OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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............... 82 DISADVANTAGES .............. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 .............................................................................................................................................................. 82 ADVANTAGES .................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................. 70 PRACTICE MCQS ................ 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................... 65 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................. 81 LECTURE 18 ................................................................ 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ....................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 76 PRACTICE MCQS .......................... 79 LECTURE 17 ..........INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ................. 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR).......................................................................................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................... 78 ADVANTAGES: ............................................... 74 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS ......................... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ....................................................................................................................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................ 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72 PARTITIONS.................................................................... 75 PRACTICE MCQS ............. 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ...................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ........................................ 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................................. EXTERNAL.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ........................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................ 65 LECTURE 13 ...................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .............................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ...................................................................................................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT........................................................................................................................................... 76 LECTURE 16 ............................................................... 80 FIFO ........................................................................ G...................................................................................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL............................................................................... 75 LECTURE 15 ................................................. 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ............................................................................................................ WORST-FIT ............................................................................................................................................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION . 79 DISADVANTAGES: ........ 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................ 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE .............................................. BEST-FIT............................................. 81 PRACTICE MCQS ..............................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) .........................................................................................................................................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) .................................................................................

............. 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................... G......................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ........................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................... 88 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................ 89 DISK CACHING .... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... 99 GRAND FATHER...... 92 DISK SCHEDULING ........................................................................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) ......................................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN .. 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................... 90 LECTURE 21 ........................................ 93 First come first served (FCFS) ...........................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) . 101 LECTURE 25 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................ 100 LECTURE 24 ........................................................................................... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK .................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ..................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................ 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ............. 103 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................ SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ..................................................................................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ............................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................................. 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................... 94 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ................ 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 95 RAID LEVELS ..................................................................................... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................THRASHING........................................................................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ........................... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) .......................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ........ 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................. 88 BLOCKS ............................................... FATHER............................................................................................................................................................................. 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................. 86 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................ 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) .................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs.............................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ......... 99 BACKUP TIPS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................... 116 Logic bomb .. 119 OS/400 ...................................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ...................................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION........................ 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ............. 119 OS/2 ............................................................................ 104 ADVANTAGES ..................................................................................... 120 Microsoft Windows .............. 107 Disadvantages of RISC................................ 104 PRACTICE MCQS ......LECTURE 26 .......................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR). G. 117 Virus protection............... 117 Encryption ................................................................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY........................................................ FIREWALL .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Denial-of-service............................................................................................. 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .....................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ...... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ............................................................................................................................ 119 UNIX.................................................................................................. 106 Advantages of RISC ............................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................... 117 Firewall................. ENCRYPTION.................. 116 Worm .................... 116 Virus .................. 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 120 MacOS ....................................... 117 Authentication .................................................................................... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................................................................................................ 119 MS-DOS.............................................................................................................................. 104 DISADVANTAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 105 LECTURE 27 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION............................................................... 112 CRISC............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ............................................................................................................................................................ 111 Disadvantages of CISC ............................................................. 110 Advantages of CISC ..................................................... 120 Novell Netware ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 108 Examples of RISC Processors.................................................. 109 CISC .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ................. 116 Trojan Horse .......... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ................................................................................................................................................ 117 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................. 118 CASE STUDIES .....................................

.................................................................... G.................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........ 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs.................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ...... 121 REFERENCES .......................................

students should be able to: 1.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . students should: 1.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. 3. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. process scheduling. manipulate operating systems 4. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. 2. interrupt handling. device and memory management. virtual memory. G.

I/O – (Buffering. Application Software c. c. User Interface. System Startup. f. 4. Program execution. 3. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Resource Allocation. 2. g. Define operating system. Communications. Tree-Structured. Introduction: a. G. File Operations 2. h. System Software b. students should be able to: a. students should be able to: 1. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. e. Spooling). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Software and Firmware: a. 2. d. The history and development of the operating system. File-system manipulation. b.Content: 1. File Concepts – File Attributes. Directory Systems – Single-level. Storage. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. b. Two-level. Operating Systems Functions: a. 5. Error Detection 3. Protection and Security.

5. Scheduler. G. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Time Sharing 2. 8. 8. 3.i. 7. Shortest Job First 5. Scheduling criteria 4. Round Robin. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Multiprogramming. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. best-fit. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Priority. j. 4. 6. students should be able to: 1. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. b. Shortest Remaining Time. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. Preemptive scheduling. 6. 2. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Dispatcher 3. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. limit register Logical vs. 2. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. 5. 3. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. a.

describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. page table. Optimal replacement c. Allocation algorithms 4. explain thrashing Content: 1. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. Demand paging 5. Page replacement a. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. students should be able to: 1. define frame 4. 3. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. G. MFU f. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. students should be able to: 1. 2. LFU e. frames. explain disk caching 7. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. 4. explain segmentation 9. Virtual address space 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. LRU d. Pure paging – pages. 5. FIFO b. address translation 6. address translation 3. define page 3.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Segmentation – segment table. address structure. explain the purpose of the page table 5.

Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. File server systems – client-server computing 3. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. C-SCAN 6. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. LOOK. Distributed file systems – naming. students should be able to: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . 4. students should be able to: 1. incremental backup. log-structured systems 2. 5. seek time rotational latency 5. 2. location transparency. 4. G. Disk caching 7. 3. 5. 4. write. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. 2. SCAN. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. RAID 1.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Disk scheduling – FCFS. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. positioning time. SSTF. 3. 2. 3.

3. virus. Apple Macintosh. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. OS/2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. (8th ed). Common Coursework 20% 2. 2. G. Virus protection. 3..B. 4. UNIX. worm. 2. logic bomb. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. A. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. Denial-of-service Authentication. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse.1. Operating systems concepts. 5. (2008). Internal Tests 20% 3. define security 2. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. P. Encryption. & Gagne. G. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. advantage. students should be able to: 1. RISC / CISC – development. 4. Galvin.

W.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 .Recommended: Tanenbaum.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. (1999). NJ: Prentice Hall.S. A. G. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.(6th ed. W. An introduction to operating systems. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. (2007).). NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. (2005).

• users . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . These are all examples of operating systems. We use the computer because we want to type a document. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs .Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. video games. business programs. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. Its primary goal therefore. surf the internet. I/O devices etc. Unix. Linux. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . As new versions of the operating system are released. memory. word processors. do our budget etc. is to make the computer convenient to use. other computers etc. G. MacOS. it typically has an operating system already installed. DOS. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. machines. When you purchase a new computer.database systems.CPU. play a game.people. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. We do not use the computer because of these software. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. spreadsheets etc.

The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. so no need to know which sector. UNIX. notebook computer.g. 200 Professional. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. track. data management (control of I/O devices. storage management. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. G. 3. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Mac OS X. command language. 95. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer.By itself. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 98. NT Workstation. filing system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. Windows XP. and Linux. or mobile computing device. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. and other devices to and from the network. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e.x. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. OS/2 Warp Client. 2000 Server). Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. block) and job control. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. computers. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. ME). the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs.g. UNIX. Network and Embedded. and Linux. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources.

NET. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. An operating system is a program that a. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. E. in order to improve CPU utilization.g. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . Gives instructions to the hardware b.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. • Transaction processing . Is controlled by application software d. G. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. comment on its new features. • Foreground background . Practice MCQs 1.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. 6. • Time sharing . What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. Pocket PC 2002.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Controls the user c. what does this mean? 9.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. 10. all the terminals are connected to the same program. 7. 8. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . If no. airline reservation system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 .shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. However. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. 4. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. Palm OS. 5. and Symbian OS. • General Purpose . research its new features and comment on them. 2. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. 3. Tutorial Questions 1.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. Define operating system. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself.

2. application software. hardware c. User. application software. application software d. system software b. Application programs C. User. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. hardware. system software. Fence d. Hardware. user. Hardware B. system software 3. Superstructure c. Segment b. Select the correct sequence a. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. system software. A. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. User. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . G. hardware. application software. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. Executive 4. Operating System D.

If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. which would then go on to the next program. an operator could start the next job.. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. which would transfer control to a program. improved utilization quite a bit. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). the operator was slow. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. There were still problems however. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. These changes. the CPU sat idle. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. the operator . when a job stopped. E. Initially when the computer was turned on. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. I/O devices were slow.g. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. In those days machines were slow. he would unload tapes. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. When a job was done.g.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. mounting magnetic tapes etc.66 per hour). when the program terminated. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. This monitor is always resident in memory. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. In the early days machines were hand operated.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. G. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . determine why the program stopped. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. that is. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. as soon as one job was finished. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. it would return control to the resident monitor. would run each batch. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. (E.

IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. however. Michigan Terminal System. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. high level user oriented programming languages. read data from tape and not from card). this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. In addition. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. The trend today. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Some operating systems still are device dependent. MUSIC/SP. By 1970 multiprocessing. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Only the device driver must be changed. WYLBUR. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. Historically. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. G. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. (i. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Multics.e.

0 Mac OS (System 1. GE.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money.0 SunOS 3.0) AIX 1.0 OS/2 (1. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years. G. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.0 Windows NT 3.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.

6. Discuss the first operating system. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. 4.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. G. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 .2 FreeBSD 8. 3. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1.6 Windows NT 4. 2. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. 5.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Describe the historical development of operating systems.10 Mac OS X v 10. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11.

Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Second Generation C. First Generation B. Third Generation D. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. G.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4.

