OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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..... WORST-FIT ..................... BEST-FIT....................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ....... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ............................................................................................................................................................................ 65 LECTURE 13 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ..................................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) .................................................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ........................................................................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ........................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 81 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs......................................................................................................................................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................. 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)................. 68 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................ 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............. 74 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................. 79 DISADVANTAGES: ...................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................. 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................ EXTERNAL.. 80 FIFO ...CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) .......................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT....................................................................................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) .............................. 78 ADVANTAGES: ....................................................... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ........................................................................................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS ..................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL...... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................... 76 LECTURE 16 .. 79 LECTURE 17 .............................................. 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................... 65 PRACTICE MCQS ................. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................ 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................... 72 PARTITIONS............................................................................................ 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) .................................................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ................................................................................ 75 PRACTICE MCQS ...................... 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)........................................................................ 75 LECTURE 15 .PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 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. 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) .................... 99 BACKUP TIPS ........................................ 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE .......................... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................THRASHING..................................... 89 DISK CACHING .................................................. 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................... 103 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................... 99 GRAND FATHER............................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... 100 LECTURE 24 ............................................................................ 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................ 83 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................. 93 LOOK and C-LOOK .................................................................................................. 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................. 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs....................................................................................... 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................... 90 LECTURE 21 .............................................................................................................. 86 PRACTICE MCQS ...........AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) .................................. 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ....... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 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FATHER... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ........................................................... 92 DISK SCHEDULING ..................................... 88 BLOCKS ............................................................................. 95 RAID LEVELS .... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................. 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................................................................................................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) .................................................................................. SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE .............................................. 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE .......................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS . G..................... 88 INTRODUCTION ....................................... 101 LECTURE 25 ............................................................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN .............................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .......................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ........................................................ 94 PRACTICE MCQS ................................... 93 First come first served (FCFS) ..........................................................

....................................................................................... 120 Novell Netware ....... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................... 116 Denial-of-service............................................................................ 118 CASE STUDIES .......... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ..................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .................................. 112 CRISC..................... 116 Virus .................................. 119 OS/400 ....................................................................................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ........................................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS ...... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................. 116 Logic bomb ................................................................................................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ..................................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ....................................................................... VIRUS PROTECTION...................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)................................................................................................................................................................................................ 117 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................................. 104 ADVANTAGES .................. ENCRYPTION............................................................................. 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY................................................................................................................................................... 120 MacOS ............ 117 Firewall........ 116 Trojan Horse ............ 119 UNIX............................ 117 Authentication ............................................................................................. 104 PRACTICE MCQS .......................... FIREWALL .............................. 106 Advantages of RISC ..................................................................................................................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips .................................. 116 Worm ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ................................................................................................................................... 119 MS-DOS......................................................................................................................................... 107 Disadvantages of RISC...................................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ........... 109 CISC .......................................................... 117 Virus protection....................................................................................................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors....... 119 OS/2 ................................................................................................................................................. 110 Advantages of CISC ............................................... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS .....................................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................ G......................................................................................................................................................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs........................................................................................................................................... 117 Encryption ............................. 120 Microsoft Windows ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ............. 105 LECTURE 27 ............................................................................................................

............TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................ 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs................................................... 121 REFERENCES ............................ G... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ....................................................................................

deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. device and memory management. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. manipulate operating systems 4. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. students should: 1. 5. G. virtual memory. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. 2.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. 3. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . program loading and linking system calls and system programs. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 .COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. interrupt handling. process scheduling.

File-system manipulation. I/O – (Buffering. 2. Two-level. 4. Application Software c. students should be able to: a. 2. e. 5. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Directory Systems – Single-level. Resource Allocation. d. h. Software and Firmware: a.Content: 1. Define operating system. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. 3. Protection and Security. Communications. User Interface. students should be able to: 1. File Operations 2. Program execution. Introduction: a. System Startup. b. f. Spooling). Operating Systems Functions: a. The history and development of the operating system. g. System Software b. Tree-Structured. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . c. b. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. G. Storage. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Error Detection 3. File Concepts – File Attributes.

7. limit register Logical vs. b. j. Scheduler. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. best-fit. students should be able to: 1. 3. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . 7. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. 5. 4. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Shortest Remaining Time. 5. 3. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. Shortest Job First 5. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Multiprogramming. Dispatcher 3. Round Robin. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Time Sharing 2. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. 8. Priority. a. G. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 6.i. 6. Preemptive scheduling. Scheduling criteria 4. 8. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. 2. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit.

state the advantages of disk caching 8. Allocation algorithms 4. frames. explain segmentation 9. students should be able to: 1. explain the purpose of the page table 5. 4. Virtual address space 2. define frame 4. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . address translation 3. LFU e. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. Optimal replacement c. explain thrashing Content: 1. students should be able to: 1. FIFO b. Page replacement a. Demand paging 5. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. define page 3. Segmentation – segment table. address translation 6. address structure. 3.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. 2. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. page table. Pure paging – pages. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. LRU d. G. MFU f. explain disk caching 7. 5.

