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GUIDELINES FOR LIFTING EQUIPMENT

Issued: March 2000 Last amended: June 2001

Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Limited


Level 3, 24 Marcus Clarke Street CANBERRA ACT 2600 Telephone: INTERNET: +61 2 6247 0960 http://www.appea.com.au GPO Box 2201 CANBERRA ACT 2601 Facsimile: +61 2 6247 0548 Email: appea@appea.com.au

ACN 000 292 713

ISBN 0 908277 21 0

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

PREFACE Lifting operations in the offshore petroleum industry represent potentially one of the highest risk activities in the industry. Accordingly many standards and individual company guidelines exist to ensure that lifting operations are performed safely using appropriate equipment. As well as offshore lifting this guideline does cover some aspects of lifting operations at onshore sites. In particular personnel competency requirements, registers of lifting equipment and operational aspects for lifting devices including mobile cranes are covered. During the preparation of the guideline the technical working group recognised that onshore lifting practices were generally well established and that a uniform standard already existed. This guideline is intended only to supplement and does not seek to alter these well established onshore lifting practices. APPEA has issued these guidelines to facilitate consistent lifting practices across the petroleum industry, particularly for offshore operations. These guidelines establish appropriate design requirements for Lifting Gear reflecting the dynamic effects of lifting operations from supply vessels along with guidance on equipment marking, registers, inspection testing and maintenance. They also describe the broad expectations for competencies of personnel associated with lifting activities. These guidelines generally reference Australian Standards, however the use of equivalent internationally recognised standards is also acceptable. Disclaimer The use of these Guidelines does not in any way diminish the responsibility of individual operating companies or, their contractors to carry out operations safely having due regard to their duty of care responsibilities, and to observe statutory requirements. APPEA does not accept any responsibility for any incident or consequence thereof, whether or not in violation of any law or regulation, which arises or is alleged to have arisen from the use of these Guidelines.

Amendments
Date Oct 2000 May 2001 Jun 2001 Amendment Additional Padeye Chart (App E) Rigging Equipment Example (App E) Rigging Equipment Example (App E) By D. Williams D. Williams L. Gray Reason for Amendment Additional information Error in calculation Error in calculation

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2 PURPOSE ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 LIFTING EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY................................................................................................................ 2 RELATIONSHIP WITH REGULATIONS................................................................................................................. 3 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................. 3

COMPETENCY STANDARDS ....................................................................................................................... 4 2.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES.................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 COMPETENCE OF EQUIPMENT OPERATORS ....................................................................................................... 4 2.3 MAINTAINERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................ 4 2.4 INSPECTORS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................... 5 2.4.1 Pre-use visual checks............................................................................................................................ 5 2.4.2 Certified visual inspections ................................................................................................................... 5 2.5 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) LABORATORIES........................................................................................ 5 2.5.1 Proof Load Testing Organisations......................................................................................................... 5 2.6 DESIGNERS & VERIFIERS OF RIGGING FOR ENGINEERED LIFTS, OF LIFTED EQUIPMENT, AND OF LIFTING DEVICES .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

REGISTERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................... 7 3.1 3.2 3.3 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 7 LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGISTER ....................................................................................................................... 7 LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGISTER CONTENTS ...................................................................................................... 7

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING DEVICES ............................................................................................. 9 4.1 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE ............................................................................................................................. 9 4.2 DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION (GENERAL) ................................................................................ 9 4.3 CRANES.......................................................................................................................................................... 9 4.4 MOBILE CRANES .......................................................................................................................................... 10 4.5 GANTRY CRANES, MONORAILS & DAVITS ..................................................................................................... 10 4.6 LIFTING POINTS ............................................................................................................................................ 10 4.7 HOISTING EQUIPMENT (MANUALLY OPERATED) ............................................................................................ 11 4.8 MAN-RIDING EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................................. 11 4.8.1 Cranes Used for Man Riding Operations............................................................................................. 11 4.8.2 Winches.............................................................................................................................................. 12 4.8.3 Man Riding Winches ........................................................................................................................... 12 4.9 SURVEYS AND INSPECTION ............................................................................................................................ 12 4.10 DOCUMENTATION ......................................................................................................................................... 13

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING GEAR ................................................................................................. 14 5.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 14 5.2 DESIGN APPROACH FOR ENGINEERED LIFTS................................................................................................... 14 5.3 OVER CHART LIFTS ...................................................................................................................................... 15 5.4 DESIGN OF RIGGING ...................................................................................................................................... 15 5.5 ACCESS TO CRANE HOOK FOR MARINE CREWS FIFTH LEG ASSEMBLIES....................................................... 18 5.6 DIAGONALLING ............................................................................................................................................ 18 5.7 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE USE ............................................................................................... 19 5.7.1 Synthetic Slings (Refer AS 1353.17.2-1997, AS 4497.1&.2 -1997)........................................................ 19 5.7.2 Safety Shackles ................................................................................................................................... 19 5.7.3 Eyebolts.............................................................................................................................................. 19 5.7.4 Chain Slings ....................................................................................................................................... 19 5.7.5 Wire Rope Slings ................................................................................................................................ 19 5.8 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONTAINER PAD EYES & THEIR ATTACHMENT ............................................................ 20

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 6 7

DESIGN OF LIFTED EQUIPMENT (OFFSHORE CONTAINERS).............................................................................. 20 ISO CONTAINERS USED AS LIFTED EQUIPMENT.............................................................................................. 21 DESIGN OF SUB-SEA LIFTS ............................................................................................................................ 22 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS ............................................................... 22 DOCUMENTATION NEW BUILD LIFTED EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................... 23 DOCUMENTATION FOR E XISTING LIFTED EQUIPMENT..................................................................................... 24 INITIAL LOAD TESTS FOR LIFTED EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................ 25 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (OFFSHORE CONTAINERS INCLUDING ISO CONTAINERS).................................... 25

DESIGN OF TANKS FOR FLUIDS.............................................................................................................. 26 MARKING OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT...................................................................................................... 27 7.1 GENERAL ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 7.2 MARKING OF LIFTING DEVICES ..................................................................................................................... 27 7.2.1 Fixed Location Pad Eyes..................................................................................................................... 27 7.3 MARKING OF LIFTED EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................. 27 7.4 CONTAINER AND ROOF IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ...................................................................................... 27 7.5 LIFTING FRAME AND BEAM MARKINGS ......................................................................................................... 28 7.6 MARKING OF RIGGING .................................................................................................................................. 28

PERIODIC INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE ................................................................... 29 8.1 GENERAL ..................................................................................................................................................... 29 8.2 LIFTING DEVICES.......................................................................................................................................... 30 8.2.1 Inspection Before and After Proof Loading.......................................................................................... 30 8.3 LIFTED EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 30 8.4 RIGGING ....................................................................................................................................................... 31 8.4.1 Proof Loading of Rigging used for Offshore Lifting (Boat Lifts) (ON HOLD) ....................................... 31 8.5 REPAIRS AND MODIFICATIONS TO LIFTING EQUIPMENT .................................................................................. 32

SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES............................................................................................................ 33 9.1 LIFTING OPERATIONS BETWEEN PLATFORMS AND VESSELS ............................................................................ 33 9.1.1 Planning............................................................................................................................................. 33 9.1.2 Communications ................................................................................................................................. 33 9.1.3 Lift Preparation and Handling ............................................................................................................ 33 9.2 PERSONNEL TRANSFERS................................................................................................................................ 34 9.2.1 Authority ............................................................................................................................................ 34 9.2.2 Duties................................................................................................................................................. 34 9.2.3 Suitability of the vessel........................................................................................................................ 35 9.2.4 Weather conditions ............................................................................................................................. 36 9.2.5 Communications ................................................................................................................................. 36 9.2.6 Safety equipment and rescue procedures ............................................................................................. 36 9.2.7 Training ............................................................................................................................................. 36

APPENDIX A .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS............................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX B .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX C .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. OFFSHORE WIRE ROPE AND CHAIN SLINGS .............................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX D .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR..........................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX E............................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. PAD EYE DETAILS ............................................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX F............................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS .................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX G .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. GUIDE TO AUSTRALIAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS...............ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX H .............................................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. GUIDELINES FOR THE PHASE OUT OF ISO SHIPPING CONTAINERS OFFSHOREERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED APPENDIX I................................................................................................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION, TESTING AND MARKING OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERSERROR! BOOKMARK N

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Purpose

To provide operators, contractors and vendors working in the offshore petroleum industry clear and consistent guidance on the expected standards for design, manufacture, supply and use of lifting equipment. These guidelines are intended to ensure safe lifting operations, thereby minimising risks to personnel and assets. 1.2 Scope

These guidelines apply to Lifting Equipment used on and in the following offshore exploration and production facilities and onshore loading facilities: platforms; floating production units; floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facilities; mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs); supply vessels; construction vessels; diving support vessels; seismic vessels; buoys; and onshore loading facilities and supply bases.

These guidelines do not apply to specialised lifting devices used in the following activities: pipe laying activities; specialised wireline operations (ie. winches, wireline units, etc); specialised drilling rig equipment (ie. draw-works assembly, travelling blocks, drilling swivels, etc); heavy lift activities from construction barges; helicopter external lifting. escape craft

Most of the Lifting Devices used in drilling related operations are addressed in relevant API standards or IADC guidelines.

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1.3

Lifting Equipment Terminology LIFTING EQUIPMENT

LIFTING DEVICES

LIFTING GEAR

LIFTED EQUIPMENT

RIGGING

Cranes (Mobile crane, Tower crane, Overhead crane, Hoist) Chain Hoist Cherry Picker Davit Forklift In-situ lifting beam Jack Lever Hoist Loading arm Monorail. Pad eyes Trolley Winch

Bulk liquid tanks Open freight containers Closed freight containers Workshops Laboratories Storage containers Mini containers Pallets Open top bins Skips Baskets Personnel Baskets Gas cylinder racks Spreader frames Equipment skids Long stock container Modules Padeyes Section Lifting points & supporting members of subsea manifolds, Christmas trees & subsea valves Lifting points and supporting members of machinery (skids, valves etc)

Wire ropes Wire rope slings Chain Slings Flat synthetic webbing slings Wire coil flat slings Polyester round slings Shackles Hooks Clamps Rings Swivels Hammer locks Sockets Blocks Stingers

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1.4

Relationship with Regulations

The majority of Australian legislation covering safety critical equipment such as Lifting Equipment is now objective based. This includes the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) (Management of Safety on Offshore Facilities) Regulations 1996 and regulations issued under the various State and Federal Safety and Occupational Health legislation. As such, these guidelines are structured in such a way as to provide guidance to the offshore petroleum industry on good industry practice. These guidelines are not to be interpreted as industry best practice or minimum standards. The onus of demonstrating that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable remains with the individual operator or contractor. Offshore petroleum exploration and development in Australia comes under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth and State or Territory Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Acts. Depending on the lease location, regulations under the Act may be directly administered by the State or Territory or administered by the State or Territory on behalf of the Commonwealth (as a Designated Authority). For offshore operations supply vessels, work boats, offtake tankers, etc, come under the Navigation Act 1912 and Marine Orders parts 43, 44 (section 11 only), and 59. Marine Orders part 32 is not applicable to offshore lifting. Similarly when MODUs, FPSOs, FPUs, construction barges enter Australian waters they fall under the Navigation Act. When they are moored at drill site they fall under the P(SL)A in addition to the Navigation Act, but immediately on leaving the mooring they revert back to the Navigation Act. Loading and unloading operations at offshore facilities are governed by the P(SL)A which is administered by the relevant state or territory department. Operators attention is also drawn to the AMSA publication Australian Offshore Vessels Code of Safe Working Practice. To demonstrate compliance with the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) (Management of Safety on Offshore Facilities) Regulations 1996, operators must ensure they have an effective integrated Safety Management System (SMS). Safety Management System requirements as defined under the Safety Case regime in place should identify, assess, eliminate and/or manage risk to as low as reasonably practicable.

1.5

Management System

Organisations using these guidelines should have in place a formal Lifting Equipment Management System. This management system would as a minimum demonstrate how the organisation manages: responsibilities for key personnel; registration and trace-ability of Lifting Equipment within its control or use; design, fabrication and supply of Lifting Equipment; inspection and maintenance of Lifting Equipment under its control; safe use of Lifting Equipment; training and competencies of personnel; contractor or third party owned Lifting Equipment; and auditing of this management system.
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2 COMPETENCY STANDARDS
2.1 Management Responsibilities

Management should ensure that personnel operating Lifting Equipment have the required competencies and are familiar with specific Lifting Equipment and work practices used at each facility. This may include the following: awareness of relevant codes, standards and guidelines; 2.2 awareness of relevant competency standards; knowledge of Lifting Equipment used on the facility; lift planning procedures; requirements for pre-use equipment checks; requirements for moving loads around the facility; routine inspection and maintenance requirements; procedures for loading and unloading supply vessels; and procedures for personnel transfer operations.

Competence of Equipment Operators

Equipment operators, including but not limited to crane and fork lift operators, riggers and doggers working within Australia and/or Australian waters are required to hold a certificate of competency issued by either a recognised State Authority or a National Licence issued under the National Occupational Health and Safety Certification Standard for Users and Operators of Industrial Equipment (Note: The referenced publication, NOHSC:1006-1992, is available from the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission). Such personnel shall be familiar and competent with facility specific Lifting Equipment and work practices.

2.3

Maintainers of Lifting Equipment

Management should ensure that maintenance of Lifting Equipment is carried out by suitably qualified and competent personnel, who have knowledge of the following areas: awareness of the relevant standards and regulations; site specific requirements and procedures; maintenance requirements on all types of Lifting Equipment to be maintained; inspection frequency requirements; detailed inspections requirements for all Lifting Equipment;
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2.4

discard criteria; and disposal processes for failed equipment.

Inspectors of Lifting Equipment

2.4.1 Pre-use visual checks Competent persons, holding a certificate of competency relevant to the type of equipment, are to carry out a pre-use visual check each time the equipment is used. 2.4.2 Certified visual inspections A "certified visual inspection" is more detailed inspection than a visual check and is carried out on a periodic frequency, the results of which are documented and recorded in the facility "Lifting Equipment" Register. Certified visual inspection shall be conducted by one of the following: Classification Societies with industry accepted inspection standards for "Lifting Equipment" (eg. DNV, Lloyds etc.); or A "body" holding NATA Inspection accreditation to ISO 17020 for in-service inspection of "Lifting Equipment" to these guidelines. Note: Personnel certification for inspection of lifting equipment may be developed in the future by AIDNT, AICIP or similar organisations; or Suitably qualified people working within an Operator's inspection program where the Operator works within a Safety Case regime which addresses the requirements for training of such personnel and the standards for such "certified visual inspections".

Refer to Section 8 and Appendix I for further details of the "certified visual inspection". All "certified visual inspection" reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the accreditation body (NATA), the Classification Society, or be issued in the form required by the Operator for inhouse "certified visual inspection". 2.5 Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Laboratories

During initial fabrication, repairs and modifications as well as part of the periodic inspection process, NDT inspection of Lifting Equipment shall be conducted by: A body holding NATA laboratory accreditation to ISO 17025 for Non Destructive Testing. All NDT reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate NDT accreditation body (NATA).

2.5.1 Proof Load Testing Organisations Proof load testing organisations shall hold accreditation to these guidelines for the relevant class of proof load testing. Proof load testing of Lifting Equipment shall be conducted by one of the following bodies:

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Classification Societies with industry accepted proof load standards for Lifting Equipment (eg. DNV, Lloyds etc.); OR A body holding NATA laboratory accreditation to ISO 17025 for proof load testing of Lifting Equipment to these guidelines. OR Suitably qualified people working within an Operator's inspection program where the Operator works within a Safety Case regime which addresses the requirements for training of such personnel and the standards for such proof load testing.

All proof load testing reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate proof load testing accreditation body (NATA) or Classification Society. Accreditation should be reviewed to ensure that it covers the equipment to be tested.

2.6

Designers & Verifiers of Rigging for Engineered Lifts, of Lifted Equipment, and of Lifting Devices

Designers & Verifiers of Rigging for Engineered Lifts, of Lifted Equipment, and of Lifting Devices should be qualified engineers experienced in offshore lifting technology. The design & verification of "Lifted Equipment and Engineered Lifts should be conducted by either: A "body" holding ISO 9001 certification for design and who have qualified structural engineers experienced in offshore lifting to carry out the design and also the checking of "Lifted Equipment". A written certificate shall be provided on the design documentation by the "design body" that it holds ISO 9001 qualification for structural design and that the design conforms to a standard recognised under these Guidelines. OR Where the "design body" does not hold ISO 9001 certification for design, then the design is to be certified by a classification society, ie Lloyds, DNV etc. In this case all design documentation should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate Classification Society.

