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Release 6.1 Finite Element Analysis Software
For Unix Based Workstations Truss, Frame, and Plate Examples
By Andrew R. Mondi Using examples and revisions from: Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial, January 2000, by Keith M. Mueller Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign May 2003 Corrections: May 18, 2004
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tutorial is based upon Cosmos-Geostar Tutorial written by Dr. Keith M. Mueller in January 2000. The example problems solved in that tutorial are also solved here. I tried to incorporate the strengths of Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial into this ANSYS tutorial, even though the structure and content of each are quite different. I thank Professor David E. Goldberg for his guidance while writing this booklet. He is a skilled manager and leader. I thank Mr. Raja R. Katta for his assistance. His concise and timely explanations of difficult material in ANSYS were essential for swiftly completing this project. Also, I thank Professor Thomas F. Conry for his advice and suggestions for refining and improving this tutorial.
INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? Helpful Web Links Purpose of this Tutorial Using this Tutorial Effectively Starting up in a Unix System Default View in ANSYS Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS 2. TRUSS EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing Solution Phase Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing Reaction Forces Member Forces and Axial Stresses Displacements 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. FRAME EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Define Sections Meshing Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Define Frame Constraints Define Frame Loads Apply Solution 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-23 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-9 iv .
3. APPENDIX Working with ANSYS in Unix Saving an ANSYS file Opening a previously saved ANSYS file Printing result tables Printing graphical output Managing your EWS Account How to Access EWS files Deleting EWS files in Unix Creating Axisymmetric Models General Notes on Understanding ANSYS 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 v . FRAME EXAMPLE (continued) Post-processing Introduction Reaction Forces Member Forces and Stresses Member Displacements and Rotations 4. PLATE EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing (and refining a mesh) Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing 5.
More information about the ANSYS FEA package and other ANSYS products can be found at <www.hsympatico. Finally a two dimensional plate is analyzed. This is also the longest of the three tutorials because it is the most detailed of the three examples and it does not assume any prior knowledge of the user. Now FEA is used throughout almost all engineering design including mechanical systems and civil engineering structures. Links and design tips can be accessed at <http://www3. a frame (using beam members).mece.ca/peter_budgell/home. 1-1 . First a truss is analyzed. The latter tutorials (frame and plate) assume the user understands certain functions of the program covered in earlier examples. Examples of a simple truss. Finite element analysis was first developed by the airplane industry to predict the behavior of metals when formed for wings. Here the user defines sections and outputs internal member moments and member rotations. Using this Tutorial Effectively This tutorial is designed so that the reader completes each example in the order it is presented. Purpose of this Tutorial The purpose of this tutorial is to guide students in the Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through their structures courses (GE 221 and GE 232). It uses a preprocessor software engine to create geometry.ansys.1. ANSYS is used throughout industry in many engineering disciplines. and a two-dimensional plate are explored. the user should be able to apply its principles to all types of two dimensional beam problems.ca/tutorials/ansys/>. Helpful Web Links Another ANSYS tutorial produced by the University of Alberta. Canada can be accessed at <http://www. Next a frame is explored.nist.gov/mcsd/savg/tutorial/ansys/FEM/index. Once completing this tutorial. This software package was even used by the engineers that investigated the World Trade Center collapse in 2001. This example is useful for those users investigating stress concentrations and other solid mechanics properties. Then it uses a solution routine to apply loads to the meshed geometry. Some commentary on the mathematics behind FEA software by the National Institute of Standards and Technology can be accessed at <http://math.ualberta.com>.htm>. Finally it outputs desired results in post-processing. It is designed to familiarize the user with the basic functions of ANSYS FEA software. This is the simplest of the three models investigated in this tutorial.html>. INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? ANSYS is a finite element analysis (FEA) software package.
You should not perform any operations in this window. you will see an x-term window (Figure 1-1) on the desktop: Figure 1-1 x-term window At the prompt in this window. ANSYS NOW. type ansys. Figure 1-2 Tansys window First. which creates a new window (Figure 1-2) on the desktop titled “Tansys” with square icons.Starting up in a Unix System After logging onto the workstation. You may need to wait for a few seconds until the graphicalinterface component of the program launches and you see the graphical interface (Figure 1-4 on the next page): Figure 1-3 Session file window 1-2 . Click the top icon. Note: the question-mark icon accesses Help. a session file screen (Figure 1-3) will pop-up.
magnitude and direction of all the loads on the structure. and the constraints on the structure. You need to know the position. the position. easiest and most logical way to use ANSYS is through the Main Menu located on the far left-hand side of the screen (Figure 1-5 at left). length. It may look intimidating at first glance however think about the information that you need to solve for all of the components in a structure. Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS The fastest. and material of the structural members. In order to get ANSYS to work properly. y-axis pointing vertically upwards. you simply need to tell the program this information and it will do the rest for you! Figure 1-5 Main Menu 1-3 .Figure 1-4 ANSYS with graphical interface Default View in ANSYS The default view in ANSYS is well suited for two-dimensional designs with the x-axis pointing horizontally to the right. and the z-axis pointing out of the screen. Zoom and repaint (or refresh screen) commands are very similar to those used in most CAD or word processing software.
managing your EWS account and other helpful Unix tips is in the Appendix at the end of this tutorial. If you do not. Member length 2. The construction steps to be accomplished in each command are listed below: Preprocessor 1. 1-4 . Solution.The Main Menu is designed so that you complete the steps required to build your model by beginning at the top of the menu and working your way down. You should complete these three major steps: (1) Preprocessing stage. you will need to be familiar with three of the commands on the Main Menu: Preprocessor. The rest of this tutorial will bring you through three helpful examples that will familiarize you with ANSYS. and Post-processor (noted as General Postproc on the ANSYS main menu) – as you can see in Fig. Member material Solution 1. these are the first three commands on the Main Menu. Member position 3. Load position 2. (2) Solution. Load magnitude 3. and (3) Post-processing stage IN THE ORDER GIVEN. 1-5. Load direction Post-processor Get displacement member force data in both graphical and text output. Also information concerning printing. For the purposes of this tutorial. ANSYS will not know how to properly solve your structure and give you bad results. You will use this Main Menu just like Windows Explorer or any other function that is organized in a “tree fashion”.