Disk scheduling – FCFS. Distributed file systems – naming. 2. G.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. 5. write. 3. 2. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. RAID 1. SSTF. C-SCAN 6. 4. 4. students should be able to: 1. LOOK.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. 3. 5. log-structured systems 2. positioning time. 3. SCAN. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. incremental backup. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. File server systems – client-server computing 3. seek time rotational latency 5. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. Disk caching 7. location transparency.

Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Apple Macintosh. Internal Tests 20% 3. OS/2. RISC / CISC – development. & Gagne. A. advantage. 3. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. Encryption. 4. 4. define security 2. 2. Common Coursework 20% 2. Galvin. (2008).1. virus. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. G. (8th ed). UNIX. worm. 2. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. P. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . logic bomb.. students should be able to: 1. 3. Virus protection. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3.B. Denial-of-service Authentication. 5. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. Operating systems concepts. G.

(2007). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 .S. W. W. (1999).). Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. An introduction to operating systems. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.).(6th ed. A. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. (2005).Recommended: Tanenbaum. Operating System Concepts Mrs. NJ: Prentice Hall. G.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings.

The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . spreadsheets etc. is to make the computer convenient to use. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . As new versions of the operating system are released. Unix. These are all examples of operating systems. business programs. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs .database systems. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. it typically has an operating system already installed.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7.people. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. When you purchase a new computer. play a game. machines. video games. Linux. Its primary goal therefore. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. DOS. surf the internet.CPU. • users . G. memory. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. We use the computer because we want to type a document. MacOS. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. I/O devices etc. other computers etc. do our budget etc. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. We do not use the computer because of these software. word processors.

so no need to know which sector. 3. block) and job control. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. track. 2000 Server). NT Workstation. UNIX. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security.x. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. notebook computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. ME). and Linux. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. command language. and Linux. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers.g. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. and other devices to and from the network. 98. 95. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. data management (control of I/O devices. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. Windows XP. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 .By itself. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware.g. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. computers. Network and Embedded. UNIX. storage management. 200 Professional. G. filing system. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. or mobile computing device. Mac OS X. OS/2 Warp Client.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 .NET. Palm OS. and Symbian OS. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. 3. all the terminals are connected to the same program. what does this mean? 9. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Practice MCQs 1. G. in order to improve CPU utilization. 10. Is controlled by application software d. An operating system is a program that a. Pocket PC 2002. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE .a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. • Foreground background . Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. Tutorial Questions 1. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. Gives instructions to the hardware b. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. 8. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems.g. • Transaction processing . 5. airline reservation system.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. 6. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Controls the user c. 7. If no.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. research its new features and comment on them.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. 4. • Time sharing . Define operating system. • General Purpose . E. 2. comment on its new features.

Segment b. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. hardware c. Hardware B. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. system software. application software. G. application software. Hardware. User. hardware. application software d. application software. Application programs C. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. Executive 4. Operating System D. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. Superstructure c. user.2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . User. system software. hardware. Select the correct sequence a. Fence d. system software b. system software 3. User. A.

the operator . Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. improved utilization quite a bit. Initially when the computer was turned on. In those days machines were slow. that is. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. mounting magnetic tapes etc. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. he would unload tapes. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. When a job was done. an operator could start the next job. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. These changes. In the early days machines were hand operated. as soon as one job was finished. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. which would then go on to the next program.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. There were still problems however. when a job stopped. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). E. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. which would transfer control to a program. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created.. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . the CPU sat idle. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. the operator was slow. it would return control to the resident monitor. I/O devices were slow. (E. G.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s.g.66 per hour). when the program terminated.g. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. determine why the program stopped. would run each batch. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. This monitor is always resident in memory.

they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. G. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). Multics. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. The trend today. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. By 1970 multiprocessing. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. MUSIC/SP.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. Michigan Terminal System. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. (i. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. WYLBUR. Only the device driver must be changed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors.e. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. read data from tape and not from card). high level user oriented programming languages. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. Some operating systems still are device dependent. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). however. In addition. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. Historically. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services.

G.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 Mac OS (System 1.0 OS/2 (1. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. GE. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.0) AIX 1. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.0 Windows NT 3. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0 SunOS 3.

0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. 6. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7.10 Mac OS X v 10. G. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 .5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. Describe the historical development of operating systems. 5. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2.2 FreeBSD 8.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. 3. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Discuss the first operating system. 4.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7.6 Windows NT 4.

