Internet History and Growth

William F. Slater, III Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society September 2002

Agenda
• • • • • Internet History Internet Evolution Internet Pioneers Internet Growth – Sept. 1969 – Sept. 2002 Conclusion

What Was the “Victorian Internet”?

What Was the “Victorian Internet”
• The Telegraph • Invented in the 1840s. • Signals sent over wires that were established over vast distances • Used extensively by the U.S. Government during the American Civil War, 1861 - 1865 • Morse Code was dots and dashes, or short signals and long signals • The electronic signal standard of +/- 15 v. is still used in network interface cards today.

Famous Quote From Sir Isaac Newton
• “If I have been able to see farther than others, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.”

hypertext documents.What Is the Internet? • A network of networks. III 1996 President of the Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society Copyright 2002. Chicago. file archives. IL. databases and other computational resources • The vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world. university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail. bulletin boards. III. Slater. joining many government. Written by William F. William F. USA . Slater.

What is the Internet? • The largest network of networks in the world. Co-Creator of TCP/IP . • Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching . Vinton Cerf. • Runs on any communications substrate. From Dr.

DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt. and BBN • 1974 . the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging .Brief History of the Internet • 1968 .First five nodes: – – – – – UCLA Stanford UC Santa Barbara U of Utah. Beranek & Newman) to create ARPAnet • 1970 .TCP specification by Vint Cerf • 1984 – On January 1.

*** Internet History *** .

USA 1995 . Chicago. III. IL. Slater. William F.A Brief Summary of the Evolution of the Internet TCP/IP Created ARPANET 1972 1969 Mosaic Created WWW Internet Created 1993 Named 1989 and Goes TCP/IP 1984 Age of eCommerce Begins 1995 First Vast Computer Network Silicon Envisioned Chip A 1962 Mathematical 1958 Theory of Communication Memex 1948 Conceived 1945 Packet Switching Invented 1964 Hypertext Invented 1965 1945 Copyright 2002.

Chicago. William F. But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1940s to 1969 We will prove that packet switching works over a WAN. III. Slater. USA 1969 . Hypertext can be used to allow rapid access to text data Packet switching can be used to send digitized data though computer networks We can accomplish a lot by having a vast network of computers to use for accessing information and exchanging ideas We can do it cheaply by using Digital circuits etched in silicon.From Simple. We do it reliably with “bits”. sending and receiving data We can access information using electronic computers 1945 Copyright 2002. IL.

William F. III. Slater. But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1970s to 1995 Great efficiencies can be accomplished if we use The Internet and the World Wide Web to conduct business. Computers connected via the Internet can be used more easily if hypertext links are enabled using HTML and URLs: it’s called World Wide Web The ARPANET needs to convert to a standard protocol and be renamed to The Internet We need a protocol for Efficient and Reliable transmission of Packets over a WAN: TCP/IP Ideas from 1940s to 1969 1970 Copyright 2002. Chicago. The World Wide Web is easier to use if we have a browser that To browser web pages.From Simple. IL. running in a graphical user interface context. USA 1995 .

Chicago. William F. USA . IL. Slater.The Creation of the Internet • The creation of the Internet solved the following challenges: – Basically inventing digital networking as we know it – Survivability of an infrastructure to send / receive high-speed electronic messages – Reliability of computer messaging Copyright 2002. III.

Tribute to the Internet Pioneers • The Internet we know and love today. would not exist without the hard work of a lot of bright people. we will identify and pay tribute to several of the people who made the Internet and the World Wide Web possible . • The technologies and standards they created make today‟s Internet and World Wide Web possible. • In this presentation. • They deserve recognition and our gratitude for changing the world with the Internet.

