OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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......................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................... 75 PRACTICE MCQS ............. 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ............................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE .......................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) . 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ................................................................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) .................. 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 79 LECTURE 17 .............................. 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ........................................................ 82 DISADVANTAGES .................. G................................................................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................. 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... WORST-FIT .................................................................................................. 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 LECTURE 15 .............................................................................. 76 PRACTICE MCQS ... 82 ADVANTAGES .............................. EXTERNAL........................ BEST-FIT........................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .......................................................................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS .............................. 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 LECTURE 16 ............... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ...................................................................................................................... 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)............................................................................................................................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ................................................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................. 80 FIFO ..... 65 LECTURE 13 ....................................................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) .......................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ..................... 78 ADVANTAGES: .................... 72 PARTITIONS............................................................................................................................... 81 LECTURE 18 ................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 65 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS ........... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT...................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................ 79 DISADVANTAGES: .................................................................. 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .. 74 PRACTICE MCQS ...........................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ..............................

......................................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ..... 90 LECTURE 21 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 87 LECTURE 20 ................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ................................................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 101 LECTURE 25 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 PRACTICE MCQS ............ 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................... FATHER...... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ...... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs........................................................................................... 103 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 89 DISK CACHING ....................................................................................... 99 BACKUP TIPS ................................................. 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................. 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................ 88 BLOCKS .........................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) ................................................................................................... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK .......................................... G................................................. 88 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 95 RAID LEVELS ............. 91 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING .... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................ 100 LECTURE 24 ...........................................................THRASHING........................................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ...................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............. 93 First come first served (FCFS) ................................. 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) .......... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................. 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ................. 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ................... 99 GRAND FATHER.................. 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................................ SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ............ 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ................. 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 117 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ENCRYPTION......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ....................................................... G........................................................................................................................................... 106 Advantages of RISC ........................................................................................ 104 PRACTICE MCQS ...... 113 PRACTICE MCQS .............. 117 Authentication ............................................................. 116 Worm ......... 120 MacOS ........................... 107 Disadvantages of RISC........................... 117 Encryption ................................ 104 ADVANTAGES ................. 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION .......... FIREWALL ............ 117 AUTHENTICATION........................................................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION..................... 110 Advantages of CISC ................................ 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ............................................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 MS-DOS........... 116 Denial-of-service................... 116 Logic bomb ....... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ..... 105 LECTURE 27 .......................................................................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ......... 120 Microsoft Windows .................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/2 ............................................................................................LECTURE 26 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 108 Examples of RISC Processors................................... 117 Firewall.............................................................................................. 120 Novell Netware .......................................................... 112 CRISC.........RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 117 Virus protection...................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)........................................ 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips .. 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ......................................................................................................... 119 OS/400 ........................................... 109 CISC .... 119 UNIX....................................................................................................................................................... 118 CASE STUDIES .................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY.............. 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ........................................................................................................................ 116 Virus ......................... 116 Trojan Horse ................................................................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ................................................. 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs...

........... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs.......................................................................................... 121 REFERENCES .................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................... G............ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 .

use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . students should be able to: 1. device and memory management. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. manipulate operating systems 4. process scheduling. interrupt handling. students should: 1. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. 4. 2. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. 3. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. 5. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. program loading and linking system calls and system programs.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . virtual memory.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit.

Two-level. 2. f. G. File-system manipulation. d. Software and Firmware: a. The history and development of the operating system. c. b. Resource Allocation. Application Software c. Directory Systems – Single-level. Introduction: a. Tree-Structured.Content: 1. Operating Systems Functions: a. Error Detection 3. System Startup. File Concepts – File Attributes. 2. g. File Operations 2. User Interface. b. students should be able to: 1. Define operating system. h. Program execution. 3. e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . students should be able to: a. System Software b. Communications. Spooling). explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Protection and Security. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. I/O – (Buffering. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Storage. 5. 4.

a. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. 8. Scheduler. 7. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 6. 6. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. j. 3. Scheduling criteria 4. Multiprogramming. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. Round Robin.i. G. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 4. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. 5. best-fit. 5. Dispatcher 3. b. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. 4. 2. 2. Shortest Remaining Time. 8. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. Priority. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. Shortest Job First 5. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. 3. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Time Sharing 2. limit register Logical vs. 7. Preemptive scheduling.

FIFO b. define page 3. 5. Pure paging – pages. students should be able to: 1. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. LFU e. address translation 3. Optimal replacement c. Virtual address space 2. 2. MFU f. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. page table. explain the purpose of the page table 5. students should be able to: 1. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. explain thrashing Content: 1.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. define frame 4. address structure. Demand paging 5. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. G. explain segmentation 9. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . Page replacement a. explain disk caching 7. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Allocation algorithms 4. LRU d. address translation 6. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. 4. 3. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Segmentation – segment table. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. frames.

