OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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........................................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ...... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ..........................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) .......................................................................................... 80 FIFO ...................................................................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS ............... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .................................. 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR).......... 65 LECTURE 13 .................................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ........................................................................................ 78 ADVANTAGES: ....................................................................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs........................................................................................................................................................................ 65 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................. 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ............................. 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL...................................................................................... WORST-FIT .......................................................................................................................................... 75 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................... G.......................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ............................ 79 LECTURE 17 .................................................................................. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)..................................................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) .................. 72 PARTITIONS........................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ................ 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ..................................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... BEST-FIT.................................................................................................................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................................. 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ... 79 DISADVANTAGES: ......................................................... 76 LECTURE 16 ......................................................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT... EXTERNAL............... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 81 LECTURE 18 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................................................................................... 75 LECTURE 15 ......................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) .......................................................................................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ................ 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................ 74 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................. 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ........ 82 ADVANTAGES .................................................................................................................................

................................ 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............ 94 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................THRASHING............................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ............................. 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ......................... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ........................................................................................................ 91 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................. 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs................................................................................................................................................................................................. 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ........... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ................................................... FATHER.. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................. 92 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................ 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 BLOCKS ................................................................................................................................................. 103 PRACTICE MCQS ......................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN .......................................................... G.................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ................................................................................. 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................. 100 LECTURE 24 .....MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .............. 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ............. 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............... 89 DISK CACHING ........................................... 99 BACKUP TIPS .............. 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ....................................................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ................................... 88 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 93 First come first served (FCFS) ...................................................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ........................................... 90 LECTURE 21 ............................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................................................................................... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ................................................. 95 RAID LEVELS .......................................................................................................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING .......... 99 GRAND FATHER.........................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ............... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................... 101 LECTURE 25 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..............................................

........................................................................................ 104 PRACTICE MCQS ...... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)..................................................................... 112 CRISC.. 109 CISC .................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ............................... 120 MacOS .................................................................................................... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ................................................................................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors................................................................................................................................. 113 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................LECTURE 26 ................................ 116 Worm ....................................................................................................................................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs................................................................. 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................... FIREWALL ........................................................................................................... ENCRYPTION.................................................................................................................. 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/2 ........................................... 117 Encryption ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS .. 119 MS-DOS....................... 116 Denial-of-service.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111 Disadvantages of CISC ................................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 106 Advantages of RISC ......... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) .... 120 Microsoft Windows ........................................................................................................ 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY .............. 116 Virus ................................................................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ... 117 Firewall.............................................................................................................................................. 119 UNIX............................................................................................................................................................................. 120 Novell Netware .............................................................................................. 116 Logic bomb ..................................................................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ........................................... 117 Virus protection................................................. 117 Authentication ..... 118 CASE STUDIES ...................................................................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ...... G.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC........................ 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION.......... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ......... 105 LECTURE 27 ............................... 119 OS/400 ................................................................... 110 Advantages of CISC ................................................................................... 116 Trojan Horse ........................................ 104 ADVANTAGES ..RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ..................

.............................................................................................. 121 REFERENCES ..................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ............................................... G........................... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .

3. students should be able to: 1. 4. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I .COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. interrupt handling. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. 2. virtual memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . manipulate operating systems 4. device and memory management. 5. G. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. process scheduling. students should: 1. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs.

The history and development of the operating system. g. Software and Firmware: a. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Directory Systems – Single-level. Tree-Structured. 2. students should be able to: 1. Spooling). students should be able to: a. 5. e. d. Two-level. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Storage. b. b. h. Operating Systems Functions: a. 4. Introduction: a. f. Program execution. I/O – (Buffering. Application Software c. 3. G. File-system manipulation. 2. Error Detection 3.Content: 1. User Interface. Define operating system. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. c. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Communications. Resource Allocation. System Startup. File Operations 2. Protection and Security. System Software b. File Concepts – File Attributes. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

j. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Preemptive scheduling. 7. 2. 8. 7. 6. Shortest Remaining Time. Dispatcher 3. best-fit. Multiprogramming. Time Sharing 2. 5. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. 3. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. Priority. 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Shortest Job First 5. limit register Logical vs. Scheduler. 4. students should be able to: 1. a. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. b. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. Scheduling criteria 4. 2.i. Round Robin. 5. 8. 3. G. 4. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs.

explain segmentation 9. Pure paging – pages. page table. LRU d. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. Optimal replacement c. Page replacement a. define frame 4. explain the purpose of the page table 5. address translation 3. Virtual address space 2. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. MFU f. explain disk caching 7. G. state the advantages of disk caching 8. FIFO b. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. define page 3. 2. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. address structure. address translation 6. Segmentation – segment table. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. 5. 4. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. students should be able to: 1. Demand paging 5. Allocation algorithms 4. 3. frames. explain thrashing Content: 1. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. LFU e. students should be able to: 1.