Licklider Leonard Kleinrock Lawrence Roberts Steve Crocker Jon Postel Vinton Cerf Robert Kahn Christian Huitema Brian Carpenter Tim Berners-Lee Mark Andreesen .Internet Pioneers in this Presentation Vannevar Bush Paul Baran Claude Shannon Ted Nelson J. C. R.

which would later do the ARPANET Project. and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. President Roosevelt appointed Bush to Chairman of the National Defense Research Committee in 1940 to help with World War II. July 1945 Source: Livinginternet. Bush was appointed Director of the newly created "Office of Scientific Research and Development". and sets of buttons and levers. On the top are slanting translucent screens. and while it can presumably be operated from a distance. inspiring many of the Internet's creators. There is a keyboard. • • • Quote: • “Consider a future device for individual use. – Vannevar Bush. Atlantic Monthly. Otherwise it looks like an ordinary desk. Out of this effort would later come DARPA. records. it is primarily the piece of furniture at which he works.S. Bush served as chairman of the Joint Research and Development Board. established to coordinate weapons development research. • It consists of a desk. The organization employed more than 6000 scientists by the end of the war. In 1941. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. on which material can be projected for convenient reading.com . It needs a name. military / university research partnership that later developed the ARPANET. and to coin one at random. As We May Think. and supervised development of the atom bomb. From 1946 to 1947. and communications. He also wrote the first visionary description of the potential use for information technology. A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books. which is a sort of mechanized private file and library. "memex" will do.Vannevar Bush • Summary: Vannevar Bush established the U.

All this changed in 1948 with the publication of A Mathematical Theory of Communication. it was commonly believed that the only way of achieving arbitrarily small probability of error in a communication channel was to reduce the transmission rate to zero. Created the concept data transmission in BITS per second. • • • Source: http://www. it provided mathematical techniques for building a network of switches and relays to realize a specific logical function. titled.html . and showed that it was possible to transmit information at any rate below capacity with an arbitrarily small probability of error. His method of proof was to show the existence of a single good code by averaging over all possible codes. and in fact it has taken fifty years for coding theorists to discover codes that come close to these fundamental limits on telephone line channels. and presented the challenge of finding families of codes that achieve capacity.Claude Shannon • • The Father of Modern Information Theory Published a”A Mathematical Theory of Communication” in 1948: Before Shannon. the channel capacity. His paper established fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels. such as a combination lock.research. where Shannon characterized a channel by a single parameter. Won a Nobel prize for his master‟s thesis in 1936. “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits”.att.com/~njas/doc/ces5. Created the idea that all information could be represented using 1s and 0s. Called these fundamental units BITS. The method of random coding does not produce an explicit example of a good code.

Licklider also realized that interactive computers could provide more than a library function. perform simulation modeling. and inspired his successors to realize his dream by creation of the ARPANET. graphically display results. • • • • • Source: Livinginternet. and could provide great value as automated assistants. In such a system. Quote: It seems reasonable to envision.C. .J. Licklider • Summary: Joseph Carl Robnett "Lick" Licklider developed the idea of a universal network.R. including sophisticated computerized interfaces with the brain. R. spread his vision throughout the IPTO. for a time 10 or 15 years hence. Licklider. and extrapolate solutions for new situations from past experience.com .J. and the cost of the gigantic memories and the sophisticated programs would be divided by the number of users. He captured his ideas in a seminal paper in 1960 called Man-Computer Symbiosis. in which he described a computer assistant that could answer questions. the speed of the computers would be balanced. Licklider foresaw a close symbiotic relationship between computer and human. He also developed the concepts that led to the idea of the Netizen. Man-Computer Symbiosis. C. The picture readily enlarges itself into a network of such centers. 1960. Like Norbert Wiener. connected to one another by wide-band communication lines and to individual users by leased-wire services. a 'thinking center' that will incorporate the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval.

including the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal. The US Air Force had recently established one of the first wide area computer networks for the SAGE radar defence system. and had an increasing interest in survivable. and then as a series of eleven comprehensive papers titled On Distributed Communications in 1964.com . Since each computer could be connected to one or more other computers. Baran's study describes a remarkably detailed architecture for a distributed. then as paper P-2626. diminishing the attractiveness of a first strike option by the Soviet Union. Licklider at the IPTO about his work.C. Baran's architecture was well designed to survive a nuclear conflict. survivable. it was assumed that any link of the network could fail at any time. • • • • • Source: Livinginternet. Baran began an investigation into development of survivable communications networks. and helped to convince the US Military that wide area digital computer networks were a promising technology. Baran also talked to Bob Taylor and J. since they were also working to build a wide area communications network. The network is designed to withstand almost any degree of destruction to individual components without loss of end-to-end communications. packet switched communications network. laying the groundwork that leads to its continued use today. Baran has also received several awards.Paul Baran • Summary: Paul Baran developed the field of packet switching networks while conducting research at the historic RAND organization. and the Marconi International Fellowship Award.R. In 1959. the results of which were first presented to the Air Force in the summer of 1961 as briefing B265. a young electrical engineer named Paul Baran joined RAND from Hughes Aircraft's systems group. His 1964 series of papers then influenced Roberts and Kleinrock to adopt the technology for development of the ARPANET network a few years later. wide area communications networks so they could reorganize and respond after a nuclear attack. and the network therefore had no central control or administration.

