OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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............. 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs...................................................................................................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ............INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ................................ 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................. 80 FIFO ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................. 65 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL................................................................................................. 76 LECTURE 16 ........................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................... 65 LECTURE 13 ......................................................................................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............. 72 PARTITIONS............................ 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ 70 PRACTICE MCQS .................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ................ 81 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................. 82 ADVANTAGES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...... EXTERNAL... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ............. 81 LECTURE 18 .............................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ................................................................ 74 PRACTICE MCQS ................................ 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ............................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................ 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 75 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR).................................... 79 LECTURE 17 .............................................................................................................. G................................................ 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ............................................... 75 LECTURE 15 ................................................................. 82 DISADVANTAGES .................................................................................................................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS .............................................................................................................................................................. 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ......................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ..........DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ..................................................... WORST-FIT ................................. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 79 DISADVANTAGES: .............. BEST-FIT..TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................. 78 ADVANTAGES: ............................................................................

..................... 101 LECTURE 25 ........................................ 93 First come first served (FCFS) .................................................................................................................. 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 89 DISK CACHING .............. G............................ 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs................................. 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ...........................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .............................................................................................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................THRASHING............................ 91 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................ 92 DISK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................. 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................. 100 LECTURE 24 ....................................... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ....................................................................................................................................................... FATHER.... 87 LECTURE 20 .......................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ........................................................................ 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 RAID LEVELS ............................................................................... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) .... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................ 99 BACKUP TIPS ................................................ 88 INTRODUCTION ................................................ 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) .......................................................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ........................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...............................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ..................................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ..... 100 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................................................................................................................... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................. 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................ 103 PRACTICE MCQS .................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ................................. 90 LECTURE 21 ........................................ 94 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................ 88 BLOCKS .................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ...................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............. 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ................................................................................................ 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................................................................................................................... 99 GRAND FATHER..........................................................................................

............................... 117 Encryption .................. 117 AUTHENTICATION............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) . 108 Examples of RISC Processors.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 Advantages of RISC ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Worm ....................... G.................................................................................................... 118 CASE STUDIES .............. 119 MS-DOS.................................................. 120 MacOS .... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ................................... 105 LECTURE 27 .................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/400 ......................................................................................................................................................... 112 CRISC............................. 104 DISADVANTAGES ................................................. 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .............. 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION................. 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... 120 Microsoft Windows .. 110 Advantages of CISC ............................................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................ ENCRYPTION..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ..... 117 Virus protection............................................................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ................................................................................ 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ........................................................................................................................ 111 Disadvantages of CISC .................. 119 UNIX............................... 117 Firewall.............. 117 Authentication .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 116 Denial-of-service......................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR).......................................................................... FIREWALL .................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ............................................ 117 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................. 119 OS/2 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs..................................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 116 Trojan Horse .......................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY....................................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ...................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC. 104 PRACTICE MCQS .................................. 116 Logic bomb ......................................................... 104 ADVANTAGES ........................... 116 Virus ....................... 120 Novell Netware .................................... 109 CISC .................................................................................................................

....................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ........................................ 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs....TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ G................. 121 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................

virtual memory. 4. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. students should be able to: 1. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. 2. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 .Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. device and memory management. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. interrupt handling. 5. students should: 1. G.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. manipulate operating systems 4. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . process scheduling. 3.

students should be able to: a.Content: 1. b. G. File-system manipulation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . g. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Tree-Structured. d. c. Resource Allocation. 4. students should be able to: 1. Error Detection 3. The history and development of the operating system. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. System Software b. 5. Program execution. User Interface. 3. Two-level. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Spooling). Introduction: a. b. Operating Systems Functions: a. Communications. Directory Systems – Single-level. e. System Startup. File Operations 2. h. Define operating system. I/O – (Buffering. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Storage. 2. Application Software c. f. Software and Firmware: a. 2. Protection and Security. File Concepts – File Attributes.

non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. 3. Time Sharing 2. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. best-fit. a. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. 7. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 8. 6. Scheduling criteria 4. Shortest Job First 5. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. 8. Scheduler. students should be able to: 1. b. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . G. Multiprogramming. 5. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. limit register Logical vs. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. 2. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Round Robin. 6.i. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. 7. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 3. Priority. Shortest Remaining Time. 4. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. j. 2. Dispatcher 3. 5. 4. Preemptive scheduling.

explain thrashing Content: 1. MFU f. explain disk caching 7. define page 3. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Segmentation – segment table. Virtual address space 2. address translation 6. frames. address structure. page table. Pure paging – pages. Demand paging 5. Page replacement a. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. FIFO b. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Optimal replacement c. 2. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. G. 4. define frame 4. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. students should be able to: 1. 5. state the advantages of disk caching 8. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. explain segmentation 9. address translation 3. explain the purpose of the page table 5. Allocation algorithms 4. LRU d. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. 3. students should be able to: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . LFU e.

