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Combined Cardinal and Lateral System (Red to Port in Region A and Red to Starboard in Region B)
INTRODUCTION The Need for Change The severest test of a buoyage system occurs when the mariner is confronted unexpectedly at night or in low visibility by the lights marking an uncharted danger, such as a recent wreck; immediately, he must decide which way to go. The fact that a long-established system of buoyage is not always sufficiently understood was illustrated by the disaster in the Dover Strait in 1971. Although appropriately marked, the wreckage of the Texaco Caribbean was struck by the Brandenburg, which sank. A few weeks later the wreckage, despite being marked by a wreck-marking vessel and many buoys, was struck by the Niki, which also sank. A total of 51 lives was lost. On sighting a navigational mark, every mariner's reaction should be instinctive, positive and correct. Near The Varne bank in the Dover Strait, which was the scene of the sinkings, the system used was the Lateral one. Where wreck-marking was concerned, this meant that mariners had to know the significance of all the green shapes or lights which indicated that a mark had to be left to port or starboard, or passed on either side; it also meant that there must be no doubt about the 'direction of buoyage' in the area concerned. In open waters, prior to the introduction of the IALA Maritime Buoyage System, the convention in the United Kingdom was that the direction of buoyage followed the main stream of flood tide, but this direction was not always obvious. The IALA Maritime Buoyage System retains simplified Lateral marks to define the limits of channels inshore, but provides Cardinal marks to overcome the weaknesses described above; to augment, if necessary, the Lateral marks; and to reduce the use of middle ground and secondary channel marks. A knowledge of the characteristics of the Cardinal marks, used in conjunction with a compass, is all that is needed to be confident of where navigable water lies in relation to any mark, charted or uncharted, which the mariner may encounter. Cardinal marks are not a novelty, of course, but their use has been impaired by a lack of fully agreed characteristics. As just one example: in the system of buoyage traditionally used by some countries, a West buoy (meaning that the mark lies west of the danger it is guarding) has a topmark, while an East buoy has a topmark. However, in the systems used by some other countries, these topmark shapes are reversed. Development of Buoyage Systems The beginnings of a uniform system of buoyage emerged in 1889, when certain countries agreed to mark the port hand side of channels with black can buoys and the starboard hand with red conical buoys. Unfortunately, when lights for buoys were introduced, some European countries placed red lights on the black port hand buoys to conform with the red lights marking the port hand side of harbour entrances, whilst throughout North America, red lights were placed on the red starboard hand buoys. Thereafter, various conferences were convened which sought for a single buoyage system, but without success until 1936 when another uniform system of buoyage was formulated in a Convention drawn up under The League of Nations at Geneva. It established a Cardinal system, and a Lateral system with the principle that red buoys (with red or even-numbered flashes of white lights) should be used on the port hand, and black buoys (with odd-numbered flashes of white light) on the starboard hand. But several countries were not signatories to this Convention and continued to develop their original, and opposite, system. The Convention, however, was still unratified when most European buoyage systems were swept away by World War II (1939-45). After the war, buoyage systems were re-established in N W Europe based on the 1936 Geneva Convention, but wide differences in interpretation, due partly to the need to use available equipment, resulted in nine different systems coming into use in these waters. Much of the North and South American continents and some countries of the Pacific continued to favour red to starboard and used only a Lateral system of buoyage. As recently as 1976 there were more than thirty different buoyage systems in use worldwide, many of these systems having rules in complete conflict with one another. In 1973, observing the need for urgency, another attempt to find a single world-wide buoyage system was put in hand, this time by giving new terms of reference to the Technical Committee of the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, which had been studying various projects, including buoyage, for the previous 8 years. The International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) is a non-governmental body which brings together representatives from the aids to navigation services in order to exchange information and recommend improvements to aids to navigation based on the latest technology. The United Kingdom's representation includes Trinity House, the Northern Lighthouse Board and the Commissioners of Irish Lights.
