OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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............. 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT............................................................... BEST-FIT............ 65 PRACTICE MCQS .................................. 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs.........................................................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ................................................................................. 81 PRACTICE MCQS .............. 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT .................................................................................................................................................................. 81 LECTURE 18 ................................................................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ..................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)......................................................................... 76 LECTURE 16 ..................................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS ..................................................... 72 PARTITIONS....................................................................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ...................................................... 74 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS ......................................................................................................................................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............. 75 LECTURE 15 ........................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) . 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ............... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 68 PRACTICE MCQS ............................. 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................ EXTERNAL................................................................ 79 LECTURE 17 ................................................................................................................................................ 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) .............. 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................ 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE .................................. 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...........................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ..................................................................................................................... WORST-FIT ............................................................................................................ 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ................................. 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS .......................................... 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)... 75 PRACTICE MCQS .................... 65 LECTURE 13 ............................................................................................................................................................... 80 FIFO .......................................................................................................... 79 DISADVANTAGES: ...................................................................................................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL.................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ............. 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................... G..................................................................................................................................... 78 ADVANTAGES: ..................................................................................................................... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ........TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................. G.............................................................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ....... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ............... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ....................................................................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ................ 92 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................ 90 LECTURE 21 ... 99 GRAND FATHER........................... 93 First come first served (FCFS) .............................. 100 LECTURE 24 ...........................................................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ............. 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ..... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................ 86 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................ 103 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ............................................................................................. 99 BACKUP TIPS .......... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ......................................................................................................................................................................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. FATHER.................................................................................................. 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ................................... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs.......................................................... 101 LECTURE 25 .............................................................................................................................THRASHING...................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....... 89 DISK CACHING .......................................................................................................................................................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS ... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 88 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 88 BLOCKS ........... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ........................................................................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ................ 94 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................... 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 95 RAID LEVELS ..........................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ......................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS . 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 .......................................................................... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING .............................................

.......... 117 Firewall........................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Novell Netware .................................................................................................................................................................................. 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................. 116 Worm ......CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)..................................................................................................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .. 116 Virus ............................ 119 OS/2 ...................................................... 120 MacOS ...........................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ......................... 104 DISADVANTAGES .............................................................................. VIRUS PROTECTION............................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/400 ............................................................... 106 Advantages of RISC ................................. 104 PRACTICE MCQS ............................. 112 CRISC...... G.... 117 Virus protection.................................................................................................................................. ENCRYPTION.......... 104 ADVANTAGES .......................................................................... 119 UNIX............................................................................................................................................................................................ 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ............. 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs..................................................................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ............................................................... 116 Denial-of-service................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ................................. 105 LECTURE 27 .......................................................... FIREWALL ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 110 Advantages of CISC ............................................................ 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS . 120 Microsoft Windows ........................................................................................................................................... 117 Authentication ............................................................................................................................................... 116 Trojan Horse ................................................................................................ 117 Encryption ................ 119 MS-DOS............... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC............................................................................................. 116 Logic bomb ........................................................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC .......................................................................................... 118 CASE STUDIES ................................................................................................................................. 109 CISC ......... 113 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION............ 117 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................................................................... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ......................................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors................................. 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................... 121 REFERENCES ................................................... G.................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs.... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ........................................

device and memory management. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. process scheduling. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. G.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. 2. manipulate operating systems 4. 3. interrupt handling. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. students should: 1. virtual memory. students should be able to: 1.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. 5.

G. e. File Operations 2. Storage. c. Tree-Structured. System Startup. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. The history and development of the operating system.Content: 1. User Interface. g. h. b. Communications. Define operating system. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. d. I/O – (Buffering. Program execution. students should be able to: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Two-level. Spooling). Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Error Detection 3. b. Introduction: a. students should be able to: a. System Software b. File-system manipulation. 3. File Concepts – File Attributes. Application Software c. Operating Systems Functions: a. f. Software and Firmware: a. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. Resource Allocation. 5. 2. 2. Protection and Security. Directory Systems – Single-level.

Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 3. limit register Logical vs. Shortest Job First 5. Dispatcher 3. G. Scheduling criteria 4. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 8. Priority. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. students should be able to: 1.i. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. 4. Round Robin. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Shortest Remaining Time. 7. 2. j. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Multiprogramming. Time Sharing 2. 4. 5. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. 7. 2. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. a. 8. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. 6. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Preemptive scheduling. b. 6. Scheduler. best-fit.

3. students should be able to: 1.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 2. define page 3. students should be able to: 1. explain disk caching 7. G. address translation 3. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. LRU d. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. Allocation algorithms 4. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. Optimal replacement c. 4. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. explain segmentation 9. Segmentation – segment table. MFU f. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. explain thrashing Content: 1. page table. define frame 4. Virtual address space 2. 5. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. Pure paging – pages. address structure. frames. LFU e. Page replacement a. Demand paging 5. address translation 6. explain the purpose of the page table 5. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. FIFO b. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests.

