .57)    h (T e − 2) f (G)   - The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 16 A (7. Dividing equation (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.

However.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of first order Ordinary Differential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. The initial velocity field was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term).54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.63) is still non linear equation. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid.61) (7.208 The initial boundary velocity is CHAPTER 7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simplification in which g Ae 2 d2 h << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7. Thus for a very short time. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. It is 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. The first condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION dh =0 dt (7. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.59) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. .63) While equation (7. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface.

69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh √ (7. Yet. 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15.7.68) 1− If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then U∼ = 2gh (7. The experimental coefficient can be added to account for the dissipation and other effects such dh ∼ =C dt The loss coefficient can be expressed as C = Kf U2 2 (7. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.70) A few loss coefficients for different configuration is given following Figure 7.69) Equation (7.1. Equation (7. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). . 1608 October 25. Today the exact reference to his work is lost and only “sketches” of his lecture elude work.4. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.71) 2gh (7. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 209 correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae 2gh A Ae 1− A = 2 Ae 2gh Ae 2 A (7.

5. Typical resistance for selected outlet configuration. In the case of the tank. ENERGY CONSERVATION (a) Projecting pipe K=1. two such corrections were presented. -7. -7. the integral methods is Fig. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total field is different from the averaged of different zooms. (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suffers from no ability to exact flow field and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example.5. the knowledge of whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from different techniques. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity field. (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. The first type is the prediction of the velocities profile (or the concentration profile).2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or effects the energy equation. H For example.210 CHAPTER 7.4. Furthermore. In fact. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 .04. 7. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. Flow in an oscillating manometer. In the calculations of the exit velocity of a tank. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ficient tool to analyze the issue at hand. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. Fig. . There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. Additionally. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods.

72) If the flow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 211 too crude to handle issues of free interface. The following sections provides further explanation.73) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished.72) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. under this simplification transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 h+ + g z Urn ρAin 2 (7. It turn out that these simplifications can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work.3. the pressure is different.3.74) . 7. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simplifications that were carried. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. For a stationary fix control volume the energy equation. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind.73) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7.7. 7.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. the problems can be solved. Hence different techniques are required. equation (7. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution.

This imaginary fluid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.79) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.3.212 CHAPTER 7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.78) P ρ − v dP (7.82) .77) (7. Equation (2.76) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.75) in 7. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7.81) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.80) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the flow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.80) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.77) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv Using the multiplication rule change equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Dividing equation the mass flow rate provides Steady State Equation. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.

75) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential.4.86) For no shaft work equation (7. = − ref F ·d (7.87) 7. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration.85) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.4.E.84) in Subtracting equation (7. linear and rotational.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is defined as P. However.81) can be simplified for uniform flow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out 213 dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.88) . In many cases. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM As before equation (7.85) Equation (7.84) from equation (7.83) in (7. The only acceptation to the above statement.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. the mathematical treatment is somewhat different which is the reason for the separation. There is no conceptional difference between these two accelerations. 7. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.86) reduced to 0= P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.

89) Where G is the gravity coefficient and M is the mass of the Earth. The same can be done for the other two coordinates. 7. The Force due to the acceleration of the field can be broken into three coordinates. The gravity force for fluid element in small distance then is g dz dm. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. The “potential” of moving the mass in the field provides the energy.4.214 CHAPTER 7. For example. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. The gravity potential is then r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7.93) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0.91) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. y = 0. and z = 0.94) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7.92) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7. The potential of unit material is P Eatotal = sys (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented.95) . Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. for the gravity force is F =− GM m r2 (7. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.90) The reference was set to infinity. Thus. r and m are the distance and mass respectively.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.

100) (7. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. θ. There are two kinds of acceleration due to this rotation. and k are units vector in the coordinates r.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around fix axises creates a similar conservative potential as a linear system.4.96) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. one is the centrifugal and one the Coriolis force. The forces acting on particles are   centrifugal Coriolis   F =  ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω  dm ˆ (7. To understand it better.97) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.99) ˆ where r.101) The first term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 307 for vector explanation). The cross product is zero of U ×ω ×U = U ×ω ×ω = 0 .7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys 215 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.4.98) The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. θ and z respectively. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.

4. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. In that case the time derivative term vanishes and equation (7. However.102) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U .104) is to assume uniform flow.104) P Ubn dA 7. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7.105) .4 7.103) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv U2 ω2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. Hence.104) can be written as Energy Equation in steady state ˙ ˙ Q−W = cv h+ U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv Urn ρ dA P Ubn dA (7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. ENERGY CONSERVATION because the first multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.216 CHAPTER 7. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential. the flux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity.1 Simplified Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. From a physical point of view. The net change of the potential energy due to the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.4.4.

However.15) when the energy and the internal energy as a separate identity as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt A V U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + P Ubn dA+ A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 energy loss (7.107) sometimes written as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + (7.4.105) by assuming uniform flow for which ˙ ˙ Q−W = U ω 2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv 2 217 U rn ρ dA P U bn dA (7.106) Note that the acceleration also have to be averaged.109) Equation (7.7. has to be constant for frictionless flow without any addition and loss of energy. The correction factors have to introduced into the equation to account for the energy averaged verse to averaged velocity (mass averaged). as will be shown.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow In the previous sections discussion. 7. This term represents .108) P Ubn dA + energy loss A V A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 Equation can be further simplified under assumption of uniform flow and steady state as wshaf t = ˙ P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 2 + energy loss in (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Further simplification of equation (7. Hence writing equation (7. these losses are very important for many real world application. And these losses have practical importance and have to be considered in engineering system.107) d dt Eu ρ dV + V A ˙ ˙ Eu Urn ρ dA − Q − Wshear Equation (7. These factor make this equation with larger error and thus less effective tool in the engineering calculation.4.109) suggests that term h + U + g z has a special meaning (because it 2 remained constant under certain conditions). it was assumed that there are no energy loss. This term.

I. Furthermore. The dissipation is lost energy that is transferred to the surroundings. The loss is normally is a strong function of the velocity square. Solution The mass balance on the liquid in the pipe results in =0 =0 L Fig.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation Example 7. the time derivative can .” The loss is the combination of the internal energy/enthalpy with heat transfer. 7. and duct losses.110) is only a simple form of Bernoulli’s equation which was developed by Bernoulli’s adviser. Thus. The boundaries do not move and the second term is zero. the flow in and out are equal because the density is identical. Furthermore assume that this loss is a function of the velocity square. Euler. Initially the flow is in a rest. 0= V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA =⇒ ρ  Uin = ρ  Uexit ¡A ¡A (7. Flow in a long pipe when exposed to pressure difference. It can be noticed that for the energy balance on the pipe.218 CHAPTER 7. U 2 /2.110) in Equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION the “potential energy.1: Consider a flow in a long straight pipe.6. and the resistance or energy loss is f . These losses will be tabulated later on. Assume that flow is incompressible. Simple Bernoulli 0= P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 (7.109) reduces to simple Bernoulli’s equation. There are several categories of the loss which referred as minor loss (which are not minor). There also unsteady state and other form of this equation that will be discussed in differential equations Chapter. For example.a) There is no change in the liquid mass inside pipe and therefore the time derivative is zero (the same mass resides in the pipe at all time). -7. State your assumptions. the velocity is identical because the cross area is same. t0 the a constant pressure difference is applied on the pipe. fluid flow in a pipe has resistance and energy dissipation. Develop equation to describe the exit velocity as a function of time. At time. If the energy loss is negligible and the shaft work vanished or does not exist equation (7.

=0 =0 219 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + ˙ Wshaf t = 2 V S d dt Eu + U2 +gz 2 S ρ dV + P Ubn dA U h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 (7.d) can be further simplified (since the area and averaged velocity are constant.e) The third term vanishes because the boundaries velocities are zero and therefore P Ubn dA = 0 A (7. vanish again because the value of z is constant.b) The boundaries shear work vanishes because the same arguments present before (the work. r is the pipe radius. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION enter the integral because the control volume has fixed boundaries.c) where L is the pipe length.I. such as in and out. the velocity is identical (in and out).f) Combining all the terms results in dU d ˙ Q = ρU Vpipe +ρ dt dt 2 L π r2 Eu dV + ∆P U dA + Vpipe A ρ Eu U dA (7.I.I. In the locations where the velocity does not vanished.g) can be rearranged as −K U 2 ˙ Q−ρ Vpipe d (Eu ) dV − dt ρ Eu U dA = ρ L π r2 U A (7. Also.5.I.I. as can be noticed from equation (7. where velocity is zero. In this analysis.7.I.I.I. related to the pipe.I. The first term on the right hand side (with a constant density) is ρ Vpipe d dt U2 Eu + + 2 constant gz dU dV = ρ U Vpipe +ρ dt L π r2 Vpipe d (Eu ) dV dt (7. U averaged velocity.a). the work is zero because shear stress are perpendicular to the velocity). it is assumed that the pipe is perpendicular to the gravity line and thus the gravity is constant. Hence.g) equation (7. is zero.I. There is no shaft work and this term vanishes as well. additionally notice that U = Urn ) as Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA = ∆P U A + A ρ Eu Urn dA (7. The gravity in the first term and all other terms.h) dU + (Pin − Pout ) U dt .d) Equation (7. Hence the second term becomes  ¨ constant B U ¨¨ h +  ¨+ g z ρ Urn dA = ¨ 2 A 2   h Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA (7.

End Solution The following example combined the above discussion in the text with the above example (7.I. The solution of the linear equation and the steady state solution of the differential equation are the same. Thus. it should be noted that if momentum balance was used a similar solution (but not the same) was obtained (why? hint the difference of the losses accounted for).I. ENERGY CONSERVATION The terms on the LHS (left hand side) can be combined.j) reduced to a simple linear equation. . is not constant but rather a strong function of velocity (and other parameters such as temperature20 .j) is a first order differential equation. K.I. This function will be discussed in a greater extent later on.I.h) can be written as −K U2 dU = ρ L π r2 U + (Pin − Pout ) U 2 dt (7.220 CHAPTER 7.i) Dividing equation (7. U= 2 (Pin − Pout ) K (7.I.l) The solution is an exponentially approaching the steady state solution. velocity range. The solution this equation is described in the appendix and which is U= e 1  tK A −@ 2 π r2 ρ L  2 (P − P )  in out  K 0 0 e tK @ A 2 π r2 ρ L 1    + c 0 e @ 2 π r2 ρ t L A K (7. 20 Via the viscosity effects.I.i) to U+ 2 ρ L π r2 d U 2 (Pin − Pout ) = K dt K (7.j) Equation (7.I.I. It common to assume (to view) that these terms are representing the energy loss and are a strong function of velocity square19 . In steady state the flow equation (7. Additionally. in reality the resistance.1). equation (7.I.k) 1 Applying the initial condition.m) Another note. velocity regime and etc.).I.i) by K U/2 transforms equation (7. U (t = 0) = 0 results in  0 U= 2 (Pin − Pout )  1 −  K e −@ 1 tK A 2 π r2 ρ L    (7. This shear work can be viewed also as one control volume work on the adjoined control volume. 19 The shear work inside the liquid refers to molecular work (one molecule work on the other molecule).