LOOK. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . write. 2. seek time rotational latency 5. 4. 4. SSTF. incremental backup. 3. C-SCAN 6. 5. Disk caching 7. G. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. location transparency. Distributed file systems – naming. 3. 2. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. students should be able to: 1. log-structured systems 2. SCAN. 5. Disk scheduling – FCFS. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. RAID 1. 4. File server systems – client-server computing 3. 2. students should be able to: 1. 3.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. positioning time.

Virus protection. Internal Tests 20% 3. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. logic bomb. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . worm. & Gagne. Common Coursework 20% 2.1. 5. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. 4. define security 2. virus. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. (2008). 3. G. students should be able to: 1. P. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. advantage. Operating systems concepts. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Denial-of-service Authentication. 4.. 2. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. RISC / CISC – development. Galvin. G. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. 3. Apple Macintosh. Encryption. (8th ed).B. A. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. UNIX. OS/2. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse.

) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. G. NJ: Prentice Hall. An introduction to operating systems. (2005).(6th ed.Recommended: Tanenbaum. A. Modern operating systems (3rd ed. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. (1999). W. Operating System Concepts Mrs. W.S. (2007).).).

I/O devices etc. We use the computer because we want to type a document. Linux. We do not use the computer because of these software. DOS.database systems. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . business programs. Unix.CPU. G. it typically has an operating system already installed. memory.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. As new versions of the operating system are released. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . surf the internet. spreadsheets etc. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. • users . word processors. other computers etc. These are all examples of operating systems. do our budget etc. play a game. is to make the computer convenient to use. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. machines. When you purchase a new computer. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs.people. MacOS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . Its primary goal therefore. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. video games. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system.

A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. filing system. 2000 Server). Microsoft Windows Server 2003. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. UNIX. 200 Professional. 98.By itself. NT Workstation. command language. track. block) and job control. Windows XP. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. UNIX. G. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. 95. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. ME). A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. computers. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. so no need to know which sector. 3. notebook computer. and other devices to and from the network.g. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. and Linux. Network and Embedded. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. OS/2 Warp Client.x. data management (control of I/O devices. and Linux. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server.g. or mobile computing device. Mac OS X. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. storage management.

the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven.g.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. 8. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. airline reservation system. • Transaction processing . Gives instructions to the hardware b. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. in order to improve CPU utilization.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . G.NET. Define operating system.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. Practice MCQs 1. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. and Symbian OS. 10. research its new features and comment on them.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. • General Purpose . Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. comment on its new features. • Time sharing . Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . what does this mean? 9. E.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. Pocket PC 2002. Tutorial Questions 1. An operating system is a program that a. 5. 6. If no. 2. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Palm OS. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. • Foreground background . Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. all the terminals are connected to the same program. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. Controls the user c. Is controlled by application software d. 7. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. 4. However.

Application programs C. Select the correct sequence a. Hardware B.2. system software. application software. application software d. Fence d. Executive 4. hardware c. A. G. hardware. system software. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. user. Superstructure c. hardware. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. system software 3. application software. Operating System D. Segment b. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. User. application software. system software b. Hardware. User. User.

but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. which would then go on to the next program. In the early days machines were hand operated. Initially when the computer was turned on. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. mounting magnetic tapes etc. G. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. E. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. when a job stopped. There were still problems however. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. improved utilization quite a bit. he would unload tapes. These changes. When a job was done. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. determine why the program stopped. I/O devices were slow. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. it would return control to the resident monitor.66 per hour). then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. This monitor is always resident in memory.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. as soon as one job was finished. would run each batch. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. (E. the operator was slow. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. which would transfer control to a program. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console.. when the program terminated. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. the operator . Programmers would leave their programs with the operators.g. In those days machines were slow. an operator could start the next job. that is. the CPU sat idle.

Historically. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. The trend today. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. high level user oriented programming languages. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. Multics.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Michigan Terminal System. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. By 1970 multiprocessing. read data from tape and not from card). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . In addition.e. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. (i. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). G. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. Only the device driver must be changed. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. WYLBUR. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Some operating systems still are device dependent. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. MUSIC/SP. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. however.

0) AIX 1. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.0 Mac OS (System 1.0 SunOS 3.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. G. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.0 Windows NT 3.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 OS/2 (1.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. 4. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 2.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.6 Windows NT 4. Describe the historical development of operating systems.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. 3.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. 6. 5. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.10 Mac OS X v 10. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1.2 FreeBSD 8.

All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Third Generation D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Second Generation C. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. First Generation B.

and loads them into memory from storage. Finally. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. G. single user/multitasking.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. This is done on a network. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. If the POST completes successfully. the operating system loads configuration information. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. the operating system may use virtual memory. and displays the desktop.Lecture 2 . The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. or multiprocessing. requests any necessary user information. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. Managing programs refers to how many users. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . an operating system can support at one time. If memory is insufficient. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. When a user turns on a computer. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. multiuser. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. which manages memory and devices. and how many programs.

