OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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................................................................................................................................................. 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT..................... WORST-FIT ............................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ................. 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ......... 79 DISADVANTAGES: ..................................................................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL.............. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)...................................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ... 79 LECTURE 17 ............................................................................................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ................................. 75 LECTURE 15 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS ......................................................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................... BEST-FIT............................................................................................................................................................................................... EXTERNAL.. 68 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......... 65 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ...................................................................................... 72 PARTITIONS................................................................................................. G..................................................................................... 65 LECTURE 13 ......................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ..................................................................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ............................ 78 ADVANTAGES: .................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 PRACTICE MCQS .....................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ............................................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)....................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ...................... 80 FIFO ............................................. 74 PRACTICE MCQS ...... 82 DISADVANTAGES ..... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ......................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................. 81 LECTURE 18 ............... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ...................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................... 76 LECTURE 16 .....................

.......................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .................................. 95 RAID LEVELS ............................................................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ...................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS .................................................................................................................. 87 LECTURE 20 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 BLOCKS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 93 First come first served (FCFS) ............................................................ 83 PRACTICE MCQS ....THRASHING........................... 90 LECTURE 21 ................................................................................................................................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) .... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ............................................ 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................................................ 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) .............................................................................................................. 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ...................................................... 100 LECTURE 24 ........................................................ 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE .... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) .................... G............................................................................................................................................................................................ 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ................................................................................................................. 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ................................................................................. 88 INTRODUCTION ..FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .............. 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs........................................................ 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................. 99 BACKUP TIPS ... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................... FATHER............................................. 92 DISK SCHEDULING ......... 101 LECTURE 25 .......................................................................... 103 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................... 94 PRACTICE MCQS ..................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ................................ 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ....................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS ............................... 89 DISK CACHING ........... 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................ 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................ 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 GRAND FATHER................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ............................ 86 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors....... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ........................................ 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ............................................. 116 Worm ....................................................................................................................................................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY.............................................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC.....CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR).............................................................. 117 Authentication ..... 109 CISC ....................................................................................................................... 104 ADVANTAGES ...............................................................................................................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ............................................................................. 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 118 CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ........................................................................................................................................ 112 CRISC..................................................................... 116 Logic bomb ... 110 Advantages of CISC .............. 119 UNIX.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Novell Netware ................................................................................................. 116 Denial-of-service.............................. 119 OS/2 ....................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ................................................................................. 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................... ENCRYPTION................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................ 120 MacOS ........... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs........................................ 105 LECTURE 27 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 113 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................... FIREWALL .................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ VIRUS PROTECTION................. 116 Trojan Horse ........................ 117 AUTHENTICATION............ 117 Encryption ..................................................................................................................................................................... G..................................................................................................................... 117 Firewall........................ 106 Advantages of RISC ................. 119 MS-DOS.............................................................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 .... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................... 116 Virus ...................................................... 117 Virus protection. 104 DISADVANTAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ..................................... 120 Microsoft Windows ............................... 119 OS/400 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111 Disadvantages of CISC .............................

................ G.... 121 REFERENCES ......................................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................ 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs.............. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ..............................................

3. interrupt handling. device and memory management. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . students should be able to: 1. manipulate operating systems 4. G. 5. process scheduling. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. program loading and linking system calls and system programs.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. 4. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. students should: 1. virtual memory.

students should be able to: 1. Storage. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Application Software c. Error Detection 3. 4. System Software b. e. g. Communications. User Interface. students should be able to: a. I/O – (Buffering. 2. System Startup. Operating Systems Functions: a. The history and development of the operating system. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Protection and Security. G. b. Two-level. 5. b. Introduction: a. File Concepts – File Attributes. Program execution. File Operations 2. Spooling). File-system manipulation. Resource Allocation. c. f. 2. h. Tree-Structured. Software and Firmware: a. d. Define operating system. 3.Content: 1. Directory Systems – Single-level.

Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Scheduler. 3. limit register Logical vs.i. Priority. Dispatcher 3. 3. 4. 4. 6. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. Round Robin. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . a. Shortest Remaining Time. 2. j. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 8. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Shortest Job First 5. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. best-fit. 5. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Time Sharing 2. G. 6. 5. 7. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Scheduling criteria 4. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Multiprogramming. b. 8. 2. Preemptive scheduling. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. students should be able to: 1. 7.

address translation 3. LRU d. G. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. explain disk caching 7. define page 3. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. Virtual address space 2.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. LFU e. students should be able to: 1. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. 4. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. page table. Allocation algorithms 4. FIFO b. Segmentation – segment table. Page replacement a. 3. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Optimal replacement c. Pure paging – pages. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. address translation 6. 2. students should be able to: 1. state the advantages of disk caching 8. 5. explain segmentation 9. explain thrashing Content: 1. MFU f. define frame 4. frames. explain the purpose of the page table 5. address structure. Demand paging 5. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 .

