OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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...............................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS .................. 75 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................ 81 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................... 72 PARTITIONS................................................................................................................. 65 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................... 79 DISADVANTAGES: ................................................................................................................................................... 78 ADVANTAGES: ..................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 FIFO ........................ 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL.............................................................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) .............................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ............................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ........................................ 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ......................................................................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ....................................................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .....................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ............................ 81 LECTURE 18 ......................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .. G.................................................. 75 LECTURE 15 ........ WORST-FIT ..................................... BEST-FIT....................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ............................................................................................. 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ...................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ................................................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ............................................................................................................ 82 ADVANTAGES ............. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU).................................. 79 LECTURE 17 ..................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ................................................................................................. 76 LECTURE 16 ...................................................................................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............ 68 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... EXTERNAL.................................................................... 74 PRACTICE MCQS ......................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT................................................................................................................................. 76 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)................................................... 65 LECTURE 13 ........................................................................................ 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs..........................................................................................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ........................

............................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 First come first served (FCFS) ..........THRASHING.......................................................................................................................... 88 INTRODUCTION ................. SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE .................................................................. 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ........................................................................................................ 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................ 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................. 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING ...................................................................................................................................... 99 GRAND FATHER.......................................................................................................................... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ..............MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) ...........................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS . 100 LECTURE 24 ........................ 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ...................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......... 90 LECTURE 21 ............................................................................... 88 BLOCKS ............. 95 RAID LEVELS ............................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ........FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ............................... 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ........................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................. FATHER.................................................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ............................................................................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ................................................................................................... 89 DISK CACHING ........................................... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ..................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS .......................................... 94 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................................... 99 BACKUP TIPS .................................................................................. 101 LECTURE 25 ........................... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 91 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................................... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................. 103 PRACTICE MCQS ............... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................... G....................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 86 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................. 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Trojan Horse ......................................................................................... ENCRYPTION........................................................................................................ 106 Advantages of RISC .......... 104 PRACTICE MCQS .......... 120 Novell Netware .................................................................................................................................................. 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION .................................................................. 119 UNIX........................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ....................................................................... G........................................................................ 108 Examples of RISC Processors...................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) .......................................................................................................... 109 CISC ............................................................. 120 MacOS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ................................................ 104 ADVANTAGES ................................................................................ 116 Logic bomb ............................................................. 116 Worm .......................................................... 117 Virus protection........................................................................................................................................................................................... 105 LECTURE 27 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ FIREWALL ........... VIRUS PROTECTION.................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/2 ............................................................................... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................. 116 Virus ................................ 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ............. 120 Microsoft Windows ................................................................ 107 Disadvantages of RISC.......................................................................................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)................................... 117 Firewall....................LECTURE 26 .............................................. 117 Authentication ............................................................................................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ................ 104 DISADVANTAGES ................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ...................... 119 OS/400 ...... 117 AUTHENTICATION....... 118 CASE STUDIES ................................................................... 110 Advantages of CISC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117 Encryption ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Denial-of-service...................................................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ..................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................... 119 MS-DOS......... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ......... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................. 112 CRISC................................................................................................................. 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ........................................................................................................................................ 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................. 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ................ 113 PRACTICE MCQS .........................................................................................

.................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 .................... G..... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs..................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................ 121 REFERENCES .....................................................

deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. G. 4. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. virtual memory. program loading and linking system calls and system programs.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. interrupt handling. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. process scheduling. 5. students should: 1. device and memory management. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. manipulate operating systems 4. students should be able to: 1. 3. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . 2.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems.

Protection and Security. File Operations 2. System Software b.Content: 1. Directory Systems – Single-level. Storage. File-system manipulation. b. 4. students should be able to: 1. Spooling). e. The history and development of the operating system. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. User Interface. Application Software c. b. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. d. System Startup. Introduction: a. I/O – (Buffering. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Communications. h. Program execution. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. 2. f. Operating Systems Functions: a. c. Two-level. g. 3. Tree-Structured. Software and Firmware: a. Error Detection 3. Resource Allocation. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 5. G. 2. Define operating system. File Concepts – File Attributes. students should be able to: a.

4. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. 2. 5. students should be able to: 1. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduler. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 7. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. 6. Preemptive scheduling. 3. 4. j. 7. a. 2. Time Sharing 2. Priority. 3. 6. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. limit register Logical vs. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Shortest Remaining Time. 5. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Multiprogramming. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. 8. Round Robin. Dispatcher 3. Scheduling criteria 4.i. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Shortest Job First 5. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. G. best-fit. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. b.