The mass conservation reads =0 V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA = 0 (7.1. Tank Control Volume The effect of the energy change in air side was neglected. D.b) 2 ρ U1 Apipe = ρ U3 π R2 = ρ ¡ dt π R ¡ ¡ It can be noticed that U3 = dh/dt and D = 2 R and d = 2 r when the lower case refers to the pipe and the upper case referred to the tank.a) The first term vanishes and the second and third terms remain and thus equation (7. d Assume that the liquid is incompressible.7.8. Note. State all the assumptions that were made during the derivations. in the pipe is a strong function to the velocity square in the tank. contains liquid to height. Figure 7. The control volume in tank is depicted in Fig.).2. -7.II. h. Equation (7.7.II. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION 221 Example 7.b) simply can Atank Atank . consider that the tank has a constant presD sure above liquid (actually a better assumpVair tion of air with a constant mass. A long pipe is connected to a tank from which the liquid is emptied. Liquid exiting a large tank Assume that the resistance or the friction trough a long tube. one of the liquid in the tank and one of the liquid in pipe.a) reduces to dh (7.2: A large cylindrical tank with a diameter. To analysis this situation.II. The pipe is exposed to the surroundings and 3 thus the pressure is Patmos at the pipe exit.7. Patmos Derive approximated equations that related L the height in the large tank and the exit 1 2 velocity at the pipe to pressure difference.5. Solution D This problem can split into two control vol3 umes. the energy loss is considered (as opposed to the discussion in the text). -7. Tank control volume for Example 7. Analysis of control volume in the tank was provided previously 1 h and thus needed to be sewed to Example d U1 7. Fig.II. The effect is negligible in most cases because air mass is small with exception the “spring” effect (expansion/compression effects).

111) P Ubn dA = A3 d dt Eu ρ dV + Vt A1 ˙ Eu ρ Urn dA − Q Similar arguments to those that were used in the previous discussion are applicable to this case. Therefore. The pressure component of the second term is P Urn ρ dA = ρ P1 U1 A1 (7. the first term changes to  d dt ρ V U +gz 2 2 dV ∼ ρ d  Ut + g h = dt 2 2 2 V  (7.II.g) .f) ¡ A ρ ¡ It is assumed that the exit velocity can be averaged (neglecting the velocity distribution effects).c) The boundaries shear work and the shaft work are assumed to be vanished in the tank. The second term can be recognized as similar to those by equation (7. U = dh/dt × f (G).d) Where Ut denotes the (the upper surface) liquid velocity of the tank. the energy conservation in the tank reduces to =0 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + d Ut 2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt Vt 2 Ut 2 h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 A1 A3 =0 (7.II. That is. the second term is U2 + gz 2 z=0 A 1 Urn ρ dA ∼ = 2 dh A3 dt A1 2 U1 ρ A1 = 1 2 dh R dt r 2 U1 ρ A1 (7. Hence.II. Using equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION be written when the area ratio is used (to be changed later if needed) as U1 Apipe = dh Atank =⇒ U1 = dt R r 2 dh dt (7.II.II.45). the velocity is a derivative of the height with a correction factor.38).II. f (G) ≡ 1 will be assumed.222 CHAPTER 7. Since the focus in this book is primarily on the physics.44).d) to become d dt Ut 2 +gz 2 U3 ρ dV + A1 Vt P Ut 2 + +gz ρ 2 K Ut 2 2 U1 Urn ρ dA+ (7. Moving all internal energy terms and the energy transfer to the right hand side of equation (7.e) hA Where the velocity is given by equation (7.

j) 4 ρ L π r 2 d Up 2 (P1 − P2 ) (7. Using equation (7.II.II.II.c) in equation (7.i) Pipe Control Volume The analysis of the liquid in the pipe is similar to Example 7. The relationship between the height was obtained by substituting equation (7.II. The conservation of the liquid in the pipe is the same as in Example 7.II.i) as d dt Ut gh + 2 2 2 V  1 2 2 hA − Kp + 2ρ r R dh dt 2 A3 A1 2 U1 A1 + Kt 2ρ dh dt 2 (7.l) dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + dt K dt2 = (7.a) is used U1 = U2 Up + (7.II.c) eliminates the Up as dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + = dt K dt2 Equation (7.1.II.II.II.n) dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + dt K dt2 (P3 − P2 ) = ρ . It can be noticed that two initial conditions are required to solve the problem.7.i) have two unknowns (dh/dt and P1 ) which are sufficient to solve the problem.1 and thus equation (7.II.m) and (7.II.II. The equations (7. Thus. In fact.5. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION The last term on the left hand side is P Ubn dA = P3 A A 223 dh dt (7.II. The governing equation obtained by from adding equation (7.m) and (7.m) Solution The equations (7.k) = Kp dt Kp where Kp is the resistance in the pipe and Up is the (averaged) velocity in the pipe.h) The combination of all the terms for the tank results in   V 2 2 2 d  Ut gh 1 dh Kt A3 + hA − U1 A1 + dt 2 2 2 dt A1 2ρ dh dt 2 = (P3 − P1 ) ρ (7.II.m).i) provide the frame in which the liquid velocity in tank and pipe have to be solved.l) can be rearranged as Kp 2ρ r R 2 R r 2 2 (P1 − P2 ) Kp (P1 − P2 ) ρ (7.II.II. it can be noticed that the liquid velocity in the tank is related to the height and the liquid velocity in the pipe.II. there is only one equation with one unknown.m) and (7.I.

Assume that the liquid is slightly compressible. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial conditions are that zero initial velocity in the tank and pipe. What is the direction of the heat from the pipe or in to the pipe. Additionally. The dimensional analysis method can be used to obtain solution various situations which will be presented later on. ˆ A different liquid flows in the same pipe. That is the liquid has a constant bulk modulus. A certain point the tank is punctured and the liquid flows out. Would happen when the liquid velocity is very large? What it will be still correct. If the liquid is compressible what is the direction of the heat to keep the flow isothermal? ˆ A tank is full of incompressible liquid. the height of liquid is at prescript point as h(0) = h0 dh (0) = 0 dt (7. To keep the tank at uniform temperature what is the direction of the heat (from the tank or to the tank)? .II. BT . Explain why the direction based on physical reasoning. What kind of internal work the liquid performed. End Solution Qualitative Questions ˆ A liquid flows in and out from a long pipe with uniform cross section as single phase.224 CHAPTER 7.o) The solution of equation can be obtained using several different numerical techniques.

Part II Differential Analysis 225 .

.

The differential analysis allows the investigation of the flow field in greater detail. The equations without the viscosity effects are referred to as the ideal flow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. 227 . This analysis leads to partial differential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. the solution is not unique. As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. In differential analysis. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between fluid layers. which leads to a different approach of differential analysis. The concepts of Add 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. as he done to many other equations or conditions.g.CHAPTER 8 Differential Analysis 8. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. the emphasis is on infinitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity effects. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e.

1. leads to approximations and consequently to the ideal flow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier– Stokes equations. Historically. The mass conservation for this infinitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 V x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D (8. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the fluid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked flow).1.1) Fig. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Mass and Add Force. However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. At a specific time this control volume can be viewed as a system. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. The connection between these two ideas or fields was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed as well. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = V d dt ρdV + V A Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. Even for simple situations.2) on the right hand side and hence dρ dt dV V dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 A (8. The mass balance on the infinitesimal control volume. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked flow). the complexity of the equations. The choked flow is associated with a single phase flow (even the double choked flow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase flow. Sometimes.2 Mass Conservation Fluid flows into and from a three dimensional infinitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. on one hand.228 CHAPTER 8. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored.3) . -8. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters.2) For a constant control volume. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability.1. 8.

The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simplified by using the definition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − A ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. the operation.5) The difference between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. as depicted in Figure 8. . produces additional dx thus a infinitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.2.3) for the infinitesimal volume is expressed. MASS CONSERVATION 229 The first term in equation (8. for example. neglecting higher order derivatives.2. as ∼0 V dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d2 ρ dt2 + ··· (8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. It also can be noticed that.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8. The net mass change. in the control volume is ∂ρ dm = ˙ dr dz r dθ ∂t 2 Note dv (8.8) Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx .7) Combining the first term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. in the x coordinate.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = A dAxz dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz (8.8.

e. The change is flux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. r . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r)  dz dθ dr ∂z   ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ )  dθ dr dz + ∂θ  dz  ρ Uz  r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+  dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig.11)–(8. This change creates a different differential equation with additional complications.2. Hence. the r is “trapped” in the derivative.230  ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.14) 3 The mass flow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. -8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. The mass flow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · . The net mass flow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.10) The net flux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net flux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. the net flux in the z coordinate be written as net flux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net flux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. the change of r with r.12) Combining equations (8.g. results in total net flux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8. In a similar fashion.13) and dividing by infinitesimal control volume. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure. dr r dθ dz.

There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit.2 page 310).16) can be expressed in different coordinates.8). 4 notice the irony the second i is the dirction and first i is for any one of direction x(i). End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped (8. j. Compare to equation (8. The index notation really does not add much to the scientific understanding.14) with the change in the control volume (8.8).1. several examples are constructed here.18) Where i is is of the i. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. For academic purposes.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. .2.16) The continuity equations (8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. y(j).17) The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. However. MASS CONSERVATION 231 Combining equation (8.15) and (8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ ∂ρ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.9) divided by infinitesimal control volume. Hence. and z(k). (8. and k 4 .8.

t0 . ρ.1 function of the y coordinate. it is treated as a constant.a) T1 ρ1 H0(t) T0 ρ0 y T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig. For this question.I.3).I. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.2. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the final temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8. The density is a function of the temperature according to T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.I.I.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.I.I.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model). the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 (see Figure 8. At time. -8. Substituting the density. Assume that the velocity is only a difference for example 8.I. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 . Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.3. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.I.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.232 CHAPTER 8.3. Assume that the actual temperature is exponentially approaches to a linear temperature profile as depicted in Figure 8. Mass flow due to temperature tom.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.e) =0 e −β t + ∂y . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS 8.

i) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y. (8.I.h) or the velocity is Uy = β 2 H0 − y 2 (H0 − y) e−β t (1 − y) (1 − e−β t ) (8.20) 5 Since the time can be treated as a constant for y integration.2.2 Simplified Continuity Equation A simplified equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as (in vector form) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.I.f) holds for any time and thus. . it can be treated for the solution of equation (8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8. Hence. Equation (8.f) Uy is a function of the time but not y.f) as a constant5 . Example 8.2: In many coating processes a thin film is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.4.8.19) If the fluid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.2.e) is first order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.I.I.I.I. MASS CONSERVATION 233 Equation (8.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8. End Solution 8.I.

For this example.234 CHAPTER 8.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions. Solution This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. Higbie’s idea which was rejected by the scientific establishment. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.b).2. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction7 . the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the film. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as ρ − ρ∞ T − T∞ =α (8. Assume that the film temFig.II. however it can be considered as steady state.II. See the resembles to equation (8.II.II. α ∂F (x) ∂ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At first.16 . Mass flow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8.b) can be written as Ux ∂ρ ∂ (ρ Uy ) =− ∂x ∂y (8. This assumption is consistent with the first solution (no stability issues).II.II.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. However. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. On personal note. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him.4. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8. from the extraction point.e) 6 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending in a suicide.d) into the governing equation results in ∂Uy ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x (8. Hence equation (8. -8.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. Calculate the film velocity field if the density is a function of the temperature. . 7 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.II.I.1 for the general function T = F (x).

II. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component.c) (8. Solution The flow field must comply with the mass conservation (8.III.III.a) Equation (8.b) (8.c) is an ODE with constant coefficients.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.3: The velocity in a two dimensional field is assumed to be in a steady state. Thus.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. The velocity. For the second part equation (8. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.III. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.II.2. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. Notice the symmetry of the situation.g) Example 8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8. MASS CONSERVATION The density is expressed by equation (8.8.III.f) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. Calculate the velocity field in this case. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x 235 (8. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.e) .III.II. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.III.