A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. move files.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. With a graphical user interface (GUI). A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. menu-driven interface. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. delete files and create folders. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. grammar and punctuation. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. give a user more control over setting details. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. As in a restaurant. G. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. Command-line interfaces however. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. and graphical user interface. A job is an operation the processor manages. generate an error message.

is satisfied by reading from the disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. In disk systems. The CPU can then move on to do other things. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. Requests for card reader input. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. G.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself.

or recover from one. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. To prevent deadlock. Example:. either normally or abnormally. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. mutual exclusion . Pre-emption of resources. Hold and wait .ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. the operating system must provide some means to do so. Operating System Concepts Mrs.e. G. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.g.must hold for non sharable resources (e.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. (a read only file is sharable) 2.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. 1. The program must be able to end its execution. Deadlock prevention . which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. terminate process). All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously).If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources.

5. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. Errors may occur in the CPU. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process.of resources that have already been allocated. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. G. 2. memory. With the aid of a diagram. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 .each process can request resources only in increasing order). name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. 3. 7. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. 6. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. jam in the card reader etc. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. No pre-emption (No taking away) . To reconcile conflicting demands.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . 4. Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the conditions for deadlock. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. Circular wait . each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. State three (3) functions of an operating system.3. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs.

buffer C. Spooling B. Paging C. G. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. Scheduling 5. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. cache D. A. Thrashing D. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. RAM B.d) Record management 3.

E. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. we use the computer to type documents. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. detects. Unix. McAfee. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. There are two types of software: system software and application software. Trend Micro PC-cillin.g.g. WinRAR. Norton disk doctor. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. DOS etc. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. word processing. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. banking. MSBACKUP.Lecture 3 . Quickview in Windows. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. Linux. E. E. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. AVG etc. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. do our accounting.g. E. enter data into a database. PKZIP. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . Examples include: accounting. G. play games etc. graphics. database management. As mentioned before.g. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. E. WinZip. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. removes viruses from a computer system. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. E. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. Norton Anti-virus. create graphs. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. when to do it. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks.g. spreadsheet. Scandisk.g. draw pictures. OS/2.

Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. formulas. posters. keys. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. User can enter numbers. Visual Basic. C++. Solitaire etc. table of contents. fieldtype. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present.g. Chess. E. C. Oracle. mail merge. footnotes. Microsoft Excel. Features include:. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business.Bold. Pascal. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Combine word processing and graphics packages. Outlook (Email). Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. which means that they will run on different computers. G. query.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Microsoft Word. etc. Symphony. Lotus 1-2-3. Wordstar. justify. COBOL etc.g.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. E. Page Maker.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. printing of documents. page number. WordPad. Quattro Pro. E. E. Netscape Navigator.g. fieldsize. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. E. Web Browsers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . margins. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. Field. underline. save. E. correction. Foxpro. instructions. Windows Media Player.g. Corel Draw. Visi-Calc. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. font size and type. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. print. • Entertainment software These software include games. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. WordPerfect. E.g. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Can sort. spell check. However. editing. Monopoly. E.g. Network Operating Systems (NOS). text in each cell. Outlook Express. Foxpro. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Dbase.g. newsletters.

When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . Give examples of the type chosen. 2. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. location 0. printer port.g. b) A teacher calculating student grades. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. 3. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 .g. How does a word processor (e. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. E. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. Differentiate between system software and application software. For mainframes etc. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware.monitor. Lotus Smartsuite. cd-rom drive.g. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. hard-coded in the hardware). G. memory. Microsoft Office. Tutorial Questions 1. keyboard. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. This is software embedded in hardware. sector 0 of boot disk. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. Corel Wordperfect Suite. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. hard disk. mouse. diskette drive. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. E. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Open Office.e.g. E.g.

Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. Restore c. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. System software C. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 .4. G. Anti-virus d. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. A. 7. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Research the various web browsers. 5. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. Utilities D. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. Application software B. Defrag 2. 6. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Scandisk b. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. 8.

Diagnostic utility D. G. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. Disk defragmenter B. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk scanner C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk defragmenter D.7. Disk cleanup B. Disk scanner C. A. A. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Diagnostic 9.