Pure paging – pages. LFU e. MFU f. page table. Virtual address space 2. state the advantages of disk caching 8. explain thrashing Content: 1. students should be able to: 1. Page replacement a. address translation 6. 4. G. address translation 3. LRU d. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. define page 3. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. explain segmentation 9. students should be able to: 1. explain disk caching 7.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 3. Allocation algorithms 4. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. Segmentation – segment table. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. 5. address structure. FIFO b. frames. 2. define frame 4. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Optimal replacement c. explain the purpose of the page table 5. Demand paging 5.

explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. 2. 4. File server systems – client-server computing 3. 5. Disk scheduling – FCFS. 4. Distributed file systems – naming. 3. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. RAID 1. C-SCAN 6. 3. location transparency. 5. seek time rotational latency 5. positioning time. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. log-structured systems 2. write. students should be able to: 1. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. G. incremental backup. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 .Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 3. SSTF.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. Disk caching 7. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. LOOK. 2. students should be able to: 1. 2. SCAN. 4.

(8th ed). 2. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. Operating systems concepts. 2. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1.B. G. 4. logic bomb. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. Galvin. virus. & Gagne. Apple Macintosh. worm. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1.1. define security 2. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Common Coursework 20% 2. A. OS/2. P. students should be able to: 1.. Internal Tests 20% 3. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. 3. 3. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. 5. UNIX. Encryption. G. RISC / CISC – development. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . advantage. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. Denial-of-service Authentication. (2008). Virus protection. 4.

(2005).S. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . (2007). NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. W. An introduction to operating systems. Operating System Concepts Mrs.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. W. (1999).Recommended: Tanenbaum.). Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. G. NJ: Prentice Hall.). A.(6th ed. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.

• operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs .CPU. business programs. We do not use the computer because of these software. spreadsheets etc. word processors. play a game.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. do our budget etc. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . As new versions of the operating system are released. I/O devices etc. machines. Unix. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. Its primary goal therefore. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. video games.database systems. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. When you purchase a new computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . DOS. is to make the computer convenient to use. it typically has an operating system already installed. G. surf the internet. Linux. These are all examples of operating systems.people. memory. other computers etc. We use the computer because we want to type a document. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. • users . MacOS.

98. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. notebook computer. and other devices to and from the network. G. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. track. UNIX. so no need to know which sector. command language. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. NT Workstation. 95. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. storage management. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. Mac OS X. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. data management (control of I/O devices. filing system. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. and Linux. and Linux. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. 2000 Server). block) and job control. ME). Network and Embedded. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server.g. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system.x. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business.By itself. OS/2 Warp Client. Windows XP.g. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. or mobile computing device. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. UNIX. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. 200 Professional.

What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. and Symbian OS. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. G. 4. Pocket PC 2002. research its new features and comment on them. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. • General Purpose . Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. 2. 8. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Palm OS. comment on its new features. • Transaction processing . 7. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. airline reservation system.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. However. Define operating system.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. E.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory.NET.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . 3. Is controlled by application software d. Practice MCQs 1. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. all the terminals are connected to the same program. • Foreground background . 5. in order to improve CPU utilization. An operating system is a program that a. Tutorial Questions 1. Controls the user c. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . If no. 10. 6.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. what does this mean? 9. • Time sharing . Gives instructions to the hardware b.

Operating System D. system software b. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. application software d. application software. application software. Select the correct sequence a. user. Segment b. hardware c. User. Fence d. hardware. Superstructure c. Executive 4. A. User. Application programs C. system software.2. system software. G. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. system software 3. User. application software. Hardware B. hardware. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. Hardware.

To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. E. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next.66 per hour). then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer.. determine why the program stopped. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. There were still problems however. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. mounting magnetic tapes etc.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. In the early days machines were hand operated. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. These changes. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. which would transfer control to a program. improved utilization quite a bit. I/O devices were slow. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. When a job was done. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. In those days machines were slow.g. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. the operator was slow. an operator could start the next job. which would then go on to the next program. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . G. (E. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. when the program terminated. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. when a job stopped. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). the CPU sat idle. it would return control to the resident monitor. he would unload tapes. the operator . and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s.g. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. as soon as one job was finished. Initially when the computer was turned on. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. would run each batch. that is. This monitor is always resident in memory.

The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Some operating systems still are device dependent. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. read data from tape and not from card). • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. however. Only the device driver must be changed. The trend today. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. By 1970 multiprocessing. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. Michigan Terminal System. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. high level user oriented programming languages. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. In addition.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. MUSIC/SP. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). WYLBUR. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. Historically. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Multics. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer.e. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. (i.

0 OS/2 (1.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 . G.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money.0 Windows NT 3.0 SunOS 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs. GE.0) AIX 1.0 Mac OS (System 1.

0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. 5. Describe the historical development of operating systems.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems. Discuss the first operating system.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 2. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. G. 3.2 FreeBSD 8.6 Windows NT 4. 6.10 Mac OS X v 10. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. 4.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1.