3. Disk caching 7. 3. incremental backup. Disk scheduling – FCFS. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. SSTF. 2. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. location transparency. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. LOOK. 5. 2. write. 4. Distributed file systems – naming.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. G. 2. seek time rotational latency 5. RAID 1. 5. log-structured systems 2. 4. positioning time. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. students should be able to: 1. SCAN. File server systems – client-server computing 3. C-SCAN 6. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. 3.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. 4.

4. UNIX. 5. A. Galvin. 4. students should be able to: 1. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . virus. worm. Internal Tests 20% 3. (2008). Common Coursework 20% 2. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. logic bomb. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit.. G. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. advantage. Operating systems concepts. & Gagne. define security 2. Denial-of-service Authentication. 2.1. RISC / CISC – development. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. Encryption. 3. OS/2. Apple Macintosh. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. 2.B. (8th ed). describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. P. G. Virus protection.

An introduction to operating systems. (2007).(6th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. A. W.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. G. Modern operating systems (3rd ed. (2005). W.Recommended: Tanenbaum. NJ: Prentice Hall. (1999). Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed.).).S. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . Operating System Concepts Mrs.

word processors. Linux. other computers etc. MacOS. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . • users .Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. These are all examples of operating systems. DOS. machines. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. is to make the computer convenient to use. When you purchase a new computer. spreadsheets etc. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. As new versions of the operating system are released. surf the internet.people. Its primary goal therefore. Unix. video games. business programs. do our budget etc. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. play a game. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. I/O devices etc. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. We use the computer because we want to type a document. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . We do not use the computer because of these software. it typically has an operating system already installed. G.CPU. memory. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed.database systems.

g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 200 Professional. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. 95. notebook computer. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. filing system. or mobile computing device. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. G. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. and other devices to and from the network. track. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. UNIX. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. ME). storage management. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. computers. block) and job control. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. 98. data management (control of I/O devices. 3. Windows XP. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. Network and Embedded. OS/2 Warp Client. so no need to know which sector.x. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Mac OS X. 2000 Server). The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. UNIX. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone.g. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. and Linux.By itself. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. NT Workstation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Microsoft Windows Server 2003. command language. and Linux. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users.

the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. in order to improve CPU utilization. Is controlled by application software d. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. 6.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . • Foreground background .g. airline reservation system.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. An operating system is a program that a. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. G. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. what does this mean? 9. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. 10. 5.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. • General Purpose . in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. • Transaction processing . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . Practice MCQs 1. Pocket PC 2002. If no. and Symbian OS. Tutorial Questions 1. 7. all the terminals are connected to the same program. research its new features and comment on them. Gives instructions to the hardware b. E.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . 3. Controls the user c. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. 8. comment on its new features. Define operating system.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. • Time sharing . What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. 4. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned.NET. Palm OS. 2.

G. Fence d. Hardware. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. application software. user. system software 3. Executive 4. hardware c. User. Superstructure c. Operating System D. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. system software. application software. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . A.2. application software. Select the correct sequence a. Hardware B. Application programs C. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. User. hardware. Segment b. application software d. hardware. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. system software. system software b. User.

that is. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. There were still problems however. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. determine why the program stopped.. (E. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. when a job stopped. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. it would return control to the resident monitor. would run each batch. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. E. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). This monitor is always resident in memory. the operator . an operator could start the next job. the CPU sat idle. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 .The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run.g. mounting magnetic tapes etc. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. the operator was slow. G. When a job was done. In the early days machines were hand operated. which would then go on to the next program. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. when the program terminated. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. improved utilization quite a bit. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators.g. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. he would unload tapes. These changes. Initially when the computer was turned on. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group.66 per hour). If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. In those days machines were slow. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. I/O devices were slow. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. which would transfer control to a program. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. as soon as one job was finished. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition.

Only the device driver must be changed. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. In addition. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. Some operating systems still are device dependent. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system.e. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Historically. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. read data from tape and not from card). IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. however. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. By 1970 multiprocessing. WYLBUR. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. Michigan Terminal System. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. (i. high level user oriented programming languages. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. Multics. MUSIC/SP. The trend today. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS).

0 Mac OS (System 1. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.0) AIX 1.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. G. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money.0 Windows NT 3.0 OS/2 (1.0 SunOS 3. GE. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.

5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. 6. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. 2.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.10 Mac OS X v 10. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the historical development of operating systems. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7.6 Windows NT 4. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . 3. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. G.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. 5.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7.2 FreeBSD 8. 4.

Second Generation C. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. G. First Generation B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Third Generation D.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4.

requests any necessary user information. which manages memory and devices. an operating system can support at one time.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. If the POST completes successfully. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and loads them into memory from storage. Managing programs refers to how many users. multiuser. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. Finally. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. When a user turns on a computer. G. single user/multitasking. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. This is done on a network. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. the operating system may use virtual memory. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. and displays the desktop. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions.Lecture 2 . or multiprocessing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. If memory is insufficient. and how many programs. the operating system loads configuration information.

Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. generate an error message. give a user more control over setting details. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. G. With a graphical user interface (GUI). A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. As in a restaurant. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. menu-driven interface. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. delete files and create folders. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. grammar and punctuation. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Command-line interfaces however. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. and graphical user interface. move files. A job is an operation the processor manages. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands.

Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Disk systems eliminated that problem. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Similarly when a job requests printer output. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. The CPU can then move on to do other things. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. Requests for card reader input.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. G. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. In disk systems. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. is satisfied by reading from the disk.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 .ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. G.must hold for non sharable resources (e. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. Example:. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. The program must be able to end its execution.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. the operating system must provide some means to do so.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3.e. either normally or abnormally. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. terminate process). Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. To prevent deadlock.g. or recover from one. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. (a read only file is sharable) 2. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. Pre-emption of resources. 1. mutual exclusion . A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. Hold and wait . Deadlock prevention .

What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1.each process can request resources only in increasing order). No pre-emption (No taking away) . name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices.3.of resources that have already been allocated. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. Circular wait . • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. 2. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. Errors may occur in the CPU. 3. 6. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. G. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. With the aid of a diagram.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . 7. 4. memory. State three (3) functions of an operating system. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. 5. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. To reconcile conflicting demands. jam in the card reader etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Describe the conditions for deadlock.

Spooling B.d) Record management 3. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. buffer C. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. Thrashing D. Scheduling 5. cache D. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. A. G. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. RAM B. Paging C.

detects. E. Quickview in Windows. create graphs. enter data into a database. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. E. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it.g.g. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.g. As mentioned before. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. WinRAR. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. MSBACKUP. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. McAfee. E. Trend Micro PC-cillin. G. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. word processing. database management. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. do our accounting. Unix. There are two types of software: system software and application software. graphics. Examples include: accounting. E. E. draw pictures.Lecture 3 . In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. Norton Anti-virus. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. Linux. removes viruses from a computer system.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. Norton disk doctor. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. Scandisk. spreadsheet. AVG etc. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. banking.g. WinZip.g. we use the computer to type documents. PKZIP. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. when to do it.g. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. OS/2. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. E. play games etc. DOS etc. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

fieldtype. Lotus 1-2-3.g. table of contents. E. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. save.g. print. • Entertainment software These software include games. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form.g. Foxpro.g. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. E. Web Browsers. Chess. User can enter numbers.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. etc. page number. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. E. Microsoft Excel. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Solitaire etc. Windows Media Player. Combine word processing and graphics packages. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. posters. WordPad. newsletters. Can sort. editing. Page Maker. instructions. Corel Draw. Wordstar. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger .g. formulas. E. Field. mail merge.g. Foxpro. justify. Outlook (Email).Bold. E.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. keys. Outlook Express. Visual Basic. G. COBOL etc. Features include:. which means that they will run on different computers. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. text in each cell. However. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. E. query. E. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. fieldsize. Dbase.g. underline. Netscape Navigator.g. Symphony. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. WordPerfect. C. Visi-Calc. Quattro Pro. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. Microsoft Word. Monopoly. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. margins. footnotes. printing of documents. font size and type. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . correction. Network Operating Systems (NOS). Operating System Concepts Mrs. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Pascal. C++. Oracle. spell check. E.

g.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. diskette drive. E. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware.monitor. keyboard. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. sector 0 of boot disk. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . 2. cd-rom drive. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. 3. E. How does a word processor (e. E.e. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. memory. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Microsoft Office.g. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. b) A teacher calculating student grades. Give examples of the type chosen.g. Corel Wordperfect Suite. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. G. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. Tutorial Questions 1. Open Office. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. Lotus Smartsuite. Differentiate between system software and application software.g.g. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. location 0. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. mouse. For mainframes etc. hard-coded in the hardware). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . This is software embedded in hardware. printer port. hard disk. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. a) Preparing a letter to a customer.

All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. 8. Restore c. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. 5. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Scandisk b. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. G. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. Anti-virus d. Research the various web browsers. 6. Utilities D. Defrag 2. System software C. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. Application software B.4. A. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk scanner C. Disk defragmenter B. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. A. Diagnostic 9. Disk scanner C.7. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk defragmenter D. Disk cleanup B. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. A. G. Diagnostic utility D.

sys. its length etc.sys. write. In MS-DOS. DBF etc.TXT source file . It is a logical storage unit. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. G. A file is named and is referred to by its name.ini.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. TIF database file – MDB. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. A file is a collection of related information. "writing" to the file is disabled. It is a sequence of bits. io. COM graphics files . records. date and time of creation. last modified. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer.JPG. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. BMP. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. compressed. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 .sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. In other words. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. A read-only file can be viewed. Examples include read-only. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. hidden. but not changed. msdos. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. It is mapped onto a physical device.Lecture 4 . bytes. Common File types:text file .sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. It has other properties such as its type. the file. It is a characteristic of a file. archive. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. system.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) .