(This section applies also to subsequent Sections 4.2, 5.1, 5.3, 5.8, 5.9, and 5.14 of these Guidelines.)"

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3 REGISTERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT


3.1 Introduction

Each facility or group of facilities shall maintain a register or registers of all types of Lifting Equipment used on site and owned by the operator. Likewise, contractors should maintain a register of their Lifting Equipment on each facility. This is a statutory requirement for vessels operating under the Navigation Act 1912. All suppliers of Lifting Equipment that is leased to offshore operators and/or contractors should also maintain a register of all such equipment.

3.2

Lifting Equipment Register

A register, as a minimum, shall contain an inventory of all Lifting Equipment present on or at the facility (this is equipment that effectively belongs to the facility). The register of Lifting Equipment may be in an electronic format or in the form of a card or other paper register system. Register systems should identify the location of all hard copy records of design verifications, inspection certificates, maintenance records, test certificates, etc. Because of varied recording requirements the register should be split into equipment types or Classes, eg. Lifting Devices (cranes, pad eyes, etc), Lifted Equipment (containers, baskets, etc) and Rigging (slings, shackles, etc).

3.3

Lifting Equipment Register Contents

The register is expected to contain the following entries as applicable for each item of equipment: a full description of the equipment; the safe working load (SWL) of the item or maximum gross mass (MGM) as applicable; the unique identification or tag number for the item; manufacturers serial numbers; batch number of the item if applicable; the location (or reference to the drawing showing the location - particularly for pad eyes) of the item. The usage of the item (eg. stores unloading, engine room general lifting etc); date of entry onto the register; whether a Certificate of Conformity is required for the item; a copy of the Certificate of Conformity, or number of, approval bodies and date of issue; the location of the design verification certificate and documentation; whether a certificate of inspection is required;
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the inspection certificate number, issuing body and date of issue; for cranes, winches, containers, special Lifting Equipment, pad eyes etc, the design and fabrication codes and the location of the manufacturer data report; for Lifting Gear, the national standard to which the item was purchased; re-inspection interval; and reference to the approved maintenance and operating manual for the item.

These entries shall be supported (as applicable) with the following traceable hard copy records as issued by an inspection body holding accreditation with NATA in accordance with these guidelines or a Classification Society with industry accepted design and inspection standards for Lifting Equipment: certificate of design verification; current certificate of inspection; type test certificate; manufacturers test certificate/s (for Lifted Equipment); the maintenance and inspection records (including the past inspection reports for visual inspections, calibrations, adjustments, change out of equipment etc); and proof load test and NDT reports.

Where applicable, these entries shall be supported with traceable hard copy records of the following: original manufacturers data report; and original design calculations.

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4 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING DEVICES


4.1 Introduction and Scope

This section provides guidance on Lifting Devices, as defined in Section 1.3, and their associated equipment installed or erected on offshore facilities.

4.2

Design, Manufacture and Installation (General)

Lifting Devices should be suitable for their intended purpose and should be of sound design, construction, suitable material, of adequate strength and free from defects. Equipment should be designed with due regard to the intended use with or near other equipment and for safe use under known operating conditions, including any overload conditions which may be anticipated, (ie. proof load testing, etc.). Where relevant, the equipment should have efficient control systems, guards, fences and shields. Particular consideration should be given to the effectiveness of mountings on all Lifting Devices. The design of Lifting Devices should be consistent in its approach with that used to design the Lifted Equipment and Rigging, (ie. a device designed to API codes, with rigging to DNV codes and equipment to AS codes, may provide an inconsistent application of factors of safety and failure load paths through the lift). The lifting device designer as specified in section 2.6, should be consulted when any of the following actions are being considered: initial design; 4.3 modifications to any Lifting Devices; repairs to safety-critical elements of Lifting Devices; and testing or overload testing of Lifting Devices after repair or modification.

Cranes

The detailed design of offshore cranes is beyond the scope of this document and is normally completed by the specialist crane supplier. Common acceptable standards specified for offshore cranes are: API Spec 2C Specification for Offshore Cranes; Lloyds Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment, together with BS2573 Rules for the Design of Cranes; and AS1418 Crane Code.

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4.4

Mobile Cranes

Mobile cranes offshore should be classed as temporary mobile equipment and should only be used for the purpose agreed by the operating company, the owner and a competent person. Where mobile cranes are used for operations subject to sea-state induced dynamics, they should generally comply with Section 4.3. The following items should also be considered: permissible locations (ie. area of safe operation) including adequacy of supporting structure; barriers to prevent the crane colliding with other parts of the installation, or toppling overboard; safe limits of operation on floating installations and any associated means of stowing or securing the crane in adverse weather conditions; means of securing while lifting from supply vessels or any other sea-state operation; dynamic effects and de-rating for sea state operations; stability of the vessel on which the crane is being operated; inspection of safety-critical structural and mechanical components; and details should be included in an appropriate manual addressing the use of the mobile crane in offshore operations.

4.5

Gantry Cranes, Monorails & Davits

Gantry cranes, monorails, davits (other than escape craft davits) etc. should be designed, constructed and tested in accordance with a recognised standard, supplemented with any specific conditions of use (such as operational sea-state and/or maximum list/trim and roll/pitch). Any such conditions of use should be made clearly visible to the operator of the crane and also be stated in an appropriate manual for the equipment. Gantry cranes should be fitted with end limit switches and mechanical stops for all travel motions. If travel speeds are sufficiently low to warrant over-travel being arrested by mechanical end stops only, then approval for this mode of operation should be obtained from a competent person.

4.6

Lifting Points

Permanently attached lifting points should be designed to AS4100 or equivalent and be subject to inspection, NDT and load testing in accordance with these guidelines. The design of lifting points such as pad eyes, pad-ears, lifting lugs, etc. should incorporate the magnitude, direction and effects of load distribution. The design of the surrounding structure to which lifting points are affixed should allow transmission of the load from the lifting point to the surrounding structure. Adequate clearances should be provided between the pad eye and the rigging. Lifting points should be free from any detrimental defects caused by oxy-cutting, arc welding, etc.

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Testing of pad eyes, lifting lugs etc. should be agreed with a competent person and carried out to comply with the current requirements. Refer to Section 5.8 and Appendix E for pad eye detail.

4.7

Hoisting Equipment (Manually Operated)

Manually operated hoisting equipment should be designed, manufactured, tested and marked in accordance with recognised codes and standards (Appendix G). Pawls for the ratchet mechanism should either be spring-loaded or engagement with the ratchet ensured by other positive means. Engagement should not depend solely on gravity alone. Hand chains should be smooth and free from rough areas. The effort required to operate manual hoisting equipment should not exceed that which one person can comfortably exert from a standing position. 4.8 Man-Riding Equipment

4.8.1 Cranes Used for Man Riding Operations The following guidance applies to cranes used for personnel lifting. Outline guidance on procedures for transfer of personnel by basket is provided in Section 9.2. Free fall operations of the hoist or boom motion are not permitted. Winding gear should be equipped with a brake, mechanically operable under all load conditions. The design braking force should be at least 120% of the braking force required to support the stipulated test overload. Dynamic braking effects due to hydraulic transmission systems should not be considered as a mechanical brake when using cranes for man-riding operations. The brake should be automatically applied when the drive is in the "off" or the "neutral" position. Any change-speed gearbox should be of constant mesh type whereby it should not be possible to change the gear ratio while there is any load on the winch. Clutches or other means of disengaging the drive train are prohibited for this type of operation. Brake action should be progressive in order to avoid sudden dynamic shock. The brake should be applied automatically upon failure of the power supply to the motor and/or control device. Upper & Lower limits shall be fitted to the hoist motion An emergency stop or secondary brake should be fitted and be operable by the driver in an emergency situation involving man-riding operations to arrest all crane motions. A secondary brake should be applied directly at the drum and not through gear boxes, gear trains etc. The brake need only be of a size sufficient for arresting the loading of persons and the basket, together with some dynamic allowance. In the event of failure of the prime mover to re-start, it should be possible to recover the load by manual means. Cranes which are suitable for man-riding duties should be clearly marked "SUITABLE FOR MAN-RIDING DUTIES" at the crane operator's control location.
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4.8.2 Winches All winches should be designed: with winch controls that automatically return to neutral on release in any operating position; and with automatic brakes which will apply whenever the operating lever is returned to neutral or on loss of power; and without a clutch or other device capable of disengaging the drive.

4.8.3 Man Riding Winches Winches to be used for man-riding duties should additionally be designed: with a secondary brake to prevent the load from falling in the event of failure of the automatic brake; with devices to prevent the winch rope from over- winding or under-winding; with provision for spooling the wire on the drum to prevent damage or entanglement, this may include the provision of sufficient fleet angle to ensure the wire spools correctly; to be capable of lowering the load in the event of an emergency, such as loss of power; with a brake holding which is less than the minimum breaking load of the rope and more than the maximum line pull of the winch in the man-riding mode of operation; if a high load is applied to the winch, the brake must render before the breaking load of the rope is reached; and with a suitable guard over the drum to provide protection to the operator in the event of rope breakage. Such a guard should not inhibit the ability of the operator to see the spooling action of the rope on the drum.

All man-riding winches shall be clearly labelled "SUITABLE FOR MAN -RIDING".

4.9

Surveys and Inspection

In determining the scope and extent of surveys, due account should be taken of applicable legislative requirements and the various recommendations on examinations or tests given in this section, together with the results of any such examinations or tests previously carried out. For cranes, at least one full load test should be witnessed by a competent person. Where examinations or tests are proposed for the purpose (or consideration) of crane certification, the competent person should be consulted in advance with a view to agreeing the basis for their acceptance. Agreement that the results of the examinations or tests are recorded and reported in a manner that meets this purpose should also be sought from the competent person. Surveys may need to be brought forward if the competent person is of the opinion that a crane has experienced excessive loading or overloading.

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4.10 Documentation An appropriate operations manual should contain particulars of the relevant Lifting Devices. As a minimum, the contents should include general arrangements for the machinery and equipment, wiring and piping diagrams where appropriate, and instructions for the operation of the devices. The manual should contain operating limits, checks and test procedures, which are required to be carried out to ensure safe operation of the equipment. Any special instruction for safe operation of appliances, such as those for man-riding winches in section 4.8, should be noted. All Lifting Devices should have an appropriate maintenance manual which gives details of servicing, repair, essential spares holdings and any special tools required for maintenance purposes. All Lifting Devices should be provided with a test certificate containing the following information: type description; model description; serial number; description; classification of mechanism (where powered); rated capacity of hoisting or hauling; test load applied; name and address of manufacturer; name and status of signatory; and date of equipment test & date of issue of certificate.

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5 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING GEAR


5.1 Introduction

This section of the guidelines covers the general requirements for the design of Lifting Gear as distinct from Lifting Devices such as cranes, winches, etc. Guidelines for the design of Lifting Devices for offshore use are presented in Section 4. Rigging can be selected by equipment users from manufacturers handbooks provided the factors of safety given in section 5.4 below are met and the load does not exceed approximately 25 tonnes (the arbitrarily selected limit for Engineering Lifts). It is anticipated that in due course rigging suppliers will have catalogues available of Lifting Gear suitable for offshore lifting. Where offshore loads exceed 25 tonnes an engineered lift should be considered [refer to AS 1666.2 (1995), section 9c]. In these cases design of all Lifting Gear should be performed by qualified engineers experienced in offshore lifting. With respect to the design of Lifted Equipment regardless of the lifted load, it is expected that the design will be performed by qualified engineers experienced in offshore lifting. Refer to clause 2.6 for competency requirements. 5.2 Design Approach for Engineered Lifts

For the design of Lifting Gear to be used for an engineered lift the design engineers tasks should include but not be limited to: ensuring that design criteria are acceptable to the user of the Lifting Equipment; and addressing all relevant design conditions including transport, installation, loading & unloading, operation, temperature and fatigue considerations. The design should consider but not be limited to: weight uncertainty; weight growth potential; uncertainty in Centre of Gravity; dynamic amplification factor (DAF) ; diagonalling effects; local eccentricities arising from pad eye connection details; drag loads on equipment to be lifted in water; reviewing the load Radius Chart for the Lifting Device (Crane) taking into account the weight of crane rope over the head sheave, the weight of the hook and hook block, and the weight of the rigging as part of the load weight; maximum hoist speed; Wave height and period. Wind speed For engineered lifts where the rigging for a particular load has been specifically designed the rigging requirements shall be noted in a work order or preferably attached to the load (eg, a plate which reads "For Rigging requirement refer to Drg. No. ... ").

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5.3

Over Chart Lifts

An "over chart" lift (ie. a lift that exceed the load radius curves for the crane in question) is an engineered lift and an analysis shall be carried out in close liaison with the Lifting Equipment manufacturer, the installation contractor and the Operator. The Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) may be reduced by limiting the sea state in which the lift can be carried out. In the case of deck or onshore lifts the hoisting speed can be controlled to limit the dynamic effects. These limitations shall be clearly shown on the design drawings, which are to be duly signed "Accepted for Lift" by the engineer accepting overall responsibility. For offshore lifts, codes such as "DNV Marine Operations Part 2 Chapter 5" and "Lloyds Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment" provide guidance. 5.4 Design of Rigging

These guidelines vary the required factors of safety for rigging depending on whether the rigging is to be used offshore or onshore. The dynamic factors of safety are based on findings of the field study Investigation of Dynamic Amplification Effects During Offshore Lifting Reference 65. Non-dynamic factors of safety are addressed in a discussion paper on Factors of Safety for Lifting Slings used in Offshore Supply Boat Operations Reference 64. The following equation is based on a similar equation provided in AS 1666.2 (1995) section 9 and includes a material factor (Rm) such that it can be used universally for both chain and wire rope slings. The SWL of an offshore sling assembly shall be calculated from the equation: SWL = (Rc Rm Rt Ro) x P 4 x 9.81 Where SWL = P = Rc Rm Rt Ro = = = = Safe Working Load of an offshore sling assembly (in tonnes) Minimum Breaking Force (kN) for the individual rope, chain or webbing which comprises the assembly Factor for Sling Assembly Configuration Material Factor Termination Factor Operational Factor Material Factor (Rm) Sling Type Chain and Lifting Components (Ref AS3775) Wire Rope Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings Round Synthetic Slings Shackles (Grades S&T Only) Rm 1.0 1.0 0.57 0.57 0.80 (refer Table 1 AS1666.2 (1995)) (refer Table 5.4.1 ) (refer Table 5.4.2 ) (refer Table 5.4.3 ) Equation 1.

Table 5.4.1

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Table 5.4.2

Termination Factor (Rt) Sling Type Rt 1.0 1.0 - 0.8 (refer Table 2 AS 1666.2 1995) 0.875 1.0 1.0

Chain and Lifting Components (Ref AS3776) Wire Rope Flat Webbing Round Slings Shackles

Table 5.4.3

Operational Factor (Ro) Type of Operation Onshore, Inshore or Platform Lift Offshore Lift (Hs max 3.0m) Lift Weight 6 tonnes 6 tonnes < Lift Weight 10 tonnes 10 tonnes < Lift Weight 25 tonnes Personnel Lift
Note: 1. 2. 3. 4.