Preprocessing A. it will allow for demonstration of modeling a truss containing different materials and member sizes. This tutorial is built so as to mimic this outline structure. ANSYS is constructed in an outline format. Solution. and Post-processing. In each of these major steps. find the internal forces in all members and displacements of all joints. Always be thinking about where you are in the modeling process and how the steps you are completing are meaningful and can be used in other problems you will solve in your classes. I. Remember: Think about the modeling processing as having 3 major steps: Preprocessing. there are small sub-steps. While this creates a somewhat unrealistic truss. and the three horizontal members will be assumed to be steel and have an area of 10 in2. Figure 2-1 Given truss For illustrative purposes. Meshing (one division per element) 2-1 . Introduction – several steps will be completed in the Pre Processing stage: 1. Element Type (2D truss spars) 3.2. TRUSS EXAMPLE Given the following loaded truss. the four diagonal members will be assumed to be aluminum and have an area of 30 in2. Modeling (define Keypoints and lines and using plot controls) 2. Real Constants (define cross-sectional areas of truss spars) 4.
Figure 2-2 Main Menu B. On the Main Menu. Left click the small plus sign next to Modeling. These points simulate the joints of the structural members and also serve as endpoints of the members. Left click the small plus sign next to Create. The pop-up window will prompt you for a keypoint number and a set of coordinates for that keypoint. Note: This sequence of steps will be summarized using the following notation: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS The Create Keypoints window will appear: Figure 2-3 Create Keypoints window 2-2 . b. A sub-menu will drop-down listing all of the commands you can use in the Preprocessing stage. This menu lists all of the objects you can create in ANSYS. Keypoints . Click the small icon next to Active CS. left click the plus sign next to Preprocessor. c. You will be creating points and lines. Left click the small plus sign next to Keypoints. Modeling 1. d. a.The first step in designing any structure in ANSYS is to define the Keypoints of the structure. Another sub-menu of all modeling commands is listed here.
other times they will not clear away and you must overwrite them. This way we will be certain that our stresses will be in units of psi. Sometimes the entries in the box will clear. It is often best to number the joints in a logical manner that you can remember easily. i. and Z coordinate boxes place a 0. DO NOT SELECT “OK”. As mentioned earlier. ANSYS takes default coordinates as 2-3 . click the “OK” button. This will create the point and close the dialog box. Select Apply. 200 in the y and 0 in the z box. Note: ANSYS does not work in any pre-defined unit system – it is your responsibility to be consistent with your units (i. At this juncture you should choose how to define all of the Keypoints in your structure. we will use inches for length and pounds for load. Note: If you select “Apply” on the last point you need to enter. g. for two-dimensional models. do not enter your lengths in feet and loads in Newtons!). For this example the joints have been defined below: Figure 2-4 Given truss with numbered keypoints (joints) f. Thus.e. Instead choose “Cancel”. h. Remember that Keypoints represent joints of your structure’s geometry so number ALL of the joints in your design. you may always leave the zcoordinate box blank. ANSYS is now ready to accept the coordinates for another point. ANSYS will assign a zero for that coordinate component. The Create Keypoints window (Figure 2-3) tells ANSYS where your keypoints (or joints) are located. Define points 3 and 4 as above. For this example. In the Keypoint number box enter a 1. Define point 2 just as you did for point 1: enter 2 into the keypoint number box at the top and 200 in the x box. Y. Once you have entered all of the information for the final keypoint (point 5).e. Helpful Hint: If you do not enter a point value. In the X.
a.In ANSYS.0)! Note: If you need to remove keypoints that you have already created. lines represent structural members. Now all of the points for our truss have been defined.zero. ANSYS will define a new point at (0. You define lines by connecting the keypoints created previously. go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Delete. Begin by numbering your structure’s members on your paper copy for your own records. Lines (Defining Members) . This is done for you below: 2-4 .0. if you press “OK”. Figure 2-5 All keypoints defined 2. You will find that there are Delete commands that correspond to all Create commands.
ANSYS will provide a preview sketch of member 1. 200). A yellow box will highlight this point. The Create Straight Line window will appear (at right). Move your mouse cursor to a Keypoint that will serve as the start of the first member you wish to define. d. and List of Items are selected. Figure 2-7 Create Straight Line window Figure 2-8 Line (member) 1 defined Note: The process is the same for defining all other members: left click once on the start point. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines> Lines> Straight Line in the Main Menu. Single. Left click once on point 1 (0. Move the cursor right to point 2 (200. we will begin with member 1. c. 0). Your mouse cursor will appear to be a small vertical arrow pointing upwards. move to the end point and left click once. Left click once near or on point 2. Be sure that the options Pick. This defines the member 1. 2-5 .Figure 2-6 Given truss with numbered members b.
Select the first command on the drop-down menu. a. c. your model should look like the one below. Go to the PlotCtrls menu (to the right of the Plot menu) and select Numbering. Figure 2-9 All members defined Note: The lines (members) are denoted by L1. you must change the plot controls. there may be a difference in numbering between KEYPOINTS and NODES (this will be discussed in greater detail later). L2 etc. Your keypoints (joints) are denoted simply by numbers. Remember. 3. d. Using Plot Controls . See that the lines and perhaps your keypoints have disappeared. Once all of the lines (members) have been defined.now that you have finished plotting lines. In the Plot drop-down menu select Lines. you should familiarize yourself with helpful viewing options in ANSYS. 2-6 . Now you should be able to see your model. Define the other six members of the truss in the order they were assigned. Go to the Plot menu on the menu bar at the top of your screen. Replot.e. Figure 2-10 Plot command on the menu bar b. In order to see your model. The Plot Numbering Controls window will pop-up.
Know that you can turn on and off visual components of your model using the options under the Plot and Plot Controls (PlotCtrls) command on the top menu bar. Select “Add. Element Type 1. Turn on the Keypoint and Line numbers options and select OK. Note: Throughout this tutorial you may need to Replot your model several times to get a good visual representation of your model. Figure 2-12 Element Type window 2. 2-7 .” The Element Type Library window will pop-up.Figure 2-11 Numbering window e. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu.. C.. Now you should be able to see your truss completely numbered. The Element Type window will pop-up.