A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time.Lecture 2 . multiuser. or multiprocessing. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . If memory is insufficient. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. and displays the desktop. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. requests any necessary user information. Finally. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. If the POST completes successfully. and how many programs. This is done on a network. G. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. the operating system loads configuration information. When a user turns on a computer. single user/multitasking. and loads them into memory from storage. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. an operating system can support at one time. which manages memory and devices. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. Managing programs refers to how many users. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. the operating system may use virtual memory.

delete files and create folders. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. menu-driven interface. and graphical user interface. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. generate an error message. move files. With a graphical user interface (GUI). A job is an operation the processor manages. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. Command-line interfaces however. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. give a user more control over setting details. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. As in a restaurant. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. grammar and punctuation. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run.

the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. Operating System Concepts Mrs. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. The CPU can then move on to do other things. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. Similarly when a job requests printer output. G. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. Requests for card reader input. In disk systems. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. is satisfied by reading from the disk. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other.

Deadlock prevention . Hold and wait . Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . Example:. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start.g.must hold for non sharable resources (e.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. Pre-emption of resources. To prevent deadlock. The program must be able to end its execution.e. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). 1. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. or recover from one.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. G. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. either normally or abnormally. terminate process).Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. (a read only file is sharable) 2. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. the operating system must provide some means to do so. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. mutual exclusion .

each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. 3. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action.each process can request resources only in increasing order). G. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. memory. 4. Errors may occur in the CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. No pre-emption (No taking away) . Circular wait . Describe the conditions for deadlock. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others.3. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. 6. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. 5. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. Tutorial Questions 1. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. State three (3) functions of an operating system. 7. 2. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. With the aid of a diagram. To reconcile conflicting demands.of resources that have already been allocated. jam in the card reader etc. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources.

What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. Scheduling 5. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. Paging C. Spooling B. RAM B. buffer C. G. cache D. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Thrashing D.d) Record management 3. A. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention.

Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. As mentioned before.g. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. spreadsheet. E. detects. MSBACKUP. draw pictures. Unix. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Quickview in Windows. PKZIP. banking. E. McAfee. Linux. E. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. graphics.Lecture 3 . Norton disk doctor. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. we use the computer to type documents. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. AVG etc.g. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. word processing. play games etc. WinZip. enter data into a database.g. E.g. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. create graphs. Trend Micro PC-cillin. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. E. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. database management. OS/2. removes viruses from a computer system.g. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . E. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. Norton Anti-virus. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. Examples include: accounting. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. Scandisk. do our accounting. There are two types of software: system software and application software. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. DOS etc. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. WinRAR.g. when to do it.

Bold. Visi-Calc. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Network Operating Systems (NOS). AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. page number. E. spell check. G. correction. Windows Media Player. Chess. Oracle. COBOL etc. C++. Wordstar. etc.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. E.g. User can enter numbers. margins. Page Maker. posters.g. footnotes. E. However. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. justify. Lotus 1-2-3. printing of documents. E. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. font size and type. Corel Draw. • Entertainment software These software include games.g.g. Symphony. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. mail merge. E. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. Operating System Concepts Mrs. E. fieldtype. Visual Basic. Pascal. Combine word processing and graphics packages.g. print. save. Outlook Express. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. newsletters. Dbase. Field. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. keys. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. which means that they will run on different computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . text in each cell. instructions. E. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. editing. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. query.g. Quattro Pro. WordPerfect. Can sort. Microsoft Excel.g. Features include:. formulas. Outlook (Email). table of contents. Solitaire etc. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. fieldsize.g. Foxpro. underline. Netscape Navigator. Monopoly. C. Microsoft Word. Web Browsers. WordPad.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. E. Foxpro.

The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. location 0.monitor. keyboard. hard disk.g. diskette drive. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. E. memory. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. 2. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. E. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. printer port. G. Open Office. hard-coded in the hardware). sector 0 of boot disk. For mainframes etc. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. 3. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. E. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i.g. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . Lotus Smartsuite. Differentiate between system software and application software. Give examples of the type chosen.g. b) A teacher calculating student grades. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. This is software embedded in hardware. mouse. Tutorial Questions 1. cd-rom drive. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company.g. Corel Wordperfect Suite. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . How does a word processor (e. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on.e. Microsoft Office. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . 8. 7. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. 6. Restore c. A. Utilities D. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. Application software B. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Scandisk b.4. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Research the various web browsers. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. Defrag 2. G. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. 5. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. System software C. Anti-virus d.

Disk defragmenter D. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk scanner C. G. Disk scanner C. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. A.7. Diagnostic utility D. A. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk defragmenter B. Diagnostic 9. Disk cleanup B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 .