3. log-structured systems 2. SCAN. 4. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. location transparency.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. 4. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. RAID 1. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . 5. Disk scheduling – FCFS. write. Distributed file systems – naming. 3. File server systems – client-server computing 3. C-SCAN 6. positioning time. Disk caching 7. 2.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. seek time rotational latency 5. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 5. SSTF. 2. students should be able to: 1. students should be able to: 1. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. 3. incremental backup. LOOK. 2.

Common Coursework 20% 2. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Encryption. Denial-of-service Authentication. 5. P. logic bomb. G. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . 3. Internal Tests 20% 3. virus. Galvin. Operating systems concepts. UNIX. Virus protection. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1.B. 2. OS/2. (8th ed). 4.1. 4. Apple Macintosh. 2. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. G. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. advantage. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. & Gagne.. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. RISC / CISC – development. A. define security 2. worm. 3. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. (2008).

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . A.). (1999).) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. Modern operating systems (3rd ed. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. (2005). NJ: Prentice Hall.S.). An introduction to operating systems.(6th ed. G. W. Operating System Concepts Mrs. (2007). NJ: Prentice Hall Shay.Recommended: Tanenbaum. W.

We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. We use the computer because we want to type a document.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. As new versions of the operating system are released. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . I/O devices etc. DOS. it typically has an operating system already installed. play a game. memory. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . machines. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. other computers etc. Linux. These are all examples of operating systems. business programs. • users .database systems. video games. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system.CPU. Its primary goal therefore. MacOS. spreadsheets etc.people. When you purchase a new computer. G. We do not use the computer because of these software. is to make the computer convenient to use. do our budget etc. word processors. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. Unix. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . surf the internet.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. G. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. or mobile computing device. command language. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. and Linux. Network and Embedded. Microsoft Windows Server 2003.g. so no need to know which sector. 200 Professional. notebook computer. block) and job control. and Linux. and other devices to and from the network. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. storage management. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. track. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. OS/2 Warp Client. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware.x. UNIX. UNIX.g. NT Workstation. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. 98. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. Windows XP. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . computers. data management (control of I/O devices. 2000 Server).By itself. filing system. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. Mac OS X. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. 3. 95. ME).

Pocket PC 2002. However. 4. and Symbian OS.NET. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. E.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. 5.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . 3. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. • Time sharing . in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. in order to improve CPU utilization. Palm OS. 10. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. • Transaction processing . Controls the user c. 6. An operating system is a program that a.g. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. 2.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. G. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. research its new features and comment on them. Gives instructions to the hardware b. 8. comment on its new features. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Foreground background . Practice MCQs 1. what does this mean? 9. Define operating system. 7. all the terminals are connected to the same program.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. Tutorial Questions 1. • General Purpose . each associated with a remote interactive terminal. airline reservation system.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. If no. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . Is controlled by application software d.

application software. Fence d. hardware c. Operating System D. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. G. system software. system software. application software d. system software b. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Executive 4. User. Application programs C. Hardware. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. hardware.2. User. application software. application software. hardware. Segment b. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Select the correct sequence a. user. User. Hardware B. system software 3. Superstructure c.

66 per hour).usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. I/O devices were slow. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. improved utilization quite a bit. G. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. which would then go on to the next program. it would return control to the resident monitor.g. the CPU sat idle. E. In the early days machines were hand operated. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. (E. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. as soon as one job was finished. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). These changes. In those days machines were slow. would run each batch.g. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. when the program terminated.. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. he would unload tapes. determine why the program stopped. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. an operator could start the next job. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. This monitor is always resident in memory. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. There were still problems however. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. when a job stopped. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. Initially when the computer was turned on.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. that is. which would transfer control to a program. When a job was done. mounting magnetic tapes etc. the operator was slow. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. the operator . Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group.

even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. G. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Historically. high level user oriented programming languages. In addition. Only the device driver must be changed. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. read data from tape and not from card). By 1970 multiprocessing. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). (i.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Michigan Terminal System. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. The trend today. Some operating systems still are device dependent. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. WYLBUR. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary.e. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. MUSIC/SP. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Multics. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. however. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.

0 Mac OS (System 1.0 OS/2 (1. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. G.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.0) AIX 1. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 Windows NT 3.0 SunOS 3. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. 5. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7.10 Mac OS X v 10.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7.6 Windows NT 4. 6. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. 4. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. 3. Describe the historical development of operating systems. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems. G.2 FreeBSD 8.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1.

Third Generation D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 .b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Second Generation C. First Generation B. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. G.

Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. which manages memory and devices. the operating system may use virtual memory. Managing programs refers to how many users. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. single user/multitasking. Finally. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. and how many programs. When a user turns on a computer. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and loads them into memory from storage. the operating system loads configuration information. This is done on a network. If the POST completes successfully. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM.Lecture 2 . the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. If memory is insufficient. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. requests any necessary user information. an operating system can support at one time. or multiprocessing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. multiuser. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. and displays the desktop.

Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. A job is an operation the processor manages. generate an error message. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. give a user more control over setting details. menu-driven interface. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. move files. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. and graphical user interface. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. G. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. delete files and create folders. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. As in a restaurant. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. Command-line interfaces however. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. grammar and punctuation.

These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. The CPU can then move on to do other things. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. Requests for card reader input. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. is satisfied by reading from the disk. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. In disk systems. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. G. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). Example:. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. the operating system must provide some means to do so. mutual exclusion .when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. terminate process).If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. Deadlock prevention .g. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. The program must be able to end its execution. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. G. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. or recover from one. Hold and wait .e.must hold for non sharable resources (e. 1. (a read only file is sharable) 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. Pre-emption of resources. either normally or abnormally. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. To prevent deadlock. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur.

To reconcile conflicting demands. 4. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. Describe the conditions for deadlock. With the aid of a diagram. memory.each process can request resources only in increasing order). G. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain.of resources that have already been allocated. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1.3. Tutorial Questions 1. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. 5. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. 3. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. 6. State three (3) functions of an operating system. No pre-emption (No taking away) . Circular wait . jam in the card reader etc. 2. 7. Errors may occur in the CPU. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment.

registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. Spooling B.d) Record management 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . A. Scheduling 5. G. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. A. RAM B. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Paging C. cache D. buffer C. Thrashing D.

DOS etc. banking. enter data into a database.g. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities.g. E. Quickview in Windows. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. we use the computer to type documents.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. Scandisk. Examples include: accounting. MSBACKUP. word processing. E. Trend Micro PC-cillin. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. Unix. detects. WinRAR.Lecture 3 .g. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. Linux. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. E. McAfee. when to do it. draw pictures. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. play games etc. OS/2. There are two types of software: system software and application software. As mentioned before. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. G. removes viruses from a computer system. Norton disk doctor. AVG etc. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. graphics. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. PKZIP. Norton Anti-virus. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. E. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. WinZip. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension.g. E. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. spreadsheet. E. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents.g. do our accounting. create graphs. database management. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape.g.

Windows Media Player. WordPad. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Microsoft Word. correction. Page Maker. E. query. Monopoly. Dbase. E. C. which means that they will run on different computers. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present.g. Wordstar.g.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. printing of documents. E. E. Oracle. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. Combine word processing and graphics packages. COBOL etc. posters. Outlook Express. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . E. E. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. Quattro Pro. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. print. font size and type. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. keys. Outlook (Email). Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. Microsoft Excel. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. margins. formulas. Web Browsers. • Entertainment software These software include games. underline. instructions. User can enter numbers.g. However. Features include:. save. Pascal. Chess.g. justify. Network Operating Systems (NOS). Can sort.g. Visi-Calc. Foxpro. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. editing. Lotus 1-2-3. E. etc. WordPerfect. Foxpro. Symphony. footnotes. Solitaire etc. table of contents.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. Netscape Navigator. fieldsize.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Visual Basic. fieldtype. page number. Field.g. mail merge. E. newsletters. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. spell check. Corel Draw.Bold. text in each cell. G. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable.g. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. C++.

Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . 2. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. G.g. keyboard.g. mouse. 3. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. This is software embedded in hardware. b) A teacher calculating student grades. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. E.g. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. cd-rom drive. diskette drive. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. Lotus Smartsuite. hard disk.g. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. sector 0 of boot disk. E. Tutorial Questions 1. printer port. memory.monitor. Corel Wordperfect Suite. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. Open Office. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Give examples of the type chosen. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. For mainframes etc. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. Microsoft Office. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk.e. Differentiate between system software and application software. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . E. location 0.g. How does a word processor (e. hard-coded in the hardware).

Defrag 2. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Utilities D. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Research the various web browsers. System software C. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. 5. Application software B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . 7. A. Restore c. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Scandisk b.4. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. 6. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. 8. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. Anti-virus d. G.

____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. A. Disk scanner C. A. Diagnostic 9. Disk defragmenter D. Disk defragmenter B. G. Disk scanner C. Diagnostic utility D. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 .7. Disk cleanup B.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . A file is a collection of related information. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. "writing" to the file is disabled. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. hidden. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. compressed. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. DBF etc. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. the file. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. A read-only file can be viewed.Lecture 4 . It has other properties such as its type. It is mapped onto a physical device.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. date and time of creation. system. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. In MS-DOS. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information.TXT source file .ini. BMP. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. In other words. G. write. records. bytes. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. Common File types:text file .JPG. A file is named and is referred to by its name. It is a logical storage unit. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file .sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . msdos. last modified. COM graphics files . io.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. but not changed. It is a sequence of bits. Operating System Concepts Mrs.sys. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. its length etc. archive. TIF database file – MDB. Examples include read-only. It is a characteristic of a file.sys. execute • Ownership – who owns the file.

io. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Any file can be marked as Hidden. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. display). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. The archive attribute is used for backup. Open a file Check permissions. 1.sys.sys and boot. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed.sys. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification.ini. 2. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. This way. ntdetect. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. read from the file. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. write to the file. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. G.sys. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. however. delete the file • edit/modify the file. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. the archive attribute is turned off. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. rename a file etc. copy file to an I/O device (printer. compression isn't usually recommended. When finished with a file Close it. Once the file is backed up by a backup program.com and ntldr. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. io. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. rewind the file. However. Return error code if not.

Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. doc. then the write pointer is updated. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 4. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. Append Writes information to the end of the file. 4. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. 2. 5. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. jpg. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated.g. Practice MCQs 1. 3. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 3. 2. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. Describe five file attributes. system searches directory to find location of file.Find space on the file system. exe. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. com. Describe the type of file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Describe five file operations. bmp). Tutorial Questions 1. G.

Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Identifier C.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Truncated D. Name B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . G.

location.400 feet). but it suffers from some inefficiency. G. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape.Lecture 5 . creation date. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. size and type for all files on that device. Studies showed that most files were small. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. These are all directory operations. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user.g. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. A file can be on more than 1 disk. To handle this problem. The device directory records information such as name. not physical. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. This allows the file to be easily located. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. 2. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. since physical tape reels are quite large (e.

There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. Tree. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 .Single level . A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories.g. each user has a current directory. All files are in the same directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user.structures . A file name is prefixed by user name. grouping and other operations such as deleting. This isolates one user from another. It is easy to support and understand. In normal use.e. G. UNIX. Every file has a unique path name. The tree has a root directory. Windows. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. DOS. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). system files and grouping files. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Users may also create their own subdirectories. to a specified file.the simplest directory structure. This structure is efficient for searching. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. All files must have unique names. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory.

The same file may be in two different directories (i. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. can be access through more than one path). Note that files have multiple path names. G. The following is an example using Unix.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . NB. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . It is not the same as two copies. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files.e.

4. G. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. HPFS. 3. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. Practice MCQs 1. NTFS).• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Research the General-Graph directory. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2.

another job can be using the CPU. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. a tape. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. normally the CPU would sit idle. for an I/O device). (i. addresses etc. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it.Lecture 6 . G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . This is also called concurrent processing.g. Normally the CPU would sit idle. the current instruction. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive.). Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times.g. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. keyboard input etc. file pointers. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job.e. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. variables. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job.

Differentiate between a process and a program. Tutorial Questions 1. 3. The location of current instructions. information associated with each process. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. Running C. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. G. and I/O status information. memory management information. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. CPU registers. values in variables. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Describe the operation of the PCB. accounting information. CPU scheduling information. Waiting D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. In other words. New B. program counter. file pointers etc. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). Practice MCQs 1.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped.

Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. Similarly. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . and giving processor time to another process. tape. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. or network input could be granted to other users. Tutorial Questions 1. however. regardless of the number of users. Operating System Concepts Mrs. small slices of time spent waiting for disk.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. G. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. Time-sharing.

An example is shown in the diagram below. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. .8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst .determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. The following defines various scheduling concepts.Lecture 7 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . G. . The programs therefore have to be scheduled. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . .Scheduling concepts. criteria. . Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later.Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. . Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Medium term scheduler D.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler .Some systems introduce an additional. This scheme is called swapping. A. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. switches from an active to wait state or ii. 2. 4. terminates. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. Tutorial Questions 1. Long term scheduler B. Pre-emptive scheduling . Short term scheduler C. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. Non pre-emptive scheduling . Medium Term Scheduler . It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. it therefore must be very fast. This involves a) switching context. 3. switches from wait state to ready or iv. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. intermediate level of scheduling. G. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. Dispatcher . Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. 5. 6.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. G.

how busy you keep CPU. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. • throughput .work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . waiting time C.time from submission of request until the first response is produced. Describe the various scheduling criteria. response time D. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. Tutorial Questions 1. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . turnaround time B. G. Practice MCQs 1.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another.

For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. for P2 = 0. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. for P3 = 3. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. P3. P3. P2. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. P1.

• externally . If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. This process is called aging. A priority number is associated with each job. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 .g.by a person (e. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. system administrator). G. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. 100 msec). memory requirements.g. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. number of open files etc.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority.

Campbell 51 . Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. In other words. G. E. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. such as memory size or job type. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Tutorial Questions 1.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. In addition. generally based on some property of the job. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs.g. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue.

Priority. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. 3. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. SJF. SJF iii. G. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. Priority iv. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. 4.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. FCFS ii. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1.