2-8 . You will return to the Element Types window (Figure 2-12). 1. so that the Element Type for Real Constants window will popup. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. This will force your truss members to be displaced in 2 dimensions. c. The Real Constants window will pop-up. this will close the Library window. Leave the default 1 for element reference type number. Select “2D spar” in the right hand box.. Select “Link” in the left hand box. D. Figure 2-14 Real Constants window 2. b. This means that this element will be a truss link.next you must define the cross-sectional areas for the members of your truss.Figure 2-13 Element Type Library window 3.. In this window set the following: a. e. Click close. Real Constants . Select Add. d. Select OK.
LINK1" is already highlighted.Figure 2-15 Element Type for Real Constants window 3. Click Apply. Note that "Type 1 . ANSYS is now prepared to receive the set of real constants for steel (type 2). d. The Set Constants window will pop-up. Note that you are in Real Constant Set Number 1. b. c. Initial strain to 0 2-9 . f. Enter the cross-sectional area for steel (10) [in units of in2]. Enter the cross-sectional area for Al (30) [in units of in2]. This will store the information for aluminum. Select OK. Initial Strain is 0. Figure 2-16 Set Constants window 4. Set Real Constant Set No. to 2 e. Enter the following in the Set Constants window: a.
In this window. This window is divided into two regions: Material Models Defined on the left and Material Models Available on the right. h. Go to Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models. The box will close and you will return to the Real Constants window. 1. 3. E. Material Properties . Click Close in the Real Constants window.ANSYS is waiting for you to define it. The Material Behavior window will appear. Now there are two real constant sets for cross-sectional area defined (one for each material). On the right hand side double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic. Figure 2-18 Material Model Behavior window 2. Remember that the diagonal members are aluminum and the horizontal members are steel. Click OK.now you must define the materials that make up your truss members. Note that “Material 1” has already been created . 2-10 . left click on Material 1 so it is highlighted (this may already be done).Figure 2-17 Set Constants window with those for steel g. This will launch a new pop-up window Material Properties for Material Number 1.
3 in the PRXY box c. d. In the Material Model Behavior window (Figure 2-18) click on Material 2 in the left hand box so that it is highlighted. 2-11 . For this example.000 psi (10. Select the Material drop-down menu in the upper left-hand corner of the window and select New Model. PRXY is for Poisson's Ratio. A pop-up window asking for a Material ID number. let us make Material 1 behave like aluminum with an Elastic Modulus of 10. Select OK. Poisson's ratio is not used. click OK (the default number is sufficient).Figure 2-19 Material Properties for Material Number 1 4. but it is a good idea to be in the habit of entering it. You will return to the Define Material Behavior window. Enter 10000000 in the EX box b. Note: we will follow the same steps to define Material 2 (steel) as we did for Material 1 (aluminum). Figure 2-20 Material Menu location in Define Material Behavior window Figure 2-21 Material ID window 5.000 ksi).000. a. The box EX is for the Elastic Modulus of the material. For all two-dimensional models (spars). so it doesn’t have to be entered. Enter 0.
The Pick Line Attributes window will pop-up. Figure 2-22 Pick Line Attributes 2. Select OK and exit out of this window by clicking on the close box or selecting Exit in the Material Menu. note that the mouse will be a small black upward pointing arrow. Meshing . Once this is complete. 2-12 . 3. F. Note: You may want to turn line numbering under PlotCtrls>Numbering to see the line numbers if this is not already done.3. In the right hand box and double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic (this may already be done). it is difficult to pull it apart so you should save your model NOW (see Appendix. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. 8. each with a single left click. Select lines 1. 5 and 7 (all the diagonals).the Mesh function is the heart of ANSYS! Meshing is like breaking your structure into small pieces that ANSYS can recognize and then “gluing” these pieces of your model together. page 5-1. In the workspace.6. if you do not already know how to do this). The properties window for Material Properties for Material Number 2 will pop-up (Figure 2-19). Select OK in the Line Attributes window. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 4. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Lines. 3. 7. Define the elastic modulus (EX) to be that of steel for this example (30000000 psi) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to be 0. 1.
Material Number = 1 b. Real Constant Number = 1 c. 7. Since you selected all of the aluminum members.Figure 2-23 Define Line Attributes window for material 1 (aluminum) 5. 4. Figure 2-24 Define Line Attribute window for material 2 (steel) 2-13 . Element type = 1 d. Now you are ready to define the material properties for the steel members. e. define these lines accordingly: a. Select OK on the Line Attributes window. Real constant number and Element type for the lines that you selected. 6. In this window you can set the Material Number. and 6). The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. There is no need to define the Element Section. Select Apply so you will return to the Pick Line Window. Select with a left mouse click all of the steel members (2.
Select OK. Set the number of divisions per line (NDIV) to 1. This will close both this window and the Line Attributes window (if you haven't already done so). Element Type = 1 d. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>ManualSize>Lines> All lines. this will close the window. Real Constant = 2 c. The other boxes should remain blank. Define these properties for the steel members: a. Figure 2-25 Element Size window 10. 11. Material Number = 2 b. Note the lines of your truss will appear shorter than before (see below): Figure 2-26 Truss after number of divisions per element are set to 1 2-14 . The Element Size window will pop-up. Select OK. 9.8.
12. Once your entire truss is entirely highlighted. This is an indication that your Mesh was successful! Figure 2-28 Fully meshed truss This completes the Preprocessing stage. Select each line individually with a single left click. the Solution Phase. This step is the heart of ANSYS. Figure 2-27 Pick Mesh Lines window 13. The Pick Mesh Lines window will pop-up. Your truss will now appear to be one color and connected like earlier. Now go to Phase 2. 2-15 .Note: Be absolutely sure that your model is correct BEFORE you mesh it together (upcoming steps). Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. 15. Your mouse should look like an upward pointing arrow. You cannot place loads on your model or find displacements of nodes until it is meshed. 14. It might be a good idea to save your truss now. Be sure that pick and single are selected. Your model is now complete and is ready to be loaded. select OK in the Mesh lines window.
Be sure that Pick and Single are turned on. Next. A. The Apply U on KP’s window will pop-up. B. Select Static and OK. Figure 2-30 Apply U on KP’s window 2-16 . You may want to turn on your element numbering through PlotCtrls>Numbering and setting Elem.II. go to Solution> Define Loads >Apply> Structural> Displacement>On Keypoints. Analysis Type 1. Apply Constraints 1. The Analysis Type window will pop-up. Attrib. Figure 2-29 Analysis Type window 2. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. Numbering to Element Numbers. Solution Phase – here you will be applying loads and constraints to your truss.