In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. First Generation B. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. G. Second Generation C.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Third Generation D. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Managing programs refers to how many users. Finally. If memory is insufficient. or multiprocessing. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. and how many programs. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. and loads them into memory from storage. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. single user/multitasking. G. and displays the desktop. multiuser. requests any necessary user information. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. When a user turns on a computer. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. This is done on a network. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. the operating system may use virtual memory. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. An operating system can be single user/single tasking.Lecture 2 . an operating system can support at one time. If the POST completes successfully. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. which manages memory and devices. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. the operating system loads configuration information.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time.

Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. A job is an operation the processor manages. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. Command-line interfaces however. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. As in a restaurant. and graphical user interface. grammar and punctuation. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. move files. menu-driven interface. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. delete files and create folders. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. generate an error message. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. G. give a user more control over setting details. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. With a graphical user interface (GUI). buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands.

An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. Requests for card reader input. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. Disk systems eliminated that problem. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. Similarly when a job requests printer output. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. The CPU can then move on to do other things. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. is satisfied by reading from the disk. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. In disk systems. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer.

the operating system may take resources from a job (i. 1. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). The program must be able to end its execution. Pre-emption of resources. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. either normally or abnormally.g. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. (a read only file is sharable) 2. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. mutual exclusion .when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. G. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. or recover from one. To prevent deadlock. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold.must hold for non sharable resources (e. Hold and wait . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . terminate process). Example:. Deadlock prevention .If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available.e. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. the operating system must provide some means to do so.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. 5. 4. Tutorial Questions 1.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . G. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. No pre-emption (No taking away) . What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. Circular wait . The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. 3. State three (3) functions of an operating system. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. To reconcile conflicting demands. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. jam in the card reader etc. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. Errors may occur in the CPU. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works.each process can request resources only in increasing order).3. With the aid of a diagram. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources.of resources that have already been allocated. memory. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. 7. 6. 2. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. Describe the conditions for deadlock. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment.

A. A. Thrashing D. buffer C. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. G. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. cache D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . Paging C. RAM B.d) Record management 3. Spooling B. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Scheduling 5. One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention.

E. Examples include: accounting. banking. database management. play games etc. removes viruses from a computer system. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file.g. Scandisk. Trend Micro PC-cillin. Quickview in Windows. E. E. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . As mentioned before. draw pictures. There are two types of software: system software and application software. when to do it. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology.g. OS/2. we use the computer to type documents.g. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. WinZip. E. AVG etc. detects. Unix. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. graphics. Norton disk doctor. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. Norton Anti-virus. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. G. E. word processing. MSBACKUP. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. spreadsheet. PKZIP. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. WinRAR. create graphs.g.g. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape.g. Linux. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. E. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. McAfee. do our accounting. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 3 . In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. enter data into a database. DOS etc. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7.

footnotes. keys. COBOL etc. C++. save.Bold. fieldtype. Dbase. • Entertainment software These software include games. Foxpro. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . margins. Page Maker. E.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. Symphony. spell check. Features include:. E.g.g. fieldsize. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. table of contents.g. Netscape Navigator. text in each cell.g. Visi-Calc. Lotus 1-2-3. Can sort. Quattro Pro.g. posters. Visual Basic. Field. However. mail merge. C. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. Network Operating Systems (NOS). A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. Wordstar. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Combine word processing and graphics packages. E. Corel Draw. E. E. WordPerfect. printing of documents. G.g. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. formulas. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database.g. newsletters. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. correction. print. Chess. underline. Outlook Express. Microsoft Excel. query. Monopoly. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Solitaire etc. Outlook (Email). AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . editing.g. Foxpro. Oracle. Windows Media Player. justify. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. instructions. User can enter numbers. Operating System Concepts Mrs. page number. Microsoft Word. E. etc. E. font size and type. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. Web Browsers. E. which means that they will run on different computers.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Pascal. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. WordPad.

Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. How does a word processor (e. hard disk. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. diskette drive. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. Give examples of the type chosen. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. hard-coded in the hardware). For mainframes etc. Tutorial Questions 1. printer port. mouse. Open Office. E.g. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. Corel Wordperfect Suite.g.monitor. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. cd-rom drive. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . 3. E. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations.e. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. This is software embedded in hardware. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. memory. Microsoft Office. sector 0 of boot disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . G. b) A teacher calculating student grades. 2. keyboard. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. E.g.g. Lotus Smartsuite. location 0.g. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Differentiate between system software and application software.

Utilities D. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. System software C. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. 6. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Scandisk b. Defrag 2. Anti-virus d. Restore c.4. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. 5. A. 8. Application software B. 7. Research the various web browsers. G. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 .

A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk cleanup B. Disk defragmenter D. G. Disk defragmenter B. Disk scanner C. A. Diagnostic utility D. Diagnostic 9.7. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk scanner C. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster.