File server systems – client-server computing 3. Disk scheduling – FCFS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . C-SCAN 6. Distributed file systems – naming. SCAN. 4. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. 4. G. 5. 2.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. 5. positioning time. 3. seek time rotational latency 5. LOOK.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. Disk caching 7. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. write. 4. location transparency. SSTF. 3. students should be able to: 1. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. students should be able to: 1. log-structured systems 2. 2. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. RAID 1. 2. 3. incremental backup.

Operating systems concepts. P. 2. 4. RISC / CISC – development. virus. G. & Gagne. 4. A. UNIX. Denial-of-service Authentication. 3. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz.1. 2. 5. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. Galvin. Encryption. worm. Virus protection. students should be able to: 1. Apple Macintosh. logic bomb.B. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. (2008).. Common Coursework 20% 2. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. G. (8th ed). describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. OS/2. advantage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . define security 2. Internal Tests 20% 3. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. 3. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1.

). (1999). A. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.Recommended: Tanenbaum. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . NJ: Prentice Hall.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. G.S. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay.(6th ed. W. (2005). W.). An introduction to operating systems. (2007).

other computers etc. G. MacOS. is to make the computer convenient to use. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. • users . play a game. video games.database systems. memory. Its primary goal therefore. do our budget etc.people. We do not use the computer because of these software. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. We use the computer because we want to type a document. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. When you purchase a new computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . Linux. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. machines. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . it typically has an operating system already installed.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. business programs. These are all examples of operating systems.CPU. I/O devices etc. Unix. spreadsheets etc. word processors. DOS. surf the internet. As new versions of the operating system are released.

and Linux.g. block) and job control. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. 3. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. Windows XP. NT Workstation. 95. Mac OS X. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. UNIX. notebook computer. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Network and Embedded. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. track. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. computers.x. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. and Linux. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. and other devices to and from the network.g. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. filing system. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. ME). They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 2000 Server). The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. UNIX. data management (control of I/O devices. command language. OS/2 Warp Client. storage management. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. or mobile computing device.By itself. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. 98. so no need to know which sector. 200 Professional.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . Gives instructions to the hardware b. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. • General Purpose . Practice MCQs 1. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. 3.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. 5. airline reservation system.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. If no. 2. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. in order to improve CPU utilization. research its new features and comment on them. An operating system is a program that a. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. Define operating system.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. 10. all the terminals are connected to the same program.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. and Symbian OS. Palm OS. comment on its new features. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. 6. However. 8.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. • Time sharing . Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . 4. • Foreground background . in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself.g.NET. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. G. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . Tutorial Questions 1. Controls the user c. what does this mean? 9. E. • Transaction processing . Pocket PC 2002.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. 7. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Is controlled by application software d. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11.

user. Fence d.2. User. application software. application software. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. hardware c. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. application software d. Hardware B. hardware. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. system software. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . hardware. A. User. G. Application programs C. system software 3. Superstructure c. Operating System D. Executive 4. system software. User. system software b. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. application software. Hardware. Select the correct sequence a. Segment b.

the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console.. it would return control to the resident monitor. Initially when the computer was turned on. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console.g. the operator was slow. There were still problems however. when a job stopped. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. the operator . he would unload tapes. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. When a job was done. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. I/O devices were slow. (E. that is. which would then go on to the next program. G. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. In the early days machines were hand operated. determine why the program stopped.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. when the program terminated. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. which would transfer control to a program. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. improved utilization quite a bit. the CPU sat idle.g. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. would run each batch. mounting magnetic tapes etc. These changes. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. This monitor is always resident in memory. E. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. as soon as one job was finished. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor.66 per hour). Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. an operator could start the next job. In those days machines were slow.

Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Michigan Terminal System. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. G. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. high level user oriented programming languages. The trend today. Historically. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. WYLBUR. (i. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Multics.e. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. Only the device driver must be changed. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. MUSIC/SP. Some operating systems still are device dependent. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. however. In addition.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. By 1970 multiprocessing. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. read data from tape and not from card). when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly.

0 OS/2 (1.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 SunOS 3. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.0 Mac OS (System 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. G.0 Windows NT 3. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT.0) AIX 1. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. 6.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. 5. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . Describe the historical development of operating systems. 3.10 Mac OS X v 10.6 Windows NT 4. 2. Discuss the first operating system.2 FreeBSD 8.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 4. G.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11.

G. Second Generation C. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Third Generation D. First Generation B. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4.