IV. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.g) ∂y a Equation (8.III.g) is first order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).III.c) .b) Or gradient or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.h) ∂y The solution for (8.IV.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).i) End Solution Example 8.III. The derivative of each componnet are ∂Ux = t2 z ∂x ∂Uy =t ∂y ∂Uz =t ∂z (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Taking the derivative of the first term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.III.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.236 CHAPTER 8.III.III. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.4: Can the following velocities co-exist.III. Thus.IV. This continuity equation is checked if the flow incompressible (constant density). this flow field is not steady state it contains time componnet.III.a) Is the flow is incompressible? Is the flow in a steady state condition? Solution Whether the solution is in a steady state or not can be observed from whether the velocity contains time component.j) (8.

5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional flow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.8.a) and noticing that the density.d) A possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.b) into equation (8.a) is first order partial differential equation which can be converted to an ordinary differential equations when the velocity component.c) can be separated to yield f (t) f (y) (8.V. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. This flow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded (infinite source).V. Ux .V.V.e) . must be compressible flow.V. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions.c) 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.b) Substituting equation (8. is substituted.V. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 . this kind of presentation is possible. if it exist. Hence.V.V. ρ.2. Using. these physical components are ignored for academic reasons. End Solution Example 8.V. In this problem. Equation (8. is a function of x results of ∂ρ 5 α y ∂ρ = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. MASS CONSERVATION 237 The divergence isn’t zero thus this flow.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8.a) Mathematically speaking.V.f) (8.

V.V.g) becomes ∂ρ c1 (8. z.f) transfered to ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.j) The solution is the multiplication of equation (8. The solution of (8. real value.k) Where the constant. A change with time is D DΦ = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. scalar.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8.V. c3 . y.g. must be zero and thus the constant.j) by (8.V.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system which has a volume V and a surface area of A which is a function of time.h) ρx + = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e Equation (8. c2 .3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.V.V.238 CHAPTER 8.22) . are presented. t).h) is given by   impossible solution √ 2 x i  π i c3 erf √x  (8. and independent of y thus equation (8. is an arbitrary function of the y coordinate. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.V.h) is a constant coefficients first order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix.V. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.V. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8. End Solution 8. vector or tensor.i) ρ = e− 2   2 √ c− 2 which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.V.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.

1 Examples of Several Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative DΦ Dt Using φ = 1 is the same as dealing with the mass conservation. Basically the divergence theorem relates the flow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume.24) Substituting equation (8. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integrals on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. In that case which is equal to zero as     φ       d  1 ρ  dV    φ     dx dy dz = 0   ρ 1 U   + ·   dt   - = Dρ Dt (8. For an infinitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. .27) 8.2 8.26) The definition of equation (8.3. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent of the time.2.8.3.21) LHS can be changed to simply the derivative of Φ.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix8 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.3.24) into equation (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY Using RTT to change the system to a control volume (see equation (5.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.28) 8 These integrals are related to RTT.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys 239 d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8.

33) (8. and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz d Ux ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. t) j + Uz (x. z. z. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The integral is over an arbitrary volume which means that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.36) .30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to find the fluid particles acceleration. x. y.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the flow field.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8.32) The velocity components are a function of four variables. and t). The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the fluid. t) k The acceleration will be U d Uy d Uz dU d Ux i+ j+ = k dt dt dt dt (8. Therefore. y. y. t) i + Uy (x. z. A fluid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.29) Equation (8.34) (8. z. y.240 CHAPTER 8.31) Equation (8. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. y.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates which can be combined (in a vector form) as ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t )U (8. (x. it can be written that U (x. t) = Ux (x.

Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can .38) It was shown that in a static case (or in better words. A ) (8.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which vanishes when the flow is in a steady state. 8.39) It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. The flow in a nozzle is an example to flow at steady state but yet has acceleration which flow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic flow.8.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. similarly for τxz .4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). While the flow is in a steady state there is only convecive acceleration of the flow. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION or in a more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration 241 ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. However. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction.4. The stress is a relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions.

44) ·j ℵ · j  δAn  Fx n·k ·k ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and keeping the first derivative. -8.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS  τxz τyz  τzz τxx τ =  τyx τzx Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. Here only one will be discussed the same conclustions can be drown on the other direction.41) Z Y τn ℵ τnn τnℓ τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y X τyz where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. δAx is the surFig. . The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x direction are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron face area of the tetrahedron in the x dishape.242 be written in a matrix form  CHAPTER 8. The areas are related to each other through angles. and z directions. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes. The transformation matrix is then     n·i ·i ℵ·i Fx   Fy  =  n · j (8. rection and δAz is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the z direction.5. and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface the same can be written in the x. If the first derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8. A finite angular 9 For infinitesimal change the lines can be approximated as straight.43) Where here ℵ.5. The cubical rotation can involve two parts: one distortion and one rotation9 . These relationships provide the transformation for the different orientations which depends only angles of the orientations.42) τxy τyy τzy (8.

The moment that creats by this acτyx τ tion can be neglected (the changes are inyy significant). Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. such as the magnetic fields.8. It can be ignored. The body force can exert tensor.5 for moment of inertia. However.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and “mostly used” between y < η < y + dy. for the derivations in Example 3. However. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of infinitesimal length.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. Diagram to analysis the shear stress specific location. it is assumed that the external body force exerts a torque GT per unit volume at the Fig. The clarity of this analysis can τyx be improved if additional terms are taken. even though variyied. 11 This 10 See . y Advance material can be skipped The shear stress in the surface direction potentially can result in the torque due to the change in the shear stress11 . the rotation of the infinitesimal fluid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body rotation. Hence. for cases that body force. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8. The normal body force (gravdy τ τxx xy ity) acts through the cubic center of gravity. -8. The shear stress at point x is τxy . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 243 distortion of infinitesimal cube requires requires an infinite shear which required fore the infinite moment. does not. yet it turn out that the results will be τxy τxx the same.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. For example.6. The momentum can be assested by the shear stresses which act on it. can credx x ate torque.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 10 is the moment of inertia around that center. point bother this author in the completeness of the proof. torque is due to the fact that the body force is not uniform and hence not act through the mass center. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure.4. For simplicity and generality.

51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components which contribute to the moment are ∼ =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.50) x The integral of (8.49) y η dy dx dη η− dy 2 Substituting (8. y. The reason that this term is neglected because on the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction (see Figure 8. z 12 .53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.54) where i is one of x. y. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τyy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.244 The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy CHAPTER 8. z and the j is any of the other x.6). For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor becomes symmetrical.49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y τyy (8. The shear stress creating torque. However.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8.7.50) isn’t zero (non symFig.” . -8.48) into (8. metrical function around the center of integration). It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress 12 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added.

can be neglected13 . One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. -8.8). However. for almost all practical purposes. and internal forces. Previously it was shown that equation (6.56) The dot product yields a force in the directing of x.55) 8.57) the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this effect hopefully will be presented.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for fluids.8. The shear stress at different surfaces.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + τxz + τxy + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.11) is also applicable for the small infinitesimal cubic. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is significant and has to be included in the calculations. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz 13 In (8. The body force that acting on infinitesimal cubic in x direction is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. gravitation forces (body forces). Equation (6.8. . For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. If the body forces effect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system orientation τij = τji (i = j) (8. Later it will be used and generalized. this change.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 245 tensor.

59) where i in this case is x.58) The same can be written for the z direction.65) .63) Advance material can be skipped Generally the component momentum equation is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the different coordinates. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8. Hence.61) equivalant equation (8. Equation (8.57) and (8. the total net surface force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τyx ∂τzx ∂τxx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component ρ DUz = Dt ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG z (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8.64) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.246 CHAPTER 8.58) transformed into internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ&   & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz &   & + fG x ρ &   & (8. or z. y.64) Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.

DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where here τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. y. In solid material. the control volume is at a square shape and at a location as depicted in Figure 8.66) End Advance material Equations (8. when applying the shear stress in fluids. At time t+dt the control volume undergoes three different changes. In contrast.62) or (8.9. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. the simplest model is asdt y ∂x @t C A sumed which referred as the solid continA Uxdt uum model. The control volume moves to a new location. Furthermore. -8.three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. Additionally.9 (by the blue color). The rotation is the second movement that referred to a change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ . there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero).63) requires that stress tensor be defined in = + + term of the velocity/deformaiton. terial to its original state as in solids.5. Thus this “solid” model is a linear relationship with three main assumptions: y’ a. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure 8. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic fluid). Notice the of the shear stress does not return the ma. or z. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi 247 (8. The re  lationship between the stress tensor and ∂Uy  U + dt y y ∂y deformation depends on the classes of maD terials the stresses acts on.8.9). At time t.61) or (8. Control volume at t and t + dt unuous deformation. the result is a contin. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed x 45◦ to be linearly related. b. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in fluids yields larger deformations. the shear stress yields a fix amount of deformation. and c.Fig. reduction der continuous angle deformation. B @ t + dt the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity field. As engineers   ∂Uy  Uy dt U + do in general.

67) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coefficient which the linear coefficient of proportionality and shear stress and it is assumed to be a property of the fluid. Advance material can be skipped In general equation (8. The third change is the misconfiguration or control volume (deformation).69) can be written as τij = µ 14 While 15 The Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ 45◦ (8. However. -8.9). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS volume. The only missing thing.68) In these derivatives. Note that the viscosity coefficient (the linear coefficient15 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. It can be noticed at this stage. at this stage. For the assumption of a linear fluid14 . The deformation of the control volume has several components (see the top of Figure 8. τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume.69) where. the relationship between the two of stress tensor was established.71) Fig. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. is the diagonal component which dealt below.248 CHAPTER 8. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity.70) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x and for the directions of y z as τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz y’ (8. . The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. first assumption was mentioned above.72) not marked as important equation this equation is the source of the derivation. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz Dγxz =µ =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8.10.

The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8. Figure 8. Normal Stress 249 The normal stress.11(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and . y. the shear stresses are acting in this direction. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. It can be noticed √ that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.75) (8.x. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change. For example.73) dividing by dx and after some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’y’ 2 Subtracting (8.5. To find the main (or the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . y’) frame.74) Equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where i = j and i = x or y or z.76) relates the difference between the normal shear stress and the normal shear stresses in x’. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.75) from (8.77) (8.76) (8. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ on the ellement are combination of several terms. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. This relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8.8. In addition.74) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8.76) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. τii (where i is either . The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which is rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system.9) in the control volume move to the new locations. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’. The dx is constructed so it equals to dy. The angular strain rate in the (x.10. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. y coordinates).

11(b)). the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8.81) .11(b). The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle.80) Here. Thus. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx.11. The rate of strain in the x direction is c d x= (8. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. Different triangles deformation for the calculations of the normal stress. t+dt. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. Fig. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as first approximation to change. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction.250 b CHAPTER 8. c.78) dx The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. b. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are infinitesimally small. The small deformations a . Hence. -8.79) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.

88) (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.69) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ. (8.81) can be interpreted as (using equations (8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.83) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8.8.85) From (8.84) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 251 Equation (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location differential transform equation (8.80)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.12 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.89) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx  dt ∂x ’ x’  Equation (8.89) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.88) and (8.76) τxy be substituted and equation (8.78).83) Combining equation (8.90) .82) In the same fashion the strain. and (8. (8.88) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.79).12.82) with equation (8.86) can be continued and replaced as D y’ 1 D x’ − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8. D y’ ∂Uy’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.87) y’     Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy  dt  ∂y ’  Uy’dt    The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.5. (8.86) From equation (8.84) Equation (8. -8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt. The linear deformation is the difference between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.84) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.