1997). system. Documents would remain accessible indefinitely. He is known for coining the term "hypertext. He has been called "one of the most influential contrarians in the history of the information age. Nelson persisted. God does not exist. His biggest project. Xanadu was concieved as a tool to preserve and increase humanity's literature and art. the owners of the documents would be automatically paid via electronic means a micropayment for the virtual copying of their documents. most authority is malignant. mainly younger. Users could create virtual copies of any document. Instead of having copyrighted materials. He often repeats his four maxims by which he leads his life: "most people are fools. opposing authority and tradition.org/pioneers . the Xanadu code was made open source. and everything is wrong. In 1967." (Edwards. For thirtysomething years he has been having grand ideas but has never seen them through to completed projects. computer hacks continued to develop it. he named his system XANADU. but he did not possess the technical knowledge to tell others how his ideas could be implemented. was to be a world-wide electronic publishing system that would have created a sort universal library for the people. and with the help of interested. Xanadu would consist of a world-wide network that would allow information to be stored not as separate files but as connected literature. though much less grand.ibiblio. In many ways Tim Berners-Lee's World Wide Web is a similar. In 1999. and so many people simply ignored him (and have ever since). 1995) Xanadu Nelson continued to expound his ideas." (Wolf.Ted Nelson • Ted Nelson is a somewhat controversial figure in the computing world." He is also seen as something of a radical figure. Xanadu has never been totally completed and is far from being implemented. Still. • • • Xanadu Logo • Source: www. Xanadu.

and the first computer ever on the Internet. and then published a comprehensive analytical treatment of digital networks in his book Communication Nets in 1964. After completing his thesis in 1962. Kleinrock's group stressed the system to work out the detailed design and performance issues involved with the world's first packet switched network. 1968.The Poems". loading. led by himself and consisting of a group of graduate students working in the area of digital networks. and latency. Kleinrock has continued to be active in the research community. In 1966. On a historical day in early September. and has published more than 200 papers and authored six books. 1969. In October. and later established the Network Measurement Center (NMC).Leonard Kleinrock • Summary: Leonard Kleinrock is one of the pioneers of digital network communications. • • • • • Source: Dr.D. Information Flow in Large Communication Nets. and helped build the early ARPANET. In August. 1961. Kleinrock‟s Homepage . 1989. and used Kleinrock's Communication Nets to help convince his colleagues that a wide area digital communication network was possible. As the ARPANET grew in the early 1970's. Kleinrock moved to UCLA. He developed his ideas further in his 1963 Ph. deadlocks. including routing. a team at Kleinrock's NMC connected one of their SDS Sigma 7 computers to an Interface Message Processor. in July. which later produced the document RFC 1121. he organized and chaired a symposium commemorating the 20'th anniversary of the ARPANET. in the RLE Quarterly Progress Report. Roberts joined the IPTO with a mandate to develop the ARPANET. thesis. thereby becoming the first node on the ARPANET. titled "Act One -. Kleinrock published his first paper on digital network communications. Roberts gave a contract to Kleinrock's NMC as the ideal group to perform ARPANET performance measurement and find areas for improvement. The UCLA Netwatch program now performs similar functions to Kleinrock's Network Management Center from the ARPANET years.