Third Generation D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . First Generation B.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. G. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Second Generation C. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4.

or multiprocessing. If the POST completes successfully. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. and loads them into memory from storage. the operating system loads configuration information. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 .Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. an operating system can support at one time. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions.Lecture 2 . multiuser. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. requests any necessary user information. single user/multitasking. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. This is done on a network. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. which manages memory and devices. and displays the desktop. When a user turns on a computer. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. G. Managing programs refers to how many users. If memory is insufficient. and how many programs. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. Finally. the operating system may use virtual memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

G. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. Command-line interfaces however. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. Operating System Concepts Mrs. grammar and punctuation. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. move files. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. give a user more control over setting details. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. delete files and create folders.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. A job is an operation the processor manages. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. menu-driven interface. generate an error message. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. and graphical user interface. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. As in a restaurant. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files.

cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. is satisfied by reading from the disk. In disk systems. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. The CPU can then move on to do other things. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Requests for card reader input. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. G.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. or recover from one. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the operating system must provide some means to do so. Pre-emption of resources. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. G. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur.must hold for non sharable resources (e. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested.e. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. Example:. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. either normally or abnormally.g. The program must be able to end its execution. mutual exclusion . Deadlock prevention . Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. terminate process).ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. Hold and wait .when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. To prevent deadlock. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). (a read only file is sharable) 2. 1.

3. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. 4. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. Describe the conditions for deadlock.each process can request resources only in increasing order). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . With the aid of a diagram. 5. G. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. jam in the card reader etc. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. Circular wait . • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. To reconcile conflicting demands. No pre-emption (No taking away) . Errors may occur in the CPU. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. 2. State three (3) functions of an operating system. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. 7.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . memory. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. Tutorial Questions 1. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. 3. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. 6. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors.of resources that have already been allocated.

____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. Paging C. A. Scheduling 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. cache D.d) Record management 3. Thrashing D. G. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. A. RAM B. buffer C. Spooling B. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention.

Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. banking. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. draw pictures. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. create graphs. when to do it. database management. E. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. WinRAR. PKZIP. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.g. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. WinZip.g. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. E. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. E. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. graphics. G. word processing. OS/2.Lecture 3 . E. E. play games etc. do our accounting. Norton disk doctor. McAfee. Linux. spreadsheet.g. E. enter data into a database. Unix. As mentioned before. There are two types of software: system software and application software. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. we use the computer to type documents. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . detects. Trend Micro PC-cillin. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. DOS etc. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP.g. MSBACKUP.g. removes viruses from a computer system. Scandisk. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Norton Anti-virus. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. AVG etc. Quickview in Windows. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk.g. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. Examples include: accounting.

a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. E. printing of documents. Solitaire etc. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. correction. C. etc. posters. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. text in each cell. Visi-Calc. table of contents. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. font size and type. save. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Page Maker. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. formulas. editing. Outlook Express. • Entertainment software These software include games. which means that they will run on different computers. fieldsize. Chess. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Oracle. WordPerfect. page number. spell check. Symphony. E.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. Network Operating Systems (NOS). Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Monopoly. mail merge. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . justify. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. G. Web Browsers. newsletters. Visual Basic. Windows Media Player. Wordstar. E. E. instructions. Foxpro. WordPad. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Microsoft Excel. Combine word processing and graphics packages.g. fieldtype. User can enter numbers.g. Features include:.Bold. Microsoft Word. Foxpro.g. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another.g. Can sort. Field. keys. C++. margins. footnotes. E.g. E. query. print.g. underline. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. Dbase. Quattro Pro. E. E. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Outlook (Email). Netscape Navigator. Pascal. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. However. Lotus 1-2-3. COBOL etc.g.g. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. Corel Draw.

Open Office. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. hard-coded in the hardware). When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. mouse. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer.g. E. hard disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 .e. E. G. Lotus Smartsuite.g. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company.g. 3. Microsoft Office. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Tutorial Questions 1. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. printer port. Give examples of the type chosen. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Firmware therefore facilitates booting.g. How does a word processor (e. 2. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. For mainframes etc. sector 0 of boot disk. Corel Wordperfect Suite. keyboard. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. b) A teacher calculating student grades. cd-rom drive. E. This is software embedded in hardware. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data.monitor. Differentiate between system software and application software.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. location 0. memory. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. diskette drive.g.

8. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Restore c. Defrag 2. Utilities D. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. Scandisk b. 6. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. Research the various web browsers. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. Application software B. System software C. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. 5. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1.4. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Anti-virus d. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. G. 7.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk defragmenter D. Disk scanner C. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk scanner C. Disk cleanup B.7. G. A. Disk defragmenter B. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Diagnostic 9. A. Diagnostic utility D.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . hidden.sys. BMP. It is mapped onto a physical device. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks.Lecture 4 . last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. It is a logical storage unit. In other words. last modified. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. A file is named and is referred to by its name. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. COM graphics files . the file.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. records. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. TIF database file – MDB. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. archive. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . but not changed. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. system. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. A read-only file can be viewed. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. io.JPG. DBF etc.ini. write. In MS-DOS.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. Common File types:text file . G. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. date and time of creation. It is a characteristic of a file. Examples include read-only.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. It is a sequence of bits. It has other properties such as its type. msdos. Operating System Concepts Mrs. compressed. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. A file is a collection of related information.TXT source file . its length etc. bytes. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device.sys. "writing" to the file is disabled.