Displacement = 0 d. Select node 1 (coincident with the origin) with a left click near or on the point. Figure 2-31 Define Constraints window 4. The Apply U on KP’s window (Figure 2-30) should still be available. 7. Note there are two small triangles (one horizontal and another vertical) under node 5. Displacement value = 0 d. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Force/Moment>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. Leave KEXPND option as default. The Apply F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. C. Select OK. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. e. The Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31) will pop-up. 5. Select the following: a. Apply as a constant value c. In the Apply U on KP’s window. Select Apply. 2-17 . Apply as a constant value c.2. UX and UY b. Select Apply. Now select node 5 (far right and bottom of truss). Set the following: a. The Define Constraints window will pop-up. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Leave KEXPND option as default. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. e. Note there is now a small triangle under node 1. Apply Loads 1. 6. this will close the Define Constraints window and the Apply U on KP’s window. 3. select Apply. this will close the Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31). UY b.
Magnitude = -400 [units of lbf]. Select node 2. 5. 3. 2-18 . it will be highlighted by a small yellow box as before. Apply as a constant c. Magnitude = -300 [units of lbf]. FX b. Select Apply in the Apply F/M window. FY b. The Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) will pop-up.Figure 2-32 Apply F/M on KP’s window 2. d. Now select node 2 again and Apply in the Apply F/M window (Figure 2-32). Select OK. This will close the Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) but will leave the Apply F/M window open. Figure 2-33 Define F/M on KP’s window 4. Select the following: a. This will close both the Define F/M and Apply F/M windows. Select the following: a. Apply as constant c. The Define F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. Select Apply. d. 6.
The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. your truss should look like the one below. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS in the Main Menu. You are now ready to have ANSYS actually solve the truss. Then ANSYS will solve the truss. Select OK. Figure 2-36 Solution windows. Repeat this process (steps 5 and 6) for node 3 (load = -1000) [units of lbf]. You may close them both. Now your truss is fully constrained and loaded. It may take a few seconds before both of the following windows appear. 2-19 . Apply Solution 1. Figure 2-34 Fully constrained and loaded truss D.7. Figure 2-35 Solve Current Load Step window 2. After doing so.
Reaction Forces 1. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Define Table.. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. A. You can see the node numbering on your truss by going to Plot Controls>Numbering>Nodes (this may not be necessarily the same as the Keypoint numbers). You are now ready for the final step.this is the last step of the three major analysis steps in ANSYS. The Define Element Table window will pop-up. Figure 2-37 Define Element Table window 2. III. Note that the reaction solution results are listed by node number.. B. Go to General Postprocessor>List Results>Reaction Solution. Select “Add. Member Forces and Axial Stresses 1. Post-processing . member axial stresses. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. and node displacements. 2-20 . 2-37 Reaction Solution Table 2.This completes the Solution Phase.”. Post-processing. In this section we will order ANSYS to output internal member forces. The Define Additional Element Table Items window will pop-up.
In the right hand box select LS. Set the following: a. In the User label item set the name to “member forces”. type “Axial Stress”. Select “Add. This will close the window. this will launch the Additional Elements window again. You will return to the Element Table Data Window.Figure 2-38 Define Additional Element Table window 3. 6. Place a 1 next to SMISC in the selection box after the comma. 2-21 . d.”. c. Place a “1” after the comma in the Selection box in the lower right. Select SMISC in the right hand box. e. e. Select OK. Set “By sequence num” in the left hand box (may already be done). c. b. 4. Select OK.. b.. In the left hand box scroll to the bottom and select “By sequence num”. Figure 2-39 Define Additional Element Table window 5. Close element Data Table. Set the following a. In the “User Label for item” box. d.
This will close the window. page 5-2). Go to General Postproc>Elem Table> List Elem Table. They should be at the top of the listing. 11. Figure 2-40 List Element Data 8.the two quantities you defined. You can also get a visual representation of your truss using some of the graphical results options. Note how the values are listed. Your element table will appear. Figure 2-41 Element Table 10. 9. To output this data go to the File at the top of the window. Select Member Forces and Axial stresses by left clicking on each . The element numbers are in the first column followed by the Member Forces and Axial Stresses. The List Element Data window will pop-up. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Plot Elem Table. 2-22 . You can save it to your EWS account or print the data (if you do not know how to do this. see Appendix. The Contour Plot of Element Table window will pop-up. Select OK.7.
do not average”. Figure 2-43 Contour Plot of Truss 14. General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed shape. C.Figure 2-42 Contour Plot of Element Table window 12. Displacements 1. In the “Item to be plotted” box (Fig. The Plot Nodal Solution window will pop-up. This will close the window. Figure 2-44 Plot Nodal Solution window 2-23 . 2-42) you can choose what you would like to output. You should now be able to see a deformed truss with the member forces plotted. 13. Note that along the bottom you can see that the element forces correspond to the certain colors of the plot. For this example we will plot member forces. Click OK. Leave the lower box as “No .
This will close the window. Choose your plot preference. Click OK. This will close the window and create a table of displacement results. for this example plot “deformed and undeformed. 2-24 . Figure 2-47 Displacement Table This completes the Post-processing. Figure 2-45 Deformed and undeformed truss 4. Figure 2-46 Nodal Solution window 5. The Nodal Solution window will pop up.2. You should now move on to the FRAME example.” 3. To see the values of the deformations go to General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution. Click OK. Set DOF solution in the left box and “All dofs” in the right box 6.
Preprocessing A. Real Constants (similar . the major difference between trusses and frames is that members are beams and thus can have a reaction moment. I. 1. The coordinates for the Keypoints are: 3-1 . The steps to be completed in this phase are listed below. FRAME EXAMPLE As you should already know.cross sectional area) 4. This tutorial assumes that you have already worked through the truss tutorial. You will find that many of the steps in this tutorial are similar to those in the truss. The following frame will be constructed: Figure 3-1 Given Frame Once again. 1. Sections (new) 6. Try to complete this without help of the tutorial. Modeling (similar) 2. and Post-processing. The greatest differences between the frame and truss examples occur in defining and assigning member properties and applying loads (in this case a distributed load). Consequently. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS. Solution. Meshing (similar) B. Element Type (different . Material Properties (similar) 5.beam) 3. Introduction – think about the steps that you will complete in this section of the tutorial and how they are similar or different from the truss tutorial. procedures that are the same or very similar to those in the truss example will not be outlined in much detail. Modeling – none of the principles used in this example are different from the truss. a complete finite element analysis in ANSYS has three components: Preprocessing.3.
