Principles Of Management

Presented by: Eastern Warriors
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This presentation would be showcasing the evolution in Management practices within an organization.
The theories and approaches discussed would be as follows:   The Classical approach Human Resource Approach

Modern Approach

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The Classical approach
The Classical perspective to management emerged during the nineteenth century and continued into the twentieth century.

Due to the new challenges that organizations
faced, management which sought a methods rational of and efficiency included

scientific approach.
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The Classical approach includes the following three theories and their contributors:
 Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor  Administrative Principle by Henry Fayol  Bureaucratic Organization by Max Weber

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In the future. Taylor 1856 . the system must be first.” 5 .1915 Scientific Management or Taylorism was a scientific method which was used to optimize the way in which tasks were performed thus improving the labour productivity.Scientific Management by Frederick W. One of Taylor’s philosophy was “In the past man must has been first.

(Employees were motivated to increase their output with the use of additional benefits 6 .The General Concept of Scientific Management Develop a standard method for performing a task and train workers to use these methods. (Workers that were stronger both mentally and physically were assigned specific tasks) Wage incentive were provided when output was increased. (Managers developed precise procedures based each organizational task) Provide workers with the proper tools needed to work. Selected employees were chosen for specific tasks.

7 . (Workers were treated as machines and not humans) Management stereotyped workers and did not allow them to prove their skills in other areas. Workers were not allowed to form innovative ways to perform their tasks.Disadvantages of Scientific Management Workers felt exploited because their social aspect of life was disregarded.

also Lillian M. Gilbreth (1868-1924) (Time and Motion Studies) 8 .Further contributions to Scientific Management were made by Henry Gantt (Gantt Chart). Gilbreth (1878-1972) (Industrial Psychology and Human Resource Management) and Frank B.

Division of work – Specialization and efficiency were incorporated in workers. Scalar Chain – is the organizational structure which starts from the CEO’s to the labourers.1925 This theory dealt with the entire organization (both workers and management) which functioned with four basic principles. Unity of direction – Related activities were grouped under one manager.Administrative Principle by Henry Fayol 1841 . 9 . Which are: Unity of command – Each person receives order from only one superior.

Administrative Principle The five basic functions or elements of management (Management Process) are: Planning Organizing Controlling Coordinating Commanding (leading/directing) 10 .

11 .Further contributions to Administrative Principles were made by Mary Parker Follet (1868-1933) (emphasis was made on the common goals of the employees in reducing organizational conflict as well as the management gaining the trust and respect of employees) and Chester I. Bernard (18861961) (the concept of informal organization where management and subordinates group informally to create a bond).

Bureaucratic Organizations by Max Weber 1864 .1920 Weber’s theory concentrated on the fact that positions should be structured where there must be a clear line of authority (hierarchy) and all persons must be selected by competency for the job and promotion (promotion based on achievement and a specialized division of labour) also. 12 . a formal structure and position rather than an individual.

Views and Misconceptions of Bureaucratic Organizations Good bureaucracy removed or reduced opportunities for corruption. Sometimes extra paperwork is added to a system. Sometimes bureaucracy would be mistaken for civil service (governmental organizations) but actually is being used at various types of organizations. Bureaucracy is inflexible. 13 . you now have to bribe several officials) . Identified bureaucracy with any large organization. favouritism and arbitrary exercises of power (instead of bribing a single official.

14 .Human Resource approach The Human Resource perspective to management suggested that jobs should be designed to meet higher levels needs by allowing workers to use their full potential.

Human Resource Approach includes the following three theories and their contributors:  The Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo  The Maslow Theories of Human’s Need  Mc Gregor’s Theory (x y theory) 15 .

He and his team of researchers took a group of six women and segregated them. He carried out research at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago. 16 . They then altered their conditions of work in a number of ways. over a five year period. and observed the effects on production and the morale of the group.Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo After a series of studies. it was proven that employees increase the level of output when given better treatment.

to a large extent. changes such as new payment systems. Thirdly. varying the length of the working day. Mayo decided that work satisfaction must depend. and offering food and refreshments were tried. the women had developed good relationships amongst each other and had been allowed to set their own work patterns. upon the informal social relationships between workers in a group and upon the social relationships between workers and their bosses. the women had felt important because they had been singled out. rest breaks of different sorts and lengths. 17 . Secondly. In almost all cases. In the end. the case of relationship had made for a much more pleasant working environment.From Mayo’s studies the following was derived: Over the period. he realised that firstly. productivity improved.

security and belonging is more important than physical conditions of the work environment. The need for recognition.From Mayo’s investigations the following conclusions were made: Work is a group activity. The social world of an adult is primarily patterned by their work activity. An employee is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both outside and inside work environment. 18 . A complaint is commonly a symptom manifesting disturbance of an individual’s current position.