gave a contract to Roberts to develop a computer network. and then joined the Lincoln Laboratory. The standards for identification and authentication of users.D. In October. In April. the Lincoln Labs TX-2 computer talked to their SDC's Q32 computer in one of the worlds first digital network communications. • • • • Source: Livinginternet. and error checking and retransmission procedures were outlined at this meeting. and it was at this meeting that Wesley Clark suggested using a separate minicomputer called the Interface Message Processor to interface to the network. In October. In a pivotal meeting in November.com .S. 1965. Licklider. who inspired Roberts with his dream to build a wide area communications network. and led the overall system design. to program the network. who had also been inspired by Licklider. transmission of characters. Michigan. In February. where he carried out research into computer networks.Lawrence Roberts • • Summary: Lawrence Roberts was the ARPANET program manager. Roberts resisted at first..C. 1964.R. and asked him to come on board to lead the effort. 1967. the director of the IPTO. documenting their networking experiments.S. degrees from MIT. and then joined as ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist in December 1966 when Taylor brought pressure on him through Hertzfeld and his boss at the Lincoln Lab. Taylor was greatly impressed by Lawrence Roberts work. Ivan Sutherland. Lawrence Roberts obtained his B. and Ph. Roberts held an "ARPANET Design Session" at the IPTO Principal Investigator meeting in Ann Arbor.. 1966. Roberts gave a contract to Thomas Marill. M. In July. DARPA head Charlie Hertzfeld promised IPTO Director Bob Taylor a million dollars to build a distributed communications network if he could get it organized. Also in 1966. Roberts then immediately started working on the system design for a wide area digital communications network that would come to be called the ARPANET. 1965. Roberts and Marill published a paper titled Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers at the Fall AFIPS Conference. Roberts met with J.

M. the IEEE Computer Society W. Roberts was Chairman and CTO of Packetcom. who had worked on the Interface Message Processor at BBN.25 networking system originally used on the EUnet. Tennessee. the first packet switching network carrier.com . Roberts has received numerous awards for his work. in part. he was President of networking company ATM Systems. In 1982. He gave the report to Taylor on June 3. by arguing that different departments would be able to log into other computers and use their programs remotely. and the ACM SIGCOMM communications award in 1998. which later standardized on the X. he was Chairman and CEO of NetExpress.. In the late 1990's. From 1983 to 1993. to become CEO of Telenet. who approved it on June 21. the Harry Goode Memorial Award from the American Federation of Information Processing. Roberts left the IPTO in October. the Interface Conference Award. Roberts later left Telenet when it was sold to GTE in 1979 and became the data division of Sprint. Ericsson prize for research in data communications in 1982. thereby saving the costs of buying or building programs themselves.Lawrence Roberts • Roberts presented a paper called Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication that summarized the ARPANET plan at the ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles at Gatlinburg. The work was begun. an electronics company specializing in packetized facsimile and ATM equipment. Roberts was President and CEO of DHL. 1969. Wallace McDowell Award in 1992. the L. including the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Medal. the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award. and greatly expanding the capabilities available to each site on the network. He then wrote a program plan called "Resource Sharing Computer Networks" to build a working implementation of the network. specializing in advanced Internet routers with improved quality of service. Bob Kahn. Roberts became Director of the IPTO when Taylor left in September. • • • • Source: Livinginternet. 1968. Inc. Roberts also hired the developer of TCP/IP. From 1993 to 1998. in October 1967. 1973. The project justified itself.

net .epf.Steve Crocker • • DR. And wrote many of the first RFCs. Dr. Dr. which was the forerunner of the modern Internet Engineering Task Force. Crocker served as the area director for security in the Internet Engineering Task Force for four years and as a member of the Internet Architecture Board for two years. Inc. In addition to his technical work on the early protocols. including RFC 1 and 3. Steve Crocker Associates. the leading Internet payments company. In the late 1960šs and early 1970šs. and he initiated the Request for Comment (RFC) series of notes through which protocol designs are documented and shared. LLC is a consulting and R&D company specializing in current Internet and electronic commerce technologies. Steve Crocker was one of the founders and chief technology officer of CyberCash. Dr.com Steve Crocker is an Internet and computer security expert. Crocker has been a program manager at Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). in mathematics and a Ph. Crocker was part of the team which developed the protocols for the Arpanet and laid the foundation for today‟s Internet. LLC is an ISP specializing in the integration of Internet-based services for small and medium businesses.. Executive DSL. CROCKER CEO. STEPHEN D. Crocker holds a B. Steve Crocker Associates. he organized the Network Working Group. LLC steve@stevecrocker. founder and director of the Computer Science Laboratory at the Aerospace Corporation and a vice president at Trusted Information Systems before joining CyberCash.D. a senior researcher at USCšS Information Sciences Institute.A. LLC and Executive DSL. • • Source: www. in Computer Science from UCLA. Dr.