rewind the file. Return error code if not.sys and boot. copy file to an I/O device (printer. Open a file Check permissions. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. When finished with a file Close it. io. 1. ntdetect. io. G. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. however. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. read from the file. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on.com and ntldr. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. 2. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. However. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 .ini. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. write to the file. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. delete the file • edit/modify the file. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. Any file can be marked as Hidden. The archive attribute is used for backup.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views.sys. This way. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. compression isn't usually recommended. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file.sys. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. display). rename a file etc. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted.sys. the archive attribute is turned off. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected.

Describe the type of file. Tutorial Questions 1. 5. then the write pointer is updated. system searches directory to find location of file. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. com. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. G. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. Practice MCQs 1. exe. jpg. Append Writes information to the end of the file. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written.Find space on the file system. 4. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . 3. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. doc. Describe five file attributes. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. 2. 4. Describe five file operations. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. 2. 3. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written.g. bmp).

G. Identifier C. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Name B. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Truncated D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 .b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2.

therefore they would take up a small amount of tape.Lecture 5 . The device directory records information such as name. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . not physical. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics.400 feet). Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. A file can be on more than 1 disk. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. Studies showed that most files were small. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. This allows the file to be easily located. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure.g. 2. creation date. location. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. These are all directory operations. G. but it suffers from some inefficiency. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. To handle this problem. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. size and type for all files on that device.

This isolates one user from another. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. each user has a current directory. All files must have unique names. grouping and other operations such as deleting. Tree. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). In normal use.structures . G. All files are in the same directory. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . Every file has a unique path name. to a specified file. Users may also create their own subdirectories. It is easy to support and understand. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory.the simplest directory structure. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. This structure is efficient for searching. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The tree has a root directory.Single level . When a user lists the directory he sees only his files.e.g. DOS. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. A file name is prefixed by user name. system files and grouping files. UNIX. Windows. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory.

Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. NB. The following is an example using Unix. can be access through more than one path).e. G. It is not the same as two copies.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. The same file may be in two different directories (i. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. Note that files have multiple path names.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once.

Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. NTFS). Research the General-Graph directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. 3. HPFS. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1. 4. G.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4.

Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. variables. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job.Lecture 6 . G.g. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . Normally the CPU would sit idle. a tape. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. for an I/O device). This is also called concurrent processing.e. (i. keyboard input etc. file pointers. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. addresses etc.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive.g. normally the CPU would sit idle. the current instruction. another job can be using the CPU. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive.

3. CPU scheduling information. In other words. values in variables. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. New B. Waiting D. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. and I/O status information. CPU registers. Running C. G. file pointers etc. Describe the operation of the PCB. program counter. memory management information. Differentiate between a process and a program. accounting information. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . The location of current instructions. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. information associated with each process. Practice MCQs 1.

Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. Time-sharing. or network input could be granted to other users. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. Operating System Concepts Mrs. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. however. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . Tutorial Questions 1. Similarly. G. regardless of the number of users. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. tape. and giving processor time to another process. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users.

determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . An example is shown in the diagram below. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. . . .Scheduling concepts. . G. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. criteria. The following defines various scheduling concepts. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .Lecture 7 . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . The programs therefore have to be scheduled. .

A. Short term scheduler C. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Medium Term Scheduler . It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. 3. Non pre-emptive scheduling . Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling.Some systems introduce an additional. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. Tutorial Questions 1.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . 5. This involves a) switching context. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Pre-emptive scheduling . switches from wait state to ready or iv. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. Dispatcher . terminates. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. it therefore must be very fast. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. This scheme is called swapping. 6. G. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. intermediate level of scheduling. switches from an active to wait state or ii. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory).Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. 2. Medium term scheduler D. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. 4.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. Long term scheduler B. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Research alternate names for the various schedulers.

G. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2.

Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. turnaround time B.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 .time from submission of request until the first response is produced.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1.how busy you keep CPU. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . • throughput . Describe the various scheduling criteria. response time D. waiting time C. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. Practice MCQs 1. G. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible.

Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. P3. P2. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. This is a non-preemptive algorithm.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. G. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. for P3 = 3. for P2 = 0. P3. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . P1. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1.

Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. • externally . number of open files etc.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. 100 msec). then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. system administrator). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 .g. This process is called aging.g. A priority number is associated with each job. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. memory requirements. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. G. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units.by a person (e. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

such as memory size or job type. generally based on some property of the job. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. E. G. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. Campbell 51 . if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. Tutorial Questions 1. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. In addition. In other words. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system.g. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. and so might have different scheduling algorithms.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system.

a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. Priority. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. 4. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. 3. SJF. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. G. SJF iii. Priority iv. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . FCFS ii.

Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Fragmentation D. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7.d) CPU scheduler 4. Starvation C. First come first served C. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Aging B. Priority scheduling D. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Shortest job first B. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. G. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Round robin scheduling 10. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 .

For this reason. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. G. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. Any processor can run any type of thread. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. the whole computer can go down. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. one thread for each processor in the computer. The main difference is in how the processors operate. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. alleviating the need for data sharing. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. As a result. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. all running at the same time. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently.Lecture 8. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. SMP is more complex than ASMP. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. independent executable components of applications) of execution.

1 AMD. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Parallel processor C. 5. Multiprogramming B.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. multiprogramming 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 .g. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. Multitasking D. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. multiuser D. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. multiprocessing C. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. 6. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. Practice MCQs 1. 2. Coprocessor B. 3. G. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. In parallel processing. Multiprogramming 2. A. 4. 3 Pentium II. A. Multithreading D.g. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. Tutorial Questions 1. Multiprocessing C. multitasking B. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. A. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor.

multiprocessing D. G. asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs.4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. symmetric multiprocessing C.

This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . Research the MMU or PMMU.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. 4. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Tutorial Questions 1. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. G.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. we must share memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . data. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process.Lecture 9 . and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. though the code. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. 2. Memory mapping . 2. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. If we must keep several processes in memory. 3. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. stack and system data. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). it still should not matter. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . G. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.Practice MCQs 1.

with a small amount of very fast. 3. 5. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. cheap. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. the contents of the accessed location. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. but very fast. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. which can be organized in a hierarchy. some medium speed. If another reference is made to this location. G. Describe the different types of cache. volatile cache memory. non-volatile disk storage. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. expensive. The higher levels are expensive. 4. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. When a memory access is made. Describe the different types of RAM. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 .Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. 2. Compare and contrast them. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

cache b) Cache. register. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Main Memory 6. G. Cache D. RAM. hard disk c) Register.Practice MCQs 1. register. a) Hard disk. register. Cache B. Electronic Disk C. RAM. RAM. cache. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. hard disk d) Hard disk. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. Main memory D. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. RAM. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Magnetic Disk B. cache 3. Registers C.

Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. and flags. flags register. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. G. high-speed storage area within the CPU. stack register. Operating System Concepts Mrs. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. stack. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. and even to programmers. In general. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. and several specialized registers including a base register. Memory. In high-level languages. program counter. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. For example. or RAM. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Types of registers As previously stated.Basic memory hardware – base register. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. Usually. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. Therefore. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. In other words. It is a special. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. and some addressing registers. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. these include a program counter. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. registers are storage locations internal to the processor.Lecture 10 . The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers.

the so-called base. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. Discuss the other types of registers. 2. in which case it is a bounds register). Operating System Concepts Mrs. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. and the number of words available to that segment. G.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. Tutorial Questions 1. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . Tutorial Questions 1. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. the first address of the user program is not 00000. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. G. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit.Logical vs. Consider the segment table. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. but the first address beyond the fence. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. b) placed in a fence register. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The logical address space is used by user programs. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. 2. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. The fence register is a type of bounds register. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address.Lecture 11 .

430 2. 10 1. 11 0.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 400 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 500 3. G. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs.

In extreme cases. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. Describe the concept of swapping. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. it is possible to experience too much swapping. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. G. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. Practice MCQs 1. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. Swapping maximizes available memory. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. excessive paging is not desirable. running it for a while. the system may actually do no useful work. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available.

Paging C. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling B. Swapping D.then putting it back on the disk. G.

If the file to be created is n blocks long. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. Accessing a file. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. best fit. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. To read a file. This solves the fragmentation problem. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. If too little space is allocated. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. many files will be stored on the same disk. G. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. worst fit. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b.Lecture 13 . Compaction . Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. since all blocks are linked together. linked. indexed. For sequential access. we can immediately access block b + n. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length.

Another problem is reliability. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. added at the end. removed from the start. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. 5. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. John Brown. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. Tutorial Questions 1. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Mr. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. needs to work with certain files. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. It also does not suffer from wasted space. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. removed from the middle. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. It is never necessary to compact disk space. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. which is an array of disk block addresses. G. The directory contains the address of the index block. 3. a programmer. To find the nth block of a file. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. 4.is created. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. To read the nth block. In order to conserve on space. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. added in the middle.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. This however comes with a lot of overhead. the partition sizes are set and do not change. No space is wasted initially. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). Partition sizes vary dynamically. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). However. When a region is free. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Each region may have one program to be executed. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. In variable partition multi-programming.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . Fixed and variable C. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. What are they? Practice MCQs 1.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Single and multiple D. Multiple and fixed B.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Tutorial Questions 1. 2. the extra space wasted. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block.Fragmentation – internal. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Practice MCQs 1. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. G. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. List the various virtual memory strategies. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. 1) code to handle errors. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. Memory management procedures such as paging. Register C. G. E. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. What is virtual memory? 2. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. partitioning. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 .g. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Virtual memory D. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. A.Lecture 15 . _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Practice MCQs 1. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. which functions as additional memory. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. segmentation. Cache B. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Operating System Concepts Mrs. usually the hard disk. 2) arrays lists. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. tables are often allocated more memory than they need.

