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Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems

5.0

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Published by José Luis Galindo
Libro donde se describen los elementos que componen los sistemas eléctricos de potencia
Libro donde se describen los elementos que componen los sistemas eléctricos de potencia

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Published by: José Luis Galindo on Sep 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/19/2015

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Figure 5.1 shows a simplified direct current transmission system. Here, a

load is fed with electric power by a generator through a power line. As the

line is resistive, a voltage drop will occur along the line: The voltage at the

generator UG is higher than the voltage at the load UL. Um denotes the

voltage in the middle of the line.

The average power transferred over the line is thus

Ptrans = UmI

(5.1)

If R is the overall line resistance, this yields the following transmission losses

PΩ:

PΩ = RI2

= R

Ptrans
Um

2

(5.2)

Relating the power losses to the transmitted power we obtain the the relative

power loss as

PΩ

Ptrans

= RPtrans
Um

2

(5.3)

Equation (5.3) illustrates the inverse proportionality of the transmission

losses to the square of the line voltage.

To keep the losses low, energy transmission lines are operated at voltages

which should theoretically be as high as possible. However, increasing the

line voltage implies an increase of the insulation costs of the components

(e.g. transformers). As shown in figure 5.2 decreasing losses imply increasing

equipment costs. The optimal voltage level results at minimal overall costs

as indicated qualitatively in figure 5.2.

5.2. Line Parameters

63

K

U

Kv

Ka

Kg

Uopt

Kmin

Figure 5.2. Costs K vs. transmission voltage U. The overall costs Kg
are obtained by the loss costs Kv and the equipment costs Ka. The

economicallyoptimal transmissionvoltageUopt results at minimal costs
Kmin.

I

H

E

E

R′
l

C′
l

L′
l

G′
l

l

Figure 5.3. Left hand side: magnetic (H) and electric (E) field of a

high voltage overhead line; right hand side: line model of a short section

of a line with concentrated parameters.

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