(Ro) 1.0

0.69 0.69-0.81 0.81-0.92 0.40

For Lift Weight > 6 tonnes, Ro may be obtained by linear interpolation between the parameters specified. Where the lift weight is not measured, the uncertainty of the lift weight shall be considered. Where the Factor of Safety for wire ropes, predicted herein, is less than the Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1995) the greater value shall be applied. Hs ; Significant wave Height

The Safe Working Load (SWL) can also be expressed in terms of a Factor of Safety (FOS): SWL = Where FOS = 4/(Rm Rt Ro) Equation. 2 Where the Factor of Safety as specified in Equation 2 is less than the Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1995) for wire rope, the greater value shall be applied. Equation 2 is consistent with the explicit application of termination efficiency where AS1666(1976) is based on the poorest performing termination. Although equation 2 would allow a minimum Factor of Safety for a conventional ferrule secured wire rope sling of 4.21 this guideline is adopting a minimum Factor of Safety of 5.26 (or 5/Rt where Rt = 0.95 for ferrule secured wire rope) as recommended in AS1666(1995). It should be noted that for a similar sling the Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1976) would be 5 which includes consideration of the termination efficiency. For further discussion on the inconsistency of the application of termination efficiency between AS1666(1976) and AS1666(1995) refer to Reference 64. The Factor of Safety for chains and wire rope are provided as a function of SWL in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively. Table 5.4.4 lists recommended Factors of Safety for commonly used slings in offshore and onshore operations for direct loaded lifting arrangements. Values for other types of operations may be determined by substituting the appropriate values of Rm, Rt and Ro in Equation 2.
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Rc P FOS x 9.81

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Table 5.4.4
Type of Operation Onshore or Platform lift

Recommended Factors of Safety for Commonly Used Slings


Ro Chain Sling Rt= 1.0 Rm = 1.0 4 Wire Rope Rt=0.95, Rm =1.00 5.26 (Theoretical value = 4.21) Flat Webbing Rt=.875 Rm=.57 8 Round Webbing Rt=1.0 Rm=.57 7

1.00

Offshore Boat Lift (Hs=3.0m Max) Lift Weight <= 6 Lift Weight= 10 Lift Weight =25 0.69 0.81 0.92 5.8 5.0 4.4 6.1 5.26* 5.26* 11.6 9.9 8.7 10.2 8.7 7.7

Note: 1.
2. 3.

Lift weight in tonnes Where the lift weight is not measured, the uncertainty of the lift weight shall be considered. Where the Factor of Safety for wire ropes, predicted herein, is less than the Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1995) the greater value shall be applied. *

Figure 1.

Effective FOS for Chain Sling for Offshore Boat Lifts


Effective FoS - Chain (Hs < 3.0m, Rt = 1, Rm = 1)

6 5.8 APPEA (OFFSHORE) 5 4.4 4 AS3775 - 1990 (ONSHORE)

Factor of Safety

0 0 5 6 10 15 20 25

Safe Working Load (tonnes)

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Figure 2.

Effective FOS for Wire Rope Sling for Offshore Boat Lifts (Ferrule Secured Terminations)
Effective FoS - Wire Rope (Hs < 3.0m, Rt = 0.95, Rm =1)

6.1 6 5.3 5

APPEA (OFFSHORE)

AS1666 -1995 (ONSHORE)

Factor of Safety

0 0 5 6 10 15 20 25

Safe Working Load (tonnes)

5.5

Access to Crane Hook for Marine Crews Fifth Leg Assemblies

Rigging assemblies should be of sufficient length to allow a rigger at ground or deck level to connect the rigging assembly to the crane hook from the outside of the Lifted Equipment. During lifting, the recommended included angle between the sling and the horizontal at pad eye level is 60 degrees. Rigging assemblies with an included (apex) angle greater than 90 degrees must be approved by the operator prior to use. In some instances, consideration should be given to attaching a fifth leg to the top of the assembly to ensure the top end of the rigging assembly can reach to within one metre of the deck. Whilst the inclusion of a 5th leg will greatly assist supply vessel deck crews, it does delete the inherent redundancy in a 4 leg assembly. For this reason a 4 leg assembly is preferred. Prior to the issue of these Guidelines the WADME stipulated a FOS of 6.5 for single leg assemblies. Any requirement for the continued use of this FOS should be checked with WADME. 5.6 Diagonalling

For loads up to approximately 25 tonnes using 2, 3 and 4 point lifts, the total load should be taken by 2 slings as required by AS1666(1995). Diagonalling effects should be considered for both Lifted Equipment (including pad eyes) and the rigging. (Not applicable to engineered lifts)

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5.7

Specific Requirements for Offshore Use

5.7.1 Synthetic Slings (Refer AS 1353.17.2-1997, AS 4497.1&.2 -1997) Synthetic slings shall not be used on Offshore Containers. Synthetic slings may be used where hard slings would cause damage to the lifted load or where safety may be enhanced by their use. Factors of safety for both types of slings are given in Section 5.4. Synthetic slings are manufactured from nylon, polyester, polypropylene and Aramid Polyamide and their labels are coloured green, blue, brown and yellow respectively. Only polyester (blue label) slings are considered suitable for offshore service. Synthetic slings are more susceptible to damage than other types of slings and special procedures should be developed for storage, inspection, identification, tagging and discard criteria. Load testing requirements are covered in the above mentioned codes. It is generally accepted that it is more economical to replace used slings than retest them, particularly in the smaller sizes. 5.7.2 Safety Shackles It is preferred to use safety shackles rather than screw pin shackles. Where screw pin shackles are used, the pins must be suitably seized using seizing wire. Plastic cable ties shall not be used to secure pins. Shackles can be supplied as Grade S or Grade T. Generally Grade S shackles are preferred. 5.7.3 Eyebolts Eye-bolts shall not be used for offshore boat lifts. 5.7.4 Chain Slings Chain slings manufactured from grade T chain (Australian Standard AS2321) have been traditionally the preferred chain slings for offshore use. As a result of documented failures during offshore lifts with grade T chain slings, manufactured using boron modified material, chain slings should comply with the following guidelines. All new purchases of chain slings for offshore use shall specify chain slings to ISO 3076 or ISO 7593 until such time as Australian Standards are upgraded. Existing slings using AS2321 grade T chain made from boron modified material may still be used for lifts where there is redundancy in the rigging arrangement (4 leg assemblies). They shall not be used for single or two leg sling lifts where there is no redundancy. Where chain slings are used for Offshore Lifting Operations a minimum chain size of 10mm should be adopted. 5.7.5 Wire Rope Slings Where wire rope slings are used for Offshore Lifting Operations a minimum diameter of 13mm should be adopted.

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5.8

Design of Offshore Container Pad Eyes & Their Attachment

Pad eyes for Lifted Equipment up to a maximum weight of approximately 25 tonnes that are intended for repeated use should be designed on the following basis: The dynamic amplification factor (DAF) is to be taken from the graph in Appendix D based on the total lifted load. The Design Load shall be taken as the Resulting Sling Force (RSF) times the DAF. The resulting sling load will take into account of the sling angle (apex angle of 60 degrees is common) and the diagonalling effects described in Clause 5.6. The load factor described in Clause 2.2 of AS1170.1 SAA loading code shall be taken as 1.0 on the basis that the maximum static load is known accurately. Pad eye local capacity checks should be conducted using AS4100 Steel Structures Code, Clause 7.5. A lateral load of 5% times RSF shall be applied concurrently with the RSF. The lateral load shall be multiplied by the DAF. The lateral load shall be applied perpendicular to the plane of the pad eye at a minimum height of the shackle pin centre line. The combined actions of the biaxial bending and tension should be checked using AS4100 Steel Structures Code, Clause 8.3.4.

The above approach assumes the use of Australian Standards. The use of equivalent internationally recognised standards is also acceptable. The steel grade used for pad eyes shall be clearly specified on the design drawings. It is recognised that 350 grade is widely used but where pad eyes are being checked on an existing container the designer shall assume that grade 250 steel has been used unless justification for a higher grade exists. Hole sizes in pad eyes should be bored or drilled to provide a diameter equal to the shackle pin diameter plus 3mm or 4% greater than the shackle pin diameter, whichever gives the larger hole. The thickness of the pad eye should be at least 75% of the shackle width to avoid twisting the shackle. The maximum thickness of the pad eye shall be such that a total minimum gap of 5mm is maintained to avoid binding. Bolted on pad eyes should not be used on offshore containers. 5.9 Design of Lifted Equipment (Offshore Containers)

Lifted Equipment consisting of structural steelwork such as: offshore containers, skids, skips, frames and bins which are intended for repeated use shall be designed in accordance with DNV 2.7-1. The container shall be checked for two conditions as follows: 4 point lift in accordance with Clause 3.2.1.1 of DNV 2.7-1. 2 point lift in accordance with Clause 3.7.1.3 of DNV 2.7-1.

The allowable stress for both conditions is given in clause 3.2 of DNV 2.7-1. Structural designers attention is also drawn to clause 3.2.3 of the DNV certification notes 2.7.1 regarding minimum material thickness.
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Where a material other than structural steel is used, a design engineer should determine the appropriate design standards and load factors.

5.10 ISO Containers used as Lifted Equipment Sea (ISO) Containers can be described as containers built for international shipping and are designed to carry general purpose cargo internationally and interstate. They generally have twist lock type corner fittings for lifting with a purpose built frame. Sea (ISO) containers are not specifically designed for use as offshore containers in operations associated with the offshore petroleum industry. It is recommended that the use of such containers as "lifted equipment" be phased out as soon as possible. The use of ISO containers and their transportation offshore is not precluded provided they are not lifted equipment. Such use is not covered by these guidelines. A target date of December 31st 2000 has been set for the complete phase out of ISO containers as lifted equipment.. Contractors are advised to check with individual operators for their requirements with respect to the phase out of ISO shipping containers. During the transition period, the following guidelines should apply to their use as offshore containers: they should not be loaded above 40% of their ISO Maximum Gross Mass (MGM) rating (Refer to CSC plate on container) and, should be inspected & tested in accordance with Appendices F & H; all lifting should be conducted using pad eyes. Twist lock fittings shall not be used for lifting; there should be trace-ability of the material used for pad eyes fitted to the container and of all welding carried out on the container; Open top ISO containers should not be used as offshore containers. Closed ISO containers of greater than 6 metres (20 ft) in length should not be used as offshore containers. prior to any intended offshore use, thorough inspections should be carried out on the containers floor support members and door latching mechanisms. These are critical to the containers integrity; inspections should be conducted by competent persons. Refer to clause 2.4.2 competency requirements; and for

fork-lift pockets shall only be used for onshore lifting. Prior to the container phase out date, inspection and testing of ISO shipping containers used in the offshore oil and gas industry should be performed according to the APPEA Guidelines for the Phase Out of ISO Shipping Containers (Refer Appendix H).

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5.11 Design of Sub-sea Lifts Sub-sea lifts are a specialised form of lift the design of which should only be undertaken by qualified engineers with experience in this area. Generally, the design of Lifting Equipment should follow the same approach as that for a similar lift in air. Sub-sea Lifting Equipment should be designed in accordance with DNV Marine Operations, Part 2 Chapter 6 - Sub-Sea Operations or a recognised equivalent standard. The lift design should take into account factors specific to the offshore environment in which the lift is being conducted. As a minimum, consideration should be given to the following factors associated with sub-sea lifts, many of which are highly dependent on the shape of the equipment being lifted: Viscous drag due to diversion of water around the Lifted Equipment (noting that velocity of equipment in water = winch velocity plus angular velocity due to vessel roll). Reduced mass of the Lifted Equipment in water due to buoyancy. Near surface and near seabed stability due to the vibration absorption/amplification of the surrounding fluid. When the Lifted Equipment is at or just above the air/water interface, allowing for the mass of the water to be temporarily supported when waves break over the equipment. Suction when lifting off the sea bed. When in water, force due to the apparent additional inertia from accelerated water = mass of water x g x (DAF - 1.0). Force due to equipment, marine growth and sediments = mass of items in water x g x DAF. As the hook of the Lifting Device will rise and fall in the water due to vessel roll, rigging for Lifted Equipment needs to be of sufficient length to avoid the hook striking divers, ROVs and other sub-sea equipment in the vicinity of the lift. Pad eyes and rigging should be of a suitable colour and of sufficient size to enable easy location and use by divers or ROVs. Many of the above factors can be reduced by the use of specialised equipment and techniques. When a self-compensating winch or other line load control system is used, the effects of vessel roll on dynamics and velocity in water may be reduced. When an item is lifted off the seabed, suction effects can be reduced by sliding before raising. Excessive mass due to marine growth and entrapped sediments may be removed prior to lifting. The above factors cannot be avoided by assuming motion of the Lifted Equipment is always downward, as any requirement to stop lowering prior to placement, either planned or in emergency, may result in their occurrence. 5.12 Materials of Construction and Fabrication Requirements Fabrication of Lifting Equipment shall be in accordance with recognised international or Australian standards. All materials should be suitable and safe for their intended purpose; for the fabrication, transport, installation and use of Lifting Equipment; and to comply with the requirements for materials in nominated Australian or international standards. Particular attention should be paid to the fracture toughness of materials.

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Vendors and fabricators should have quality management systems equivalent to ISO9001, ISO9002 or ISO9003. All materials used in the fabrication of Lifting Equipment shall have documentation in accordance with the contractors quality control procedures to demonstrate trace-ability. As applicable, some or all of this documentation may be required to support the equipment register. 5.13 Documentation New Build Lifted Equipment All Lifted Equipment should be issued with a Certificate of Conformity prior to their initial proof load testing. This must be issued as a separate document or as a dedicated section included on the Load Test Certificate and must be signed by an endorsed signatory of the "body" (refer to section 2.6 Designers & Verifiers of Lifted Equipment, Lifting Devices and Rigging for Engineered Lifts). The Certificate of Conformity should contain the following information: Assurance that the lifted item (container) has been designed, fabricated to offshore Lifting Equipment" standards (eg. DNV, Lloyds etc.). The owner of the equipment shall retain the certificate. Tank containers that are required to comply with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) regulations, should also be certified in accordance with the IMDG code. The certificate of conformity shall be based on the following documentation, collated in an as built dossier, which shall be retained by the lifted equipment owner: structural calculations; drawings; specifications for welding procedures; welder qualifications; material certificates; report on trace-ability of materials; report from fabrication inspection; report from non-destructive examination; report from prototype testing; report from proof testing; and report from final inspection. The "Certificate of Conformity" shall contain the following information: item fabrication number; the Certificate number; description of the item including;
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external dimensions; number of lifting points; name of fabricator; date of fabrication; maximum gross weight in kilograms; tare weight in kilograms; net weight in kilograms; reference to the as built dossier; the total gross weight in kilograms applicable to the all points lifting test and the actual method of test; specification of lifting set; angle of legs (from horizontal); shackle bolt diameter; required safety factor (against breaking); conformity to other requirements and codes; a statement that the item has been designed, fabricated and tested in accordance with this guideline; remarks; and signature on behalf of the certifying body. Proprietary devices and Lifted Equipment, such as drum lifters, plate clamps, etc, should have a test certificate and be accompanied by a maintenance and operating manual (where required) and should only be used for onshore, inshore and on platform lifts. 5.14 Documentation for Existing Lifted Equipment It is recommended that a Certificate of Conformity be issued for existing Lifted Equipment at the next due date for periodic load testing with final compliance date being 4 years after the initial issue of these guidelines. If all the requirements for issuing a Certificate of Conformity cannot be met then the date of the next scheduled load test may be extended by a maximum of 3 months to permit load testing under these guidelines to be carried out. During this period the item of lifted equipment may continue to be used. The minimum requirement to enable a Certificate of Conformity to be issued for existing Lifted Equipment are as follows:

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Existing Lifted Equipment is inspected in accordance with Section 8 and Appendix I and found to have passed the certified visual inspection and NDT where appropriate (eg. Pad eyes). Pad eye designs should be reviewed by an experienced Engineer (refer to clause 2.6 for competency requirements) to ensure compliance with clause 5.8. Where pad eyes do not meet this standard they should be modified appropriately. The design of the item has been reviewed by an experienced Engineer (refer to clause 2.6 for competency requirements). The review should confirm that the item of Lifted Equipment has sufficient structural integrity to pass load tests specified in Table F.2. of Appendix F. Load testing of Lifted Equipment is conducted by an appropriate body in accordance with Table F.2. of Appendix F. Load testing of rigging is conducted by an appropriate body in accordance with Table F.3. of Appendix F. Rigging shall meet the requirements of Appendix C, where existing rigging is retained some reduction in the maximum SWL may be required.