Pm . This pressure is a true scalar value of the flow field since the propriety is averaged or almost16 invariant to the coordinate transformation. K. p. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plans. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous flows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress. With this definition and noticing that the coordinate system x’– y’ has no special significance and hence equation (8.92) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.90) and (8.93) Dividing the restuls by 3 so that one can obtained the following “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’y’ + τz’ z’ 2 ∂Ux’ − µ +2 µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Uy’ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.94) The “mechanical” pressure.94) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. It can be shown that this two definitions are “identical” in the limits17 . Cambridge University Press.96) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.141.252 CHAPTER 8.91) results in 2 4 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uz’ ∂Uy’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. The mechanical pressure can be defined as averaging of the normal stress acting on a infinitesimal sphere.91) Adding equations (8. . 1967.92) rearranging equation (8.94) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. identical only in the limits to the mechanical measurements.95) Again where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is defined as Mechanical Pressure τxx + τyy + τzz Pm = − 3 (8. is defined as the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’–y’–z’. For example in y’–z’ plan one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ’ ∂x ∂z’ (8. Batchelor. Commonality engineers like to combined the two difference 16 It 17 G.72).

8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION expressions into one as τxy or τxx 2 = − Pm + µ 3
=1

253

2 = − Pm + µ 3

=0

·U

δxy +µ

∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂y ∂x

(8.97)

·U

δxy +µ

∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂x ∂y

(8.98)

Advance material can be skipped

or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.99)

End Advance material

where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing, it does not add any additional information. This expression suggests a new definition of the thermodynamical pressure is Thermodynamic Pressure 2 P = Pm + µ · U (8.100) 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation18 . To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. First, connection between τxy and the deformation was built. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. Using the coordinates transformation, this association was established. The linkage between the stress in the rotated coordinates to the deformation was established. Second Viscosity Coefficient The coefficient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. However, if the derivations before were to include additional terms, an additional correction will be needed. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8.101)

18 Since the publishing the version 0.2.9.0 several people ask this author to summarize conceptually the issues. With God help, it will be provide before version 0.3.1

254

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

The value of λ is obtained experimentally. This coefficient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coefficient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. The dimension of the bulk viscosity, λ, is similar to the viscosity µ. λ bulk viscosity According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. The expansion rate of change and the fluid molecular structure through λ control the difference. Equation (8.101) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P , as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 · U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.102)

The significance of the difference between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with fluid dilation which connected by · U . The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. In material such as water, λ is large (3 times µ) but the net effect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. For complex liquids this coefficient, λ, can be over 100 times larger than µ. Clearly for incompressible flow, this coefficient or the whole effect is vanished19 . In most cases, the total effect of the dilation on the flow is very small. Only in micro fluids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this effect has some significance. In fact this effect is so insignificant that there is difficulty in to construct experiments so this effect can be measured. Thus, neglecting this effect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.103)

To explain equation (8.103), it can be written for spesific coordinates. For example, for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress, τxy , is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y
· U = 0.

∂Ux ∂x

(8.104)

∂Uy ∂y

(8.105)

(8.106)

19 The

reason that the effect vanish is because

8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION

255

For the total effect, substitute equation (8.102) into equation (8.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+
2 3µ

−λ ∂x

·U

∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

f +f B x (8.107)

or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ
2

U +fB

(8.108)

Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.109) For incompressible flow the term · U vanishes, thus equation (8.108) is reduced to

Momentum for Incompressible Flow ρ U DU =− P +µ Dt
2

U +fB

(8.110)

or in the index notation it is written ρ D Ui ∂P ∂ 2U =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8.111)

The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + 2 2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 Ux (8.112) + ρgx

Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i · g ). In the y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t Ux ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z

(8.113)

in z coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t Ux ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + 2 2 ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z 2

(8.114) + ρgz

256

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces
8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories
The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity, pressure, or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). For this discussion, the shear tensor will be separated into two categories, pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity. In the literature, this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. The slip condition is dealing with a difference in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the fluid media. The difference between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. In another view, the difference in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. Another condition which affects whether the slip condition ext n ist is how rapidly of the velocity change. The slip condition canflow not be ignored in some regions, when the flow is with a strong direction velocity fluctuations. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is x written as

f (x)

y

U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 b Fig. -8.13. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and t (8.115) b. where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area see Figure 8.13). While this condition (8.115) is given in a vector form, it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point such as U( ) = U (8.116)

Note, the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal fluid (“inviscid flows”) because this kind of flow normally deals with large scales. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8.115) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q, scale, etc) (8.117)

8.6. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES

257

As oppose to a given velocity at particular point, a requirement on the acceleration (velocity) can be given in unknown position. The condition (8.115) can be mathematically represented in another way for free surface conditions. To make sure that all the material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross the free surface), the relative perpendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. The location of the r (free) moving boundary can be given as f (r , t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore Df =0 Dt r on the surface f (r , t) = 0 (8.118)

This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. For example, the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t, x, y). The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.119)

The solution of this condition, sometime, is extremely hard to handle because the location isn’t given but the derivative given on unknown location. In this book, this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct fluids. In reality the interface between these two fluids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory). There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. In other cases, the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). Furthermore, there are situations where the fluid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. In these cases the assumptions are that the transition occurs in a sharp line, and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some cases continuously approach zero value). While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution), the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. A jump in the shear stress creates infinite force on the adjoin thin layer. Off course, this condition cannot be tolerated since infinite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. The jump in the density (between the two fluids) creates a surface tension which offset the jump in the shear stress. This condition is expressed mathematically by equating the shear stress difference to the forces results due to the surface tension. The shear stress difference is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower
surface surface

(8.120)

where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as

258 without explanation as n · τ (n) = σ

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

1 1 + R1 R2 σ

(8.121) (8.122)

t · τ (t) = −t ·

where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8.13) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general, the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). In same instances, this constant is determined from the volume conservation. In index notation equation (8.121) is written20 as τij nj + σ ni
(1)

1 1 + R1 R2

= τij nj

(2)

(8.123)

where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. For example in one dimensional21 n= t= (−f (x), 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1, f (x)) 1 + (f (x))
2

(8.124)

2

the unit vector is given as two vectors in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1.57). The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is the static pressure at a specific location. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the flow direction. The last condition is similar to the pressure condition of prescribed shear stress or a relationship to it. In this category include the boundary conditions with issues of surface tension which were discussed earlier. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind where the condition is given on boundary but no at a specific location. Gravity as Driving Force
20 There is no additional benefit in this writing, it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. 21 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or significant just a random example. Jean, M. Free surface of the steady flow of a Newtonian fluid in a finite channel. Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 74 (1980), no. 3, 197–217.

(8.125)

8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES)

259

The body forces, in general and gravity in a particular, are the condition that given on the flow beside the velocity, shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many fluid mechanics problems. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most cases (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons).

Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the fluid was solid material, pulling the side will pull all the material. In fluid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited effect and yet sometime is significant and more rarely dominate. Consider, for example, the case shown in Figure 8.14. The shear stress carry the material as if part of the material was a solid material. For example, in the kerosene lamp the burning occurs at the surface of the lamp top and the liquid Fig. -8.14. Kerosene lamp. is at the bottom. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension. The physical conditions in Figure 8.14 are used to idealize the flow around an inner rode to understand how to apply the surface tension to the boundary conditions. The fluid surrounds the rode temperature and flows upwards. In that case, the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ stress. The outer diameter is depends on the surT ∂r ∂h face tension (the larger surface tension the smaller the liquid diameter). The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefore the gradient in Fig. -8.15. Schematic of kerosene surface tension is result of temperature gradient. lamp. In this book, this effect is not discussed. However, somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insignificant. Even in that case, the surface tension gradient remains. It can be noticed that, under the assumption presented here, there are two principal radii of the flow. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other radius is infinite (approximatly). In that case, the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the flow (see Figure 8.15). The only (almost) propelling source of the ∂σ flow is the surface gradient ( ∂n ).

}

}

}

8.7 Examples for Differential Equation (Navier-Stokes)
Examples of an one-dimensional flow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated.

260 CHAPTER 8. examples with two phase are presented. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS First. The upper surface is moving in velocity. Further because no change of the momentum thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8. It can concluded that the velocity in and out are the same (for constant density). The control volume shown in darker colors. top plate is moving at speed of U to the right (as positive). the flow in and the flow out are equal.127) Thus.16).6: Incompressible liquid flows between two infinite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. Example 8.126) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 22 . Flow between two plates.129) difference is measured at the bottom point of the plate.128) The reaction of the shear stress on the lower surface of control volume based on Newtonian fluid is τ xy = −µ 22 The dU dy (8. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. -8. U (The rightside is defined as positive). the mass conservation yields =0 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. The momentum conservation leads − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. . example dealing with one phase are present. Later. The distance between the plates is .16. Solution In this example.

between two plates when Ψ change value between -1.75 Ψ = −0. Newtonian fluid.2 0. Equation (8.75 Ψ = −1.7 0.0 y ℓ October 4. . No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.75 green line to 3 the blue line. -8.7.1 0.133) Equation (8.9 1.75 Ψ = 0. The momentum equation in the x ∂y direction (or from equation (8.25 Ψ = 2.25 Ψ = 0.4 0. dition23 . It is common to assume that the Fig.133) is a partial differential equation but can be treated as ordinary differential equation in the z direction of the pressure difference is uniform.130)  dU  d3 U 2 d2 U  τ xy = µ   dy + dy 2 dy + dy 3 dy + · · · The net effect of these two will be difference between them µ d2 U dU dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8. The only difference in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.17.75 Ψ = 2.112)) results (without gravity effects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8. the left hand side is equal to constant.25 1.133) was constructed under several assumptions which include the diVelocity distributions in one dimensional flow rection of the flow.0 0.8.3 0. The boundaries conditions are 1. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or both. One dimensional flow with a shear “no slip” condition on the boundaries con. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U 23 A (8. In that case.6 0. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) On the upper surface is different by Taylor explanation as  ∼0 = 261  (8.0 0.25 Ψ = −0.2 0.2 Ψ = −1.131) The assumptions is that there is no pressure difference in the z direction.8 0.75 Ψ = 1.4 0.134) discussion about the boundary will be presented later.132) A discussion why ∂P ∼ 0 will be presented later.5 0.25 Ψ = 1.6 0.0 0.8 Ux Uℓ 0.

262 CHAPTER 8. Rederivation are carried out for a short cut. However. Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional flow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates. The problem is still one dimensional because the flow velocity is a function of (only) radius.18. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = What happen when ∂P ∂y dP y 1− U0 2µ dx 2 + y (8.138) .133) after the integration becomes Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.135) Applying the boundary conditions.136) For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1 (see Figure 8. This flow referred as Poiseuille flow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated blood flow in veins. Thus. -8.17). Poiseuille studied the flow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers). The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. The momentum equation for the control volume depicted in the Figure 8.18a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of the “ordinary” differential equation (8. equation (8.137) ∼ 0? End Solution r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n Fig.134)/ results in   =Ψ y  2 dP y  y   Ux (y) =  1− +   U0 2µ dx (8.

142) Equation (8.139) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − 24 Asymmetrical 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.7.8.147) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .144) is a first order differential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed. Integrating equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 263 The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction.146) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element24 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.141) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz = Uz because mass conservation conservation for any element.140) into equation (8. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 Substituting equation (8. Hence.139) and (8.138) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.18a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8.145) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8.140) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.143) (8.144) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.144) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.