5. 3. write. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. 4. 2. 3. positioning time. 3. seek time rotational latency 5. students should be able to: 1. SSTF. Disk caching 7. SCAN. RAID 1. Distributed file systems – naming. log-structured systems 2. 4. 2. location transparency. 2. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Disk scheduling – FCFS.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. C-SCAN 6. incremental backup. File server systems – client-server computing 3. students should be able to: 1. LOOK. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 .Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. G. 5.

define security 2. 3. virus. 4. Galvin. 5. Common Coursework 20% 2. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. logic bomb. advantage. P. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Virus protection. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2.1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . OS/2. worm. & Gagne. UNIX. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Encryption. students should be able to: 1. G. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. (2008). G. 2. 3. 4. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. Operating systems concepts. RISC / CISC – development. Internal Tests 20% 3.B. (8th ed). Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. Denial-of-service Authentication. 2.. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Apple Macintosh. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3.

NJ: Prentice Hall. (2005). (2007). W. An introduction to operating systems. (1999). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.Recommended: Tanenbaum.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. Operating System Concepts Mrs.).). NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. W.S.(6th ed. G. A.

The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. is to make the computer convenient to use. • users . I/O devices etc. MacOS. play a game. As new versions of the operating system are released. Linux. other computers etc. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. Unix. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . DOS.CPU. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. We do not use the computer because of these software. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. it typically has an operating system already installed. When you purchase a new computer. We use the computer because we want to type a document. word processors.database systems. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . business programs. spreadsheets etc. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . memory. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. do our budget etc. These are all examples of operating systems. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Its primary goal therefore.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. machines. G.people. surf the internet. video games.

computers.By itself. and Linux. 98. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. notebook computer. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. so no need to know which sector.g. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. 2000 Server).x. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. Windows XP. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. 200 Professional. and other devices to and from the network. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. UNIX. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . and Linux. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. or mobile computing device. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. ME). NT Workstation. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. command language. block) and job control. data management (control of I/O devices. filing system. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. G. 95. 3. OS/2 Warp Client.g. Mac OS X. UNIX. track. Network and Embedded. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. storage management. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server.

What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. what does this mean? 9. airline reservation system.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs.NET. Gives instructions to the hardware b. 6. 3. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE .Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. Controls the user c.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. all the terminals are connected to the same program. in order to improve CPU utilization. If no. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. Tutorial Questions 1. 8. • General Purpose . Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . E. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. and Symbian OS. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. comment on its new features. An operating system is a program that a. Practice MCQs 1. • Transaction processing . • Time sharing . 7.g. research its new features and comment on them. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Pocket PC 2002. Define operating system. G.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. 10. • Foreground background . 4. Is controlled by application software d. However. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Palm OS. 2. 5.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed.

_____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. Hardware. Superstructure c. Application programs C. hardware. User. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. application software. User. Operating System D. hardware c. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. system software. Fence d. G.2. Select the correct sequence a. A. hardware. application software. system software b. application software. user. system software 3. Executive 4. User. Segment b. Hardware B. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. application software d. system software.

At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. he would unload tapes. as soon as one job was finished. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. which would transfer control to a program. an operator could start the next job. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. that is. I/O devices were slow. the operator was slow. In those days machines were slow. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. These changes.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. E. G. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. mounting magnetic tapes etc. (E.g. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. when a job stopped.g. When a job was done. In the early days machines were hand operated. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. determine why the program stopped. it would return control to the resident monitor. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. would run each batch. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created.. the CPU sat idle. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). Initially when the computer was turned on. the operator . A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. which would then go on to the next program. when the program terminated.66 per hour). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. This monitor is always resident in memory. There were still problems however. improved utilization quite a bit. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run.

Some operating systems still are device dependent. WYLBUR. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. high level user oriented programming languages. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor.e. The trend today. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. Only the device driver must be changed.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. Historically. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. In addition. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. however. G. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. read data from tape and not from card). This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. (i. By 1970 multiprocessing. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. Michigan Terminal System. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. MUSIC/SP. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. Multics. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system.

0 OS/2 (1. G.0 SunOS 3. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.0) AIX 1. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.0 Mac OS (System 1.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 . GE. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.0 Windows NT 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.

04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 6.10 Mac OS X v 10.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems. 5.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. 4. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the historical development of operating systems. G. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1.6 Windows NT 4.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. 3.2 FreeBSD 8. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. 2.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11.

Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. First Generation B.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. G. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. Second Generation C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. Third Generation D.

Finally. G. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. When a user turns on a computer. Managing programs refers to how many users. and loads them into memory from storage. requests any necessary user information. the operating system loads configuration information. If the POST completes successfully. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. an operating system can support at one time. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. multiuser. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. and displays the desktop. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. single user/multitasking. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. or multiprocessing.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. This is done on a network. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. the operating system may use virtual memory. If memory is insufficient. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. and how many programs. which manages memory and devices. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer.Lecture 2 .

Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Command-line interfaces however. grammar and punctuation. generate an error message.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. delete files and create folders. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. and graphical user interface. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. As in a restaurant. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. give a user more control over setting details. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. A job is an operation the processor manages. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. move files. menu-driven interface.

By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. In disk systems. Similarly when a job requests printer output. Requests for card reader input. is satisfied by reading from the disk. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. Disk systems eliminated that problem. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. G. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. The CPU can then move on to do other things. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other.

Pre-emption of resources. Deadlock prevention . One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. 1. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files.must hold for non sharable resources (e.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. mutual exclusion .ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. or recover from one. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. G. (a read only file is sharable) 2. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. To prevent deadlock. Operating System Concepts Mrs. either normally or abnormally. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 .e. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives.g. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. the operating system must provide some means to do so. Example:. Hold and wait . terminate process). The program must be able to end its execution. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available.

• Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. 4. 3. memory. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action.of resources that have already been allocated. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . State three (3) functions of an operating system. Tutorial Questions 1.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. Describe the conditions for deadlock. jam in the card reader etc. G. No pre-emption (No taking away) .3. 2. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. With the aid of a diagram. Circular wait .each process can request resources only in increasing order). To reconcile conflicting demands. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. 6. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. 7. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. Errors may occur in the CPU. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. 5.

Scheduling 5. Thrashing D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . cache D. buffer C. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. A. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. G. Spooling B. Paging C. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. A. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. RAM B.d) Record management 3.

g. E.g. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. we use the computer to type documents. E. G. detects. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. create graphs. MSBACKUP. Norton Anti-virus. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. WinZip. draw pictures. Quickview in Windows. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . E. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems.g. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. OS/2. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices.g. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. spreadsheet. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. Scandisk. E. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. when to do it. Norton disk doctor. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. E. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. Linux.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. E. play games etc. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. McAfee. Unix. banking. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. As mentioned before. DOS etc. There are two types of software: system software and application software. enter data into a database. Trend Micro PC-cillin. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension.Lecture 3 .g. graphics.g. word processing. Examples include: accounting. AVG etc. removes viruses from a computer system. do our accounting. PKZIP. WinRAR. database management.

Visi-Calc. Visual Basic. • Entertainment software These software include games. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Wordstar. Field.g. Symphony. Outlook (Email). People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do.g. Netscape Navigator. Dbase.g. E. page number. WordPad. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Corel Draw.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. However. Monopoly. Page Maker. C. which means that they will run on different computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . E. font size and type. E. spell check. print. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Outlook Express. Microsoft Excel. margins. editing. underline. mail merge. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. Pascal. Can sort. Web Browsers. posters. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. E. Combine word processing and graphics packages. Network Operating Systems (NOS). E. WordPerfect. Features include:. Chess. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications.g. keys.g. Solitaire etc. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. User can enter numbers. correction. Oracle. fieldtype. fieldsize.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Foxpro.g.Bold. Quattro Pro. E. E. newsletters. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. text in each cell. Lotus 1-2-3. C++. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. etc. query.g. E. formulas.g. Foxpro. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. printing of documents. COBOL etc. G. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. table of contents. justify. save. Microsoft Word. instructions. Windows Media Player. footnotes. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. Tutorial Questions 1. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. E. location 0. hard-coded in the hardware). MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. 2. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. Corel Wordperfect Suite. hard disk. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. Differentiate between system software and application software.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. For mainframes etc.g. Open Office. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company.g. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. Give examples of the type chosen. How does a word processor (e. E. 3. a) Preparing a letter to a customer.g. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. G. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. This is software embedded in hardware. Lotus Smartsuite. Microsoft Office.g. memory. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. sector 0 of boot disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 .e.g. cd-rom drive. diskette drive. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i.monitor. b) A teacher calculating student grades. keyboard. printer port. mouse. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. E. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation.

Research the various web browsers. System software C. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Anti-virus d. 7. Utilities D. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. 6. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. 8. A. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions.4. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. 5. Scandisk b. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Application software B. Defrag 2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Restore c.

Disk scanner C. Diagnostic 9. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems.7. Disk cleanup B. Disk defragmenter B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk scanner C. Disk defragmenter D. A. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. A. Diagnostic utility D.

sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . It is a characteristic of a file. Operating System Concepts Mrs. write. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file.TXT source file . G. msdos. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. A file is a collection of related information. system. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. bytes. date and time of creation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . It is a sequence of bits. In MS-DOS.Lecture 4 . The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. its length etc. io. COM graphics files . compressed. It has other properties such as its type. but not changed. the file. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created.sys. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. TIF database file – MDB. BMP. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. records. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. In other words. last modified. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. It is a logical storage unit. Examples include read-only. A read-only file can be viewed. Read-only files can be deleted and moved.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. It is mapped onto a physical device.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read.JPG. Common File types:text file . A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. hidden. DBF etc.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. A file is named and is referred to by its name. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom.ini.sys. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. archive. "writing" to the file is disabled.

