OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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..................................................................................... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................ 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................. 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs..................................................................... 79 LECTURE 17 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ................................................................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................... 80 FIFO ............................................................................................................................................................ 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)..... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................... EXTERNAL.................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......... 75 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................. 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ G........... 78 ADVANTAGES: ...... 79 DISADVANTAGES: .....TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................ 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS .................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ........................................................................... WORST-FIT ........................................................................................................................................................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................. 82 ADVANTAGES ................................................................................. 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ................... 82 DISADVANTAGES .......................................... 74 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) .. 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)..................................................................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS . 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ...................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS .................................... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ......DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ............................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ................................................. 76 LECTURE 16 ................................... 65 LECTURE 13 .............................................. BEST-FIT........................................... 72 PARTITIONS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT............................ 65 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................ 81 LECTURE 18 ......................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ..............................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ............................. 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL....................................................................... 75 LECTURE 15 ............. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ..........................

................. 95 RAID LEVELS .......................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .............................................................. 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ................................................................. G....................................................................................................................................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ......................................................... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................... 100 LECTURE 24 ..............................................................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ........................................ 92 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................. 93 LOOK and C-LOOK .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ...........................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ................ 86 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................THRASHING.................................................................................................. 99 GRAND FATHER.................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 LECTURE 21 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) .......................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ..................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................ 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................... 88 INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 89 DISK CACHING ........................................ 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................ 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ........................................................................................................................................ 87 LECTURE 20 .......................... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................ 93 First come first served (FCFS) . 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ................................................ 94 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................. 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs..... 103 PRACTICE MCQS ............................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............ 88 BLOCKS ............................................................................................................................................ 101 LECTURE 25 ............. 83 PRACTICE MCQS ................. FATHER.................................................................................................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ....... 99 BACKUP TIPS ................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING ............................. 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..........................................................................................................................

..................................................................................... 117 Authentication .................................................................................. 116 Virus .......... 120 Novell Netware ....................................... FIREWALL ..... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................. 117 Firewall................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ............ 110 Advantages of CISC ... 108 Examples of RISC Processors............................................................................................................................................................................ 106 Advantages of RISC ................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY................................................................................................................................................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips .......................................................................................................................................................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................................................................. 116 Denial-of-service.. 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 117 Encryption .................................................................. 119 UNIX................................................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ................................................... 116 Logic bomb ........................................ 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION .. 105 LECTURE 27 ................................................................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)..................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION.............. 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 104 ADVANTAGES ........................................................................................................................... 116 Worm ..................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109 CISC ............................................................................................................ 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ........................... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................... 117 Virus protection............................................................................................................................................................................. 104 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/2 ...................................................................................... 107 Disadvantages of RISC............................... 119 MS-DOS.... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................... ENCRYPTION.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) .............................................................. 116 Trojan Horse ........................................................................ 113 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/400 ........... 120 Microsoft Windows .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 118 CASE STUDIES ..... 120 MacOS ........ G................................................................................... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ................................................................... 112 CRISC............................................................................................................................................................. 104 DISADVANTAGES ......................................

................................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ............. G.. 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs..........................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................. 121 REFERENCES ...

5. device and memory management. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. G. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. virtual memory. manipulate operating systems 4. 3. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. interrupt handling.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. students should: 1. process scheduling. students should be able to: 1. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . 2.

c.Content: 1. Resource Allocation. g. Protection and Security. h. b. File-system manipulation. 5. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. f. students should be able to: 1. Software and Firmware: a. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . e. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. d. Application Software c. System Software b. Program execution. User Interface. File Concepts – File Attributes. Two-level. Spooling). 3. The history and development of the operating system. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. System Startup. Directory Systems – Single-level. students should be able to: a. 2. File Operations 2. b. Communications. Define operating system. Tree-Structured. Operating Systems Functions: a. I/O – (Buffering. 4. Introduction: a. Storage. Error Detection 3. 2.

j. b. Scheduler. 6. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Shortest Job First 5. Time Sharing 2. 2. limit register Logical vs. 4. 3. 5. students should be able to: 1. Scheduling criteria 4. Round Robin. 8. 8. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. 6. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. best-fit. Priority. Shortest Remaining Time. 4. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Dispatcher 3. a. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. G. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 7. 5. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal.i. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. 7. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Multiprogramming. 3. Preemptive scheduling. 2.

define page 3. students should be able to: 1. frames. Demand paging 5. Pure paging – pages. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. MFU f. LRU d. 4. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. address translation 3. students should be able to: 1. FIFO b. 3.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Optimal replacement c. address structure. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. explain disk caching 7. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. 2. Allocation algorithms 4. address translation 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . Virtual address space 2. explain the purpose of the page table 5. explain segmentation 9. explain thrashing Content: 1. 5. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. define frame 4. Segmentation – segment table. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Page replacement a. page table. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. G. LFU e.

incremental backup. 3. Distributed file systems – naming. 3. location transparency. 2. File server systems – client-server computing 3. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. write. C-SCAN 6. 4. G. SSTF. 4. 3. log-structured systems 2. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . seek time rotational latency 5. Disk scheduling – FCFS.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. students should be able to: 1. 2. LOOK. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. 5. 5. 4. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. SCAN. students should be able to: 1. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. Disk caching 7. RAID 1. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. positioning time.

NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs.1. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. Apple Macintosh. students should be able to: 1. G. Virus protection. 2. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. RISC / CISC – development. 3. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. OS/2. Galvin. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . worm. & Gagne. Internal Tests 20% 3. Operating systems concepts. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. 5. Encryption.B. Common Coursework 20% 2. UNIX. advantage. define security 2. Denial-of-service Authentication. logic bomb. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. virus. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. 3. A. 2. G. (8th ed). 4. (2008). 4. P..

(2005).(6th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. W.Recommended: Tanenbaum. G. A. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. W. (2007). An introduction to operating systems. Operating System Concepts Mrs.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 .). NJ: Prentice Hall. (1999). Modern operating systems (3rd ed.S.

We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. When you purchase a new computer.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7.database systems. do our budget etc. it typically has an operating system already installed. As new versions of the operating system are released. These are all examples of operating systems. business programs. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . play a game. I/O devices etc. Linux. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. is to make the computer convenient to use. Its primary goal therefore. surf the internet. Unix. other computers etc. DOS. word processors. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system.people. video games. memory. spreadsheets etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . • users . Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. We do not use the computer because of these software. We use the computer because we want to type a document. machines. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. MacOS.CPU. G.

An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure.By itself. filing system.x. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. computers. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. OS/2 Warp Client. and Linux. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources.g.g. data management (control of I/O devices. and Linux. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. NT Workstation. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Windows XP. notebook computer. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. 95. 3. block) and job control. Operating System Concepts Mrs. command language. ME). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . UNIX. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. storage management. UNIX. track. or mobile computing device. G. 98. Mac OS X. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. 2000 Server). Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. 200 Professional. so no need to know which sector. Network and Embedded. and other devices to and from the network.

NET. An operating system is a program that a. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. 2. 10. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Palm OS.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. G. research its new features and comment on them.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . what does this mean? 9. airline reservation system. Pocket PC 2002. 4. Controls the user c. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. 6. • Time sharing . However. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. Is controlled by application software d. all the terminals are connected to the same program. 8.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. 3. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE .a multi-user system that combines batch processing.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. 5. Practice MCQs 1.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. and Symbian OS. If no. 7. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . • Transaction processing . Tutorial Questions 1. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. Define operating system. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11.g. E. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Gives instructions to the hardware b. • Foreground background . in order to improve CPU utilization. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. • General Purpose . comment on its new features. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven.

Operating System D. Select the correct sequence a. Segment b. User. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . application software. A. application software. hardware. Hardware. system software. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. User. Superstructure c. Fence d. Hardware B. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. system software. Executive 4. system software b. hardware c. system software 3. hardware.2. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. application software d. User. G. Application programs C. application software. user.

The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. G. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. which would transfer control to a program. determine why the program stopped. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. he would unload tapes.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. as soon as one job was finished. Initially when the computer was turned on. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem.66 per hour). Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. In those days machines were slow. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . which would then go on to the next program. when a job stopped. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. (E. There were still problems however. when the program terminated. I/O devices were slow. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. the CPU sat idle. it would return control to the resident monitor. the operator was slow. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. This monitor is always resident in memory. that is. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. would run each batch. These changes. improved utilization quite a bit. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). an operator could start the next job.g. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer.. When a job was done. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. the operator . Programmers would leave their programs with the operators.g. In the early days machines were hand operated. mounting magnetic tapes etc. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. E.

was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services.e. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. Multics. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. however. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. Only the device driver must be changed. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. WYLBUR. By 1970 multiprocessing. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. G. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . In addition. high level user oriented programming languages. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. The trend today. (i. MUSIC/SP. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. read data from tape and not from card). Historically. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. Michigan Terminal System. Some operating systems still are device dependent. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation.

The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE.0 Windows NT 3.0) AIX 1.0 SunOS 3. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. G. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0 OS/2 (1.0 Mac OS (System 1.

1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 .0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1.10 Mac OS X v 10.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. 3. Describe the historical development of operating systems. 4. 5.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 2. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.6 Windows NT 4.2 FreeBSD 8. G. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. 6.

Second Generation C. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. G.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. First Generation B. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. Third Generation D.

Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. G. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. This is done on a network. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. the operating system may use virtual memory. or multiprocessing. Finally. which manages memory and devices. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Managing programs refers to how many users. multiuser. single user/multitasking. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. the operating system loads configuration information.Lecture 2 . which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. If the POST completes successfully. and loads them into memory from storage. and displays the desktop. and how many programs. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. If memory is insufficient. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . requests any necessary user information. an operating system can support at one time. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. When a user turns on a computer. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions.

buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. move files. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . menu-driven interface. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. grammar and punctuation. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A job is an operation the processor manages. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. give a user more control over setting details. generate an error message. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. Command-line interfaces however. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. delete files and create folders. G. and graphical user interface. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. As in a restaurant. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. Minor errors such as a missing full stop.

It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. Disk systems eliminated that problem. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. Requests for card reader input. G. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. is satisfied by reading from the disk. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. The CPU can then move on to do other things. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. In disk systems. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on.

Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. or recover from one. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. the operating system may take resources from a job (i.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. Deadlock prevention .Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.e. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. either normally or abnormally. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3.g. 1.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. To prevent deadlock.must hold for non sharable resources (e. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. G. Pre-emption of resources. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. Example:. mutual exclusion . the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. the operating system must provide some means to do so. Hold and wait . The program must be able to end its execution. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . terminate process). (a read only file is sharable) 2.

each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. jam in the card reader etc.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. 4. 3. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. State three (3) functions of an operating system. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1.of resources that have already been allocated. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. With the aid of a diagram. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. 2. 6. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. Tutorial Questions 1. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. memory. 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . Describe the conditions for deadlock.each process can request resources only in increasing order). No pre-emption (No taking away) . How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. To reconcile conflicting demands.3. 5. Errors may occur in the CPU. Circular wait . G.

What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. RAM B. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Paging C. G. cache D. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . A. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. A. Scheduling 5.d) Record management 3. Spooling B. Thrashing D. buffer C.

create graphs. when to do it. McAfee. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. draw pictures. E. There are two types of software: system software and application software. As mentioned before. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. DOS etc.g. Scandisk. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it.Lecture 3 .g. spreadsheet. E. G. Trend Micro PC-cillin. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. E. Examples include: accounting. WinRAR. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. OS/2. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. do our accounting. enter data into a database. E. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer.g. detects. MSBACKUP. removes viruses from a computer system. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Linux. database management. banking. WinZip. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. Unix. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.g. Norton disk doctor. word processing. Quickview in Windows. graphics. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. play games etc. E. PKZIP. E. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices.g. we use the computer to type documents. Norton Anti-virus. AVG etc.g.

E. Corel Draw.g. C++. Quattro Pro. Monopoly. editing. formulas. print. text in each cell. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. Microsoft Excel. User can enter numbers.• Word-processing Allow easy creation.g. footnotes. Network Operating Systems (NOS). AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. Visi-Calc. table of contents. printing of documents. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. Page Maker. page number. fieldsize. justify.g. Oracle.g. Web Browsers. Visual Basic. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database.g. E. instructions. WordPerfect. which means that they will run on different computers. Combine word processing and graphics packages. margins. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. E. Outlook (Email). newsletters. E. posters. E. Microsoft Word. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. However. COBOL etc. underline. WordPad. font size and type. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Lotus 1-2-3. Features include:. E. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. Foxpro. mail merge. save. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. correction. Field. Pascal. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Windows Media Player. Netscape Navigator. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications.g. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. • Entertainment software These software include games. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger .a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells.Bold. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. Dbase. Symphony.g. spell check. Foxpro. fieldtype. Outlook Express. Operating System Concepts Mrs. C. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. etc. Solitaire etc. E. Wordstar. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. E.g. Chess. query. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. keys. Can sort.

3.g. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware.g. printer port. keyboard.e.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. Corel Wordperfect Suite.g. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. Microsoft Office. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. This is software embedded in hardware. For mainframes etc. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. 2. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. Give examples of the type chosen. E. Lotus Smartsuite. E. memory. Tutorial Questions 1. cd-rom drive. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. diskette drive. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data.g. E. hard-coded in the hardware). b) A teacher calculating student grades. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. How does a word processor (e. mouse. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. hard disk. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. sector 0 of boot disk. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware.g. location 0.monitor. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Differentiate between system software and application software. G. Open Office. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs.

How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. Defrag 2.4. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Application software B. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. Restore c. System software C. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. A. 7. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Anti-virus d. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. Utilities D. 8. G. Scandisk b. 6. 5. Research the various web browsers.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk defragmenter D. Disk defragmenter B. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Diagnostic utility D. Diagnostic 9.7. G. A. Disk cleanup B. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. Disk scanner C. A. Disk scanner C.

ini. It is mapped onto a physical device. io. It is a characteristic of a file.TXT source file . The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. COM graphics files . execute • Ownership – who owns the file. records.Lecture 4 . It is a sequence of bits. its length etc. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. In MS-DOS. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. write. archive. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. BMP. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. A file is named and is referred to by its name. last modified. system. hidden. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. DBF etc.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. In other words. compressed.sys. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. date and time of creation. Common File types:text file .sys. but not changed. A file is a collection of related information. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. the file. msdos. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. TIF database file – MDB. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. Examples include read-only.JPG. It has other properties such as its type. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. "writing" to the file is disabled. It is a logical storage unit. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . bytes. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. A read-only file can be viewed. Read-only files can be deleted and moved.

