OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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.. 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ............. 81 LECTURE 18 ............. 70 PRACTICE MCQS .....TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................. 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)...... 76 LECTURE 16 ................................................................................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS ........................ 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) .............................................................................. 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ............. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ........................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....... 65 LECTURE 13 .......................................... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) .................................................................................................................................................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ...... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS .............. 78 ADVANTAGES: ........DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ............................. 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ..................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT.....................................................................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ................. 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL................................................................................................................ 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... BEST-FIT...................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 74 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ............................................ 65 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................. 72 PARTITIONS.................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .. 79 LECTURE 17 .......................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ....................... WORST-FIT ......................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ...........................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ............................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 FIFO ....................................................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .......................... EXTERNAL....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 79 DISADVANTAGES: ....... G......................... 75 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................ 75 LECTURE 15 .................. 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................

........................... 101 LECTURE 25 ...................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................. 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ...................THRASHING........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................ 91 PRACTICE MCQS ................................ 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ............................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) .............................................. 92 DISK SCHEDULING ........................................ 100 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................. 100 LECTURE 24 .............................................................................................................................. SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ................... G............................................................................................................................................................... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ...................................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................... 90 LECTURE 21 ......................................................... 89 DISK CACHING .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 99 GRAND FATHER...............................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .............................. 99 BACKUP TIPS .................................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ...................................................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ...............................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) ................. 93 First come first served (FCFS) .......................... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................ 88 BLOCKS ........................................................................................................................................... 94 PRACTICE MCQS .........................................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................................... 88 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... FATHER........................................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ........................... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................................................................ 87 LECTURE 20 ........................................ 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................... 95 RAID LEVELS ........................................................................................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE .......................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................... 103 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........

.................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 .............................................. 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC.................. 119 OS/400 ......... 120 Microsoft Windows ..................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS .............................. 106 Advantages of RISC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Denial-of-service..................................................................... 116 Logic bomb .................................. 117 Authentication ......................................................................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ............. 108 Examples of RISC Processors.................. 116 Virus ............ 120 MacOS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................ 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ................................................... 110 Advantages of CISC .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117 Virus protection........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 117 Firewall........................................................................................................................ 105 LECTURE 27 ................................................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................... 109 CISC ................................................................................................................................ G................................................ 112 CRISC................................................................ 116 Trojan Horse ................................ 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 119 MS-DOS........... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 104 ADVANTAGES ............... FIREWALL ...................... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ................................................. 118 CASE STUDIES .............................. 117 Encryption ....................................................................................................... 119 UNIX......................................................... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION.......................................................................................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR).................................. 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs..................................................... 119 OS/2 ............................... 117 AUTHENTICATION...................................................................................... 116 Worm ....................................................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ....... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS .................................................... 120 Novell Netware ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY........................................................................................................................................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION .............................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ...........................................................................................................................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ............. ENCRYPTION..................................................................................

..............................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs............................................ 121 REFERENCES ....... G....................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ..

define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. interrupt handling. 2. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. 3. manipulate operating systems 4. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. device and memory management. G.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. students should: 1. students should be able to: 1. process scheduling. 4. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. 5. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. virtual memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems.

students should be able to: a. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Communications. Error Detection 3. File Operations 2. 3. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. User Interface. 2. Directory Systems – Single-level. 4. Define operating system. Operating Systems Functions: a. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. G. b. Introduction: a. Resource Allocation. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 5. 2. Program execution. The history and development of the operating system. System Startup. e.Content: 1. d. Spooling). f. Software and Firmware: a. System Software b. Protection and Security. g. File Concepts – File Attributes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Two-level. Application Software c. Storage. b. h. students should be able to: 1. Tree-Structured. File-system manipulation. I/O – (Buffering. c.

2. 3. Multiprogramming. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 5. Time Sharing 2. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. G. limit register Logical vs. Priority. Preemptive scheduling. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. a. students should be able to: 1. 4. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. 8. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c.i. best-fit. j. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. 4. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. 8. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. 2. Shortest Remaining Time. 6. 6. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. b. 7. Dispatcher 3. Scheduler. Shortest Job First 5. Round Robin. Scheduling criteria 4. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. 7. 5.

FIFO b. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. Demand paging 5. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. explain disk caching 7. define frame 4. page table. MFU f. LRU d. address translation 3. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. Pure paging – pages. explain the purpose of the page table 5. address translation 6. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. explain segmentation 9. students should be able to: 1. address structure. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . students should be able to: 1. G. frames. LFU e. 4. 2. explain thrashing Content: 1. Allocation algorithms 4. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Virtual address space 2.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. define page 3. Optimal replacement c. 5. Page replacement a. Segmentation – segment table. 3. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6.

write. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . File server systems – client-server computing 3. students should be able to: 1. Distributed file systems – naming. Disk scheduling – FCFS. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. 2. 4. SCAN.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. SSTF. seek time rotational latency 5. LOOK. 3. 3. location transparency. 2. G. 3. 4. 4. incremental backup. C-SCAN 6. log-structured systems 2. 5. RAID 1. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. Disk caching 7. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. 2. positioning time. 5. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1.