The change from an established society in the home to an adaptive society in the work plant resulting from the use of new techniques contribute to the disruption of the social organization of the workplace. Groups collaboration must be planned and developed. then a cohesion within an organization would be formed thus resisting the disrupting effects of a continuously adaptive society.Continued conclusions from Mayo’s investigations: Informal groups with an organization creates a strong social control over the work habits and attitudes of an individual. 19 .

having evolved over tens of thousands of years. starting with the first. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. 20 . Our most basic needs are inborn. which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.Maslow’s Theory of Human’s Needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in pyshcoloy that contends. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn. each of us is motivated by needs.

limits. security. etc Safety needs protection. responsibility. etc Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs . work group. drink. shelter. 21 . warmth. status. food. etc. order.air. sex. law. stability. affection. sleep.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization personal growth and fulfillment Esteem needs achievement. reputation Belongingness and Love needs family. relationships.

Maslow said that needs must be satisfied in the given order. The thwarting of needs is usually a cause of stress. and by implication 6 to 8. Levels 1 to 4 are deficiency motivators. Examples he used were: You can't motivate someone to achieve their sales target (level 4) when they're having problems with their marriage (level 3). and is particularly so at level 4. 22 . are growth motivators and relatively rarely found. You can't expect someone to work as a team member (level 3) when they're having their house re-possessed (level 2). level 5. Aims and drive always shift to next higher order needs.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Personal/ Social Life Need Occupational Hierarchy Needs Self Personal growth. freedom Belongingness & Love Needs Safety Needs Benefits. friends. water. sleep Biological & Physiological Needs Proper temperature. air. community Protection. air. Actualization Advancement fulfillment Approval. stability Occupational safety Food. groups. law. basic salary 23 . clients Family. achievement Esteem Needs Recognition. high status Coworkers.

Maslow's theory not a fully responsive system nevertheless. depending what's happening to them in their lives.So while it is broadly true that people move up (or down) the hierarchy. it remains extremely useful and applicable for understanding. 24 . Like any simple model. it is also true that most people's motivational 'set' at any time comprises elements of all of the motivational drivers. explaining and handling many human behaviour situations.

Theory X assumes that people are lazy and will avoid work whenever possible. on the other hand. 25 . Generally speaking. Theory Y. These assumptions are the basis of Theory X and Theory Y teachings. assumes that people are creative and enjoy work.Mc Gregor’s Theory (X Y Theory) In 1960 Douglas McGregor. an American psychologist proposed a book “The Human Side Of Enterprise” making contrasting assumptions about the nature of humans in the work place.

Has the capacity to be innovative and creative. The average human has little or no ambition. The average human learns to accept and seek responsibility. A person could be self motivated and is committed to their work. The potential of a human under modern industrial life is moderately utilized. would avoid responsibility but like the security and benefits. Most people must be forced or penalised to get them effectively achieve the organizations goals.Theory X and Theory Y Theory X The average individual dislikes work and will avoid it. 26 . Theory Y The average individual likes to work and it’s a natural activity.

Theory X Manager is an authoritarian manager and generally gets poor results. 27 . Theory Y Manager is a participative manager which produces better performance and results. and allows people to grow.Management Concept using Theory X and Theory Y Mc Gregor’s theory is a useful and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people and he maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people.

Theory X and Theory Y Management 28 .

but would keep the power to implement the decision ConflictWorkers might be given the opportunity to exert "Negotiating" strategies to solve their own differences Performance AppraisalsPromotions also occur on a regular basis.Comparison & Contrast of Management Theories Theory X Motivation styleThreats and disciplinary action are used more effectively in this situation. 29 . one way communicator ConflictIntolerant Performance AppraisalsAppraisals occur on a regular basis Theory Y Motivation styleRewarding LeadershipParticipative Power & AuthorityThe manager would take suggestions from workers. also monetary gain. LeadershipAuthoritarian Power & AuthorityArrogant.

30 . as it were. on the other hand. and also their role within the company. Theory Y are. and do only that which is necessary to get the job done to minimum standards. while their views of the tasks remains the same in both cases: that is. Their desire is to be more productive and enable the company to succeed. one of specialisation. Albeit that Theory Y suggests that the workers would become very good at their particular tasks. self motivated. threats. McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y managers seem to have a much more formal leadership style and managers seem to have different views of the workers. While the Theory X worker is said to require force. Theory X workers. this allows them to focus on the task. punch the time clock.Summary & Conclusions: With respect to overall management style. and doing a particular task. again. because they are free to improve the processes and make suggestions. and possibly even disciplinary action. seem to have just enough self motivation to show up at work.

mostly the humanistic perspective evolved into what is known as the Modern Approach to management. 31 .Modern Approach to management Elements of various perspectives.

Modern Approach includes the following three theories and their contributors:  Open Systems  Contingency Thinking  Lessons from the Japanese management style (theory z) 32 .