File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . A read-only file can be viewed.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. bytes. In MS-DOS.ini. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. BMP. "writing" to the file is disabled. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use.sys. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. COM graphics files . abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. compressed. TIF database file – MDB. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. records. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . DBF etc. the file. Examples include read-only. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. In other words. system.Lecture 4 . • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. A file is a collection of related information. Operating System Concepts Mrs. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. It is mapped onto a physical device. A file is named and is referred to by its name. date and time of creation. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. io. It is a sequence of bits. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. It is a characteristic of a file.JPG. its length etc. execute • Ownership – who owns the file.TXT source file . Common File types:text file . G. but not changed. hidden. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) .sys. It has other properties such as its type. msdos. archive. write. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. It is a logical storage unit. last modified.

When finished with a file Close it. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 .sys. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. io. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Open a file Check permissions. The archive attribute is used for backup. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space.sys. 2. the archive attribute is turned off. This way. compression isn't usually recommended. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. delete the file • edit/modify the file.com and ntldr. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos.sys. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. write to the file. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. Return error code if not. ntdetect.ini. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. G.sys and boot. display). rename a file etc. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. 1. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. copy file to an I/O device (printer. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. however. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. rewind the file. However. io. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Any file can be marked as Hidden. read from the file.

Practice MCQs 1. bmp). Append Writes information to the end of the file. 2. jpg. com. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. 5. 4. 4. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. doc. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. G. exe. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. system searches directory to find location of file. 3.Find space on the file system. Describe five file attributes. Tutorial Questions 1. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. 2. Describe five file operations. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. 3. Describe the type of file. then the write pointer is updated. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file.

Truncated D. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Identifier C.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Name B. G.

The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. These are all directory operations. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. 2. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. To handle this problem. G. not physical. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. creation date. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. The device directory records information such as name. This allows the file to be easily located.400 feet). Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. location.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. size and type for all files on that device. A file can be on more than 1 disk. but it suffers from some inefficiency. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. Studies showed that most files were small.Lecture 5 .g. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer.

Users may also create their own subdirectories. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). system files and grouping files.the simplest directory structure.e. each user has a current directory. G. to a specified file.g. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. DOS. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. Every file has a unique path name. A file name is prefixed by user name. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. All files are in the same directory. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. grouping and other operations such as deleting. Tree. It is easy to support and understand.Single level . then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Windows. This structure is efficient for searching. The tree has a root directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . This isolates one user from another. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. All files must have unique names. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. In normal use. UNIX.structures . Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory.

The following is an example using Unix. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . NB. can be access through more than one path). Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . The same file may be in two different directories (i. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. Note that files have multiple path names.e. It is not the same as two copies. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. G.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once.

HPFS. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. NTFS). Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. Practice MCQs 1. 3. 4. Research the General-Graph directory. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. G. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3.

a tape. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. for an I/O device). (i. Normally the CPU would sit idle. This is also called concurrent processing.e. variables. keyboard input etc. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e.Lecture 6 .Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times.). file pointers. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. addresses etc. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job.g.g. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. normally the CPU would sit idle. G. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. another job can be using the CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. the current instruction. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute.

CPU registers. Tutorial Questions 1. and I/O status information. program counter. G. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the operation of the PCB. Running C. Waiting D. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). accounting information. Practice MCQs 1. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . The location of current instructions. memory management information. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Differentiate between a process and a program. file pointers etc. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. information associated with each process. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. In other words.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. values in variables. CPU scheduling information. New B.

Time-sharing. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. Tutorial Questions 1. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. Similarly. however. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . regardless of the number of users. tape. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. or network input could be granted to other users. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. and giving processor time to another process. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time.

criteria.Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The programs therefore have to be scheduled. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . An example is shown in the diagram below.Lecture 7 . Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. G. algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory.Scheduling concepts. . . . . the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. The following defines various scheduling concepts.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. . CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .

3. Dispatcher . b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. 5. Short term scheduler C. 4. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Medium Term Scheduler . Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. This scheme is called swapping.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. 6. terminates. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. Non pre-emptive scheduling . it therefore must be very fast. G. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Medium term scheduler D.Some systems introduce an additional. switches from wait state to ready or iv. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. intermediate level of scheduling. Long term scheduler B.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . Pre-emptive scheduling . switches from an active to wait state or ii. 2. This involves a) switching context. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. Tutorial Questions 1. A.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. G. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.

CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. waiting time C. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 .work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . Describe the various scheduling criteria. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Practice MCQs 1. response time D. Tutorial Questions 1. turnaround time B. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization .time from submission of request until the first response is produced.how busy you keep CPU. • throughput . The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible.

The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. P2. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. G. P3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. P3. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . for P2 = 0. P1. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. for P3 = 3. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling.

If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. memory requirements. This process is called aging.by a person (e. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. number of open files etc. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue.g. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. G.g. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. 100 msec). system administrator). Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . A priority number is associated with each job. • externally .

Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. E.g. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Tutorial Questions 1. In other words. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. In addition. generally based on some property of the job. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. G. such as memory size or job type. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Campbell 51 . A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. and so might have different scheduling algorithms.

Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. Priority iv.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. G. FCFS ii. SJF iii. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. SJF. Priority. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. 4. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. 3. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 .

The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Priority scheduling D. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. Starvation C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . G. Aging B. Round robin scheduling 10. Fragmentation D. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Shortest job first B. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. First come first served C.d) CPU scheduler 4.

SMP is more complex than ASMP. one thread for each processor in the computer. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. Any processor can run any type of thread. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code.Lecture 8. The main difference is in how the processors operate. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. the whole computer can go down. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. independent executable components of applications) of execution. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. G. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. As a result. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. all running at the same time. alleviating the need for data sharing. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. For this reason. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 .

multiprogramming 3. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. In parallel processing. Multitasking D. Tutorial Questions 1. 1 AMD. 4.g. 3 Pentium II. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. Multithreading D. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. 5. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. Multiprogramming 2. Parallel processor C. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. A. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. multitasking B. A. 2. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. 6. multiuser D. A. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. Coprocessor B. 3. Multiprogramming B. Multiprocessing C.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . multiprocessing C. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. Practice MCQs 1. G.

asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprocessing D. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. symmetric multiprocessing C. G.4.

If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. If we must keep several processes in memory. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Memory mapping . Research the MMU or PMMU.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. it still should not matter. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. 4. 2. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). 3. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. data.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. 2. stack and system data. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. G. Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. we must share memory.Lecture 9 . Tutorial Questions 1. though the code.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . G.Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs.

cheap. If another reference is made to this location. non-volatile disk storage. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. volatile cache memory. the contents of the accessed location. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. The higher levels are expensive. When a memory access is made. 3. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. which can be organized in a hierarchy. 2. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. Describe the different types of cache.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. expensive. 4. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. Describe the different types of RAM. 5. Compare and contrast them. with a small amount of very fast. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. G. but very fast. some medium speed. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases.

Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. RAM. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. a) Hard disk. RAM. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs.Practice MCQs 1. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Registers C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Main memory D. Cache B. RAM. Magnetic Disk B. hard disk c) Register. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. hard disk d) Hard disk. G. Cache D. Electronic Disk C. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Main Memory 6. RAM. cache. register. register. register. cache 3. cache b) Cache.

The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. these include a program counter. Memory. stack. In other words. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. Therefore. and flags. and some addressing registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires.Lecture 10 . the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. and several specialized registers including a base register. high-speed storage area within the CPU. It is a special. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. and even to programmers. or RAM.Basic memory hardware – base register. In general. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. Operating System Concepts Mrs. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. program counter. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Types of registers As previously stated. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. Usually. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. G. stack register. flags register. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. In high-level languages. For example. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer.

A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Discuss the other types of registers. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. the so-called base. Tutorial Questions 1. in which case it is a bounds register). 2. and the number of words available to that segment. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. G.

logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. The fence register is a type of bounds register. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. User programs are run in their own area of memory. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address.Logical vs. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. 2. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. b) placed in a fence register. The logical address space is used by user programs. Consider the segment table. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. G. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. Tutorial Questions 1. the first address of the user program is not 00000.Lecture 11 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . but the first address beyond the fence. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. one for the user and one for the resident monitor.

500 3. G.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 11 0. 10 1. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. 112 Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 430 2. 400 4.

In extreme cases. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. 2. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. the system may actually do no useful work. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. G. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. it is possible to experience too much swapping. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Tutorial Questions 1. running it for a while. Operating System Concepts Mrs. excessive paging is not desirable. Practice MCQs 1. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. Swapping maximizes available memory. Describe the concept of swapping. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor.

Paging C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 .then putting it back on the disk. G. Scheduling B. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Swapping D.

which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. best fit. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. G. This solves the fragmentation problem. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. worst fit. Each block contains a pointer to the next block.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. If too little space is allocated. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. indexed. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. many files will be stored on the same disk. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. For sequential access. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. since all blocks are linked together. linked. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. If the file to be created is n blocks long. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. To read a file. we can immediately access block b + n. Compaction . Accessing a file. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk.Lecture 13 .

Mr. It is never necessary to compact disk space. 3. G. Another problem is reliability. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. 4. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. In order to conserve on space. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. John Brown. To find the nth block of a file. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. To read the nth block. a programmer. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. which is an array of disk block addresses. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. added in the middle. It also does not suffer from wasted space. The directory contains the address of the index block. added at the end. 5. needs to work with certain files. removed from the start. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods.is created. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. removed from the middle. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Tutorial Questions 1. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section).Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. G. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. the partition sizes are set and do not change. No space is wasted initially. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. Partition sizes vary dynamically. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. When a region is free. Each region may have one program to be executed. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. This however comes with a lot of overhead. In variable partition multi-programming. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high).

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 . G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Single and multiple D. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Multiple and fixed B. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Fixed and variable C. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 .Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A.

