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Operating Systems Concepts Manual 2010

Operating Systems Concepts Manual 2010

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Published by: Takashi Carlton Hamilton on Sep 12, 2011
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Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. Each machine has a certain

amount of memory. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. It is therefore

necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images

on disk, and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are

required. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk

and main memory - the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an

apparently infinite memory.

If we must keep several processes in memory, we must share memory. There are four

requirements of a memory management system:-

1. Protection

Even if only one process is in memory at a time, it will be sharing the memory with the

kernel/monitor, and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not

overwrite kernel code or data. If more than one process is in memory at any one time

there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them.

2. Transparency

Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. It should not matter where in

memory the process has been placed. If the process had to be put on the disk and then

reloaded into a different memory location, it still should not matter.

3. Multiple Segments

The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code, data, stack and

system data. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory

areas, though the code, stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous.

Memory mapping - Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing

program and the physical address of the actual memory.

4. Code sharing

If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program), and if such a program

is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single

physical copy of the code segment, which appears logically in all the appropriate process

images.

Tutorial Questions

1. Research the MMU or PMMU.

2. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems.

Operating System Concepts

Updated Jan 2010

Mrs. G. Campbell

Copyright @ 2010

58

Practice MCQs

1. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except:

a) Protection

b) Transitivity

c) Multiple Segments

d) Code Sharing

Operating System Concepts

Updated Jan 2010

Mrs. G. Campbell

Copyright @ 2010

59

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