File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. but not changed. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. hidden. It has other properties such as its type. In other words. DBF etc. "writing" to the file is disabled. COM graphics files . compressed. A file is named and is referred to by its name. A read-only file can be viewed. msdos.sys. bytes. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. io. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . write.sys. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . Read-only files can be deleted and moved. Operating System Concepts Mrs. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot.JPG. It is a logical storage unit. Common File types:text file . records. TIF database file – MDB. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. archive. date and time of creation.Lecture 4 . BMP.TXT source file . In MS-DOS. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. It is a characteristic of a file. Examples include read-only.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. the file. It is mapped onto a physical device. G. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. system. It is a sequence of bits.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. its length etc. A file is a collection of related information.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created.ini. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. last modified. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use.

com and ntldr. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. rewind the file. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views.ini. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. read from the file.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. write to the file. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. This way. Before you can use a file you must Open it.sys and boot. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . the archive attribute is turned off.sys. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. ntdetect. io. Open a file Check permissions. G. When finished with a file Close it. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Any file can be marked as Hidden. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. Return error code if not. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. display). rename a file etc. however. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos.sys. However.sys. compression isn't usually recommended. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. The archive attribute is used for backup. 1. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. io. copy file to an I/O device (printer. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. 2. delete the file • edit/modify the file.

5. Describe five file attributes. jpg. Describe five file operations. 2. doc. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . bmp). Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Describe the type of file. com. system searches directory to find location of file. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file.Find space on the file system.g. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. then the write pointer is updated. Practice MCQs 1. 4. Append Writes information to the end of the file. 2. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. 3. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. exe. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. G. 3. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 4. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written.

Identifier C. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Name B.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . G. Truncated D.

creation date. but it suffers from some inefficiency. not physical.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. The device directory records information such as name. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. G. location. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. These are all directory operations. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon .400 feet). Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. A file can be on more than 1 disk. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. 2. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. Studies showed that most files were small. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape.g. To handle this problem.Lecture 5 . since physical tape reels are quite large (e. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. This allows the file to be easily located. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. size and type for all files on that device.

Single level . A file name is prefixed by user name. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. In normal use. G. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. each user has a current directory. to a specified file. Operating System Concepts Mrs.structures . This isolates one user from another.the simplest directory structure. Every file has a unique path name. DOS. The tree has a root directory.e. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . This structure is efficient for searching. Tree. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. All files must have unique names. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). Windows. grouping and other operations such as deleting. UNIX. system files and grouping files. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user.g. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. It is easy to support and understand. All files are in the same directory. Users may also create their own subdirectories.

A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is not the same as two copies. The same file may be in two different directories (i.e. can be access through more than one path). NB. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. The following is an example using Unix.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . G. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. Note that files have multiple path names. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.

All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. HPFS. NTFS). Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. 4. G. Research the General-Graph directory. 3. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1.

Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. variables. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. file pointers. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. Normally the CPU would sit idle. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. for an I/O device).). addresses etc.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . keyboard input etc. Eventually the job may have to wait for something.g.e. normally the CPU would sit idle. (i. G. the current instruction. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive.g. a tape.Lecture 6 . another job can be using the CPU. This is also called concurrent processing.

memory management information. Describe the operation of the PCB. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. Running C. New B. CPU registers. accounting information. program counter. file pointers etc. The location of current instructions. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Tutorial Questions 1. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. information associated with each process. G. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. Differentiate between a process and a program. CPU scheduling information. In other words. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 .transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. and I/O status information. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. values in variables. Waiting D. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Practice MCQs 1. 3.

G. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. or network input could be granted to other users. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. regardless of the number of users. Tutorial Questions 1. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 .Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. tape. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. Similarly. and giving processor time to another process. Time-sharing. Operating System Concepts Mrs. however. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input.

The following defines various scheduling concepts.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . The programs therefore have to be scheduled. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . . . . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place.Lecture 7 . Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. . the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. criteria. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . G. An example is shown in the diagram below. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Scheduling concepts.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later.Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait.

it therefore must be very fast. G. 6. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. switches from an active to wait state or ii. Dispatcher . 3. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. This involves a) switching context. terminates. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Long term scheduler B. A.Some systems introduce an additional. intermediate level of scheduling.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. 4.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. Medium Term Scheduler . Short term scheduler C.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . Non pre-emptive scheduling . The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. 2. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. Pre-emptive scheduling . Research alternate names for the various schedulers. switches from wait state to ready or iv. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. 5. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. Tutorial Questions 1. This scheme is called swapping. Medium term scheduler D.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .

G.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . turnaround time B.how busy you keep CPU. Practice MCQs 1. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . response time D.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Describe the various scheduling criteria. Tutorial Questions 1. • throughput .time from submission of request until the first response is produced. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. waiting time C.

P3. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. for P2 = 0. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . P2. for P3 = 3. P1. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. G. P3. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system.

100 msec).by a person (e. A priority number is associated with each job. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units.g. number of open files etc. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q.g.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. This process is called aging. system administrator). Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. memory requirements. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. G. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. • externally .

• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm.g. G. generally based on some property of the job. In other words. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. E. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. such as memory size or job type. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. In addition. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Campbell 51 . and so might have different scheduling algorithms. Tutorial Questions 1. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue.