Tutorial Questions 1. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. G. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. 2. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Practice MCQs 1. the extra space wasted. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block.Fragmentation – internal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 .

However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Register C. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. segmentation. partitioning. Virtual memory D.Lecture 15 . Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. G. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. What is virtual memory? 2. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . E. which functions as additional memory. usually the hard disk.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. A. Cache B. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. 1) code to handle errors. List the various virtual memory strategies.g. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. 2) arrays lists. Memory management procedures such as paging. Practice MCQs 1.

A virtual address is represented as <page. G. Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). the offset is a number in the range 0 .1). but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs.(page size . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. VA is determined from the compiled address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 .

Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. In reality. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. (E. containing only this one program. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. in the following diagram.Lecture 16 . Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. which also holds other programs. This is done by a hardware component. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. sometimes called a memory management unit. the program is scattered throughout physical memory.g. For example. the other is in memory location 4. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. a file is made up of 4 pages. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . Novell Netware . They are therefore scattered in memory. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory.page size is 4K blocks by default). or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. The page table organizes the pages. The first page is in memory location 1. G.

4. Explain the concept of a page table. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Describe paging. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss PTBR and TLB. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. 2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 .

Optimal replacement. In other words. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. This method never suffers from the anomaly. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. In other words. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. which may be difficult. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. This is hardware and overhead intensive. LRU. MFU. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . This has the lowest page fault rate. G.Lecture 17 . Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. LFU. Locked pages cannot be replaced. This does not suffer from the anomaly. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. NB. The algorithms are FIFO. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . the page that has been used the least so far. the page that has already been used the most.

3. LRU? 3. LFU. Least recently used page replacement C. What page would be replaced next using MFU. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 5. FIFO. 5. Least regularly used C. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. A. Counting based page replacement D. Practice MCQs 1. 6. 2. 9. 3. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. Least recently used B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 4. LFU. 5. 3. What is a page fault? 5. 2. 4. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 9. 5. 4. 8. Optimal page replacement B. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 9. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. Likely regularly used D. LRU? 2. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 8. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 2. 2. 3. G. 9. 8. 7. 1. LRU stands for: A. 8. FIFO. 3. 8. 2.

Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. This is known as demand paging. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. The pager will only load these pages into memory. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup.Lecture 18 . Therefore. or you can load in the page when required. G. As there is more space in main memory. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Advantages Demand paging. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution.

Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Possible security risks. Practice MCQs 1. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Tutorial Questions 1. G.• Programs running on low-cost. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3.

Paging B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . 40 B. 3 648 bytes 10. 4 096 bytes C. G. 26 C. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4 000 bytes B. 25 9. Spooling D. How many pages does it need? A. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Frame allocation D. 3 670 bytes D. 23 D.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. Buffering C. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. A. Belady’s anomaly C. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. Thrashing B. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 8. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software.

segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory.d). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. G. offset) = (s. A segment table is maintained for each process. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. they use segmentation. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. which are of fixed size. Given a logical address (segment. Instead. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection.

offset>. 3. G. Tutorial Questions 1. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. 2. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. 7. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. 4. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. ii. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. Operating System Concepts Mrs. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 .

b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500.8. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs.

each one with its own address. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. Block . size and speed.e. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . but the data can be read immediately. To improve the performance of a disk. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. RAM and Optical disks RAM . (i. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. A block on a disk is the sector. so that the location is known. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. Tutorial Questions 1. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks).random access memory . It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. Operating System Concepts Mrs. numbered from 0. G. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. 2. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. Disk capacity therefore doubled.another name for main storage.Lecture 20 . Each location has a 0 or 1.

read only memory) . This does not provide permanent storage. It is small hardware memory .magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. Tutorial Questions 1.g. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. read many) EO (erasable optical) . therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. E. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . They are used to store both video and audio files. G.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. palm tops. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. calculators. Discuss RAM disks.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. DVD R-? 3. DVD R+.sometimes called associative registers. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. What is the difference between DVD R. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. How do they differ from other disks? 2. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 .Tutorial Questions 1. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Describe disk caching.

the disk address (drive. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once.Lecture 21 . surface. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. cylinder. Head crash . amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1.g. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. To improve the performance of a disk. memory address 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 .) 3. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. is this an input or output operation? 2. due to power-cut). The coating however will wear after enough use. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. G. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. sector etc. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk.

Other definitions • Positioning time . Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. This is also known as transfer rate. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . Tutorial Questions 1.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). G.

a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. until it gets to other end of disk. In other words. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. For example. servicing requests as it reaches each track. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. G. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. satisfying requests. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. At the other end it reverses direction. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. otherwise the request will be queued. For example. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. It however may cause starvation of some requests. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. in alternating directions.

