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An eight weeks summer internship Project report on Todays Scope Of Commodity Market In India.

-By Plaban Kundu



1. Profile page. 2.Subject Of the Study and name of guides.. 3. Acknowledgement. 4. Declaration by Student 5. Executive Summary 6.Project Schedule 7. About the company 8. About the Commodity Market... MCX ... NCDEX. Top three commodities.. Market Structure. Other information..

3 4 5 6 7 8 9-12 13-37 19-20 20-21 22-27 28 28-37

9. Research Methodology..... 10. Data Analysis..... 11. Findings and Recommendation. 12. Learning.. 13. Glossary.. 14. Reference.. 15.Attachment

38-39 40-54 55-56 57-59 59 61 62-66


Summer Internship Project Report

Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of Postgraduate Diploma in Business Management Program in





COLLEGE GUIDES Mr. Arnab Chakrabarty Mr. Ajay Sharma Mr. D. K. Ahuja

Mr. Suvranil Chatterjee Mr. Ayan Biswas Mrs. Moumita Chatterjee


When I started my SIP I founded it very difficult because I have to work as a Junior Relationship Manager and I was totally unaware of what to do and whom to approach , but slowly as progressed, I did realize that I was not alone after all! There were friends and well wishers, their generous help and support made it a relative easier. Summer Internship Program is an integral part of any post graduate diploma program and for that purpose I had joined a company what else can be as good as NIRMAL BANG SECURITIES PVT LTD, Indias premier stock broking firm. This company helps me to gain practical knowledge of how a broking company works. I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Goutam Bag who is regional head of Nirmal Bang Pvt. Ltd. in Kolkata. My special obligations to my company guide Mr. Suvranil Chatterjee(Sales Head), Moumita Chatterjee ( Manager Equity), and Mr. Ayan Bswas(Manager Equity ) who has directed me all the way. They had shared their experience which has helped me to be able to attempt this project. I like to thank Prof. D K Ahuja, Prof Ajay Sharma, Mr. Arnab Chakraborty our faculty guide, who guided us accordingly where ever needed and was always ready to clear all our doubts & queries. I also like to thanks Mr. Joydeep Ghosh & Mr. Sandeep (A.V.P. in Nirmal Bang, Kolkata) and Mr. Abhishek Saha (Manager-Commodity) who extended their kind help, guidance and suggestion without which; it could not have been possible for me to complete this project. Interacting with them I learnt few tricks of professional management and I am sure the knowledge imparted will go in a long way in enriching my career. I also like to thank all our faculties who have taught us and have shared their experience with us which has helped us in doing our project. Last but not the least, I would like to show my gratitude to all those people who have provided me assistance and help in completion of this project whose names could not have been included due to paucity of space.



I hereby declare that this project report titled


Is submitted by me to MASTER SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, MEERUT is a bonafide work undertaken by me and it is not submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any Degree / Diploma / Certificate or published any time before.

Place: Meerut ...............................................................





Executive Summary
In the times of economic recession and global meltdown, when global stock indices are breaching their previous lows, stock prices are falling headlong making new lows every day, and business newspapers like The Economic Times are coming up with headlines like Saare Zameen Par on a regular basis, investors are really worried about their investment. The market volatility really effects the investors investment in a very large way. So, in this project I will try to find out how the market volatility effect the stock market where people invest and how the investors are really overcome this market volatility situation. The equity markets have been on a roller-coaster ride in the past few weeks. While India is relatively shielded from the sub-prime problem, its alignment to international markets and an increased presence of foreign investors, especially hedge funds, has made our stock markets move in tandem with global markets. investors are looking for some other place to invest their hard-earned money. Commodity market is one such market which has provided a good opportunity to the investors to earn good returns. People are looking to diversify their portfolios to maximize their return on investment. Commodity market is one such place where some good money can be made. Commodity prices are on the rise and the further outlook for the boom in these markets is positive. Analysts expect the commodity market to provide hefty returns to the investors money. Investors at this time are facing the all-important question of how to insulate themselves from this heavy volatility? To answer this question, let us look at the options available for an equity investor. There are three main investment avenues for a person wishing to invest in equities. These are direct equities, equity mutual funds and portfolio management schemes. Many investors prefer direct equities, since it gives them the freedom to make their own decisions and adequate flexibility to manage their portfolios. However, most investors are lost as to what and when they should buy or sell, and often rely on market tips, which can be dangerous. Others prefer mutual funds, especially through the systematic investment plan route, since it gives them professional fund management expertise and zero headache, but at a higher cost. So, in this project I will try to analyze that how the market volatility effect the Indian Stock market and the commodity market as well as the investors who invest in Stock market. Thus, I would like to cover certain aspects of the equity markets as a whole to find out whether it is a safe place to invest or not.



Stage 1

9th May

First day in Nirmal Bang Training on the services provided by Nirmal Bang

Stage 2

(10 14) May

Stage 3

(15 20) May

Collecting information about Equity & commodity market. Fixing appointments with clients through tele calling from the database provided by the company. Visiting the clients with senior manager and convince them to invest in Equity & commodity market through Nirmal Bang. Visiting franchisee owners to make them aware about the promotional offers and take Nirmal Bang franchisee. Online trading training through online terminals & learning investment technique Preparing questionnaire & Analysis of data collected through questionnaire Preparation of final project report under the guidance of both internal and external guide

Stage 4

(21th May-4th June)

Stage 5

(5 12 ) June

Stage 6

(13 17) June

Stage 7

(18th June -3rd July )

Stage 8

(4th 8th)July



Nirmal Bang Group is one of the largest retail broking houses in India, providing the investors state of art services in capital markets in the country. They are a financial services company in India, offering a wide range of financial products and services targeted at retail investors, high net worth individuals and corporate and institutional clients. The Group has memberships of Bombay Stock Exchange Limited, National Stock Exchange of India Limited, Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited, National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange limited and is also a Depository participant of NSDL and CDS (I) L, the Depositories of the country. Our principal group companies are: Nirmal Bang Securities Private Limited Member- National Stock Exchange of India Limited Member- Bombay Stock Exchange Limited Participant- National Securities Depository Limited Participant- Central Depository Services (India) Limited Nirmal Bang Commodities Private Limited Member- Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited Member- National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd Bang Equity Broking Private Limited Member- Bombay Stock Exchange Limited Nadi Finance & Investment Private Limited

RBI registered Non Banking Finance Company

Shresth Financial & Insurance Services Pvt Ltd

We started in 1986 under the leadership of Late Shri Nirmal Bang and have grown steadily and progressively since then. Our clients as well as Business Partners have contributed tremendously to our growth we recognize and applaud this, we value our relationship with them and for their convenience have all investing avenues under one roof. It is a consistent profit making company from Last 5 years. Its an extremely well capitalized company with high Net worth (more than 4000 crore).

EQUITY AND DERIVATIVES Trading platform for equities and equity derivatives on NSE and BSEthe Company has a reach of over 100 branches at 36 locations in the country to cater to retail and high net worth individuals. The branches constitute of self owned hubs and franchise/ remissers/ sub broker through whom the business is sourced. COMMODITIES Trading platform for commodities on NCDEX and MCX- Commodity trading facility is provided to all the clients at all the centers and location. The company is planning to establish itself as a leading research center for commodities market in the country. DISTRIBUTION Distribution of retail finance products Mutual Funds and IPOs. The group is empanelled with all the Fund Houses in the country to sell their Mutual Fund and NFOs using the retail network. IPOs selling is undertaking from all the branches of the company



FINANCIAL ADVISORY SERVICES Investment and trading advisory services to its clients based on technical, fundamental and market research- The Company has one of the best fundamental research and technical analysis teams in the company. We release reports based on fundamental research of industries, sectors, companies and individual stock to our clients on a basis. The technical research team gives the clients recommendations using charting tools like Falcon and Metastock. Comprehensive reports on volume breakouts, delivery reports and F&O open interest positions are given to all the clients.

