OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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........................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) .................................................................................................................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ........................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT.....................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) .............................................................................................................. 78 ADVANTAGES: .......................................................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ............................................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ..................................................................................................... 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................... BEST-FIT.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 75 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................. 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .................................. 65 LECTURE 13 ....................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .. 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................. EXTERNAL........ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ....................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................... 80 FIFO .... 74 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................. 68 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................................................. 79 DISADVANTAGES: .. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU).............. 75 LECTURE 15 .................................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)........................... 72 PARTITIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ........................................ 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) ............................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................... 81 PRACTICE MCQS ...............................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ................................... WORST-FIT ..................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................... 79 LECTURE 17 ........................................... 65 PRACTICE MCQS ................................. 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................... 63 PRACTICE MCQS .......... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... G....................................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs.............................................................. 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL.....................................................................................................................................................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) .................................................. 76 LECTURE 16 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 LECTURE 18 ...............................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............... 76 PRACTICE MCQS ......................................................................................................................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ......................................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ........................................................... 82 DISADVANTAGES ...................................................................................

................... 95 RAID LEVELS ........................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ....... 101 LECTURE 25 ...... 93 First come first served (FCFS) ...................................................................... 89 DISK CACHING .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 90 LECTURE 21 ..................................................................................................................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs...................................................................................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ..................... 88 INTRODUCTION ....................................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................. 87 LECTURE 20 .............. 94 PRACTICE MCQS ........ 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 100 LECTURE 24 ......................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................THRASHING........................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ............. 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) .................................................................................................................................. 88 BLOCKS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ............... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE .............................................................................................................. 99 GRAND FATHER.................................... FATHER............................................................................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....... 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) .............AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ..................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .................. 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................ 92 DISK SCHEDULING ........................................ 99 BACKUP TIPS ............ 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ......................... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................... 103 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ...................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........ G........................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) .............................. 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................ 83 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................

.................. 105 LECTURE 27 ..................................... 116 Virus ............................................................................ 120 MacOS ................................................ 116 Logic bomb ....................................................... 117 Firewall............................................................................................................................................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)...................................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ..................... FIREWALL . VIRUS PROTECTION......................................................................................................................................................... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ............................... 106 Advantages of RISC ......................................................................................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs................... 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY................................................................................. 107 Disadvantages of RISC.................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 OS/2 ................................. 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................. 110 Advantages of CISC ....................................................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ......................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................ 117 AUTHENTICATION...... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .......................................................................... 109 CISC ................................................. 119 OS/400 ....................................................................................................................................................... 116 Denial-of-service........................................................................................................................................ 119 UNIX................................................................................................ 117 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................ 116 Worm ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ................................................................................ 104 ADVANTAGES ..................................................................................................................................................... 119 MS-DOS........................................................................................................................................................ 117 Virus protection......................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ........................................................ 120 Microsoft Windows ..................................... 117 Encryption ................................................................................................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS . 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ........... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ................................... 112 CRISC....................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS .............................................................................................................. 118 CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ G......................... 104 PRACTICE MCQS ....... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ......RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ENCRYPTION. 120 Novell Netware ....................................................................................................................................................................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors......................... 116 Trojan Horse ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ................................ 117 Authentication ....

........... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs......................................................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 .....................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................... G.... 121 REFERENCES .............................................

Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. students should be able to: 1. virtual memory. 3. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. G. device and memory management. 5. manipulate operating systems 4. 2. students should: 1. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. 4.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. interrupt handling. process scheduling. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I .

Application Software c. Software and Firmware: a. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . G. 5. Tree-Structured. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. g. I/O – (Buffering. 2. Communications. Resource Allocation. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. File Concepts – File Attributes. Introduction: a. Directory Systems – Single-level. students should be able to: 1. The history and development of the operating system. h. Error Detection 3. File-system manipulation. d. b.Content: 1. e. Define operating system. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. students should be able to: a. Operating Systems Functions: a. f. c. Program execution. 4. System Startup. System Software b. b. User Interface. File Operations 2. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Spooling). Two-level. Protection and Security. Storage.