Operating systems concepts. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . define security 2.B. P. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. 5. Denial-of-service Authentication. students should be able to: 1. Internal Tests 20% 3. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. UNIX. G. Common Coursework 20% 2.. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. G. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. 4. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. 3. advantage. (8th ed). Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. Virus protection. Encryption. 4. 2. Galvin. 3. 2.1. (2008). Apple Macintosh. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. & Gagne. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. logic bomb. RISC / CISC – development. OS/2. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. A. worm. virus.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . G. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.S. A. NJ: Prentice Hall. W. (2007).). Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. W.Recommended: Tanenbaum. (1999). An introduction to operating systems. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay.(6th ed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. (2005).).) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings.

G. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. machines. spreadsheets etc. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . do our budget etc. other computers etc. is to make the computer convenient to use. DOS.CPU.people. memory. Its primary goal therefore. play a game. it typically has an operating system already installed. • users . We use the computer because we want to type a document. As new versions of the operating system are released. MacOS. surf the internet. Linux. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . video games.database systems. Unix. When you purchase a new computer. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. word processors. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. I/O devices etc. We do not use the computer because of these software. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. These are all examples of operating systems. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. business programs. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware .

Mac OS X. Network and Embedded. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. 200 Professional.g. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. computers. and Linux. block) and job control. 3. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. Windows XP. 95. NT Workstation. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. filing system. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. track. UNIX. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . notebook computer. and other devices to and from the network. data management (control of I/O devices. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. command language. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. G. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users.g. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. ME). Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. UNIX. and Linux. or mobile computing device. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. 98. storage management. OS/2 Warp Client.By itself. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand.x. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. 2000 Server). Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. so no need to know which sector.

4. Controls the user c. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. Pocket PC 2002. airline reservation system. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. comment on its new features. • Foreground background . all the terminals are connected to the same program. Palm OS. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. 8. If no. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. E. An operating system is a program that a. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. However. Tutorial Questions 1. • General Purpose . in order to improve CPU utilization. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. what does this mean? 9. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. • Transaction processing . Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. 6. Practice MCQs 1.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. • Time sharing . 2. 3. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able.NET. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . Define operating system. Gives instructions to the hardware b. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . Give the name of five (5) operating systems.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. Is controlled by application software d. 10. and Symbian OS. 7. research its new features and comment on them.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. 5.a multi-user system that combines batch processing.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. G.

G. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. application software d. system software. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. system software 3. Hardware B. Operating System D. Segment b. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. application software. User. A. User. system software. Select the correct sequence a.2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Application programs C. user. Superstructure c. application software. hardware. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. Executive 4. hardware c. system software b. application software. hardware. Hardware. Fence d. User.

control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . it would return control to the resident monitor.g.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. In the early days machines were hand operated. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. which would transfer control to a program. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. that is. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. (E. Initially when the computer was turned on. the CPU sat idle. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. I/O devices were slow. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. as soon as one job was finished. E.. which would then go on to the next program. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. There were still problems however. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). an operator could start the next job. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer.66 per hour). Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. When a job was done. These changes. when a job stopped. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. In those days machines were slow. the operator .usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. would run each batch. G. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. improved utilization quite a bit. This monitor is always resident in memory. he would unload tapes. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. when the program terminated. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. the operator was slow. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. mounting magnetic tapes etc. determine why the program stopped. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds.

WYLBUR. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. (i. high level user oriented programming languages. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Michigan Terminal System. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Some operating systems still are device dependent.e. Historically. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. read data from tape and not from card). Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. The trend today. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. however. Multics. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. MUSIC/SP. By 1970 multiprocessing. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. Only the device driver must be changed. G. In addition. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.

Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.0 Mac OS (System 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.0 Windows NT 3. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT.0) AIX 1. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE. G.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 OS/2 (1.0 SunOS 3. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. G.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Describe the historical development of operating systems. 2.6 Windows NT 4.10 Mac OS X v 10.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. 3.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1.2 FreeBSD 8. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . 4. 6. Discuss the first operating system. 5.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.

Second Generation C. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. First Generation B. Third Generation D.

Lecture 2 . which manages memory and devices. When a user turns on a computer. and how many programs. Managing programs refers to how many users. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. the operating system may use virtual memory. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . Finally. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. Operating System Concepts Mrs. requests any necessary user information. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. single user/multitasking. or multiprocessing. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. multiuser. This is done on a network. the operating system loads configuration information. If memory is insufficient. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. an operating system can support at one time. If the POST completes successfully. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. and displays the desktop. and loads them into memory from storage. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. G. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time.

Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. move files. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. delete files and create folders. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . As in a restaurant. grammar and punctuation. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. G. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. and graphical user interface. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Command-line interfaces however. A job is an operation the processor manages. generate an error message. give a user more control over setting details. menu-driven interface. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider.

The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. Disk systems eliminated that problem. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. In disk systems. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Requests for card reader input. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). G. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. The CPU can then move on to do other things. is satisfied by reading from the disk. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices.

• Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. The program must be able to end its execution. either normally or abnormally. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. Hold and wait .If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. 1. the operating system may take resources from a job (i.g. the operating system must provide some means to do so. Example:.e. or recover from one.must hold for non sharable resources (e. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. terminate process). Deadlock prevention . To prevent deadlock. mutual exclusion . All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. (a read only file is sharable) 2. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. Pre-emption of resources.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold.

Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. 2. Errors may occur in the CPU. To reconcile conflicting demands. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1.3.of resources that have already been allocated. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Circular wait . 5. Describe the conditions for deadlock. With the aid of a diagram. memory. 6. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. Tutorial Questions 1. 4. State three (3) functions of an operating system.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . No pre-emption (No taking away) . 3.each process can request resources only in increasing order). G. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. 7. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. jam in the card reader etc. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment.

d) Record management 3. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . Scheduling 5. buffer C. RAM B. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. A. Spooling B. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. A. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. Thrashing D. cache D. G. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Paging C.

E. enter data into a database. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. when to do it. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities.g. MSBACKUP. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. WinZip. AVG etc. play games etc.g. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. graphics. Unix. G. banking. we use the computer to type documents. Norton Anti-virus. E. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. spreadsheet. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . removes viruses from a computer system. As mentioned before. database management. McAfee. detects.g. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. DOS etc. Examples include: accounting. Trend Micro PC-cillin. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. Norton disk doctor. There are two types of software: system software and application software. OS/2. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. create graphs. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. WinRAR. Linux. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. draw pictures.Lecture 3 . Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. Scandisk. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. Quickview in Windows. E. PKZIP. do our accounting.g. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. E. word processing. E. E.g.

Oracle. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. spell check. Outlook (Email).g. query. etc. Wordstar. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Dbase. fieldtype.g. font size and type. which means that they will run on different computers. print.g.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Foxpro.g. User can enter numbers.g. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Outlook Express. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. Lotus 1-2-3.g.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. Web Browsers. E. editing. newsletters. margins. E. underline. However. COBOL etc. Page Maker. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. formulas. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. page number. justify. E. Symphony. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. Pascal. Combine word processing and graphics packages. fieldsize. G. E. E. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Microsoft Excel. footnotes. E. WordPerfect. • Entertainment software These software include games. E. Features include:. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Visi-Calc. posters. Corel Draw. Foxpro. Netscape Navigator. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today.Bold. keys. E. Network Operating Systems (NOS). C++. Monopoly. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Field.g. correction. mail merge. Chess. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. save. Visual Basic. Microsoft Word. Quattro Pro. Solitaire etc. Can sort. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. instructions.g. table of contents. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. Windows Media Player. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. printing of documents. WordPad. text in each cell. C. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

g. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. Microsoft Office. Open Office. cd-rom drive. b) A teacher calculating student grades. This is software embedded in hardware. 3.g. G. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. Tutorial Questions 1. diskette drive.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together.monitor. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. How does a word processor (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 .e. Corel Wordperfect Suite. keyboard. E. location 0. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0.g. E. 2. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on.g. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. printer port. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. memory. hard disk. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. mouse. Lotus Smartsuite. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. E. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. Give examples of the type chosen. Differentiate between system software and application software. hard-coded in the hardware). On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. sector 0 of boot disk. For mainframes etc. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company.g. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Utilities D. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. A. 7. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions.4. 6. Anti-virus d. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Research the various web browsers. Application software B. 8. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. 5. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. Defrag 2. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. Restore c. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Scandisk b. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. System software C. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6.

____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems.7. Disk scanner C. Diagnostic 9. Disk defragmenter B. G. A. Disk cleanup B. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk scanner C. Disk defragmenter D. Diagnostic utility D. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. A.

File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. DBF etc. It is mapped onto a physical device.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) .sys. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. system. In other words.TXT source file .ini. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. In MS-DOS.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. TIF database file – MDB. It has other properties such as its type.JPG. "writing" to the file is disabled. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. A file is a collection of related information. It is a logical storage unit. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. compressed. It is a sequence of bits. date and time of creation. but not changed. msdos.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. A read-only file can be viewed. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. hidden. io. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. BMP. last modified. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. records. Common File types:text file . It is a characteristic of a file. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. bytes. write. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file.Lecture 4 .sys. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. its length etc. archive. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . A file is named and is referred to by its name. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. G. the file. COM graphics files . Examples include read-only. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 .