File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. In other words. BMP. bytes. records. io. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. Common File types:text file . but not changed. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. It is a sequence of bits. archive. compressed. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on.ini. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot.Lecture 4 .TXT source file . its length etc.sys.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . In MS-DOS. DBF etc. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. "writing" to the file is disabled. hidden. It is a characteristic of a file. write. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. A file is a collection of related information.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . A file is named and is referred to by its name. Examples include read-only. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. msdos. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. system. the file. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. TIF database file – MDB. A read-only file can be viewed. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. date and time of creation. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. It is mapped onto a physical device. G. last modified. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created.JPG. It is a logical storage unit. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 .sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. COM graphics files . Read-only files can be deleted and moved. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. It has other properties such as its type.sys. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

read from the file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. copy file to an I/O device (printer.sys and boot. the archive attribute is turned off. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. rename a file etc. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. display). Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. compression isn't usually recommended. G. Open a file Check permissions.sys. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. delete the file • edit/modify the file. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. however. io. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. However. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. This way. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. 1. write to the file.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. Before you can use a file you must Open it. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. io.sys. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. ntdetect.com and ntldr. When finished with a file Close it.sys. The archive attribute is used for backup. rewind the file. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other.ini. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. Any file can be marked as Hidden. 2. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. Return error code if not. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file.

Describe five file operations. Practice MCQs 1. 3. 2. 3. com. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Tutorial Questions 1. 4. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. 2. exe. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. Describe five file attributes. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. 4. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. bmp). Append Writes information to the end of the file. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1.g. Describe the type of file. G. system searches directory to find location of file. jpg. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. then the write pointer is updated. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 5. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. doc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 .Find space on the file system. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates.

Identifier C. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Truncated D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 .b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Name B.

A file can be on more than 1 disk. This allows the file to be easily located. location. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape.g. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics.Lecture 5 . The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. 2. The device directory records information such as name. Studies showed that most files were small. These are all directory operations. To handle this problem. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape.400 feet). Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. size and type for all files on that device. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. creation date. The advantage of this approach is simplicity.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. but it suffers from some inefficiency. not physical.

A file name is prefixed by user name. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. system files and grouping files. Every file has a unique path name. UNIX. grouping and other operations such as deleting. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. Tree. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups).g.e. This structure is efficient for searching. Windows. All files are in the same directory. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. Users may also create their own subdirectories. All files must have unique names. It is easy to support and understand. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. In normal use. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. G. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Single level . each user has a current directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . to a specified file. This isolates one user from another. DOS.structures . The tree has a root directory.the simplest directory structure.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . can be access through more than one path). NB. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. The same file may be in two different directories (i. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. Note that files have multiple path names.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . G. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented.e. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. It is not the same as two copies. The following is an example using Unix.

A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. 4. Research the General-Graph directory. NTFS). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . 3. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. Practice MCQs 1. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. HPFS. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

Normally the CPU would sit idle. file pointers.). (i. the current instruction. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e.e. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. a tape. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it.g. G. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. addresses etc. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. This is also called concurrent processing.Lecture 6 .g. keyboard input etc.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. variables. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . normally the CPU would sit idle. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. another job can be using the CPU. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. for an I/O device).

Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Practice MCQs 1. Differentiate between a process and a program. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . CPU registers. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. values in variables. 3. accounting information.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. information associated with each process. file pointers etc. Describe the operation of the PCB. Waiting D. In other words. CPU scheduling information. memory management information. Tutorial Questions 1. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. New B. program counter. The location of current instructions. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). and I/O status information. Running C. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel.

however.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Time-sharing. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. G. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. Tutorial Questions 1. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. or network input could be granted to other users. tape. Similarly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. and giving processor time to another process. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. regardless of the number of users. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users.

determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . G. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .Scheduling concepts. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The following defines various scheduling concepts.Lecture 7 . . the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. . The programs therefore have to be scheduled. . criteria. An example is shown in the diagram below. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst .

At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. switches from an active to wait state or ii. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. it therefore must be very fast. Non pre-emptive scheduling . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . switches from an active to a ready state or iii. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. This scheme is called swapping.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. terminates. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . Medium Term Scheduler . 2. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. Pre-emptive scheduling . 4. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. Short term scheduler C. switches from wait state to ready or iv. 5. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. intermediate level of scheduling. Long term scheduler B.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. G. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. A. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. This involves a) switching context. 6. Medium term scheduler D. 3. Tutorial Questions 1.Some systems introduce an additional. Dispatcher . The long term scheduler executes much less frequently.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .

CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. response time D. turnaround time B.how busy you keep CPU. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. Describe the various scheduling criteria. waiting time C. G.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization .work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Practice MCQs 1. Tutorial Questions 1.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. • throughput .time from submission of request until the first response is produced.