Once the file is backed up by a backup program. the archive attribute is turned off. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. rewind the file.sys. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Any file can be marked as Hidden. When finished with a file Close it. io. compression isn't usually recommended. G.sys. This way. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. however. delete the file • edit/modify the file. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed.sys. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. 2. copy file to an I/O device (printer. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 .ini. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. Open a file Check permissions.com and ntldr.sys and boot. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. ntdetect. write to the file. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. 1. read from the file. However. Return error code if not. The archive attribute is used for backup.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. io. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. display). The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. rename a file etc.

Practice MCQs 1. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. 2. com. then the write pointer is updated. Describe the type of file. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. system searches directory to find location of file. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. Describe five file operations. 3. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. 2. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. exe. G. jpg. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Tutorial Questions 1. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. bmp). Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. Append Writes information to the end of the file. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written.g. 4. Describe five file attributes. doc. 4.Find space on the file system. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. 5. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put.

Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Identifier C. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Name B.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Truncated D. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A.

A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. location. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. creation date. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. To handle this problem. Studies showed that most files were small.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. This allows the file to be easily located.g. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. not physical. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book.Lecture 5 . To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. size and type for all files on that device. G. but it suffers from some inefficiency. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. A file can be on more than 1 disk. The device directory records information such as name. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. These are all directory operations. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. 2. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 .400 feet).

then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory.Single level . This isolates one user from another. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . UNIX. It is easy to support and understand.the simplest directory structure. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. each user has a current directory. This structure is efficient for searching. to a specified file. In normal use. All files are in the same directory. system files and grouping files. G. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). Users may also create their own subdirectories. All files must have unique names. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tree. A file name is prefixed by user name. Every file has a unique path name. The tree has a root directory. Windows.structures . grouping and other operations such as deleting.g. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. DOS.e. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory.

EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. It is not the same as two copies.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . G. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 .A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. The following is an example using Unix. NB. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. Note that files have multiple path names. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files.e. can be access through more than one path). The same file may be in two different directories (i. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.

3. NTFS). Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Research the General-Graph directory.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. 4. G. HPFS.

By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. (i. normally the CPU would sit idle. Normally the CPU would sit idle.Lecture 6 .). The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. addresses etc. file pointers. G. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. another job can be using the CPU.g. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. a tape. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. for an I/O device). but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. This is also called concurrent processing.e. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. variables. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. the current instruction. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. keyboard input etc.g.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times.

The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. memory management information. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. Practice MCQs 1. New B. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. In other words. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. file pointers etc. information associated with each process. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. values in variables. 3. Tutorial Questions 1. G. The location of current instructions. CPU registers. Describe the operation of the PCB.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. and I/O status information. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). CPU scheduling information. Waiting D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . accounting information. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Differentiate between a process and a program. Running C. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. program counter.

Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. Similarly. tape. Tutorial Questions 1. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. regardless of the number of users. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. however. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. and giving processor time to another process. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. or network input could be granted to other users. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. G. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Time-sharing. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. The following defines various scheduling concepts.Scheduling concepts.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. . . Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. An example is shown in the diagram below. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Operating System Concepts Mrs. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . . . The programs therefore have to be scheduled.Lecture 7 . G. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . . the different programs need to take turns in using the processor.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . criteria.

selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. G. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . A. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. 2. 4. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. Pre-emptive scheduling . switches from an active to a ready state or iii. switches from wait state to ready or iv. Medium Term Scheduler . 3. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. 5.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. This involves a) switching context. Long term scheduler B.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler.Some systems introduce an additional. it therefore must be very fast. intermediate level of scheduling. Non pre-emptive scheduling . b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. switches from an active to wait state or ii. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. Dispatcher . CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. Medium term scheduler D. This scheme is called swapping. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory).Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler .If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. 6. Tutorial Questions 1. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. Short term scheduler C. terminates.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. G.

how busy you keep CPU. turnaround time B. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. Describe the various scheduling criteria. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. response time D.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Practice MCQs 1.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. • throughput . The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . Tutorial Questions 1. waiting time C.time from submission of request until the first response is produced. G. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.

Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. for P2 = 0. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. P1. P3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. G. P3. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. P2. for P3 = 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. This is a non-preemptive algorithm.

by a person (e. This process is called aging. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. • externally . Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.g. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits.g. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. 100 msec). Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. number of open files etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . G. A priority number is associated with each job. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. system administrator).P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. memory requirements. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue.

such as memory size or job type. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. G. and so might have different scheduling algorithms.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. Tutorial Questions 1.g. generally based on some property of the job. Campbell 51 . Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. In other words. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. In addition. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. E.

3. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. Priority. SJF iii. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. Priority iv. 4. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. SJF. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. FCFS ii. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5.

Priority scheduling D. Starvation C. Round robin scheduling 10. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. First come first served C. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Fragmentation D. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. G.d) CPU scheduler 4. Shortest job first B. Aging B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 .

hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously.Lecture 8. one thread for each processor in the computer. alleviating the need for data sharing. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. G. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. SMP is more complex than ASMP. The main difference is in how the processors operate. Operating System Concepts Mrs. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. The remainder of the processors run user applications. independent executable components of applications) of execution. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. the whole computer can go down. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. As a result. all running at the same time. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. For this reason. Any processor can run any type of thread. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small.

A. 4. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. Coprocessor B. Multiprogramming 2. Multithreading D. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. A. Practice MCQs 1. multiprogramming 3.g. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 3. A. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm.g. multiuser D. 2. Multiprogramming B. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. Tutorial Questions 1. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Parallel processor C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. In parallel processing. multiprocessing C. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3 Pentium II. Multitasking D. 6. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. G. 1 AMD. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. 5. multitasking B. Multiprocessing C. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs.

multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . multiprocessing D. G.4. symmetric multiprocessing C. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. asymmetric multiprocessing B.

Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. 4. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. 3.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. we must share memory. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. data. Tutorial Questions 1. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment.Lecture 9 . If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. 2. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. it still should not matter. G. Research the MMU or PMMU. 2. Memory mapping . If we must keep several processes in memory. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. though the code. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 .Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. stack and system data. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data.

G.Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.

with a small amount of very fast. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. non-volatile disk storage. which can be organized in a hierarchy. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. The higher levels are expensive. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. 4.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. If another reference is made to this location. Describe the different types of RAM. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. the contents of the accessed location. Compare and contrast them. G. 2. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. volatile cache memory. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. some medium speed. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. expensive. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. cheap. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. Describe the different types of cache. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . 3. When a memory access is made. but very fast. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1.

Main memory D. register. hard disk d) Hard disk. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. register. G. RAM.Practice MCQs 1. Cache D. Registers C. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. RAM. a) Hard disk. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. cache. cache 3. Cache B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . RAM. hard disk c) Register. Electronic Disk C. register. Magnetic Disk B. RAM. Main Memory 6. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. cache b) Cache.

and several specialized registers including a base register. Memory. and flags. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. flags register. In general. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Usually. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive).Lecture 10 . whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. stack. these include a program counter. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. stack register. It is a special. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. G. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. Therefore. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers.Basic memory hardware – base register. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. Types of registers As previously stated. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. In high-level languages. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. and some addressing registers. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. high-speed storage area within the CPU. In other words. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . or RAM. program counter. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and even to programmers. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. For example.

A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. in which case it is a bounds register). Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. Discuss the other types of registers. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . Tutorial Questions 1. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. G. the so-called base. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. and the number of words available to that segment.

Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. G. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. b) placed in a fence register. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. Operating System Concepts Mrs. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. Tutorial Questions 1. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. the first address of the user program is not 00000. The logical address space is used by user programs. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 .Lecture 11 . The fence register is a type of bounds register. but the first address beyond the fence. User programs are run in their own area of memory. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. 2. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. Consider the segment table.Logical vs.

G. 400 4.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 500 3. 11 0. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 430 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 10 1. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs.

It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. running it for a while. Describe the concept of swapping. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. G. it is possible to experience too much swapping. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. In extreme cases. Tutorial Questions 1. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. 2.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. the system may actually do no useful work. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. excessive paging is not desirable. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Practice MCQs 1. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. Swapping maximizes available memory. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation.

Swapping D. Scheduling B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . G. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Paging C. A.then putting it back on the disk.

This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. linked. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. This solves the fragmentation problem. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. G. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. For sequential access. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. Accessing a file. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. indexed. To read a file. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. If the file to be created is n blocks long. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . we can immediately access block b + n. best fit. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. worst fit. many files will be stored on the same disk. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. since all blocks are linked together. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. If too little space is allocated. Compaction . Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file.Lecture 13 . Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit.

Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. 5. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. G. needs to work with certain files.is created. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. removed from the middle. added at the end. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. added in the middle. It is never necessary to compact disk space. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. 4. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Mr. John Brown. The directory contains the address of the index block. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. In order to conserve on space. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. To read the nth block. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. which is an array of disk block addresses. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. To find the nth block of a file. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. Another problem is reliability. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. Tutorial Questions 1. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. removed from the start. 3. It also does not suffer from wasted space. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . a programmer.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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In variable partition multi-programming. However. Partition sizes vary dynamically. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. Each region may have one program to be executed. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. This however comes with a lot of overhead. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. the partition sizes are set and do not change. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. No space is wasted initially. When a region is free.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Fixed and variable C.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Multiple and fixed B. Single and multiple D. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things.

external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. G. 2. Practice MCQs 1. the extra space wasted. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs.Fragmentation – internal. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 .