File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. G. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. When finished with a file Close it. rename a file etc. io. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. display). Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. compression isn't usually recommended. however.sys and boot. This way. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. Open a file Check permissions. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. 2. copy file to an I/O device (printer. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. ntdetect. rewind the file. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. Return error code if not. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. io. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. 1.ini. read from the file. Before you can use a file you must Open it.sys.sys. the archive attribute is turned off. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. delete the file • edit/modify the file.sys. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. write to the file.com and ntldr. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. However. The archive attribute is used for backup. Any file can be marked as Hidden.

doc. then the write pointer is updated. Practice MCQs 1. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. com. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 3. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . Tutorial Questions 1. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 2. 5. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Describe five file attributes. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. G. Describe five file operations. 3. 4. 2. 4. jpg.Find space on the file system. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. bmp). system searches directory to find location of file. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. exe. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. Append Writes information to the end of the file. Describe the type of file.

Name B. Identifier C. Truncated D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. G. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs.

directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . This allows the file to be easily located. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure.Lecture 5 . Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. size and type for all files on that device. creation date. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. These are all directory operations. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . 2. G.400 feet). but it suffers from some inefficiency. location. The device directory records information such as name. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. To handle this problem. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. Studies showed that most files were small. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book.g. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. A file can be on more than 1 disk. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. not physical.

This isolates one user from another. G. Every file has a unique path name. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory.Single level . This structure is efficient for searching. A file name is prefixed by user name. DOS.g. Users may also create their own subdirectories. to a specified file. each user has a current directory. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). All files are in the same directory. It is easy to support and understand. UNIX.e. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. grouping and other operations such as deleting. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Tree. In normal use. system files and grouping files. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. Windows.the simplest directory structure. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . All files must have unique names.structures . The tree has a root directory. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user.

It is not the same as two copies.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . NB. The following is an example using Unix. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. The same file may be in two different directories (i.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. G. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. Note that files have multiple path names. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs.e. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. can be access through more than one path).

A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 .• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. Research the General-Graph directory. 4. 3. Practice MCQs 1. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. NTFS). Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. HPFS. G. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3.

variables. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute.). (i. for an I/O device). Normally the CPU would sit idle. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. the current instruction. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job.g. a tape. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. addresses etc. G.Lecture 6 . keyboard input etc.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. normally the CPU would sit idle. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. This is also called concurrent processing.g. another job can be using the CPU.e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. file pointers. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job.

CPU scheduling information. Waiting D. Practice MCQs 1. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. New B. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). information associated with each process. program counter. G. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. accounting information.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. CPU registers. In other words. Differentiate between a process and a program. and I/O status information. values in variables. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. file pointers etc. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. memory management information. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Describe the operation of the PCB. Tutorial Questions 1. The location of current instructions. 3. Running C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state.

Tutorial Questions 1. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. and giving processor time to another process. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. or network input could be granted to other users. however. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. G. tape. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. Time-sharing. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. Similarly. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. regardless of the number of users.

Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. An example is shown in the diagram below. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. . Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory.Scheduling concepts. criteria. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . G.Lecture 7 . . The programs therefore have to be scheduled.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . . . CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute.Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. The following defines various scheduling concepts. . Operating System Concepts Mrs.

This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. 6. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. Medium Term Scheduler . terminates. Long term scheduler B. intermediate level of scheduling. 2. Research alternate names for the various schedulers.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . 3. it therefore must be very fast.Some systems introduce an additional. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. Tutorial Questions 1. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. G. Short term scheduler C. A. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. 4. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. Medium term scheduler D. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. This scheme is called swapping.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. This involves a) switching context. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . switches from an active to wait state or ii. 5. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. Non pre-emptive scheduling . CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. Dispatcher . switches from wait state to ready or iv. Pre-emptive scheduling . The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory.

G.2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 . Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.

time from submission of request until the first response is produced. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . G.how busy you keep CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . waiting time C. response time D. turnaround time B. • throughput . The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. Describe the various scheduling criteria.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. for P3 = 3. for P2 = 0. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. P3. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. P1. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. G. P2. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. P3. This is a non-preemptive algorithm.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

This process is called aging. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. number of open files etc. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. memory requirements.by a person (e. 100 msec).P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.g. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high.g. • externally . No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. A priority number is associated with each job. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. G. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. system administrator).

A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. Campbell 51 . Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. such as memory size or job type. E. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. In addition. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. G. In other words. Tutorial Questions 1. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system.g. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. generally based on some property of the job. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue.

All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. Priority iv. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. G. FCFS ii. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. 3. SJF. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . SJF iii. 4. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Priority. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time.