Created by Capt. Peter V. Ivanov 1
on a regional basis. leading lights and marks. 9 and 10 illustrate ways in which the marks can be used together. the lighthouse authorities from fifty countries and the representatives of nine international organizations concerned with aids to navigation met and agreed to adopt the rules of the new combined System. it was proposed to make certain small additions to the agreed System A rules.) Types of Marks The System provides five types of marks which may be used in any combination: Lateral marks indicate the port and starboard hand sides of channels (when a channel divides. The rules for System A which included both Cardinal and Lateral marks were completed in 1976 and agreed by the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO)*. These additions were of a minor nature and did not make any significant change to the System A buoyage already being introduced. Most of the information given in Editions 1 and 2 was based on the official IALA publication on System A (Supplement No. These were called System A and System B respectively. The buoyage regions were also decided. beacon topmarks have the same shape and colours as those used on buoys. one using the colour red to mark the port hand side of channels and the other using the colour red to mark the starboard hand side of channels. the accompanying diagrams show mainly buoy shapes. other than leading marks. natural dangers and other obstructions such as wrecks (which are described as 'New Dangers' when newly discovered). In general. Ivanov 2 General Remarks . DESCRIPTION OF THE IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM 2. The introduction of the System began in 1977 and its use has gradually spread throughout Europe. Fixed Marks It should be understood that most lighted and unlighted beacons. such as mid-channel buoys. Korea and the Philippines. (Because of the variety of beacon structures. Isolated Danger marks erected on. Central and South America. a modified Lateral mark may be used to indicate the preferred route). 8. It serves to indicate: The sides and centrelines of navigable channels. Diagrams 7. sector lights. and Special marks. Australia. *Renamed International Maritime Organization (IMO) on 22 May 1982. Japan. indicate that navigable water lies to the named side of the mark. To achieve this single set of rules and to meet the needs of Region B countries. Africa.IALA decided that agreement on a single world-wide system of buoyage could not be achieved immediately. NP 735 The purpose of this booklet is to describe the IALA Maritime Buoyage System and how it is being shown on Admiralty charts. and should be studied after the characteristics of Created by Capt. The combination of Cardinal and Lateral marks is a feature which might seem difficult to grasp at first. Cardinal marks. Safe Water marks. the purpose of which is apparent from reference to the chart or other nautical documents. but concluded that the use of only two alternative systems was practicable. The rules for the two Systems were so similar that the IALA Executive Committee felt able to combine the two sets of rules into one known as the IALA Maritime Buoyage System. used in conjunction with the compass. At a conference convened in November 1980 with the assistance of IMCO and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). or moored directly on or over dangers of limited extent. or other features of importance to the mariner.1 Scope The System applies to all fixed and floating marks. 6 to the IALA Bulletin—1976). other than lighthouses. are included in the System. New Zealand. The rules for System B were completed in early 1980 and these were felt to be suitable for application in the countries of North. the two regions being known as Region A or Region B. the Gulf and some Asian countries. This single set of rules allows lighthouse authorities the choice of using red to port or red to starboard. This Edition 3 contains many additions and amendments based mainly on the booklet "IALA Maritime Buoyage System" published by IALA in November 1980. areas in which navigation may be subject to regulation. Peter V. light-vessels and lanbys.