264 The solution is Uz = CHAPTER 8. Build the velocity profile when the flow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.19. Calculate the flow rate for a given pressure gradient. In this solution will be discussing the flow first mode. Solution After the previous example. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity profile.a) The PDE above (8. It can be noticed that this case is steady state and also the acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero   =f (t) =0  ∂U ∂Uz Uφ  z ρ + Ur + ∂r r  ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 r θ θ r Fig.7. Liquid flow between concentric cylinders for example 8. or z coordinate. it has several deficiencies which include the ability to incorporate different boundary conditions such as flow between concentering cyliders.VII. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates. That is.149) The steady state governing equation then becames ρ 0 =0=− ¡ ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8.b) .148) While the above analysis provides a solution.19. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r 1 ∂P 2 R 1− µ ∂z R 2 (8.VII. ∂Uz ∂Uz   +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z  ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = 0 0 (8. Example 8.VII. In fact there is no physical reason why the flow should be only one dimensional.7: A liquid with a constant density is flowing between concentering cylinders as shown in Figure 8. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. However. -8. For this mode. the flow is assumed to be one dimensional. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the first mode that appear in reality. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional solution.

d) Applying the first boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.g) = The solution is when substituting the constats into equation (8.VII.VII.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.VII.VII.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz (8.j) Or substituting equation (8.f) applying the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri (8.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.7.VII.i) into equation (8.e) (8.VII.e) results in Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 ln + 4µ The flow rate is then Q= ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII.c) Dividing equation (8.8.VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z 265 (8.VII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integrating equation (8.VII.j) transfomed into Q= A 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.k) dA 1 ln + 4µ ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz .VII.VII.c) and integrating results for the second times results ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r Integration of equation (8.VII.VII.VII.

this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding26 . of the second squere bracket. is 1/4 ro 4 − ri 4 .266 CHAPTER 8.VII. The integraion of the rest is Q= 1 ∂P 4 µ ∂z ro ri r2 + ln ro ri ro 2 − ri 2 ln r 2 π r dr (8. This problem study by Nusselt25 which developed the basics equations. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.VII. (−a × r ln r) can be done by parts to be as r2 r2 log (r) a − 4 2 Applying all these “techniques” to equation (8. 1882 September 1. The second part.m) ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 The averaged velocity is obtained by dividing flow rate by the area Q/A.VII. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.l) results in Q= ln ro ri ro − ri 2 2 π ∂P 2 µ ∂z ro 4 ri 4 − 4 4 + (8. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes. (r3 ). Furthermore. .l) The first integration of the first part of the second squere bracket. Uave = Q π (ro 2 − ri 2 ) (8. Example 8. 1957 in Munchen 26 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.n) ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 End Solution The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional flow.150) in which the identy of (a4 − b4 )/(a2 − b2 ) is b2 + a2 and hence Uave = ln ro ri 1 ∂P 2 µ ∂z ro 2 ri 2 + 4 4 + (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS A finite intergation of the last term in the integrand results in zero because it is constant.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid flows downstream 25 German mechanical engineer.VII.

Assume that the flow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished).20. Write the governing equations for this situation.20).20. the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible. As it will be shown later. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). Assume that the flow is one Fig. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. assume that the flow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. Mass flow due to temperature difference for example 8. . For this system. -8. The dominate force is the gravity.VIII. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). For simplicg sin θ ity. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 267 on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate. For this example. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). The governing in the x direction is  =f (t)  ∂U  x ρ +  ∂t  =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz  Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0  =0 =0  (8. The first term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example flow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. Fully developed flow means that the first term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0).a) − g sin θ  ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux   + ρ gx +µ  + +  ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2  The first term of the acceleration is zero because the flow is in a steady state.8. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant.1 dimensional in the x direction.7. Calculate the velocity profile. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the flow direction and y perpendicular to flow direction (depicted in Figure 8.

VIII.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.VIII.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.VIII. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Thus.VIII.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.VIII.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 (8. the governing equation can not be sufficient from the mathematical point of view. the velocity profile is Ux = The flow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8. such a specific velocity at the surface.VIII.k) .b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simplified to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8.VIII.VIII.VIII.VIII.VIII.268 CHAPTER 8. equation (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.VIII.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the flow.d) If there is additional requirement. Integration of equation (8.VIII.

21. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the flow through curved interface is examined. The flow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface.7.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. Example 8. This explanation bothered this author. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the flow was in a very stable system.8.9: A simplified flow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The average velocity is then Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ 269 (8. Flow of liquid in partially filled duct. -8. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the flow is at steady state. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisfied. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the flow.7.VIII. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. No matter how low flow rate was small and big occurred. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. 8. Two boundary conditions must be satisfied at the interface. Thus. . The Fig. there is total of three boundary conditions27 to be satisfied.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary). The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. However. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisfied. 27 The author was hired to do experiments on thin film (gravity flow). the maximum height).l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the flow rate and the averaged velocity. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase. solution to the differential governing equations provides only two constants. For the liquid. The flow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions.

156) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.151) Note.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ. .157) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 28 This (8.152) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).159) (8.154) with (8.158) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.155) (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.153) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.153) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.157) (8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.160) equation results from double integrating of equation (8.154) (8.VIII.156) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The governing equation solution28 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg (8.155) yields ρg ρ (8.270 CHAPTER 8.

162) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8. So equation (8.160) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.157).164) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.162) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.159) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.166) .160) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.161) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.7.165) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.159) and (8. (8.163) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.8.164) Or rearranging equation (8. Equation (8.157) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Advance material can be skipped 271 The solution of equation (8.

it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively. flow at infinite is zero.167) (8.172) The two different fluids30 have flow have a solution as long as the distance is finite reasonable similar. The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8. What happen when the lighter fluid.272 Further rearranging equation (8.168) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8.171) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8. The boundary conditions of flow with infinite depth is that flow at the interface is zero. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem.168) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization29 .170) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8. 30 This 29 Later . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8.163) CHAPTER 8. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction. mostly the gas.165) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν (8. is infinite long. Combining infinite size domain of one fluid with finite size on the other one side results in unstable interface.169) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. The requirement of the shear stress in the infinite is zero as well. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface.

This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. As result. It is recognized that multiphase flow is still evolving. Here. In fact. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. In the past.there are two possibilities (1) the fluids/materials are flowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. 2 Or when the scientific principles simply dictate. 273 . Initially the models were using simple assumptions. who did not consider the flow as two–phase flow and ignoring the air.1 Introduction Traditionally. Calculations of many kinds of flow deals with more than one phase or material flow1 . there was a Ph. For many engineers. books on multiphase flow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. the nature of multiphase flow requires solving many equations.D.2 History The study of multi–phase flow started for practical purposes after World War II. only the trends and simple calculations are described. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. Additionally. Thus. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . working for the government who analyzed filing cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). there is not a consensus to the exact map of many flow regimes. For simple models. is required for many engineering problems. The author believes that the trends and effects of multiphase flow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. the topic of multi–phase flow is ignored in an introductory class on fluid mechanics. 9.

and more importantly. However. and actual calculation of pressure of the different regimes. phase change or transfer processes during flow. (2) the fluids/materials are flowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to find the viscosity). researchers started to look for different flow regimes and provided different models. For example. When it became apparent that specific models were needed for different situations. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a different map for different combination of phases. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase flow and their relationship.274 CHAPTER 9. . partial discussion on speed of sound of different regimes. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on five non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. However. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). multi–phase flow parameters definitions. flow parameters effects on the flow regimes. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the flow of the two fluids are independent of each other. Hence. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. and importance to real world. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the different regimes are applicable. 9. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase flow must be included in introductory class on fluid mechanics3 . This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. will know and understand the trends. The flow patterns or regimes were not considered.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. Which leads to the concept of flow regime maps. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. the concept of flow regimes.

4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the flows are a form of multiphase flow. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase flow. or a large acceleration. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratified because of large body forces. -9.” 4 Different concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. In our calculation. However. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible flow has exceed more than 100. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to influence many in the field of fluid mechanics.4. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. While the difference of the concentration between the top to button is insignificant. . there are situations when air flow has to be considered as multiphase flow and this effect has to be taken into account. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the fields since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. nonetheless it exists. 9. Different fields of multi phase flow. many layers (infinite) of different materials).000 in about two and half years. For example. consider air flow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase flow. Hence. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases.1. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. Practically for many cases. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air flow as stratified flow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.9. In fact. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 275 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig.

although important. the flow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase flow. In a four (4) miles long train.276 CHAPTER 9. March 29. in nature can be blood flow. it is more common to categorize the flow by the distinct phases that flow in the tube. In almost all situations. Many industries are involved with this flow category such as dust collection. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. Flow of air is actually the flow of several light liquids (gases). a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter difference in stopping) and can cause an accident. for an example. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials flows. For example. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas flow. Since there are three phases. plasma and river flow with live creatures (small organisms to large fish) flow of ice berg. The water flow is the source of the friction. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. For example. This notion eliminates many other flow categories that can and should be included in multiphase flow. There are many more categories. solid propellant rocket. for example. spray casting. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. The liquid–solid. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. The multiphase can be found in nature. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. 1887). The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. When the . 9. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. and river flow. Generally. living bodies (bio–fluids). The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. Thus. This flow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. The materials can flow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current flow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. Yet. Jr. and avalanches. there are situations where cleanness of the air can affect the flow. they can be solid–liquid.5 Classification of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid flow will be discussed as a special case. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas flow and is a sub category of the multiphase flow. mud flow etc. rain. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. However. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. paint spray. and industries. This flow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidification (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. fluidized bed. For the gas. In the past. solid–gas. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase flow. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. The same can be said for gas–gas flow. Open Channel flow is. Liquid–liquid flow is probably the most common flow in the nature. sand and grain (which are “solids”) flow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid flow.. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. there are two possibilities for two different materials to flow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination).

the flow of gas–liquid can have several flow regimes in one situation while the flow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one flow regime.1. the co-current is the more common. Open channel flow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. The channel flow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter.2. Yet. horizontal. This definition (open channel flow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier flow can be calculated as open channel flow (ignoring the lighter liquid). When the flow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. The main difference between the liquid–liquid flow to gas-liquid flow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. This kind of flow regime is referred to as horizontal flow. The flow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the fluids. In general. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. 9. the counter–current flow must have special configurations of long length of flow. The vertical configuration has two cases. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble flow. Additionally. Thus.5. The flow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits flow regimes not much different from the other two. . and what ever between them. up or down. it is referred as counter–current.2. the flow is referred to as open channel flow. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. the limits between the flow regimes are considerably different. the counter–current flow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical flow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. water and air flow as oppose to water and oil flow.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal flow are stratified flow (open channel flow. -9. the heavy liquid flows on the Fig. 9.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current flow. Light Liquid and non open channel flow). For low velocity (low flow rate) of the two liquids. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. Generally. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel flow are very diverse. and annular flow. This issue of incline flow will not be covered in this chapter. The other characteristic that is different between the gas flow and the liquid flow is the variation of the density. Stratified flow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid flows on the the liquids flow is very slow.9. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 277 materials flow in the opposite direction. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric flow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). For example.5. plug flow. It is common to differentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal).5. For example.

This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a different configuration (see Figure 9. and other physical properties of the fluids but also on the material of the conduit. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) flow rate increases (superficial velocity). At some point. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. -9. -9. In fact. The configuration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid flow when the flow rate is above a certain point. Plug flow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid filled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). choking occurs relatively Fig. liquid level is higher. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is significantly larger than the stratified flow. Fig. the friction between the phases increase. Plug flow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. Thus. the flow pattern is referred to as slug flow or plug flow.3. The superficial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. The “average” viscosity depends on the flow and thus making it as insignificant way to do the calculations.3). All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratified flow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this definition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. the possibility to go through slug flow regime depends on if there is enough liquid flow rate. as a stratified flow will turned into a slug flow or stratified wavy7 flow after a certain distance depends on the heavy flow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. the flow that starts liquids flow is faster. At this stage. This kind of flow regime is referred to as annular flow. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. Further increase of the lighter liquid flow rate move the flow regime into annular flow. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. The slug flow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous flow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost fill the entire tube. Kind of Stratified flow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. thus it is arbitrary definition.4. when the lighter liquid flow increases. . all the two phase flow are categorized by wavy flow which will proven later.4). If the heavier liquid flow rate is larger6 than the distance. all the flow is wavy. liquid flow rate. Thus. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery.278 CHAPTER 9. The plugs are flowing in a succession (see Figure 9. If the heavier flow rate is small.