Select OK. Select Beam in the left-hand box and 2D Elastic in the right. The Real Constants for a Beam window will appear. 1. 2. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete on the Main Menu. 3. Another window will appear prompting for which beam to select... Connect the Keypoints with lines from Preprecessor>Modeling>Create> Lines>Lines>Straight lines. 4. Figure 3-2 Library of Element Types Window 3. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. This will close the window and return you to the Element Types window. Define Real Constants 1. 1 0 0 2 0 144 3 180 0 4 180 144 5 360 0 6 360 144 2. Select OK. 3-2 . Select Add. Close this window as well. X coord. C. Click Add. 2. Define the Element Type – this frame is composed of beams. D. The Define Element type window will appear.Table 3-1 Keypoint Locations KP No. Y coord. The Real Constants window will pop-up. the Library of Element Types window will pop-up. You will only have one choice since you have only defined one type of beam.
= 1 b. lbf and lbm have the same numerical value.) h. In this window you define all of the constants for members 1 and 5. Height = 8 e. = 3. in the British system. Once you are complete select OK and close out of the Real Constants boxes. Shear deflection constant = 0 f. Moment of Inertia = 8000 d. Just like entering in Keypoint coordinates. units of force are in lbf and units of mass are in lbm. Select Apply.5 lbm. ANSYS is now ready to accept the constants for the second and third types of beams. Note: Remember that you are working this problem in lbf and INCHES. Added mass/unit length = 42 lbm/ft. 5. Cross-sectional area = 20 c. Initial strain = 0 g. Often tables will report these values in other unit sets such as “Added mass/unit length” in lbm/ft. Real Constant set number 1 will correspond to the W8x42 beam used for members 1 and 5. Pay close attention to your units! Also.Figure 3-3 Define Real Constants for a Beam 4./in. 3-3 . Real Constant Set No. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Define this beam: a. (In British units.
Go to Preprocessor>Sections>Beam>Common Sectns. 2. Figure 3-4 Beam Tool 3-4 . Define Material Properties 1. Define Sections – this section tells ANSYS what sort of beam you are using. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models in the Main Menu.3) and Exit. constant 0 0 Initial strain 0 0 Added mass/unit length 3.5 E. Enter E (EX=30000000) and Poisson's Ratio (PRXY=0. Double click in right hand box Structural>Linear> Elastic>Isotropic. 1.5 4 W12x54 3 30 12000 12 0 0 4. The Beam Tool window will appear. F. The Define Material Properties window will appear. 1 2 Cross-sectional area 20 25 Moment of intertia 8000 10000 Height 8 10 Shear deflctn. In this example we will use traditional I beams. Define the material just as you defined steel or aluminum in the truss example.Table 3-2 Real Constant Values Corresponding Beam W8x42 W10x48 RC Set No.
Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 g. “finite elements”. Also note that you could choose a different number of divisions per element. For the W 8x42 beam (Real Constant set 1) enter the following: a. let us have the dimensions of each beam correspond with the same Real Constant Set. W2. Set the number of divisions (ndiv) to 25. Leave the other boxes blank and select OK. do not create too many elements as your analysis will become computationally more expensive possibly causing the program to crash or freeze. This will save the information for the W 8x42 beam. W1 = W2 = W3 = 8 f. Note: The ndiv function divides the element into small pieces.2. Note: all of these dimension values are expressed in units of inches. For the truss. For clarity. T2. Select Apply. we set the number of divisions per element to 1. Sub Type = I (from drop-down menu) d. It was not necessary for any further divisions because in a truss there are no internal moments or rotations that need to be calculated. ID = 1 b. Once you are complete select OK. Offset to centroid e. Name = W8x42 c. Thus we have selected 25 divisions per element as a good manageable value. such as beams) we need to be able to calculate internal moments. Meshing 1. Table 3-3 Section Definitions ID 1 2 3 Name W8x42 W10x48 W12x54 Sub Type I I I Offset Centroid Centroid Centroid W1. 3. T3 1 1 1 G. W3 8 10 12 T1. and other structural properties so we need several elements per part to get accurate results. However. Your frame will now appear to be of dashed lines. This is also why it is so important to save often while conducting your analysis and especially before Meshing! 3-5 . Just remember that your results may be less accurate with fewer finite elements. rotations. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Lines>All lines in the Main Menu. The Element Size box will appear. For this frame example (and for all structures that have members with internal forces that vary with position.
2.W10x48 3 . Set the following: a. a select lines box will appear.W8x42 2 . It is always a good idea to save your project before meshing – do this now. 3. Element type number = 1 d. Element section = W8x42 e. 5. 7. Figure 3-5 Line Attributes window 4. Select lines 1 and 5 with a single left click. 3-6 . The members will be highlighted. 1 1 1 Real Constant No. 1 1 1 Element Section 1 .W12x54 6. Real Constant number = 1 c. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. The Line Attributes box will appear. 1 2 3 Element Type No. Select all of the lines and OK. 1 and 5 3 2 and 4 Material No. Repeat this process for the other members in the frame assigning the following constants: Table 3-4 Line Attribute Assignments Member No. Material number = 1 b. Select Apply in the pick lines box. This will close the Line Attributes window. Select Apply. If the mesh was successful the frame will made of blue-green solid lines. Go to Preprocessing>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked lines.