VA is determined from the compiled address. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset).A virtual address is represented as <page. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. the offset is a number in the range 0 .1). In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 .(page size . Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

The page table organizes the pages. In reality. sometimes called a memory management unit. (E. in the following diagram. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. G. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. They are therefore scattered in memory. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. which also holds other programs. a file is made up of 4 pages. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions.Lecture 16 . or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. containing only this one program. Novell Netware . For example.page size is 4K blocks by default). Operating System Concepts Mrs. The first page is in memory location 1. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. This is done by a hardware component. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address.g. the other is in memory location 4.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . 2. Describe paging. Explain the concept of a page table. Differentiate between a page and a page frame.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. 4. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss PTBR and TLB. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 3.

In other words. LFU.Lecture 17 . Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. This does not suffer from the anomaly. This method never suffers from the anomaly. This has the lowest page fault rate. G. This is hardware and overhead intensive. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. Locked pages cannot be replaced. the page that has been used the least so far. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. The algorithms are FIFO. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 .uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. LRU. MFU. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. which may be difficult. In other words. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. Optimal replacement. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. the page that has already been used the most. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. NB. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory.

If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 4. Likely regularly used D. 9. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 2. 8. 8. LRU? 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 4. G. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 4. Optimal page replacement B. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 8. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. A. 2. Practice MCQs 1. Least recently used B. FIFO. 3. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. LRU stands for: A. What page would be replaced next using MFU. What is a page fault? 5. 5. 2. Counting based page replacement D. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 3. 5. LFU. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. 2.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 7. 5. Least regularly used C. 3. What page would be replaced next using MFU. LFU. 6. 9. 8. 3. 9. 2. 5. LRU? 3. 9. Least recently used page replacement C. 1. FIFO. 8.

To do this a lock bit is associated with each page.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Therefore. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory.Lecture 18 . Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. As there is more space in main memory. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. or you can load in the page when required. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. G. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Advantages Demand paging. This is known as demand paging. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete.

Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. Tutorial Questions 1. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. G.• Programs running on low-cost. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Possible security risks. including vulnerability to timing attacks. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 4 000 bytes B. 3 648 bytes 10.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. G. Spooling D. 3 670 bytes D. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. 23 D. 26 C. Buffering C. 25 9. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 4 096 bytes C. 40 B. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. Frame allocation D. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. A. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. How many pages does it need? A. Thrashing B. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Paging B. Belady’s anomaly C. 8.

A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. offset) = (s. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. G. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. which are of fixed size. Given a logical address (segment. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. they use segmentation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . Instead.d).Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. A segment table is maintained for each process. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation.

– limit – specifies the length of the segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . 2. 4. Tutorial Questions 1. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. offset>. G. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. 7.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). 3. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. ii. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1.8. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. G. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2.

some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Disk capacity therefore doubled. each one with its own address. To improve the performance of a disk. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. so that the location is known. but the data can be read immediately.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media.Lecture 20 . It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Each location has a 0 or 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. RAM and Optical disks RAM . Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. numbered from 0. G. Tutorial Questions 1. size and speed. (i. 2. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones.another name for main storage. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap.random access memory . A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. A block on a disk is the sector.e. Block .

DVD R+. palm tops.read only memory) . Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. G. It is small hardware memory . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future.g. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. DVD R-? 3. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Operating System Concepts Mrs.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. read many) EO (erasable optical) . DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. They are used to store both video and audio files. What is the difference between DVD R. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . E. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. Tutorial Questions 1.sometimes called associative registers. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Discuss RAM disks. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. How do they differ from other disks? 2. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. calculators. This does not provide permanent storage. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast.

What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Describe disk caching. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 .Tutorial Questions 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

Head crash . due to power-cut). is this an input or output operation? 2. surface. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. the disk address (drive.Lecture 21 .Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. The coating however will wear after enough use. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. G. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. To improve the performance of a disk.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. cylinder. sector etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1.) 3. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data.g. memory address 4.

This is also known as transfer rate.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 .Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Other definitions • Positioning time . Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. G.

The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. For example. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. otherwise the request will be queued. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. satisfying requests. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. For example. until it gets to other end of disk. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. G. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. in alternating directions. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. It however may cause starvation of some requests. At the other end it reverses direction. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. servicing requests as it reaches each track. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. In other words. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk.