This is done on a network. which manages memory and devices. When a user turns on a computer. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. or multiprocessing. an operating system can support at one time. and loads them into memory from storage. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. and displays the desktop. Finally. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. the operating system loads configuration information.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . If memory is insufficient. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. G. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer.Lecture 2 . A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. and how many programs. the operating system may use virtual memory. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. If the POST completes successfully. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. Managing programs refers to how many users. requests any necessary user information. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. single user/multitasking. multiuser. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time.

generate an error message.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . and graphical user interface. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. grammar and punctuation. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. delete files and create folders. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. Operating System Concepts Mrs. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. As in a restaurant. G. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. give a user more control over setting details. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. menu-driven interface. Command-line interfaces however. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. move files. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. A job is an operation the processor manages. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. Minor errors such as a missing full stop.

The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). In disk systems. The CPU can then move on to do other things. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. Similarly when a job requests printer output. is satisfied by reading from the disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. Requests for card reader input. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Disk systems eliminated that problem. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately.

1. terminate process). Deadlock prevention .ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it.e. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. either normally or abnormally. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. The program must be able to end its execution. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. mutual exclusion . A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). To prevent deadlock. Pre-emption of resources.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. Example:. Hold and wait . Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources.must hold for non sharable resources (e. the operating system must provide some means to do so.g. or recover from one. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. (a read only file is sharable) 2. G.

2. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors.each process can request resources only in increasing order). Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. To reconcile conflicting demands. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . With the aid of a diagram. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. memory.of resources that have already been allocated. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. 5. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. 7. 6. 3. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. Circular wait . How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action.3. No pre-emption (No taking away) . • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. 4. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. Errors may occur in the CPU. Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the conditions for deadlock. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . State three (3) functions of an operating system. G. jam in the card reader etc.

Thrashing D. Scheduling 5. RAM B. Spooling B. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. A. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. buffer C. Paging C. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing.d) Record management 3. A. G. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . cache D. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs.

an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. G. E. E.g. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. database management. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. McAfee. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. create graphs. DOS etc. E. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems.g.g. There are two types of software: system software and application software. Norton disk doctor. word processing. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. banking. WinZip. MSBACKUP. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. draw pictures. play games etc. Norton Anti-virus. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. AVG etc.g. As mentioned before.Lecture 3 . Trend Micro PC-cillin. Examples include: accounting.g. E. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. E. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Scandisk. graphics. enter data into a database. Quickview in Windows. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . when to do it. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. WinRAR. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage.g. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. OS/2. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. spreadsheet. Linux. removes viruses from a computer system. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. Unix. PKZIP. E. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. we use the computer to type documents. detects. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. do our accounting.

Oracle. Dbase. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do.Bold. COBOL etc. page number. Field. C. etc. which means that they will run on different computers. query. Monopoly. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Outlook Express. Visual Basic. E. Web Browsers. instructions.g. Combine word processing and graphics packages. Symphony. G. E. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. mail merge. table of contents. Network Operating Systems (NOS). Corel Draw. User can enter numbers. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. Wordstar. Netscape Navigator. text in each cell. newsletters. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Solitaire etc.g. C++. fieldtype. keys. E. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. printing of documents. Windows Media Player.g.g. editing. Can sort. Features include:. Quattro Pro. print. save. Foxpro. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Foxpro. Outlook (Email). However.g. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. E.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. underline. Page Maker. font size and type. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. E. Visi-Calc. formulas. Microsoft Word. Pascal.g. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . E. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Microsoft Excel. correction. WordPerfect.g. Chess. WordPad. posters. • Entertainment software These software include games. justify. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. fieldsize. E. Lotus 1-2-3. footnotes. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. spell check. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. E. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. margins.g. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present.

cd-rom drive.g. keyboard. Tutorial Questions 1. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. hard disk. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. diskette drive.g. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . printer port. For mainframes etc. E. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0.g.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . location 0. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. hard-coded in the hardware). e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. memory. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor.monitor. Microsoft Office.e. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. E. G. Give examples of the type chosen. Open Office. This is software embedded in hardware. b) A teacher calculating student grades. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company.g. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction.g. sector 0 of boot disk. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. 3. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. Lotus Smartsuite. Differentiate between system software and application software. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. E. 2. How does a word processor (e. mouse. Corel Wordperfect Suite.

The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Scandisk b. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Utilities D. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. G. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. 8. Anti-virus d. Restore c.4. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. 7. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. Defrag 2. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Research the various web browsers. System software C. 6. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. 5. Application software B.

Disk cleanup B. A. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk scanner C. A. G.7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk scanner C. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. Diagnostic 9. Disk defragmenter B. Diagnostic utility D. Disk defragmenter D.

"writing" to the file is disabled. A file is a collection of related information. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . its length etc. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read.JPG. system. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. A file is named and is referred to by its name. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. DBF etc.sys. TIF database file – MDB. In other words. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. It is mapped onto a physical device. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. archive. Examples include read-only. write. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. G.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . It is a sequence of bits. Common File types:text file . File attributes are maintained in the directory structure.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. bytes. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. It is a logical storage unit. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . io.ini. date and time of creation. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. but not changed. the file.TXT source file . It is a characteristic of a file. hidden. last modified. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. COM graphics files . records. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. compressed.Lecture 4 . A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. In MS-DOS. A read-only file can be viewed. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. msdos. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. It has other properties such as its type. BMP.sys.

Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. read from the file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . However. ntdetect.ini. delete the file • edit/modify the file. When finished with a file Close it. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. compression isn't usually recommended. rename a file etc. however. This way. io.sys and boot. Return error code if not. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. write to the file. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. display). Any file can be marked as Hidden. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. 2. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views.sys.sys. copy file to an I/O device (printer. Open a file Check permissions. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. The archive attribute is used for backup. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. io. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. rewind the file. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. G. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up.com and ntldr. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on.sys. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. the archive attribute is turned off. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. 1. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file.

Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. 2. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 2. system searches directory to find location of file. Tutorial Questions 1. Describe five file attributes. 5. bmp). When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Describe the type of file. exe. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. Describe five file operations. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . doc. G. jpg. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put.g. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. com. 4. Append Writes information to the end of the file. 3. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. then the write pointer is updated. 4. Practice MCQs 1. 3.Find space on the file system.

G. Truncated D.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Name B. Identifier C. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. A file can be on more than 1 disk. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. not physical. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system.g. but it suffers from some inefficiency. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. The device directory records information such as name. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon .Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. location.400 feet). Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. size and type for all files on that device. Studies showed that most files were small. This allows the file to be easily located. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. These are all directory operations. To handle this problem. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape.Lecture 5 . 2. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. G. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. creation date. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

All files must have unique names. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. G. system files and grouping files. grouping and other operations such as deleting. In normal use. UNIX.structures . DOS. Every file has a unique path name. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . This structure is efficient for searching. The tree has a root directory. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). Tree. to a specified file. Operating System Concepts Mrs. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. Windows. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly.Single level . A file name is prefixed by user name.e. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users.g. All files are in the same directory. Users may also create their own subdirectories. This isolates one user from another. It is easy to support and understand.the simplest directory structure. each user has a current directory.

Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. G.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. The same file may be in two different directories (i. It is not the same as two copies. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. can be access through more than one path). NB. Note that files have multiple path names.e. The following is an example using Unix.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.

A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. NTFS). Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Research the General-Graph directory. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. 3. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. 4. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Practice MCQs 1. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. G. HPFS. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs.

g. another job can be using the CPU. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. normally the CPU would sit idle. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. Normally the CPU would sit idle. (i. the current instruction. G. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. keyboard input etc. addresses etc. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job.Lecture 6 . This is also called concurrent processing.e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . a tape.). Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e.g. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. file pointers. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. for an I/O device). variables.

Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. memory management information. Differentiate between a process and a program. accounting information. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . CPU registers. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. In other words. Running C. CPU scheduling information. Tutorial Questions 1. Waiting D. and I/O status information. values in variables. file pointers etc. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. Describe the operation of the PCB. New B. 3.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. The location of current instructions. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. Practice MCQs 1. G. program counter. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. information associated with each process.

or network input could be granted to other users. regardless of the number of users.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Similarly. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. and giving processor time to another process. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. however. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Time-sharing. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. tape. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes.

. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. criteria. Operating System Concepts Mrs. An example is shown in the diagram below. The programs therefore have to be scheduled. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. . Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. . G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 .Scheduling concepts.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. . The following defines various scheduling concepts. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . .Lecture 7 .

Research alternate names for the various schedulers. Pre-emptive scheduling . Non pre-emptive scheduling . Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. A. This scheme is called swapping.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. 6. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. 2. it therefore must be very fast.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. switches from an active to wait state or ii. Medium Term Scheduler . 5. Dispatcher . Short term scheduler C. Tutorial Questions 1. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. G.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. Medium term scheduler D.Some systems introduce an additional. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). This involves a) switching context. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. switches from wait state to ready or iv. terminates. 4. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. Long term scheduler B.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . intermediate level of scheduling. 3. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. G. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Practice MCQs 1. Describe the various scheduling criteria.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. G.time from submission of request until the first response is produced. turnaround time B. Tutorial Questions 1. • throughput .work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time .Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. response time D. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs.how busy you keep CPU. waiting time C.

the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. P3. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. for P3 = 3. P2. G. for P2 = 0. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. P1. P3.

memory requirements. This process is called aging.g. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO.by a person (e. number of open files etc. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. • externally . If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. G. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. system administrator). Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along.g. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. A priority number is associated with each job. 100 msec). No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits.

Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system.g. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. In addition. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. such as memory size or job type. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. G. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. Campbell 51 . generally based on some property of the job. E. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. In other words. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. Tutorial Questions 1.

G. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . Priority. Priority iv. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. FCFS ii. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. SJF. 4. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. 3. SJF iii.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. G. Shortest job first B. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Round robin scheduling 10. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Starvation C. Aging B. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Fragmentation D. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. First come first served C. Priority scheduling D. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8.d) CPU scheduler 4.

If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. independent executable components of applications) of execution. the whole computer can go down. Operating System Concepts Mrs. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. As a result. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. all running at the same time. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. SMP is more complex than ASMP. For this reason. The main difference is in how the processors operate. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. The remainder of the processors run user applications. alleviating the need for data sharing. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. G. Any processor can run any type of thread.Lecture 8. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. one thread for each processor in the computer.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprogramming 3. Multiprogramming 2. 3.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. A.g. 3 Pentium II. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Parallel processor C. Multiprogramming B. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. Multiprocessing C. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. Tutorial Questions 1. G. 1 AMD. 4. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. 5. A. Coprocessor B. A.g. Multitasking D. 6. Multithreading D. In parallel processing. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. multitasking B. multiuser D. Practice MCQs 1. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. multiprocessing C. 2.

multiprocessing D. symmetric multiprocessing C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A.4. G.

and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. Tutorial Questions 1. stack and system data. 2.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. 2. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. though the code. data. Research the MMU or PMMU. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. If we must keep several processes in memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. it still should not matter. G. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 .Lecture 9 . and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. 3. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. Memory mapping .the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program).Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. we must share memory. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them.

G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. expensive. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. When a memory access is made. but very fast. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. Describe the different types of RAM. cheap. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. with a small amount of very fast. Compare and contrast them. 2. 5. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). which can be organized in a hierarchy. The higher levels are expensive. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. volatile cache memory. the contents of the accessed location. If another reference is made to this location. Describe the different types of cache. non-volatile disk storage. 3. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. some medium speed. 4.

RAM. Main memory D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Registers C. Cache D. cache 3. Cache B. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. register.Practice MCQs 1. register. Main Memory 6. cache b) Cache. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. cache. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. RAM. Magnetic Disk B. RAM. G. hard disk d) Hard disk. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. Electronic Disk C. RAM. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. a) Hard disk. hard disk c) Register. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. register. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A.

RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. In high-level languages. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. Usually. program counter. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive).Lecture 10 . Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. In other words. Types of registers As previously stated. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. In general. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. and flags. Memory. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. For example. or RAM. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. and some addressing registers. these include a program counter. Therefore. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . and several specialized registers including a base register. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. high-speed storage area within the CPU.Basic memory hardware – base register. G. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. It is a special. flags register. stack. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. and even to programmers. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. stack register.

A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. and the number of words available to that segment. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. Discuss the other types of registers. G. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. in which case it is a bounds register). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . the so-called base.

but the first address beyond the fence. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. Consider the segment table. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. The logical address space is used by user programs. G. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Operating System Concepts Mrs. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment.Logical vs. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. b) placed in a fence register. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. The fence register is a type of bounds register. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware.Lecture 11 . This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. User programs are run in their own area of memory. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. the first address of the user program is not 00000.

11 0. 430 2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 10 1. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. 400 4. 500 3. 112 Practice MCQs 1.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1.

Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. 2. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. excessive paging is not desirable. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Describe the concept of swapping. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Swapping maximizes available memory. G. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. In extreme cases. running it for a while. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. the system may actually do no useful work. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory.

then putting it back on the disk. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling B. Paging C. Swapping D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . A. G.

Lecture 13 . indexed. many files will be stored on the same disk. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. If too little space is allocated. To read a file. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. This solves the fragmentation problem. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. For sequential access. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. worst fit. we can immediately access block b + n. best fit. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. linked. Accessing a file.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . since all blocks are linked together.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. If the file to be created is n blocks long. Compaction . Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. G. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks.

How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. In order to conserve on space. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Mr. a programmer. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. needs to work with certain files. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs.is created. Tutorial Questions 1. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. G. To find the nth block of a file. 5. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. added in the middle. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. The directory contains the address of the index block. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. It is never necessary to compact disk space. removed from the middle. Another problem is reliability. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. John Brown. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. 4. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. To read the nth block. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. which is an array of disk block addresses. It also does not suffer from wasted space. added at the end. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. 3. removed from the start.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. G. In variable partition multi-programming. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . This however comes with a lot of overhead. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. When a region is free. Each region may have one program to be executed. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. Partition sizes vary dynamically. the partition sizes are set and do not change. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Operating System Concepts Mrs. No space is wasted initially. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. However. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space.

Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.

Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Single and multiple D. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Fixed and variable C. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. Multiple and fixed B. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things.

external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. the extra space wasted. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Practice MCQs 1. 2. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs.Fragmentation – internal. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. G. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. Tutorial Questions 1.