S W O T analysis Of NIRMAL BANG


Company having young management team which consists of very talented and knowledge professionals from different fields.


Nirmal Bang is a well capitalized group with net worth of more than 3500 crores. Company is unaffected in this global recession which shows companys never say die sprits. It means company is armed with proper resources to fight any adverse situation. Companys research team provides tremendous research calls to their clients which almost hits and generates level of satisfaction to clients.

Investors are not completely aware of Nirmal Bang, so the brand value of the company is low. The market share of the company in commodity and equity market in terms of turnover is not significant.

The growth of capital market is very high. Investors are now ready to invest their money in this market because the return is much higher compare to other place for investment, so they are ready to bear risk factor associated with it. It means volume will increase year by year in this sector. As Nirmal Bang having its presence in 36 location of the country, so company has good opportunities to extents its branches all over the country. Company has not come yet with its own IPO, this is a good chance for the company to be a public limited company which will help company to get money and create brand awareness in this market.

Company has to face a tough competition from major market leaders, so it will be a difficult task for Nirmal Bang to sustain itself in this cut throat competitions. Recently financial market is not performing well due to global recession and investors have suffered a huge loss, so investors now investing their money at much safer place instead of this market.




Some facts on domestic markets

Largest consumer of Gold, accounting for more than 23% of global demand.

Third largest industrial consumer of Silver after America and Japan.

One of the major producers of Soy bean. Largest importer of edible oils in the world. Worlds leading producer of 17 Agri Commodities. Over 30 Major Markets and 7500 Mandies.




The commodities market is one of the fastest-growing areas in the investment world. And it offers some major advantages over stocks that you might not have considered before. Recently, commodity market is booming irrespective of global meltdown and recession. When equity market is underperforming, this commodity market has given tremendous returns in gold, silver, zinc and in other metals and agro-products; hence people have withdrawn their funds from equity market and shifted their investment in commodity market. Commodity investing was initially received well only by a few sectors. Such investments were first restricted to the trade and exchange of commodities meant for regular and day to day use. However, the awareness in the subsequent stages has brought all sectors into the manifold of commodity investing and has enabled speedy movements, transfer and transaction of goods and services.



Introduction to Commodity Market

What is Commodity?

Any product that can be used for commerce or an article of commerce which is traded on an authorized commodity exchange is known as commodity. The article should be movable of value, something which is bought or sold and which is produced or used as the subject or barter or sale. In short commodity includes all kinds of goods. Indian Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1952 defines goods as every kind of movable property other than actionable claims, money and securities. In current situation, all goods and products of agricultural (including plantation), mineral and fossil origin are allowed for commodity trading recognized under the FCRA. The national commodity exchanges, recognized by the Central Government, permits commodities which include precious (gold and silver) and non-ferrous metals, cereals and pulses, ginned and un-ginned cotton, oilseeds, oils and oilcakes, raw jute and jute goods, sugar and gur, potatoes and onions, coffee and tea, rubber and spices. Etc.
What is a commodity exchange?

A commodity exchange is an association or a company or any other body corporate organizing futures trading in commodities for which license has been granted by regulating authority. What is Commodity Futures? A Commodity futures is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell a specified and standardized quantity of a commodity at a certain time in future at a price agreed upon at the time of entering into the contract on the commodity futures exchange. The need for a futures market arises mainly due to the hedging function that it can perform. Commodity markets, like any other financial instrument, involve risk associated with frequent price volatility. The loss due to price volatility can be attributed to the following reasons:



Consumer Preferences: - In the short-term, their influence on price volatility is small since it is a slow process permitting manufacturers, dealers and wholesalers to adjust their inventory in advance. Changes in supply: - They are abrupt and unpredictable bringing about wild fluctuations in prices. This can especially noticed in agricultural commodities where the weather plays a major role in affecting the fortunes of people involved in this industry. The futures market has evolved to neutralize such risks through a mechanism; namely hedging.

The objectives of Commodity futures: Hedging with the objective of transferring risk related to the possession of physical assets through any adverse moments in price. Liquidity and Price discovery to ensure base minimum volume in trading of a commodity through market information and demand supply factors that facilitates a regular and authentic price discovery mechanism.

Maintaining buffer stock and better allocation of resources as it augments reduction in inventory requirement and thus the exposure to risks related with price fluctuation declines. Resources can thus be diversified for investments. Price stabilization along with balancing demand and supply position. Futures trading leads to predictability in assessing the domestic prices, which maintains stability, thus safeguarding against any short term adverse price movements. Liquidity in Contracts of the commodities traded also ensures in maintaining the equilibrium between demand and supply. Flexibility, certainty and transparency in purchasing commodities facilitate bank financing. Predictability in prices of commodity would lead to stability, which in turn would eliminate the risks associated with running the business of trading commodities. This would make funding easier and less stringent for banks to commodity market players.



Benefits of Commodity Futures Markets:The primary objectives of any futures exchange are authentic price discovery and an efficient price risk management. The beneficiaries include those who trade in the commodities being offered in the exchange as well as those who have nothing to do with futures trading. It is because of price discovery and risk management through the existence of futures exchanges that a lot of businesses and services are able to function smoothly.

1. Price Discovery:-Based on inputs regarding specific market information, the demand and supply equilibrium, weather forecasts, expert views and comments, inflation rates, Government policies, market dynamics, hopes and fears, buyers and sellers conduct trading at futures exchanges. This transforms in to continuous price discovery mechanism. The execution of trade between buyers and sellers leads to assessment of fair value of a particular commodity that is immediately disseminated on the trading terminal. 2. Price Risk Management: - Hedging is the most common method of price risk management. It is strategy of offering price risk that is inherent in spot market by taking an equal but opposite position in the futures market. Futures markets are used as a mode by hedgers to protect their business from adverse price change. This could dent the profitability of their business. Hedging benefits who are involved in trading of commodities like farmers, processors, merchandisers, manufacturers, exporters, importers etc. Import- Export competitiveness: - The exporters can hedge their price risk and improve their competitiveness by making use of futures market. A majority of traders which are involved in physical trade internationally intend to buy forwards. The purchases made from the physical market might expose them to the risk of price risk resulting to losses. The existence of futures market would allow the exporters to hedge their proposed purchase by temporarily substituting for actual purchase till the time is ripe to buy in physical market. In the absence of futures market it will be meticulous, time consuming and costly physical transactions.