The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Qualitatively. liquid–liquid flow has a maximum combined of the flow rate (both phases).2 Vertical Flow The vertical flow has two possibilities.5. Hence. etc. with the gravity or against it. the return path is not move the exact same way. As in many fluid mechanics and magnetic fields. There is a difference between flowing with the gravity and flowing against the gravity. flow that had slug flow in its path can be returned as stratified wavy flow. weak to strong surface tension effects (air/water in “normal” gravity). However. the flow become annular or the flow will choke. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high flow rate and the flow rate is decreasing. After a certain distance. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. The buoyancy . other parameters can affect the “near. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. -9. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. the vertical flow against the gravity is more common used. In engineering application. There is even a possibility to return on different flow regime. 9. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. The choking can occur before the annular flow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions.5.9. Besides the length. e. in normal gravitation. As many things in multiphase.1.5. For example.5. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. as in compressible flow. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal flow. Modified Mandhane map for flow regime in horizontal tubes. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 279 this category is accepted).g.

they create a large bubble and the flow is referred to as slug flow or plug flow (see Figure 9. After additional increase of “super slug” . The main reason that causes the difference is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. the flow regime is referred as elongated bubble flow. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular flow. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can flow because of the gravity forces. the flow starts as a bubble flow. Thus.6. the different mechanism in creating the plug flow in horizontal flow compared to the vertical flow. Flow Against Gravity For vertical flow against gravity. For the flow against gravity. Thus. Again. see Figure 9. there are different flow regimes for these two situations. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this effect is opposite for the heavier liquid. -9. is acting in two different directions for these two flow regimes.280 CHAPTER 9.6. The flow is less stable as more turbulent flow and several “super slug” or churn flow appears in more chaotic way. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Further increase of lighter liquid flow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. Notice. The increase of the lighter liquid flow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. When many bubbles collide. . the flow cannot start as a stratified flow. The choking can occur at any point depends on the fluids and temperature and pressure. it can be noted the difference in the mechanism that create annular flow for vertical and horizontal flow. The opposite is for the flow with gravity.6). Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical.

the points where these transitions occur are different from the horizontal flow. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this configuration with the stratified flow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. both will be united in this discussion. The ordinate is a combination of flow rate ratio and density ratio.7. A good example for this flow regime is a water fall.9. After the flow has settled. The transitions between the flow regimes is similar to stratified flow. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . Pulsing For example. the regime liquid fills the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this flow referred to as bubbly flow. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. The initial part for this flow is more significant. In cases where the surface tension is very important.1. there is pulse flow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. respectively. While this author is not aware of an actual model. In the literature. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist flow. At a higher rate of liquid flow and a low flow rate of gas. As the gas flow increases. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the flow against gravity. In the medium range of the flow rate of gas and liquid. this flow can starts with stratified flow. The liquid–liquid (also .Reynolds. However. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9. the flow continues in a stratified configuration. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. Liquid Flow Rate 9.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 281 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed flow in a vertical configuration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. Here. When the flow rate of the gas increases further. However. The liquid flows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled flow that only partially wets part of the tube. the vertical configuration.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. -9.6. and Weber numbers. Figure 9. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Definitions Since the gas–liquid system is a specific case of the liquid–liquid system. The flow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column.5. A dimensional vertical flow map considered as the “open channel flow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. out in space between gas and liquid (large density difference) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is different. the initial part has a larger section compared to the flow against the gravity flow.7).

3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity.7) . over its cross section.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass flow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9.1) It is common to define the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.6) GG = UsG ρG (9. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) flow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the flow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. The volumetric flow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the flow rate and it is defined as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the flow along the distance of the tube. some variables are defined so that the flow can be described as a one-dimensional flow. 9.282 CHAPTER 9. and with time. Perhaps. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9. the volumetric flow rate can be considered as constant. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase flow pressure drop and other parameters. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the flow.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density).4) mL ˙ A (9.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Definitions The total mass flow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass flow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.

the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. a superficial velocity is commonly defined in which if only one phase is using the entire tube.6. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.8) In a similar fashion.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9. Thus. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. The ratio of the gas flow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and defined as α= AG A (9.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9. Also. . The average superficial velocity of the gas and liquid are different.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 283 Ratio of the gas flow rate to the total flow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. Thus. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is defined as the following SLP = UG UL (9. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase flows is dependent on the other phase. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant.9. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. The gas superficial velocity is therefore defined as UsG = The liquid superficial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.

the mixture density is defined as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9. thus equation (9. The average density of the material flowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the definition of density. Substituting equations (9.284 CHAPTER 9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric flow rate. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1). The density of any material is defined as ρ = m/V and thus. for the flowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.1) and (9.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times infinitesimal thickness of dx).17) Equation (9.17) can be simplified by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average specific volume of the flow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.21) .7) into equation (9.

7.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisfied as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9. In fact.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. and the flow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). the simplest is to used it for approximation. Now. For the construction of fluid basic equations.26) . it was assumed that the different flow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). it was assumed that the flow is continuous. these segments are not defined but results of the conditions imposed on the flow. Furthermore. The average velocity (see also equation (9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. Thus. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 285 9.23) Example 9.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. this assumption has to be broken.24) or modifying equation (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the flow. the different flow regimes are examples of typical configuration of segments of continuous flow.1: Under what conditions equation (9. Initially.9.

from equation (9. since there isn’t anything better. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9.25.25). and body force(gravitation).079 and n = 0.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase flow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress.286 CHAPTER 9.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. For example. this dependency can be neglected. acceleration. In that case.28) Where S is the perimeter of the fluid.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube flowing upward in incline angle θ. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress.1. For laminar flow C = 16 and n = 1. acceleration must occur. For turbulent flow C = 0. for small distances (dx) and some situations. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9.7.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the flow regimes (turbulent or laminar flow).27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. the pressure loss is affected by friction loss. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single flow is used. . In fact. However. 9. Yet. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase flow.7.

dX/ dx = 0. . For example.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9.36) becomes   pressure loss due to pressure loss due to  density change   area change 2   =m  ˙  1   1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.1.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. dρL / dx = 0.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. 9.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9.9. The first case where the cross section is constant. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula.37) a There are several special cases. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. dA/ dx = 0. the friction loss can be estimated.7.7.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 287 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. For the last point. Equation (9. In second case is where the mass flow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.

39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.7. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.1. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). Equivalent definition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.. Thus.1. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9.7.7.40) 9.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are defined as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase flow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . 9. private communication with Y. there are two parameters as shown below.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.38) The density change during the flow can be represented as a function of density. 8 This method was considered a military secret.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. φG = dP dx dP dx (9. Taitle . The density in equation (9.288 9.

43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. analysis of small coal particles in water is different from large coal particles in water.8. it is assumed that the surface tension is insignificant compared to the gravity forces. cubic. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. the effect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9.46) Simplified model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change significantly and it is far from the choking point. distribution. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical flow: 1. . For example. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 289 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. Different combination of solid particle creates different “liquid. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9.9. and geometry. To insert the Diagram. 3. in this discussion. The flow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles.there will be a discussion about different particle size and different geometry (round. etc). Thus. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. The flow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. In solid–liquid. 9. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. 2. The flow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. dP dx = SG dP dx (9.” Therefor.45) For the gas phase.

possibility. 9.48) Inserting equating (9. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. When the liquid velocity is very small.8. The first set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). The drag coefficient.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “floating” to the liquid and particles properties. The first regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.44 (9.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid flow has several combination flow regimes. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles.48) into equation (9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coefficient and is a function of Reynolds number. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0.290 CHAPTER 9. The flow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. However. it can be approximated for several regimes.51) 24 Re (9. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid flow experience several forces.52) . All these possibilities are different. CD ∞ . However.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. Re. the Newton’s Law region. there are two sets of similar characteristics. The Reynolds number defined as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.49) Equation (9. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. The force balance of spherical particle in field viscous fluid (creeping flow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9.

Additional increase of the fluid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. Thus. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. For small gas/liquid velocity. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. For particles. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the fluid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. Further increase of the fluid flow increases the empty spots to the whole flow. For the case of gas. particles flow the particles are what some call fixed fluidized bed. the particle will sink into the liquid. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be floating. Consequently. further increase will create a slug flow. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the fluid solid fluidized velocity. Increasing the fluid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix fluidized bed. For the first region. In that case. Yet. US|avarge . then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. When the velocity is lower. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the fluid velocity. Thus. the particle will drift with the liquid.8.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the fluid applies to them. in many cases the middle region is applicable.9. the case of liquid. So far the discussion was about single particle. the function f (α) is not a linear function. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 291 In most cases of solid-liquid system. Additional increase in the fluid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type flow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. This slug flow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. Thus. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over.9).8. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density difference is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. If the velocity is larger. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at different rate. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “floating”. 9 It be wonderful if flow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully fluidized bed. -9.

2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist.292 CHAPTER 9. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). The flow can have slug flow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. the fluid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). The flow is fully fluidized for any liquid flow rate. Furthermore. One of the main difference between the liquid and gas flow in this category is the speed of sound. the length of conduit is very limited. 9.8. -9. However. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig.9. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid flowing down (with the gravity). there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. Hence. this limitation does not (effectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid flow. Nevertheless. There is no known flow map for this kind of flow that this author is aware of. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no fixed or mixed fluidized bed. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). Hence. In the gas phase. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. Thus. The flow patterns in solid-liquid flow.

In most cases. Hence. for large velocity of the fluid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. Counter–flow in vertical tubes map. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. the possibility to have counter–current flow is limited to having short length of tubes. But in most cases. the liquid will flow in pulse regime. Flow The inertia components of the flow. when cavity is filled or emptied with a liquid. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular flow does not appear in solid–liquid flow. However. In only certain configurations of the infinite long pipes the counter–current flow can exist. However.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. opening a can of milk or juice. The affective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. The flow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in different points. for example. 9. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. The counter-current flow occurs. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. Otherwise. In short tube. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. The pressure difference in the interface must Fig.54) 6 8 From equation 9. the counter–current flow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. for a small fluid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. For example. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. Liquid Body Foreces . Annular Extented Flow In that case. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes.10. The solid–liquid horizontal flow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid flow. This kind of flow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug flow. the flow will be in a pulse regime. the or Dripping Flow pressure difference in one phase can be f (D/L. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. For example. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 293 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. UL /US → 0.9.9. -9. Thus. the pressure difference and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the flow.54. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure difference. be finite. physical properties) positive while the pressure difference in the other phase can be negative.

Initially. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. the phases flow turns into different direction (see Figure 9. water solution. the pressure in the can increase. Then. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to fill the vacuum created thus forcing pulse flow. liquid flows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the flow will be continuous. If there are two holes. There are three flow regimes10 that have been observed. There must be other flow regimes that were not observed or defined. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. . It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (orifice) and a long and narrow tube. Counter–current flow in a can (the left figure) has only one hole thus pulse flow and a flow with two holes (right picture). For example. elongated pulse flow was observed but measured. -9. Figure 9.11 depicts emptying of can filled with liquid. in some cases.12). The container is made of two compartments. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping flow.). Picture of Counter-current flow in liquid–gas and solid–gas configurations. due to the gravity. This field hasn’t been well explored. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas flow. The first flow pattern is pulse flow regime. In this flow regime. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas flow when almost no pulse was observed.11. -9. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can.294 CHAPTER 9. Fig.12. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. The name pulse flow is used to signify that the flow is flowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. The upper compartment is filled with the heavy phase (liquid.