there are no special 'landfall' or 'transition' marks in the IALA System. The other types of mark have black and yellow or black and red horizontal bands or red and white vertical stripes. Characteristics of Marks The significance of a mark depends on one or more features: By day—Colour. for example. The other types of mark have a white light. the colours and topmarks prevent ambiguity. are fairly common but. group-flashing (2) for Isolated Danger marks. conical. Topmarks The IALA System makes use of can. but ice or other severe conditions may occasionally prevent their use. can. Care is needed to ensure that. high focal plane buoys and others (except spar buoys) whose body shape does not indicate the correct side to pass. may. Variations on the basic shapes. much existing equipment will continue to be used. anchorages. carry lettering to indicate the purpose of the buoy. Colours of Marks The colours red and green are reserved for Lateral marks. Special marks. Shapes of Marks There are five basic buoy shapes. It must be understood that. Created by Capt. have characteristics corresponding to those approved for use with the new marks. There is no differentiation between the marks for such special features as spoil grounds. by day.each type of mark have been mastered. when lighted. have a yellow light with any rhythm not reserved for white lights of the system. the shape has no such special significance. By night—Light colour and rhythm. conical. all of which will be marked by yellow buoys which may. by coincidence. shape and topmark. as the colour alone is sufficient to show on which side they should be passed. Ivanov 3 . including those for indicating wrecks. Rhythms of Lights Red and green lights may have any rhythm. and relatively long periods of light for Safe Water marks. as described later. distinguished one from another by rhythm. The term 'pillar' is used to describe any buoy which is smaller than a lanby and which has a tall central structure on a broad base. cable areas and military exercise areas. Some shore lights. The other types of mark have clearly specified rhythms of white light: various quick flashing rhythms for Cardinal marks. on sight. light-floats. spherical and X-shaped topmarks only. and yellow for Special marks. pillar and spar. it includes beacon buoys. red and green lights are reserved for Lateral marks and yellow for Special marks. Peter V. specifically excluded from the IALA System. namely. the shape indicates the correct side to pass. such lights are not misinterpreted. in addition. With pillar and spar buoys. therefore. even after the introduction of the new Buoyage System. Colours of Lights Where marks are lighted. conical and spherical. In the case of can. Superseded Marks Certain marks were superseded by the introduction of the IALA System. Topmarks on pillar and spar buoys are particularly important and are used wherever practicable. including. spherical.
2 Lateral Marks (see Diagrams 1. 3 and 4) Direction of Buoyage Lateral marks are generally used for well-defined channels. Diagram 1 Buoyage Regions There are two international Buoyage Regions. if necessary. the Local direction of buoyage may be over-ridden by the General direction. However. (a) Local direction of buoyage—The direction taken by the mariner when approaching a harbour. In some places. it is usually given in Sailing Directions. and are used in conjunction with a conventional direction of buoyage. or (b) General direction of buoyage—The direction determined by the buoyage authorities. in Region B these colours are reversed with red to starboard and green to port (see Diagram 4). following a clockwise direction around continental land masses. Peter V. Eastward through the English Channel and Northward through the North Sea. The conventional direction of lateral buoyage is defined in one of two ways: (see Diagram 1). 2.2. Around the British Isles the General direction of buoyage runs Northward along the W coasts and through the Irish Sea. The geographical disposition of these two Regions is indicated in Diagram 2. river estuary or other waterway from seaward. A and B. and. In Diagram 1. Ivanov 4 . particularly straits (being open at both ends). note that the General direction gives way to the Local direction at the outer limit of the Thames Estuary. Lateral marks in-Region A use red and green colours by day and night to denote the port and starboard sides of channels respectively (see Diagram 3). where Lateral marks differ. Created by Capt. they indicate the port and starboard hand sides of the route to be followed. indicated on charts by a symbol (see Section 3).
Ivanov 5 . Peter V. November 1980 Diagram 2 Created by Capt.IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM Buoyage Regions A and B.