Round Robin. 4. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. 3. 5. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. 2. 7. Preemptive scheduling. Scheduling criteria 4. 8. a. 3. 8. 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. limit register Logical vs. 2. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. G. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. j. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. 6. 7.i. b. Shortest Remaining Time. Dispatcher 3. Multiprogramming. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Time Sharing 2. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. best-fit. Scheduler. 4. Priority. Shortest Job First 5. 5.

define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. address translation 3. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. students should be able to: 1. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. Segmentation – segment table. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . G. Virtual address space 2. page table. state the advantages of disk caching 8. address structure. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. MFU f. students should be able to: 1.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. explain the purpose of the page table 5. Optimal replacement c. explain disk caching 7. Demand paging 5. define page 3. frames. explain segmentation 9. 2. Page replacement a. 3. LRU d. 4. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. 5. LFU e. explain thrashing Content: 1. Allocation algorithms 4. address translation 6. define frame 4. Pure paging – pages. FIFO b.

students should be able to: 1. Disk caching 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . 3. 5. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. 2. G. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. 4. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. File server systems – client-server computing 3. log-structured systems 2. Distributed file systems – naming. incremental backup. Disk scheduling – FCFS. seek time rotational latency 5. 5.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. 3. C-SCAN 6. 4. location transparency. students should be able to: 1.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. SCAN. write. 3. LOOK. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. SSTF. 2. 2. 4. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. RAID 1. positioning time. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit.

G. Common Coursework 20% 2. (2008). UNIX. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. Internal Tests 20% 3. A. logic bomb. RISC / CISC – development.1. Denial-of-service Authentication. 4. 5. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1.. 2. Virus protection. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . students should be able to: 1. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. (8th ed).B. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. 4. 2. Encryption. Apple Macintosh. define security 2. G. 3. virus. Galvin. P. Operating systems concepts. & Gagne. worm. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. advantage. OS/2.

A.S. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . W. NJ: Prentice Hall.Recommended: Tanenbaum.(6th ed. Modern operating systems (3rd ed.). Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. (2007). W. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. (2005).) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings.). (1999). An introduction to operating systems.

video games. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. • users . Unix. machines. These are all examples of operating systems. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. G. do our budget etc. Its primary goal therefore.database systems.CPU. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. I/O devices etc.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7.people. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. We do not use the computer because of these software. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. MacOS. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . Linux. DOS. As new versions of the operating system are released. is to make the computer convenient to use. business programs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . other computers etc. spreadsheets etc. it typically has an operating system already installed. surf the internet. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. We use the computer because we want to type a document. When you purchase a new computer. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. memory. word processors. play a game. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware .

G. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. data management (control of I/O devices. track. Mac OS X. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems.g. notebook computer. 3. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. and other devices to and from the network. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. and Linux. NT Workstation.By itself. OS/2 Warp Client.x. 98. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. storage management. command language. 2000 Server). 200 Professional. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 . Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. computers. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. 95. or mobile computing device. UNIX. Windows XP. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Operating System Concepts Mrs. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. UNIX.g. so no need to know which sector. and Linux. ME). filing system. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Network and Embedded. block) and job control. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand.

One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. 6. in order to improve CPU utilization. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. 5. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. all the terminals are connected to the same program. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. E. Pocket PC 2002. 7. Palm OS. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. Tutorial Questions 1. 4.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. Controls the user c.NET. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. Gives instructions to the hardware b. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . 10. comment on its new features. G. • Time sharing . Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . Define operating system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . 8. • General Purpose . • Transaction processing . • Foreground background . Practice MCQs 1.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals.a multi-user system that combines batch processing. airline reservation system. An operating system is a program that a.g. research its new features and comment on them. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. If no.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. 2. Is controlled by application software d. and Symbian OS. 3. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. However. what does this mean? 9.

Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. User. Segment b. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. user. system software 3. application software. application software d. system software b. hardware. application software. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. Fence d. A. system software. User. Hardware B. G. User. Select the correct sequence a. hardware. application software. Hardware. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Application programs C. Operating System D. Executive 4.2. hardware c. system software. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. Superstructure c.

then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. which would then go on to the next program. the operator . To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. it would return control to the resident monitor. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. In the early days machines were hand operated. the CPU sat idle. Initially when the computer was turned on. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. (E. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. which would transfer control to a program. mounting magnetic tapes etc. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. E.g. improved utilization quite a bit. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. This monitor is always resident in memory. when a job stopped. When a job was done. he would unload tapes. These changes.66 per hour). when the program terminated. the operator was slow. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. determine why the program stopped. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console.g. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs.. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. I/O devices were slow. G. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). In those days machines were slow. would run each batch. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. There were still problems however. that is. as soon as one job was finished. an operator could start the next job.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. WYLBUR. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. high level user oriented programming languages. Only the device driver must be changed. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. The trend today. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. Multics. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. Michigan Terminal System. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO). MUSIC/SP. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. read data from tape and not from card). The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. however.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. Historically. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. G. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. By 1970 multiprocessing. (i. Some operating systems still are device dependent. In addition.e. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly.

based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0 Windows NT 3. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs.0 Mac OS (System 1.0) AIX 1.0 SunOS 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 . G. GE.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.0 OS/2 (1.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.

In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 .6 Windows NT 4.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs.2 FreeBSD 8.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. G. 6.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. 4.10 Mac OS X v 10.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. 3. 5.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. 2. Describe the historical development of operating systems. Discuss the first operating system. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11.

All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. Third Generation D.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. G. First Generation B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. Second Generation C. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Finally. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. and loads them into memory from storage. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. If the POST completes successfully. and displays the desktop. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. single user/multitasking. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. G. This is done on a network. If memory is insufficient. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. and how many programs. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. When a user turns on a computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . which manages memory and devices. or multiprocessing. an operating system can support at one time.Lecture 2 . the operating system loads configuration information. multiuser. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Managing programs refers to how many users.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. the operating system may use virtual memory. requests any necessary user information.

A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. G. As in a restaurant. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. A job is an operation the processor manages. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. give a user more control over setting details. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. delete files and create folders. grammar and punctuation. generate an error message. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. move files. With a graphical user interface (GUI). menu-driven interface. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. Command-line interfaces however. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. and graphical user interface.

Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. Similarly when a job requests printer output. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. In disk systems. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. Requests for card reader input. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. The CPU can then move on to do other things. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. G. is satisfied by reading from the disk. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area.

All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. 1.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . the operating system must provide some means to do so. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. The program must be able to end its execution. G. (a read only file is sharable) 2. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. To prevent deadlock. Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources.g. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously).ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. either normally or abnormally. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. mutual exclusion . which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. or recover from one. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. Pre-emption of resources.e.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. terminate process). Example:. Hold and wait .must hold for non sharable resources (e. Deadlock prevention .

Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. 3. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. 6. Tutorial Questions 1. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . jam in the card reader etc. Circular wait . each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. 5. With the aid of a diagram. No pre-emption (No taking away) . 4. • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. G. 7.3. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. memory. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works.of resources that have already been allocated. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. 2.each process can request resources only in increasing order). They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. Errors may occur in the CPU. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. To reconcile conflicting demands. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. State three (3) functions of an operating system. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the conditions for deadlock. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes.

One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. Scheduling 5. RAM B. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device.d) Record management 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . Paging C. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. Spooling B. A. G. Thrashing D. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. cache D. buffer C. A.

Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. E. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. WinRAR. E. Trend Micro PC-cillin. removes viruses from a computer system. create graphs.g. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. Scandisk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . E. PKZIP. Quickview in Windows. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. The software that allow us to do these things are application software. graphics. when to do it. There are two types of software: system software and application software. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. Examples include: accounting. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. spreadsheet.g. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. E.g. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. we use the computer to type documents. database management. do our accounting. banking. play games etc. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. word processing. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. OS/2. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents.g. McAfee. draw pictures.Lecture 3 . • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. G. MSBACKUP. Norton disk doctor. E. Unix. enter data into a database.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. Norton Anti-virus.g.g. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. detects. Linux. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. DOS etc. AVG etc. As mentioned before. E. WinZip.