Return error code if not. write to the file. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. Any file can be marked as Hidden. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. The archive attribute is used for backup. delete the file • edit/modify the file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 .sys. compression isn't usually recommended. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. read from the file.sys. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. This way. the archive attribute is turned off. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. io. When finished with a file Close it.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on.sys and boot. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. Open a file Check permissions. rewind the file. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. G. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. ntdetect. rename a file etc. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other.com and ntldr. display).sys. however. However. Before you can use a file you must Open it. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. 2. 1. copy file to an I/O device (printer. io. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos.ini. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on.

Reading a file (open as input) specify name. Describe five file operations. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 3. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. G. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. bmp). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. 4. Describe five file attributes. 3. doc. Practice MCQs 1. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 2. Describe the type of file. then the write pointer is updated.Find space on the file system. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. exe. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. jpg. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. com. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. 5. Append Writes information to the end of the file. 4. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file.g. system searches directory to find location of file. 2. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file.

G. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Name B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 .b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Truncated D. Identifier C.

The device directory records information such as name. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. A file can be on more than 1 disk.Lecture 5 . These are all directory operations. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. not physical. location. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. size and type for all files on that device.g. but it suffers from some inefficiency. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. This allows the file to be easily located. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user.400 feet). creation date. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. 2. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . G. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. To handle this problem. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. The advantage of this approach is simplicity.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. Studies showed that most files were small.

grouping and other operations such as deleting. This isolates one user from another. It is easy to support and understand. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). G. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. In normal use.the simplest directory structure. Windows. UNIX. to a specified file. system files and grouping files. A file name is prefixed by user name. each user has a current directory. DOS. This structure is efficient for searching. Tree. Every file has a unique path name. All files are in the same directory. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users.Single level . When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Users may also create their own subdirectories. All files must have unique names.structures . Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory.e. The tree has a root directory.

e. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is not the same as two copies. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . can be access through more than one path). The following is an example using Unix. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. NB.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . The same file may be in two different directories (i. Note that files have multiple path names. G.

Practice MCQs 1. 4. HPFS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. NTFS). Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. G. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. Research the General-Graph directory. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3.

). Normally the CPU would sit idle. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 .g. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. a tape. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. This is also called concurrent processing. the current instruction. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. another job can be using the CPU. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. file pointers. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. keyboard input etc. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs.e. for an I/O device). addresses etc. (i. G.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. variables.Lecture 6 . normally the CPU would sit idle. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job.

What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. memory management information. 3. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. CPU scheduling information. program counter. In other words. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. New B.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. Running C. Tutorial Questions 1. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. Describe the operation of the PCB. The location of current instructions. information associated with each process. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. values in variables. G. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). accounting information. CPU registers. Practice MCQs 1. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. file pointers etc. Differentiate between a process and a program. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . and I/O status information. Waiting D.

Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. and giving processor time to another process. however.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. tape. Time-sharing. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. or network input could be granted to other users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. G. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Tutorial Questions 1. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Similarly. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. regardless of the number of users. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

. . An example is shown in the diagram below. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . . Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .Lecture 7 . . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. The following defines various scheduling concepts. Operating System Concepts Mrs. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. criteria. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait.Scheduling concepts. The programs therefore have to be scheduled. G.

switches from wait state to ready or iv. G. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. it therefore must be very fast. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). Pre-emptive scheduling . Short term scheduler C.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst.Some systems introduce an additional. intermediate level of scheduling. 3.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. This scheme is called swapping. Dispatcher . Tutorial Questions 1. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. 6. A. switches from an active to wait state or ii. 5. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . Long term scheduler B.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. This involves a) switching context. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. 4. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Medium term scheduler D. Medium Term Scheduler . 2. Non pre-emptive scheduling . terminates. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .

• throughput . CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. response time D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . turnaround time B. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . Tutorial Questions 1.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. waiting time C. Describe the various scheduling criteria.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . G. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.how busy you keep CPU. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. Practice MCQs 1.time from submission of request until the first response is produced.

For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. P3. G. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. P3. P1. for P3 = 3. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . P2. for P2 = 0. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2.

Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 .P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. number of open files etc. • externally . No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue.g. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once.g. 100 msec). If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. A priority number is associated with each job. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. memory requirements. G. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. This process is called aging. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.by a person (e. system administrator).

These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements.g. generally based on some property of the job. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. such as memory size or job type. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. Tutorial Questions 1. In other words.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. E. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Campbell 51 . G. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. In addition. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. SJF iii. 3. FCFS ii. G. SJF. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Priority. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. Priority iv. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. 4. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs.

Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Fragmentation D. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. G. Aging B. First come first served C. Priority scheduling D. Shortest job first B. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Round robin scheduling 10.d) CPU scheduler 4. Starvation C.

This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Any processor can run any type of thread. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. alleviating the need for data sharing. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. all running at the same time. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. independent executable components of applications) of execution. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the whole computer can go down. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use.Lecture 8. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. For this reason. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 .Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. As a result. The main difference is in how the processors operate. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. SMP is more complex than ASMP. one thread for each processor in the computer. G. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory.

• Heterogenous system (different processors – e. A. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. Multiprogramming 2. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. 6. Parallel processor C. A. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous.g. multiprocessing C. Coprocessor B. multiuser D. multitasking B. Multithreading D. 1 AMD. 5. 3. A. Multitasking D. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Multiprogramming B. 3 Pentium II. 4. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . G. multiprogramming 3. Multiprocessing C. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. In parallel processing. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. 2.

4. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprocessing D. symmetric multiprocessing C. G.

G. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas.Lecture 9 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . 2.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. we must share memory. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. 2. 4. though the code. 3. Research the MMU or PMMU. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. data. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. If we must keep several processes in memory. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. Memory mapping . stack and system data. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. Tutorial Questions 1. it still should not matter.

All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.Practice MCQs 1. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .

Compare and contrast them. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. 4. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Describe the different types of cache.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. The higher levels are expensive. expensive. with a small amount of very fast. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. the contents of the accessed location. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. but very fast. which can be organized in a hierarchy. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. 5. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Operating System Concepts Mrs. non-volatile disk storage. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. some medium speed. G. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. cheap. 2. When a memory access is made. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. If another reference is made to this location. volatile cache memory. Describe the different types of RAM. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache.

Registers C. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. register. register. Main memory D. Magnetic Disk B. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4.Practice MCQs 1. Cache D. G. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. Electronic Disk C. hard disk c) Register. RAM. RAM. RAM. cache b) Cache. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . cache. cache 3. hard disk d) Hard disk. RAM. register. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. a) Hard disk. Cache B. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Main Memory 6.

is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. In other words. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers.Basic memory hardware – base register. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. In general. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. and several specialized registers including a base register. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . stack register. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. stack. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. Types of registers As previously stated. and flags. or RAM.Lecture 10 . The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. For example. G. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. high-speed storage area within the CPU. In high-level languages. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). these include a program counter. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. It is a special. Therefore. program counter. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. Memory. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. and even to programmers. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Usually. flags register. and some addressing registers.

A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. and the number of words available to that segment. in which case it is a bounds register). G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Discuss the other types of registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. the so-called base. Tutorial Questions 1.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program.

logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. but the first address beyond the fence. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware.Logical vs.Lecture 11 . It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. the first address of the user program is not 00000. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The fence register is a type of bounds register. Consider the segment table. G. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. The logical address space is used by user programs. b) placed in a fence register.

a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 10 1. G. 430 2. 400 4. 11 0. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 500 3.

Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. it is possible to experience too much swapping. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. running it for a while. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). Tutorial Questions 1. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Practice MCQs 1. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. 2. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. the system may actually do no useful work. Operating System Concepts Mrs. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. excessive paging is not desirable. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Describe the concept of swapping. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. G. Swapping maximizes available memory. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. In extreme cases.

G. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling B.then putting it back on the disk. A. Paging C. Swapping D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 .

This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. best fit. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. worst fit. If the file to be created is n blocks long. If too little space is allocated. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. linked. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. indexed. we can immediately access block b + n. For sequential access. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. many files will be stored on the same disk. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. This solves the fragmentation problem. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. Compaction . Overestimating the file size also wastes space. Accessing a file. To read a file.Lecture 13 . Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. G. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. since all blocks are linked together. then the file cannot be extended/made larger.

we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. It also does not suffer from wasted space. Tutorial Questions 1. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. needs to work with certain files. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. It is never necessary to compact disk space. added at the end. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. G. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. removed from the start. a programmer. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. 4. In order to conserve on space. John Brown. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. The directory contains the address of the index block. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. which is an array of disk block addresses. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. 3. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. To read the nth block. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. 5. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. added in the middle. Mr. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. To find the nth block of a file. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. removed from the middle. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. Another problem is reliability. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner.is created. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. the partition sizes are set and do not change. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Each region may have one program to be executed. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 .Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. This however comes with a lot of overhead. No space is wasted initially. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. Partition sizes vary dynamically. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. Operating System Concepts Mrs. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). However. When a region is free. In variable partition multi-programming. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. G.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Multiple and fixed B. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. Single and multiple D. G.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Fixed and variable C.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). G. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. 2. the extra space wasted.Fragmentation – internal. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block.