and M. multimedia conferencing and electronic mail. especially at the operating system level and the application level. in Computer Science from UCLA. and DARPA sponsored projects in the areas of Active Networks. and 1974 respectively. and very high speed communications. in 1966.S. Jon is a member of the ACM and the Internet Society (and currently serves on the Internet Society Board of Trustees). Jon was regarded by many to be the ‘policeman of Internet Standards” for many years during the infancy of the Internet. His current interests include multi-machine internetwork applications. Middleware. the US Domain. • • • • • • • Source: Livinginternet. shortly after his passing with the addition of RFC 2468. He received his B. very large networks. Jon is also involved in several Internet infrastructure activities including the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. in Engineering. Distributed Systems. Jon was honored by Dr. Security. Vint Cerf in October 1998. and his Ph. At UCLA he was involved in the beginnings of the ARPANET and the development of the Network Measurement Center. 1968. He has worked in the areas of computer communication protocols.Jon Postel • • From Jon Postel’s Bio: Jon Postel is the Director of ISI's Computer Networks Division. including the NSF sponsored Routing Arbiter. and High Speed Networking. The division has 70 staff members working on about 10 projects.D.S.com . the RFC Editor. and the Los Nettos network (a regional network for the greater Los Angeles area).

and 24 bits for identification of a computer.com .Vinton Cerf • • Summary: Vinton Cerf is co-designer of the TCP/IP networking protocol.216 unique network addresses. In 1972.777. The INWG later became affiliated with the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP). each with up to 16. Kahn had experience with the Interface Message Processor. which they distributed at a special meeting of the INWG at Sussex University in September. 1973. he joined Bob Kahn as Principal Investigator on a project to design the next generation networking protocol for the ARPANET. Cerf and Stanford graduate students Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine published the first technical specification of TCP/IP as an Internet Experiment Note (IEN) as RFC 675. titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection". Cerf and Kahn started by drafting a paper describing their network design. and then finalized and published in the IEEE Transactions of Communications Technology. Cerf worked on several interesting networking projects at DARPA. 1974. making them the perfect team to create what became TCP/IP. in May. and Cerf had experience with the Network Control Protocol. which had just been created with a charter to establish common technical standards to enable any computer to connect to the ARPANET. which provided support for up to 256 networks. in December. Their design included a 32 bit IP address. and the Packet Satellite Network (SATNET). 1974. including the Packet Radio Net (PRNET). and has since been known as IFIP Working Group 1 of Technical Committee 6. • • • Source: Livinginternet. Vinton Cerf was a DARPA scientist at Stanford University when he was appointed chairman of the InterNetworking Working Group (INWG). In the spring of 1973. with eight bits for identification of a network.

"Act One -. 1994.com . Cerf is the author of three entertaining RFCs and contributed to a fourth: – – – – RFC 968. "Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (CSCR)". but the architecture proved remarkably robust -Cerf has said that once the network was developed and deployed. • Other online publications by Cerf are listed below: – – – • • Dr. published September 1989. Present. April 1st. presented at the Act One symposium held on the 20th anniversary of the ARPANET. Vinton Cerf.The Poems". Internet Technologies. "Twas the Night Before Start-up". and on how the Internet will affect the future of things like space travel and communications. Cerf is a tireless advocate and speaker. April 1st. Barry Boehm. the effects of the Internet on Society. Leonard Kleinrock. December. RFC 1217. Source: Livinginternet. RFC 1121. educating people about the history of the Internet. 1985. and Future. "A View From The 21st Century". He is also a founder of the Internet Society and its former Chairman. 1991. it just "continued to spread without stopping!" Cerf has continued to perform research and contribute to the development of the Internet through work with the communications company WorldCom and the Internet management organization ICANN. RFC 1607. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks. Internet: Past. How the Internet Came to Be. in response to RFC 1216.Vinton Cerf • • • It was assumed that the network design would eventually be re-engineered for a production system. Resources.