33 . transforms them.Open Systems A system is defined as a group of interacting units or elements that have a common purpose. Therefore Open systems refer to systems that interact with other systems or the outside environment. In other words organizations is an entity that takes inputs from the environment. and releases them as outputs in sequence with mutual effects on the organization itself along with the environment in which the organization operates.

For example. They convert these inputs into outputs. The three major characteristics of open systems are: They receive inputs or energy from their environment. living organisms are considered open systems because they take in substances from their environment such as food and air and return other substances to their environment. 34 . They discharge their outputs into their environment.Open Systems Open systems refer to systems that interact with other systems or the outside environment.

Profit/Loss 35 . Information Management & Production Process Products/Services. Material. funds. and materials to produce goods or to provide services and they design their subsystems to attain these goals. equipment. INPUT TRANSFORMATION OUTPUT Labour. Finances.Companies use inputs such as labour.

feedback. Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn. and management linking the subsystems. environmental forces such as customers and competitors exert considerable influence on corporations. 36 .Open Systems Two early pioneers in this effort. highlighting the essential relationship between an organization and its environment as well as the importance of maintaining external inputs to achieve a stable organization. For example. began viewing organizations as open systems with specialized and interdependent subsystems and processes of communication. Katz and Kahn argued that the closed-system approach fails to take into account how organizations are reciprocally dependent on external environments.

37 .Contingency Perspective The contingency approach to management is an extension of the humanistic perspective which is based on the idea that in an organization there is no one best way in the management process (planning. and controlling) to successfully resolve any tailored circumstances. organizing. people. Thus. because organizations. and situations vary and change over time. leading. the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies.

Contingency Perspective of Management Contingency View Unique Situation Universal View 38 .

the more difficult it is to resolve conflict. Their important contribution to this approach was as follows: The more dynamic and diverse the environment. Less changeable environments require a lesser degree of differentiation but still require a high degree of integration. the higher the degree of both differentiation and integration required for successful organization. The more differentiated an organization. 39 . integration tends to be achieved at the top end of the management hierarchy. the integrating functions tend to be carried out by middle and low-level managers where the environment is stable.The contingency approach was suggested by two American academics. Lawrence and Lorsch in 1967. Where the environment is uncertain.

in the 1960s and 1970s. Fiedler suggests that the degree to which subordinates like or trust the leader.Also. For example. He identified that various aspects of the situation had an impact on the effectiveness of different leadership styles. Fred Fiedler. 40 . and the formal authority possessed by the leader are key determinants of the leadership situation. the degree to which the task is structured. Task-oriented or relationship oriented leadership should would each work if they fit the characteristics of the situation. was an early pioneer in this area.

which he called Theory X. 41 . McGregor presented an alternative set of assumptions that he called Theory Y and were more positive about human nature as it relates to employees. and ultimately more effective management styles and Theory Y became a well-known prescription for improving management practices. It was in this atmosphere that Theory Z was introduced into the management lexicon.Japanese Management Style Theory Z McGregor. He asserted that these assumptions limited the potential for growth of many employees. companies led some to examine Japanese management practices for clues to the success enjoyed by many of their industries. S. identified a negative set of assumptions about human nature. managers who adopted Theory Y beliefs would exhibit different. more humanistic. In McGregor's view. Concerns about the competitiveness of U. This led to many articles and books purporting to explain the success of Japanese companies.

Employ a large number of temporary employees mostly women. Promote from within. The key features of Japanese industrial organizations. according to Ouchi are as follows: Offer lifetime employment (at least for their core workers). There is a high degree of mutual trust and loyalty between management and employees.Theory Z is humanistic approach to management approach by William Ouchi. 42 . Insist on mandatory retirement of core workers at age 55.

The key features of Japanese industrial organizations: Career paths are non-specialized with life-long job rotation as a central feature of career development. Performance appraisal is long term (ie the first appraisal takes place 10 years after joining the company). 43 . Decision making is shared at all levels. And cooperation effort rather than individual achievement is encouraged. There is a strong sense of collective responsibility for the success of the organization.

he believes that certain features could be applied in a Western context. says Ouchi: “Has the objective of developing the ability of the organization to coordinate people.Although Ouchi recognizes that many of the features of Japanese management could not be translated into Western industrial society. not technology to achieve productivity.” 44 . The move from the present hierarchical type of organization to a Theory Z type organization is a process which.

In his view. this requires a new philosophy of managing people based on a combination of the following features of Japanese management: Lifelong employment prospects Shared forms of decision-making Relationship between boss and subordinate based on mutual respect 45 .

46 . supervisors and their teams. Implementation of the new approach should be carried through on the basis of consultation and communication with the workforce and with full training support to develop relevant skills for managers.According to Ouchi the introduction of Theory Z approaches into Western firms requires the following strategy: Adoption of a “Top down” approach. based on definition of the new philosophy agreed and supported by the organization’s top management.

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