These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. which functions as additional memory.g. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. Practice MCQs 1. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Register C. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . Memory management procedures such as paging.Lecture 15 . Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. What is virtual memory? 2. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. A. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Cache B. 1) code to handle errors. segmentation. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. List the various virtual memory strategies. G. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. partitioning. Virtual memory D. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. E. 2) arrays lists.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. usually the hard disk.

1). G.(page size . but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. VA is determined from the compiled address.A virtual address is represented as <page. Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. the offset is a number in the range 0 . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. G. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. a file is made up of 4 pages. which also holds other programs. This is done by a hardware component. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. in the following diagram.g. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. containing only this one program. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions.Lecture 16 . a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. (E. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address).Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. the other is in memory location 4. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. sometimes called a memory management unit. For example. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. The first page is in memory location 1. Novell Netware . If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. The page table organizes the pages. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming.page size is 4K blocks by default). They are therefore scattered in memory. In reality. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address.

Explain the concept of a page table. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Describe paging. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss PTBR and TLB. 3. 4. Differentiate between a page and a page frame.

In other words.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. This is hardware and overhead intensive.Lecture 17 . This does not suffer from the anomaly. LRU. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. the page that has been used the least so far. NB. which may be difficult. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. This has the lowest page fault rate. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. the page that has already been used the most.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. Optimal replacement. Locked pages cannot be replaced. The algorithms are FIFO. G. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. LFU. In other words. MFU. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. This method never suffers from the anomaly. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives.

3. A. LFU. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 3.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 4. What page would be replaced next using MFU. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. Counting based page replacement D. 8. 4. LRU? 2. What is a page fault? 5. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 1. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 5. Least recently used page replacement C. Least recently used B. 5. 4. Practice MCQs 1. 2. 2. Least regularly used C. 2. 9. 8. G. 4. 7. 9. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 5. FIFO. 6. 2. LRU? 3. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 8. 2. 3. 8. 5. FIFO. 9. 8. 3. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. LFU. Likely regularly used D. 9. LRU stands for: A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 3. Optimal page replacement B.

Less loading latency occurs at program startup. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. or you can load in the page when required. G. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Therefore. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. Advantages Demand paging. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. As there is more space in main memory. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. This is known as demand paging.Lecture 18 . as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process.

A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Possible security risks. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. G. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems.• Programs running on low-cost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1.

Buffering C. 25 9. A. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. Spooling D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 23 D. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Thrashing B. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. Belady’s anomaly C. 3 670 bytes D. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 3 648 bytes 10.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. Paging B. 8. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. G. 4 096 bytes C. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. 40 B. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. 26 C. 4 000 bytes B. How many pages does it need? A. Frame allocation D.

so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. offset) = (s. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. A segment table is maintained for each process. Given a logical address (segment.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. G. they use segmentation. which are of fixed size. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. Instead.d).

segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. offset>. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. 2. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. 4. ii. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. G. Tutorial Questions 1. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). 7. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1.8. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. G. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500.

but the data can be read immediately. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. Block . RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. 2. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks.another name for main storage. numbered from 0. (i. A block on a disk is the sector. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. size and speed. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. G. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. RAM and Optical disks RAM . Disk capacity therefore doubled. To improve the performance of a disk. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1.random access memory .e. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. so that the location is known.Lecture 20 . Tutorial Questions 1.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. each one with its own address. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. Each location has a 0 or 1.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks).

RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. DVD R+. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. How do they differ from other disks? 2. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. E. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. read many) EO (erasable optical) . Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk.g. What is the difference between DVD R. palm tops. It is small hardware memory . How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . Tutorial Questions 1.read only memory) . if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. Discuss RAM disks. This does not provide permanent storage. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. DVD R-? 3.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. They are used to store both video and audio files. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. calculators.sometimes called associative registers. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future.

Tutorial Questions 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . Describe disk caching. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. G.

the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track.Lecture 21 . The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. Head crash . sector etc.g. is this an input or output operation? 2. due to power-cut). cylinder. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 .) 3. The coating however will wear after enough use. surface. memory address 4. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. To improve the performance of a disk. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. the disk address (drive. G. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data.

Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Other definitions • Positioning time . • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. G. This is also known as transfer rate. Tutorial Questions 1.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written.

For example. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. G. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. It however may cause starvation of some requests. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. servicing requests as it reaches each track. until it gets to other end of disk. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. In other words. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. in alternating directions. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. otherwise the request will be queued. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. satisfying requests. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . For example. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. At the other end it reverses direction.