These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Cache B. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. Virtual memory D. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory.Lecture 15 . Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. usually the hard disk. partitioning. E. G. which functions as additional memory. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. segmentation. Memory management procedures such as paging. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. A. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Tutorial Questions 1. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. 2) arrays lists. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Register C. What is virtual memory? 2. List the various virtual memory strategies. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium.g. 1) code to handle errors. Practice MCQs 1. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 .

The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. the offset is a number in the range 0 . In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. VA is determined from the compiled address. G. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 .1).A virtual address is represented as <page. Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages.(page size .

the other is in memory location 4. G.g. containing only this one program. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. The page table organizes the pages. in the following diagram. which also holds other programs. sometimes called a memory management unit. The first page is in memory location 1. (E. They are therefore scattered in memory. In reality. This is done by a hardware component. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7.page size is 4K blocks by default). which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. a file is made up of 4 pages. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. For example. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required.Lecture 16 . If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. Novell Netware . the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory.

Discuss PTBR and TLB. G. Explain the concept of a page table. 4. Describe paging. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. 2. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.

This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. In other words. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. NB. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . which may be difficult. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. the page that has already been used the most. LFU. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. The algorithms are FIFO. LRU. G. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. Locked pages cannot be replaced. This does not suffer from the anomaly. the page that has been used the least so far. In other words. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page.Lecture 17 . Optimal replacement. MFU. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. This has the lowest page fault rate. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. This method never suffers from the anomaly. This is hardware and overhead intensive. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory.

how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. LRU? 2. Least regularly used C. 3. 8. 2. FIFO. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 4. 8. Least recently used page replacement C. 1. A. LFU. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 9. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 8. Given the following table of jobs to be run. Likely regularly used D. 2. 8. 5. 2. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 9. Counting based page replacement D. 4. FIFO. 3. 7. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 3. What is a page fault? 5. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 9. 4. 3. 5. 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. LFU. G. 2. Optimal page replacement B. LRU stands for: A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 5. Practice MCQs 1. Least recently used B. 9. 5. 4. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. 8. 6. 3. LRU? 3.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1.

Advantages Demand paging. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Compare demand paging to pure swapping. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution.Lecture 18 . The pager will only load these pages into memory. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Less loading latency occurs at program startup.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. This is known as demand paging. Therefore. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. G. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. As there is more space in main memory. or you can load in the page when required. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again.

G. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. Tutorial Questions 1.• Programs running on low-cost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Practice MCQs 1. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Possible security risks. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing.

G. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. How much is the internal fragmentation? A.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. 4 000 bytes B. Spooling D. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 3 648 bytes 10. Frame allocation D. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 23 D. 3 670 bytes D. Paging B. 26 C. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. 40 B. 4 096 bytes C. Thrashing B. 8. Buffering C. 25 9. How many pages does it need? A. A. Belady’s anomaly C. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software.

segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. Given a logical address (segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . they use segmentation. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. which are of fixed size. A segment table is maintained for each process. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. offset) = (s. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. Instead. G.d).

– limit – specifies the length of the segment. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. 7. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. 3. ii. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. 4. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. G. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. offset>. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i.

If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs.8. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. G.

some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. To improve the performance of a disk. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Disk capacity therefore doubled. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . Tutorial Questions 1. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. so that the location is known.e. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. size and speed.random access memory . Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. RAM and Optical disks RAM . The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. Operating System Concepts Mrs. but the data can be read immediately.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. numbered from 0.another name for main storage. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). each one with its own address. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. 2. Each location has a 0 or 1. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM.Lecture 20 . G. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. A block on a disk is the sector. Block . Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. (i. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity.

It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. palm tops. They are used to store both video and audio files. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. Discuss RAM disks. DVD R-? 3. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc .RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. This does not provide permanent storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . calculators. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. How do they differ from other disks? 2. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future.read only memory) . if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory.sometimes called associative registers.g.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. DVD R+. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. read many) EO (erasable optical) . the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. What is the difference between DVD R. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. E. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. G. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. Operating System Concepts Mrs. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. It is small hardware memory . Tutorial Questions 1. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster.

Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. G. Describe disk caching.

due to power-cut). the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. sector etc.Lecture 21 . you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. cylinder. The coating however will wear after enough use. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. G.) 3.g. surface. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. the disk address (drive. is this an input or output operation? 2. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. To improve the performance of a disk. memory address 4. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. Head crash . The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access.

Tutorial Questions 1. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. G. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Other definitions • Positioning time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. This is also known as transfer rate. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay.