P2.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. P3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. P3. G. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. for P2 = 0. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. P1. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. for P3 = 3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2.

g.by a person (e. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . • externally . G. memory requirements. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority.g. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. system administrator). If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. A priority number is associated with each job. 100 msec). This process is called aging. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. number of open files etc. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.

a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. In addition. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements.g. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. E. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. Campbell 51 . Tutorial Questions 1. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. In other words.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. generally based on some property of the job. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. such as memory size or job type.

which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. 3.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. FCFS ii. G. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . SJF. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. SJF iii. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. 4. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Priority iv. Priority.

Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. First come first served C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . G. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Starvation C. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Aging B.d) CPU scheduler 4. Shortest job first B. Fragmentation D. Priority scheduling D. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Round robin scheduling 10.

Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . all running at the same time. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. one thread for each processor in the computer. alleviating the need for data sharing. SMP is more complex than ASMP. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications.Lecture 8. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. independent executable components of applications) of execution. Any processor can run any type of thread. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. G. As a result. The main difference is in how the processors operate. the whole computer can go down. For this reason. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications.

Multiprogramming B. Multiprocessing C. A. Parallel processor C. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. 3. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . G. Practice MCQs 1. In parallel processing. multiprocessing C. multitasking B.g. multiprogramming 3. 3 Pentium II. Coprocessor B. 6. A. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. Multithreading D. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. 1 AMD. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. Tutorial Questions 1. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Multitasking D. 5.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous.g. Multiprogramming 2. multiuser D. 2. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. A. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing.

G. asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprocessing D. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. symmetric multiprocessing C.4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 .

Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory .Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. it still should not matter. G. 2. stack and system data. 3. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. data.Lecture 9 . we must share memory. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. though the code. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. Tutorial Questions 1. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. 4. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. If we must keep several processes in memory. 2. Research the MMU or PMMU. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. Memory mapping .Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location.

G.Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. cheap. Describe the different types of RAM. volatile cache memory. If another reference is made to this location. Compare and contrast them. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . 4. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. When a memory access is made. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. expensive. non-volatile disk storage. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. some medium speed. but very fast. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. G. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. with a small amount of very fast. which can be organized in a hierarchy. 3. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. Describe the different types of cache.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). 2. The higher levels are expensive. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. the contents of the accessed location. 5.

cache 3. cache. Cache B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy.Practice MCQs 1. hard disk c) Register. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Registers C. register. Main memory D. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. RAM. RAM. Magnetic Disk B. G. RAM. hard disk d) Hard disk. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. Electronic Disk C. cache b) Cache. RAM. Main Memory 6. Cache D. a) Hard disk. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. register. register.

and several specialized registers including a base register. flags register.Basic memory hardware – base register. Types of registers As previously stated. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. Memory. In general. Therefore. and flags. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. G. these include a program counter. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. high-speed storage area within the CPU. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. In high-level languages. stack. program counter. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. and even to programmers. and some addressing registers. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. For example. In other words. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. stack register. or RAM. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. It is a special.Lecture 10 . Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. Usually. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

and the number of words available to that segment. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. G. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Discuss the other types of registers.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. in which case it is a bounds register). 2. the so-called base.

The logical address space is used by user programs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. but the first address beyond the fence. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. 2. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The fence register is a type of bounds register. G. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit.Logical vs. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. b) placed in a fence register.Lecture 11 . Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. Tutorial Questions 1. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. Consider the segment table. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. the first address of the user program is not 00000.

500 3. 400 4. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 11 0. 10 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 430 2. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. G.

It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. excessive paging is not desirable. the system may actually do no useful work. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Describe the concept of swapping. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). Swapping maximizes available memory. G. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. Practice MCQs 1. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. In extreme cases. 2. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. Tutorial Questions 1. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. running it for a while. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory.

A. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . Swapping D.then putting it back on the disk. Scheduling B. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Paging C.

Compaction . Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. best fit. since all blocks are linked together. This solves the fragmentation problem. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. many files will be stored on the same disk. we can immediately access block b + n. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. linked. indexed. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 .This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. If too little space is allocated. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. For sequential access. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. Accessing a file. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.Lecture 13 . If the file to be created is n blocks long. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. To read a file. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. worst fit. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. G. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. Each block contains a pointer to the next block.

To read the nth block. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . A file currently consists of 100 blocks. added in the middle. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. added at the end. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. In order to conserve on space. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. a programmer. which is an array of disk block addresses. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. It is never necessary to compact disk space. removed from the middle. G. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods.is created. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. 5. Another problem is reliability. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Tutorial Questions 1. The directory contains the address of the index block. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Mr. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. John Brown. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. 4. It also does not suffer from wasted space. 3. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. To find the nth block of a file. removed from the start. needs to work with certain files.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. When a region is free. No space is wasted initially. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. However. G. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the partition sizes are set and do not change. Partition sizes vary dynamically. This however comes with a lot of overhead. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). In variable partition multi-programming.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. Each region may have one program to be executed. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

What are they? Practice MCQs 1. G. Single and multiple D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Multiple and fixed B. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Fixed and variable C.