keys. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. E. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Netscape Navigator. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Field.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . E. E. However.g. E. C. Chess. Outlook (Email). query. Pascal. G. E.g.g. font size and type. underline. Network Operating Systems (NOS). Visual Basic.g. editing. Foxpro. which means that they will run on different computers. footnotes. Windows Media Player. Outlook Express. Wordstar. Features include:. Corel Draw. Microsoft Excel. Monopoly. User can enter numbers. margins.g. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. Solitaire etc. Dbase. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. Can sort. Microsoft Word.Bold.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. Page Maker. E. text in each cell. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. fieldtype. WordPerfect. instructions. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. fieldsize. newsletters. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. correction. COBOL etc. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. WordPad. E. Visi-Calc. etc. Operating System Concepts Mrs. formulas. • Entertainment software These software include games. Oracle.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Combine word processing and graphics packages. E. Foxpro. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. spell check. posters. printing of documents. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. save. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. justify.g. Lotus 1-2-3. Quattro Pro. mail merge. Web Browsers.g. print. table of contents. page number. Symphony. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. C++.

E. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. 3. E. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. Tutorial Questions 1. keyboard. Lotus Smartsuite. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. diskette drive.monitor. cd-rom drive. hard disk. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. For mainframes etc. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. hard-coded in the hardware). 2. Firmware therefore facilitates booting.e.g. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. Microsoft Office. sector 0 of boot disk. Differentiate between system software and application software.g. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. printer port. E. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. Give examples of the type chosen.g. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. This is software embedded in hardware. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. Corel Wordperfect Suite. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. memory. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. b) A teacher calculating student grades. G. location 0.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together.g. mouse. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. Open Office. How does a word processor (e.g. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0.

Restore c. Anti-virus d. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. Application software B. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Utilities D. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3.4. System software C. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Scandisk b. Research the various web browsers. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. G. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . 8. Defrag 2. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. 6. 7. 5.

Diagnostic 9. Disk defragmenter B. A. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster.7. Disk scanner C. G. Disk scanner C. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. Disk cleanup B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . A. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk defragmenter D. Diagnostic utility D.

A file is named and is referred to by its name. It is a characteristic of a file. its length etc. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. It is a logical storage unit. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. Common File types:text file . Examples include read-only.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . last modified. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. io. records. It has other properties such as its type. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. In MS-DOS.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file. In other words.sys. G. archive. but not changed. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on.Lecture 4 .sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. bytes. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A file is a collection of related information. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. A read-only file can be viewed.sys. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. It is mapped onto a physical device. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. TIF database file – MDB. the file. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. DBF etc.ini.JPG. system.TXT source file . msdos. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. compressed. BMP. hidden. write. COM graphics files . It is a sequence of bits. "writing" to the file is disabled. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. date and time of creation.

File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. delete the file • edit/modify the file. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. When finished with a file Close it. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. Open a file Check permissions. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on.sys. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file.ini. ntdetect. Return error code if not. io. Any file can be marked as Hidden. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. The archive attribute is used for backup. copy file to an I/O device (printer. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. This way.sys.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. read from the file.sys. however. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . Once the file is backed up by a backup program. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. However. 2. io. display). append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. rewind the file. rename a file etc. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. write to the file. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. the archive attribute is turned off.sys and boot. 1. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. compression isn't usually recommended. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches.com and ntldr.

exe. doc. Practice MCQs 1. 4. Describe the type of file.Find space on the file system. jpg. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. Describe five file operations. 3. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. 3. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. G. System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. com. Append Writes information to the end of the file. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Describe five file attributes. then the write pointer is updated. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. Tutorial Questions 1. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. 2. 5. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. 2. bmp).g. 4. system searches directory to find location of file. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written.

b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Truncated D. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Identifier C. Name B. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Location Operating System Concepts Mrs.

g. creation date. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . These are all directory operations. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. A file can be on more than 1 disk.Lecture 5 . therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. location. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. but it suffers from some inefficiency. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. 2. G. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. To handle this problem. not physical. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. The device directory records information such as name. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. Studies showed that most files were small. size and type for all files on that device. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. This allows the file to be easily located.400 feet). A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape.

Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. to a specified file. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. Tree. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory.g.Single level . All files are in the same directory. Windows. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). This isolates one user from another. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . grouping and other operations such as deleting. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. It is easy to support and understand.the simplest directory structure. In normal use. Users may also create their own subdirectories. each user has a current directory. This structure is efficient for searching.e. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. The tree has a root directory. G. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users. A file name is prefixed by user name. UNIX. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Every file has a unique path name. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. All files must have unique names. DOS.structures . system files and grouping files.

Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. G. can be access through more than one path). NB. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. The following is an example using Unix.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented.e.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. Note that files have multiple path names. It is not the same as two copies. The same file may be in two different directories (i. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory.

Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. G. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. NTFS). Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. HPFS. Research the General-Graph directory. 4. Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure.

normally the CPU would sit idle. for an I/O device). Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. another job can be using the CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 .Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. This is also called concurrent processing. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. addresses etc.Lecture 6 . keyboard input etc.g. the current instruction. G. Normally the CPU would sit idle. file pointers. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive.). Eventually the job may have to wait for something. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e. variables.e. a tape. (i. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive.g.

transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. and I/O status information. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. CPU scheduling information. New B. CPU registers. G. file pointers etc. Running C. information associated with each process. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . memory management information. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). Waiting D. The location of current instructions. Differentiate between a process and a program. 3. program counter. Describe the operation of the PCB. Tutorial Questions 1. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. values in variables. Practice MCQs 1. accounting information. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. In other words.

small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. Similarly. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. tape. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. and giving processor time to another process. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. Operating System Concepts Mrs. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . however. Time-sharing. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. or network input could be granted to other users. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. G. Tutorial Questions 1. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. regardless of the number of users. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing.

CPU – I/O Burst Cycle . An example is shown in the diagram below.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. . Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. criteria.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. .Scheduling concepts. . .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. G. The programs therefore have to be scheduled. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16.Lecture 7 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . . Operating System Concepts Mrs. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . The following defines various scheduling concepts. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor.

Short term scheduler C. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. 5. switches from wait state to ready or iv. Medium term scheduler D. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. G. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. terminates.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently.Some systems introduce an additional. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. This involves a) switching context. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. intermediate level of scheduling. 6.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . This scheme is called swapping. Dispatcher .If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . Long term scheduler B. switches from an active to wait state or ii. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. Medium Term Scheduler . 2. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. 3. it therefore must be very fast. 4. Pre-emptive scheduling . Non pre-emptive scheduling . Tutorial Questions 1.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. G. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs.

work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . response time D. Describe the various scheduling criteria.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . turnaround time B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1. The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.time from submission of request until the first response is produced. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . • throughput .how busy you keep CPU. waiting time C.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. G.

for P2 = 0.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. for P3 = 3. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. P1. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. P2. P3. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . G. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. P3.

Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q.g. Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. memory requirements. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. This process is called aging. • externally .P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next.g. number of open files etc. system administrator). Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. A priority number is associated with each job. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. 100 msec).by a person (e. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. G. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. In other words. Tutorial Questions 1. generally based on some property of the job.g. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. G. E. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. In addition. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. Campbell 51 . such as memory size or job type. and so might have different scheduling algorithms.

Priority iv. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . G. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. 3. SJF. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. 4. FCFS ii. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. SJF iii. Priority.

Priority scheduling D. Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. G. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. Round robin scheduling 10. First come first served C. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Aging B. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7.d) CPU scheduler 4. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Shortest job first B. Starvation C. Fragmentation D.

Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms. For this reason. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance.Lecture 8. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. independent executable components of applications) of execution. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. one thread for each processor in the computer. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. G. The remainder of the processors run user applications. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Operating System Concepts Mrs. SMP is more complex than ASMP. As a result. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. the whole computer can go down. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. Any processor can run any type of thread. alleviating the need for data sharing. The main difference is in how the processors operate. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. all running at the same time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. A.g. 3. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. In parallel processing. Multiprocessing C. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. 5. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. 4. A. Multithreading D. Practice MCQs 1. 1 AMD. multiprocessing C. 2.g.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. multiuser D. G. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. Multitasking D. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. Multiprogramming B. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. 3 Pentium II. 6. Parallel processor C. Tutorial Questions 1. Multiprogramming 2. multitasking B. Coprocessor B. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. multiprogramming 3.

multiprocessing D. asymmetric multiprocessing B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 . symmetric multiprocessing C. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.4.

It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. 3. we must share memory. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). it still should not matter. 2. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. though the code. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. data. 4.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. Tutorial Questions 1. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. stack and system data. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. If we must keep several processes in memory. Research the MMU or PMMU.Lecture 9 . Memory mapping . Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. Each machine has a certain amount of memory.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. G. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas.

Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 . G.

with a small amount of very fast. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. 5. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. G. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . the contents of the accessed location. 2.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. cheap. some medium speed. but very fast. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. The higher levels are expensive. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. Operating System Concepts Mrs. volatile cache memory. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. If another reference is made to this location. Describe the different types of RAM. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. 4. Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. Describe the different types of cache. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. expensive. non-volatile disk storage. 3. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. Compare and contrast them. When a memory access is made. which can be organized in a hierarchy.

RAM. cache 3. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . Main memory D. Main Memory 6. RAM. Registers C. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. hard disk c) Register. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A.Practice MCQs 1. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. hard disk d) Hard disk. register. Cache B. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. Cache D. cache b) Cache. register. RAM. G. Electronic Disk C. register. RAM. Magnetic Disk B. a) Hard disk. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. cache.

In general. It is a special. Types of registers As previously stated. In other words. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation.Basic memory hardware – base register. Memory. and some addressing registers. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. and even to programmers. stack register.Lecture 10 . and flags. and several specialized registers including a base register. or RAM. high-speed storage area within the CPU. Usually. stack. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. Therefore. Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. program counter. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. G. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. flags register. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. In high-level languages. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . registers are storage locations internal to the processor. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. these include a program counter.

Discuss the other types of registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . and the number of words available to that segment. the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. in which case it is a bounds register). Tutorial Questions 1. 2. the so-called base.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. G. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. the first address of the user program is not 00000. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. b) placed in a fence register. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. 2.Lecture 11 . one for the user and one for the resident monitor. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. The fence register is a type of bounds register. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. but the first address beyond the fence. The logical address space is used by user programs.Logical vs. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. Tutorial Questions 1. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. Consider the segment table. User programs are run in their own area of memory. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. G.

Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. 11 0. 430 2.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 10 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 500 3. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 400 4. G.

It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. excessive paging is not desirable. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. 2. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. running it for a while. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. the system may actually do no useful work. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. In extreme cases. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. G.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Tutorial Questions 1. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Describe the concept of swapping. Swapping maximizes available memory. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. Practice MCQs 1.

Paging C. Swapping D. A.then putting it back on the disk. G. Scheduling B. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 .

Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. indexed. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. we must search for n free contiguous blocks.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. This solves the fragmentation problem. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. linked. If the file to be created is n blocks long. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file.Lecture 13 . There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. For sequential access. best fit. To read a file. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . Overestimating the file size also wastes space. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. since all blocks are linked together. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. Accessing a file. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. worst fit. many files will be stored on the same disk. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. we can immediately access block b + n. Compaction . If too little space is allocated. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. G.

Tutorial Questions 1. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. which is an array of disk block addresses. removed from the middle. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. 5. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. To find the nth block of a file. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. The directory contains the address of the index block. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. needs to work with certain files. It is never necessary to compact disk space. To read the nth block. a programmer. added in the middle. 4. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. G.is created. added at the end. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. John Brown. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. It also does not suffer from wasted space. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Mr. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Another problem is reliability. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. In order to conserve on space. removed from the start. 3. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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In variable partition multi-programming. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). This however comes with a lot of overhead. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Each region may have one program to be executed. When a region is free. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . G. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. the partition sizes are set and do not change. No space is wasted initially. However. Partition sizes vary dynamically. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions.

Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .

What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. What are they? Practice MCQs 1. G. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs. Multiple and fixed B. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . Single and multiple D. Fixed and variable C.

the extra space wasted. Practice MCQs 1. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Tutorial Questions 1. G. 2. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used).Fragmentation – internal. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job.

Cache B.Lecture 15 . G. E. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . 1) code to handle errors. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. Practice MCQs 1. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. A. which functions as additional memory. segmentation. Register C. Virtual memory D.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. What is virtual memory? 2. Tutorial Questions 1. usually the hard disk. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. 2) arrays lists. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. Memory management procedures such as paging. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. List the various virtual memory strategies. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. partitioning. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once.

Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. the offset is a number in the range 0 . The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset).1).A virtual address is represented as <page.(page size . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution. G. offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. VA is determined from the compiled address. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks.

containing only this one program. G. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. which also holds other programs. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. The first page is in memory location 1.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. The page table maps logical memory to physical memory.page size is 4K blocks by default). in the following diagram. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. They are therefore scattered in memory. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). The page table organizes the pages. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes).Lecture 16 . a file is made up of 4 pages. For example. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. sometimes called a memory management unit. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. This is done by a hardware component. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. (E. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Novell Netware .g. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. the other is in memory location 4. Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. In reality. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address.

2. Discuss PTBR and TLB. G. 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Explain the concept of a page table. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Differentiate between a page and a page frame.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. 4. Describe paging.

Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. The algorithms are FIFO. LFU. Locked pages cannot be replaced. This is hardware and overhead intensive. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count.Lecture 17 . Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. G.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. the page that has already been used the most. which may be difficult. NB. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. the page that has been used the least so far. MFU. This method never suffers from the anomaly.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. Optimal replacement. In other words. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. In other words. This has the lowest page fault rate. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . This does not suffer from the anomaly. LRU.

8. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 9. Least recently used page replacement C. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 8. Least regularly used C. 4. LFU. What page would be replaced next using MFU. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. Counting based page replacement D. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 2. Practice MCQs 1. 9. FIFO. 2. 5. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. What page would be replaced next using MFU.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 5. 9. Likely regularly used D. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. 4. 7. Optimal page replacement B. 3. 1. LRU stands for: A. Given the following table of jobs to be run. LRU? 3. 3. 8. FIFO. Least recently used B. 3. 8. 6. 5. LRU? 2. A. 9. 5. LFU. 3. 2. What is a page fault? 5. 2. 2. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . G. 4. 4. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 8.

the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. As there is more space in main memory. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. Therefore. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. This is known as demand paging. Advantages Demand paging. G. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 18 . Less loading latency occurs at program startup. or you can load in the page when required. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page.

G. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. Possible security risks. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. Practice MCQs 1. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2.• Programs running on low-cost. Tutorial Questions 1. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 .

Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. Belady’s anomaly C. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. A. G. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. 3 670 bytes D. Paging B. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Frame allocation D. Thrashing B. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. How many pages does it need? A. 4 000 bytes B. 4 096 bytes C. Spooling D. 8. 40 B. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. 3 648 bytes 10. 25 9. 23 D. Buffering C.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. 26 C.

A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. they use segmentation. A segment table is maintained for each process. G. Given a logical address (segment.d). which are of fixed size. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. Instead. offset) = (s. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system.

Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. offset>. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. 7. Tutorial Questions 1. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. 3.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. Operating System Concepts Mrs. ii. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . G. 2. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. 4. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5.

what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB.8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. G.

Lecture 20 . RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. numbered from 0. To improve the performance of a disk. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Disk capacity therefore doubled.random access memory . It is treated as a single unit in data transfer.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. (i. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. G. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. size and speed. but the data can be read immediately. Block . memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Tutorial Questions 1. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter.e. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Each location has a 0 or 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . so that the location is known. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage.another name for main storage. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). each one with its own address. A block on a disk is the sector. 2. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. RAM and Optical disks RAM . RAM is arranged like a series of boxes.