At the other end it reverses direction. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . In other words.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. until it gets to other end of disk. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. For example. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. For example. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. G. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. It however may cause starvation of some requests. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. otherwise the request will be queued. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. in alternating directions. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. servicing requests as it reaches each track. satisfying requests. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk.

the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. numbered 0 to 199. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. 5. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 46. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86.3. 73.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. 46. 73. 46 d) 73.5. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 80. 35. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. 80 b) 46. G. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 60. 22. and where to commence the next sweep. 2. which is in great demand. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 91. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 80 c) 73. Tutorial Questions 1. If the queue of requests is 80. Practice MCQs 1. 48. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 46. 73. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. If the queue of requests is 8. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 22. 17. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 80. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 147. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. Explain how it works. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. 22.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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it can also be done at the operating system level. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. Operating System Concepts Mrs. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.which function as a slow RAID-1. but can be expanded with further volumes. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. e. Tutorial Questions 1. In the example. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. 4. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Describe the standard RAID levels. 3. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Discuss the term RAID.g. As an example. 2.. G.

then changes since (incremental backup). • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). Restore changes from audit. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. The father then becomes the grandfather.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . things can still go wrong. or disk that can be used if the original is lost.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. father. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. In order to recover you restore all files. To restore .save to CD 1 etc. A backup is a duplicate of a file. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. then the entire backup is useless. • • • • Grand father. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. dry. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. damaged. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son.restore the main backup first. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . The following describes the different types of backup. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. Disadvantage . clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. Father. Backup all files (main backup). This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times.cool.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 .if one change is messed up. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. or destroyed.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . The oldest backup is called the grandfather.

How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. 6. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. 2. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. Tutorial Questions 1. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives.g. 4. how often do you back up? If not. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. Practice MCQs 1. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Do you backup? If yes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . 3. G. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. How did you solve the problem (e.

File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. A file server is usually not performing any calculations.g. Tutorial Questions 1. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. Discuss the other types of servers (e. print server etc. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. If a user opens a non-local file. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. but requests a server's content or service function. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. mail server. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. who access remote files in the same way as local files. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. In this scheme. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. database server.) 4.Lecture 24 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. A client does not share any of its resources. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. Discuss the concept of a file server. the location of a file is transparent to users. called clients. the open request is channelled to the file server. 3. G.

Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. • In a conventional file system. it's understood where the file actually resides. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines.Lecture 25 . • In a transparent DFS.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. on files. In a networked environment users want to share data files. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . A file system provides a service for clients. one-to-many mapping. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • File name still denotes a specific. somewhere in the network. etc. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. • Better file abstraction. When data are requested. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. set of physical disk blocks. although hidden.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. Dynamic. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . the location of a file. G. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. read. is hidden. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. • This is a convenient way to share data. sector>. the system and disk are known. Resources on other machines are remote. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. the data can exist on various file servers on the network.

G. Tutorial Questions 1.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. 2. Practice MCQs 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. 3. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. includes the file’s logical storage location C. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 .) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. • Do NOT support migration. Research and give examples of various DFSs.

At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. manage memory etc. -3 = characteristic or exponent. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and keyboard operations.screen graphics. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. 2. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor.001375 = 1.375 x 10-3 (1. However. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.375 = mantissa/argument. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.g. E. E. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. A more common use was to control input/output channels. 13. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks.375E -3) . Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. 10 = base/radix.75 = 1.g. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. execute program flow control instructions. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). display . A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. G.375 x 101 (1. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation.375E +1) . do input/output operations.Lecture 26 .

G. Practice MCQs 1. 4. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 .3. ‘superscalar’. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. ‘dual-core’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. On these machines. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. G. however. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. E. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. It is actually an interpreter. do not have a microprogramming level. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. it lists the things that the processor can do. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.g. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD.complex instruction set computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . At that time.Lecture 27 . RISC . doing arithmetic. MOVE. In other words. RISC. called the micro-program (or firmware). Until the mid-1980s.reduced instruction set computer.g. This software. addressing modes. Some computers. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. however the differences extend further. number of registers. and comparing values. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. (More instructions per clock cycle). E. This is the normal type of computer. is usually located in ROM (read only memory).

Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. unlike complex instruction set machine. a PowerPC has 32 registers. the results are discarded and there is no loss. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. who developed the M. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. and make them cheaper to manufacture.P. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. Due to these developments. which would require fewer transistors1. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. advanced compilers. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. and begins execution of the corresponding code. If the processor guessed correctly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies.In the mid 1970s.S. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. G. For this reason. it has gained time.I. Only load and store instructions access memory . Reduced instruction set machines. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. and better pipelining. For example. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). high-speed caches. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. Typically. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met.

And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. Without commercial interest. In contrast. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. This was largely due to a lack of software support. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor.000. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. In 1977. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Windows 3.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. producing faster and cheaper processors . Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. G. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. To some extent. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. By 1994.

It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. SPARCserver. Ultra1. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. G. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Apple introduced the Power Mac. In the SPARC. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. . Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. all instructions are 32-bits in length. and Motorola Corporation.5 and higher). Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . other manufacturers. Apple Computer. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. including IBM. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. Windows NT. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. which appeared in 1994. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. and OS/2. Since then. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history.

CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. use a CISC architecture. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. In contrast to RISC. Most personal computers. However. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format.it costs less than £10. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. G. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. and stands for complex instruction set computer. This also improved performance. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. which supports fewer instructions. In a microprogrammed2 system. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. Atari. An alternative architecture. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory.design. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . Pronounced sisk. easier implementation of new chips. computers executed instructions sequentially. The Amiga. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. code size has become a non-issue. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. fast code. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. In a nutshell. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. At that time. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

to/from an address pointed to by a register. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode.market factors. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. to/from a specific location in memory. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . Due to the large number of addressing modes. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. The VAX. which can operate directly on memory. G. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. while string operations have three or five operands. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . In the VAX. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. an example of a complex instruction set computer. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. has the following modes: to/from a register.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. In particular. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. typically about 8 registers. there are more than 30. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers.according to their byte length. This is a result of having instructions. etc. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 .Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. vandalism. Damage to computer due to improper use. medical information. entering incorrect data. G.g. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. Loss of data. Huge repair bill. hurricane. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. hard disk crash. Loss of data. or marketing plans).g. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. Illegal access to files. data. software. or processing capability. flood. delete a file by accident. young child) Technical error – system failure e. low voltage. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. personal history. Loss of computer and data..g. Category Human error – e. Loss of computer.g. Loss of sales due to piracy.. Effect Loss of data. fire. theft of marketing information (e. May need to re-install software. or sexual preference). loss of time in having to re-enter data. Loss of time. pricing data. loss of time. Loss of files/data. This can lead to things like software piracy. not adequately trained/experienced (e. Physical damage to computer. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. Identity theft.g. Loss of income due to software piracy. adding data twice. lightening. customer lists. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Theft. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. information. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. power surges.

Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. G. A computer virus shares some of these traits. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Once it is running. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. Obviously. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. as well. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. In some cases. There are similarities at a deeper level. Instead. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. releasing the virus. Unlike a cell. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. In other cases. it is then able to infect other programs or documents.it is not alive. and then starts replicating from there. A biological virus is not a living thing. and the cell remains alive. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. It may be benign or have a negative effect. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . as well.

g.g. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. This must be updated regularly. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. Trend Micro-PCcillin). Tutorial Questions 1. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Zone Alarm). thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. called a ciphertext. hackers). A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Unlike a virus or worm. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). Operating System Concepts Mrs. (e. Norton Antivirus. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Define the term cryptography. However. Virus protection. so it can be understood.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. Encryption. while authentication is proving it. Authentication. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. G.g. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. which can cause severe damage to databases. the correct decryption key is required. McAfee. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. Identification is the act of claiming who you are.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . G. John has a password to the human resource system. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Discuss various encryption software. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer.eccouncil. 5. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4.org/ 3.2. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www.

If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. the Internet. Linux. Read. You can set expiration dates on passwords. Linux is a popular. G. There is limited or no security. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Java. then he can still see such files. Hidden etc. You can set attributes on files e. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. Operating System Concepts Mrs. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information.g. only on the network. There are a large number of built-in servers. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information.SYS. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . like UNIX. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories.SYS and MSDOS.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. which means its code is available to the public. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Solaris. and speech recognition. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user.

Templates include password policies. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. It allows directory access control. event log. You are able to create multiple user accounts. Software restrictions . providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. privilege use and system events. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. Windows NT has security holes. G. file vault and firewall. read/write capability. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. You can set security on admin tasks (e. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. policy changes. There is also support for biometric devices. fields. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level.g. object access.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. lockout policies. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. Windows XP has increased security. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. virus). There is also secured wireless access. user rights. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. This accepts user id and password. There are also different levels of authority .g. change. service permissions. There are audit logs and audit trails. There is also a screen saver password. changing settings). You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times.read only. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. commands. records (views). Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. It also supports encryption.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. startup modes. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). file system permissions. account management. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. delete etc. Operating System Concepts Mrs. directories/libraries. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. most reliable Windows operating system. There is also auditing which records login.

Modify. called the Pocket PC. There is a screen saver password. Write.Windows CE .NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. You can encrypt communication. Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. entertainment. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. Read. Netware accepts a userid and password. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . Create. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. and FileScan (sees filenames). Erase. G. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. and mobile devices and on handheld computers.

Galvin. G. Silberschatz. (2006). 7th E.. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. T.webopedia. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary.d. Operating Systems Concepts. Andrew S. Modern Operating Systems. G..B. John Wiley & Sons Inc. (2007).B. (2004).: USA. http://www. (3rd Ed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Gagne.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. Discovering computers 2008. Shelly G. Prentice Hall: USA.).com. Tanenbaum. KY:Course Technology Publishing. & Cashman. P. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 .J. Abraham.

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