4. Predictable Pricing: - The demand for certain commodities is highly price elastic. The manufacturers have to ensure that the prices should be stable in order to protect their market share with the free entry of imports. Futures contracts will enable predictability in domestic prices. The manufacturers can, as a result, smooth out the influence of changes in their input prices very easily. With no futures market, the manufacturer can be caught between severe short-term price movements of oils and necessity to maintain price stability, which could only be possible through sufficient financial reserves that could otherwise be utilized for making other profitable investments. 5. Benefits for farmers/Agriculturalists: - Price instability has a direct bearing on farmers in the absence of futures market. There would be no need to have large reserves to cover against unfavorable price fluctuations. This would reduce the risk premiums associated with the marketing or processing margins enabling more returns on produce. Storing more and being more active in the markets. The price



information accessible to the farmers determines the extent to which traders/processors increase price to them. Since one of the objectives of futures exchange is to make available these prices as far as possible, it is very likely to benefit the farmers. Also, due to the time lag between planning and production, the market-determined price information disseminated by futures exchanges would be crucial for their production decisions. 6. Credit accessibility: - The absence of proper risk management tools would attract the marketing and processing of commodities to high-risk exposure making it risky business activity to fund. Even a small movement in prices can eat up a huge proportion of capital owned by traders, at times making it virtually impossible to payback the loan. There is a high degree of reluctance among banks to fund commodity traders, especially those who do not manage price risks. If in case they do, the interest rate is likely to be high and terms and conditions very stringent. This posses a huge obstacle in the smooth functioning and competition of commodities market. Hedging, which is possible through futures markets, would cut down the discount rate in commodity lending. 7. Improved product quality: - The existence of warehouses for facilitating delivery with grading facilities along with other related benefits provides a very strong reason to upgrade and enhance the quality of the commodity to grade that is acceptable by the exchange. It ensures uniform standardization of commodity trade, including the terms of quality standard: the quality certificates that are issued by the exchangecertified warehouses have the potential to become the norm for physical trade.




Headquartered in the financial capital of India, Mumbai, MCX ( is a demutualised nationwide electronic multi commodity futures exchange set up by Financial Technologies with permanent recognition from Government of India for facilitating online trading, clearing & settlement operations for futures market across the country. The exchange started operations in November 2003. Apart from being accredited with ISO 9001:2000 for quality standards, MCX offers futures trading in 55 commodities as on December 31, 2007, defined in terms of the type of contracts offered, from various market segments including bullion, energy, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, oils and oil seeds, cereals, pulses, plantations, spices and plastics. The exchange strives to be at the forefront of developments in the commodities futures industry and has forged ten strategic alliances across the world, including with Tokyo Commodity Exchange, Chicago Climate Exchange, London Metal Exchange, New York Mercantile Exchange, New York Board of Trade and Bursa Malaysia Derivatives, Berhad. Mr. Venkat Chary is the Chairman and Mr. Joseph Massey is Managing Director and CEO of MCX.

Key shareholders:
The Key shareholders in MCX are: State Bank of India and its associates (SBI), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE), SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd., Bank of India (BoI), Bank of Baroda (BoB), Union Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Canara Bank, HDFC Bank, Benett Coleman & Company Limited, Fid Fund (Mauritius) Ltd. - an affiliate of Fidelity International, ICICI Trusteeship Service Limited, IL&FS Trust Company Limited, Kotak group, Citibank Strategic Holdings Mauritius Limited, Merrill Lynch Holdings (Mauritius) and Financial Technologies of India Ltd.



Product wise Volumes - MCX

Product wise Volumes - Feb

Product wise Volumes - May

1.35 10.40 2.23 7.74
















National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) is a professionally managed on-line multi commodity exchange. NCDEX is the only commodity exchange in the country promoted by national level institutions. This unique parentage enables it to offer a bouquet of benefits, which are currently in short supply in the commodity markets. The institutional promoters and shareholders of NCDEX are prominent players in their respective fields and bring with them institutional building experience, trust, nationwide reach, technology and risk management skills. NCDEX is a public limited company incorporated on April 23, 2003 under the Companies Act, 1956. It obtained its Certificate for Commencement of Business on May 9, 2003. It commenced its operations on December 15, 2003. NCDEX is a nation-level, technology driven on-line commodity exchange with an independent Board of Directors and professional management - both not having any vested interest in commodity markets. It is committed to provide a world-class commodity exchange platform for market participants to trade in a wide spectrum of commodity derivatives driven by best global practices, professionalism and transparency. Forward Markets Commission regulates NCDEX. NCDEX is subjected to various laws of the land like the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, Companies Act, Stamp Act, Contract Act and various other legislations. NCDEX is located in Mumbai and offers facilities to its members about 550 centers throughout India. The reach



will gradually be expanded to more centers. NCDEX currently facilitates trading of 57 commodities. Promoter shareholders: Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and National Stock Exchange of India LTD.(NSE). Other shareholders: Canara Bank, CRISIL Limited (formerly the Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited), Goldman Sachs, Intercontinental Exchange (ICE), Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) and Punjab National Bank (PNB). Mr. R. Ramaseshan is the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of NCDEX.

Product wise Volumes - NCDEX

Productwise February Volumes
Productwise May Volumes
13.39 3.00 2.43

3.85 20.22 30.58

12.00 60.50















Gold is the worlds oldest international currency and has played a role in most countries currency system for well over two thousand years. Since the breakdown of the Breton Woods system in the early 1970s, gold has no longer been the formal backbone of the international monetary system and under IMF rules member countries can no longer back their currencies by it. Gold, nevertheless, retains certain monetary functions and is considered by some as the ultimate form of payment.

Gold, often called a safe haven instrument is good for diversification of portfolio. In any asset portfolio, it rarely makes sense to have all your eggs in one basket. Obviously the price of gold is prone to fluctuation, but so do exchange and interest rates of the currencies held in reserves.

Major Characteristics Gold (Chemical Symbol-Au) is primarily a monetary asset and partly a commodity. Gold is the world's oldest international currency. Gold is an important element of global monetary reserves. With regards to investment value, more than two-thirds of gold's total accumulated holdings is with central banks' reserves, private players, and held in the form of high-karat jewellery. Less than one-third of gold's total accumulated holdings are used as commodity for jewellery in the western markets and industry. Demand and Supply Scenario Gold demand in 2010 reached a 10-year high of 3,812.2 tonnes, worth US$150billon, as a result of;
o o o o

strong growth in jewellery demand; the revival of the Indian market; strong momentum in Chinese gold demand and a paradigm shift in the official sector, where central banks became net purchasers of gold for the first time in 21 years.


China was the world's largest gold producer with 340.88 tonnes in 2010, followed by the United States and South Africa. In 2010, India was the world's largest gold consumer with an annual demand of 963 tonnes. The total supply of gold coming onto the market in 2010 reached 4,108 tonnes, a rise of 2% from 2009 levels.


Bull Run in Gold Gold has remained one of the top performing assets since the start of the US sub-prime crisis, which has not only derailed the United States economy but also resulted in a sharp decline in global growth. Gold has preserved and enhanced the wealth of investors during times of highest uncertainties. It is one of the best alternative investments in financial markets. Weakness in various currencies against dollar has added fuel to bullish sentiments causing prices to move further up due to a weaker currency. Despite weak retail demand, robust investment demand has resulted in a sharp upside in gold. Gold has started moving up due to a weaker dollar, rising crude oil prices and inflationary concerns across the globe since the start of the sub-prime crisis in Aug 07. Gold is traditionally seen as a hedge against inflation. Global inflation was moving up briskly because of rising crude oil prices, which touched $147 per barrel. After the sharp decline in crude oil prices, we have seen de-leveraging in commodities causing gold prices to move down. Crude oil prices went down from $147 per barrel to $35 per barrel in a span of seven months. Retail demand of gold was seen going down, inflationary concerns moderated across the globe and last but not the least the dollar also strengthened significantly in last two to three months. So all the factors, which supported the Bull Run in gold were against the yellow metal. What then supported the recent rally in gold?

Gold is primarily driven by uncertainties in the financial market. When we say uncertainties, we refer to inter-bank lending activity, which is the heart of the financial market. Since the start of 09, we are observing three months dollar LIBOR, which implies that the cost of borrowing of dollars has gone up from 1.08 to 1.26, which is more than 15%. When Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy, three months dollar LIBOR shot by two times and gold prices shot by more than $120 an ounce in two to three days. The US Federal Reserve has cut its interest rate from 5.25% to 00.25%. This sharp drop in interest rates puts gold at par with cash, making it more attractive to buy. Investment demand in gold remained robust despite the fact that since the start of 09, India which remains the top consumer of gold has seen a sharp drop in imports due to higher prices. But investment demand by the largest traded ETF SPDR Trusts holdings shot up by nearly 20% in the last one month to 1,029 tonnes (as on 28th Feb 09).