see 2. these features will vary somewhat depending on the individual design of the buoys in use.G LFI. Examples are: Red light Green light Continuous quick light SingleQ. PORT HAND Colour: Red Shape (Buoys): Cylindrical (can). If marks at the sides of a channel are numbered or lettered. PREFERRED CHANNELS At the point where a channel divides. may have any rhythm other than composite group-flashing (2+1) used on modified Lateral marks indicating a preferred channel. Particularly in the case of pillar buoys. when fitted.G *QkFI. with can and conical shapes but painted yellow.6. the diagrams are not intended to convey the detailed configuration and topmark size of the buoys in use. pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single red cylinder (can) Preferred channel to port Colour: Green with one broad red horizontal band Shape (Buoys): Conical. Special marks. colouring and topmarks of buoys in the IALA System. pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single green cone point upward DIRECTION OF BUOYAGE LIGHTS. pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single green cone point upward DIRECTION OF BUOYAGE FI(2+1)R Red light roup-flashing (2+1) light NOTES Green light FI(2+1)G Where port or starboard marks do not rely on can or conical buoy shapes for identification.R LFI. they carry the appropriate topmark where practicable. pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single red cylinder (can) STARBOARD HAND Colour: Green Shape (Buoys): Conical. Ivanov 6 . a preferred channel is indicated by a modified port or starboard Lateral mark as follows.R Group-flashing light FI(2)G FI(2)R *GpFI(2)G *GpFI(2)R * These abbreviations are obsolescent The lateral colours of red or green are freauentiv used for minor shore liqhts. when proceeding in the conventional direction of buoyage.R*QkFI. Diagram 3 Created by Capt. Peter V.nniunriion with the standard Lateral marks for special types of channel marking. the numbering or lettering follows the conventional direction of buoyage. Preferred channel to starboard Colour: Red with one broad green horizontal band Shape (Buoys): Cylindrical (can).G FI.G Q.LATERAL MARKS USED IN REGION A These diagrams are schematic and indicate the approved shapes. may ho used in r. such as those markinq pierheads and the extremities of jetties.R flashing light Long-flashing light FI.
Examples are: Continuous quick light Single-flashing light Longflashing light Groupflashing light The lateral colours of red or green are frequently used for minor shore lights. If marks at the sides of a channel are numbered or lettered. such as those marking pierheads and the extremities of jetties. Special marks. PREFERRED CHANNELS At the point where a channel divides. a preferred channel is indicated by a modified port or starboard Lateral mark as follows. pillar or spar Topmark Topmark (if any): Single red cone point upward (if any): Single green cylinder (can) Group-flashing (2+1) light NOTES Where port or starboard marks do not rely on can or conical buoy shapes for identification. PORT HAND Colour: Green Shape (Buoys): Cylindrical (can). pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single red cone point upward LIGHTS. when proceeding in the conventional direction of buoyage. colouring and topmarks of buoys in the 1ALA System. the diagrams are not intended to convey the detailed configuration and topmark size of the buoys in use. pillar or spar Shape (Buoys): Cylindrical (can). may have any rhythm other than composite group-flashing (2+1) used on modified Lateral marks indicating a preferred channel. they carry the appropriate topmark where practicable.6. Particularly in the case of pillar buoys. pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single green cylinder (can) STARBOARD HAND Colour: Red Shape (Buoys): Conical. Peter V. Ivanov 7 . when fitted.LATERAL MARKS USED IN REGION B These diagrams are schematic and indicate the approved shapes. Diagram 4 Created by Capt. Preferred channel to port Preferred channel to starboard Colour: Red with one broad green horizontal band Colour: Green with one broad red horizontal band Shape (Buoys): Conical. these features will vary somewhat depending on the individual design of the buoys in use. the numbering or lettering follows the conventional direction of buoyage. see 2. with can and conical shapes but painted yellow. may be used in conjunction with the standard Lateral marks for special types of channel marking.