Tutorial Questions 1. If the queue of requests is 80.3. 17. 46. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS. 46. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 147. 2. 60. 22. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. 46 d) 73. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. 48. 22.5. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 35. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 80.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 73. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. G. Practice MCQs 1. 80 b) 46. 46. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 5. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 80. If the queue of requests is 8. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. 73. 91. numbered 0 to 199. and where to commence the next sweep. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. which is in great demand. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. Explain how it works. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 73. 22. 80 c) 73.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Operating System Concepts Mrs.. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . e. it can also be done at the operating system level. As an example. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. 4.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller.g. but can be expanded with further volumes. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. 3. Describe the standard RAID levels. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. Discuss the term RAID. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. In the example.which function as a slow RAID-1. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). G. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.

In order to recover you restore all files. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. It is laborious to restore at a point in time.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). things can still go wrong.save to CD 1 etc.cool. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. G. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Operating System Concepts Mrs.if one change is messed up. Father. A backup is a duplicate of a file. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. then changes since (incremental backup). Backup all files (main backup). Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. • • • • Grand father. then the entire backup is useless. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. or destroyed.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . or disk that can be used if the original is lost. The following describes the different types of backup. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. damaged.restore the main backup first. dry. Restore changes from audit. The father then becomes the grandfather. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. Disadvantage .save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . To restore . father. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 .

How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. how often do you back up? If not. Tutorial Questions 1. G. 3. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. How did you solve the problem (e.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . 6. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. Practice MCQs 1. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. Did you have to type everything over)? 5.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. 4. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. 2. Do you backup? If yes.

Lecture 24 . Discuss the other types of servers (e. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. the location of a file is transparent to users. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . A client does not share any of its resources. mail server. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. print server etc. Discuss the concept of a file server. who access remote files in the same way as local files. database server. but requests a server's content or service function. G. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. Tutorial Questions 1. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients.) 4. In this scheme.g. If a user opens a non-local file. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the open request is channelled to the file server. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. 3. called clients. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client.

When data are requested. • This is a convenient way to share data. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. somewhere in the network. Dynamic.Lecture 25 . set of physical disk blocks. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • File name still denotes a specific. • In a transparent DFS. • File replication means multiple copies of a file.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. on files. Resources on other machines are remote. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. • In a conventional file system. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. is hidden. G. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. etc. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. read. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. • Better file abstraction. one-to-many mapping. although hidden. sector>. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. the location of a file. the system and disk are known. A file system provides a service for clients. it's understood where the file actually resides. In a networked environment users want to share data files.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . includes the file’s logical storage location C. Research and give examples of various DFSs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. 3. Practice MCQs 1. G. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. • Do NOT support migration. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks.

and keyboard operations. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. do input/output operations. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU.375E -3) . G.screen graphics. 2. display . However. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer.375 = mantissa/argument. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously.Lecture 26 .g. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.g.001375 = 1. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation.375 x 101 (1. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.375E +1) . E. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. 13. A more common use was to control input/output channels. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. Operating System Concepts Mrs. -3 = characteristic or exponent. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole.375 x 10-3 (1.75 = 1. manage memory etc. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. execute program flow control instructions. E. 10 = base/radix.

Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’.3. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. 4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. Practice MCQs 1. ‘dual-core’. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . ‘superscalar’. G.

Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . E. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). called the micro-program (or firmware). In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is actually an interpreter. (More instructions per clock cycle). a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. addressing modes. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. Some computers.Lecture 27 . A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets.complex instruction set computer. IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture.reduced instruction set computer. and comparing values. MOVE. it lists the things that the processor can do. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. however. RISC. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. however the differences extend further. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. do not have a microprogramming level. E.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. On these machines. RISC .g. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. doing arithmetic. In other words. Until the mid-1980s. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . This is the normal type of computer.g. number of registers. G. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. At that time. This software.

I. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. advanced compilers. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations .P. high-speed caches. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. which would require fewer transistors1. G. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. Reduced instruction set machines. and begins execution of the corresponding code. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. unlike complex instruction set machine. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). and better pipelining. For this reason. Only load and store instructions access memory . most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. and make them cheaper to manufacture. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . who developed the M. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. the results are discarded and there is no loss.S. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. a PowerPC has 32 registers. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. it has gained time. Due to these developments. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. If the processor guessed correctly. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. Typically. For example.In the mid 1970s.

Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Without commercial interest. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies.000. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. This was largely due to a lack of software support. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. Windows 3. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). In contrast. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. In 1977. producing faster and cheaper processors . which makes them cheaper to design and produce. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . The price of RAM has decreased dramatically.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. To some extent. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. G. By 1994. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required.

which appeared in 1994. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. have built PCs based on the PowerPC.5 and higher). becoming the first RISC microprocessor. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. Since then. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. In the SPARC. Apple Computer. SPARCserver. and OS/2. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. Windows NT. Ultra1. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. other manufacturers. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). . Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). G. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. all instructions are 32-bits in length. Apple introduced the Power Mac. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. including IBM. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. and Motorola Corporation. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory.