Vinton Cerf joined Kahn on the project. Any network could connect to another network through a gateway. Robert Kahn obtained a Ph. He later went to work at Bolt Beranek and Newman. degree from Princeton University in 1964. • • • • • • • • Source: Livinginternet. Lost packets would be retransmitted. In 1972. It was subsequently layered into two protocols. Kahn then began work on development of a standard open-architecture network model. Kahn was hired by Lawrence Roberts at the IPTO to work on networking technologies. worked for a while at AT&T Bell Laboratories. and helped build the Interface Message Processor. independent of individual hardware and software configuration.com . and then studied the Networking Control Protocol. They started by conducting research on reliable data communications across packet radio networks.Robert Kahn • • Summary: Bob Kahn is co-designer of the TCP/IP networking protocol. where any computer could communicate with any other.D. There would be no central network administration or control. No internal changes would have to be made to a computer to connect it to the network. and in October he gave a demonstration of an ARPANET network connecting 40 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference. and IP handles packet addressing and transmission. and then became an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at MIT. TCP/IP. In the spring of 1973. Distribution. He set four goals for the TCP design: Network Connectivity. Black Box Design. TCP had powerful error and retransmission capabilities. building on it to create the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). making the network widely known for the first time to people from around the world. where TCP handles high level services like retransmission of lost packets. Error Recovery. and provided extremely reliable communications.

Robert Kahn • Kahn has continue to nurture the development of the Internet over the years through shepherding the standards process and related activities. 1969. The following publications provide additional information: Chapter 2. RFC 6.The Role of Government in the Evolution of the Internet. and is now President of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI). a notfor-profit organization which performs research in the public interest on strategic development of network-based information technologies. Information Infrastructure. Resources. Revolution in the U. Conversation With Bob Kahn. National Academy of Sciences. 1994.S. 10 April.com . • • • Source: Livinginternet.

he led the research project RODEO at INRIA in Sophia-Antipolis. in the Internet Architecture Research laboratory of Telcordia. articles and conference communications. France. One of the results was the IP based H. Huitema joined Bellcore (now Telcordia) the 18 March 1996. he worked as a software engineer at SEMA. 1996) and "Et Dieu créa l'Internet" (Eyrolles. Between 1975 and 1980. its chair between April 1993 and July 1995. investigating computer usage of telecommunication satellites -. he was chief scientist. where he developed communication protocols for the SM90 workstation. "Routing in the Internet" (Prentice-Hall PTR.com/cs/p2pweb2001/view/e_spkr/518 .oreillynet. with which we demonstrated in 1994 that video communication can be made Internet friendly. first porting large Fortran programs to new architecture and then developing large Cobol applications for manufacture control. he worked at CNET (Centre National d'Etudes des Télécommunications). and Universal Plug and Play (UPnP). "IPv6. IPv6. His personal work on quality of service focused on measurement of the Internet's size and quality. From 1980 to 1985. Real-Time Communication. and obtained in 1985 a Doctorat ès Sciences from the Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6). including the evolution of TCP/IP support.Christian Huitema • Christian Huitema joined Microsoft in February 2000. The group is in charge of all the networking support for Windows. and Telcordia Fellow. 1995).this was the subject of his doctorate thesis. IVS. The work on Internet Telephony led to the development of the "Call Agent Architecture" that enables very large scale configuration. as well as three books. He was elected a trustee of the Internet Society in May 1995. He worked then on a joined project between CNET and INRIA. Huitema was a member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) from 1991 to 1996. From 1986 to 1996. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris from 1972 to 1975. He worked there on the definition and the experimentation of innovative communication protocols. moving Internet telephony into the main stream of telecommunications. as "architect" in the "Windows Networking & Communications" group. software and compilers. the new Internet Protocol" (Prentice-Hall PTR. Prior to joining Microsoft. • • • • • • Source: http://conferences. working on Internet Quality of Service and Internet Telephony. 1995).261 videoconferencing system. Huitema has written a fairly large number of scientific publications.

taught computer science at Massey University in New Zealand. as well as the Internet Architecture Board and the Internet Engineering Task Force. He moved to an IBM software development group in Hursley Park in the UK where he appears to principally pursue IETF/IAB activities along with assisting IBM's Internet 2 applications development efforts. His interests include IPv6 IP Security and Quality of Service. Brian is currently the Chairman of the Internet Society. He has involved for some years in Internet Society activities. Brian has recently worked on the IPv6 Task Force. He spoke to the members of ISOC-Chicago in May 2001 at Northwestern University. Worked 1975-85 developing process control systems at CERN in Geneva. • • • .Brian Carpenter • Brian Carpenter has a PhD in computer science. and was Communications Systems group leader at CERN from 19851998. He also served as chair of the IAB prior to Baker.