Tutorial Questions 1. 22. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 48. If the queue of requests is 8. numbered 0 to 199. 46.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 5. Practice MCQs 1. 73. 22. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 91. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 80. 17. 46. 60. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 35. 46. 73. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 80. 80 b) 46. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. and where to commence the next sweep. 22. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. G. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 80 c) 73. Explain how it works. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 73. 46 d) 73. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 147. If the queue of requests is 80. 2. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one.3.5. which is in great demand. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations.which function as a slow RAID-1. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. 3. it can also be done at the operating system level. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Tutorial Questions 1.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. but can be expanded with further volumes. 4. G.. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. As an example. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. firmware or by using firmware and specialized.g. Describe the standard RAID levels. Discuss the term RAID. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Operating System Concepts Mrs. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . e. In the example. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller.

save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 .save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. Disadvantage . The following describes the different types of backup. The father then becomes the grandfather. In order to recover you restore all files. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. then changes since (incremental backup).restore the main backup first. then the entire backup is useless. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . or destroyed. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Father. • • • • Grand father.if one change is messed up. things can still go wrong.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. Restore changes from audit. or disk that can be used if the original is lost.save to CD 1 etc. father. To restore . • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). dry. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. damaged. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. A backup is a duplicate of a file. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. G.cool. Backup all files (main backup).Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup.

Do you backup? If yes. Tutorial Questions 1. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. 4. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. How did you solve the problem (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . how often do you back up? If not. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. 2. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. 3.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. G. Practice MCQs 1. 6. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. Did you have to type everything over)? 5.g. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives.

Discuss the other types of servers (e. If a user opens a non-local file. Tutorial Questions 1. but requests a server's content or service function. called clients. the open request is channelled to the file server. the location of a file is transparent to users. In this scheme. Operating System Concepts Mrs. database server.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters.g. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. A file server is usually not performing any calculations.Lecture 24 . and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . G. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. print server etc. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. mail server. who access remote files in the same way as local files. 3. Discuss the concept of a file server. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. where the clients are the workstations using the storage.) 4. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. A client does not share any of its resources. All shared files reside at this single centralized site.

• Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. somewhere in the network. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. it's understood where the file actually resides. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . • This is a convenient way to share data. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. on files. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. • In a conventional file system. sector>. the location of a file. is hidden. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. read.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. etc. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. although hidden.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. G. When data are requested. Dynamic. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. • File name still denotes a specific. In a networked environment users want to share data files. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. • Better file abstraction. set of physical disk blocks. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Resources on other machines are remote. A file system provides a service for clients.Lecture 25 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. the system and disk are known.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. one-to-many mapping. • In a transparent DFS.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. 3. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. includes the file’s logical storage location C. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . 2. • Do NOT support migration. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. reveals the file’s physical storage location B.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. Practice MCQs 1. G. Tutorial Questions 1. Research and give examples of various DFSs.

10 = base/radix. E. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.375E +1) . However. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. manage memory etc. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. A more common use was to control input/output channels. G. E. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole.75 = 1.g. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. execute program flow control instructions.375 x 101 (1.375 = mantissa/argument.375E -3) . Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . and keyboard operations. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. do input/output operations. -3 = characteristic or exponent.001375 = 1.Lecture 26 . the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. 13.g. display . What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory.375 x 10-3 (1. coprocessors can accelerate system performance.screen graphics.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. ‘dual-core’. G.3. ‘superscalar’. 4. Practice MCQs 1. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 .

E. called the micro-program (or firmware). however. At that time. On these machines. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. Operating System Concepts Mrs. number of registers. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. G. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. RISC . It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. E.g.reduced instruction set computer. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. Some computers. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. Until the mid-1980s. do not have a microprogramming level. (More instructions per clock cycle). This software. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. It is actually an interpreter. RISC. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. In other words. and comparing values. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD.Lecture 27 . doing arithmetic.complex instruction set computer. however the differences extend further.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. it lists the things that the processor can do. addressing modes. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. MOVE. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.g. This is the normal type of computer. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time.

S.I. a PowerPC has 32 registers. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. who developed the M. advanced compilers. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. Typically. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. and make them cheaper to manufacture. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. it has gained time. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this.P. and better pipelining. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. the results are discarded and there is no loss. which would require fewer transistors1. Reduced instruction set machines. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. unlike complex instruction set machine. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . For this reason.In the mid 1970s. If the processor guessed correctly. high-speed caches. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. Only load and store instructions access memory . most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. G. For example. Due to these developments. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. and begins execution of the corresponding code. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used.

the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. This was largely due to a lack of software support. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world.000. producing faster and cheaper processors . Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. To some extent. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. G. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. In 1977.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. Without commercial interest. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. In contrast. By 1994. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. Windows 3. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation).

Apple Computer. Since then. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. SPARCserver. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. and OS/2. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. . including the Macintosh operating system (System 7.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. Ultra1. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. and Motorola Corporation. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. Apple introduced the Power Mac. including IBM. which appeared in 1994. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. G. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. In the SPARC. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. other manufacturers. all instructions are 32-bits in length. Windows NT.5 and higher). Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International.

Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. fast code. However. Atari. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions.it costs less than £10. use a CISC architecture. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. code size has become a non-issue. This also improved performance. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers.design. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. In contrast to RISC. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. The Amiga. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. G. In a microprogrammed2 system. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. Pronounced sisk. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). and stands for complex instruction set computer. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. which supports fewer instructions. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. computers executed instructions sequentially. easier implementation of new chips. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. An alternative architecture. In a nutshell. Most personal computers. At that time. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor.

G. However. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. while string operations have three or five operands. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. there are more than 30. which can operate directly on memory. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location.according to their byte length. Due to the large number of addressing modes. to/from an address pointed to by a register. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. typically about 8 registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . In the VAX. to/from a specific location in memory. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. In particular. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins.market factors. an example of a complex instruction set computer. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. The VAX. etc. has the following modes: to/from a register. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. This is a result of having instructions.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Also leads to theft of intellectual property. Theft. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. information. not adequately trained/experienced (e. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. or sexual preference). Employees do things to deliberately modify the data.g. Identity theft. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. low voltage.g. lightening. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects.g. young child) Technical error – system failure e. Illegal access to files. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. software.g. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. May need to re-install software. pricing data. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. Loss of data. entering incorrect data. medical information. Loss of computer and data. fire. hurricane. loss of time. loss of time in having to re-enter data. hard disk crash. or marketing plans). customer lists. personal history. This can lead to things like software piracy. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. adding data twice. Category Human error – e. power surges. Effect Loss of data. delete a file by accident. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. or processing capability. Loss of computer. Loss of files/data. Loss of data. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Damage to computer due to improper use.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. G. Physical damage to computer. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . flood..g. Loss of sales due to piracy.. Huge repair bill. vandalism. data. Loss of income due to software piracy. theft of marketing information (e. Loss of time.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself.it is not alive. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. Instead. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. A computer virus shares some of these traits. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. releasing the virus. G. A biological virus is not a living thing. It may be benign or have a negative effect. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. as well. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. Obviously. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Unlike a cell. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. and then starts replicating from there. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. Once it is running. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. as well. In other cases. and the cell remains alive. In some cases. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. There are similarities at a deeper level.

In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. called a ciphertext. which can cause severe damage to databases. the correct decryption key is required. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Unlike a virus or worm. Encryption. Trend Micro-PCcillin). A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. However. Tutorial Questions 1. while authentication is proving it. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. McAfee. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. Define the term cryptography. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. Zone Alarm). Virus protection. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). G. so it can be understood. This must be updated regularly. Operating System Concepts Mrs.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. hackers). Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Norton Antivirus. Virus protection Antivirus software (e.g. Authentication. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 .Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system.g. (e. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism.

John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. He is able to view all employee data except salary.eccouncil. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 .2. Discuss various encryption software. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. G. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. 5.org/ 3. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. John has a password to the human resource system. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www.

multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. Hidden etc. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 .g. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. then he can still see such files.SYS. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. and speech recognition. There is limited or no security. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. You can set attributes on files e. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. which means its code is available to the public. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Linux is a popular.SYS and MSDOS. There are a large number of built-in servers. Java. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. only on the network. Solaris. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Read. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. Linux. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. G. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. like UNIX.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. You can set expiration dates on passwords. the Internet.

Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. It allows directory access control. lockout policies.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. Templates include password policies. commands. change. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). Operating System Concepts Mrs. virus). providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. read/write capability. There are also different levels of authority . Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. There is also secured wireless access. You can set security on admin tasks (e. directories/libraries. There is also auditing which records login. file system permissions. records (views). This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. privilege use and system events.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e.g. There is also a screen saver password.g. You are able to create multiple user accounts. Software restrictions . You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system.read only. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. Windows XP has increased security. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. object access. There are audit logs and audit trails. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. This accepts user id and password. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. fields. delete etc. account management. Windows NT has security holes. startup modes. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. G. service permissions. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. most reliable Windows operating system. event log. changing settings). policy changes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . Authority levels can be set on files/objects. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. file vault and firewall. It also supports encryption. user rights. There is also support for biometric devices. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature.

The rights that can be set include: Superviros. entertainment.Windows CE . There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. There is a screen saver password. Modify. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. You can encrypt communication. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Erase. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. called the Pocket PC. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . and FileScan (sees filenames). What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Read. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. Netware accepts a userid and password. Create. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Tutorial Questions 1. Write. and mobile devices and on handheld computers.

Andrew S.d.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. (2006). Gagne.. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. KY:Course Technology Publishing.B. (3rd Ed.com. http://www. Shelly G.J. T. Prentice Hall: USA. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Discovering computers 2008. & Cashman.). (2007).. Tanenbaum. (2004). Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Silberschatz.webopedia. Operating Systems Concepts. P. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Modern Operating Systems. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs.B. G. Abraham. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . 7th E.: USA. Galvin.

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