1. this is a static analysis. The Apply Pressure on Beams selection window will appear. The Apply Constraints box will appear. each will be highlighted by small yellow boxes.II. Define Frame Loads – unlike in the truss that contained all point loads. and OK. Introduction – the most significant change from the truss tutorial is the presence of the distributed load. 1. Select OK in the selection box. Just as with the truss tutorial. This will be simulated by applying a load to each node. Figure 3-6 Apply Constraints window 3. Define Frame Loads (different . Select All Degrees of Freedom (All DOF) since all of the free ends are fixed and constrained in the x. Static. 5. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. 2. y and rotational directions. Apply Solution (similar) B. Solution A. Apply as a constant value of 0. Define Frame Constraints – we will fix the three bottom ends of the frame. D. 1. 2. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. The Analysis Type window will appear. 1. Analysis Type – just like in the truss tutorial. You should see two small green triangles and little red crosses indicating these are constrained in all three directions at each end. 4.three fixed ends) 3.distributed) 4. Analysis Type (similar . C.static) 2. Define Frame Constraints (different . you will need to apply a distributed load to the frame. Select the first option. Select OK. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Beams. Single left click on all three bottom nodes. a selection box will appear. 3-7 .
select OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes window. Undoubtedly. In this case change the select style option to BOX (not Single). you will select some of the vertical supports where you do not want to apply the distributed load. highlight all of the nodes on the top of the frame where the distributed load will be applied by enclosing this area in a box. You make the box by holding down the left mouse button and dragging. Then individually left click on the each small yellow box on the vertical supports where no load should be applied. 5. thus you must deselect these locations. The define pressure on beams window will appear. Once you are certain that only the nodes where the load should be applied are highlighted. In the workspace.Figure 3-7 Apply Pressure on Beams selection window 2. 3-8 . 3. In the Apply Pressure on Beams selection window (Figure 3-7). change the Pick option (at the top) to Unpick and the Box option to Single. Figure 3-8 ANSYS workspace window after the top of the frame is selected for application of a distributed load 4.
it is good to see the numbers assigned to each of your nodes so you can make a meaningful interpretation of this data. or other set of units! E. if you have trouble seeing your nodal numbers. To see you nodal numbering go to PlotCntrls>Numbering. Remember this load was given in 100 lb/in. etc. the nodes at the fixed points (bottom of vertical members) are 1. 3-9 . Select OK. THESE NODES ARE DIFFERENT FROM KEYPOINTS. In the numbering window turn node numbers to ON. Select Solve in the pop-up window. Before beginning your Post-processing. close all of the pop-up boxes. III. Apply the Solution 1. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. Also. Set the pressure value to 100..Figure 3-9 Apply Pressure on Beams window 6. You numbering might be different and is dependent upon the precise order you created lines. 3.1 (page 3-5) recall that by setting the number of divisions per node (ndiv = 25) we broke the beams into small pieces or “finite elements”. For most of the Post-processing functions we will use in this section. Select OK. ANSYS assigns a number to each node and reports Postprocessing information according to this nodal number. Post-processing A. 52. For this example. 1. but you would need to convert this value if this were given in lb/ft. Introduction – as discussed in the notes of section I. ANSYS will return data tabulated for these small pieces (finite elements) that ANSYS calls nodes. 2. It would be a good idea to “Save As…” before Post-processing. A tool box will appear. you can zoom in on your model display by PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate. Keypoints.G. The other boxes may remain blank. Just as with the truss. and 102 (from left to right respectively).
the forces at node 102 (which corresponds to Keypoint number 5) are –2025. Go to General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution. B. Figure 3-10 Reaction Solution window 2.9 lbf in the y direction and a moment of –76121 lbf-in. You can see that the forces at node 1 (which in this example are coincident with Keypoint number 1) are 2025. Note that the nodal numbering will increase or decrease linearly from one end of a beam to another.000 lbf (since 100lbf /in. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. 3-10 . Member Displacements and Rotations 1.9 lbf in the y directions and a moment of 76121 lb-in. The List Nodal Solution window will pop-up. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. * (180in. Member Forces and Stresses – reporting this data is no different from the truss tutorial. Similarly. Your solution may be somewhat different from the one given here. D.+180in. 4. 3. 8807.4 lbf. See the printing section (near the end of this booklet) on how to do this. Reaction Forces 1.2.000 lbf were applied) and the moments sum to 0 lbf-in.B (in the Post-processing section) in the truss tutorial while keeping in mind that the output will be listed by NODE and not Keypoint as explained previously in the Reaction Forces section. Take note of the nodal numbers in significant places such as those at the ends of each beam. Note that the x forces sum to 0 lbs. See section III. This is a good fast way to check that your model is correct.) = 36.4 lbf in the x direction. you should print these results now. C. If you desire. (since none were applied). Go to General Post-processing>List Results>Nodal Solution>DOF Soln. Also note that the sum of all the reaction forces are listed at the bottom under total values. the y forces sum to 36. in the x direction and 8807.
The solution will appear in tabular form. This concludes the frame tutorial. Figure 3-12 Nodal Solution Table 3. At the bottom of the list maximum values for each parameter are reported. Proceed to Chapter 4. With your nodal numbering turned on. In this window. 3-11 . the plate tutorial. In this window select All DOFs (degrees of freedom) and OK. you should be able to find the corresponding node to the Keypoint or other member location of interest.Figure 3-11 List Nodal Solution window 2. the displacement in the x and y direction and the rotation of each node is listed.
Below is the geometry that we will define in ANSYS: Figure 4-2 Model of plate that takes advantage of symmetry I.4. PLATE EXAMPLE For this example we will model the plate below. ANSYS allows us to model it as a two dimensional representation. Preprocessing A.1” uniform tensile loading of 8 psi Figure 4-1 Steel plate with hole in center When we model this plate. it is always good to take advantage of symmetry because it allows for your analysis to be smaller and subsequently more specific. We can see symmetry by dividing the plate into 4 parts about the center of the hole and then apply constraints to edges of this divided part. As a rule of thumb. Introduction – below is an overview of the steps we will complete in this example and how those steps compare to the previous examples: 4-1 . we will take advantage of its SYMMETRY. 20” steel square plate with 4” diameter hole thickness = . Although it has a thickness.
1. Modeling (different – defining areas and using Boolean operations) 2. Element Type (different – plate with thickness) 3. Real Constants (similar - define element thickness) 4. Material Properties (no changes here) 5. Meshing (different – mesh areas and refine mesh) B. Modeling 1. Begin by going to: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Rectangle>By 2 Corners, the Create Rectangle by 2 corners window will appear.
Figure 4-3 Create Rectangle by 2 Corners window 2. The boxes WX and WY specify the coordinates of one corner of the rectangle. Enter 0 in both boxes and width and length of 10 (we will be working this problem in inches and pounds). 3. Now we must create the hole in the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Create>Areas>Circle>Solid Circle. The Create Solid Circular Area window will pop up.
Figure 4-4 Create Solid Circular Area window 4. The WP X and WP Y boxes specify the center point of the circle. Our circle will be centered at (0,0) and has a radius of 2. Your model should be as below:
Figure 4-5 Model after defining both rectangular and circular areas. 5. Just like when using a CAD program, you must perform a Boolean operation to remove the circle from the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Areas. The Subtract Area selection window will appear.
