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**In 3-D, because the determination of the distance can be tedious, a vector approach becomes advantageous. ˆ ˆ ˆ k i j r r r r r r M o = r × F = rx ry rz Mo = r × F Fx Fy Fz
**

r ˆ ˆ M o = (ry Fz − rz Fy )i + (rz Fx − rx Fz ) ˆ + (rx Fy − ry Fx )k j

r F

+

Fz z

r r

x

Fy Fx y +

Mx = − Fyrz + Fzry My = Fxrz − Fzrx Mz= −Fxry +Fyrx

A

rz

y z

O

rx

ry x

+

**Moment about an arbitrary axis
**

λ

r MO

ˆ n

r Mλ

r F

r r

O

Find moment about λ axis 1. Calculate moment r r r Mo = r × F 2. Calculate projection of moment on λ axis r r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ M λ = ( M O ⋅ n) n = ( r × F ⋅ n) n

ˆ i r r ˆ ( r × F ⋅ n) = rx Fx

ˆ j ry Fy

ˆ k ˆ rz .(αi + βˆ + γk ) j ˆ Fz

αiˆ + βˆ + γk j ˆ

β

ry Fy rx rz = Fx α Fz

α

γ

= rx Fx

ry Fy

rz Fz

β

γ

.Varignon’s Theorem r F1 r O A r F3 r F2 ..) r r = r × (∑ F ) r r r r r M o = ∑ (r × F ) = r × R .Sum of the moments of a system of concurrent forces about a given point equals the moment of their sum about the same point r r r r r r r r r r r M o = r × F1 + r × F2 + r × F3 + ... = r × ( F1 + F2 + F3 + .

Direction: normal to the plane of the two forces (right hand rule) .r = vector from any point on the line of action of − F to any r point on the line of action of F . r r r r r r r r M = rA × F + rB × (− F ) = (rA − rB ) × F r F O r r r M = r×F r r .Couples(1) r M r −F d r rB B r r r A rA -Couple is a moment produced by two force of equal magnitude but opposite in direction.Moment of a couple is the same about all point Couple may be represented as a free vector. .Recall: Moment of force about a point is a sliding vector. .

the line of action or point of action are not needed!!! .Couples(2) r M1 r M2 r − F2 r − F1 r F1 r M r M2 r M1 r F2 r −F r F [Couple from F1]+[Couple from F2] = [Couple from F1+F2] couples are free vector.

M = r × F = Moment of F about point B r .r is a vector start from point B to any point on the line of r action of F .Force – couple systems r F A r F A r F r r r M = r×F r F B A B B r r r −F Couple No changes in the net external effects r r r r .

Determine the moment Mz of T about the z-axis passing through the base O. .Sample 1 A Tension T of magnitude 10 kN is applied to the cable attached to the top A of the rigid mast and secured to the ground at B.

Specify the two force F and –F. . The 30-N forces act parallel to the y-z plane. which may replace the four given forces.Sample 2 Determine the magnitude and direction of the couple M which will replace the two given couples and still produce the same external effect on the block. applied in the two faces of the block parallel to the y-z plane.

Describe this couple as a vector M. In determining the effect of the force on the shaft at a cross section such as that at O.Sample 3 A force of 400 N is applied at A to the handle of the control lever which is attached to the fixed shaft OB. we may replace the force by an equivalent force at O and a couple. .

.Sample 4 If the magnitude of the moment of F about line CD is 50 Nm. determine the magnitude of F.

4 N. Determine the moment about the x-axis of this tension force acting on point A . What is the moment of the tension force acting at A about line OB .Sample 5 Tension in cable AB is 143. Compare your result to the moment of the weight W of the 15-kg uniform plate about the x-axis.

z-axis 1. Determine unit vector 3. cosθ = nF・ n . Determine unit vectors (nF.Summary (Force-Moment 3-D) Force 1. Force can be calculate Angle between force and x-. Determine coordinate 2.y-. n) 2. cosθy = Fy/F. cosθz = Fz/F Angle between force and arbitrary axis 1. cosθx = Fx/F. Determine amplitude of force F 3. Force = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk 2.

Summary (Force-Moment 3-D) Moment Vector method Moment about an arbitrary point O 1. Determine moment about any point on the axis MO 2. Moment about the axis = MO・n Angle between moment and axis Consider to use vector method or scalar method Same as angle between force and axis . Cross vector Moment about an arbitrary axis 1. Determine r and F 2. Determine unit vector of the axis n 3.

Resultants(1) Step1 Select a point to find moment Step2 Replace forces with forces at point O + couples Step3 Add forces and couples vectorially to get the resultant force and moment r r r r r R = F1 + F2 + F3 + .. = ∑ (r × F ) .... = ∑ F r r r r r r M = M 1 + M 2 + M 3 + .

r M r R 3-D r M2 v v M2 ⊥ R M2 and R can be replaced by one force R by changing the position of R.Resultants(2) 2-D r F B M=Fd B A A r F v v M ⊥F Force + couple can be replaced by a force F by changing the position of F. v v M 1 // R M1 can not be replaced O r M1 .

Wrench resultant(1) M2=Rd .

Wrench resultant(2) 2-D: All force systems can be represented with only one resultant force or couple 3-D: All force systems can be represented with a wrench resultant Wrench: resultant couple M parallel to the resultant force R r r .

Solve with a vector approach. .Sample 6 Determine the resultant of the system of parallel forces which act on the plate.

.Sample 7 Replace the two forces and the negative wrench by a single force R applied at A and the corresponding couple M.

. Also find the magnitude of the couple M of the wrench.Sample 8 Determine the wrench resultant of the three forces acting on the bracket. Calculate the coordinates of the point P in the x-y plane through which the resultant force of the wrench acts.

Sample 9 The resultant of the two forces and couple may be represented by a wrench. Determine the vector expression for the moment M of the wrench and find the coordinates of the point P in the x-z plane through which the resultant force of the wrench passes .

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