Starvation C. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Aging B. G. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Round robin scheduling 10. First come first served C. Shortest job first B. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Fragmentation D. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Priority scheduling D. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6.d) CPU scheduler 4. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9.

the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. alleviating the need for data sharing. the whole computer can go down. Any processor can run any type of thread. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. one thread for each processor in the computer. G. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 .Lecture 8. For this reason. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. Operating System Concepts Mrs. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. As a result. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. SMP is more complex than ASMP. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. The main difference is in how the processors operate. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. all running at the same time. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. independent executable components of applications) of execution.

G. 2. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. A. Multithreading D. Multitasking D. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. multiprogramming 3. 1 AMD. Multiprogramming B.g. In parallel processing. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Parallel processor C. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. multiprocessing C. Coprocessor B. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. multitasking B. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. 3. Multiprogramming 2. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. 6. A. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing.g. 5. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . 3 Pentium II. A. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. 4. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. Multiprocessing C. multiuser D.

G. multiprocessing D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. asymmetric multiprocessing B.4. symmetric multiprocessing C.

Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . stack and system data. data. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. though the code. Tutorial Questions 1. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. it still should not matter. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. If we must keep several processes in memory. 4. G. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. Research the MMU or PMMU. Memory mapping . Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. 3. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1.Lecture 9 . we must share memory. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. 2. 2.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory.

All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.Practice MCQs 1. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .

3. volatile cache memory. When a memory access is made. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . which can be organized in a hierarchy. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. the contents of the accessed location. Describe the different types of cache. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). 5. Operating System Concepts Mrs. expensive. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Compare and contrast them. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. The higher levels are expensive. If another reference is made to this location. some medium speed. cheap. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. G. but very fast. 4. with a small amount of very fast. non-volatile disk storage. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. 2. Describe the different types of RAM.

RAM. Cache D. register. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. Cache B. register. Main memory D. hard disk d) Hard disk. Electronic Disk C. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. RAM. hard disk c) Register. Registers C. Main Memory 6. cache b) Cache. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. a) Hard disk.Practice MCQs 1. G. RAM. Magnetic Disk B. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. register. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . RAM. cache. cache 3. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2.

Usually. high-speed storage area within the CPU. In other words. and flags. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. these include a program counter. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. and some addressing registers. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. flags register. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. In high-level languages.Lecture 10 . CPU instructions operate on these values directly. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). Memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Basic memory hardware – base register. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. It is a special. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. Therefore. stack register. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. and several specialized registers including a base register. Types of registers As previously stated. stack. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. G. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. In general. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. and even to programmers. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. program counter. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. For example. or RAM.

the so-called base.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. 2. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. Discuss the other types of registers. G. in which case it is a bounds register). Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. and the number of words available to that segment.

The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. The logical address space is used by user programs. G. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. 2. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . b) placed in a fence register. the first address of the user program is not 00000. but the first address beyond the fence. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping.Lecture 11 . logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Consider the segment table.Logical vs. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. The fence register is a type of bounds register. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. Tutorial Questions 1.

500 3. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 10 1. G. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 430 2. 11 0. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 400 4.

2. Practice MCQs 1. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. the system may actually do no useful work. Swapping maximizes available memory. Describe the concept of swapping. it is possible to experience too much swapping. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . G. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. In extreme cases. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. excessive paging is not desirable. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. Tutorial Questions 1. running it for a while. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk.

Swapping D. Scheduling B. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . G. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs.then putting it back on the disk. Paging C.

Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. we can immediately access block b + n. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous.Lecture 13 . indexed. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. best fit. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. If the file to be created is n blocks long. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. To read a file. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. since all blocks are linked together. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Each block contains a pointer to the next block.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. This solves the fragmentation problem. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. many files will be stored on the same disk. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. linked. Accessing a file. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. worst fit. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . Compaction . Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. G. If too little space is allocated. For sequential access. then the file cannot be extended/made larger.

Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. 4. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. 3. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. In order to conserve on space. removed from the start. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. It is never necessary to compact disk space. It also does not suffer from wasted space. Another problem is reliability. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. removed from the middle. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. added in the middle. added at the end. John Brown. 5. Tutorial Questions 1. a programmer. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. The directory contains the address of the index block. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. To find the nth block of a file. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. which is an array of disk block addresses. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. To read the nth block. needs to work with certain files.is created. Mr.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Each region may have one program to be executed. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. This however comes with a lot of overhead. No space is wasted initially. the partition sizes are set and do not change. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). G. In variable partition multi-programming. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. Partition sizes vary dynamically. When a region is free. However. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Multiple and fixed B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . G. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Single and multiple D. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Fixed and variable C.

The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. the extra space wasted. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Tutorial Questions 1.Fragmentation – internal. G. 2. Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used).