rewind the file. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. Return error code if not. ntdetect. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted.sys. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. rename a file etc. the archive attribute is turned off. io. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . However. 2. Once the file is backed up by a backup program.com and ntldr. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs.sys and boot. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on.sys. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. Before you can use a file you must Open it. When finished with a file Close it. The archive attribute is used for backup.ini. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. read from the file. compression isn't usually recommended. however. display). G. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on.sys. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. Open a file Check permissions. 1. This way. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Any file can be marked as Hidden. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. io. copy file to an I/O device (printer. delete the file • edit/modify the file. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. write to the file.

system searches directory to find location of file. 4. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. 2. Describe five file operations. jpg. Describe the type of file. Tutorial Questions 1. 4. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. com. bmp). Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 .Find space on the file system. 3. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 3. 2. doc.g. exe. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. then the write pointer is updated. G. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. Append Writes information to the end of the file. 5. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. Describe five file attributes. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3.

Identifier C. Truncated D. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . G.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Name B.

creation date. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. 2. location. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. These are all directory operations. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. Studies showed that most files were small. A file can be on more than 1 disk. To handle this problem. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. This allows the file to be easily located. not physical. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . but it suffers from some inefficiency.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . G. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure.g. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. size and type for all files on that device.Lecture 5 . since physical tape reels are quite large (e. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics.400 feet). A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. The device directory records information such as name.

Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. The tree has a root directory. to a specified file. In normal use. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. G.g. grouping and other operations such as deleting. each user has a current directory.e.Single level . All files are in the same directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. This structure is efficient for searching. Every file has a unique path name. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . DOS. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. Users may also create their own subdirectories. Tree. This isolates one user from another. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. It is easy to support and understand. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. UNIX. system files and grouping files. Windows.structures . All files must have unique names. A file name is prefixed by user name. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups).the simplest directory structure.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. NB. can be access through more than one path).e. It is not the same as two copies. The same file may be in two different directories (i. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. Note that files have multiple path names. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. The following is an example using Unix. G. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user.

All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 3. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. HPFS. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Practice MCQs 1. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Research the General-Graph directory. NTFS). How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2.

Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job.Lecture 6 . but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. another job can be using the CPU. normally the CPU would sit idle. variables. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. the current instruction.g.e. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. for an I/O device). Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. Eventually the job may have to wait for something.g. a tape. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 .Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. addresses etc. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. G. (i. file pointers. This is also called concurrent processing. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. Normally the CPU would sit idle. keyboard input etc.

information associated with each process. accounting information. Practice MCQs 1. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. CPU scheduling information.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. and I/O status information. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. In other words. G. file pointers etc. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. The location of current instructions. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Waiting D. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. program counter. values in variables. Tutorial Questions 1. memory management information. CPU registers. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Differentiate between a process and a program. Describe the operation of the PCB. Running C. New B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . 3. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3.

or network input could be granted to other users. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. regardless of the number of users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. G. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Operating System Concepts Mrs. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Time-sharing. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. tape. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Similarly. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. and giving processor time to another process. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . however. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Tutorial Questions 1.

criteria. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. . . Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . The following defines various scheduling concepts. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The programs therefore have to be scheduled. . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later.Scheduling concepts. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .Lecture 7 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 .determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. An example is shown in the diagram below.Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. .8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . . the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. G.

CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. it therefore must be very fast. switches from an active to wait state or ii. intermediate level of scheduling. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. Tutorial Questions 1.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler.Some systems introduce an additional. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. 2. switches from wait state to ready or iv. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. Medium Term Scheduler . terminates. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. Long term scheduler B. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. Pre-emptive scheduling . It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). Non pre-emptive scheduling . This scheme is called swapping. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. This involves a) switching context. A. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Dispatcher . Medium term scheduler D.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. 5. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. Short term scheduler C.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . G.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. 4. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. 6. 3. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently.

Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 . G.

response time D. G. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Describe the various scheduling criteria. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.time from submission of request until the first response is produced. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 .how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time .how busy you keep CPU. • throughput . The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . waiting time C. Tutorial Questions 1.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. turnaround time B.

Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. for P2 = 0. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. This is a non-preemptive algorithm.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. G. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. P3. P1. for P3 = 3. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . P3. P2.

The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. memory requirements.g. 100 msec). If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. number of open files etc. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. system administrator). Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority.by a person (e.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. A priority number is associated with each job. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . G. • externally . Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. This process is called aging.

What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups.g. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. such as memory size or job type. Campbell 51 . Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. E. In addition. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. Tutorial Questions 1. generally based on some property of the job. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. G.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. In other words.

CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. SJF iii. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. Priority iv. G. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. Priority. FCFS ii. 4. SJF. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs.

Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Fragmentation D. Shortest job first B. Priority scheduling D. Starvation C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs.d) CPU scheduler 4. G. First come first served C. Aging B. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. Round robin scheduling 10.

A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. For this reason. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. As a result. all running at the same time. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. the whole computer can go down. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. SMP is more complex than ASMP. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously.Lecture 8. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. alleviating the need for data sharing. The remainder of the processors run user applications. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. The main difference is in how the processors operate. independent executable components of applications) of execution. Any processor can run any type of thread.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. one thread for each processor in the computer. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. G. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use.

• Heterogenous system (different processors – e. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 1 AMD. 6.g. 2. Parallel processor C. Practice MCQs 1. Multithreading D. Multiprogramming 2. A. 3. Coprocessor B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. 4. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. G. 3 Pentium II. multiprocessing C. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. Multiprogramming B.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue.g. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. A. In parallel processing. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. multitasking B. A. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. multiuser D. multiprogramming 3. Tutorial Questions 1. Multitasking D. Multiprocessing C. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor.

multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprocessing D. asymmetric multiprocessing B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . G. symmetric multiprocessing C.4. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A.

data. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. 4. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). G. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. 2. Memory mapping . which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory .the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory.Lecture 9 . If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. we must share memory. 2. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. though the code. Research the MMU or PMMU. stack and system data. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. 3.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. it still should not matter. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. If we must keep several processes in memory. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. Operating System Concepts Mrs. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. Tutorial Questions 1. Each machine has a certain amount of memory.

All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . G.Practice MCQs 1.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. the contents of the accessed location. 5. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. 3. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. When a memory access is made. which can be organized in a hierarchy. with a small amount of very fast. Describe the different types of cache. but very fast. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. Compare and contrast them. non-volatile disk storage. The higher levels are expensive.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). G. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. If another reference is made to this location. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . some medium speed. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. 2. expensive. cheap. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. volatile cache memory. Describe the different types of RAM. 4. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow.

Electronic Disk C. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2.Practice MCQs 1. hard disk c) Register. RAM. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. RAM. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. register. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. Main Memory 6. Cache D. cache 3. RAM. register. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. Magnetic Disk B. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Main memory D. RAM. Cache B. register. cache b) Cache. a) Hard disk. cache. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. Registers C. G. hard disk d) Hard disk.

stack. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. Therefore. and some addressing registers. and several specialized registers including a base register. flags register. Operating System Concepts Mrs. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . Types of registers As previously stated. program counter. stack register. In general. Memory. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. In other words. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. and flags.Lecture 10 . This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data.Basic memory hardware – base register. these include a program counter. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. and even to programmers. or RAM. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. G. Usually. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. In high-level languages. For example. high-speed storage area within the CPU. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. It is a special. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. CPU instructions operate on these values directly.

Discuss the other types of registers. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. the so-called base. Tutorial Questions 1. G. and the number of words available to that segment. in which case it is a bounds register). A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 .A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program.

Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The fence register is a type of bounds register. 2. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. The logical address space is used by user programs. b) placed in a fence register. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. User programs are run in their own area of memory. G. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. but the first address beyond the fence. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000.Lecture 11 . Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory.Logical vs. Consider the segment table. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . Tutorial Questions 1. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. the first address of the user program is not 00000. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware.

430 2.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 11 0. 500 3. 400 4. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . G. 10 1. 112 Practice MCQs 1.

Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. the system may actually do no useful work. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. running it for a while. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. Swapping maximizes available memory. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Practice MCQs 1.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. G. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Describe the concept of swapping. In extreme cases. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). Why would swapping be necessary? 3. 2. excessive paging is not desirable. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. Tutorial Questions 1. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory.

Scheduling B. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 .then putting it back on the disk. Swapping D. Paging C.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . worst fit. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. G. Overestimating the file size also wastes space.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. Compaction . There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. For sequential access. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Accessing a file. best fit. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.Lecture 13 . Each block contains a pointer to the next block. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. This solves the fragmentation problem. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. since all blocks are linked together. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. If too little space is allocated. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. To read a file. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. If the file to be created is n blocks long. many files will be stored on the same disk. indexed. linked. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. we can immediately access block b + n.

Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. removed from the start. 5. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Mr.is created. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. To find the nth block of a file. which is an array of disk block addresses. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. To read the nth block. In order to conserve on space. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. removed from the middle. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. added in the middle. Another problem is reliability. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. added at the end. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. 3. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. 4. It is never necessary to compact disk space. needs to work with certain files. The directory contains the address of the index block. Tutorial Questions 1. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. a programmer. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. It also does not suffer from wasted space. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. John Brown. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. Partition sizes vary dynamically. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. the partition sizes are set and do not change. This however comes with a lot of overhead. No space is wasted initially.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. When a region is free. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. Each region may have one program to be executed. However. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). In variable partition multi-programming. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section).

Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .

Multiple and fixed B. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Single and multiple D. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. Fixed and variable C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . G.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. What are they? Practice MCQs 1.

Practice MCQs 1. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. the extra space wasted. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job.Fragmentation – internal. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 .

What is virtual memory? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 .g. 2) arrays lists. Tutorial Questions 1. List the various virtual memory strategies. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. 1) code to handle errors. G. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once.Lecture 15 . Virtual memory D. Register C. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Memory management procedures such as paging. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. which functions as additional memory. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. A. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. partitioning. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. E. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. segmentation. Operating System Concepts Mrs. usually the hard disk. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. Cache B.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. Practice MCQs 1.

(page size . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. the offset is a number in the range 0 . VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. VA is determined from the compiled address. G. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset).A virtual address is represented as <page.1).

In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. G. Novell Netware . For example. containing only this one program. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. the program is scattered throughout physical memory.page size is 4K blocks by default). in the following diagram. (E. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space.g. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. which also holds other programs. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). the other is in memory location 4. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. The first page is in memory location 1. In reality. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. This is done by a hardware component. The page table organizes the pages.Lecture 16 . They are therefore scattered in memory. a file is made up of 4 pages. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. sometimes called a memory management unit. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Explain the concept of a page table. 3. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Discuss PTBR and TLB. 2. Describe paging. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. 4.

FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. the page that has already been used the most. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. This does not suffer from the anomaly. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. which may be difficult. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. NB. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. This has the lowest page fault rate. LRU. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. the page that has been used the least so far. LFU. The algorithms are FIFO. In other words. This method never suffers from the anomaly.Lecture 17 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . Locked pages cannot be replaced.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . In other words. Optimal replacement. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. MFU. G. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. This is hardware and overhead intensive. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives.

5. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 3. Least regularly used C. LRU? 3. Least recently used page replacement C. 8. Practice MCQs 1. 4. 9. FIFO. Least recently used B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . LFU. LRU stands for: A. 9. 3. 5. 8. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 2. 2. 2. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. Likely regularly used D. 8. Counting based page replacement D. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. 7. 5. 2. 3. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. LFU. 9. 4. 4. 6. 3. 8. G. LRU? 2. 2. FIFO. A.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 1. What is a page fault? 5. 8. 9. Optimal page replacement B. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 4. 5. 3.

not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution.Lecture 18 . Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Therefore. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. Advantages Demand paging. or you can load in the page when required. This is known as demand paging. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. As there is more space in main memory. G. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. Less loading latency occurs at program startup.

A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. including vulnerability to timing attacks. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. G. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. Possible security risks. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing.• Programs running on low-cost. Practice MCQs 1. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Tutorial Questions 1. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 4 096 bytes C. 4 000 bytes B. How many pages does it need? A. 3 648 bytes 10. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. A. 3 670 bytes D. 23 D. 8. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. Paging B. Belady’s anomaly C. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Thrashing B.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. 26 C. G. 40 B. Buffering C. Spooling D. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Frame allocation D. 25 9. How much is the internal fragmentation? A.

Instead. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. G. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. which are of fixed size. Given a logical address (segment. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. A segment table is maintained for each process. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. offset) = (s. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. they use segmentation.d).Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory.

Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. 2. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. 7. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. G. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Tutorial Questions 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. ii. 4. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. offset>. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 .

8. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2.

random access memory . size and speed. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. numbered from 0. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices.e. Block . Disk capacity therefore doubled. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. each one with its own address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. but the data can be read immediately. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Tutorial Questions 1.another name for main storage. A block on a disk is the sector. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. so that the location is known. (i. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. RAM and Optical disks RAM . To improve the performance of a disk. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks).Lecture 20 . G. Each location has a 0 or 1. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. 2.

read many) EO (erasable optical) .sometimes called associative registers. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. DVD R-? 3.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. G. It is small hardware memory . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . DVD R+. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. calculators. This does not provide permanent storage. E. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. What is the difference between DVD R.g. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4.read only memory) . The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. They are used to store both video and audio files. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. Discuss RAM disks. palm tops. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Tutorial Questions 1. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. How do they differ from other disks? 2. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe disk caching.Tutorial Questions 1. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2.

When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. sector etc. is this an input or output operation? 2. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Head crash . G. The coating however will wear after enough use.) 3. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. surface.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . memory address 4. cylinder. To improve the performance of a disk. the disk address (drive. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk.g. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data.Lecture 21 . due to power-cut). amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track.

This is also known as transfer rate.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Other definitions • Positioning time . Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Tutorial Questions 1. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 .

when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. At the other end it reverses direction. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. until it gets to other end of disk. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. For example. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. servicing requests as it reaches each track. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. In other words. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. otherwise the request will be queued. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. in alternating directions. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. It however may cause starvation of some requests. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. For example. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . satisfying requests. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk.