usually either 50 or 60. West —Points inward Black band with yellow bands above and below. thus: North—Points up Black band above yellow band. but in the case of a buoy it is a pillar or spar. with the cones as large as possible and clearly separated. The position of the black band. is related to the points of the black topmarks. taken from the point of interest. To aid the memory. bifurcation. 10 and 10 seconds if a very quick light.3 Cardinal Marks (see Diagram 5) Names of Marks A Cardinal mark is used in conjunction with the compass to indicate where the mariner may find the best navigable water. by day. East. SW-NW. a Cardinal mark exhibits a white light. West —9 flashes in a group. and 9 o'clock—W).2. The mariner is safe if he passes N of a North mark. The long flash (of not less than 2 seconds duration). Peter V. Ivanov 8 . or end of a shoal. usually either 100 or 120. Topmarks Black double-cone topmarks are a very important feature. SE-SW. Indicate the safe side on which to pass a danger. It is necessary to have a choice of Quick or Very Quick lights in order to avoid confusion if. junction. The periods of the East. ) and South ( ) are the East ( ) and West ( ) Cardinal marks carry topmarks whenever practicable. 10. E of an East mark. Colours Black and yellow horizontal bands are used to colour a Cardinal mark. or bands. South and West lights are. Uses A Cardinal mark may be used to: Indicate that the deepest water in an area is on the named side of the mark. is to ensure that its 6 flashes cannot be mistaken for 3 or 9. South—Points down Black band below yellow band. A Cardinal mark takes its name from the quadrant in which it is placed. Quick lights flash at a rate between 50 and 79 flashes per minute. for example. Lights When lighted. S of a South mark and W of a West mark. immediately following the group of flashes of a South Cardinal mark. its characteristics are based on a group of quick or very quick flashes which distinguish it as a Cardinal mark and indicate its quadrant. South and West). two North buoys are placed near enough to each other for one to be mistaken for the other. Created by Capt. of Cardinal marks: the arrangement of the cones must be memorised. NE-SE. bounded by the true bearings NW-NE. East —3 flashes in a group. South—6 flashes in a group followed by a long flash. 15 and 15 seconds if a quick light and 5. Draw attention to a feature in a channel such as a bend. It is placed in one of the four quadrants (North. 6 o'clock—S. respectively. The distinguishing quick or very quick flashes are: North—Uninterrupted. More difficult to remember than North ( topmarks: W tor Wineglass may help. East —Points outward Black bands above and below yellow band Shapе The shape of a Cardinal mark is not significant. Very quick lights flash at a rate between 80 and 159 flashes per minute. the number of flashes in each group can be associated with a clock face (3 o'clock—E.
CARDINAL MARKS Topmarks are always fitted (when practicable) Buoy shapes are pillar or spar NOTES * These abbreviations are obsolescent Mariners are warned that certain types of buoy lighting equipment in current use on South and West Cardinal light-buoys have proved to be liable to exhibit occasionally one too many or one too few short flashes. these features will vary somewhat depending on the individual design of the buoys in use. These diagrams are schematic and indicate the approved shapes. are white Very Quick Lights or Quick Lights. Peter V. Diagram 5 Created by Capt. exact colour disposition and topmark size of buoys in use. Particularly in the case of pillar buoys. colouring and topmarks of buoys in the IALA System. the diagrams are not intended to convey the detailed configuration. Lights. a South mark also has a Long Flash immediately following the quick flashes. when fitted. Ivanov 9 .
buoys carrying oceanographic or meteorological sensors. Traffic separation marks. Light When lighted. an isolated danger of limited extent which has navigable water all around it. Cable or pipeline marks. composite group-flashing and morse code light. or moored on or above. i. the position of a danger is the centre of the symbol or sounding indicating that danger. a channel for deep draught vessels in a wide estuary. where the limits of the channel for normal navigation are marked by red and green Lateral buoys. midchannel or landfall buoy. pillar or spar buoys may be used as Safe Water marks. the rhythm may be any.e. Spoil ground marks. When lighted.4 Isolated Danger Marks (see Diagram 6) Use An Isolated Danger mark is erected on. indicate either a shoal which is well offshore. a white flashing light showing a group of two flashes is used to denote an Isolated Danger mark. 2. five.5 Safe Water Marks (see Diagram 6) Use A Safe Water mark is used to indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. the nature of which is apparent from reference to a chart. where use of conventional channel marking might cause confusion.2. Charted Position On a chart.e. Recreation zone marks. The association of two flashes and two spheres in the topmark may be a help in