Figure 4-6 Subtract Area selection window 6. Single left click on the rectangle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area that is occupied ONLY BY THE RECTANGLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the rectangle and the circle. The rectangle should now appear pink or purple. 7. Select OK in the Subtract Area window (Figure 4-6). You have now defined the area that we will be subtracting from. 8. Single left click on the circle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area occupied ONLY BY THE CIRCLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the circle and the rectangle. The circle should now be highlighted. 9. Select OK in the Subtract Area selection window. You have now defined all of your geometry. C. Element Type 1. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete. The Define Element Type window will appear just as in the previous tutorials (Figure 2-17). Select Add... The Element Type Library window will appear. 2. In the left hand box select Structural Solid. In the right hand box select Quad 4 node (42). This will define the elements to be small quadrilaterals each with 4 nodes from which the location of each square will be calculated. 3. Select OK. Note that the Element Types window will still be open. Be sure that the element type is highlighted and select Options. The Element Type Options window will appear:
The Define Real Constants Set window will appear. Set the thickness to . Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete.be sure that the correct (and only) element type is highlighted (Type 1 Plane 42) and select OK. Select OK. Real Constants 1. 4-5 . The other options may remain as default. Close out of the Real Constants windows. The Real Constants window will appear. Keep the type number as the default (1). select Add. Figure 4-8 Define Real Constants Set window 2.1. D. Select OK and Close the Element Type window. A new window will appear . In the Element Behavior box select “Plane Stress with Thk”.Figure 4-7 Element Type Options 4.
Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. Left click and hold down on the control bar and slide it to the right to level 8 (the level is denoted above the bar). Left click once on the plate geometry so that it is highlighted. In the pop up window set the modulus of elasticity (EX) to 290000000 (remember we are working in pounds and inches so this number is in psi!) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to 0. This will make fairly large finite elements. Figure 4-9 MeshTool window 2. 4. 3. Then select Mesh (towards the bottom of the window).note nothing in this section has changed from previous tutorials – try doing this on your own! 1. Material Properties . In the Define Material Properties window select Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. Meshing – be sure to save right now! 1.3. 2. A Mesh Selection box will appear. The MeshTool is a convenient and quick way to mesh an object and refine an object that is already meshed. On the Fine to Coarse bar directly below the Smart Size box controls the size of your finite elements.E. 4-6 . Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool. The MeshTool box will appear. F. Turn on the Smart Size option at the top of the MeshTool.
5. On the MeshTool select Refine (near the bottom of the MeshTool). Figure 4-10 Refining the mesh near the hole 8. 6. There is no need to Refine the mesh elsewhere since other stresses in the plate are not as important. However. 7. 4-7 . we should Refine our mesh in this area. A Refine Selection box will appear just like the Mesh Selection box. we know that the most important stresses in this plate are near the hole. Consequently. Now your element has been meshed and should appear to be divided into quadrilaterals. The Refine Mesh at Element window will pop up. Single left click on all of the finite elements adjacent to the hole (see below). Note that the MeshTool is already set to refine at elements (directly above the refine button). Then select OK in the Refine Selection box. Select OK in the Mesh Selection window.
The Apply Constraints window will appear. Go to: Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Lines. You might be thinking. Analysis Type – go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. The Define Constraints window will appear. Select OK. Once you are satisfied with your mesh. Select Static and OK. Apply Constraints (similar – X and Y direction on lines) 3. thus the approximation in that region will not be as accurate. The New Analysis window will appear. 4-8 . II. You can even REFINE your mesh after you run the solution and look at post-processing output. The elements elsewhere in the plate are large. It is usually good to have your mesh change gradually so that you do not have disjointed elements. You can select the defaults (minimal refinement) in this window. C. Solution Phase A. then ANSYS may crash or give incomplete results. from the computer. Note: now the elements near the hole. However this is not cause for concern since the stresses there are unimportant and uninteresting. 10. move on to the Solution Phase. Introduction – no radically new concepts are employed in this section that were not used in previous examples. Select the bottom edge only and OK in the pick box. Note that you can refine your mesh several times until you have finite elements in your region of interest that are small enough to your satisfaction. where the most important and interesting stresses are located. If ANSYS requires more memory than the computer can give. Apply Constraints 1. are very small and will give a better approximation of the plate’s behavior there.Figure 4-11 Refine Mesh at Element 9. 1. it will require a large amount of memory etc. “Why don’t I use the most accurate mesh everywhere in the element?” This is generally not a good idea because when ANSYS tries to solve the plate. Analysis Type (no changes – static) 2. Apply Pressure (similar – pressure on lines) B.
Select the right hand vertical line and OK. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Lines. 3. Apply Loads 1. Set the following: a. Click on OK. Another pick box will appear. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the left edge with a zero-displacement constraint in the X direction. d.Figure 4-12 Apply Constraints window 2. Displacement value = 0. UY b. D. The Define Pressure on Lines box will appear. 4-9 . Apply as constant c.
energy or any other relevant outputs. Post-processing – The major difference between post-processing with the plate and with the other examples is that you will probably find the graphical outputs most helpful. E. rotation. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS.now all the loads are applied and you are ready to solve. tabular output will list far too many nodes to be helpful. The graphical output will likely be the easiest and most meaningful for your analysis. you can refer to the Truss Example tutorial Post-processing section to review this process. You are now ready for post-processing. displacement.Figure 4-13 Apply Pressure on Lines 2. All graphical outputs that you will need can be accessed from: General Postproc> Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu. 4-10 . Apply Solution . Select OK in the series of boxes that appear just as in the other tutorials. As you might guess. Results will be generated in the workspace. III. Set a constant value pressure of -8 and select OK (since negative pressure points AWAY from its application point). If you desire. This set of commands will output the stress.