Tutorial Questions 1. Cache B. partitioning. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. 2) arrays lists. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. usually the hard disk. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Memory management procedures such as paging. G. E. Virtual memory D.g. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. What is virtual memory? 2. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 .Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. 1) code to handle errors. Practice MCQs 1.Lecture 15 . A. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. segmentation. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which functions as additional memory. List the various virtual memory strategies. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. Register C.

G.1). Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages.(page size . The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). VA is determined from the compiled address. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks.A virtual address is represented as <page. the offset is a number in the range 0 . In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.

The first page is in memory location 1. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. containing only this one program. Novell Netware . If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. For example. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. a file is made up of 4 pages. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. In reality. sometimes called a memory management unit. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence.g. which also holds other programs. G. The page table organizes the pages. Operating System Concepts Mrs.page size is 4K blocks by default). They are therefore scattered in memory. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. (E. in the following diagram.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory.Lecture 16 . Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). the other is in memory location 4. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. This is done by a hardware component. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address.

Describe paging. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. Discuss PTBR and TLB. G. Explain the concept of a page table.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. 4. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. 2. Differentiate between a page and a page frame.

Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. MFU. which may be difficult. In other words. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . The algorithms are FIFO. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . This method never suffers from the anomaly. This has the lowest page fault rate. G. the page that has been used the least so far. Optimal replacement. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. LFU. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. LRU. NB.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. the page that has already been used the most. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. This does not suffer from the anomaly. In other words. This is hardware and overhead intensive.Lecture 17 . Locked pages cannot be replaced. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count.

Least recently used B. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 8. 2. 5. Practice MCQs 1. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. 9. 2. 7. LRU? 2.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 1. 9. 8. 3. Counting based page replacement D. LRU stands for: A. 3. G. LFU. Likely regularly used D. 8. 4. 9. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. What page would be replaced next using MFU. LRU? 3. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. Least recently used page replacement C. 6. 3. FIFO. 3. 4. 3. 9. 5. Optimal page replacement B. 8. Given the following table of jobs to be run. Least regularly used C. 4. 8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 4. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 2. 2. A. FIFO. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. What is a page fault? 5. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 5. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. LFU. 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8.

This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. This is known as demand paging. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. As there is more space in main memory. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. Compare demand paging to pure swapping.Lecture 18 . Therefore. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. The pager will only load these pages into memory. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . or you can load in the page when required. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. Advantages Demand paging.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. G. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution.

A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 .• Programs running on low-cost. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. Practice MCQs 1. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. G. Tutorial Questions 1. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Possible security risks. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4.

Paging B. Spooling D. 40 B. How many pages does it need? A.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. Buffering C. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. 3 670 bytes D. Frame allocation D. 23 D. 26 C. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Thrashing B. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. A. Belady’s anomaly C. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. G. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. 25 9. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. 3 648 bytes 10. 4 000 bytes B. 4 096 bytes C. 8.

they use segmentation. Given a logical address (segment. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. A segment table is maintained for each process. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. offset) = (s. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment.d). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . which are of fixed size. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. Instead. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory.

segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. 4. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. 7. 3. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. G.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. offset>. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. ii. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500.8. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. G. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging.

(i. but the data can be read immediately. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. G.random access memory .another name for main storage.Lecture 20 .A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. each one with its own address. 2. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each location has a 0 or 1. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Disk capacity therefore doubled. numbered from 0. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. so that the location is known. To improve the performance of a disk. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1.e. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. A block on a disk is the sector. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. size and speed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. RAM and Optical disks RAM . Block . Tutorial Questions 1.

Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . This does not provide permanent storage. Tutorial Questions 1. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. How do they differ from other disks? 2. They are used to store both video and audio files. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. calculators. Discuss RAM disks. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line.g. It is small hardware memory . if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. E.read only memory) . This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. DVD R+. G. read many) EO (erasable optical) .4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. palm tops. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor.sometimes called associative registers. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. DVD R-? 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. What is the difference between DVD R. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies.

Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . G. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe disk caching.

Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. due to power-cut). the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector.Lecture 21 . To improve the performance of a disk. sector etc. surface. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. G. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage.) 3. memory address 4. Head crash . cylinder. is this an input or output operation? 2. The coating however will wear after enough use. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. the disk address (drive.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access.

Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. Other definitions • Positioning time . This is also known as transfer rate. Tutorial Questions 1.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1.

SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). in alternating directions. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. until it gets to other end of disk. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. servicing requests as it reaches each track. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. For example. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. satisfying requests.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. In other words. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. G. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. It however may cause starvation of some requests. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. For example. At the other end it reverses direction. otherwise the request will be queued.