Priority. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. SJF iii. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. 3. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. G. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. Priority iv. FCFS ii. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. SJF. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. First come first served C. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Round robin scheduling 10. Aging B. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A.d) CPU scheduler 4. Starvation C. Shortest job first B. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Fragmentation D. Priority scheduling D.

A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. The main difference is in how the processors operate. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. SMP is more complex than ASMP. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor.Lecture 8. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. all running at the same time. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. independent executable components of applications) of execution. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. the whole computer can go down. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . one thread for each processor in the computer. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. Any processor can run any type of thread. alleviating the need for data sharing. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. The remainder of the processors run user applications. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. As a result. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. G. For this reason. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously.

5.g. multitasking B. G. A. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. Parallel processor C.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. A. A. Multitasking D. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiuser D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. 3 Pentium II. 6. 4. Multithreading D. Practice MCQs 1. Multiprogramming 2. multiprogramming 3. In parallel processing. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. 1 AMD.g. Multiprocessing C. 3. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Multiprogramming B. Coprocessor B. multiprocessing C. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing.

multiprocessing D. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A.4. G. symmetric multiprocessing C. asymmetric multiprocessing B.

It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. 2. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. it still should not matter. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. If we must keep several processes in memory.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. 3. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous.Lecture 9 . stack and system data. Operating System Concepts Mrs. we must share memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. Research the MMU or PMMU. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. though the code. 4. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. Memory mapping .the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. G. 2. data. Tutorial Questions 1. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment.

G. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .

There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. non-volatile disk storage. 4. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). 3. the contents of the accessed location. If another reference is made to this location. 2. with a small amount of very fast. volatile cache memory. G. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. which can be organized in a hierarchy. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. When a memory access is made. Compare and contrast them. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. Describe the different types of cache. 5. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. some medium speed. Describe the different types of RAM. expensive. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. but very fast. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. cheap. The higher levels are expensive. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Cache B. register. hard disk c) Register. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Cache D. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. Registers C. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. cache b) Cache. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. cache 3. G. Magnetic Disk B. Electronic Disk C. RAM. register. RAM. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Main memory D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . RAM. Main Memory 6. cache. hard disk d) Hard disk. a) Hard disk.Practice MCQs 1. RAM. register. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy.

For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. and some addressing registers.Basic memory hardware – base register. stack register. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. In general. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. stack. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. these include a program counter. high-speed storage area within the CPU. For example. and flags. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. It is a special. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Therefore. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. and several specialized registers including a base register. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. Usually. Types of registers As previously stated. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. flags register. In other words. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. or RAM. In high-level languages. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . program counter. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). and even to programmers. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires.Lecture 10 . memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Memory. G. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range.

in which case it is a bounds register). A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. Tutorial Questions 1. G. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. the so-called base. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. Discuss the other types of registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. and the number of words available to that segment.

The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000.Logical vs. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. Consider the segment table. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. b) placed in a fence register.Lecture 11 . Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. G. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. Operating System Concepts Mrs. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The logical address space is used by user programs. The fence register is a type of bounds register. the first address of the user program is not 00000. but the first address beyond the fence. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping.

Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 10 1. 430 2. 500 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 11 0. 400 4.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 112 Practice MCQs 1.

Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. excessive paging is not desirable. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). running it for a while. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Swapping maximizes available memory. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. the system may actually do no useful work. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. G. In extreme cases. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Describe the concept of swapping. Practice MCQs 1. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken.

Swapping D. Scheduling B. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Paging C.then putting it back on the disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . A.

External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. G. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. worst fit. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. linked. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. Accessing a file.Lecture 13 . To read a file. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Compaction . Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. since all blocks are linked together. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. For sequential access. This solves the fragmentation problem. we can immediately access block b + n. If too little space is allocated. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. best fit. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. indexed. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the file to be created is n blocks long.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. many files will be stored on the same disk. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. Overestimating the file size also wastes space.

Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. removed from the start. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. To read the nth block. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. To find the nth block of a file. G. In order to conserve on space. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. It is never necessary to compact disk space. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. It also does not suffer from wasted space. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. added at the end. 4. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file.is created. John Brown. removed from the middle. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. a programmer. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. Another problem is reliability. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. 3. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. which is an array of disk block addresses. added in the middle. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. needs to work with certain files. 5. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Mr. The directory contains the address of the index block. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). Partition sizes vary dynamically. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. When a region is free. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. In variable partition multi-programming. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). G. Each region may have one program to be executed. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. the partition sizes are set and do not change. No space is wasted initially. This however comes with a lot of overhead.

G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Single and multiple D. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Multiple and fixed B. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Fixed and variable C. G. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1.