Indian Scenario Gold is valued in India as a savings and investment vehicle and is the second preferred investment after bank deposits. India is the world's largest consumer of gold in jewellery as investment. In July 1997 the RBI authorized the commercial banks to import gold for sale or loan to jewellers and exporters. At present, 13 banks are active in the import of gold. This reduced the disparity between international and domestic prices of gold from 57 percent during 1986 to 1991 to 8.5 percent in 2001. The gold hoarding tendency is well ingrained in Indian society. Domestic consumption is dictated by monsoon, harvest and marriage season. Indian jewellery off take is sensitive to price increases and even more so to volatility. In the cities gold is facing competition from the stock market and a wide range of consumer goods. Facilities for refining, assaying, making them into standard bars in India, as compared to the rest of the world are insignificant, both qualitatively and quantitatively.



India is the largest market for gold jewellery in the world. 2010 was a record year for Indian jewellery demand; at 745.7 tonnes, annual demand was 13% above the previous peak in 1998. In local currency terms, Indian jewellery demand more than doubled in 2010. A 20% rise in the rupee price of gold combined with a 69% rise in the volume of demand, pushed up the value of gold demand by 101% to 1,342 billion. This compares with 2009 demand of 669 billon. The rising price of gold, particularly in the latter half of 2010, created a 'virtuous circle' of higher price expectations among Indian consumers, which fuelled purchases, thereby further driving up local prices. Factors Influencing the Market Above ground supply of gold from central bank's sale, reclaimed scrap, and official gold loans. Hedging interest of producers/miners. World macroeconomic factors such as the US Dollar and interest rate, and economic events. Commodity-specific events such as the construction of new production facilities or processes, unexpected mine or plant closures, or industry restructuring, all affect metal prices. In India, gold demand is also determined to a large extent by its price level and volatility. Gold in future market

Investors can enter the market via futures exchanges, where people trade in contracts to buy or sell a particular commodity at a fixed price on a certain future date. In India, we have MCX. The COMEX division of the New York Mercantile Exchange is the world's largest gold futures market in terms of trading volume. The Tokyo Commodity exchange, popularly known as TOCOM, is the most important futures market in Asia. China launched its first gold futures contract on Jan 9. Several other countries, including India, Dubai and Turkey, have also launched similar futures exchanges.

Measurement Weight Conversion Table To convert from To Troy ounces Grams Million ounces Tonnes Grams Troy ounces Kilograms Troy ounces Tonnes Troy ounces Kilograms Tolas Kilograms Taels Kilograms Bahts Troy ounces Grains Troy ounces Avoirdupois ounces Troy ounces Penny weights

Multiply by 31.1035 31.1035 0.0321507 32.1507 32,150.70 85.755 26.7172 68.41 480.00 1.09714 20.00



Avoirdupois ounces Short tonne

Troy ounces Metric tonne

0.911458 0.9072

Silver's unique properties make it a very useful 'Industrial Commodity', despite it being classed as a precious metal. Demand for silver is built on three main pillars; industrial uses, photography and Jewellery & silverware accounting for 342, 205 and 259 million ounces respectively in 2002. Just over half of mined silver comes from Mexico, Peru and United States, respectively, the first, second and fourth largest producing countries. The third largest is Australia. Primary mines produce about 27 percent of world silver, while around 73 percent comes as a by-product of gold, copper, lead, and zinc mining. The price of silver is not only a function of its primary output but more a function of the price of other metals also, as world mine production is more a function of the prices of other metals. The tie between silver and economic activity is strong, given that around two-thirds of total silver fabrication is in the industrial and photographic sectors. Often a faster growth in demand against supply leads to drop in stocks with government and investors.

Demand and Supply Scenario Silverware achieved an increase of 4.6%, owing to stock-related gains in India. Demand for coins and medals surged yet higher from 2008, rising by 20.7% to reach a new record high of 78.7 Moz (2,447 t) in 2009 on the back of strong investment demand. In 2009, implied net investment soared to 136.9 Moz (4,258 t), buoyed by safe haven concerns, which led to strong inflows into both ETFs and physical investment. Scrap supply continued to decrease in 2009 by almost 6% to 165.7 Moz, despite a strong recovery in prices over the year. Most notable increases were seen in Bolivia and Argentina (both +6.8 Moz) with by largest single decline coming from Australia (-9.4 Moz). Net government sales fell by just over one half to 13.7 Moz (426t) in 2009, primarily driven by lowest stock sales from Russia, coupled with the continued absence of any disposal from China and India. Indian Scenario Silver imports into India for domestic consumption in 2002 was 3,400 tons down 25 % from record 4,540 tons in 2001.Open General License (OGL) imports are the only significant source of supply to the Indian market. Non-duty paid silver for the export sector rose sharply in 2002, up by close to 200% year-on-year to 150 tons. Around 50% of India's silver requirements last year were met through imports of Chinese silver and other important sources of supply being UK, CIS, Australia and Dubai. Indian industrial demand in 2002 is estimated at 1375 tons down by 13 % from 1,579 tons in 2001. In spite of this fall, India is still one of the largest users of silver in the



world, ranking alongside Industrial giants like Japan and the United States. By contrast with United States and Japan, Indian industrial off take for fabrication in hardcore industrial applications like electronics and brazing alloys accounts for only 15 % and the rest being for foils for use in the decorative covering of food, plating of Jewellery and silverware and jari. In India silver price volatility is also an important determinant of silver demand as it is for gold. India's silver demand averages 2500 tonnes per year, whereas the country's production was around 206.95 tonnes in 2010.Nearly 60% of India's silver demand comes from farmers and rural India, who store their savings in silver bangles and coins. Factors Influencing the Market Economic events such as national industrial growth, global financial crisis, recession, and inflation affect metal prices. Commodity-specific events such as the construction of new production facilities or processes, unexpected mine or plant closures, or industry restructuring, all affect metal prices. Governments set trade policy (implementation or suspension of taxes, penalties, and quotas) that affect supply by regulating (restricting or encouraging) material flow. Geopolitical events involving governments or economic paradigms and armed conflict can cause major changes. A faster growth in demand against supply often leads to a drop in stocks with the government and investors. Silver demand is underpinned by the demand from jewellery and silverware, industrial applications, and overall industrial growth. In India, the real industrial demand occupies a small share in the total industrial demand of silver. This is in sharp contrast to most developed economies. In India, silver demand is also determined to a large extent by its price level and volatility.

Measurement Weight Conversion Table To convert from To 1 Moz Metric tons 1 Ton Troy ounces 1 Ton Grams

Multiply by 31.103 32,511 1,000,000



Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in a liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs. Oil and gas account for about 60 per cent of the total world's primary energy consumption. Almost all industries including agriculture are dependent on oil in one way or other. Oil & lubricants, transportation, petrochemicals, pesticides and insecticides, paints, perfumes, etc. are largely and directly affected by the oil prices. Aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, jet fuel, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, lubricants, paraffin wax, petroleum coke, asphalt and other products are obtained from the processing of crude and other hydrocarbon compounds. The prices of crude are highly volatile. High oil prices lead to inflation that in turn increases input costs; reduces non-oil demand and lower investment in net oil importing countries.