Tutorial Questions 1. 80 b) 46. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. 46. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 22. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 46. 80. and where to commence the next sweep. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 2. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 35. 46 d) 73. If the queue of requests is 80. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 80. 46. Explain how it works. 73. 22. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 73. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 80 c) 73. 5. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 22.3.5. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 48. 17. G. If the queue of requests is 8. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. which is in great demand.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. 147. 73. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. Practice MCQs 1. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. 91. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. numbered 0 to 199. 60.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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but can be expanded with further volumes. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. As an example. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. Tutorial Questions 1. e. 4..g. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2.which function as a slow RAID-1. it can also be done at the operating system level. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. Describe the standard RAID levels. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Discuss the term RAID.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. G. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. 3. In the example.

Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. things can still go wrong.cool. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. A backup is a duplicate of a file. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Disadvantage . • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). It is laborious to restore at a point in time. Operating System Concepts Mrs.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . dry. To restore . Backup all files (main backup). The father then becomes the grandfather. • • • • Grand father. then the entire backup is useless.restore the main backup first. G.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . then changes since (incremental backup). The oldest backup is called the grandfather. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. The following describes the different types of backup.if one change is messed up. Father.save to CD 1 etc. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Restore changes from audit. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . then each incremental backup in the same sequence. father. or destroyed. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. damaged. In order to recover you restore all files.

John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. 4. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. 2. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. Do you backup? If yes. 3. how often do you back up? If not.g. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. 6. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. How did you solve the problem (e. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 .• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Tutorial Questions 1. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. G.

the location of a file is transparent to users. In this scheme. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. mail server. who access remote files in the same way as local files. Discuss the concept of a file server. Tutorial Questions 1. called clients. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 .) 4. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. Discuss the other types of servers (e.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters.g. the open request is channelled to the file server. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. A client does not share any of its resources. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. print server etc. G.Lecture 24 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. but requests a server's content or service function. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. If a user opens a non-local file. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. 3. database server. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients.

• Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. set of physical disk blocks.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. • File name still denotes a specific. etc. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . although hidden. the location of a file. In a networked environment users want to share data files. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. • In a transparent DFS. the system and disk are known. on files. sector>. • Better file abstraction. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. G. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. • File replication means multiple copies of a file.Lecture 25 . it's understood where the file actually resides. Resources on other machines are remote. one-to-many mapping. somewhere in the network. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . When data are requested. Dynamic. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • In a conventional file system.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. • This is a convenient way to share data. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. read.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. A file system provides a service for clients. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. is hidden. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. the data can exist on various file servers on the network.

In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. 3. Research and give examples of various DFSs.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. G.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . • Do NOT support migration. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. Tutorial Questions 1. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. Practice MCQs 1. includes the file’s logical storage location C. 2.

Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers.screen graphics.375 x 101 (1. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. E.375 x 10-3 (1. execute program flow control instructions.375E +1) . A more common use was to control input/output channels. 13. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor.001375 = 1.g. 10 = base/radix. -3 = characteristic or exponent. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. Operating System Concepts Mrs. do input/output operations. and keyboard operations. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. manage memory etc. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. 2.g.375 = mantissa/argument. display . What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer.Lecture 26 .Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks.75 = 1. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. However.375E -3) . Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. G. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. E. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors.3. G. Practice MCQs 1. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. 4. ‘superscalar’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. ‘dual-core’. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 .

number of registers. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.reduced instruction set computer. do not have a microprogramming level.Lecture 27 . Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction.g. however the differences extend further. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. It is actually an interpreter. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. called the micro-program (or firmware). and comparing values. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. This software. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. Some computers. it lists the things that the processor can do. G. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 .g. addressing modes. however. At that time. MOVE. On these machines. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. Until the mid-1980s. This is the normal type of computer. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. doing arithmetic. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. Operating System Concepts Mrs. RISC. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. (More instructions per clock cycle). RISC .complex instruction set computer. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. E. In other words. E.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine.

Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. a PowerPC has 32 registers. For this reason. If the processor has guessed incorrectly.P. Reduced instruction set machines. and begins execution of the corresponding code. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Only load and store instructions access memory . unlike complex instruction set machine. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 .I. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. For example. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction.In the mid 1970s. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. and make them cheaper to manufacture. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. Due to these developments. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Typically. who developed the M. If the processor guessed correctly. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. which would require fewer transistors1. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. and better pipelining. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000.S. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. the results are discarded and there is no loss. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. it has gained time. advanced compilers. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. high-speed caches. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. G. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations .

processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.000. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Without commercial interest. producing faster and cheaper processors . Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. In contrast. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. which makes them cheaper to design and produce.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. In 1977. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). Windows 3. G. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. By 1994. This was largely due to a lack of software support. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. To some extent.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles.

There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. other manufacturers. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. SPARCserver. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. Apple Computer. In the SPARC.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. all instructions are 32-bits in length. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . and Motorola Corporation. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems.5 and higher). including IBM. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. and OS/2. Ultra1. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Apple introduced the Power Mac. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. Since then. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. . G. which appeared in 1994. Windows NT. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit.