remembering these characteristics. The symbol indicating the Isolated Danger buoy will inevitably be slightly displaced. The extent of the surrounding navigable water is immaterial: such a mark can. Topmark A black double-sphere topmark ( ) is. or showing a single long flash. Such a mark may be used as a centreline. Another function of a Special mark is to define a channel within a channel. but must not conflict with that used for a Lateral or Safe Water mark. Isolated Danger and Safe Water marks. For example. this topmark will be carried. Created by Capt. a very important feature of an Isolated Danger mark and. occulting. disposed vertically. the period of the light will be 10 seconds. single-flashing. whenever practicable. Peter V. a flash of not less than 2 seconds) is used. whenever practicable. or (exceptionally) six flashes. Military exercise zone marks. with the spheres as large as possible. Colour Yellow is the colour used for Special marks. may have the boundaries of the deep channel indicated by yellow buoys of the appropriate Lateral shapes. Shape Topmark Spherical. Uses include: Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS). Ligh A single red sphere topmark will be carried. group-flashing with a group of four. other than those used for the white lights of Cardinal. Colour Black with one or more red horizontal bands are the colours used for Isolated Danger marks. the rhythm used is group-flashing with a group of five flashes every 20 seconds. The following are permitted examples: Group-occulting. and clearly separated.6 Special Marks (see Diagram 6) Use A Special mark may be used to indicate to the mariner a special area or feature. sailing directions or notices to mariners. but in the case of a buoy it is a pillar or spar. including outfall pipes. by a pillar or spar buoy used as a Safe Water mark. Special marks may be numbered or lettered to indicate their purpose. In the case of ODAS buoys. or Morse "A" If a long flash (i. 2. by day. or an islet separated by a narrow channel from the coast. Colour Red and white vertical stripes are used for Safe Water marks. and distinguish them from the black-banded danger-marking marks. an outfall buoy on the port hand side of a channel could be can-shaped but not conical. or isophase. Shape The shape of a Special mark is optional. or its centreline marked by yellow spherical buoys. Topmark When a topmark is carried it takes the form of a single yellow X. Ivanov 10 . Shape The shape of an Isolated Danger mark is not significant. for example. For example. Safe Water marks exhibit a white light. Light When a light is exhibited it is yellow.
or Longflashing every 10 seconds. the diagrams are not intended to convey the detailed configuration. and may have any rhythm not used for white lights Examples Shape: optional Topmark (if fitted) If these shapes are used they will indicate the side on which the buoys should be passed * These abbreviations are obsolescent NOTE These diagrams are schematic and indicate the approved shapes. this is a very important feature by day and is fitted wherever practicable) Shape: spherical or pillar or spar Light. Ivanov 11 . is white. exact colour disposition and topmark size of the buoys in use. or Morse A. when fitted. when fitted. colouring and topmarks of buoys in the IALA System. Peter V. Diagram 6 Created by Capt. or Occulting. is white Isophase. Group-flashing (2) Shape: pillar or spar SAFE WATER MARKS Topmark (if the buoy is not spherical. depending on the individual design of the buoys in use. is yellow. SPECIAL MARKS Topmark (if fitted) Light. when fitted.ISOLATED DANGER MARKS Topmark (This is a very important feature by day and is fitted wherever practicable) Light. these features will vary somewhat. Particularly in the case of pillar buoys.
Racons The duplicate mark may carry a racon. but in 1976 their general significance was reconsidered in the study initiated by the need for new symbols. buoyage authorities site the reflector so that it cannot be mistaken for a topmark. Promulgation of details of System 'A' symbols and abbreviations The symbols and abbreviations as shown in Diagram 11 are also given in 5011. Created by Capt.e. formerly inserted above buoy symbols (and below the topmarks. Pillar buoys The various forms of buoy termed 'pillar buoy' are indicated by the symbol introduced in 1976 for this purpose. This enables the topmark symbol to stand out more clearly. 