73.3. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. G. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 80. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 73. If the queue of requests is 80.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 80 b) 46. 46. and where to commence the next sweep. 73. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 48. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server.5. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 80. Practice MCQs 1. 17. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 35. 147. Explain how it works. numbered 0 to 199. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 80 c) 73. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. 22. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 5. If the queue of requests is 8. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 91. 22. 46 d) 73. 22. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 60. which is in great demand. 46. 46.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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G. Tutorial Questions 1. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Describe the standard RAID levels. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). firmware or by using firmware and specialized. 4. 3..where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. 2. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0.which function as a slow RAID-1. Discuss the term RAID. As an example. In the example. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. it can also be done at the operating system level.g. but can be expanded with further volumes. e. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Operating System Concepts Mrs. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0.

or destroyed. then changes since (incremental backup). To restore . Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup).save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 .cool. dry. A backup is a duplicate of a file. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. Father.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. Operating System Concepts Mrs. father. In order to recover you restore all files. The father then becomes the grandfather. • • • • Grand father. things can still go wrong. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . then the entire backup is useless. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . Restore changes from audit. damaged. Disadvantage .save to CD 1 etc. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . It is laborious to restore at a point in time. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. G. Backup all files (main backup). regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. The following describes the different types of backup.restore the main backup first. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son.if one change is messed up. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place .

how often do you back up? If not. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. 3. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2.g. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. 4. Practice MCQs 1.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . How did you solve the problem (e. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. 6. G. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. Tutorial Questions 1. Do you backup? If yes.

G. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. Discuss the concept of a file server. the open request is channelled to the file server. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. 3. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. but requests a server's content or service function. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. database server. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. mail server.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. In this scheme. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. If a user opens a non-local file. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. called clients. Discuss the other types of servers (e. A client does not share any of its resources. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs.Lecture 24 . Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead.g. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. print server etc. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. the location of a file is transparent to users.) 4. who access remote files in the same way as local files. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware.

Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . the location of a file. • File name still denotes a specific. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. set of physical disk blocks. it's understood where the file actually resides. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. on files. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. In a networked environment users want to share data files. When data are requested. somewhere in the network. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. • Better file abstraction. read. sector>. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . is hidden. one-to-many mapping.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. • This is a convenient way to share data. although hidden. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Resources on other machines are remote. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. A file system provides a service for clients. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. Dynamic. etc. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. G. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. • In a conventional file system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . the data can exist on various file servers on the network. the system and disk are known. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create.Lecture 25 . • In a transparent DFS.

Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. 2. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. reveals the file’s physical storage location B.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. Tutorial Questions 1.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. G. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. includes the file’s logical storage location C. Research and give examples of various DFSs. • Do NOT support migration. Practice MCQs 1. 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs.

execute program flow control instructions. manage memory etc. A more common use was to control input/output channels. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs.g.g.001375 = 1. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. do input/output operations. However. and keyboard operations. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. E. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it.375 x 101 (1. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.375E -3) . display .screen graphics.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks.75 = 1. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. E. -3 = characteristic or exponent. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. G. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.375 x 10-3 (1. 13.375E +1) .375 = mantissa/argument. 10 = base/radix. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized.Lecture 26 . 2.

Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. ‘dual-core’. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors.3. ‘superscalar’. 4. Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . G.

MOVE. Some computers. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. called the micro-program (or firmware). Operating System Concepts Mrs. RISC. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions.g. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. E.g. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. do not have a microprogramming level. and comparing values. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. number of registers.reduced instruction set computer. In other words. This is the normal type of computer. G. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . At that time.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. doing arithmetic. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. it lists the things that the processor can do. Until the mid-1980s.complex instruction set computer. addressing modes. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. E. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. On these machines. (More instructions per clock cycle). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . however the differences extend further. however. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set.Lecture 27 . RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. It is actually an interpreter. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. This software. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. RISC . the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.

A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement.I. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer.S. Only load and store instructions access memory . For this reason. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. the results are discarded and there is no loss. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. which would require fewer transistors1. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers.P. advanced compilers. If the processor guessed correctly. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this.In the mid 1970s. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. who developed the M. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. high-speed caches. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). and begins execution of the corresponding code. unlike complex instruction set machine. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. and make them cheaper to manufacture. it has gained time. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Typically. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. a PowerPC has 32 registers. G. and better pipelining. Reduced instruction set machines. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. Due to these developments. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations .

so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Windows 3. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. By 1994. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. G. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. To some extent. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. In contrast. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). Without commercial interest.000. In 1977. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. producing faster and cheaper processors . the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. which makes them cheaper to design and produce.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. This was largely due to a lack of software support. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world.

and Motorola Corporation. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. Apple Computer. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. In the SPARC. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. Since then. Windows NT. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . all instructions are 32-bits in length. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. including IBM. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. G. SPARCserver. Ultra1. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. which appeared in 1994. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. Apple introduced the Power Mac. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. . including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). and OS/2. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs.5 and higher). Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. other manufacturers. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems.