The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A.d) CPU scheduler 4. First come first served C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Round robin scheduling 10. G. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Starvation C. Aging B. Fragmentation D. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Shortest job first B. Priority scheduling D. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7.

The processors communicate with each other through shared memory.Lecture 8. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . one thread for each processor in the computer. The main difference is in how the processors operate. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. alleviating the need for data sharing. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. the whole computer can go down. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. Any processor can run any type of thread. SMP is more complex than ASMP. all running at the same time. As a result. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. G. For this reason. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. independent executable components of applications) of execution. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. The remainder of the processors run user applications. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously.

multiprogramming 3. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. In parallel processing. A. Multiprogramming B. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 4. 6. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. Tutorial Questions 1. A. 5. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. multitasking B. Multiprogramming 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. Parallel processor C. multiprocessing C. 3. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Multitasking D. G. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program.g. 2. Multithreading D.g. A. Practice MCQs 1. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. Coprocessor B. 1 AMD. 3 Pentium II. Multiprocessing C. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. multiuser D.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprocessing D.4. symmetric multiprocessing C. asymmetric multiprocessing B. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. G.

It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. 2. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Tutorial Questions 1. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . Memory mapping . Each machine has a certain amount of memory. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). G. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. we must share memory. 2.Lecture 9 . which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. If we must keep several processes in memory. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. it still should not matter. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. 3. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Research the MMU or PMMU. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. stack and system data. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. Operating System Concepts Mrs. though the code. data. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time.

Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. 3. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. 5. but very fast. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. When a memory access is made. The higher levels are expensive. If another reference is made to this location. some medium speed. Compare and contrast them.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). expensive. 2. which can be organized in a hierarchy. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. G. Describe the different types of RAM. non-volatile disk storage. the contents of the accessed location. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. volatile cache memory. Describe the different types of cache. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. Operating System Concepts Mrs. cheap. with a small amount of very fast. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. 4. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 .

Main memory D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. RAM. Registers C. RAM. Cache B. cache. RAM. a) Hard disk. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. cache b) Cache. register. RAM. Main Memory 6. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. register. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Cache D. hard disk c) Register. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. hard disk d) Hard disk. cache 3.Practice MCQs 1. Magnetic Disk B. Electronic Disk C. register. G. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs.

and flags. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. these include a program counter. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. Types of registers As previously stated. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. program counter. and some addressing registers. G. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. or RAM. and several specialized registers including a base register. flags register.Basic memory hardware – base register. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. Usually. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Memory. In other words. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. In general. stack register. Therefore. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. stack. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). For example. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. and even to programmers. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. It is a special. high-speed storage area within the CPU. In high-level languages.Lecture 10 . CPU instructions operate on these values directly. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers.

A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Discuss the other types of registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. the so-called base. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. in which case it is a bounds register). and the number of words available to that segment. G. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. Tutorial Questions 1.

Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections.Logical vs. The logical address space is used by user programs. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. G.Lecture 11 . 2. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. Tutorial Questions 1. The fence register is a type of bounds register. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. b) placed in a fence register. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Consider the segment table. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. but the first address beyond the fence. the first address of the user program is not 00000.

G. 430 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. 400 4. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 500 3.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 10 1. 11 0.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. it is possible to experience too much swapping. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. In extreme cases. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. G. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. running it for a while. the system may actually do no useful work.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. Swapping maximizes available memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. Describe the concept of swapping. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. excessive paging is not desirable. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. Practice MCQs 1. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. 2. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. Tutorial Questions 1.

then putting it back on the disk. Paging C. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . A. Swapping D. G. Scheduling B.

Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. If the file to be created is n blocks long. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 .Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. since all blocks are linked together. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. If too little space is allocated.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. For sequential access. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. Compaction . indexed. many files will be stored on the same disk. This solves the fragmentation problem. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. linked. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. G. we must search for n free contiguous blocks.Lecture 13 . The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. we can immediately access block b + n. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. best fit. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. worst fit. To read a file. Accessing a file.

The directory contains the address of the index block. John Brown.is created. In order to conserve on space. needs to work with certain files. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. It also does not suffer from wasted space. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. Another problem is reliability. removed from the start. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. To find the nth block of a file. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . 3. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. added at the end. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. It is never necessary to compact disk space. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. 4. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. a programmer. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. removed from the middle. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. added in the middle. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. 5. Mr. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. G. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. Tutorial Questions 1. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. which is an array of disk block addresses. To read the nth block. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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In variable partition multi-programming. Partition sizes vary dynamically. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. However. the partition sizes are set and do not change. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Each region may have one program to be executed. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. This however comes with a lot of overhead. Operating System Concepts Mrs. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. No space is wasted initially. G. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. When a region is free. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region.

G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Fixed and variable C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Multiple and fixed B. Single and multiple D. G.

Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. G. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Tutorial Questions 1. the extra space wasted.Fragmentation – internal. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. 2. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. Practice MCQs 1.

This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. usually the hard disk. A. 1) code to handle errors. partitioning. What is virtual memory? 2. Virtual memory D. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . Cache B. Practice MCQs 1.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. G. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. which functions as additional memory. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. List the various virtual memory strategies. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. Memory management procedures such as paging. segmentation.g. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Register C. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. Tutorial Questions 1. 2) arrays lists. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time.Lecture 15 . E.

VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. VA is determined from the compiled address. Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages.A virtual address is represented as <page. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). G. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.1). the offset is a number in the range 0 .(page size .

The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. the other is in memory location 4. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. G. This is done by a hardware component. sometimes called a memory management unit. They are therefore scattered in memory. containing only this one program. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence.g. The first page is in memory location 1.page size is 4K blocks by default). or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. In reality. Novell Netware . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 .Lecture 16 . This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. (E. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. The page table organizes the pages. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. which also holds other programs. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). For example. a file is made up of 4 pages. in the following diagram. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7.

Describe paging. 4. G. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. Explain the concept of a page table. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . 2. Discuss PTBR and TLB.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.

Optimal replacement. G. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. This does not suffer from the anomaly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. Locked pages cannot be replaced. This is hardware and overhead intensive. the page that has already been used the most. This method never suffers from the anomaly. In other words. This has the lowest page fault rate. LRU. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. NB.Lecture 17 . In other words. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. the page that has been used the least so far. which may be difficult. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. The algorithms are FIFO. LFU. MFU.

___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 3. 8. 2. 2. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 4. 1. 8. Counting based page replacement D. 9. 5. FIFO. 5. 3. LRU? 3. Practice MCQs 1. 8. 2. 6. 8. G. 5. LFU. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 9. LRU? 2. 8. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. Least regularly used C. 3. 5. What page would be replaced next using MFU. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 7. Given the following table of jobs to be run. Likely regularly used D. Least recently used page replacement C. 4. What is a page fault? 5. FIFO. 3. Optimal page replacement B. 9. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 2. LRU stands for: A. LFU. A. 9. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. Least recently used B. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 4. 2.

Lecture 18 . When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. As there is more space in main memory.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. The pager will only load these pages into memory. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. or you can load in the page when required. Advantages Demand paging. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. G. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Therefore. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. This is known as demand paging. Less loading latency occurs at program startup.

Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. G. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2.• Programs running on low-cost. Practice MCQs 1. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. Possible security risks. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. including vulnerability to timing attacks. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Tutorial Questions 1. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement.

a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. 40 B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 3 648 bytes 10. 25 9. 8. 26 C. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. 4 000 bytes B. Frame allocation D. 23 D. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. Spooling D. Thrashing B. Paging B. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 4 096 bytes C. 3 670 bytes D. Buffering C. A. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. How many pages does it need? A. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. Belady’s anomaly C. G. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7.

Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. offset) = (s. Instead. Given a logical address (segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment.d). G. A segment table is maintained for each process. which are of fixed size. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. they use segmentation. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid.

offset>. 7. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. 3. 2. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. ii. Tutorial Questions 1. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Operating System Concepts Mrs. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. 4. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. G. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging.

G. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1.8. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB.

but the data can be read immediately. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. Disk capacity therefore doubled. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. size and speed. Operating System Concepts Mrs.random access memory . It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. so that the location is known. A block on a disk is the sector. Tutorial Questions 1. numbered from 0. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. each one with its own address. RAM and Optical disks RAM .Lecture 20 . Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity.e. Each location has a 0 or 1. G. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). To improve the performance of a disk. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. (i. Block . 2. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media.another name for main storage.

the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. They are used to store both video and audio files. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. Operating System Concepts Mrs. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies.g. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. How do they differ from other disks? 2. read many) EO (erasable optical) . palm tops. Tutorial Questions 1. DVD R-? 3. Discuss RAM disks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 .magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam.sometimes called associative registers. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. What is the difference between DVD R. It is small hardware memory . Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. E. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . This does not provide permanent storage. calculators. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. G. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. DVD R+. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly.read only memory) .

Tutorial Questions 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Describe disk caching. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 .

In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system.g. To improve the performance of a disk. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. memory address 4. The coating however will wear after enough use.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . due to power-cut). It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. Head crash . cylinder. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. sector etc. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. surface. is this an input or output operation? 2.) 3.Lecture 21 . the disk address (drive. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. G. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data.

Other definitions • Positioning time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . Tutorial Questions 1. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. G.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). This is also known as transfer rate.

the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. servicing requests as it reaches each track. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. At the other end it reverses direction. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). In other words. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. For example. It however may cause starvation of some requests. otherwise the request will be queued. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. in alternating directions. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. satisfying requests. until it gets to other end of disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. G. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised.

Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 2. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. numbered 0 to 199. 80. 73. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 17.3. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 73. G. Practice MCQs 1. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 46. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. 91. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 5. Explain how it works. 46. 80 c) 73. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 73. If the queue of requests is 80. 80 b) 46. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 22. 60. and where to commence the next sweep. 35. 46. 22.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. Tutorial Questions 1. which is in great demand.5. 147. 48. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 46 d) 73. 22. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. 80. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. If the queue of requests is 8.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. e.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5.which function as a slow RAID-1. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0.g. In the example. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. it can also be done at the operating system level. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Describe the standard RAID levels. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level.. Discuss the term RAID. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Tutorial Questions 1. As an example. but can be expanded with further volumes. 2. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. 4. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. 3.

if one change is messed up.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. or destroyed. The following describes the different types of backup. Father.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . Backup all files (main backup). • • • • Grand father. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. then the entire backup is useless. dry. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. In order to recover you restore all files.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. things can still go wrong. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. Operating System Concepts Mrs. father. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. then changes since (incremental backup). or disk that can be used if the original is lost.save to CD 1 etc. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. damaged. A backup is a duplicate of a file. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. The oldest backup is called the grandfather.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Disadvantage . Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. G. To restore .cool. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. It is laborious to restore at a point in time.restore the main backup first. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. The father then becomes the grandfather. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). Restore changes from audit.

Practice MCQs 1. Do you backup? If yes. Tutorial Questions 1. how often do you back up? If not. How did you solve the problem (e. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. 6. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. 4. 3. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . G.g. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. 2.

g. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. In this scheme. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. called clients. A client does not share any of its resources. If a user opens a non-local file.Lecture 24 . Tutorial Questions 1. G. 3. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. Discuss the concept of a file server. the location of a file is transparent to users.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 .) 4. but requests a server's content or service function. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. the open request is channelled to the file server. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. print server etc. mail server. database server. Discuss the other types of servers (e. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. who access remote files in the same way as local files. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

In a networked environment users want to share data files. • In a transparent DFS. Dynamic. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. • This is a convenient way to share data. although hidden.Lecture 25 . Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. When data are requested. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. set of physical disk blocks.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. • Better file abstraction. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. the system and disk are known. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . it's understood where the file actually resides. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. one-to-many mapping. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. etc. G. • File name still denotes a specific. is hidden. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. Resources on other machines are remote. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. read. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. on files. • In a conventional file system. somewhere in the network. A file system provides a service for clients. the location of a file. sector>.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system.

includes the file’s logical storage location C. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. 2. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. Tutorial Questions 1. 3. G.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . Research and give examples of various DFSs. • Do NOT support migration. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks.

A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. E. -3 = characteristic or exponent. execute program flow control instructions. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation.375 = mantissa/argument. display . These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. and keyboard operations.001375 = 1. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor.375E -3) . coprocessors can accelerate system performance.375 x 10-3 (1. However.75 = 1. 13. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 .g. manage memory etc. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously.375E +1) .screen graphics.375 x 101 (1.g. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). E. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. A more common use was to control input/output channels. do input/output operations. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.Lecture 26 . G. 2. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. 10 = base/radix.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. ‘dual-core’. Practice MCQs 1. ‘superscalar’. 4. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs.3.

however the differences extend further. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. E. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. Until the mid-1980s. Some computers. number of registers.Lecture 27 . addressing modes. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. RISC .g.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets.reduced instruction set computer. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction.g. and comparing values. This software. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC .complex instruction set computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . is usually located in ROM (read only memory). E. MOVE. it lists the things that the processor can do. This is the normal type of computer. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. called the micro-program (or firmware). the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. In other words. however. At that time. doing arithmetic. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. It is actually an interpreter. On these machines. RISC. do not have a microprogramming level. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. (More instructions per clock cycle). These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. G.

making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. If the processor guessed correctly.P. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. For example. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. and better pipelining. Reduced instruction set machines. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. and begins execution of the corresponding code. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. unlike complex instruction set machine. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. G. advanced compilers. high-speed caches. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Typically. which would require fewer transistors1. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math.In the mid 1970s. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . If the processor has fetched a branch instruction.S. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. and make them cheaper to manufacture. For this reason. a PowerPC has 32 registers. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. Due to these developments. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. it has gained time. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . Only load and store instructions access memory . It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. who developed the M. the results are discarded and there is no loss.I. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle.

1MB of DRAM cost about $5. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. Windows 3. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. producing faster and cheaper processors . which makes them cheaper to design and produce.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. G. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . In 1977. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation).• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal.000. In contrast. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. By 1994. This was largely due to a lack of software support. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. To some extent. Without commercial interest. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips.