5.15 Initial Load Tests for Lifted Equipment New lifted equipment as listed in section 1.3 shall be proof load tested to the requirements of Appendix F.4. For competency requirements refer to section 2.5.1. The accrediting body may request a drop test of containers when verifying a design for the first time. Precautions should be taken when securing test loads, particularly for a 2 point lifting test. The container shall be considered to have passed the initial load test provided there is no permanent deformation of the container. Deformation can readily be measured using two taut wires strung between the diagonal corners of the container. The test masses shall normally be evenly distributed inside the item. When the designer of new equipment or the design verifier* of existing equipment considers it impracticable to apply sufficient test load inside an item (other than an offshore container) then the designer or design verifier shall recommend a method of load test for the item. If it is not possible to place all the test mass inside the item, some of it may be placed outside or under the item, provided that this gives a loading on the structure similar to the distribution of the item loading in operating conditions. (*refer to 2.6 for competency requirements Note: The alternate method of test loading described above does not apply to offshore freight containers. All offshore containers MUST have the full test load evenly distributed over the floor area. 5.16 Non Destructive Testing (Offshore Containers Including ISO Containers) NDT at fabrication shall include inspection of the lifting points (pad eyes) and the connections immediately adjacent to the lifting points as a minimum. Consideration should also be given to the NDT inspection of all primary members and their connections. NDT inspection shall be conducted by an appropriate inspection body. Refer to Clause 2.5 for competency requirements.

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6 DESIGN OF TANKS FOR FLUIDS


In addition to complying with other relevant design codes and requirements, tank containers for fluids shall be suitable for offshore service. Tanks which could be used to transport fluids shall be designed to conform to relevant sections of: AS 1692 AS/NZ 3711.6 IMDG Code DNV 2.7-1 EN 12079:1999 Certification Notes - Offshore Containers Offshore Containers Design, Construction, Testing, Inspection and marking Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids Tank Containers

These guidelines for offshore tanks for fluids coincide with the requirements of DNV 2.7-1, section 3.5 and EN12079, section 5.5. The following is an extract from EN12079: Tanks for dangerous cargoes shall fulfil the requirements of the IMDG Code and shall be designed according to recognised rules for pressure vessels. A tank and its support shall be able to withstand lifting and impact loads. In addition, due account shall be taken of fluid surge arising from partly filled tanks. Note: Chapter 13 of the general introduction to the IMDG Code does not allow tanks with a length above 3m to be handled by fork-lift in a loaded condition. Special protection of the tank and fittings in the area near the fork pockets is required. On tank containers for dangerous cargoes, all parts of the tank and fittings shall be suitably protected from impact damage by a frame, suitable for offshore service where applicable. In addition to the IMDG Code, the following shall apply: Beams, plates or grating, shall protect the top of the tank and its fittings. No part of the tank or its fittings shall extend above a level 100mm below the top of the framework. It shall not be possible for any part of the lifting set to foul fittings, manhole cleats or other protrusions on the tank. Protective beams shall be placed at or near the location where the tank shell is nearest to the outer plane of the sides. Beams shall be spaced sufficiently close together to give the necessary protection. At the maximum calculated elastic deflection of any side member, the residual clearance between the member and any part of the tank shell or its fittings shall be at least 10mm. No part of the underside of the tank shell (including sumps), the bottom valves or other fittings shall extend below a level 150mm above the bottom of the framework. Any such part extending below a level 300mm above the bottom of the framework shall be protected by beams or plating. Tank containers designed with direct connection between the tank and the side or top frame elements shall be subject to special consideration by the operator or during operation to avoid damage.
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7 MARKING OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT


7.1 General

All Lifting Equipment shall be marked with an individual identification code (Unique Number) and the safe working load (SWL) as determined from the design. Where appropriate, for certain Lifted Equipment, the SWL may be replaced by the tare mass and maximum gross mass. The identification code shall enable the operator to link the manufacturer and test certification numbers. For contractor owned equipment, this code should include unique character(s) or colour to indicate the owner. Where equipment is used both for onshore and offshore lifts it shall be marked with the offshore SWL rating.

7.2

Marking of Lifting Devices

7.2.1 Fixed Location Pad Eyes Valid certified pad eyes which have undergone proof loading and non destructive testing should be identifiable at point of location with the pad eye centrally positioned in a 30 cm x 30 cm painted square (minimum size). The SWL and the identification number should be stencilled with the text and background in contrasting colours.

7.3

Marking of Lifted Equipment

Lifted Equipment including equipment containers, skips, baskets, frames and similar items are expected to be marked with the information as shown on examples of marking plates provided in Appendix I or a similar alternative. All characters marked on the container (eg. Tare, Nett and Gross) should be durable, of proportionate width and thickness and in a colour contrasting with that of the container. The markings should be clearly legible and, if painted, stencilled. Manufacturers plates should be of a suitable size for the required information as indicated in Appendix I and should be of durable material (eg; stainless steel or marine grade aluminium) and securely fixed in a visible but protected location. Inspection & test plates should be of a suitable size as indicated in Appendix I. The plates should be updated or replaced when either load testing, NDT or certified visual inspection is carried out. Containers and tanks used for dangerous cargoes should be marked according to the requirements of the IMDG Code, in addition to the marking requirements of this Section. 7.4 Container and Roof Identification Markings

Each container should be marked with a container number issued by the owner as a unique identification, which should be the common cross-reference on all in service certification, shipping documentation, etc. The container number shall be prominently displayed on all sides of the container (as viewed from ground level) in characters of contrasting colour, not less than 75 mm high.

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If the container has a roof, the container number should be displayed on the roof, in characters not less than 300 mm high (or less if space is limited). The marking should be carried out in such a way as to avoid incorrect interpretation (eg. by underlining). Where applicable, the lower edge marking should be positioned near the side of the container in which the door is located.

7.5

Lifting Frame and Beam Markings

The minimum marking required for each lifting frame and lifting beam should include ID No, TARE and SWL. The marking should be done using 50 mm letters. Where required, the design approval number allocated by the relevant Statutory Authority should be added. Where no suitable location exists, painted markings down to 25 mm on a securely fixed plate are acceptable. Stamped markings should not be less than 8 mm in height.

7.6

Marking of Rigging

The appropriate Australian Standards provide all marking details for rigging. Wire rope rigging assemblies shall be tagged in accordance with AS1666.1 Section 7. Chain rigging assemblies shall be tagged in accordance with AS3775 Section 8.

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8 PERIODIC INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE


8.1 General

The periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance (including repairs) of all Lifting Equipment, including contractor owned, shall be conducted by competent personnel. Periodic inspection, testing and maintenance shall be conducted in a manner to ensure safety to people and plant. When requested, contractors must supply the operator with copies of all relevant certificates before the Lifting Equipment is used at any location under the operators jurisdiction. A specific inspection, maintenance and testing plan should be developed for each Lifting Device, each item of Lifted Equipment and rigging assembly or item. Where a Safety Case is in place this plan should be risk based and developed in accordance with the appropriate safety case guidelines. The inspection, testing and maintenance plan should consider the following factors: manufacturers recommendations; statutory requirements; relevant historical data; frequency of use; and operational environmental conditions. The plan should address: periodical inspection and maintenance routines (eg. weekly, annual); a feedback loop to allow modifications to routines based on performance; procedures for documenting results of inspections and tests; procedure for colour coding inspected and tested equipment; and inspectors responsibility and qualification matrix. Records of testing, inspection, maintenance, repair and modification should be included in the Lifting Equipment Register. All Lifting Equipment shall be visually checked prior to each use by appropriately certified crane driver, dogger or rigger (as applicable). This inspection should ensure that: equipment is appropriate for load to be applied; equipment is in good condition; equipment is correctly labelled

Non complying equipment shall be tagged and either removed from site or repaired. Scheduled testing and inspections should include test loading, non-destructive testing (NDT) and visual inspection (as appropriate). Recommended inspection and testing frequencies are provided in Appendix F.
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Variations to these recommended frequencies are acceptable where a reliability based approach is in place under a facilitys safety case.

8.2

Lifting Devices

8.2.1 Inspection Before and After Proof Loading For Lifting Devices and associated rigging, inspection should be performed in accordance with the Australian Standards. For equipment not covered by Australian Standards, the equipment owner in conjunction with the inspector should select the most appropriate of those inspection requirements provided in AS 1418 for other devices. For specially fabricated devices such as overhead pad eyes, the requirements for Lifted Equipment should be applied.

8.3

Lifted Equipment

The following requirements for inspection apply to Lifted Equipment. Note that these requirements are based on DNV recommendations for periodic inspection of Lifted Equipment. These requirements are guidelines for inspection or repair organisations to develop their own detailed work instructions or procedures. These requirements should be subject to the equipment owner and/or users approval. All Lifted Equipment should be periodically inspected by an appropriate body. Refer to Clause 2.4.2 for competency requirements. The inspection should meet the following requirements: prior to testing, key dimensions and straightness should be measured; structure should be visually examined for corrosion, mechanical damage and injurious deformation; all accessible load bearing welds should be visually examined to ensure freedom from defects; the lifting points should be visually examined for distortion, mechanical damage or any other sign of distress or overload; doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks etc. should be visually examined and functionally checked to ensure that they operate in a satisfactory manner without undue force being required; the floor should be visually examined to check that it is substantially flat with no sign of distress or overload. Drainage facilities, where fitted should be examined, eg. drain holes should be clear of debris etc.; the paint markings and plates should be checked to see that they meet the recommendations of this document;
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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

inspect lifting set for: rating, condition, currency of test etc.; if due or required proof load test.; after completion of a proof test load, the equipment should be re-examined for signs of permanent deformation caused by the test. Any deformation or weld defect caused by the load test shall result in the withdrawal of the equipment from service until all such faults have been corrected and a further satisfactory load test completed; NDT by the method nominated on the drawings if due, or required; welds to all pad eyes and members directly supporting pad eyes should be subject to 100% magnetic particle inspection (MPI); and where it is determined that a fault is related to design or fabrication quality, a modification or repair method shall be developed, and approved by the responsible person, before commencement of any rectification works.

Detailed guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of offshore containers are provided in Appendix I APPEA Guidelines for the Inspection Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers. Where proof loading is not a viable option, (ie. where access for loading is restricted such as for transportable buildings with small doorways) structural assessment of the container may be determined by a certified visual inspection. The certified visual inspection of the container shall be conducted by an appropriate inspection body. Refer to Clause 2.4.2 for competency requirements. For inspection requirements refer to Appendix I. 8.4 Rigging

8.4.1 Proof Loading of Rigging used for Offshore Lifting (Boat Lifts) The rigging for the Lifted Equipment shall be subject to a proof force that is not less than 40% of the rated minimum breaking load (MBL) of the member. Proof Load = 40% x Rt x Rm x MBL,

Where Rt and Rm are defined in section 5.4 The sling shall withstand the application of the proof force, without sustaining damage that may affect its intended function or safety. The sling shall also be free from any deleterious permanent set or defects visible to the unaided eye. AS1666 (wire rope) & AS3775 (chain) testing requirements for individual legs of a multi leg assembly shall be complied with. Proof load testing of rigging and NDT testing as appropriate shall be conducted by an appropriate body. Refer to Clause 2.5 and 2.5.1 for competency requirements. After proof loading has been completed, the sling or slings shall be marked with a safe working load as determined in accordance with these Guidelines. The safe working load shall be marked on the sling or slings in a manner which is in accordance with AS1666 or AS3775 as applicable.
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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

For all sling assemblies (both chain and wire rope), AS1666 1995 requires that the head ring be tested separately from the rigging attached to it. Refer to AS1666 1995 for further details. Test frequencies and other test requirements are included in Appendix F, Tables F2 and F3. 8.5 Repairs and Modifications to Lifting Equipment

Repairs and modifications to Lifting Devices should be carried out to conform with the original manufacturers specification and in accordance with Section 4. For Lifted Equipment where it is not clear whether a member is structural or not, guidance should be sought from a qualified design engineer. Design changes that alter the original structural details or safe working load capabilities of the Lifting Equipment should be approved by a qualified design engineer. Refer to clause 2.6 for competency requirements. Lifting Equipment shall be proof load tested following repairs involving modifications or heat application to structural members. All repairs or modifications should be recorded in the Lifting Equipment Register (Section 3).

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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

9 SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES


9.1 Lifting Operations between Platforms and Vessels

9.1.1 Planning The Australian Offshore Support Vessel Code of Safe Working Practice provides guidance on lifting operations between platforms and vessels. The safe conduct of lifting operations involving the transfer of cargo between a platform and a vessel require planning and a high level of communications among the parties involved in these operations. Prior to the start of any lifting operations, the communications between the person in charge of the facility and the Master of the vessel, or their appointed deputies, should address the following issues: the suitability of existing and forecast weather conditions for the required lifting operations involving the vessel; communications arrangements between the facility and the vessel during the lifting operation; any limitations or restrictions affecting, or which may interrupt, the proposed operations; the nature and weights of the cargo to be transferred and any special lifting requirements; whether any of the proposed lifts require special consideration, safeguards or controls during lifting, or special securing arrangements on the vessel; rigging arrangements to be used and any special rigging requirements; and procedures to be used in the event of an emergency occurring while lifting operations are being conducted.

9.1.2 Communications Safe lifting operations rely on there being effective communications among the Master of the vessel, the person in charge of the facility, the crane operator, the deck officer in charge on the vessel and the deck crews on both the facility and the vessel. A reliable radio communication link on a dedicated channel or frequency should be maintained throughout the operations. The crane operator on the facility should have direct radio communication with the vessel. The crane operator should have a clear view of the deck areas on both the facility and the vessel. Where this is impractical, a dogger should be so stationed as to have a clear view of the deck area to assist the crane operator. Directions given to the crane operator by the deck crew on the vessel must only be given by one person who has been clearly identified for that purpose.

9.1.3 Lift Preparation and Handling Wherever practicable, all lifts should be pre-slung using rigging which conforms to these guidelines. Rigging should allow the deck crew to connect / disconnect the lift at deck level.
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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

Open cargo baskets containing loose materials should be provided with safety nets or covers to prevent wind borne discharge of the contents during lifting operations or while in transit. Doors and lids on closed containers must be securely fastened. No container should be loaded in excess of its rated capacity. Material should not be added to containers, skips, cargo baskets, etc already transferred to the deck of a vessel unless it is safe to do so, the capacity of the container will not be exceeded, and the change to the loading is recorded on the manifest.

9.2

Personnel Transfers

Personnel baskets (eg. Billy Pugh) should only be used where the use of alternative means of transferring personnel is impractical or unsafe. They should only be carried out under the authority of the person in charge of the facility and with the agreement of the personnel being transferred and the master of the vessel involved. Each facility should have documented procedures for this type of operation. These procedures should address the issues identified in these guidelines. 9.2.1 Authority The person having the authority to approve personnel basket transfers should be clearly identified. Approval should not be given unless this person is satisfied that the personnel involved agree to the transfer operations and the transfer can be safely carried out.

9.2.2 Duties The duties of personnel in supervising or carrying out the personnel basket transfer should be clearly defined. Generally, this would include the person in charge of the facility, the crane operator, the Master of the vessel, and other people nominated by the person in charge and the Master of the vessel to undertake specific duties. The Person in charge of the facility should: be aware of the reason for the transfer; be satisfied with the fitness and training of the people to be transferred; be satisfied as to the suitability of the vessel; know the limitations of visibility and sea state; be aware of the limitations on transfer by night; be aware of the suitability of the crane for personnel transfer; check the wind speed limitations on crane operations; establish satisfactory communications with the Master of the vessel involved in the transfer; ensure that participants understand the procedures involved; be satisfied with the competence and experience of the crane driver; and be satisfied with the inspection and testing of the personnel basket.

The Master of the vessel should confirm to the person in charge of the facility that:
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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

the transfer has been accepted and the procedures have been understood; the vessel has a satisfactory station keeping capability; the deck crew have been fully briefed; the people to be transferred have been adequately briefed and are fit to be transferred.

The crane operator should ensure that: the crane is fully operational; the wind speed is satisfactory for safe operation; the requirements and procedures involved are clearly understood; the dogger and the transfer area are clearly visible; adequate communications have been established.

The dogger and deck supervisor should ensure that: the transfer procedure is understood; they are clearly identifiable as dogger and deck supervisor; the personnel basket is correctly used; the transferees are fit for transfer and understand the procedures; proper communications have been established; respectively they have a full view of the transfer areas. The personnel basket is connected to the crane by a closed hook A safety sling is provided between the rigging of the personnel basket and a point on the crane hoist line above the hook.

Individuals who are to be transferred should: ensure that they understand the transfer procedure; confirm that they are agreeable to the transfer; be able to use correctly the safety equipment provided; observe all instructions from those in charge of the operation.

9.2.3 Suitability of the vessel The type of vessel considered suitable to carry out a transfer should be determined by its ability to maintain station alongside the facility and have sufficient clear deck space to safely receive the basket.