since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. G. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. In contrast to RISC. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . used by many workstations and also some personal computers. Most personal computers. Pronounced sisk. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture.design. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. In a microprogrammed2 system. This also improved performance. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. At that time. computers executed instructions sequentially. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. Atari. use a CISC architecture. easier implementation of new chips. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format.it costs less than £10. An alternative architecture. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. The Amiga. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. In a nutshell. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. which supports fewer instructions. fast code. and stands for complex instruction set computer. code size has become a non-issue. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor.

creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. typically about 8 registers.according to their byte length. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. G. In particular. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 .market factors. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. to/from a specific location in memory. which can operate directly on memory.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. to/from an address pointed to by a register. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. there are more than 30. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. Due to the large number of addressing modes. This is a result of having instructions. However. an example of a complex instruction set computer. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. The VAX. In the VAX. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. etc. has the following modes: to/from a register. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Identity theft. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Loss of time. customer lists.g. Category Human error – e. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. vandalism. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. lightening. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. G. hard disk crash. theft of marketing information (e.g. or marketing plans). Loss of data. low voltage. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects.. Effect Loss of data. Physical damage to computer. Loss of sales due to piracy. power surges. not adequately trained/experienced (e. Huge repair bill. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. May need to re-install software. hurricane. delete a file by accident.. information.g. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. entering incorrect data. Loss of computer and data. This can lead to things like software piracy. flood. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . Loss of files/data. or sexual preference). medical information. Illegal access to files. personal history. loss of time in having to re-enter data. Theft. Loss of income due to software piracy. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords.g. adding data twice. or processing capability. pricing data. Loss of data. loss of time. data. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. fire. Damage to computer due to improper use.g. young child) Technical error – system failure e. Loss of computer. software.

In some cases. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. There are similarities at a deeper level. Instead. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. G. Obviously. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. It may be benign or have a negative effect. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. as well. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. In other cases. A computer virus shares some of these traits. and then starts replicating from there. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person.it is not alive. Once it is running. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . as well. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. A biological virus is not a living thing. Unlike a cell. releasing the virus. and the cell remains alive. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses.

s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Unlike a virus or worm. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. so it can be understood. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. hackers). Trend Micro-PCcillin). Zone Alarm). An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam).g. G.g. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Tutorial Questions 1. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. However. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the correct decryption key is required. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. while authentication is proving it. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . This must be updated regularly. Virus protection. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. which can cause severe damage to databases.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. (e. Authentication. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. McAfee. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. Encryption. called a ciphertext. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Virus protection Antivirus software (e.g. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. Define the term cryptography. Norton Antivirus.

What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs.2. He is able to view all employee data except salary. John has a password to the human resource system. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . G. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www.org/ 3. Discuss various encryption software. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1.eccouncil. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4.

You can set attributes on files e. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. Linux. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Java. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. There are a large number of built-in servers.SYS and MSDOS. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. the Internet. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. which means its code is available to the public. Solaris.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. Hidden etc. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. only on the network. and speech recognition. There is limited or no security. then he can still see such files. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit.SYS. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. like UNIX.g. Linux is a popular. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. You can set expiration dates on passwords. Read. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 .

If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. delete etc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. file system permissions. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. You can set security on admin tasks (e.g. records (views).OS/400 This accepts user id and password.read only. virus). If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. privilege use and system events. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. service permissions. It also supports encryption. policy changes. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. object access. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. commands. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. G. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. read/write capability. change. event log. Windows XP has increased security. user rights. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. Software restrictions . The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. Operating System Concepts Mrs. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. lockout policies. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. most reliable Windows operating system. This accepts user id and password. account management. startup modes. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). Templates include password policies. Windows NT has security holes. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. fields.g. There is also secured wireless access. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. You are able to create multiple user accounts. file vault and firewall. It allows directory access control. There is also a screen saver password. There is also auditing which records login. directories/libraries. There are audit logs and audit trails. There are also different levels of authority . There is also support for biometric devices. changing settings). You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall.

Erase. and FileScan (sees filenames). Netware accepts a userid and password. Create. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. called the Pocket PC. Write. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . You can encrypt communication. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Modify.Windows CE . Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Tutorial Questions 1. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. entertainment. Read. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. G. There is a screen saver password.

G. Silberschatz. & Cashman. (2007). 7th E. Modern Operating Systems.J. T. P. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Andrew S.B. Galvin. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Discovering computers 2008. Operating Systems Concepts. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary.webopedia.B. KY:Course Technology Publishing.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers.d. (3rd Ed. http://www.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 .. G. (2006). Tanenbaum. Shelly G. (2004).: USA.. Gagne. Abraham. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Prentice Hall: USA.com.

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