org . Graduate of Oxford University. With a background of system design in real-time communications and text processing software development. in 1989 he invented the World Wide Web. while working at CERN. the European Particle Physics Laboratory. Before coming to CERN.Tim Berners-Lee • The inventor of HTML. and before that a principal engineer with Plessey Telecommunications. • • • Source: w3c. an open forum of companies and organizations with the mission to realize the full potential of the Web. England. in Poole. He directs the W3 Consortium. England. Tim is now with the Laboratory for Computer Science ( LCS)at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT). Tim was a founding director of Image Computer Systems. an internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing.

he also became familiar with the Web. His position at NCSA allowed him to become very familiar with the Internet. Eric Bina. Hyper-links allowed the user to simply click on a link to retrieve a document. • • Source: www. The two worked tirelessly. In earlier browsers hypertext links had reference numbers that the user typed in to navigate to the linked document. which also hindered the spread of the Web. They called their new browser Mosaic. Another innovative feature was the hyper-link. The user-interfaces of available browsers also tended to be not very user-friendly. Like other browsers it was designed to display HTML documents. but only as separate files.org/pioneers . Marc decided to develop a browser that was easier to use and more graphically rich. but new formatting tags like "center" were included. In 1992. 7). This meant that the Web was mostly used by academics and engineers who had access to such machines. Mosaic made it possible for images and text to appear on the same page. Like just about everyone else who was involved with the Internet. Bina remembers that they would 'work three to four days straight. Especially important was the inclusion of the "image" tag which allowed to include images on web pages. then crash for about a day' (Reid. Most of the browsers available then were for Unix machines which were expensive. Mosaic also sported a graphical interface with clickable buttons that let users navigate easily and controls that let users scroll through text with ease. It was much more sophisticated graphically than other browsers of the time. Andreesen recruited fellow NCSA employee.ibiblio. Earlier browsers allowed the viewing of pictures.Mark Andreesen • Marc Andreesen was a student and part-time assistant at the Nationa l Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois when the World Wide Web began to take off. to help with his project.

17). Within weeks tens of thousands of people had downloaded the software. the browser of choice was Mosaic so its distribution increased accordingly.Mark Andreesen • In early 1993. Marc realized that when he was through with his studies NCSA would take over Mosaic for themselves. Mosaic's growth was so great that it made the front page of the New York Times business section.org/pioneers . Mosaic was posted for download on NCSA's servers. • Source: www. NCSA administrators were quoted in the article.ibiblio. but there was no mention of either Andreesen or Bina. More users meant a bigger Web audience. Andreesen and Bina quickly put together a team to develop PC and Mac versions. The article concluded that Mosaic was perhaps "an application program so different and so obviously useful that it can create a new industry from scratch" (Reid. As the number of users on the Web increased. So when he graduated in December 1993. he left and moved to Silicon Valley in California. its popularity skyrocketed. The original version was for Unix. which were released in the late spring of the same year. The bigger audiences spurred the creation of new content. It was immediately popular. With Mosaic now available for more popular platforms. By December 1993. which in turn further increased the audience on the Web and so on.

Inc. to sit in front of a monitor and program. The new product would need a name. just coding.ibiblio. Andreesen became the Vice President of Technology of the new company. 27). human endurance. Eventually. The new team's mandate was to create a product to surpass the original Mosaic. The team worked furiously. In mid-1994. and soon met Jim Clark.com • • • • Source: www. the name Netscape was adopted. Today. " a lot of times. But they were driven by this vision [of beating the original Mosaic]" (Reid. Marc contacted old friends still working for NCSA and enticed a group of them to come be the engineering team for the new company. In November of 1998. Clark had founded Silicon Graphics. in terms of honest-to-God. He had money and connections.Mark Andreesen • • Netscape Andreesen settled in Palo Alto. Marc Andreeson is VP of LoudCloud. I've never seen anything like it.org/pioneers . no BS. The two began talking about a possible new start-up company. They had to start from scratch. was officially incorporated in Mountain View. The original had been created on university time with university money and so belonged exclusively to the university. One employee recalls. Mosaic Communications Corp. California. Netscape was bought by AOL. Others were brought into the discussions and it was decided that they would start an Internet company. people were there straight forty-eight hours.