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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

9.2.4 Weather conditions Weather conditions are critical factors impacting on the safety of personnel basket transfers. Factors which should be taken into account include visibility, wind and sea state. Guidelines should be provided which specify the maximum wind speed and sea state beyond which basket transfer is not permissible, including the wind speed limitations for crane operations and the effect of weather conditions on the stability of the vessel.

9.2.5 Communications Both radio and visual communication should be established and maintained between those personnel conducting the operation.

9.2.6 Safety equipment and rescue procedures The procedures should specify the type of safety equipment to be worn by personnel being transferred and the rescue arrangements made. Personnel being transferred should wear life-jackets, suitable clothing and other specified safety equipment. Life-jackets should be equipped with suitable means of illumination during night transfers. The standby vessel should be in close attendance during transfer, with the rescue boat ready for immediate launching.

9.2.7 Training Personnel will be transferred by basket in greater safety and with less apprehension if they, and the personnel conducting the transfer, have received training in the techniques involved. The type of training required can be included in installation drills. Inexperienced people or those not trained in the use of personnel baskets should always be accompanied by someone who has been trained in personnel transfer procedures.

Page 36

APPENDIX A

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

Page 37

LEGISLATION
1. 2. 3. 4. Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 [P(SL)A] Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act: Schedule of Special Requirements as to Offshore Petroleum Exploration and Production Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act: Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act (Management of Safety Of Offshore Facilities) Regulations 1996 Navigation Act 1912 and associated Regulations and Marine Orders MO Part 43 Dangerous Cargoes MO Part 44 Safe Containers MO Part 59 "Offshore Support Vessel Operations" Explosives and Dangerous Goods Act Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act WA: Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 and Associated Regulations 1996 NT: Work Heath Act 1992 NT: Work Health - Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 1992

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS ETC.


10. 11. 12 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. AS ISO-1000 AS 1138 AS 1171 AS 1163 AS 1353 AS 1380 AS 1418 AS 1438 AS 1504 AS/NZS 1554 AS 1650 AS 1657 AS 1664 AS 1666 AS 2068 AS 2076 AS 2089 AS 2207 AS/NZS 2312 AS 2317 AS 2318 AS 2319 AS 2321 AS 2550(1982) AS 2741 AS 2759 AS 3569 AS/NZS 3678 The International System of Units and its Application Thimbles for Wire Rope Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic Particle Testing of Ferromagnetic Products, Components and Structures Structural Steel Hollow Sections Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings Fibre Rope Slings Cranes (Including Hoists and Winches) Wire - Coil Flat Slings Fibre Rope Three Strand Hawser Laid Structural Steel Welding Hot-Dipped Galvanised Coatings on Ferrous Articles (superseded in part by AS/NZS 4534 but remains current) Fixed Platforms, Walkways, Stairways, Ladders, Aluminium Structures Wire Rope Slings Flat Pallets for Materials Handling Wire Rope Grips for Non-Lifting Applications Sheave Blocks for Lifting Purposes Non-Destructive Testing for Ultrasonic Testing of Fusion Welded Joint in Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel against Exterior Atmospheric Corrosion Collared Eye-bolts Swivels for Hoists Rigging Screws and Turnbuckles Short Link Chain for Lifting Purposes (Non Calibrated) Cranes - Safe Use Shackles Steel Wire Rope - Application Guide Steel Wire Ropes Structural Steel - Hot Rolled Plates, Floor Plates and Slabs
Page 38

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

AS/NZS 3679.1 AS/NZS 3679.2 AS 3775 AS 3776 AS 3777 AS 3990 AS 4048 AS 4100 AS 4142 AS 4497 AS B291

Structural Steel - Part 1: Hot Rolled Bars and Sections Structural Steel - Part 2: Welded I Sections Chain Slings - Grade T Lifting Components for Grade T Chain Sling Shank Hooks and Large Eye Hooks - Maximum 25 Tonne Mechanical Equipment Steelwork Flat Pallets for Materials Handling (1100mm x 1100mm Suitable for use in ISO Series 1 Freight Containers) Steel Structures Fibre Rope Round slings - Synthetic Fibre, Parts 1 & 2 Lifting Rings & Links

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64 65. 66. 67 API RP 2A API Spec 2c API RP 2D API Spec 9a API RP 9B AWS D1.1 BS 2573 BS 2903 DNV DNV DNV DNV EN 818-2 EN 818-4 EN 12079 IMO Lloyds PREN1677-1 PREN1677-4 Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms Specification for Offshore Cranes Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes Specification for Wire Rope Recommended Practice on Application, Care and Use of Wire Rope Structural Welding Code Steel for Oil Field Service Rules for the Design of Cranes Higher Tensile Steel Hooks for Chains/Slings Blocks and General Engineering Purposes Marine Operations - Part 2: Operation Specific Requirements, Chapter 5: Lifting. Marine Operations - Part 2: Operation Specific Requirements, Chapter 6: Sub-sea Ops. Certification notes No 2.7-1. Offshore Containers Certification notes No 2.7-2. Offshore Service Containers Short link chain for lifting purposes - Safety - Medium tolerance chain for chain slings - Grade 8 Short link chain for lifting purposes - Safety - Chain slings - Grade 8 European Committee for Standardisation. - Offshore Containers-Design, Construction, Testing, Inspection and Marking. Maritime Safety Committee Circular 860 Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment. Components for Slings - Safety - Part 1: Forged Steel Components, Grade 8 Components for Slings - Safety - Part 4: Links, Grade 8

Page 39

OTHER DOCUMENTS
68. 69. 70. 71. 72. Note: IICL IICL AMOG/ESSO AMOG AMSA Guide for Container Equipment Inspection Repair Manual for Steel Freight Containers Factors of Safety for Lifting Slings used in Offshore Supply Boat Operations Investigation of Dynamic Amplification Effects During Offshore Lifting. Australian Offshore Vessel Code of Safe Working Practice. Institute of International Container Lessors Ltd. (IICL) references 68 and 69 have been prepared for International Shipping Containers and not Offshore Containers. They do however provide a good general guidance for containers.

Page 40

APPENDIX B

DEFINITIONS

Page 41

Alter:

To change the design of, add to or take away from the equipment where the change may affect health and safety, but does not include routine maintenance, repairs or replacements. Australian Maritime Safety Authority. Approved by the Operating Company, regulator, authority or society. Australian Standard. Entity that owns Lifting Equipment. A certificate issued by a body as described in Section 2.6 and in accordance with Section 5.13. The issuance of this certificate indicates to owners, users and transporters of the container that the unit is fit for intended service. The certificate is only to be issued when the accredited facility has ensured that the container meets all the requirements detailed in APPEA Container management documents. Where there is an existing doubt, the equipment owner should ensure that the container design is verified against the requirements of the APPEA Guidelines by a qualified structural engineer.

AMSA: Approved: AS: Asset Owner: Certificate of Conformity:

Certified visual Inspection of Lifting Equipment accompanied by a report bearing the endorsement stamp of the appropriate inspection body or classification inspection: society. The inspection must be signed by an authorised signatory. It typically includes visual, material dimensional, and material thickness checks, opening up and dismantling as considered necessary by the Inspector may be required. COG: Competent Person: Centre of Gravity. A person having practical and theoretical knowledge and relevant experience, such as will enable that person to detect and evaluate any defects and weaknesses that may affect the intended performance of the equipment. Lifted Equipment used in lifting and transport operations (see Section 1.3). Convention for Safe Containers Dynamic Amplification Factor. A representative of a Classification Society or an inspection body or a verifying body registered with the statutory body to perform certain surveys or inspections and issue certificates of inspection on behalf of the Statutory Authority. Department of Minerals and Energy. A person qualified to be a Member of the Institute of Engineers, Australia (MIE Aust.) or recognised equivalent who is competent and has adequate experience to assure that the technical requirements of this standard are met.

Container: CSC DAF: Designated Inspector/ Surveyor/ Verifying body: DME: Engineer:

Page 42

Engineered Lift:

A lift which due to constraints, circumstances or specialised engineering input is beyond the scope of these guidelines. An engineered lift will typically require modification to acceptance criteria and will therefore require a higher level of management and possible approval from the relevant authorities prior to being carried out. Enclosure or frame designed specifically for lifting a particular item of equipment or containing permanent fixtures such as a workshop. The container with contents remains at a constant mass and centre of gravity and would normally have dedicated rigging attached via pad eyes. It includes drilling support equipment, welding units, air compressor units and workshops. The maximum permissible combined weight of a cargo container and its contents, ie. Maximum Gross Mass = Tare Weight + Net Weight measured in kilograms (This is also known as Gross Weight measured in kilograms). International Maritime Organisation. Lifting to or from a vessel at a sheltered wharf. This may be performed using either a vessel based or a shore based crane. An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities - Australia (NATA) to perform certain types of inspections and issue endorsed reports. These reports meet the requirements of the P(SL)A schedule for test reports. Any person carrying out inspection of Lifting Equipment. Examples of Inspectors are representatives of NATA accredited establishments, riggers, crane drivers, welders, NDT technicians, QC inspectors, QC managers and qualified engineers. The qualifications of the Inspectors are dependent on the type of inspection being performed. In all cases, the Inspector shall have experience and training suitable to the inspection being performed. Where inspections referred to in this document require specific qualifications, these have been given in the appropriate section. Equipment that the rigging connects to (Refer to Section 1.3). In the case of machinery, valves, etc with attached pad eyes, this term refers to the machinery or valve. An item equipped with mechanical means for moving or placing a freely suspended load. Means an item or an integrated assembly of items designed to convey or for use in conveying people, equipment or materials and includes Lifting Gear and Lifting Devices. It also may be referred to as materials handling equipment. An item of equipment for use with a Lifting Device for lifting people, equipment or materials. The item is designed to be detachable from the crane and includes both rigging and Lifted Equipment. Points on a structure to which rigging is attached, such as pad eyes. The total mass of the load including crane wire rope over head sheave, hook, hook block, and all rigging. The activity of monitoring, inspecting, testing, refurbishing and replacing of plant and equipment within its pre-existing design specifications. Indicates a discretionary action.
Page 43

Equipment Container:

Gross Mass:

IMO: Inshore Lift: Inspection body:

Inspector:

Lifted Equipment: Lifting Device: Lifting Equipment:

Lifting Gear:

Lifting Points: Lift Weight: Maintenance: May:

MBL: MGM MO: MODU: MPI: NATA: NDT: Net Weight: New Container: NTDME: Offshore Container: Offshore Lift: Onshore Lift: Proof Load: Responsible Person:

Minimum breaking load. Maximum Gross Mass Marine Orders. Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit. Magnetic particle inspection. National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia. Non-Destructive testing, including magnetic particle, ultrasonics. The maximum permissible weight of the contents of a container in kilograms. Container constructed after the issue date of this document. The Northern Territory Department of Minerals and Energy. An item of Lifted Equipment designed for the movement of equipment or materials to, from and at offshore installations. A lift performed in unsheltered waters between two vessels, between a platform and a vessel, or between a platform and the seabed. Lifting about an onshore location not involving a vessel. The test load required by the Code or Standard for the specific equipment. A person who is responsible to any one of: the designer of the equipment the manufacturer of the equipment a competent testing establishment the owner of the equipment a classification society the operating company for carrying out design, testing, inspection, certification or determination of safe working loads of Lifting Equipment. Equipment which is designed for repetitive use, to be readily detachable from a Lifting Device and which constitutes all or part of a lifting assembly that connects a load to the Lifting Device. The maximum gross load which may be imposed for a specific use in order to allow an adequate margin of safety. The SWL may equal but never exceed the working load limit (WLL), eg. In AS 1418 part 1 for Class 3 load applications, the SWL = WLL, for Class 4 and 5 applications, the SWL = 0.8 WLL. Safe working load of a crane is the maximum mass which is permitted to be safely handled by the crane. Safe working load of a lifting attachment is the maximum mass that is permitted to be safely handled by the lifting attachment. Indicates a mandatory requirement. Indicates a recommended requirement. The angle the leg of a sling makes with the horizontal. Typically within the range of 60 to 90 degrees. An Authority having statutory powers to control the design, manufacture, use and testing of Lifting Equipment in the State or Territory within the Commonwealth of Australia in which the equipment is used.
Page 44

Rigging:

Safe Working Load (SWL):

Shall: Should: Sling Angle: Statutory Authority:

Tare Weight: Testing:

The weight of an empty container or the weight of a lifting beam or lifting frame, complete with dedicated components, in kilograms. Testing, in the context of inspection, means such tests carried out periodically by a responsible person, in conjunction with inspection, at periods defined by this document. An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (Australia) to perform certain types of tests and issue endorsed reports. These reports meet the requirements of the P(SL)A schedule for test reports. Construction aid not intended for lifting A certificate, similar to a Certificate of Conformity, but issued to indicate that a generic design of offshore container meets the requirements of the APPEA Guidelines. Testing requirements are in accordance with DNV 2.7-2 and may include drop testing. If a Type Test Certificate is issued for a generic design then subsequent testing of individual offshore containers fabricated to that design may be less extensive than would otherwise be required. A detailed visual examination and other such measures considered necessary by an Inspector to determine the condition of the Lifting Equipment. Inspection may include visual, dimensional. The Western Australian Department of Minerals and Energy. A lifting device capable of freely suspending a load by means of a wire rope wound on a drum.

Testing body:

Tugger Winch Type Test Certificate

Visual Inspection: WADME: Winch

Page 45

APPENDIX C

OFFSHORE WIRE ROPE AND CHAIN SLINGS

Page 46

TABLE C1
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE LEG SLINGS WITH 1570 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES

2 Direct Loaded

4 Choke Hitch Round Rectangular Load Load

8 9 Basket Hitch

10

11

12

Round Load

Other than Round Load

Method of Loading

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 74.3 13 86.2 14 16 113 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 Note: 143 176 213 253 297 345

1 0.95 1

0.75 0.95 1

0.5 0.95 1

60

90

120 1 0.95 1

0 1 0.95 1

60 0.87 0.95 1

90 0.71 0.95 1

120 0.5 0.95 1

2 1.73 1.41 0.95 0.95 0.95 1 1 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


1.24 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.9 3.5 4.2 4.9 5.7 0.93 1.07 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.6 3.1 3.7 4.3 0.62 0.71 0.94 1.19 1.4 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.8

5.6 3.7 8.1 450 The Operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 47

TABLE C2
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF TWO LEG, THREE LEG AND FOUR LEG SLINGS WITH 1570 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES 1 Method of Loading 2 3 Direct Loaded 4 7 8 Choke Hitch Round Load Other than Round Load Single Double Single Double Wrap Wrap Wrap Wrap 5 6

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 74.3 13 86.2 14 113 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 Note: 143 176 213 253 297 345

0 to 60 1.73 0.95 1

90 1.41 0.95 1

120 1 0.95 1

0 to 45

0 to 60

0 to 45 0.87 0.95 1

90 to 60

1.3 0.95 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


2.1 2.4 3.2 4.1 5.0 6.2 7.8 9.9 11.5 1.75 2.0 2.6 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.9 7.3 9.2 1.24 1.43 1.88 2.3 2.9 3.5 4.2 4.9 5.7 1.6 1.8 2.4 3.1 3.8 4.6 5.4 6.5 8.1

11.3 8.1 12.2 15.0 450 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 48

TABLE C3
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE LEG SLINGS WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND WIRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES 1 2 Direct Loaded 4 Choke Hitch Round Rectangular Load Load 3 5 6 7 8 9 Basket Hitch 10 11 12

Round Load

Other than Round Load

Method of Loading

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 13 107 14 124 16 161 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 Note: 204 252 305 363 426 494 646 817 1010 1220 1450 1710

1 0.95 1

0.75 0.95 1

0.5 0.95 1

60

90

120 1 0.95 1

0 1 0.95 1

60 0.87 0.95 1

90 0.71 0.95 1

120 0.5 0.95 1

2 1.73 1.41 0.95 0.95 0.95 1 1 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


1.78 2.0 2.6 3.4 4.2 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.4 12.5 15.8 19.5 23.6 28.0 1.34 1.55 2.0 2.5 3.1 3.8 4.5 5.3 6.2 9.1 11.8 14.6 17.7 21.0 24.8 0.89 1.03 1.34 1.70 2.10 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.1 5.3 7.1 9.7 11.8 14.0 16.5

1980 28.7 19.1 2270 21.9 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 49