Categories of Crude oil West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil is of very high quality. Its API gravity is 39.6 degrees (making it a "light" crude oil), and it contains only about 0.24 percent of sulphur (making a "sweet" crude oil). WTI is generally priced at about a $2-4 perbarrel premium to OPEC Basket price and about $1-2 per barrel premium to Brent, although on a daily basis the pricing relationships between these can vary greatly. Brent Crude Oil stands as a benchmark for Europe. India is very much reliant on oil from the Middle East (High Sulphur). The OPEC has identified China & India as their main buyers of oil in Asia for several years to come.

Indian Scenario
India ranks among the top 10 largest oil-consuming countries. Oil accounts for about 30 per cent of India's total energy consumption. The country's total oil consumption is about 2.2 million barrels per day. India imports about 70 per cent of its total oil consumption and it makes no exports. India faces a large supply deficit, as domestic oil production is unlikely to keep pace with demand. India's rough production was only 0.8 million barrels per day. The oil reserves of the country (about 5.4 billion barrels) are located primarily in Mumbai High, Upper Assam, Cambay, Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery basins. Balance recoverable reserve was about 733 million tones (in 2003) of which offshore was 394 million tones and on shore was 339 million tones. India had a total of 2.1 million barrels per day in refining capacity. Government has permitted foreign participation in oil exploration, an activity restricted earlier to state owned entities. Indian government in 2002 officially ended the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM). Now crude price is having a high correlation with the international market price. As on date, even the prices of crude bi-products are allowed to vary +/- 10% keeping in line with international crude price, subject to certain government laid down norms/ formulae. Disinvestments/restructuring of public sector units and complete deregulation of Indian retail petroleum products sector is under way.



Market structure Market structure

Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution

Forward Market Commission

Online Exchanges

Outcry exchange

MCX Mumbai

NCDEX Mumbai

NMCE Ahmedabad

NBOT Indore




In 2003, the size of commodities trade stood at Rs.129364 crore, registering an increase of over 94% which thereby went to Rs.571759 crore in 2004 recording an increase of 341%. In 2005, the growth in commodities trade was by 276% as the trade stood at Rs.2, 155,122 crore in 2005. However, in 2006, though the commodities trade increased to Rs.2, 739,340 crore, it could register year on year growth of 27% over the last year. For 2007, the trade in commodity reached at Rs.33, 753, 36 crore and registered a growth of 23%, say the ASSOCHAM-Evalueserve findings. Releasing them, the ASSOCHAM President, Mr. Venugopal N. Dhoot said that the growth in commodities derivatives trading which was at massive level in the last five years would now register by about 30% and reached the projected level of Rs.7415613 crore. Mr. Dhoot said that the commodities market size would not grow at its first phase growth rate as it was beginning but peoples participation in the trade would continue and that is why the growth rate is projected for 30% up to 2010.

GROWTH TREND OF TURNOVER IN INDIAN COMMODITY MARKET Turnover in 2003-04 was Rs.1,29,364 crores Turnover in 2006-07 was Rs.39,32,403 crores Turnover in 2008-09 was Rs.52,48,956 crores Projected increase to Rs.74,15,613 crores in 2010

Farmers/ Producers




Merchandisers/ Traders Importers Exporters Consumers/ Industry Commodity Financers Agriculture Credit providing agencies

Hedging in the futures market is a two-step process. Depending upon the hedger's cash market situation, he will either buy or sell futures as his first position. For instance, if he is going to buy a commodity in the cash market at a later time, his first step is to buy futures contracts. Or if he is going to sell cash commodity at a later time, his first step in the hedging process is to sell futures contracts. The second step in the process occurs when the cash market transaction takes place. At this time, the futures position is no longer needed for price protection and should therefore be offset (closed out). If the hedger was initially long (long hedge), he would offset his position by selling the contract back. If he was initially short (short hedge), he would buy back the futures contract. Both the opening and closing positions must be for the same commodity, number of contracts, and delivery month. The justification for futures trading is that it provides the means for those who produce or deal in cash commodities to hedge, or insure, against unpredictable price changes. Understanding the meaning of buying/long hedge A buying hedge is also called a long hedge. Buying hedge means buying a futures contract to hedge a cash position. Dealers, consumers, fabricators, etc, who have taken or intend to take an exposure in the physical market and want to lock- in prices, use the buying hedge strategy. Benefits of buying hedge strategy:

To replace inventory at a lower prevailing cost. To protect uncovered forward sale of finished products.


The purpose of entering into a buying hedge is to protect the buyer against price increase of a commodity in the spot market that has already been sold at a specific price but not purchased as yet. It is very common among exporters and importers to sell commodities at an agreed-upon price for forward delivery. If the commodity is not yet in possession, the forward delivery is considered uncovered.


Long hedgers are traders and processors who have made formal commitments to deliver a specified quantity of raw material or processed goods at a later date, at a price currently agreed upon and who do not have the stocks of the raw material necessary to fulfill their forward commitment.

Understanding the meaning of selling/short hedge

A selling hedge is also called a short hedge. Selling hedge means selling a futures contract to hedge. Uses of selling hedge strategy.

To cover the price of finished products. To protect inventory not covered by forward sales. To cover the prices of estimated production of finished products.

Short hedgers are merchants and processors who acquire inventories of the commodity in the spot market and who simultaneously sell an equivalent amount or less in the futures market. The hedgers in this case are said to be long in their spot transactions and short in the futures transactions. There are many kinds of hedges, and a few examples can adequately explain the principles of hedging

. Who can Hedge? Any manufacturer that faces risks due to volatile commodity prices, prior approval from the Reserve Bank of India is required. The products that are available for hedging are futures, options, and over the counter derivatives (where individual parties can at any time strike a good deal based on their own requirements through a broker). What are the costs involved in Hedging? In case of futures, the party hedging would have to pay a margin a percentage cost of the contract value (usually between 5-8%). For options, they would have to pay a premium, which is market-driven. Over and above all these things, a brokerage fee is also due to be paid to the broker who carries out each of our transactions. Is hedging risky? Hedging is generally not considered risky if it is based on covering short-term requirements. However, if the hedging party places a wrong bet, then they may miss out on potential savings. For instance, if a copper manufacturer has a capacity of 200 tonnes and decides to sell 300 tonnes on the futures exchange the remaining 100 tonnes is considered as speculation in the market. If prices fall then he stands to benefit, however if prices go up the 200 tonnes he produces can be delivered on the exchange but he would have to incur losses on the additional 100 tonnes.



The primary function of the commodity trader, or Speculator, is to assume the risks that are hedged in the futures market. To a certain extent these hedges offset one another, but for the most part speculative Traders carry the hedging load. Although speculation in commodity futures is Sometimes referred to as gambling, this is an inaccurate reference. The generally accepted difference between gambling and speculation is that in gambling new risks are created which in no way contribute to the general economic good, whereas in speculation there is an assumption of risks that exist and that are a necessary part of the economy. Commodity trading falls into the latter category. Everyone who trades in commodities becomes a party to an enforceable, legal contract providing for delivery of a cash commodity. Whether the commodity is finally delivered, or whether the futures contract is subsequently cancelled by an offsetting purchase or sale, is of no real consequence. The futures contract is a legitimate contract tied to an actual commodity, and the persons who trade in these contracts perform the economic function of establishing a market price for the commodity. While speculative traders assume the risks that are passed on in the form of hedges, this does not mean that traders have no choice as to the risks they assume or that all of the risks passed on are bad risks. The commodity trader has complete freedom of choice and at no time is there any reason to assume a risk that he doesnt think is a good one. Ones skill in selecting good risks and avoiding poor risks is what determine ones success or failure as a commodity trader.