Tutorial Questions 1. 2. Practice MCQs 1. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. G. the extra space wasted.Fragmentation – internal. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job.

and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Cache B. A. Virtual memory D. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . usually the hard disk. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. partitioning. Memory management procedures such as paging.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. segmentation. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. List the various virtual memory strategies. which functions as additional memory. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. G. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. 1) code to handle errors. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. Register C. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. Practice MCQs 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. E. 2) arrays lists.Lecture 15 . What is virtual memory? 2. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. Tutorial Questions 1.g.

(page size .A virtual address is represented as <page. VA is determined from the compiled address. the offset is a number in the range 0 . G. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs.1). In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.

G. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. containing only this one program. Novell Netware . The page table organizes the pages. They are therefore scattered in memory. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. which also holds other programs. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. the other is in memory location 4.Lecture 16 .page size is 4K blocks by default). (E. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. sometimes called a memory management unit.g. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. in the following diagram.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. For example. The first page is in memory location 1. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). In reality. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). a file is made up of 4 pages. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. This is done by a hardware component. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . G. 3. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. 2. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Describe paging. 4. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Explain the concept of a page table. Discuss PTBR and TLB.

NB.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . This does not suffer from the anomaly.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. The algorithms are FIFO. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. This has the lowest page fault rate. This method never suffers from the anomaly. the page that has already been used the most. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. This is hardware and overhead intensive. LFU. the page that has been used the least so far. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. In other words. which may be difficult. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. MFU. G. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. Optimal replacement. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. Locked pages cannot be replaced. In other words.Lecture 17 . Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. LRU. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase.

Given the following table of jobs to be run. 3. 4.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. Least recently used B. 5. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 2. What page would be replaced next using MFU. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. FIFO. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 7. 8. 8. 5. 4. 3. 2. Least recently used page replacement C. Least regularly used C. 9. A. 1. What is a page fault? 5. 4. 8. 8. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. Likely regularly used D. 2. 8. LRU stands for: A. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. Practice MCQs 1. 5. 5. Optimal page replacement B. 9. Counting based page replacement D. LFU. LRU? 2. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 3. 6. LFU. 2. 4. G. 3. FIFO. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 9. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . First-in-first-out algorithm 2. LRU? 3. 9. 3.

Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. The pager will only load these pages into memory. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. As there is more space in main memory. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. This is known as demand paging. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . or you can load in the page when required. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Advantages Demand paging. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. G. Therefore.Lecture 18 . Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time.

Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Tutorial Questions 1. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. G. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small.• Programs running on low-cost. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Possible security risks.

When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. Buffering C. A. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. 23 D. 4 000 bytes B. 3 648 bytes 10. Frame allocation D. 4 096 bytes C. 8. G.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. 40 B. Belady’s anomaly C. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. 3 670 bytes D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 25 9. How many pages does it need? A. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. Paging B. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Spooling D. Thrashing B. 26 C. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs.

The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. G. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. A segment table is maintained for each process. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. they use segmentation. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation.d). This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. offset) = (s. which are of fixed size. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. Given a logical address (segment. Instead. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table.

Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. ii. offset>. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. 4. 3. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. 2. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Tutorial Questions 1. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. G. 7. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation.

Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. G.8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2.

It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. 2. numbered from 0. so that the location is known.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. Each location has a 0 or 1. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. RAM and Optical disks RAM . some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. size and speed. G. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. but the data can be read immediately. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). Disk capacity therefore doubled. Block . RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. (i. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones.random access memory .Lecture 20 . Tutorial Questions 1. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. To improve the performance of a disk.e. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A block on a disk is the sector.another name for main storage. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. each one with its own address.

calculators. They are used to store both video and audio files. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly.sometimes called associative registers.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. DVD R+. Discuss RAM disks. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. palm tops. It is small hardware memory .RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. Tutorial Questions 1. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. This does not provide permanent storage. E. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Operating System Concepts Mrs. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound.g. How do they differ from other disks? 2. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. G. DVD R-? 3. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future.read only memory) . What is the difference between DVD R. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. read many) EO (erasable optical) . Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 .

Describe disk caching. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2.Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 .

It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. sector etc.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. memory address 4. The coating however will wear after enough use. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. is this an input or output operation? 2.Lecture 21 . amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. cylinder. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. Head crash . surface. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. due to power-cut). Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. To improve the performance of a disk.g. the disk address (drive. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. G. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage.) 3.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology.

Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as transfer rate. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. G.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Tutorial Questions 1. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Other definitions • Positioning time .

It however may cause starvation of some requests. For example. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. otherwise the request will be queued. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. servicing requests as it reaches each track. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. satisfying requests. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. until it gets to other end of disk. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. G. In other words. in alternating directions. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. For example. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. At the other end it reverses direction. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm.