TABLE C4
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF TWO LEG, THREE LEG AND FOUR LEG SLINGS WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND WIRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES 1 2 3 Direct Loaded 4 7 8 Choke Hitch Round Load Other than Round Load Single Double Single Double Wrap Wrap Wrap Wrap 5 6

Method of Loading

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 107 13 124 14 161 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40 44 Note: 204 252 305 363 426 494 646 817 1010

0 to 60 1.73 0.95 1

90 1.41 0.95 1

120 1 0.95 1

0 to 45

0 to 60

0 to 45 0.87 0.95 1

90 to 60

1.3 0.95 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


3.1 3.6 4.7 5.9 7.8 10.2 12.1 14.2 16.5 21.6 27.4 2.52 2.9 3.8 4.8 5.9 7.7 9.9 11.6 13.4 17.6 22.3 27.6 1.78 2.07 2.68 3.4 4.2 5.1 6.1 7.5 9.5 12.5 15.8 19.5 2.3 2.7 3.5 4.4 5.5 6.8 8.8 10.7 12.4 16.2 20.5 25.4

1220 23.6 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 50

TABLE C5
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE LEG SLINGS WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES 1 2 Direct Loaded 4 Choke Hitch Round Rectangular Load Load 3 5 6 7 8 9 Basket Hitch 10 11 12

Round Load

Other than Round Load

Method of Loading

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 13 98.4 14 114 16 148 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 Note: 187 231 280 333 391 454 594 751 929 1122 1334 1573

1 0.95 1

0.75 0.95 1

0.5 0.95 1

60

90

120 1 0.95 1

0 1 0.95 1

60 0.87 0.95 1

90 0.71 0.95 1

120 0.5 0.95 1

2 1.73 1.41 0.95 0.95 0.95 1 1 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


1.64 1.9 2.4 3.1 3.8 4.6 5.5 6.7 8.2 11.5 14.5 17.9 21.7 25.8 1.23 1.42 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.6 8.0 10.9 13.4 16.2 19.3 22.8 0.82 0.95 1.23 1.56 1.90 2.3 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.9 6.3 8.5 10.8 12.9 15.2

1821 26.4 17.6 2088 20.2 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 51

TABLE C6
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF TWO LEG, THREE LEG AND FOUR LEG SLINGS WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES 1 Method of Loading 2 3 Direct Loaded 4 7 8 Choke Hitch Round Load Other than Round Load Single Double Single Double Wrap Wrap Wrap Wrap 5 6

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Rope Nominal Minimum Diameter Breaking Force kN mm 98.4 13 114 14 148 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40 44 Note: 187 231 280 333 391 454 594 751 929

0 to 60 1.73 0.95 1

90 1.41 0.95 1

120 1 0.95 1

0 to 45

0 to 60

0 to 45 0.87 0.95 1

0 to 60

1.3 0.95 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS1666 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


2.8 3.3 4.3 5.4 6.9 9.2 11.1 13.1 15.2 19.9 25.2 2.31 2.7 3.5 4.4 5.4 6.8 8.7 10.6 12.3 16.2 20.5 25.4 1.64 1.90 2.47 3.1 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.7 8.3 11.5 14.5 17.9 2.1 2.5 3.2 4.1 5.0 6.1 7.7 9.8 11.4 14.9 18.9 23.4

1122 21.7 28.3 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Ref. Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts

Page 52

TABLE C7
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT USE OF SLINGS WITH GRADE T CHAIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Single Leg Slings
Adjustable Sling Reeved Sling

9 10 11 12 Slings of 2, 3 or 4 legs

13

14

15 16 17 Endless Slings

Straight Sling

Straight Sling

Reeved Sling

Basket/Reeved Sling

Method of Loading

Included Angle () Loading Factors Rc Rt Rm Ro Chain Minimum Size from Breaking AS2321 (Ref Note) Force kN 1 2 3 10 11 12 13 14
5

1 1 1

0.75 1 1

0.75 1 1

60 1.73 1 1

90

120

60

90 1.06 1 1

120 0.75 1 1

60 1.30 1 1

90 1.06 1 1

120 0.75 1 1

1.5 1 1

1.41 1 1.30 1 1 1 1 1 1 See Note Below

SAFE WORKING LOAD, t Refer AS3775 for Onshore/Platform Lifts


2.21 2.77 3.46 3.57 3.7 4.3 5.5 5.6 7.6 9.0 10.4 13.1 13.3 15.6 17.2 17.8 20.7 22.6 3.8 4.8 5.9 6.2 6.6 8.2 11.4 11.6 15.2 17.3 19.4 27.3 3.1 3.9 4.8 5.0 5.2 6.1 8.7 8.9 12.0 13.7 15.2 19.5 19.9 23.6 28.2 2.21 2.7 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.3 5.5 5.6 7.6 9.0 10.4 13.1 13.3 15.6 17.2 17.8 20.7 22.6

126 158 197 203 213 248 317 322 408 457 503 621 631 724 786 1 811 917 986

/8

16 18 20
7

/8

22 24 25

27 28 30 Note:

28.8 1131 28.8 The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Refer Section 5.4 Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts 1. Preferred Chain Specification (mm), 2. Non-Preferred Chain Specification (mm), 3. Temporary Specification (in).

Page 53

APPENDIX D

DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR

Page 54

FIGURE D.1 RECOMMENDED DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR (DAF) (Hs=3.0 Metres Max.)

3.2

Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF)

2.8 2.7 2.4

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0 0 5
6

10

15

20

25

Lifted Mass (tonnes)

Page 55

APPENDIX E

PAD EYE DETAILS

Page 56

RIGGING DESIGN EXAMPLE


Problem: Obtain sling, shackle and padeye sizes for lifting a 25 tonnes container offshore in accordance with the APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment Assumptions: A 4 sling arrangement is assumed A maximum included angle of 60 degrees A 100/0 split of sling loads is assumed The centre of gravity is at the centroid of the padeyes

Sling size: Referring to Table C4 in Appendix C of the APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment, 1770 grade wire rope with a 36mm nominal diameter has a safe working load of 27.4 tonnes. Shackle size: Rc = Rt = Ro = 1.73 1.00 for shackles 0.92 4 Rm Rt Ro P x Rc FoS x 9.81 (refer to Table 1 AS1666.2 (1995)) (refer to Table 5.4.1) (refer to Table 5.4.2) (interpolated from Table 5.4.3) = 5.43 Rm = 0.80 for shackles

Factor of Safety =

SWL =

25.0 t

(SWL of sling assembly)

P=

SWL x FoS x 9.81 = Rc

770.5 kN

(Minimum breaking force)

Referring to AS2741-1992 Table 5, the grade S alloy dee shackle with a diameter of 38mm has a min. destructive test force of 834 kN. This shackle has a WLL of 17 tonnes. Padeye size Referring to the Standard Drawing for Padeyes and Shackles (W2090-SKS01 Rev B), the corresponding padeye to the shackle designed above is the padeye with a WLL of 17 tonnes.

Page 57

T TYP F

T t

AN

GL

B d

IN

LB

(D+

3)

(D+

3)

W CP

45

BOW SHACKLE WITH PIN

D
d

SL

CR AD

CR

AD

ROOT GAP

C B B

LD

PADEYE TYPE 'X' PADEYES - FOR ALL VALUES OF


SHACKLE WLL (tonne) 3.2 4.7 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13 17 25 35 45 55

PADEYE TYPE 'Y'

DEE SHACKLE WITH PIN

ALLOY SHACKLES GRADE "S"-TO AS2741 SHACKLES ALLOY GRADE "S" - TO AS2741 WLL
(tonne) NOM SIZE d 3.2 4.7 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13 17 25 35 45 55 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 44 51 57 63 PIN DIA. D 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 41 51 57 63 70 W 27 32 37 43 46 52 57 60 73 83 95 105 BOW DEE SHACKLE SHACKLE LB 70 83 96 109 124 136 152 166 203 225 253 302 LD 60 71 83 95 106 117 132 145 171 199 212 238 X 20 24 27 30 34 38 42 46 55 64 72 76

CHEEK PLATES PIN HOLE WITHOUT WITH RADIUS D+3mm CHK.PLS. CHK.PLS. THICK. DIA. WELD A 45 55 55 60 65 70 75 85 105 120 130 150 B 115 135 150 160 185 200 220 230 280 295 340 360 C 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 85 105 115 130 22 25 28 32 35 38 41 44 54 60 66 73 T 20 25 32 T 12 16 20 25 25 25 25 32 40 50 50 50 t 6 6 6 6 8 10 10 10 12 10 16 20 E 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 150 170 190 220 F 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10

Page 58

45

GL

AN

IN

SL

CP

SL

TYP

IN

TYP

AN

GL

BOW SHACKLE WITH PIN

ALTERNATIVE PADEYE TYPE 'X' PADEYES - FOR ALL VALUES OF


SWL (tonne) 3.2 4.7 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13 17 25 35 45 55 WITH D+3mm A 45 55 55 60 65 70 75 85 105 120 130 150 B 115 135 150 160 185 200 220 230 280 295 340 360 C 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 85 105 115 130 22 25 28 32 35 38 41 44 54 60 66 73 T 20 25 32 T 25 25 25 25 32 40 50 50 50

ALTERNATIVE PADEYE TYPE 'Y'

DEE SHACKLE WITH PIN

ALLOY SHACKLES GRADE "S"-TO AS2741 SHACKLES ALLOY GRADE "S" - TO AS2741

CHEEK PLATES THICK. t 6 8 10 10 10 12 12 16 20 DIA. E 85 90 100 110 120 150 170 190 220
Page 59

SWL
(tonne) G 44 47 50 53 56 66 72 78 85 3.2 4.7 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13 17 25 35 45 55 SIZE d 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 44 51 57 63 PIN DIA D 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 41 51 57 63 70 W 27 32 37 43 46 52 57 60 73 83 95 105

BOW LB 71 83 97 110 124 137 152 167 204 226 254 302

DEE LD 61 71 84 96 106 118 132 145 172 200 213 238 X 20 24 27 30 34 38 42 46 55 64 72 76

WELD F 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10

APPENDIX F

INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS

Page 60

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.1 INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTING DEVICES


CERTIFIED ITEM REFERENCE VISUAL INSPECTION Cranes (The various types of cranes and lifting appliances are listed in AS 1418) Offshore: API Spec 2C BS 2573 Lloyds Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment Manufacturers Specs 1 Year Subject to: Visual inspection Failure Mode Analysis NDT FREQUENCY Initial Certification Test Following Repairs Subject to: Visual inspection NDT LOAD Varies from SWL x 1.0 to SWL x 2.2 depending on type of Lifting Device, as per AS1418. PROOF LOAD TEST

Overhead Pad eyes

AS1418.1 & .2

1 Year *

Fork-lift tines

AS 2359

1 Year

Individual Company Program Subject to visual inspection or maximum of 3 years Subject to visual inspection Initial NDT, then subject to visual inspection

Individual Company Program Individual State Regulations specify every 12 months for some devices. Initial test and then subject to visual inspection, NDT and individual company program. Initial test and then subject to visual inspection, NDT and individual company program. Subject to individual company program 1.25 x SWL

Subject to individual company program 1.25 x SWL

Mono rails

P(SL)A AS1418.1 & .2

1 Year *

Note:

* Certified Visual Inspection includes permanent marking of SWL

Page 61

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.2 INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTED EQUIPMENT


Notes: 1. This table applies to Lifted Equipment up to 25* tonnes Gross Weight that has a Certificate of Conformity. 2. Lifted Equipment MAY be tested using their own dedicated rigging gear (lifting set). Caution should be exercised because proof testing a sling to more than 1.5 times its SWL may permanently distort wire rope thimbles if standard shackles are used, especially on the two point lift test. 3. Lifted Equipment above 25 tonnes Maximum Gross Mass (MGM) may be proof load tested as specified by the design engineer. CERTIFIED ITEM REFERENCE VISUAL INSPECTION Lifted Equipment Includes all types of offshore containers, baskets, skids, skips, spreader beams, spreader frames, workshops, lab containers and workboxes. APPEA 1 year Subject to visual inspection Initial Certification Test Every 3 years thereafter Following repairs to structural members Transportable buildings. Includes; Offices, Laboratories etc. Not intended to transport cargo Specialised Lifting Equipment Specialised items such as drilling guide bases, conductor casing joints, equipment modules etc Tanks for Fluids (Includes tanks/containers of all sizes for both normal and dangerous cargoes) Note: There are additional requirements for IBC's in IMDG code. APPEA Before lifting unless inspected within the last year. Before lifting unless inspected within the last year. 1 year Before lifting unless tested within the last three years NDT FREQUENCY Initial Certification Test for New & Existing Equipment Every 6 years thereafter or at the discretion of the inspection body Following repairs to structural members Subject to visual inspection LOAD TEST REQUIREMENTS MGM x 2.5 over 4 lifting points and MGM x 1.5 over 2 lifting points PROOF LOAD TEST

Initial Certification Test (At fabrication, primary structure only before walls etc are installed) Not generally required depending upon individual operator's requirements Initial Certification Test Every 6 years thereafter or at the discretion of the inspection body Following repairs to structural members Subject to Visual Inspection

MGM x 2.5 over 4 lifting points and MGM x 1.5 over 2 lifting points

APPEA

Before lifting unless tested within the last three years

APPEA

Initial Certification Test Every 3 years thereafter Following repairs to structural members Subject to visual inspection

MGM x 2.5 over 4 lifting points and MGM x 1.5 over 2 lifting points

Page 62

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Personnel Baskets (Work Box)

AS1418.17

1 year Subject to visual inspection Initial Certification Test Every 3 years thereafter

Initial Certification Test Every 2 years Subject to visual inspection Yearly

Per Clause 4.2 AS1418.17 Refer to Manufacturers Requirements

Personnel Transfer Basket (Billy Pugh etc) * Arbitrarily selected limit

APPEA

1 year

Page 63

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.3 PERIODIC INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RIGGING


Notes: 1. Offshore containers shall have specifically designed lifting sets, which shall not be removed from the container except for replacement of the lifting set or for examination of the container. 2. For Safety Factors for Rigging Equipment used in Offshore Lifting Operations refer to section 5.4. 3. Minimum chain diameter to be 10mm. For containers with Maximum Gross Mass more than 3500kg, the minimum chain diameter must be 13mm. 4. Min. Wire Rope diameter to be 13mm. For containers with Maximum Gross Mass more than 3500kg, the minimum wire rope diameter must be 19mm. CERTIFIED ITEM REFERENCE VISUAL INSPECTION Loose Rigging (Includes all types wire and synthetic ropes, chains, links, shackles, swivels, rings, sockets, hammerlocks, etc) APPEA APPEA Not Required 3 monthly visual inspections Subject to visual inspection NDT FREQUENCY Initial Certification Test Subject to Visual Inspection. Subject to company program. TEST REQUIREMENTS Carried out to the requirements of the relevant Australian Standard. Refer to Section 8.4.1 for SWL. PROOF LOAD TEST

Lifting Sling(s) Single or multiple leg wire rope and chain sets, complete with all associated accessories) Crane Hooks

Colour coding Visual inspection each time before use. 1 year as part of the container inspection. 1 year

Not applicable

Initial Certification Test Offshore Every 6 years as part of the Lifted Equipment Proof Load Test. Initial Certification Test

Refer to Section 8.4.1

APPEA

Every 2 years

Refer to Manufacture

All Rigging for Man-lifts

APPEA

As specified above

Subject to Visual Inspection As specified above

As specified above

4 MGM (man-lift rating) specified in above documents

Page 64

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F4 TYPE & PRODUCTION TESTING OF NEW LIFTED EQUIPMENT

ITEM

REFERENCE

TYPE TEST Applies to first item manufactured of new design

PRODUCTION TESTING (For the No. of units to be tested refer the table F5 below)

LOAD TEST REQUIREMENTS

Offshore Containers

APPEA

4 Point Load Test 2 Point Load Test Drop Test* Load Test only 4 Point Load Test 2 Point Load Test

4 Point Load Test

Spreader Frames & Beams Transportable buildings. Includes; Offices, Laboratories etc. Not intended to transport cargo Specialised Items. Includes: drilling guide bases, conductor casing joints, equipment modules etc

APPEA APPEA

Load Test only 4 Point Load Test

MGM x 2.5 over 4 lifting points and MGM x 1.5 over 2 lifting points MGM x 2.5 MGM x 2.5 over 4 lifting points and MGM x 1.5 over 2 lifting points MGM x 2.5

APPEA

4 Point Load Test 2 Point Load Test

4 Point Load Test

* - For very large containers a drop test may be undesirable, hence the drop test should be carried out at the discretion of the accrediting body

Page 65

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F5 Total number in series Number to be tested 1-5 1 6-10 2 11-20 3 21-40 4 > 40 10%

Page 66

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX G

GUIDE TO AUSTRALIAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

Page 67

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Table G1- Guide to Australian and International Standards


Note: This table is intended as a guide only. In many cases, requirements of International standards will be less onerous than Australian standards. Requirements less onerous than Australian standards are not recommended to be adopted without specific Operator approval.