The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. the volume flow rate of the two phase is almost equal. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current flow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. At this point. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter flow can start. Horizontal flow is different from vertical flow from the stability issues. Extended open channel flow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not effect the heavier liquid flow. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes.” In the vertical co–current flow there are two possibilities. . Example of such flow in the nature is water falls in which water flows down and air (wind) flows up.9. As opposed to the co–current flow. Annular Flow in Counter–current flow The other flow regime is annular flow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. flow with gravity or against it.7). Additional increase of the diameter will change the flow regime into extended open channel flow. no counter–current flow is possible. However. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue).7) page 137) it can be considered stable for small diameters. Flood in vertical pipe. Further increase of the body force will move the flow to be in the extended “open channel flow. A flow in a very narrow tube with heavy fluid above the lighter fluid should be considered as a separate issue. the flow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular flow. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 295 and some heavy liquid will starts to flow.9. 9. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. Probably. In many situations. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). The driving force is the second parameter which effects the flow existence. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. Thus it should be considered as non existent flow. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. the counter–current flow has no possibility for these two cases. In horizontal tubes.13. Consider the can in zero gravity field. The heavy liquid will flow with the body forces (gravity).9. -9. When the driving (body) force is very small. there is an additional flow regime which is stratified . one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). A heavier liquid layer can flow above a lighter liquid. no counter–current flow possible. the pulsing flow will start and larger diameter will increase the flow and turn the flow into annular flow. The analysis is provided.

Fig. . the fire can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam.14. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . A flow map to explain the cal flow unless the angle of inclination is very small. physical properties) from the vertical flow and is shown in Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the flow rate of both fluids is very small. The stratified counter flow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The steam will flow in the opposite direction.15. -9. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. is unknown. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity.296 CHAPTER 9. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will flow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). the flow will be stratified counter–current flow. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. In some situations. etc11 . QL .2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current flow regimes. -9. A simplified model for this situation is for a two dimensional configuration where the liquid is D flowing down and the gas is flowing up as shown h in Figure 9. The flow will change to pulse flow when the heavy liquid flow rate increases. Additionally. It is assumed that both fluids are W ξ x y flowing in a laminar regime and steady state. Further increase of the flow will result in a single phase flow regime. 11 The circular configuration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. Thus. Thus. The flow map of the horizontal flow is different f (D/L. A flow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. it is assumed that the entrance effects L can be neglected. the pressure difference in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero.14.13. horizontal counter–current flow.15. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. However.9. this increase terminates the two phase flow possibility. When there is no water (in liquid phase). the fire could melt or damage the boiler. wavy interface. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. closing the window of this kind of flow. mass transfer. coexist. The liquid flow rate. The change to pulse flow increases the pressure loss dramatically. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. both conditions cannot flood in a two dimension geometry. that is stratified flow are discussed here.Fig.

The liquid film thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. Thus. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . the liquid flow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.). the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9.9.55) The integration constant. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 297 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current flow. On the liquid side. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change significantly the results.57) The liquid velocity at the wall.62) Uy = (9.56) (9.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change significantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno flow chapter.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. Hence.59) (9. Assuming the pressure difference in the flow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. C1 .58) (9.58) to obtained µL or in a simplified form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian fluid relationship into equation (9. is zero and the integration coefficient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity profile is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.63) .9.61) (9. [U (x = 0) = 0].60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.

the flow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL .69) It is interesting to find the point where the liquid mass flow rate is zero. This point can be obtained when equation (9.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity.298 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9. There are three solutions for equation (9. also.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9. The flow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the film. Integration equation (9.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the film in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. The first two solutions are identical in which the film height is h = 0 and the liquid flow rate is zero. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9. But. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed flow. h. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.69) is equated to zero.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid film thickness. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. The point where the liquid flow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial flashing point.69).15).65) The solution for equation (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.70) .

for simplicity reasons. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the flow and ∆P is the pressure difference of the entire length.9. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. For this shear stress.76) noticing that equation (9.67)). If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible flow.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. Here.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. . COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 299 This critical shear stress. For simplicity.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9. the differential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar flow as well. The wall shear stress is   τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0  ρL g 2 g h ρL 1  B0  = µL  2¨ x  µL ¨ − h + 3 µL  x=0 (9. equation (9. reduces the flow rate to zero or effectively “drying” the liquid (which is different then equation (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid. Thus.73) Again. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book).9. for a given film thickness.72) Simplifying equation (9. the linear equation is used.

300 CHAPTER 9. of the equal velocities. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.79)(a).84) is equal to the velocity equation (9.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.81) At the other boundary condition.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. However. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. equation (9. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.80) (a) (b) or (9. the gas velocity profile is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.C. (9.64) when (x = h). The difference in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.77) This velocity profile must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. cause this assumption to be not physical.82) With the integration constants evaluated.84) The velocity in Equation (9.78) into equation (9.79) (9.83) (9. in that case. . The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal.

85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. different thing(s) must happen. if no special effects occurs.79)(b). condition (9.91) The Required Pressure Difference . Then if the interface becomes wavy. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. The shear stress at the interface must be equal.9.9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.89) This gas interface velocity is different than the velocity of the liquid side.87) (9. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity profile is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. the two conditions can co–exist. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 301 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances.86) (9.90) x=D or in a simplified form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9.

General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure difference can two dimension geometry. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure difference to D create the flooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. Fig.16. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. -9. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. However. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.96) (9. the total balance is needed. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. However.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the different terms into (9. as ρgLh L first estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure difference is larger. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9.94) Simplifying equation (9. Figure 9. The estimation of the pressure difference under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.302 CHAPTER 9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.95) .

The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. There are many flow regimes in multi–phase flow that “regular” fluid cannot be used to solve it such as flooding.10.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the first time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on fluid mechanics. . In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a specific model is required. The interface between the two liquid flowing together is wavy.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel flow). Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. the appropriate model for the flow regime should be employed. 9. In that case. this analysis equation (9. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 303 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.9. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with different viscosity are flowing.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW .304 CHAPTER 9.

Uy is the vector component in the y direction. this book on fluid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. nates depicted in Figure A.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A.dinates system. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic fluid mechanics.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to fluid mechanics is presented. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order differential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. -A.1. Hence without additional reading. A. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. Vector in Cartesian coor- .). the 305 Fig. Thus. Furthermore. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction.

2. multiplication of U × V results in W .5) . V )) (A. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. V )) n (A. U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U . regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat different meaning in a scalar operations. U . and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . h2 .3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. V . A.306 unit vector is APPENDIX A. U + V = V + U 3. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. The following are vectors. The “cross” product is defined in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . -A. The right hand rule. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication.1.4).1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. Then the following can be said U U V 1. The first multiplication is the “dot” product which is defined by equation (A.

and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule.7) (A.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V =  U2 V2  h2 U2 V2  h3 U3  V3 (A. Additionally note that order of multiplication is significant. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. VECTORS 307 where θ is the angle between U and V .9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. For example. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. . This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. The multiplication in vector world have two definition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. One of the consequence of this definitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). etc. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). However. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. or vector with the angle.1.A.10) (A. The previous experience is that help to define multiplication help to definition the division. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. The reason that these current combinations. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did find any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. is that these combinations have physical meaning.6) (A. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.

2 Differential Operators of Vectors Differential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. the gradient. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. A. In multivariate calculus. For example. More differential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function.308 APPENDIX A. j. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. the curl. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar field. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations.z). This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as finding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors.y. y. The following combination is commonly suggested   U2 U3   U1  V V1 V1   1    U  U1 U2 U3  = (A. For example. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.11)   V2 V V2 V2      U2 U3   U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the fluid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator.1. Many of the operations of vector world.” This operator is a differential vector. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. such as. divergence. derivatives of different directions can represented as a vector or vector function.13) . Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. and z directions. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. i. respectively. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x.

Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. A gradient acting on a scalar field creates a vector field. y.1. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar field again.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be defined for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A.A. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. z)ˆ + Ny (x. y. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827).17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . z)ˆ + Nz (x. y. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in fluid mechanics) and it reffed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator.15) (A. N . and it defined as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. y. VECTORS 309 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the differential operators.18) . z) = Nx (x.16) Note that the result is a vector.

Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. A. x2 . This theorem is applicable for a fix control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . Special case of equation (A. This results reduces equation. The notation is a bit different from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A.1. · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 .fullerton. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. The cross and dot products when the come under differentiation can be look as scalar. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. x3 . x3 . A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 .html .3 Differentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). y. 1862). x2 .21) Since the definition of Φ = N . 1801 – January 1.310 APPENDIX A.19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. The basic of these relationships is explored. x3 . x2 . to a balance of the fluxes through the surface. normally for steady state.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal flow analysis. If N is a gradient of a scalar field Π(x.edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. Thus.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. For example.

1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in different orthogonal coordinates system.23) The first part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero.A. Similarly. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. it can done for the cross product. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 311 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. Yet.25) (A. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R).24) (A. Ellipsoidal coordinates.1.1. A. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation.3. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. the chain role is applicable. Cylindrical coordinates. Spherical coordinates. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in fluid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. Elliptic . Parabolic coordinates. and acceleration. velocity. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A.

The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system.mcs. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. The meaning of − r and r are different.312 APPENDIX A. θ.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars.st-and. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r.3. Bispherical coordinates. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. θ.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. r. Three common systems typical to fluid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. .html. http://www-history. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. In Fig. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. → and z. in most cases. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . The new concept here is the length factor. Historically. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. -A. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. This kind sity uations occur in pipe flow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. The first one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. Julian (1952). and z. These three different rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. The coordinate θ is angle. the figure shows that the coordinates are r. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. in this case.3. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them.ac. Toroidal coordinates. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. Cylindrical Coordinate System.29) 3 Coolidge.

Spherical Coordinate System.31) (A.4. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is defined by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 313 (A.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. -A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.37) . Note that the first angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. In fluid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modifications of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.4.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.1. The first angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A. The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A.30) (A.A. boom explosion. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. sound wave propagax tion etc.

41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A.5. The general Orthogonal is r. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript. As in almost all cases. However. While the θ is the same the meaning is different and different notations need. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. θ. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length. there is dispute what with unit vectors.42) .39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. the proper notation for these coefficients. the unit vectors are: r.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. The coordinates distance coefficient is in ase cre in e2 the change the differential to the actual distance.314 APPENDIX A. -A. For example in cylindrical coordinates.3. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coefficient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. and z . The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coefficient in this case Fig.2.

2 φ= + + Fig.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. .1.45) The following table showing the different values for selected orthogonal system. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 315 (A.A. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. -A.6.

47) 4 Note that mathematically. du . it is possible to define fraction of derivative. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A.316 APPENDIX A. If the highest derivative is first order the equation is referred as first order differential equation etc. Note that the derivatives are integers e. The most general form is f u. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference.1. A.t dt =0 (A. The first order equations have several forms and there is no one solution fit all but families of solutions. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. the first ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. However.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. . second derivative etc4 . Ordinary differential equations are defined by the order of the highest derivative.2.g. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A.1 First Order Differential Equations As expect. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 .2 Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. first derivative.

50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).I.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time. (1. u) = X(t) U (u).e) . Example A.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.b) (1.2.I.I.d) (1.I.47) can be simplified to the first form as du = F (t.c) Equation (1. u) dt 317 (A.48) can be written as F (t.48) A.I.I.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.A.I. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .

59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next. Thus equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A. This family is part of a linear equations.52) (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.2.58) (A. .53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.1 APPENDIX A.53).318 A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full differential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.54) Using the differentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.55) (A.2.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.