Explain how it works. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . If the queue of requests is 8. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 17. and where to commence the next sweep. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 80. If the queue of requests is 80.5. 46. which is in great demand. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. Tutorial Questions 1. 80 b) 46. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 22. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. Practice MCQs 1. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. 22. 80. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. 5. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 73.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 22. 48. 60. G. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 46.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. 46. 91. 73. 46 d) 73. 147. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. 35. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 73. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders.3. numbered 0 to 199. 80 c) 73.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Describe the non-standard RAID levels. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. Discuss the term RAID. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.which function as a slow RAID-1. it can also be done at the operating system level.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. As an example. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. Describe the standard RAID levels. 4. e. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. G. In the example. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). 3. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Tutorial Questions 1. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. but can be expanded with further volumes.. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0.

restore the main backup first. Backup all files (main backup). Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. The following describes the different types of backup. To restore . In order to recover you restore all files. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . then the entire backup is useless.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. father. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. Restore changes from audit. • • • • Grand father. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. G. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup.if one change is messed up.save to CD 1 etc. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. A backup is a duplicate of a file. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son.cool. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. things can still go wrong. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). It is laborious to restore at a point in time. dry. The father then becomes the grandfather. or destroyed. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 .save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . damaged. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . then changes since (incremental backup). Disadvantage . or disk that can be used if the original is lost. Father.

How did you solve the problem (e. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Tutorial Questions 1. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. 4.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods.g. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Practice MCQs 1. G. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. how often do you back up? If not. Do you backup? If yes. 6. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. 2.

and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. Discuss the other types of servers (e. database server. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. mail server. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. who access remote files in the same way as local files. Tutorial Questions 1. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. the location of a file is transparent to users. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. but requests a server's content or service function.Lecture 24 . Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. print server etc. the open request is channelled to the file server.) 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . In this scheme. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client.g. A client does not share any of its resources. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. Discuss the concept of a file server. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. called clients. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. If a user opens a non-local file.

although hidden. the system and disk are known. the location of a file.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. it's understood where the file actually resides. A file system provides a service for clients. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. • In a transparent DFS. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. When data are requested. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. • In a conventional file system. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. read. set of physical disk blocks. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • File name still denotes a specific. etc. Resources on other machines are remote. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . In a networked environment users want to share data files. sector>.Lecture 25 . • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. • Better file abstraction. on files. is hidden. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. • This is a convenient way to share data. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. one-to-many mapping. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. somewhere in the network. Dynamic. G.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system.

3. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . • Do NOT support migration. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. Tutorial Questions 1.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. includes the file’s logical storage location C. G.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. 2. Research and give examples of various DFSs. Practice MCQs 1.

13. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). and keyboard operations.375 x 10-3 (1. -3 = characteristic or exponent.375 = mantissa/argument. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. do input/output operations. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.375 x 101 (1. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. 10 = base/radix. execute program flow control instructions. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. manage memory etc.screen graphics. 2. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. E.g.Lecture 26 .g.001375 = 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. display . A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. G. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. E. A more common use was to control input/output channels. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor.75 = 1.375E -3) .375E +1) . resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. Operating System Concepts Mrs. However.

G. ‘superscalar’.3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. Practice MCQs 1. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . ‘dual-core’. 4. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’.

Lecture 27 . addressing modes. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. RISC . number of registers. Until the mid-1980s.g. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. E. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. called the micro-program (or firmware). Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. however. doing arithmetic. MOVE. It is actually an interpreter. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . In other words. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions.g. do not have a microprogramming level. however the differences extend further. This software. and comparing values. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. Some computers. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. E. RISC. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. it lists the things that the processor can do. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. This is the normal type of computer. G. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. (More instructions per clock cycle).complex instruction set computer.reduced instruction set computer. At that time. Operating System Concepts Mrs. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. On these machines. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition.

Only load and store instructions access memory . it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. it has gained time. and begins execution of the corresponding code. For this reason. Typically. advanced compilers. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. the results are discarded and there is no loss. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. For example. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. Due to these developments. which would require fewer transistors1. high-speed caches. a PowerPC has 32 registers. who developed the M. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. and better pipelining.S. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. and make them cheaper to manufacture. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages).P. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction.I. unlike complex instruction set machine. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. If the processor guessed correctly. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Reduced instruction set machines.In the mid 1970s. G. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle.

Without commercial interest. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. In contrast. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. Windows 3. In 1977. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. G. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike.000. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. By 1994. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. This was largely due to a lack of software support. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. To some extent. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. producing faster and cheaper processors . the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent.

The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. and Motorola Corporation. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. and OS/2. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor.5 and higher). SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. SPARCserver. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. all instructions are 32-bits in length. G. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Apple Computer. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. . Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. Windows NT. other manufacturers.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. In the SPARC. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Apple introduced the Power Mac. which appeared in 1994. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. including IBM. Since then. Ultra1. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 .

CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. Atari. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. An alternative architecture. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. G. In contrast to RISC. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. At that time. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 .it costs less than £10. fast code. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. Pronounced sisk. However. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. The Amiga. Most personal computers. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). code size has become a non-issue. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. In a microprogrammed2 system. computers executed instructions sequentially. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions.design. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. In a nutshell. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. easier implementation of new chips. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. This also improved performance. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. and stands for complex instruction set computer. use a CISC architecture. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. which supports fewer instructions. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. used by many workstations and also some personal computers.

binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. Due to the large number of addressing modes. G. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task.market factors. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. typically about 8 registers. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. to/from a specific location in memory. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. there are more than 30. etc. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. However. an example of a complex instruction set computer. In particular. The VAX. This is a result of having instructions. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. while string operations have three or five operands. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. which can operate directly on memory. In the VAX. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. to/from an address pointed to by a register.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. has the following modes: to/from a register.according to their byte length. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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pricing data. Loss of files/data. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. Loss of data. theft of marketing information (e. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. flood. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects... adding data twice.g. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. personal history. or sexual preference). vandalism. Effect Loss of data.g. power surges. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. fire. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. delete a file by accident. not adequately trained/experienced (e. lightening. This can lead to things like software piracy. low voltage. G. loss of time. Loss of time. Loss of sales due to piracy. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. Theft.g. Loss of income due to software piracy. young child) Technical error – system failure e. Huge repair bill.g. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. May need to re-install software. Loss of computer. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. customer lists.g. Damage to computer due to improper use. Physical damage to computer. information. Loss of data. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Identity theft. entering incorrect data. data. Category Human error – e. Illegal access to files. medical information.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . software. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. hurricane. or marketing plans). hard disk crash. or processing capability. Loss of computer and data. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. loss of time in having to re-enter data.

Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. It may be benign or have a negative effect. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. There are similarities at a deeper level. Unlike a cell. Obviously. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . as well.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. In some cases. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts.it is not alive. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. releasing the virus. G. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Instead. and then starts replicating from there. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. In other cases. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. Once it is running. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. and the cell remains alive. as well. A biological virus is not a living thing. A computer virus shares some of these traits. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system.g. Unlike a virus or worm. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. while authentication is proving it. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). the correct decryption key is required. This must be updated regularly. Define the term cryptography. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Encryption. Zone Alarm). which can cause severe damage to databases. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. G. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. Tutorial Questions 1.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. However. hackers).Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. (e. called a ciphertext. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. McAfee. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Norton Antivirus. so it can be understood. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period.g. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Virus protection. Authentication. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Trend Micro-PCcillin).

org/ 3. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. John has a password to the human resource system. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. 5. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. Discuss various encryption software.eccouncil. G.2. He is able to view all employee data except salary.

command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. You can set expiration dates on passwords. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. which means its code is available to the public. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons.SYS. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. then he can still see such files. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. There is limited or no security. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. the Internet.SYS and MSDOS. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user.g. G. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. Hidden etc. and speech recognition. Read. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. You can set attributes on files e. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. like UNIX. Java. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. Solaris. Linux is a popular. There are a large number of built-in servers. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. only on the network. Linux. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories.

directories/libraries. delete etc. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. fields.read only. most reliable Windows operating system. policy changes. account management. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. file vault and firewall. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. read/write capability. virus). There is also support for biometric devices. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. object access. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. event log. You can set security on admin tasks (e. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. There are audit logs and audit trails. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. It allows directory access control. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. changing settings). You are able to create multiple user accounts. There is also auditing which records login. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. change. Windows XP has increased security. It also supports encryption.g. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. Windows NT has security holes. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. Software restrictions . There is also a screen saver password. user rights. records (views). This accepts user id and password. There is also secured wireless access. privilege use and system events. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. There are also different levels of authority . service permissions. commands. file system permissions. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. lockout policies.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. G. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. startup modes. Templates include password policies.

There is a screen saver password. called the Pocket PC.Windows CE .NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. and FileScan (sees filenames). and mobile devices and on handheld computers. Netware accepts a userid and password. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Write. G. You can encrypt communication. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. entertainment. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. Read. Tutorial Questions 1. Create. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. Modify. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . Erase.

. Operating System Concepts Mrs.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. Modern Operating Systems. Discovering computers 2008.B. (2007). (3rd Ed. G. Shelly G. & Cashman.: USA. http://www. John Wiley & Sons Inc.). Silberschatz. G. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. T.J.com. Gagne. Tanenbaum. Andrew S. P. (2004). Galvin. Operating Systems Concepts.B.d.. KY:Course Technology Publishing. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. Abraham. Prentice Hall: USA. 7th E. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary.webopedia. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . (2006).

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