Aust/NZ No
AS ISO-1000 AS 1138 AS 1171

Australian/New Zealand Title


The International System of Units Thimbles for Wire Rope Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic Particle Testing of Ferromgnetic Products, Components and Structures Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings Fibre Rope Slings

ANSI Standard
-

British Standard
BS 5555 BS 464 BS 3226 BS 6072

DNV Std
Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 -

ISO Std
ISO 1000 -

AS 1353 AS 1380

AS 1418

Cranes (Including Hoists & Winches)

ASME B30 API RP2D Spec 2C

AS 1438 AS 1504 AS/NZS 1554 AS 1657

Wire - Coil Flat Slings Fibre Rope - Three Strand Hawser Laid Structural Steel Welding Fixed Platforms, Walkways, Stairways and Ladders Design, Construction and Installation Aluminium Structures Code

AWS D1.1 A1264.1

BS 3481 BS 5053 BS 2052 BS 4921 BS 7648 BS 327 BS 357 BS 466 BS 1757 BS 2452 BS 2573 BS 2799 BS MA41 BS MA79 BS 4870 BS 4592 BS 5395 BS 8118

Rules for Certification of Lifting Appliances

AS 1664

AWS D1.2

Page 68

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Aust/NZ No
AS 1666 AS 2089

Australian/New Zealand Title


Wire Rope Slings Sheave Blocks of Maximum Lift 60 Tonne

ANSI Standard
ASME B30.9 -

British Standard
BS CP118 BS 1290 BS 4018 BS 4344 BS 4536 BS MA47 BS EN 1714

DNV Std
Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5

ISO Std
-

AS 2207

AS 2317 AS 2318 AS 2319 AS 2321

Non-Destructive Testing for Ultrasonic Testing of Fusion Welded Joints in Carbon & Low Alloy Steel Collared Eye-bolts Swivels for Hoists Rigging Screws and Turnbuckles Short Link Chain for Lifting Purposes (Non Calibrated)

AWS C3.8

ASME B18.15 ASME B29

BS 4278 BS 4429 BS 3113 BS 3458 BSEN 818-1 BS 6304 BS 3551 BS 6994 BS 6210 BS 6570 BS 183 BS 302 BS 525 BS 7613 BSEN 10210-2 -

Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5

AS 2550 (1982) AS 2741 AS 2759 AS 3569

Cranes Safe Use Shackles Steel Wire Rope Application Guide Steel Wire Ropes

ASME B30 API RP9B Spec 9A

Rules for Certification of Lifting Appliances Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 -

ISO 3578

AS/NZS 3678 AS/NZS 3679.1 AS/NZS 3679.2

Structural Steel Hot Rolled Plates, Floor Plates and Slabs Structural Steel Part 1 : Hot Rolled Bars and Sections Structural Steel Part 2 : Welded I Sections

SAE J763 SAE J1392 SAE J1442 -

Page 69

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Aust/NZ No
AS 3775 AS 3776 AS 3777 AS 3990

Australian/New Zealand Title


Chain Slings Grade T Lifting Components for Grade T Chain Slings Shank Hooks and Large Eye Hooks Maximum 25 Tonne Mechanical Equipment - Steelwork

ANSI Standard
ASME B29 ASME B30.10 AISC

British Standard
BS 2902 BS 6968 BS 2903 BS 5950 BS 7608 DDENV 1993 DDENV 1994 BS 3810 BS 6637 BS M69 BS 5950 BS 7608 DDENV 1993 DDENV 1994 BSEN 698 BSEN 701 BSEN 1251 BS 7648

DNV Std
Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 -

ISO Std
-

AS 4048

AS 4100

Flat Pallets for Materials Handling (1100mm x 1100mm suitable for use in ISO Series 1 Freight Containers) Steel Structures

ASME MH

ISO 445 -

AISC

AS 4142.1 - 1993

Fibre Rope - Care & Safe Usage

Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5

AS 4142.2 - 1993 AS B291 AS/NZS 3711.1 AS/NZS 3711.2 AS/NZS 3711.3 AS/NZS 3711.4 AS/NZS 3711.5

Fibre Rope - 3 Strand Hawser laid and 8 Strand Plaited Rope Lifting Rings & Links Freight Containers:- Part 1 Classification, Dimensions & Ratings Freight Containers:- Part 2 Terminology Freight Containers:- Part 3 - Corner Fittings General Purpose Containers Thermal Containers

ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH

BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951

Rules for Marine Operations Part 2 Chap 5 -

ISO 668 Amd.1 ISO 830 Amd.1,Amd.2 ISO 1164 Cor.1 ISO 1496.1 Amd.1 ISO 1496.2

Page 70

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Aust/NZ No
AS/NZS 3711.6 AS/NZS 3711.7 AS/NZS 3711.8 AS/NZS 3711.9 AS/NZS 3711.10

Australian/New Zealand Title


Tank Containers Dry Bulk Containers Platform Containers Coding, Identification and Marking Handling and Securing

ANSI Standard
ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH ANSI MH

British Standard
BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951 BS 3951 -

DNV Std

ISO Std
ISO 1496.3 ISO 1496.4 ISO 1496.5 Amd.1 ISO 6346 Amd.1 ISO 3874 Amd.2

Page 71

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

APPENDIX H

GUIDELINES FOR THE PHASE OUT OF ISO SHIPPING CONTAINERS OFFSHORE

Page 73

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

SCOPE

Provision of procedures & guidelines to manage the use of ISO containers used in the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry. The document provides guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of ISO containers used in the transport of goods to and from offshore locations.

IDENTIFICATION OF ISO CONTAINERS

ISO containers are the containers originally built for international shipping and fitted with ISO Corner fittings and lifted in container ports, from these fittings, with a purpose built spreader frame and special Twist-locks. The containers are designed and rated for use in still water ports and not for offshore use where significant dynamic forces occur during lifting operations. Most ISO containers are 20ft in length although 10, 30 & 40ft lengths are also available. Note: Purpose built offshore containers may also have ISO Corner fittings. This is acceptable, provided that they are used only for securing during transport and/or onshore/inshore lifting in accordance with onshore/inshore container lifting guidelines as detailed in AS 3711.10:1993 Freight Containers Handling and Securing.

CONTROLLED USE OF ISO CONTAINERS

Containers used in international shipping are controlled by the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC). When the containers used in international and/or coastal shipping reach the end of their service life, either through condition or a time life expiry they are often sold off without current CSC compliance. Existing CSC compliance plates do not apply to the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry except as a reference for de-rating the container in accordance with this these guidelines. The CSC compliance plate is to be retained for this purpose. ISO containers without compliance plates should be condemned.

REFERENCES

King Bay Supply Base Lifting Equipment Management System, Woodside Energy Ltd. Marine Orders, Part 44, Section 11. International Maritime Organisation Circular 613 (to be replaced by Maritime Safety Committee, Circular 860). International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) IMO, 1982. DNV 2.7-1 Offshore Containers Certification Notes. AS3711.10 1993 - Freight Containers, Handling & Securing.

Figure 1: ISO Corner Fitting Figure 2: Typical ISO Container

Page 74

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

ALLOWABLE ISO CONTAINER STYLES & LENGTHS

Closed roof, ISO containers up to 20 ft. in length are acceptable for offshore transportation in accordance with these guidelines.

Open top style, ISO containers and any ISO container over 20 ft in length are not acceptable for offshore transportation.

MODIFICATIONS TO ISO CONTAINERS

Any ISO container that has been modified from the original CSC design must have engineering calculations to support the continued integrity of the container. Unlike a purpose built offshore container, which is designed to carry full load on primary structure members, ISO containers rely on the integrity of wall panels for primary strength. Such modifications may include: Addition of extra doorway Alteration to length Addition of Pad eyes

PHASING OUT ISO CONTAINERS FROM OFFSHORE INDUSTRY

Contractors currently utilising ISO containers are expected to reduce the number in use up to the phase out date of 31 December 2000 and replace them with purpose built offshore shipping containers. The APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment provide guidance for the design of purpose built offshore shipping containers.

COMMENTARY ON LIFTING POINTS

Even in a still water port situation, ISO shipping containers cannot be lifted from the ISO Corner fittings by shackles and slings. This applies even when empty. Lifting with spreader frames as used in port situations is not allowed in offshore lifting operations. Refer to IMO MSC circular 860

ISO containers used in the offshore industry should have pad eyes that are purpose built. Refer to Pad eyes below.

Figure 3: Shackles in ISO corner fittings are not permitted

Figure 4: Although not generally required when container is down-rated, lifting with special lifting beams will be allowed during phase out. Must be fitted to pad eyes as shown.

Page 75

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

PAD EYE REQUIREMENTS

The following guidance is provided for the installation of pad eyes: design by qualified structural engineer; design verification by independent engineer, who has not been involved in the design; carry MGM on 2 diagonally opposite pad eyes; align to the centre of gravity of the load shackle pin hole to be +3mm or, not greater than 4% more than the shackle pin diameter; width of pad eye to be equal to 75% of the opening of shackle to be fitted. This may be accomplished by fitting bosses to pad eye; material trace-ability; documented welding procedures (To AS1554, AWSD1.1 etc.); welder qualification trace-ability; and NDT inspection of all welding associated with pad eyes. Notes: 1. The installation of pad eyes must have engineering trace-ability. 2. Refer to section 5.8 for pad eye design.

ALLOWABLE MGM (Maximum Gross Mass)

ISO Containers used in the offshore industry where significant dynamic forces occur during lifting from supply vessels must be significantly de-rated. Subject to inspections in accordance with these guidelines, ISO container use up to the phase out date will be allowed provided that the following is applied: The container is de-rated by multiplying original CSC Maximum Gross Weight (or Mass) x 2 and dividing the figure by 5. eg. For a 24 tonne MGM container: (24 x 2) =9.6 tonnes MGM 5

MARKING REQUIREMENTS

All ISO containers, original or modified, shall have a stencilled marking beside the CSC data plates indicating Not Applicable. The plate should remain to indicate the original MGM that is used in the de-rating formula above. Marking plates are required for: Operational Marking Plate (Tare, Nett & Gross) Test Plate (date of test and inspections) Each container should be marked with a unique identification number issued by the owner. The number should be: 1. cross-referenced on all relevant documentation; and 2. prominently displayed on a minimum of 2 sides of the container in contrasting colours with stencilled characters of not less than 75 mm in height. Note: Refer to Figures 5 &6 for details of plates.

Page 76

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

FORKLIFT POCKETS

ISO Containers often have more than 1 set of fork-lift pockets. Extreme caution should be used when lifting a laden ISO container from the fork-lift pockets. If there are two sets of fork-lift pockets, with one set being close to the centre of the container, the inner set are designed for Empty lifting only. These words must be stencilled on the base frame adjacent to fork-lift pockets when such fork-lift pockets are installed. Stencilling should be 75mm in height. There are instances where ISO containers have been modified and appear to have useable fork-lift pockets on more than two sides, this can be a dangerous situation as fork-lift pockets have been found that have the fork tines bearing on a plywood floor. Check before using and at scheduled inspection.

SLINGS

Sling sets may be chain or wire rope. The following is recommended: four leg sling assemblies are preferred; maximum included (apex) sling angle of 60 degrees and; chain used in stingers (or 5th leg) must meet ISO 3076, or ISO 7593 standards. Note: The use of stingers is discouraged as the redundancy in a 4 leg assembly is lost.

SHACKLES

Shackles must be: Grade S minimum; and Safety pin type with split pin fitted. ISO containers must receive a thorough visual inspection both annually and prior to any load testing. NDT Inspection of pad eyes and floor support structure is to be carried out annually and prior to load testing. All thorough visual inspections and NDT must be recorded in a lifting equipment database.

CONTAINER INSPECTIONS

THOROUGH VISUAL & NDT INSPECTIONS (ANNUAL REQUIREMENT)

door latching mechanisms in good working order (where applicable); container is free from obvious defects, corrosion, impact damage, cracks, etc; under-floor support structure inspection. The floor support structure is very light in an ISO container and is prone to extensive corrosion and cracking when used in the offshore environment; place container on supports to allow full inspection of underside and ensure adequate lighting; look for corrosion and/or any cracking; it may be necessary to sand blast corroded steel to allow full inspection; suspected areas of cracking to have NDT inspections carried out; steelwork that has suffered significant (greater than 10%) metal loss through corrosion is to be replaced; complete structure to be examined for corrosion, cracking, and impact damage. Particular attention is to be given to inspection of lifting points and corner post assemblies; visually inspect all welds for defects; NDT all welds in pad eye area. (NATA accredited NDT facility required); inspect for signs of mechanical damage;

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VISUAL INSPECTORS KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks should be examined and functionally checked to ensure satisfactory operation without undue force; check floor is substantially flat with no signs of damage or other indications that may indicate overloading. Any internal floor damage may indicate underside damage- re-check; and marking plates should be as per requirements of these guidelines.

The visual inspector should have, as a minimum, a knowledge and adequate practical experience of: the statutory requirements relating to containers; the various types of containers in service; the correct methods of slinging and handling the containers; the loads affecting containers when handled under adverse offshore conditions, particularly those affecting lifting points and, in the case of ISO containers used offshore, the floor support structure; the methods of testing containers as detailed in Maritime Safety. Committee circular 860 or, DNV2.7-1 Offshore Container, Certification Notes. The provisions of DNV 2.7-1 to be used as a guide only as ISO containers do not comply with offshore container standards; defects likely to be found in containers and acceptable levels of wear, distortion and deterioration in relation to safety in use; welding methods and procedures and qualification of welders; the various methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) and a good understanding of how they work and their limitations; and procedures for measuring container to ensure distortion has not occurred during service or load testing.

TESTING AN ISO CONTAINER

The target date for the phase out of ISO containers for use in the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry is 31 December 2000. Hence it is recommended that any containers currently in use undergo the following load test (subject to satisfying inspection requirements) which would see them through to phase out date. Testing of container as per Testing Requirements as detailed in IMO 613 & MSC 860. (Drop test will not be required)

TESTING PROCEDURES

Prior to load testing carry out thorough visual inspection as detailed within this document as there is no value in testing a container that has defects. 4 Point Lifting Test: Internal Load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load, such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 2.5 times the de-rated MGM. The container should be lifted with its lifting set attached to all four pad eyes. 2 Point Lifting Test: Internal load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 1.5 times the de-rated MGM. It may be necessary to secure the weights to prevent slippage during testing. The container should be lifted with slings attached to two diagonally opposite pad eyes during the test. Drop Test: Drop testing of ISO containers is not recommended. Drop testing is required when type testing future new container designs.

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ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION DURING & SUBSEQUENT TO LOAD TESTING

Allowable deflection limits are detailed within DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes Offshore Containers. Refer to sections 3.7.1.2 & 3.7.1.3 of referenced DNV document.

COMMENTS ON DEFLECTION LIMITS

Where deflection exceeds the maximum allowable limit, the container should be scrapped.