Fragmentation – internal. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. the extra space wasted. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. Practice MCQs 1. 2. G. Tutorial Questions 1.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. segmentation. E. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. What is virtual memory? 2. Virtual memory D. 2) arrays lists.g. List the various virtual memory strategies. Register C. Cache B. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. G. Practice MCQs 1. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. A. partitioning. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. 1) code to handle errors. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. usually the hard disk. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory.Lecture 15 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . Memory management procedures such as paging. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. which functions as additional memory. Tutorial Questions 1.

1). VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). VA is determined from the compiled address.(page size . Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks.A virtual address is represented as <page. the offset is a number in the range 0 . G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.

If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory.page size is 4K blocks by default). The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. In reality.Lecture 16 . Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. a file is made up of 4 pages. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. in the following diagram. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. This is done by a hardware component. (E. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. Novell Netware . The page table organizes the pages. G. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space.g. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. For example. The first page is in memory location 1. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. the other is in memory location 4. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. They are therefore scattered in memory. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. which also holds other programs. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. containing only this one program. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. sometimes called a memory management unit.

Discuss PTBR and TLB. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. 3. 4. Describe paging. 2. Explain the concept of a page table. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 .

Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. LFU. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. NB. MFU. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. This does not suffer from the anomaly. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. In other words. The algorithms are FIFO.Lecture 17 . Optimal replacement. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . This has the lowest page fault rate. the page that has been used the least so far. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. This is hardware and overhead intensive. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. In other words. This method never suffers from the anomaly. which may be difficult. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 .Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. LRU. G. Locked pages cannot be replaced. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. the page that has already been used the most.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used.

Least regularly used C. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 8. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 6. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. 5. 1. LRU? 2. LRU? 3. 3. 2. Least recently used B. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 2. Counting based page replacement D. LFU. 2. LRU stands for: A. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 8. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. LFU. FIFO. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 4.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 9. 8. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 4. 3. 7. Least recently used page replacement C. 5. 2. What page would be replaced next using MFU. Optimal page replacement B. 3. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 4. FIFO. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 5. 8. 9. 4. G. Practice MCQs 1. 5. 8. 9. 2. 3. Likely regularly used D. What is a page fault? 5. 9.

Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. G. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. Advantages Demand paging.Lecture 18 . as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. This is known as demand paging. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Therefore. or you can load in the page when required. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. As there is more space in main memory. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete.

• Programs running on low-cost. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Tutorial Questions 1. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. Practice MCQs 1. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Possible security risks. G. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex.

A. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. 25 9. Buffering C. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. 23 D. Thrashing B. G. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 4 000 bytes B. Spooling D. 8. 40 B. 26 C. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. 4 096 bytes C. 3 648 bytes 10. Paging B. 3 670 bytes D. Frame allocation D. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. How many pages does it need? A. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. Belady’s anomaly C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB.

The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. A segment table is maintained for each process. Given a logical address (segment. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. they use segmentation.d). offset) = (s. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Instead. which are of fixed size. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. G.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k.

What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. G. 3. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. offset>. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. 7. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. 2. Operating System Concepts Mrs. ii. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Tutorial Questions 1. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. 4. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 .8. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. G. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap.random access memory . Block . Each location has a 0 or 1. 2. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. (i. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. A block on a disk is the sector.e. To improve the performance of a disk. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. size and speed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. numbered from 0. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. Tutorial Questions 1. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. Disk capacity therefore doubled.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. each one with its own address. but the data can be read immediately.Lecture 20 . G. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1.another name for main storage. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. so that the location is known. RAM and Optical disks RAM . The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks).

It is small hardware memory . Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc .RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. read many) EO (erasable optical) .magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. calculators. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. This does not provide permanent storage. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Tutorial Questions 1. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. DVD R+. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. Discuss RAM disks. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. DVD R-? 3. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly.g. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. What is the difference between DVD R. They are used to store both video and audio files. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . palm tops. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. How do they differ from other disks? 2. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast.sometimes called associative registers.read only memory) . Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. E.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe disk caching. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 .Tutorial Questions 1. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. G.

sector etc. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. G. surface. due to power-cut). Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. To improve the performance of a disk. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. cylinder. The coating however will wear after enough use. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 .) 3. Head crash . The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. the disk address (drive. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. is this an input or output operation? 2.g. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. memory address 4.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology.Lecture 21 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. Tutorial Questions 1.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). G. Other definitions • Positioning time . What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as transfer rate.

Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. For example. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. In other words. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. G. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. in alternating directions. until it gets to other end of disk. satisfying requests. It however may cause starvation of some requests. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. At the other end it reverses direction. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). otherwise the request will be queued. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. servicing requests as it reaches each track. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. For example.

35. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. 22. 46. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Explain how it works. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. Practice MCQs 1. Tutorial Questions 1. numbered 0 to 199. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. 46 d) 73. 17. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 73. 80 b) 46. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. which is in great demand. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. If the queue of requests is 8.5. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 22. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 91. 48.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. If the queue of requests is 80. 22.3. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 80. 60. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 73. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 73. 147. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. G. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 80 c) 73.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 2. and where to commence the next sweep. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 46. 5. 46. 80.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Describe the non-standard RAID levels. 4. Discuss the term RAID. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks .which function as a slow RAID-1. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. it can also be done at the operating system level. 2. As an example. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Describe the standard RAID levels..g.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. but can be expanded with further volumes. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. In the example. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. G. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. e. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). Tutorial Questions 1. 3. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. In order to recover you restore all files. things can still go wrong. The father then becomes the grandfather. father. then the entire backup is useless. G. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. Restore changes from audit. To restore . Father. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. The following describes the different types of backup. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). dry. Backup all files (main backup). the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. A backup is a duplicate of a file. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. damaged. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . or destroyed. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. • • • • Grand father. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files.restore the main backup first.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 .save to CD 1 etc.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. then changes since (incremental backup). Disadvantage . the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son.if one change is messed up.cool.

• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. 4. how often do you back up? If not. Practice MCQs 1. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. 6. 3. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. Tutorial Questions 1. G. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. How did you solve the problem (e. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Do you backup? If yes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 .g. 2. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3.

Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. mail server. database server. 3. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. but requests a server's content or service function.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 .File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. A client does not share any of its resources. Discuss the other types of servers (e.Lecture 24 . The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. called clients. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. the open request is channelled to the file server. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. the location of a file is transparent to users. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. Discuss the concept of a file server. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. G. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. If a user opens a non-local file.) 4. who access remote files in the same way as local files. In this scheme. print server etc. Tutorial Questions 1. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware.

• Better file abstraction. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. sector>. A file system provides a service for clients. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. • This is a convenient way to share data. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. When data are requested. although hidden. etc. • In a conventional file system. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. is hidden. • In a transparent DFS. one-to-many mapping. Dynamic. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes.Lecture 25 . Operating System Concepts Mrs.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. on files. the location of a file. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. G.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. it's understood where the file actually resides. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. the system and disk are known. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. In a networked environment users want to share data files. somewhere in the network. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. Resources on other machines are remote. read. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. • File name still denotes a specific. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . set of physical disk blocks. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder.

includes the file’s logical storage location C. Tutorial Questions 1. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . reveals the file’s physical storage location B. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. G. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. • Do NOT support migration. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. Practice MCQs 1. 3. 2. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. Research and give examples of various DFSs.

the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor.75 = 1.screen graphics. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 .375E -3) . display . do input/output operations. 2. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. -3 = characteristic or exponent. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory.375E +1) . E.001375 = 1.g. A more common use was to control input/output channels.g.Lecture 26 .375 x 10-3 (1. and keyboard operations. 13. However. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. 10 = base/radix.375 = mantissa/argument. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. execute program flow control instructions. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. E. manage memory etc.375 x 101 (1. G.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. ‘dual-core’. ‘superscalar’. Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 .3. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. G. 4.

They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction.g. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. however the differences extend further. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . Some computers. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. Operating System Concepts Mrs. MOVE. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. (More instructions per clock cycle). called the micro-program (or firmware). At that time. number of registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. E. E. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. This software.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. It is actually an interpreter. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. G. RISC .Lecture 27 . and comparing values.g. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. In other words. addressing modes. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. do not have a microprogramming level. it lists the things that the processor can do. doing arithmetic. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets.reduced instruction set computer. On these machines. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. This is the normal type of computer.complex instruction set computer. Until the mid-1980s. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. RISC. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. however. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space.

the results are discarded and there is no loss. and make them cheaper to manufacture. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. Reduced instruction set machines. which would require fewer transistors1. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. unlike complex instruction set machine. a PowerPC has 32 registers. and begins execution of the corresponding code.In the mid 1970s. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math.I. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . G. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. high-speed caches. and better pipelining. Due to these developments. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used.S. If the processor guessed correctly.P. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. advanced compilers. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Typically. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. For example. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . who developed the M. Only load and store instructions access memory . most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. it has gained time. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. For this reason. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions.

an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. In 1977. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. G. Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. This was largely due to a lack of software support. By 1994. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. producing faster and cheaper processors . Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. In contrast.000. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. To some extent. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. Without commercial interest.

Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. SPARCserver. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. Ultra1. In the SPARC.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. Windows NT. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. other manufacturers. Apple Computer. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. G. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Since then. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems.5 and higher). SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. and Motorola Corporation. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. all instructions are 32-bits in length. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. which appeared in 1994. . There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. and OS/2. including IBM. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Apple introduced the Power Mac. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. have built PCs based on the PowerPC.

it costs less than £10. An alternative architecture. In a nutshell. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. The Amiga. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. In contrast to RISC. code size has become a non-issue.design. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. In a microprogrammed2 system. Pronounced sisk. At that time. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). However. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. use a CISC architecture. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. fast code. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. This also improved performance. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. G. Most personal computers. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. Atari. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. and stands for complex instruction set computer. computers executed instructions sequentially. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. which supports fewer instructions. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. easier implementation of new chips.

In particular. has the following modes: to/from a register. However. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. there are more than 30. The VAX. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . G. an example of a complex instruction set computer. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. to/from a specific location in memory. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. to/from an address pointed to by a register. In the VAX. Due to the large number of addressing modes.market factors. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. typically about 8 registers. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. which can operate directly on memory.according to their byte length. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. etc. This is a result of having instructions.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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g. adding data twice. information. This can lead to things like software piracy.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Loss of data. Physical damage to computer. May need to re-install software. Loss of income due to software piracy. Loss of computer and data. software. or processing capability. Loss of sales due to piracy. Loss of time. Loss of files/data. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. power surges. vandalism. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . young child) Technical error – system failure e. Loss of computer. or marketing plans). or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e.g. medical information. loss of time in having to re-enter data. lightening.g. Loss of data. Damage to computer due to improper use. hard disk crash. loss of time. Theft. entering incorrect data. fire. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. pricing data. Effect Loss of data. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. not adequately trained/experienced (e.g. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. Identity theft. Huge repair bill. hurricane. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. personal history.g. flood. data. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. delete a file by accident.. customer lists. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. Category Human error – e. low voltage.. theft of marketing information (e. or sexual preference). Illegal access to files.

G. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. Once it is running.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. A computer virus shares some of these traits. A biological virus is not a living thing. and the cell remains alive. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Operating System Concepts Mrs. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Obviously. Unlike a cell. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. and then starts replicating from there. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. There are similarities at a deeper level. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. releasing the virus. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. It may be benign or have a negative effect. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. as well. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. Instead.it is not alive. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. as well. In some cases. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. In other cases. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity.

g. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. which can cause severe damage to databases. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form.g. Trend Micro-PCcillin).g. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Define the term cryptography. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. so it can be understood. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. hackers). which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Tutorial Questions 1. Authentication. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Encryption. However. called a ciphertext. Norton Antivirus. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Zone Alarm). Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. This must be updated regularly. (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. the correct decryption key is required. while authentication is proving it.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. McAfee. Virus protection. Unlike a virus or worm. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages.

5.eccouncil. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6.2. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. G. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. He is able to view all employee data except salary. John has a password to the human resource system. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2.org/ 3. Discuss various encryption software.

There are a large number of built-in servers. Java. then he can still see such files. like UNIX. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. You can set attributes on files e. There is limited or no security. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. and speech recognition. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. Solaris. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user.g.SYS. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information.SYS and MSDOS. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. G. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. which means its code is available to the public. Read. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. Linux. Linux is a popular. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Hidden etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. Operating System Concepts Mrs. You can set expiration dates on passwords. the Internet. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. only on the network. This is usually done to the system files such as IO.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time.

Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. object access. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. fields. There is also secured wireless access. privilege use and system events. records (views). There are audit logs and audit trails. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy.g. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. There is also auditing which records login. lockout policies. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). service permissions. directories/libraries. It allows directory access control. event log. change. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. policy changes.g. You can set security on admin tasks (e. file vault and firewall. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times.read only. Windows NT has security holes. most reliable Windows operating system. Windows XP has increased security. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. It also supports encryption. Templates include password policies. user rights. There is also support for biometric devices. changing settings). NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. file system permissions. There are also different levels of authority . read/write capability. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. virus). You are able to create multiple user accounts. delete etc. This accepts user id and password. account management. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. Software restrictions . commands. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. There is also a screen saver password.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. G. startup modes.

There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. entertainment. Create. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs.Windows CE . What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. You can encrypt communication. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Netware accepts a userid and password. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . Erase. There is a screen saver password. Tutorial Questions 1. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. Read.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Modify. and FileScan (sees filenames). Write. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. G. called the Pocket PC.

http://www. Tanenbaum. 7th E. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. (2004).: USA. Galvin. Shelly G.). Prentice Hall: USA. T. Modern Operating Systems. Operating Systems Concepts. (2006).. (3rd Ed.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. G. KY:Course Technology Publishing.webopedia. (2007). Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers.J. Silberschatz.d. & Cashman. Gagne. John Wiley & Sons Inc. G. Discovering computers 2008. Andrew S.B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Abraham. P.B..com.

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