You should include the file type extension which is . all of your data will be saved into this file. Go to File>Resume From. Let us say that you want to open truss1.db). Note that you are already set to save in your EWS account.db and select OK. This is a default ANSYS file. You will already be in your EWS account where all of your ANSYS files should be located. Saving an ANSYS file – ANSYS is set to save files automatically to your EWS (Engineering WorkStation) account. It is a good idea to depend on this function only for backup purposes. 3. let us name our file truss1.5. If you do not specify a name for your project.db You must include the file type extension (. The Resume From window will appear. Your project will launch.db. it is important that all of these files be in the same location so that ANSYS can access them when necessary. opening and printing files may be different from working in other operating systems that may already be more familiar to you. The purpose of the section is to outline these tasks to make using ANSYS easier for you.db. and various solution and results files. If you have been saving to the default file (file. go to File>Save As. APPENDIX Some common tasks such as saving.db) you can open this by simply choosing: File>Resume Jobname. then in the box enter: truss1.dbb). ANSYS uses the work “Resume” instead of “Open”. From the top menu bar. For this example. This is ideal for your finite element analyses because several files are created throughout the analysis including the main database file (. Working with ANSYS and Unix A. At the end of the account name enter and select OK. 5-1 .db on your account. The second section outlines how to access and manipulate files on your EWS account.db 2. 2.db. B. I. This directory is listed in the bottom box of the Save As window. The Save window will appear. If you want to call your file “truss1”. 3. In order for you analysis to operate properly. a backup database file (. Note: You may also notice (especially if you have already saved projects before) that there is a file called file. Open a previously saved ANSYS file 1. Below are a few steps to follow to save your project: 1. Highlight truss1. You can confirm your save was successful by going to “File>Save As” again and noting the name in the right hand box. The EWS account is especially convenient because you can access it from any EWS computer and you do not have the worries that are associated with using a disk (such as it being damaged or lost).db) otherwise you will not be able to see it when you want to reopen your project.
II.ews.ews. For this case.doc. 3. If you are unfamiliar with using a text editor you should ask the EWS site consultant on duty how to launch and use one. after typing this you will be prompted “if you are sure you want to remove” for each file ending in . 1.doc individually.uiuc. let us say that we want to remove the file paper1. 3. Select “Print to” towards the bottom of the screen. When you have a table window open you can choose File>Copy to Output. Type y for yes. Find the file ending in . So. At the prompt type ls this command will “list” all of the files currently saved on your EWS account. However at the time this tutorial was created you would type: <lpr –Pehlas3@wood. Let us say that you wanted to remove all files that end with the extension . 5-2 . This is probably because you do not have enough room on your EWS account to save your project. Instead of removing each file individually as outlined above. Printing result tables 1.edu> for the lab in MEL.uiuc.doc from our EWS account.doc The * is a “wild card” command. You must remove files from your account to make room for your analysis.edu> for the 4th floor Engineering Hall lab and <lpr –Pmelas1@wood.doc 2.. 2. Printing graphical outputs 1.edu>. open another xterm window and type ls at the prompt (meaning “list”).out this is the ANSYS output file and can be opened or printed using a text editor. Open an xterm window. Go to PlotCntrls>Capture Image.C. How to access all of your EWS files from a Unix machine 1. type: rm *. Type rm for remove followed by the file name and its extension. For our example we would type rm paper1.ews. This process may change from year to year. This will copy the table to your project output file. 2. There are several text editors available on the Unix systems. To view your project output file. 2. In the “Printer Name” box you will need to type in a Unix command to send the job to the printer. As a general rule you should type <lpr –Pprintername@wood. The “Capture Image” box will appear. When using the wildcard command you will be prompted to remove each file individually. This will activate the “Printer Name” box. Deleting files quickly – sometimes when working in ANSYS you will get a message that there was an error saving or ANSYS could not properly execute a save command.uiuc. You can use the wildcard anywhere in the command line so you could also type: rm paper* and this would remove anything that begins with “paper” regardless of extension. D. Managing Files on your EWS Account A. B. We will then be prompted if we really want to remove the file. This will list all of the files on your account.
To take advantage of the axial (about the y-axis) symmetry you must first model the section that is to be rotated about the y axis. It was already outlined how to model traditional symmetry (which for this example is the bar’s symmetry with respect to the x axis) in the plate tutorial. thereby taking advantage of axial symmetry. Note the bar is also symmetric with respect to the x-axis. Look at the wire-frame representation below: 5-3 . Just as mentioned in the introduction to the plate tutorial.III. it is always a good analysis technique to take advantage of symmetry in design. Creating Axisymmetric Models When using ANSYS you may be asked to create an axisymmetric model. You can take advantage of this symmetry in ANSYS. Consider the part below: Figure 5-1 Axisymmetric bar. You can define geometry to be rotated about an axis. The y-axis is that of axial symmetry.
C of the Plate tutorial (pg. Also. 5-4 . Note that the section to be modeled (highlighted in gray) is entirely in quadrant I of the modeling plane (all values are non-negative). you must define the section (highlighted in gray) entirely in quadrant I. displacement will be constrained to zero in the y direction on the z axis. so no explicit constraint needs to be applied. Once your geometry is sufficiently defined. you cannot allow any of this two-dimensional geometry to have negative coordinates. Thus. For this example. This is done in Preprocessing>Real Constants. From the options window (Figure 4-7) set the Element Behavior to “Axisymmetric” (instead of “Plate with Thickness”). then you must tell ANSYS that the problem is axisymmetric. Be sure to constrain properly your sketch in the Solution phase. See section I. By specifying the elements to be “axisymmetric. Then you can skip step 5 since there will be no need to define Real Constants. 4-4). ANSYS is programmed to rotate your element about the y axis in the workplane. if you want a solid bar (not hollow) you must align one side of your geometry on the y axis.Figure 5-2 Wireframe representation of axisymmetric bar.” you have implicitly constrained all points on the y axis from moving in the x direction. Follow this section as written except for steps 4 and 5. For ANSYS to properly define your geometry.
5-5 . etc. 2003. these students understood that: (1) modeling. occurred only in the Preprocessing stage. The students that tried this by jumping between steps or skipping sections in the tutorial often found themselves lost (with several hours wasted) trying to repair their model using processes not outlined in this tutorial. Because of the tedious nature of iterative design using Finite Element Analysis. Specifically. These students recognized that only certain operations can be performed at certain times and those operations had to be performed with a certain degree of coherence and order. meshing. if possible. it was understandably tempting to try to circumvent the rigid processes outlined in this tutorial. and. you would have to return to that analysis section to make adjustments. material definition. (2) in order to edit various parts of the model. Understanding (and consequently rapid analyses!) comes with familiarizing oneself with the entire process and the order in which the processing commands must be executed. General Notes on Understanding ANSYS When this tutorial was first used during the spring semester.IV. the students who grasped ANSYS best seemed to understand how each step in the program fit into the overall FEA process.
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