Figure 5: ISO Container Identification Plate

OFFSHORE CONTAINER Name of Manufacturer (if known)


Month/year of Manufacture (if known) Manufacturers Serial No. (if known) Maximum Gross Weight kg at Tare Weight kg Payload Container kg deg sling angle

IDENTIFICATION PLATE MATERIAL & SIZE REQUIREMENTS

Plates to be of stainless steel or marine grade aluminium, 1 .5 mm thick Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium) 215 mm overall width 150 mm overall height Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

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Figure 6: Offshore Container Inspection Data Plate


INSPECTION DATA-OFFSHORE CONTAINER Container No. Maximum Gross Mass kg Tare Mass kg Payload - Container kg Mid- deck (Not Applicable to ISO containers) Owner: Tel. No. +

Test INTERVAL DATE & TESTED BY

Proof Load ONCE ONLY

NDT 1 YEAR

Visual Inspection 1 YEAR

Note: The inspection frequencies shown above only apply to ISO containers
INSPECTION DATA PLATE MATERIAL & SIZE REQUIREMENTS Plate to be of stainless steel or marine grade aluminium, 1 .5 mm thick Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium) 215 mm overall width 250 mm overall height Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

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OK CHECK LIST REVIEW PRIOR TO ISSUING A TEST CERTIFICATE Container was placed on supports and a full underside inspection carried out. Container has no significant corrosion and/or structural fault affecting integrity Container floor is in sound condition NDT of pad eye welds and floor support structure has not revealed any cracking (or repairs have been effected) Pad eyes are fitted to the container Pad eyes have engineering design drawings available Pad eye design complies with the requirements of this document. Container has been de-rated as per requirements of this document Container has been load tested as per requirements of this document There is no permanent distortion of the container following load testing Fork-lift pocket marking is as per the requirements of this document and the pockets are in a good and safe condition. Where a 5th leg is used in a chain sling assembly, the chain in the 5th leg must meet ISO3076 standards for lifting chain. Engineering drawings and structural analysis support any modifications. All such modifications should have independent design verification.

NO

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APPENDIX I

GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION, TESTING AND MARKING OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERS

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PREAMBLE
The purpose of these guidelines is to address integrity requirements for existing offshore containers. They do not address the requirements for new container fabrication or the concerns with ISO containers. These guidelines provide lifting equipment testing facilities guidance on consistent minimum quality requirements for testing offshore containers. APPEA encourages all offshore container owners and their agents to utilise inspection services that have been accredited by NATA (or equivalent overseas organisations) to carry out inspections and/or tests in accordance with this guideline. If the required documentation needed to obtain a Certificate of Conformity as detailed within this guideline is not available to support the integrity of the container to be inspected and/or tested, the container should not be approved for offshore use. This may require that engineering drawings be developed and calculations carried out to verify the design of the container as being fit for intended service. Without all required information, a Certificate of Conformity should not be given for the container.

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DOCUMENT SCOPE

Provide guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of a wide range of containers, baskets, skips etc. used in the offshore oil & gas exploration and production industry.

INTRODUCTION

The range of shapes, sizes and capacity of containers used in the offshore industry makes it difficult to specify all requirements that need to be met for each individual design. This document provides specifics on some matters affecting safety of containers whilst other areas may offer guidance only. It is the joint responsibility of both the equipment owner and the inspection and/or testing facility to ensure that all containers used within the offshore industry are fit for the intended service.

REFERENCES

International Maritime Organisation MSC Circular 860 DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes for Offshore Containers APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment IMDG Code EN12079. Offshore Containers Design, construction, testing, inspection and marking. Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 P(SL)A

COMMENTS ON DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERS

It is recognised that there are many containers in use within the Australian offshore oil & gas industry that may not be correctly engineered for the service. The guidelines and procedures provided in this document will assist in ensuring that every container used within the oil and gas exploration and production industry has engineering drawings and design calculations to support the Maximum Gross Weight indicated on the container. Without the required documentation the testing facility will have no ready method of determining if the Maximum Gross Weight (MGM) nominated by the owner, is in fact a safe working load to be applied. New containers will be fabricated to stringent guidelines and will be built to recognised standards such as DNV 2.7-1. This will automatically provide the quality that this document seeks to introduce to existing containers.

JUSTIFICATION OF ALLOWABLE MGM (Maximum Gross Mass) OF EXISTING CONTAINERS

Existing containers may need to be down-rated due to the more stringent testing requirements. It is recommended that container owners carry out a review of existing design MGM ratings to ensure that the container(s) will meet the testing requirements of 2.5 times MGM. It may be necessary to revise the container MGM and to update drawings as required, indicating new ratings.

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PAD EYE REQUIREMENTS

One of the most critical areas in the fabrication of an offshore container is the pad eyes and their attachment to the container. For this reason the following are recommended for offshore containers. the installation of pad eyes must be carried out in accordance with good engineering practices; no bolted on pad eyes are permitted; pad eyes must be welded to the primary structure of the container; Note: For existing containers of monocoque construction, a detailed engineering assessment of the pad eye connection is required; design carried out by a qualified structural engineer and checked by an independent engineer; for design purposes, the design load is to be carried on two diagonally opposite pad eyes; align to centre of gravity of the loaded container; shackle pin hole to be +3mm or, not greater than 4% more than the shackle pin diameter; width of pad eye to be equal to 75% of the opening of shackle to be fitted. This may be accomplished by fitting bosses (cheek plates) to pad eye; material traceability where appropriate material with through thickness properties is to be specified. (Lamellar Defects); documented welding procedures (To AS1554, AWSD1.1 etc.); welder qualification trace-ability; and NDT inspection of welding by MPI for all fillet welds & a combination of Ultra Sonic and MPI for full penetration welds. Notes: 1. The installation of pad eyes must have engineering trace-ability. 2. DNV 2.7-1 provides full details of container design and material requirements and designers are encouraged to use the DNV document as a guide. .

GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Monocoque construction is not to be used in new offshore container fabrication and/or designs ie. A Primary structure is required. For all other design requirements for new offshore containers, refer to DNV2.7-1 Certification Notes Offshore Containers.

MARKING REQUIREMENTS

All Offshore containers shall have the following: Operational Marking Plate (Tare, Nett & Gross); Test Plate (date of tests and inspections); and Each container should be marked with a unique identification number issued by the owner. Notes: 1. The above referenced unique number should be cross-referenced on all relevant documentation, including the Certificate of Conformity. 2. The number should be prominently displayed on at least 2 sides of the container in contrasting colours with stencilled characters of not less than 75 mm in height.

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COMMENTS ON LOAD TESTING OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERS

The load test requirements for offshore containers used in Australian waters have traditionally been taken from Marine Orders Part 32 as published by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. However, it is recognised that the table published in Marine Orders Part 32 is not suited to offshore containers and these guidelines recommend that the requirements of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) be applied. IMO have issued a circular (613) that details testing requirements for offshore containers. This circular, referenced in Marine Orders part 44, paragraph 11 is to be replaced by circular MSC 860.

LOAD TESTING

Prior to load testing, carry out thorough visual inspection as detailed within this document. There is no value in testing a container that has defects. NDT Carry out NDT inspection on pad eye welds prior to and following load testing. There will be no point load testing if pad eye welds have existing faults. 4 Point Lifting Test: Internal Load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load, such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 2.5 times the rated MGM. The container should be lifted with its lifting set attached to all four pad eyes. 2 Point Lifting Test: Internal load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 1.5 times the rated MGM. The container should be lifted with slings attached to two diagonally opposite pad eyes during the test.

DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS PRIOR TO LOAD-TESTING

The following requirements apply to any offshore container including baskets, bottle racks, waste skips, completion baskets, workshops, stores and any other structure used to transport goods to and from offshore facilities. The equipment owner (or user) is required to provide the testing facility with advice regarding design drawings and design calculations as detailed on Page92.This information is required to enable the testing authority to issue a Certificate of Conformity that will confirm that the subject container meets the requirements of these Guidelines.

COMMENTARY ON CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY APPROVED OFFSHORE CONTAINERS

When a container with classification society certification is presented to a NATA accredited facility for load testing, the facility is not required to verify the design. The NATA accredited facility can proceed with load testing the container and issue the Load Test Certificate on the strength of the Class Society Certification approval and the satisfactory load test. Advice regarding the engineering drawings and design calculations detailed below is not required for a classification society approved container. Maintaining classification society certification will provide acceptance of the container at other locations throughout the world.

NATA ACCREDITED

When a container is presented to a NATA accredited facility for inspection

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FACILITY RESPONSIBILITIES

and testing according to these guidelines, the facility management is responsible for ensuring the safety of offshore containers.

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION DURING & SUBSEQUENT TO LOAD TESTING

Allowable deflection limits are detailed within DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes Offshore Containers. Refer to sections 3.7.1.2 & 3.7.1.3 of referenced DNV document.

COMMENTS ON DEFLECTION LIMITS SLINGS

Where deflection exceeds the maximum allowable limit, the container should be either, de-rated, strengthened, or scrapped.

Sling sets may be chain or wire rope. Material for chain used in 5th leg of a 5 leg assembly must comply with ISO 3076.

SHACKLES

Shackles must be: Grade S minimum Safety pin type with split pin fitted Bow shackles are preferred The following should be considered when undertaking certified visual inspection container is free from obvious defects, significant corrosion, impact damage, cracks, etc; under-floor support structure inspection; place container on supports to allow full inspection of underside and ensure adequate lighting; look for extensive corrosion and/or any cracking; it may be necessary to sand blast corroded steel to allow full inspection; suspected areas of cracking to have NDT inspections carried out; steelwork that has suffered metal loss of 10% or greater through corrosion, is to be replaced Note: This may require UT checks to quantify metal loss; complete structure to be examined for corrosion, cracking, and impact damage. Particular attention is to be given to inspection of lifting points, under-side members and corner post assemblies; visually inspect all welds for defects; inspect for signs of mechanical damage; doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks should be examined and functionally checked to ensure satisfactory operation without undue force; check floor is substantially flat with no signs of damage or other indications that may indicate overloading. Any internal floor damage may indicate underside damage- re-check; and marking plates in accordance with these guidelines.

CERTIFIED VISUAL INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS

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TESTING OF WORKSHOP CONTAINERS, LOGGING UNITS ETC.

It is recognised that it is extremely difficult, and in some cases impossible, to fit the required test weights into containers that have work benches, shelving etc. It is also impossible to fit weights into many logging units and other container style cabins that either are full of specialised equipment used by service companies or, only have personnel access doors. In the case of these units it is recommended that more stringent inspection requirements apply to these units in lieu of any load testing.

6 YEARLY INSPECTION OF WORKSHOP CONTAINERS, LOGGING UNITS ETC. THAT CANNOT BE LOAD TESTED

Where test weights cannot be evenly distributed across the floor area of any container, logging unit etc. the following inspection methods shall be used to ensure the on-going integrity of the equipment. These requirements shall be additional to the annual, thorough visual and NDT inspection requirements previously outlined. Note: This method of integrity assurance will be in lieu of load testing and will only be carried out by facilities accredited with NATA for visual or NDT inspection or Classification Societies (e.g. DNV, Lloyds etc.) Place container on racks to allow full underside inspection. Note: Do NOT walk underneath containers suspended by fork-lift or cranes. Abrasive blast 25% of under-floor structural welds. Carry out MPI on all welds cleaned by blasting Where cracking is found in the underside should be completely abrasive cleaned and all structural welds inspected by MPI method. Carry out UT testing of any under-side structural members suspected of having areas of > 10% metal loss. Note: If any metal loss of > 10% is detected, the remaining structural members shall also be UT checked for metal loss. Carry out repairs as required using approved welding procedures, qualified welders and trace-able materials equivalent to the original structure members as detailed on the engineering drawings. Carry out MPI on all weld repairs and rectify any faults detected. Re-coat underside of container with a suitable coating for the offshore environment. NATA accredited facility shall provide the equipment owner with a stick diagram of the container underside. The diagram shall identify members and joints inspected. The equipment owner should ensure that all QA documents relating to repairs carried out are complied and retained on file for future reference.

Note: Whilst the abrasive blast requirements may, at first seem to be quite extensive, it will, in most cases be advantageous as many containers will require re-application of coatings (particularly underneath) at the end of 6 years and this work will fit well with that requirement.

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VISUAL INSPECTOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

The inspector must have, as a minimum, a knowledge and adequate practical experience of: The statutory requirements relating to containers. The provisions of DNV 2.7-1 The various types of containers in service. The correct methods of slinging and handling the containers. The loads, stresses and strains affecting containers when handled under adverse offshore conditions. The methods of testing containers as detailed in Maritime Safety. Committee circular 860 or, DNV2.7-1 Offshore Container, Certification Notes. Defects likely to be found in containers and acceptable levels of wear, distortion and deterioration in relation to safety in use. Welding methods and procedures and qualification of welders. The various methods of non-destructive examination (NDE) and a good understanding of how they work and their limitations Techniques for measuring container to ensure distortion has not occurred during service or load testing Inspection of rigging and lifting equipment as per the category Lifting Sling(s) as detailed in Table F3.

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REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET PRIOR TO ISSUING A CERTIFICATE of CONFORMITY

OK Engineering drawings have been prepared or reviewed by a "body" meeting the requirements of section 2.6

NO

Drawings meet the requirements detailed within this document. Container been inspected in accordance with Certified Visual Inspection Requirements as detailed in Appendix I.

Engineering drawings and structural analysis support any modifications. Pad eyes are fitted to the container Pad eyes have engineering design drawings available Pad eye design complies with the requirements of this document. Container has been de-rated as per requirements of this document Container has been load tested as per requirements of this document There is no permanent distortion of the container following load testing (Refer to DNV 2.7-1, section 37.1.2 & 3.7.1.3) Fork-lift pockets marking is as per the requirements of this document. Material for chain used in 5th leg of a 5 leg assembly must comply with ISO 3076. NDT of pad eye welds, structural member welds and floor support structure has not revealed any cracking (or repairs have been effected)

Figure I.1: Suggested Offshore Container Identification Plate OFFSHORE CONTAINER Name of Manufacturer
Month/year of Manufacture Manufacturers Serial No. Maximum Gross Weight Tare Weight Payload Container Intermediate Deck kg Certificate of Conformity No. Design Temperature kg at kg kg deg sling angle

Degrees C

IDENTIFICATION PLATE MATERIAL & SIZE REQUIREMENTS

Plate to be of stainless steel or marine grade aluminium, approximately 1 .5 mm thick Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium) 215 mm overall width 150 mm overall height Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

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FIGURE I.2: SUGGESTED INSPECTION DATA PLATE


215

35

180 (6 x 30)

10 mm LETTERING

INSPECTION DATA OFFSHORE CONTAINER

Container No. Maximum Gross Mass Tare Mass Payload Container Intermediate deck Owner: Tel. No. + + +

kg @ kg kg kg

deg. Apex sling angle

250 mm

TEST
INTERVAL AT MANUFACTURE

PROOF LOAD 6 YEAR TEST DATE CERT NO

NDT 3 YEAR TEST DATE CERT NO

VISUAL INSPECTION 1 YEAR TEST DATE CERT NO

70 mm

AT SITE

1.5 mm Stainless Steel Or Marine Grade Aluminium

5 mm LETTERING

Suggested plate incorporates ideas from international documents and local requirements. All dimensions are shown in mm.

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FIGURE I.3 SUGGESTED ALTERNATE IDENTIFICATION PLATE

215 mm

5 mm LETTERING

10 mm LETTERING

OFFSHORE CONTAINER Name of Manufacturer Month/year of Manufacture Manufacturers serial No. Maximum Gross Mass Tare Mass Payload Container Intermediate deck Certificate of Conformity No. Design Temperature

150 mm

kg @ kg kg kg
o

deg. Apex sling angle

1.5 mm Stainless Steel or Marine Grade Aluminium

The suggested plate complies with international document requirements.

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FIGURE I.4

SUGGESTED OPERATIONAL MARKING PLATE

200

1.5mm Stainless steel or Marine Grade Aluminium

3.2
90

ID No OWNER MANUFACTURER DATE OF MANUFACTURE TYPE

TW-SS01 WOODSIDE DISON 12/96 OFFSHORE EQUIPMENT CONTAINER

All dimensions shown are in mm.

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FIGURE I.5 SUGGESTED IDENTIFICATION NUMBER DETAIL

75mm high lettering, 7.5mm thick

VARIES

PW - SS01

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FIGURE I.6: SUGGESTED ALTERNATE OFFSHORE CONTAINER INSPECTION DATA PLATE


INSPECTION DATA-OFFSHORE CONTAINER Container No. Maximum Gross Weight (wt) Tare Weight Payload - Container Mid- deck Owner: Tel. No. + kg at deg, Apex sling angle kg kg kg (Where Applicable)

DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY:

DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY:

DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY: DATE: TEST TYPE: TESTED BY:

INSPECTION DATA PLATE MATERIAL & SIZE REQUIREMENTS

Plate to be of stainless steel or marine grade aluminium, approximately 1 .5 mm thick Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium) 215 mm overall width 250 mm overall height (approx.) Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

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ONGOING INSPECTION & TEST REPORTS

Ongoing, in-service reports will include the following as appropriate: Visual Inspection Reports; Load Test Reports; and Non Destructive Testing Reports.

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