2) arrays lists.g. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. List the various virtual memory strategies. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Register C. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. tables are often allocated more memory than they need.Lecture 15 .Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. segmentation. A. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Cache B. usually the hard disk. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. Memory management procedures such as paging. Tutorial Questions 1. What is virtual memory? 2. which functions as additional memory. Virtual memory D. G. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. E. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . partitioning. 1) code to handle errors. Practice MCQs 1.

Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages.A virtual address is represented as <page. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. the offset is a number in the range 0 . G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . VA is determined from the compiled address. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs.(page size .1).

sometimes called a memory management unit. The page table organizes the pages. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory.Lecture 16 . Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. G. which also holds other programs. For example. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. in the following diagram. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. the other is in memory location 4. The first page is in memory location 1. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). They are therefore scattered in memory.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. This is done by a hardware component. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. a file is made up of 4 pages. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. (E. containing only this one program. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. In reality. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Novell Netware .page size is 4K blocks by default).

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Describe paging. Discuss PTBR and TLB. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. 2. 4. Explain the concept of a page table.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. G. Differentiate between a page and a page frame.

Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. In other words. This method never suffers from the anomaly. the page that has been used the least so far. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. This is hardware and overhead intensive. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. the page that has already been used the most. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. Locked pages cannot be replaced. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 17 . A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . The algorithms are FIFO. Optimal replacement. LRU. G. NB. which may be difficult. LFU. MFU. This does not suffer from the anomaly. This has the lowest page fault rate. In other words.

4. LFU. Least recently used B. Optimal page replacement B. 9. 2. 8. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 3. 6.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 9. 3. 1. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 9. LRU? 2. 5. Least recently used page replacement C. A. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. 7. 5. 8. 3. LFU. FIFO. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 9. 5. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 4. 5. 2. 3. Least regularly used C. G. 8. 8. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. FIFO. Practice MCQs 1. What page would be replaced next using MFU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 8. 2. 2. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 2. Likely regularly used D. LRU stands for: A. 3. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. 4. Counting based page replacement D. LRU? 3. What is a page fault? 5. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7.

To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. G. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Therefore. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . or you can load in the page when required.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. Advantages Demand paging. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. This is known as demand paging. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. As there is more space in main memory. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution.Lecture 18 .

Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Practice MCQs 1. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Possible security risks. Tutorial Questions 1. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk.• Programs running on low-cost. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . including vulnerability to timing attacks. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. G.

40 B. Thrashing B. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. Paging B. Buffering C. G. 3 670 bytes D. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. 4 096 bytes C. 25 9. 23 D. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. 8. 4 000 bytes B. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. 26 C. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. A. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. Belady’s anomaly C. 3 648 bytes 10. How many pages does it need? A. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . Spooling D. Frame allocation D.

This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. which are of fixed size.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. G. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. offset) = (s.d). A segment table is maintained for each process. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. Given a logical address (segment. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. they use segmentation. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. Instead. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection.

7.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. ii. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. offset>. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. G. Tutorial Questions 1. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. 2. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. 4.

How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1.8. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2.

The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. To improve the performance of a disk. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. A block on a disk is the sector.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage.e. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. numbered from 0. so that the location is known. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost.another name for main storage. Disk capacity therefore doubled. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. 2. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. Each location has a 0 or 1. Block . size and speed. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage.random access memory . What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. (i. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. G. Tutorial Questions 1. RAM and Optical disks RAM . Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Operating System Concepts Mrs. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. each one with its own address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 .Lecture 20 . but the data can be read immediately. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off.

What is the difference between DVD R. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies.sometimes called associative registers. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. palm tops. Tutorial Questions 1. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. Discuss RAM disks. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. They are used to store both video and audio files. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. How do they differ from other disks? 2. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly.read only memory) .g. This does not provide permanent storage. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. G.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. calculators. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. DVD R+. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. DVD R-? 3. E. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. read many) EO (erasable optical) . It is small hardware memory .

What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Describe disk caching. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . G. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Tutorial Questions 1.

you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. G.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1.Lecture 21 . To improve the performance of a disk. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. memory address 4. cylinder.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. is this an input or output operation? 2.) 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . due to power-cut). The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track.g. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. the disk address (drive. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. The coating however will wear after enough use. sector etc. surface. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. Head crash .

• Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . This is also known as transfer rate. Other definitions • Positioning time . This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Tutorial Questions 1. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. G. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs.

LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. satisfying requests. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. For example. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. otherwise the request will be queued. G. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. For example. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. In other words. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. servicing requests as it reaches each track. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. It however may cause starvation of some requests. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. until it gets to other end of disk. in alternating directions. At the other end it reverses direction. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised.

22. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. 80.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. If the queue of requests is 80. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 73. 80. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 17. which is in great demand. 35. 91. 73. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. 73. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 48. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. numbered 0 to 199. and where to commence the next sweep. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 46.5. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. Practice MCQs 1. 5. 46 d) 73. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 80 b) 46. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 80 c) 73. 22. 60. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 46. If the queue of requests is 8. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. G. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 22. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. 147. 46.3. Explain how it works.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. Discuss the term RAID. but can be expanded with further volumes. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . e. 2. 4. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait.g. Describe the standard RAID levels. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. it can also be done at the operating system level. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. Operating System Concepts Mrs. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . In the example. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. firmware or by using firmware and specialized.. 3. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. As an example. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online).where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. G.which function as a slow RAID-1. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. Tutorial Questions 1.

Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. The father then becomes the grandfather. then changes since (incremental backup).save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . The oldest backup is called the grandfather. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. Father. father. then the entire backup is useless. Restore changes from audit. To restore . G. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. A backup is a duplicate of a file. then each incremental backup in the same sequence.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium.save to CD 1 etc. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. In order to recover you restore all files. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). things can still go wrong. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. or destroyed.if one change is messed up. dry. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . The following describes the different types of backup. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup.cool. Backup all files (main backup). Operating System Concepts Mrs. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. damaged. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. Disadvantage .Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take.restore the main backup first. • • • • Grand father.

Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. 4. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. Practice MCQs 1. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. 3. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. how often do you back up? If not. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. 6. How did you solve the problem (e. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods.g. Do you backup? If yes. 2. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. G.

where the clients are the workstations using the storage. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. mail server. the location of a file is transparent to users. but requests a server's content or service function. 3. print server etc.g. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. called clients. G. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. who access remote files in the same way as local files. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. In this scheme. A client does not share any of its resources. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. the open request is channelled to the file server. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 .Lecture 24 . Discuss the concept of a file server. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. database server. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server.) 4. If a user opens a non-local file. Discuss the other types of servers (e. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck.

A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. • In a transparent DFS. sector>. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. somewhere in the network. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. on files. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. although hidden. G. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. one-to-many mapping. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. Dynamic. the location of a file. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. When data are requested. etc. • In a conventional file system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . Resources on other machines are remote. • File name still denotes a specific. read. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. it's understood where the file actually resides. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. the system and disk are known. Operating System Concepts Mrs. is hidden. • Better file abstraction. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. A file system provides a service for clients. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . • This is a convenient way to share data. In a networked environment users want to share data files.Lecture 25 . set of physical disk blocks. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. regardless of where they reside? o Locality .Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system.

(automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. • Do NOT support migration. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. 2. includes the file’s logical storage location C. Research and give examples of various DFSs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . 3. reveals the file’s physical storage location B.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 .g. -3 = characteristic or exponent. 13.375E +1) . execute program flow control instructions. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. display . Operating System Concepts Mrs.375E -3) . resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole.screen graphics. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. and keyboard operations. do input/output operations. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. E.375 = mantissa/argument. G. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor.001375 = 1. 10 = base/radix.75 = 1. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.Lecture 26 . 2. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). A more common use was to control input/output channels. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers.375 x 101 (1. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. However. E. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. coprocessors can accelerate system performance.g. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.375 x 10-3 (1.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. manage memory etc. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly.

3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . Practice MCQs 1. G. ‘dual-core’. ‘superscalar’. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors.

E.Lecture 27 . RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. RISC. It is actually an interpreter. however. At that time. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths.g. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. RISC . and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. This software. do not have a microprogramming level. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . (More instructions per clock cycle). Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. Operating System Concepts Mrs. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). Some computers. and comparing values. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. doing arithmetic. however the differences extend further. it lists the things that the processor can do. Until the mid-1980s. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction.reduced instruction set computer. On these machines. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . number of registers.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. E. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system.complex instruction set computer. MOVE. called the micro-program (or firmware). the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. In other words. G. addressing modes. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps.g. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. This is the normal type of computer.

RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. advanced compilers.I. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors.In the mid 1970s. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. which would require fewer transistors1. G. it has gained time. and better pipelining. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. If the processor guessed correctly. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000.P. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. For this reason. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. unlike complex instruction set machine. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Only load and store instructions access memory . RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. who developed the M. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. Typically. high-speed caches. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . Due to these developments. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. a PowerPC has 32 registers. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . If the processor has guessed incorrectly. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used.S. and make them cheaper to manufacture. and begins execution of the corresponding code. the results are discarded and there is no loss. For example. Reduced instruction set machines. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost.

And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. In contrast. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies.000. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. producing faster and cheaper processors . They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. G. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. Without commercial interest. Windows 3. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. In 1977. This was largely due to a lack of software support. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). To some extent. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 .an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. By 1994. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible.

John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. .5 and higher). It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. Ultra1. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. SPARCserver. Apple Computer. which appeared in 1994. Since then. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. G. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. all instructions are 32-bits in length. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Apple introduced the Power Mac. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). and Motorola Corporation. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. other manufacturers. including IBM. Windows NT. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. and OS/2. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . In the SPARC. becoming the first RISC microprocessor.

Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. In a nutshell. easier implementation of new chips. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. This also improved performance. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor.it costs less than £10. An alternative architecture. code size has become a non-issue. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. use a CISC architecture. The Amiga. fast code. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. At that time. In contrast to RISC. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. and stands for complex instruction set computer. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. Most personal computers. Atari. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. which supports fewer instructions. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. In a microprogrammed2 system. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. Pronounced sisk. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. G.design. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. However. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . computers executed instructions sequentially.

However. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. In the VAX. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.market factors.according to their byte length. In particular. to/from a specific location in memory. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. while string operations have three or five operands. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. an example of a complex instruction set computer. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. which can operate directly on memory. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. Due to the large number of addressing modes. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. has the following modes: to/from a register. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . etc. The VAX. G. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. typically about 8 registers. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. This is a result of having instructions. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. there are more than 30. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. to/from an address pointed to by a register.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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not adequately trained/experienced (e. flood. or sexual preference). power surges. young child) Technical error – system failure e. adding data twice. Loss of sales due to piracy.g. low voltage.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. theft of marketing information (e. Loss of time. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Loss of computer and data. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. May need to re-install software. loss of time. software.. Effect Loss of data. or marketing plans). booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. loss of time in having to re-enter data. medical information. hurricane. or processing capability. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. Damage to computer due to improper use. delete a file by accident. Loss of data. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. Identity theft.g. Loss of computer. This can lead to things like software piracy.. lightening. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. personal history. entering incorrect data. Category Human error – e. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. Loss of income due to software piracy. Theft. fire. information. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Loss of files/data. G. pricing data. hard disk crash. Huge repair bill. customer lists. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. vandalism. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 .g. data. Physical damage to computer. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Illegal access to files. Loss of data.g.g. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

It may be benign or have a negative effect. releasing the virus. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. G. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. There are similarities at a deeper level. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Obviously. as well. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. and the cell remains alive. In some cases. and then starts replicating from there.it is not alive. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. In other cases. Instead. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). A biological virus is not a living thing. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Unlike a cell. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. A computer virus shares some of these traits. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . Once it is running. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. Operating System Concepts Mrs. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. as well. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -.

Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. This must be updated regularly. G. the correct decryption key is required. (e. hackers). which can cause severe damage to databases.g. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Norton Antivirus. so it can be understood. Encryption. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . Unlike a virus or worm.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Trend Micro-PCcillin).Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. Virus protection. called a ciphertext. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Define the term cryptography. Authentication. McAfee. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). Zone Alarm). Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Tutorial Questions 1. while authentication is proving it. However. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two.g. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access.

What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer.org/ 3. G. 5. Discuss various encryption software.eccouncil. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 .2. John has a password to the human resource system.

command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. which means its code is available to the public. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. There are a large number of built-in servers. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack.SYS. There is limited or no security. then he can still see such files. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. You can set attributes on files e.g. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. G. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. only on the network.SYS and MSDOS. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. Linux.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. You can set expiration dates on passwords. Linux is a popular. the Internet. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. and speech recognition. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Java. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Solaris. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Read. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. Hidden etc. like UNIX.

directories/libraries. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. You can set security on admin tasks (e. Operating System Concepts Mrs. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. There are audit logs and audit trails. object access. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. policy changes. privilege use and system events. Windows XP has increased security. There is also secured wireless access. It also supports encryption. Software restrictions .g. file vault and firewall. Templates include password policies. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. changing settings). service permissions. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. There is also a screen saver password. change. delete etc. most reliable Windows operating system. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. fields. It allows directory access control. virus). You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. file system permissions. read/write capability. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. records (views).OS/400 This accepts user id and password. account management. commands.read only. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). G.g. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). user rights. event log. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. There are also different levels of authority . Windows NT has security holes. lockout policies. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. This accepts user id and password. startup modes. There is also support for biometric devices. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. You are able to create multiple user accounts. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. There is also auditing which records login.

The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Erase. entertainment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . You can encrypt communication. Netware accepts a userid and password. Read. G. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. called the Pocket PC. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. and FileScan (sees filenames). Create. Modify. Tutorial Questions 1. There is a screen saver password. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2.Windows CE . Write. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA.

T. (2007).. (3rd Ed. Shelly G. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers.webopedia. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Galvin. Gagne.B.: USA. http://www.B. Modern Operating Systems. Discovering computers 2008.com. Operating System Concepts Mrs.d. P.). Tanenbaum. & Cashman. Abraham. Andrew S. Silberschatz. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 .J. G. (2006). John Wiley & Sons Inc. (2004).. Operating Systems Concepts. Prentice Hall: USA.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. KY:Course Technology Publishing. 7th E. G.

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