If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. In a microprogrammed2 system. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. Pronounced sisk. In contrast to RISC.it costs less than £10. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. which supports fewer instructions. However. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. computers executed instructions sequentially. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. Most personal computers. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. The Amiga. This also improved performance. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. Atari. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. fast code. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. An alternative architecture. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer.design. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). G. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. code size has become a non-issue. In a nutshell. use a CISC architecture. easier implementation of new chips. and stands for complex instruction set computer. At that time. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format.

since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. typically about 8 registers. an example of a complex instruction set computer. while string operations have three or five operands. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. etc. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. which can operate directly on memory. Due to the large number of addressing modes. G. In particular. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location.market factors. In the VAX. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. This is a result of having instructions. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. has the following modes: to/from a register. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. However. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory.according to their byte length. The VAX. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. there are more than 30. to/from a specific location in memory. to/from an address pointed to by a register. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Category Human error – e. Effect Loss of data.g.. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . Theft. Loss of data. Damage to computer due to improper use.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. software. Loss of computer and data. power surges. Loss of files/data. Illegal access to files. Identity theft. theft of marketing information (e. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. adding data twice. hard disk crash. Loss of computer.g. Huge repair bill. low voltage. flood. G.g. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Loss of time. not adequately trained/experienced (e. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. hurricane. pricing data. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. personal history. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. or marketing plans). Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects..g. delete a file by accident. fire. Loss of data. customer lists. young child) Technical error – system failure e. vandalism. information. This can lead to things like software piracy. May need to re-install software. medical information. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Loss of income due to software piracy. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. data. loss of time in having to re-enter data. Loss of sales due to piracy. lightening. or sexual preference). Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. or processing capability. Physical damage to computer. loss of time. entering incorrect data.g. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware.

a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. A computer virus shares some of these traits. Once it is running. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself.it is not alive. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. A biological virus is not a living thing. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. In some cases. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. Unlike a cell. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. as well. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. G. Obviously. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Instead. releasing the virus. as well. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It may be benign or have a negative effect. and the cell remains alive. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . In other cases. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. There are similarities at a deeper level. and then starts replicating from there.

The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. (e. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Virus protection. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Encryption. G. This must be updated regularly.g. Unlike a virus or worm. Zone Alarm). Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. which can cause severe damage to databases. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. McAfee. Authentication. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. Define the term cryptography. so it can be understood. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. called a ciphertext. the correct decryption key is required. Norton Antivirus. hackers). The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Tutorial Questions 1. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning.s of firewalls include: Black Ice.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. Trend Micro-PCcillin). Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. However. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. while authentication is proving it.

What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6.2. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. Discuss various encryption software. John has a password to the human resource system. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. 5.eccouncil. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.org/ 3.

Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. You can set attributes on files e. There is limited or no security. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. Hidden etc. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. and speech recognition. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Linux is a popular. only on the network. like UNIX. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Java. Linux. You can set expiration dates on passwords. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. then he can still see such files. Solaris. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information.SYS and MSDOS. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files.SYS.g. which means its code is available to the public. There are a large number of built-in servers. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. Read. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. G. the Internet.

startup modes. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. Templates include password policies. changing settings). G. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system.read only. There is also secured wireless access. You are able to create multiple user accounts. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. records (views). If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. There is also auditing which records login. file system permissions. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. There is also support for biometric devices. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. Windows XP has increased security. Windows NT has security holes. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. You can set security on admin tasks (e. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. commands. fields. user rights. delete etc. privilege use and system events.g. Software restrictions . file vault and firewall. policy changes. It allows directory access control. service permissions. change. directories/libraries. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. account management. Operating System Concepts Mrs. event log. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. There are also different levels of authority . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy.OS/400 This accepts user id and password.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. lockout policies. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. read/write capability. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. There is also a screen saver password. It also supports encryption. There are audit logs and audit trails. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. This accepts user id and password. virus). MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. most reliable Windows operating system.g. object access.

There is a screen saver password.Windows CE . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . Read. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Write. Netware accepts a userid and password. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. and FileScan (sees filenames). and mobile devices and on handheld computers. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. Modify. G. called the Pocket PC. You can encrypt communication. entertainment. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. Erase. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Create. Tutorial Questions 1.

& Cashman.d.. P.).B.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. 7th E. Abraham. (2007). (3rd Ed. Operating Systems Concepts. T.B. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Modern Operating Systems. G. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Andrew S.J. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Discovering computers 2008. (2006). http://www.com. Gagne. Prentice Hall: USA. Shelly G.: USA. Galvin. (2004).webopedia. G. KY:Course Technology Publishing. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . Tanenbaum. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. Silberschatz..

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