At that time. and stands for complex instruction set computer. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. The Amiga. code size has become a non-issue. Atari. In a nutshell. In a microprogrammed2 system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. However. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. fast code. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. easier implementation of new chips. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. G. In contrast to RISC. which supports fewer instructions. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. use a CISC architecture. computers executed instructions sequentially. Pronounced sisk. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.it costs less than £10. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. This also improved performance. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. An alternative architecture. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. Most personal computers.design. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU.

has the following modes: to/from a register. Due to the large number of addressing modes. typically about 8 registers. The VAX. etc. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. However. In particular. while string operations have three or five operands. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. there are more than 30. In the VAX. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . G. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory.market factors. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . an example of a complex instruction set computer.according to their byte length. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. to/from a specific location in memory. which can operate directly on memory. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. This is a result of having instructions. to/from an address pointed to by a register.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords.g. Damage to computer due to improper use. information. This can lead to things like software piracy. hard disk crash. power surges. pricing data. delete a file by accident. medical information.g. G. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. Loss of computer and data.g.g. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. loss of time in having to re-enter data.. lightening. or marketing plans). Identity theft. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . flood. Illegal access to files. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. Huge repair bill. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. Theft. Loss of data. Loss of time. not adequately trained/experienced (e. adding data twice. Loss of computer. entering incorrect data. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. or processing capability. May need to re-install software. Category Human error – e. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Loss of data. Loss of income due to software piracy.. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. theft of marketing information (e. data. or sexual preference). low voltage. loss of time.g. customer lists. hurricane. Physical damage to computer. Loss of sales due to piracy. personal history. fire. Loss of files/data. software. Effect Loss of data.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. vandalism. young child) Technical error – system failure e.

and the cell remains alive. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). releasing the virus. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. Once it is running. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). Obviously. A computer virus shares some of these traits. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. Instead. In some cases. There are similarities at a deeper level. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole.it is not alive. A biological virus is not a living thing. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. as well. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. as well. In other cases. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. It may be benign or have a negative effect. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. Unlike a cell. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. and then starts replicating from there. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses.

Virus protection. called a ciphertext. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. the correct decryption key is required. hackers). Unlike a virus or worm. which can cause severe damage to databases. Define the term cryptography. Authentication. Encryption. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. G. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. Virus protection Antivirus software (e.g. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form.s of firewalls include: Black Ice.g. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. while authentication is proving it. McAfee. Trend Micro-PCcillin). thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Norton Antivirus.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. (e. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. so it can be understood. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. This must be updated regularly.g. However. Zone Alarm).

Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3.eccouncil. He is able to view all employee data except salary.2. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2.org/ 3. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. G. Discuss various encryption software. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. John has a password to the human resource system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1.

SYS. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user.g. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. Java. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. and speech recognition. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. then he can still see such files.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. There is limited or no security. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. You can set attributes on files e.SYS and MSDOS. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. There are a large number of built-in servers. which means its code is available to the public. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Solaris. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. only on the network. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Read. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Linux is a popular. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. Linux. G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. like UNIX. You can set expiration dates on passwords. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Hidden etc. the Internet. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories.

Authority levels can be set on files/objects. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. policy changes. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. most reliable Windows operating system.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. There are audit logs and audit trails. Software restrictions . NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). There is also a screen saver password. There is also support for biometric devices. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. startup modes. delete etc. account management. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. object access.g. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. records (views). privilege use and system events. service permissions. You are able to create multiple user accounts. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. G. There is also auditing which records login. read/write capability. user rights. You can set security on admin tasks (e.read only. event log. Windows NT has security holes. commands. directories/libraries. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. Templates include password policies. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. changing settings). lockout policies. file vault and firewall.g. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. file system permissions. virus). It allows directory access control. There is also secured wireless access. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. It also supports encryption. Windows XP has increased security. fields. change. There are also different levels of authority . Operating System Concepts Mrs. This accepts user id and password. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy.

There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Create.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Tutorial Questions 1. Write. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Netware accepts a userid and password. Erase. Read. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. Modify. called the Pocket PC. and FileScan (sees filenames). The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. There is a screen saver password.Windows CE . entertainment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . G. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. You can encrypt communication.

REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers..B. Operating Systems Concepts. (2006).J.webopedia. Gagne. (2007).d. Tanenbaum.B. & Cashman. Shelly G. (2004). Prentice Hall: USA. Modern Operating Systems.). John Wiley & Sons Inc. T. (3rd Ed. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . Galvin. G. Complete Shelly Cashman Series.com. Silberschatz. Discovering computers 2008. Abraham. http://www. Andrew S.: USA. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 7th E. KY:Course Technology Publishing. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. P.. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers.

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