10 and 11) Changes New symbols and abbreviations. the period is less important than its rhythm. If the sequence of the bands is not known. if fitted). In accordance with standard practice. The period of the light of a Cardinal mark is determined by its quadrant and by whether the light is a quick light or a very quick light. of a buoy is given under the symbol. Spar buoys and Beacons The symbol for a spar buoy is also used to indicate a spindle buoy. Radar reflectors Radar reflectors are not affected by the IALA Buoyage Rules. are being incorporated in Admiralty charts when they are corrected or reprinted for use with the IALA Buoyage System. If the danger is especially grave. or man-made dangers such as wrecks. and avoids confusion with the X-shaped topmarks used on some Special marks. Topmarks Lights Topmarks are charted boldly. in the case of Cardinal buoys. It was decided not to chart them on the introduction of the new buoyage for several reasons: it can be assumed that most major buoys are fitted with radar reflectors (some nations have already ceased to chart them on these grounds). e. the colours are indicated in sequence from the top. at least one of the marks will be duplicated as soon as practicable by an identical mark until the danger has been sufficiently promulgated. Light-flares Magenta light-flares are inserted with their points adjacent to the position circles at the base of the symbols: this avoids the lightflares obscuring the topmark symbols. the colours are indicated with the darker colour first. and on second and smaller scale charts. A black (i. showing a signal length of one nautical mile on a radar display. the period may be omitted. or included in sailing directions. Diagram 11 is also published as a separate chartlet 5044. Symbols and abbreviations shown on charts to represent older systems of buoyage will remain unchanged until the new System is introduced into those areas. Marking A New Danger is marked by one or more Cardinal or Lateral marks in accordance with the IALA System rules. and altered ones. The abbreviated description of the colour. Topmark symbols are inserted in solid black except when the topmark is red. it must exhibit a quick light or very quick light: if it is a Cardinal mark. filled-in) symbol is used for green marks and for all spar buoys and beacons. coded Morse 'W (— • •). Where a buoy is coloured in bands. a red or green light.g. Light-stars Light-star symbols. Where space on charts is limited. are omitted. Colours The shading of buoy symbols formerly used to indicate the colours of buoys is omitted. Safe Water buoy—Red and white stripes—RW. Lights If a lighted mark is used for a New Danger.g. e. an open symbol is used for all other coloured buoys and beacon towers. is termed a New Danger. or colours. The term covers naturally occurring obstructions such as sandbanks or rocks. CHART SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (see Diagrams 8. Ivanov 12 .7 New Dangers (see Diagrams 7 and 9) Definition A newly discovered hazard to navigation not yet shown on charts. or if the buoy is striped. 3. it is necessary to reduce the size and complexity of buoy symbols and associated legends. or sufficiently promulgated by notices to mariners. and it is understood that. it must exhibit a white light.2. Symbols and Abbreviations used on Admiralty Charts. if a Lateral mark. Peter V. spar buoy symbols are sloped to distinguish them from beacon symbols which are upright. Conventional Direction of Buoyage Where the conventional direction of buoyage may be open to doubt it is indicated on charts by a magenta symbol. and is in line with international chart practice. East buoy—Black with yellow band—BYB.
Peter V. Ivanov 13 .Created by Capt.
Peter V.Created by Capt. Ivanov 14 .
Peter V. Ivanov 15 .Created by Capt.
the Gulf. Programmes for the other areas have been drawn up. Preliminary Notices may be issued to give details of the proposed new buoys and shore marks. including the Baltic Sea. New Edition. using the most appropriate method in each case. Australia.4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM Introduction of the new buoyage began in the Dover Strait in 1977. New Zealand. and Indonesia. Ivanov 16 . Notices to Mariners Block or Notice to Mariners. the issue of a New Edition automatically cancels an existing chart. and the long term schedule. Confirmation that the buoyage changes in specific areas have been carried out will normally be announced in Radio Navigational Warnings and in Notices to Mariners. Malaysia. Created by Capt. i. Amendments to individual charts affected are promulgated through normal channels. As far as is practicable. the programme for the coming twelve months.e. the issue of these amendments is co-ordinated with the change-over schedule of the buoyage authorities. the latest information about the progress to date. Normally. the need to allow time for world-wide distribution may result in the amended charts being available to some mariners a few weeks before the actual changes take place. However. In January of each year. is given in Admiralty Notices to Mariners. By the end of 1982 the process will have been completed in northwest Europe. in west Europe and in much of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Hong Kong. also in Singapore. Detailed information about the Admiralty charts affected in each year and the arrangements being made for their correction is also announced in Notices to Mariners. Peter V. However. The notice is accompanied by a chartlet illustrating the areas affected in each annual stage. and parts of Africa. the cancelled version should be retained for reference with respect to buoyage. until all the changes affecting a chart have taken place.
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