60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.III. . This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in fluid mechanics (the problem of Stoke flow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.2.62) Example A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.A. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 319 Example A.

For this case.320 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.III.IV.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.63) into t dv + v = f (1.b) Using the definition (1.2.III.a) .e) private solution u= e e  t3   3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.3.63) for any real positive a. v) − v (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.III. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.c) (1.b) equation (1.III. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is  t3  − 3   −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.d)  (1. t) = f (a u.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1. v) dt (A.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.III.65) Example A. a t) dt (A.III.III.

For this sort equations.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.2 Variables Separable Equations In fluid mechanics and many other fields there are differential equations that referred to variables separable equations. In fact.V.IV.e) A.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.IV.2. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.3.b) (1. End Solution 321 (1.IV.V.2.A.b) .66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).67) g(u) Example A.d) (1.IV.c) (1. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.IV.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.IV. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.

and perturbation methods.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c.V.V.3.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.2.71) (A.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods.322 APPENDIX A.4 Second Order Differential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into first order ODE. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.V. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.2. variable substitutions.c) Rearranging equation (1. A. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.72) .V.d) End Solution A. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix. transformation (like Laplace transform). One such case is the second order ODE with constant coefficients.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.68) In a way. The simplest equations are with constant coefficients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A. the second order ODE is transferred to first order by substituting the one linear operator to two first linear operators. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1. Practically.

73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.2.VI. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A. and −5. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 323 (A. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.74) Example A. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.VI.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.4.b) (1. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.2.c) A.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.b) are −2. . where L is Linear operator. Thus.A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).VI.VI.

Hence. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.c) (1.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. u.5. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (first order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.VII.2.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations). A. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.2.VII.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.324 APPENDIX A.a) (1.d) A.78) then the equation (A.VII.VII.79) .

VIII. 6 This .a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.A.VIII. Example A. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong effect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems. first with initial integration and second with the second integration.80) Using the first order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du     2 3 3 arcsin  u0 2 −u 2  + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.VIII. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.b) After the integration equation (1.2.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.VIII.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII.VIII.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.VIII.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.d) Equation (1.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 325 The integration results in a first order differential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.

326 APPENDIX A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.2.5.86) A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A. End Solution A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5.88) .87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two different constants because the plus minus signs.85) + c2 (A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order differential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A. d dt u du dt =0 (A. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.2.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.82) where a is constant.

IX. Solving Third Order Linear Differential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . Example A.90) +u=0 (1. The general form for constant coefficient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.2. 1999.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A. the linear third-order differential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. Thus.IX. The solution to constant coefficients is relatively simple and will be presented here.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coefficient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .6 Third Order Differential Equation There are situations where fluid mechanics7 leads to third order differential equation. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order differential equation.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. This kind of differential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.A.b) (1.2.IX.c) A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 327 (A.

328 APPENDIX A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.101) . Thus. if D > 0.98) (A.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the definitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A.92) (A.99) (A. θ.94) (A. all the roots are real and at least two are identical. (A. all the roots are real and unequal. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. In the last case where D < 0.93) (A. one root is real and two roots are complex. For the case D = 0.96) T = and where the D is defined as 3 R− √ D (A.95) R+ √ D. From a mathematical point of view. When the characteristic equation solution has three different real roots the solution of the differential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.

105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.109) (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 329 (A.105). Generally. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. for constant coefficients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.108) . Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.104). For the case of only one real root.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.107) (A. The solution of equation (A.106) are the solutions of (A. For example.2. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.106) and equation (A. A. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.107) was discussed earlier.A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial differential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.

330 APPENDIX A.2 s3.X.X. roots are similar and some real and different e. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi . s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.10: Solve the fifth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some different e.g.d) .a) (1.b) With the roots of the equation (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and different e.g.X. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Differential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.g.g.g.X.X.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and different e.

3 Partial Differential Equations Partial Differential Equations (PDE) are differential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic.3. . Partial differential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. Many situations in fluid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. Generally.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it.) = 0 (A. the same can be done for a second-order PDE.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions.A.110) To be continue A. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. Example of such equation is F (ut . The physical meaning of the these definition is that these equations have different characterizations. this characterization is done for for second order.112) The coefficients axx . Normally. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. When the discriminant . The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the flow (the solution).2.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classified are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. . Generally. One example of such equation is heat equation. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 331 A. However. sometimes similar definition can be applied for other order. ux = ∂u . For example. axy . . the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. ux . Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. Equation (A. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.

In fluid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic flow or in supper critical flow in open channel flow. ∂x ∂x (A. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant.3. The first equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A. A.332 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.117) A possible way the equation (A. However.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + .115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct.119) and (A. An example of first order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book. the constant is denoted as λ and with this definition the PDE is reduced into two ODE.119) (A.116) Rearranging equation (A. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal flow and subsonic flow and sub critical open channel flow.118) Equations (A.. . Hence.

Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. .4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modification 1. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. sin2 α = 4. and γ. and opposite angles α. The tringle angles sides. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. b. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. consider the triangle with sides of length a. tan(α + β) = 6. and c. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. TRIGONOMETRY 333 A. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.A. β. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. -A. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6.by finding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6.7. respectively 5.4. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2.

MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .334 APPENDIX A.

230 Add mass. 86 Counter–current Pulse flow. 214 Simplified equations. 200 C Co–current flow. 268 Correction factor. 297 Extended Open channel flow. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 87. 177 Averaged velocity concentric cylinders. 312 Double choking phenomenon.SUBJECTS INDEX 335 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 205 Integral Analysis. 117 buoyant force. 71. 8. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 211. 200 Conservative force. 3. 188. 199 Fixed fluidized bed. 86. 111 Archimedes. 87. 92 Acceleration. 72. 293 Flow first mode. 215 Rotating Coordinate System. 81. 311 Deformable control volume. 279 Compressibility factor. 11. 295 . 279. 205 Averaged momentum velocity. 11 Body force. angular. 218 Steady State. 280 Fluid Statics Geological system. 159 bulk modulus. 74. 266 Flow out tank. 296 Counter–current flow. 29 buoyancy. 73 Boundary Layer. 96 Forces Curved surfaces. 230 Add momentum. 77 Averaged kinetic energy. 281 E Energy conservation. 217 Accelerated System. 146 Density ratio. 229 dilettante. 109 Cylindrical Coordinates. 276 Flow regimes in one pipe. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 205 Averaged momentum energy. 91 Concentrating surfaces raise. 190 Annular flow. 220 Bingham’s model. 215 Convection. 115. 231 D D’Alembert paradox. 129 Differential analysis. 215 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 94 Add Force. 297 Cut–out shapes. 188 Integral analysis. 12 Accelerated system. 125 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 268 Flow regime map. 34 Conduction. 202 Flow rate concentric cylinders. 11 Divergence Theorem. 243 Correction factor. 108 Fourier law. 23. 229 External forces. 174 B Bernoulli’s equation. 213 Euler equations. 200 Convective acceleration. 7. 89 effective. 188 Arc shape. 199 Energy Equation Linear accelerate System.

248 Moving boundary. 27 Interfacial instability. 279 Hydrostatic pressure. 230 Inverted manometer. 138. 279 Orthogonal Coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Metacentric point. 256 Minimum velocity solid–liquid flow. 11 O Open channel flow. 87–89 Fully fluidized bed. 278 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 164 Integral equation. 11 Pulse flow. 212 L Lapse rate. 71. 156 Limitation of the integral approach. 146 Non–Linear Equations. 312 horizontal counter–current flow. constant of integration. 292 Mixed fluidized bed. 8 No–slip condition. 164 small picture. 105 pseudoplastic. 125 Neutral stable. 83 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 290 P Pendulum action. 243 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 90 H Harmonic function. 80 Initial condition. 278 Local acceleration. 113 Pressure center. 89 Real gas. 260 Multi–phase flow. 293 Poiseuille flow. 313 Oscillating manometer. 275 Multiphase flow against the gravity. 175 index notation. 284 . 80 Mass velocity. 296 purely viscous fluids. 125. 212 Linear acceleration. 293 Momentum Conservation. 74 Pneumatic conveying. 136 Piezometric pressure.336 Free expansion. 104. 11 Pushka equaiton M “Magnification factor”. 312 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 250 N Navier-Stokes equations. 81 Isotropic viscosity. 92 Linear operations. 321 Normal stress. 89. 89 Leibniz integral rule. 264 Concentric cylinders. 319 Integral analysis big picture. 127 Micro fluids. 282 G Gas–gas flow. 259 kinematic viscosity. 318 Liquid phase. 251 K Kinematic boundary condition. 229 Neutral moment Zero moment. 297 Horizontal flow. 266 Polynomial function. 259 Moving surface. 259 Moving surface Free surface. 81 Inclined manometer. 112 I Ideal gas. 139 Newtonian fluids. 258 Non–deformable control volume. 243 Lockhart martinelli model. 1. 293 APPENDIX A. 173 Momentum conservation.

285 Reversal flow. 72. 307 Vectors Algebra. 247 transformation. 200 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 123 Stability analysis. 244.SUBJECTS INDEX expantion. 285 Void Fraction. 291 Solid–liquid flow. 323 Vectors. 242 Superficial velocity. 81 Return path for flow regimes. 26. 256 Thermodynamical pressure. 91 Spherical volume. 183 V Vapor pressure. 173 Triangle shape. 279 Stress tensor. 87 stability analysis. 98 thixotropic. 111. 292 Thermal pressure. 278 T Tank emptying parameters. 211 Total moment. 294 Solid–fluid flow. 125 Stability in counter–current flow. 279 W Watson’s method. 326 shear stress. 156 Divergence Theorem. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 244 symmetry. 135 stratified flow. 297 Stable condition. 96 Pushka equation. 281 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 308 Vertical counter–current flow. 108 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 191 Two–Phase Gas superficial velocity. 291 Solid–solid flow. 137. 311 Westinghouse patent. 118 Turbomachinary. 285 Quality of dryness. 77 Variables Separation 1st equation. 296 Vertical flow. 19 Wave Operator. 244 substantial derivative. 91. 255 . 115 cubic. 99 Transformation matrix. 298 Slip velocity. 280 Sutherland’s equation. 6 Slip condition range. 184 S Scalar function. 244 Cartesian coordinates. 312 Rocket mechanics. 244 Transition to continuous. 279 Real gas. 88. 258 Solid–fluid flow Gas dynamics aspects. 214 Second viscosity coefficient. 12 U Unstable condition. 87. 285 Liquid holdup. 278 Spherical coordinates. 255 Segregated equations. 87 Unsteady State Momentum. 285 Wetness fraction. 209 Terminal velocity. 285 337 R Radiation.

4 Froude. 4 S Stanton. Jean Louis. 4 W Weisbach. Claude–Louis. 4 de Saint Venant. 276. 4 Nusselt. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 4 Blasius. 289 R Rayleigh. 276 M Manning. 4 Martinelli. 4 Stokes. 329 C Cichilli. 156 Lockhart. 264 Poisson. 278 L Leibniz. 268 O Olivier Vallee. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. 137 Reynolds.. 229 Prandtl. 211 F Fanning. Hermann von. George Gabriel. G. 4 V von Karman. 4 Blasiu. 229 G Ganguillet. 4 . 312 Poiseuille.338 APPENDIX A. 4. 276 Taylor. Simon-Denis. Carl Friedrich. 229 Nikuradse. 4 Westinghouse. 211 H Helmholtz. 276 Meye. 289 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. Osborne. 137 Torricelli.I. 229 e Duckler. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 312 T Taitle. 4 D Darcy. 4 Gauss. Evangelista. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 156 Rose. Barr´. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 312 N Navier.

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