IL. USA . Chicago. III.Honorable Mention • Jack Kilby – Co-inventor of the silicon microchip • Robert Noyce – Co-inventor of the silicon microchip • Robert Metcalfe Jack Kilby Robert Noyce – ARPANET engineer and inventor of Ethernet. William F. Esther Dyson Bob Metcalfe Copyright 2002. Slater. and who was the first Chairman of ICANN at its beginning in October 1998. and founder of 3Com • Esther Dyson – Visionary who helped start the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Internet Growth Trends .

000.000 hosts 1992: 1.Internet Growth Trends • • • • • • • • • • • 1977: 111 hosts on Internet 1981: 213 hosts 1983: 562 hosts 1984: 1.000 hosts 1989: 100.000 hosts 1987: 10. about 80% of the planet will be on the Internet .000 hosts 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts 2002: over 200 million hosts By 2010.000 hosts 1986: 5.

Apr. „90 .No. of Participating Hosts Oct. „98 .

Vint Cerf presents in Chicago at the Drake Hotel on March 2001 The event was a fund-raiser for the ITRC Digital Photo March 2001 by William F. IL.March 2001 Over 115 Million Hosts (As of Jan. 2001) Over 407 Million Users (As of Nov. Slater. Chicago. 2000) 218 of 246 Countries (As of Jan. 2000) > 31 Million Domain Names About 100 TB of Data Dr. III. USA .

com – from Telcordia .By September 2002 The Internet Reached Two Important Milestones: Netsizer.

2002 200. 2002 250. at which time there were 1000 hosts that were all converted over to using TCP/IP.000. Copyright 2002.000 0 9/ 69 01 /7 1 01 /7 3 01 /7 4 01 /7 6 01 /7 9 08 /8 1 08 /8 3 10 /8 5 11 /8 6 07 /8 8 01 /8 9 10 /8 9 01 /9 1 10 /9 1 04 /9 2 10 /9 2 04 /9 3 10 /9 3 07 /9 4 01 /9 5 01 /9 6 01 /9 7 01 /9 8 01 /9 9 01 /0 1 08 /0 2 Time Period Chart by William F. IL.000.000 No.000 Dot-Com Bust Begins 50. III.Sept. Slater.000. Chicago.000 Sept.000 100. 1969 . III The Internet was not known as "The Internet" until January 1984.000. USA .000. 1. William F.Growth of Internet Hosts * Sept. Slater. of Hosts 150.

com . 2002 Over 204. Source Netsizer. 1. 2002. 2001 to Sept. 1.000.The Internet Host Count in Realtime on September 1.000 IP Hosts!!! Chart showing Internet Growth from Sept.

000 Domain Names!!! .Jul. „89 .Domain Name Registration Jan.000. „97 April 2001: 31.

Public on April 15. 1998 by Bill Daley. 1998 * Delivered to the President and the U.Statistics from the IITF Report The Emerging Digital Economy * • To get a market of 50 Million People Participating: • Radio took 38 years • TV took 13 years • Once it was open to the General Public. Secretary of Commerce and Chairman of the Information Infrastructure Task Force .gov/emerging.ecommerce.htm – Released on April 15. The Internet made to the 50 million person audience mark in just 4 years!!! • http://www.S.

their early work and keeping in mind what they had to work with. they pressed ahead. There is a lot to be learned by studying these people.Conclusion • The Internet (and World Wide Web) was have today was created by some very bright. to the hard work of these people. or were inspired by other talented people‟s visions. • • • • . Their perseverance and hard work brought us to where we are today. talented people who either had vision. we owe a great deal for the wired world we enjoy. Today. Though their ideas were not always popular.

Questions? .

com – from Telcordia CAIDA Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey RIPE Internet Statistics Matrix Information and Directory Services Growth of the World Wide Web The Netcraft Web Server Survey Internet Surveys The Internet Society .Sources of Statistical Information • • • • • • • • • Netsizer.

com – from Telcordia CAIDA Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey RIPE Internet Statistics Matrix Information and Directory Services Growth of the World Wide Web The Netcraft Web Server Survey Internet Surveys The Internet Society .Sources of Statistical Information URLs are underneath! • • • • • • • • • Netsizer.

org 773-235-3080 . III – – – – slater@billslater.For More Information. Slater.com isoc-chicago. Please Contact: • William F.com billslater.

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