Arbitrage refers to the opportunity of taking advantage between the price difference between two different markets for that same stock or commodity. In simple terms one can understand by an example of a commodity selling in one market at price x and the same commodity selling in another market at price x + y. Now this y is the difference between the two markets is the arbitrage available to the trader. The trade is carried simultaneously at both the markets so theoretically there is no risk. (This arbitrage should not be confused with the word arbitration, as



arbitration is referred to solving of dispute between two or more parties. The person who conducts and takes advantage of arbitrage in stocks, commodities, interest rate bonds, derivative products, forex is known as an arbitrageur. An arbitrage opportunity exists between different markets because there are different kind of players in the market, some might be speculators, others jobbers, some market-markets, and some might be arbitrageurs. In India, there are a good amount of Arbitrage opportunities between NCDEX, MCX in commodities. In the Indian Stock Market, there are a good amount of Arbitrage opportunities between NSE, Cash and Future market and BSE, Cash and Future market.

How Commodity market works?

There are two kinds of trades in commodities. The first is the spot trade, in which one pays cash and carries away the goods. The second is futures trade. The underpinning for futures is the warehouse receipt. A person deposits certain amount of say, good X in a ware house and gets a warehouse receipt. Which allows him to ask for physical delivery of the good from the warehouse. But some one trading in commodity futures need not necessarily posses such a receipt to strike a deal. A person can buy or sale a commodity future on an exchange based on his expectation of where the price will go. Futures have something called an expiry date, by when the buyer or seller either closes (square off) his account or give/take delivery of the commodity. The broker maintains an account of all dealing parties in which the daily profit or loss due to changes in the futures price is recorded. Squiring off is done by taking an opposite contract so that the net outstanding is nil. For commodity futures to work, the seller should be able to deposit the commodity at warehouse nearest to him and collect the warehouse receipt. The buyer should be able to take physical delivery at a location of his choice on presenting the warehouse receipt. But at present in India very few warehouses provide delivery for specific commodities. Following diagram gives a fair idea about working of the Commodity market.



Today Commodity trading system is fully computerized. Traders need not visit a commodity market to speculate. With online commodity trading they could sit in the confines of their home or office and call the shots.

The commodity trading system consists of certain prescribed steps or stages as follows:

I. Trading: - At this stage the following is the system implementedOrder receiving Execution Matching Reporting Surveillance Price limits Position limits

II. Clearing: - This stage has following system in placeMatching Registration Clearing Clearing limits Notation Margining



Price limits Position limits Clearing house.

III. Settlement: - This stage has following system followed as followsMarking to market Receipts and payments Reporting Delivery upon expiration or maturity.

View of an investor:
Investor R.K. Gupta says he took a right decision when he started trading in commodities a year ago. Gupta, who began investing in the stock market some seven years back, says equity markets with their volatile trades are not easy to live with. As a result, I mostly trade in gold and other metals, prices of which are determined internationally and are much more stable, he insists. In the Indian stock exchanges, one can lose money in even the best known blue-chip company as volatility plays a much bigger role than the companys strong fundamentals. Increasingly, Gupta is not alone in coming to this conclusion even if it is not necessarily empirically valid across commodities and markets. Investors are increasingly putting more of their money in commodities as the equities market in India goes through a prolonged downturn. Futures trading in July at the countrys two main commodity exchangesMulti Commodity Exchange of India Ltd, or MCX, and National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd, or NCDEXhave more than doubled over year-ago July. In comparison, futures and options trading at National Stock Exchange, or NSE, rose on 38%, data available with the bourses show. For investor Gupta, trading in gold has an additional benefit. While in gold I will have to spend only 4% as margin but in a scrip like Ranbaxy or Reliance Industries, it would be anywhere between 25% and 30%, he says. With the money I save in paying margin, I can do more trades in gold. Margins are taken by commodity exchanges before a trade is initiated to cover price risks.

View of a commodity expert:


On 15 July, a combined MCX and NCDEX saw the highest average daily turnover of Rs31, 090 crore in a year. On 16 July last year, the cumulative trade amounted to


some Rs9, 434 crore. Statistics for the last one year also show volumes in commodities markets have been rising since February, when the stock markets slowed down. Commodities prices are generally perceived to be negatively correlated with equity prices and analyses show with a fall in volumes in NSE F&O, we have seen a rise in MCX volumes, says Jayant Manglik, commodity analyst.Falling equity prices and volumes have led to renewed focus on scientific asset allocation by investors and traders. Most large firms are putting 10-30% of their investible surplus in commodities as against 5% earlier and have managed handsome returns.

The positive part of investing in commodity market:

Commodity prices fluctuate with basic supply and demand. Commodity price cannot remain at low prices or high prices there is a cycle of supply and demand. Factors irrelevant to the supply and demand wont have an prices. Far more easily predictable than any other form of investment. Commodities are used in a day to day basis so all the factors that influence the prices are readily made known. No single investors or group can influence commodity prices its a global market with high liquidity and maximum participants. If price moves are favorable, the producer realizes the greatest return with this marketing alternative. No premium charge is associated with futures market contracts impact in the



The negative part of invest in commodity market are:

Commodity Futures and Options are not the same as stocks; meaning they are not equity. They are basically contracts for future delivery, at a locked in price, of a wide range of products like soy onions got bumped from the list. The contract is a legally binding agreement between the buyer and seller on a price and amount to be delivered or paid for on a settlement date, determined by both. The buyer pays a market determined price (premium) and has the right to exercise his or her option within a specific time period bean and pork bellies to oil and gas. It also takes the risk of making less than double on a bad crop in exchange for the chance to profit on a good crop. This is referred to as hedging, a term youll hear a lot in the futures market. Its simply insurance against the damages of price volatility.

This market is risky and if the price goes in the opposite direction, investors can lose big. They could lose the chance of profits and even lose the chance the breaking even. Because the contract is usually insured, the buyer can lose the premium and associated costs, but the seller can lose much more. The buying and selling of these commodities hardly ever happens. There are a lot of players in this market that are in it for the market itself; not the goods. Many buyers have no intention of taking delivery and many sellers have no intention a making delivery of the product. They just want to profit from the change in price. Theyre called speculative investors and their presence keeps the market competitive futures market as well as the chance to reap a higher rate of return in exchange for the greater risk.



OBJECTIVE OF THE SURVEY A survey was done on the investors of the equity and the commodities market. The survey was directed at certain target and the main objectives of the survey are as follows:. Study the awareness level about operating process of commodity market in India. Study the investment strategies taken by Indian Investors in commodity market. To find out the expectation of an Investor regarding the service provided by the broking firms. Study the risk taking nature of different investors in India. To identify the most suitable mode of communication. DESIGN OF THE SURVEY For the purpose of the study 100 customers were picked up at random and their views solicited on different parameters. The methodology adopted includes Criteria question Questionnaire Random sample survey of customers Discussions with the concerned The criteria question was that whether the individual was already investing in either equity or commodities market. Personal interviews and informal discussions were held with only the positive respondents. Further applying simple statistical techniques, the collected data are processed. SAMPLING PLAN Population: (infinite) Any investors located in West Bengal. Sampling size: A sample of hundred was chosen for the purpose of the study. Sample consisted of both small and large investors


Sampling Methods: Probability sampling requires complete knowledge about all sampling units in the universe. Due to time constraint non-probability sampling was chosen for the study.


Sampling procedure: From large number of investors, sample lot was randomly picked up by me. Field Study: Directly approached respondents (businessmen, shopkeepers, physical commodities traders and service class people). COLLECTION OF DATA THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES The data collected for the study purpose is through questionnaires. One hundred investors were selected randomly for the study purpose and then the information revealed from the customers is analyzed and interpreted in the study. small

LIMITATION OF STUDY Since sample size is only 100, this is not a true representation of the population as a whole. Level of accuracy of the results of research is restricted to the accuracy level with which the customers have given their answers and the accuracy level of the answers cannot be predicted.