48. 22. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 17. 80. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. Tutorial Questions 1. If the queue of requests is 80. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 2. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 22. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. Explain how it works. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 80 c) 73. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 35. 91. 147. 80 b) 46. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 46.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. numbered 0 to 199. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . and where to commence the next sweep.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125.3. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 46 d) 73. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 46. 60. 73. 5. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 80. If the queue of requests is 8.5. 46. Practice MCQs 1. which is in great demand. G. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. 22. 73. 73.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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firmware or by using firmware and specialized. Tutorial Questions 1.g. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. As an example. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. 3. Describe the non-standard RAID levels.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. Describe the standard RAID levels.. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs.which function as a slow RAID-1. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. In the example. Discuss the term RAID. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. 2. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . e. it can also be done at the operating system level. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. but can be expanded with further volumes. 4.

Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups.restore the main backup first. things can still go wrong. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Father. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. To restore . Backup all files (main backup). Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files.cool. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Disadvantage . or destroyed. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. G. then changes since (incremental backup). In order to recover you restore all files. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . The father then becomes the grandfather. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup).Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. then the entire backup is useless. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up.if one change is messed up. Restore changes from audit. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . The following describes the different types of backup. damaged. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. father. dry. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 .save to CD 1 etc. • • • • Grand father.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . A backup is a duplicate of a file.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. Operating System Concepts Mrs. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather.

why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. How did you solve the problem (e. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. how often do you back up? If not. 3. 4. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. G. Do you backup? If yes. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Practice MCQs 1. 6. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2.g. Tutorial Questions 1. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. 2.

Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. but requests a server's content or service function. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the concept of a file server.g. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. who access remote files in the same way as local files. Discuss the other types of servers (e. A client does not share any of its resources.) 4.Lecture 24 .File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. the location of a file is transparent to users. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. Operating System Concepts Mrs. called clients. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . 3. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. If a user opens a non-local file. In this scheme. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. database server. mail server. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. G. the open request is channelled to the file server. print server etc.

You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. • Better file abstraction. sector>. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. Dynamic. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . read. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . • This is a convenient way to share data. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. • File name still denotes a specific. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. Resources on other machines are remote.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. is hidden. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. somewhere in the network. on files. it's understood where the file actually resides. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. the system and disk are known. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. A file system provides a service for clients. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • In a conventional file system. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. In a networked environment users want to share data files. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. etc. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. When data are requested. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. set of physical disk blocks.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. the location of a file. although hidden. one-to-many mapping.Lecture 25 . • In a transparent DFS. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines.

does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . G. 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. Practice MCQs 1. includes the file’s logical storage location C. Research and give examples of various DFSs. • Do NOT support migration.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. However.001375 = 1.screen graphics. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole.75 = 1. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. E.Lecture 26 . Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. do input/output operations. display . • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized.g.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. and keyboard operations.g. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly.375 x 10-3 (1. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously.375E -3) . execute program flow control instructions. 2. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. -3 = characteristic or exponent. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. A more common use was to control input/output channels. E. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 .375 = mantissa/argument.375E +1) . manage memory etc. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer.375 x 101 (1. 10 = base/radix. 13. G.

3. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. Practice MCQs 1. ‘superscalar’. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . G. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. ‘dual-core’.

g. It is actually an interpreter. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. addressing modes. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. however. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. This software.complex instruction set computer. it lists the things that the processor can do.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform.g. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . On these machines. MOVE. G. do not have a microprogramming level. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. At that time. RISC. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. This is the normal type of computer. E. and comparing values. RISC . Some computers. number of registers. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 27 . A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. doing arithmetic. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. called the micro-program (or firmware). is usually located in ROM (read only memory). Until the mid-1980s.reduced instruction set computer. however the differences extend further. (More instructions per clock cycle). E. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. In other words.

and make them cheaper to manufacture.In the mid 1970s.P. Due to these developments. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. Typically. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. a PowerPC has 32 registers. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. the results are discarded and there is no loss. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. who developed the M. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. and begins execution of the corresponding code. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. high-speed caches. For this reason. which would require fewer transistors1. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations .S. unlike complex instruction set machine. advanced compilers. it has gained time. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. and better pipelining. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. Only load and store instructions access memory . RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. Reduced instruction set machines.I. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. If the processor guessed correctly. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. G. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. For example. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification.

The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. This was largely due to a lack of software support.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. In 1977. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. Without commercial interest. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. Windows 3. producing faster and cheaper processors .000. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. By 1994. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. To some extent. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. In contrast. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. G. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips.

based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. .5 and higher). Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Since then. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. Ultra1. Apple Computer. SPARCserver. including IBM. other manufacturers. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. Windows NT. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. In the SPARC. G. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. and Motorola Corporation. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. and OS/2. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Apple introduced the Power Mac. which appeared in 1994. all instructions are 32-bits in length. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems.

CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. and stands for complex instruction set computer. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. easier implementation of new chips. which supports fewer instructions. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. G. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. computers executed instructions sequentially. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. code size has become a non-issue. In contrast to RISC. fast code. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. Pronounced sisk. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. use a CISC architecture. An alternative architecture. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. Atari. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. However. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. At that time. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. Most personal computers.it costs less than £10. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors.design. In a nutshell. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. In a microprogrammed2 system. This also improved performance. The Amiga. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions.

market factors.according to their byte length. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. In particular. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. This is a result of having instructions. In the VAX. which can operate directly on memory. there are more than 30. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. The VAX. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. Due to the large number of addressing modes. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. typically about 8 registers. G. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. etc. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. has the following modes: to/from a register. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. to/from a specific location in memory. However. to/from an address pointed to by a register. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. while string operations have three or five operands. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . an example of a complex instruction set computer. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Loss of computer and data. or sexual preference). or marketing plans). loss of time in having to re-enter data. not adequately trained/experienced (e. fire. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. Category Human error – e. vandalism. personal history. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Loss of data.g. Identity theft. information. data. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects.g. This can lead to things like software piracy. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. low voltage. Huge repair bill. Illegal access to files. medical information. young child) Technical error – system failure e. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. hurricane. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Loss of data.. Theft. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . Damage to computer due to improper use. power surges. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Effect Loss of data. May need to re-install software. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. flood.g.g. Loss of computer. Physical damage to computer.g. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. pricing data. hard disk crash. Loss of files/data. Loss of sales due to piracy. or processing capability.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. loss of time. lightening.. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. software. Loss of time. adding data twice. theft of marketing information (e. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. delete a file by accident. entering incorrect data. customer lists. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Loss of income due to software piracy.

G. as well. and then starts replicating from there. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. and the cell remains alive. Instead. Obviously. releasing the virus. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. as well. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. A biological virus is not a living thing. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person.it is not alive. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. Unlike a cell. In some cases. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Once it is running. In other cases. It may be benign or have a negative effect. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. There are similarities at a deeper level. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . A computer virus shares some of these traits.

a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. However. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. the correct decryption key is required. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Tutorial Questions 1.g. while authentication is proving it. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. called a ciphertext. so it can be understood. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . This must be updated regularly. G. hackers). Zone Alarm). the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Norton Antivirus. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Define the term cryptography. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam).g. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. Trend Micro-PCcillin). The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Unlike a virus or worm. McAfee. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Encryption. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system.g. which can cause severe damage to databases. (e. Virus protection. Authentication.

Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 .org/ 3.2. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. Discuss various encryption software. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. John has a password to the human resource system. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. G. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. 5.eccouncil. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs.

A password is not compulsory on the local computer. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information.SYS and MSDOS. the Internet. There are a large number of built-in servers. You can set attributes on files e. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. only on the network. then he can still see such files. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. Linux. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. which means its code is available to the public. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. Linux is a popular. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Java. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Solaris. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit.SYS. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. G. Read. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business.g. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. like UNIX. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. There is limited or no security. Operating System Concepts Mrs. You can set expiration dates on passwords. and speech recognition. Hidden etc. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers.

MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. user rights. There is also secured wireless access. read/write capability. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. It allows directory access control. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). G. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. directories/libraries. file system permissions. There is also auditing which records login. most reliable Windows operating system. records (views). Operating System Concepts Mrs. There are audit logs and audit trails.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. lockout policies. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. changing settings). There are also different levels of authority . Windows NT has security holes. privilege use and system events. There is also support for biometric devices. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). change. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. It also supports encryption. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. delete etc. fields. object access.g.g. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. You are able to create multiple user accounts. service permissions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. file vault and firewall. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. startup modes. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. This accepts user id and password. commands. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. policy changes. Windows XP has increased security. Templates include password policies. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. account management. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. Software restrictions .You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. You can set security on admin tasks (e. virus). Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. There is also a screen saver password. Authority levels can be set on files/objects.read only. event log.

Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. Write. Erase. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Read. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. There is a screen saver password. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Modify.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Create. Tutorial Questions 1. and FileScan (sees filenames). There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. The rights that can be set include: Superviros.Windows CE . called the Pocket PC. G. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. You can encrypt communication. Netware accepts a userid and password. entertainment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 .

Prentice Hall: USA. 7th E. (2004). & Cashman. Abraham. Operating Systems Concepts.B. (2006).REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers. Discovering computers 2008. G. Andrew S.: USA. (2007).com. Shelly G. P.J. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Modern Operating Systems. G. Galvin. Gagne.). http://www.B. Silberschatz.d.webopedia. (3rd Ed. Tanenbaum. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. T. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . KY:Course Technology Publishing.. Complete Shelly Cashman Series.. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

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