The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. other manufacturers. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Windows NT. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. and Motorola Corporation. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. Ultra1. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. which appeared in 1994.5 and higher). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. and OS/2. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Apple Computer. Since then. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. . Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. In the SPARC. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. G. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. Apple introduced the Power Mac. SPARCserver. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. including IBM. all instructions are 32-bits in length.

In a nutshell. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions.it costs less than £10. code size has become a non-issue. which supports fewer instructions. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. Most personal computers. The Amiga. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). and stands for complex instruction set computer. Atari. easier implementation of new chips. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. In a microprogrammed2 system. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. This also improved performance. Pronounced sisk. computers executed instructions sequentially. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. G. fast code. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. An alternative architecture. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. However. use a CISC architecture. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. At that time.design. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. In contrast to RISC. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price.

Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. typically about 8 registers. an example of a complex instruction set computer. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. However. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. to/from an address pointed to by a register. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. has the following modes: to/from a register. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. In particular. there are more than 30. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. which can operate directly on memory. In the VAX. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from a specific location in memory. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. Due to the large number of addressing modes. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. This is a result of having instructions. G. etc. The VAX.according to their byte length.market factors. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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g. personal history. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake.g. G. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. Huge repair bill. data. hurricane. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. lightening. fire. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords.. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. entering incorrect data. Loss of data. customer lists. Theft. adding data twice. Category Human error – e. loss of time. flood.. low voltage. Identity theft. This can lead to things like software piracy. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Loss of income due to software piracy.g. or sexual preference). Illegal access to files. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. May need to re-install software. information.g. hard disk crash. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . or marketing plans).Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. software. Loss of data. medical information.g. theft of marketing information (e. delete a file by accident. power surges. young child) Technical error – system failure e. loss of time in having to re-enter data. vandalism. Loss of sales due to piracy. Physical damage to computer. Loss of files/data. not adequately trained/experienced (e. Loss of time. pricing data. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Effect Loss of data. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. Damage to computer due to improper use. or processing capability. Loss of computer and data. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. Loss of computer.

as well.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. and then starts replicating from there. Instead. releasing the virus. It may be benign or have a negative effect. There are similarities at a deeper level. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. Once it is running. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. In other cases. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. and the cell remains alive. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person.it is not alive. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. Obviously. as well. Unlike a cell. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. A biological virus is not a living thing. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A computer virus shares some of these traits. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. In some cases.

(e. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. so it can be understood. Zone Alarm). which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. G. Unlike a virus or worm. hackers).g. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. Define the term cryptography. the correct decryption key is required. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. which can cause severe damage to databases. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 .g.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. called a ciphertext.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). McAfee. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. However. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. This must be updated regularly. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Trend Micro-PCcillin). Authentication. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. while authentication is proving it. Virus protection. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. Norton Antivirus. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access.g. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Encryption.

What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. He is able to view all employee data except salary. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. John has a password to the human resource system.eccouncil. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. Discuss various encryption software. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs.org/ 3. 5. G.2.

You can set expiration dates on passwords. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files.SYS. only on the network. Hidden etc. There is limited or no security.g. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. like UNIX. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. Operating System Concepts Mrs. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system.SYS and MSDOS. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. There are a large number of built-in servers. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. Linux is a popular. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. Java. Read. which means its code is available to the public. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. You can set attributes on files e. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Solaris. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. G. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. the Internet. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. then he can still see such files. Linux. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. and speech recognition.

Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. most reliable Windows operating system. There is also support for biometric devices. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. There is also secured wireless access.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. There are audit logs and audit trails. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. event log. You can set security on admin tasks (e. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system.read only. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. records (views). You are able to create multiple user accounts. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. directories/libraries.g. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). policy changes. account management. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. changing settings). lockout policies. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e.g. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. Windows XP has increased security. There is also auditing which records login. delete etc. There are also different levels of authority . commands. file system permissions. It also supports encryption. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. object access. service permissions. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. This accepts user id and password. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. fields. Windows NT has security holes. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. Templates include password policies. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. Software restrictions . user rights. read/write capability. change. file vault and firewall. G. It allows directory access control. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). startup modes. privilege use and system events. Operating System Concepts Mrs. virus). The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. There is also a screen saver password.

There is a screen saver password. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Modify. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. and FileScan (sees filenames). Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. entertainment. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. called the Pocket PC. G. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. Netware accepts a userid and password. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Tutorial Questions 1. Erase. Write. Read. You can encrypt communication.Windows CE . Create. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments.

Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. John Wiley & Sons Inc. & Cashman.J. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. (2006).. G. P. Operating Systems Concepts. (3rd Ed.d.B. http://www. Andrew S. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . 7th E. KY:Course Technology Publishing. Abraham. Gagne.B.).webopedia. Prentice Hall: USA. Silberschatz. Discovering computers 2008. (2007). Modern Operating Systems. T. Shelly G.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. Galvin.com.: USA.. (2004). Tanenbaum.

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