By doing market survey we understand the investment pattern of people, competitors position in the market, what they are offering to their customer and compare with our service. To survey the market we made a questionnaire with 19 questions. We made 100 copies of this questionnaire and move on to some marketplace. We asked people to fill up these questionnaires according to their opinion. (Among the people there are 20 garments shop keeper, 20 gold trader, 30 existing Nirmal Bang clients and rest are moving public on the road.) Based on their answer we got this report.

1. Market investment.

Out of the whole sample 37% people dont invest in market and rest 67% are investing in the market as per the survey.



2. Occupational Status Of the Sample

Out of the one total samples we have found that majority of them are businessman (approx.42%). after them there are service persons (approx. 35%). Then there are professionals like doctors, engineers, lawyers, CAs etc (approx. 8%) and Retired persons (approx. 15%) respectively.

3. Most preferable place for Investment.


When we asked the question in which sector you would like to invest your money most? Then we found that most of the person goes for Bank


FD(approx. 44.9%) because there they get the opportunity to grow their money in a steady and safe way. After Bank FD they would like to invest their money in Insurance (Approx. 27.8%) because they get the opportunity to grow their money with an advantage of accident and death coverage. The Postal deposits come to third position in terms of ranking (approx. 11.6%). After that people prefer to invest in the Equity Mkt.(approx 6.5 %)Where there is high return and high risk also. Here it is very important to have a basic idea about current economic condition of the country and performances of the companies. Commodity comes after Equity market according to peoples choice (approx. 3%)and then comes Mutual funds(approx 1.2%) where they get the net impact of some chosen stocks. Thus it minimizes the risk as well as return also.

4. If invest in stock market then which is the preferable place to invest?


According to this survey investors that I surveyed 83% are investing only in the equity market, 3% are investing only in the commodities market and the remaining 14% are investing in both the equity and commodities market.



5. Where do you Invest ?

Among the whole sample investment in Equity is approx 32.5 % ,following by commodity 15% and Mutual funds 6 %. Investment in the other sectors is approx 46.5 % of whole investment.

6. How people get the information about Stock Market?

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 News paper TV Internet Magazins


Most of the people (approx. 61%) who invest in stock market keep themselves updated with the help of television through various business news channels (like CNBC, NDTV- profit, CNBC-awaz, CNN, ZEE Business etc.). Business newspaper is another option which gives information about stock market. It is one of the oldest medium of getting


information but still effective and comes to the Second position (approx. 22%). Internet is mostly use by those people who would like to trade online. Though it is the most advanced way to get the information about stock market but due to lack of proper knowledge of computer most of the people do not use this facility and thus it comes to the Third position with approx. 13% vote. Business magazines are also used by people to monitor stock market (approx. 4%). It is mainly use by the investors who would like to invest their money on a particular stock over a long period of time. These business magazines give people an overall picture of economy and position of different sectors in a particular economic situation. Thus these business magazines help investors to generate an idea in which sector they should invest their money to get a maximum return of their money.

7. If dont invest in Commodity market then why?

50 40 30 20 10 0 Not aware of stock market High Risk already face a loss Dont have time to monitor market

This is a test to find out the back logs and pitfalls of Stock market and all the broking companies. When we asked the people that why they do not invest in stock market then we get this result. Most of the people (approx. 46%) want to stay out of the stock market because of high risk and market volatility. They have a fear in their mind that they might a loss. They dont want to lose their hard earned money in stock market. Many people think that stock market is like a lottery where the possibility of profit is very less and risk is very high. Some people (approx. 32%) dont invest in stock market because they are not aware of stock market. They dont know what is Sensex or Nifty and why these indicators changes so rapidly. People belong to this



category asked several question to us and give them feedback from our company. Approx. 6% of people leave stock market because they already faced a loss in the market and thus they dont want to waste their money any more. Some people (approx. 16%) dont invests in stock market because they dont have time to monitor stock market. They used to be very busy at that particular time when stock market operation is going on. This is one of the important results we found in our market survey and if we are able to discover an ideal solution which can solve this problem of customers then we can generate a better customer base and can create a high brand value.

8. If invest in stock market then how often trade?

Through this question we tried to identify the pattern of investment by the people and categories them according to their investment. We have found that among the people who invest in stock market approx. 16 % of them prefer to trade on daily basis and want to take profit or loss on that day itself. We called them the intraday trader. Some times when they find that the stock which they holds run on a loss they might take the stock on hold for few days and sell when the price of that stock increases.



There is a group of people (approx. 10%) who would like to hold a stock for a long period of time usually more than a year. This kind of trader purchase the stock whenever the value of stock decreases due to any reason and hold it over a long period of time, the value of that stock increases due to economic development or value appreciation after a long period. Then they sell that stock and earn a huge profit. They are called Investor. The worlds 2nd richest person Mr. Waren Buffet is an Investor. He holds most of the stocks for minimum of 20 to 25 years. There are some people who neither act as intraday trader nor as an Investor. They prefer to hold stocks for a short period of time usually a week or a month. Their proportion is approx. 11% (weekly investor) and approx. 36 % (monthly investor).

9. For how long have you been investing in commodity / equity market?



10. Factors behind choosing a broking house.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Good relation / better service Better research Brand name Brokerage Rate

When a person is choosing a broking house to trade with he or she looks at different factors and facilities which a broking house generally offer to its customer. I have tried to ranking those priorities which a customer seeks while choosing a broking house by collecting the opinion of people. Most of the people (approx. 41%) prefer a company which has a high brand value. They believe that the company which has a high brand value is better to trade with because they have successfully satisfy customers and gave people better service and thus they have earned such a Brand recognition. The other group of people (approx. 27%) looks at the brokerage rate that a company offers to its customer. The lower it the better for them because usually they trade with a high volume on intraday basis and dont want to give much brokerage as their profit margin is small. The third group (approx. 13%) wants better research and useful tips. Their main intention is to earn profit. If they get proper useful tips which increase the possibility of profit they will be satisfied. Here brokerage rate doesnt matter to them. This group mainly consists of those people who have a limited knowledge about stock market and thus depend up on company tips. This group of people (approx. 19%) gives importance to the relationship with the broker. They build a strong relationship with the broker and trade according to their opinion. They have trust on that particular



broker. If the broker changes the company then the customers also change the company. Company policy, brand name, brokerage rate is secondary object to them.

11. Commodity market investor preference.

Above data revels that majority of commodity investors like to invest in Bullion (Gold & Silver). 12. Perception about commodity market.

25% Less Risky Risky 50% 25% Very Risky


Analysis of data shows that majority of people who are aware about commodity market; feel that investment in commodity market is very risky. So


efforts should be done to minimize the risk in commodity investment and make peoples about minimum risk in commodity investment.

13. Opinion about information on commodity market (Expressed by those who know commodity market)

Not Informative


There is no second opinion amongst commodity investors, that commodity market advertisements do not give all the necessary information.

14. In which commodity exchange investment rate is more?



According to my survey 68% of the whole sample invests in MCX because

the volumes on MCX are good, and the MCX is one of the fastest growing exchanges. MCX has large volumes especially in gold and silver. And 32 % invests in NCDEX.

15. The amount investors prefer to invest at a time in Commodity market?

According to my survey 25 % of the sample who invest in the commodity market prefers to invest more than Rs. 5, 00,000 at a time. And approx 43% like to invests Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 5,00,000, 12% invests Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 1,00,000 and 20% invests less than Rs.50,000 .



16. What is the profit percentage you are getting, per annum, from commodity / equity investment?

17. Are you satisfied with the return?



18. Is your portfolio diversified?

19. Do you hedge your portfolio?



20. Do you use stop loss while trading?

21. Market share of different broking houses.

When we asked the people who invest in stock market that with which broking house in India they are treading currently then we get this result. According to our survey the majority of the people (approx. 32%) trade with India Infoline. India bulls comes to second position with approx. 24% vote. Share Khan comes after them with 11% vote and then Motilal Oswal with 9% vote.



22. Are you satisfied with the services provided by your broking firm?



Finding & Recommendation

Investment in the stock market mostly done by the business man. Investors are inclined towards the equity market and few are interested about investing in the commodities market. The most popular source of information about the market among the investors is television and newspaper followed by internet and business magazines. In commodity market maximum people are interested to invest in precious metal (gold, silver etc.) and energy product (crude oil). The level of awareness among the investors about commodity market is low. Most of the investor prefer MCX than NCDEX . In commodity market at a time investment rate is much higher(most of the investors invest in the range of Rs.1,00,000 to). Awareness level about Nirmal Bang Securities Pvt. Ltd. is low among the investor. The investors provided valuable suggestions about better service of a broking firm. The most popular suggestions are:- Good tips and calls. - Less brokerage. - Easy money transfer (pay-in and pay-out). - Good trading software. - Regular research reports. - Educating the clients about the market. - Good relation with the dealers and the relationship manager.



Improve the brand awareness of Nirmal Bang by increasing advertisements and promotional activities like performing campaigning programs. This will improve the brand of Nirmal Bang which will help to attract more clients. Introduce some programs which will help to attract more of office going clients. Most of the investors are businessmen, and very few of the office goers invest in these markets. Thus there is still a huge number of client base in the corporate sector which can be attracted towards these markets by educating them about these markets. The investors do not have much knowledge about the commodities market and the various concepts like hedging and arbitration present in these markets. The first priority should be to educate the investors about the market and the various techniques to invest in these markets which will enable the investors to extract better return from these markets. The investors mainly follow the television and the newspapers to update themselves about the market. So it will be beneficial for Nirmal Bang if they come out with weekly article in the leading newspapers regarding market research and present market condition. Providing the clients better guidance to diversify their portfolio to minimize the risk involved. The service of the company can be improved keeping in mind the suggestions provided by the investors. More franchisees & branchs must be opened at key locations, so as to attract more investors. Once in Every month, the client must be invited for feedback and suggestions.



Learning/Working till date

The 8 weeks at Nirmal Bang had been a very fruitful experience. The axiom which states that there is a lot of difference between bookish knowledge and practical knowledge has found a perfect manifestation in my two month SIP at Nirmal Bang. The corporate structure is completely different. Our preconceived misconception about the equity & commodity market has been completely derailed in these two months and I have obtained a fresh new perspective of the commodity & equity market. Initially I had been given to understand and analyze the basic aspects of the commodity market. A unique learning opportunity that I got at Nirmal Bang was to get an understanding of the process of acquiring a new client and sub-brokers and the portfolio management technique. The process is explained in details below DATABASE COLLECTION The initial task was to create a database of the potential clients both individual and sub-brokers. The database was formed through various methods. Firstly, the name and phone numbers of the physical commodity dealers were collected from the internet and from newspaper. Secondly, initially I had to accompany my seniors to campaigning programs where name and phone numbers of individual clients and equity & physical commodity dealers were collected. Thirdly, the name and phone numbers of the sub-brokers were collected from the reference of the clients and also from the internet. FIXING APPOINTMENTS The next step in acquiring clients and sub-brokers were to give them a call and finalizing an appointment with the interested individuals. VISITINGS POTENTIAL CLIENTS After the appointment is fixed, the next step was to visit these potential clients. I was most of the time accompanied by a senior while visiting any client. I had to visit many clients mostly in Kolkata and few outside Kolkata



like in Durgapur, asansol ,Ranaghat, Konnagar, etc. In these client visits, we used to pitch our product and services according to the needs of the clients. FOLLOW UP PROCESS Most of the potential clients were not readily convinced in the first visit. Thus I had to keep in touch with these clients and updating my seniors with the present situation

CLOSING DEAL When a client is convinced, we needed to close the deal by filling up our forms and getting the required documents like Xerox of PAN card, Xerox of address proof, photograph, etc. When all these formalities were completed, only then the deal was completed.



Here is a list of commonly used terms used in the project

Bear Market:

A market condition in which the prices of securities are falling or are expected to fall.


Is the European way of saying "stock exchange"; by extension it has come to mean any Non-American market for the trading of stocks and bonds.

Bull Market:

A financial market of a certain group of securities in which prices are rising or are expected to rise.

Crash: Fiscal Deficit: Heavyweights:

A major decline in a financial market. A deficit in the government budget of a country. The stock which has high market capitalization and which influences the direction in which the market moves.


A rise in the market.

New economy stocks: These stocks are heavily involved in the technology sector and the more successful companies are able to build value at markedly higher growth rates. Old economy stocks: Represent large, well-established companies that participate in more traditional industry sectors and have little investment or involvement in the technology industry. Repo Rate: Scrips: The rate at which RBI borrows from banks. It is any substitute for currency which is not legal tender, and is often a form of credit. Page Southwards: A decline in the market.




1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)


1) Business World 2) Business Economy 3) The Economic Times 4) Business standard 5) Business Line


QUESTIONNAIRE Name: Contact No: Address: Occupation:

1. Do you invest in market? a. Yes b. No

2. What is you Occupation? a. Service b. Business. b. Professional d. Retired

3. According to you, which is the best place for investment? a. Equity b. Commodity c. Bank FD d. Mutual Fund e. Postal savings f. Life Insurance g. Real Estate

4. What type of investment do you prefer? a. Only Equity b. Only Commodity c. Equity and Commodity both


5.In which sector do you invest? a. Equity b. Commodity c. Insurance d. Mutual fund e. Others

6. How people get information about stock market ? a. News Paper b. TV c. Internet d. Magazines

7. If not investing in the Commodity Market, what is the reason? a. Not aware of stock market b. High Risk c. Already faced a loss d. Dont have time to monitor market

8. How often do you trade? a. Daily b. Weekly c. Fortnight d. Monthly e. Yearly

9. For how long have you been investing in commodity / equity market? a. < 1 month b. 1 month to 6 months c. 7 month to 1 year d. >1 year


10. What are the Factors behind choosing a Broking House? a. Brand Name. b. Broking Rate c. Better research d. Good relation/ better service

11. Among the commodities where do you invest? a. Metals b. Energy Product c. Agro based commodity d. Others

12. What is you perception about commodity Market ? a. Less Risky b. Risky c. Very Risky

13. What is your opinion about the information available for commodity market/ a. Informative b. Not so much Informative c. Not informative

14. Where do you invest? a.MCX b. NCDX

15. How much do you prefer to invest at a time in commodity? a. <50000 b. 50000-100000 c. 100000-500000

d. > 500000 e. Nil

16. What is the profit percentage you are getting, per annum, from commodity / equity investment? ___________ %

17. Are you satisfied with the return? Yes No

18. Is your portfolio diversified? Yes No

19. Do you hedge your portfolio ? Yes No

20. Do you use stop loss while trading? Yes No

21. In which broking firm, you have opened your D-Mat account? a. India Infolone b. India Bulls c. Share Khan d. Motilal Oswal e. Nirmal Bang f. others

22. What services do you expect from your broking firm? A. B. C. D.


23. Are you satisfied with the services provided by your broking firm? Yes No