Tutorial Questions 1. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. calculators. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor.sometimes called associative registers. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. G.g. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. How do they differ from other disks? 2. read many) EO (erasable optical) . Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. E. Discuss RAM disks. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. It is small hardware memory . DVD R-? 3. What is the difference between DVD R. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. DVD R+. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . They are used to store both video and audio files. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. This does not provide permanent storage. Operating System Concepts Mrs.read only memory) . palm tops. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 .RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . Describe disk caching.Tutorial Questions 1. G. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. The coating however will wear after enough use. G.Lecture 21 . In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage.) 3. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. sector etc. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. surface. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. To improve the performance of a disk.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. cylinder. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1. Head crash . amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. is this an input or output operation? 2. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. due to power-cut). memory address 4. the disk address (drive.

Tutorial Questions 1. G. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. This is also known as transfer rate. Other definitions • Positioning time .Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 .The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay.

processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. It however may cause starvation of some requests. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. otherwise the request will be queued. in alternating directions. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. For example. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. satisfying requests. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. servicing requests as it reaches each track. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. At the other end it reverses direction. For example. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. until it gets to other end of disk. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. In other words.

which is in great demand. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. 91. 80. 17. 46. G. 46. 48. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. If the queue of requests is 8. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 147. 22. Explain how it works. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. Practice MCQs 1.3. Tutorial Questions 1. 46 d) 73. 22. 73. and where to commence the next sweep. 73. 46. 73. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. 80 c) 73. 80. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. If the queue of requests is 80. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS.5. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 35. 5.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 60. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. numbered 0 to 199.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . 80 b) 46. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 2. 22.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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which function as a slow RAID-1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. In the example. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). 3. G. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 .where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. Discuss the term RAID. Describe the standard RAID levels. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. it can also be done at the operating system level. but can be expanded with further volumes.. e. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. 2. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.g. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. As an example. 4. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online).

The oldest backup is called the grandfather. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. G. In order to recover you restore all files. then the entire backup is useless. or destroyed. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup).Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Restore changes from audit. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 . Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . then each incremental backup in the same sequence.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . The father then becomes the grandfather. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. things can still go wrong.if one change is messed up. Disadvantage . the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. father. then changes since (incremental backup). Father. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. Backup all files (main backup). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 .restore the main backup first. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. A backup is a duplicate of a file.save to CD 1 etc. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files.cool. dry. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. Operating System Concepts Mrs. • • • • Grand father.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. The following describes the different types of backup. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. To restore . damaged.

4. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Tutorial Questions 1. Practice MCQs 1.g. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. how often do you back up? If not. 6. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. 3. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . Do you backup? If yes. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. How did you solve the problem (e. G. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire.

All shared files reside at this single centralized site. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. mail server. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. Tutorial Questions 1. In this scheme. database server. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests.g. but requests a server's content or service function. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. the location of a file is transparent to users. called clients. who access remote files in the same way as local files. G. print server etc. Discuss the concept of a file server. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. 3.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. the open request is channelled to the file server. Discuss the other types of servers (e.Lecture 24 . Operating System Concepts Mrs.) 4. A client does not share any of its resources. If a user opens a non-local file. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients.

Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . it's understood where the file actually resides.Lecture 25 . etc. somewhere in the network. the system and disk are known. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. • This is a convenient way to share data. is hidden. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. the location of a file. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. one-to-many mapping. When data are requested. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . • In a transparent DFS. • Better file abstraction. set of physical disk blocks. on files. A file system provides a service for clients. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. • In a conventional file system. sector>. Resources on other machines are remote. Dynamic. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. • File name still denotes a specific.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. G. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency .Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. although hidden. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. In a networked environment users want to share data files. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder.

includes the file’s logical storage location C. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. Practice MCQs 1. G. 2. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. • Do NOT support migration. Tutorial Questions 1. 3. Research and give examples of various DFSs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 .

coprocessors can accelerate system performance. E. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. G. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.375 x 10-3 (1. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU. display . • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously.75 = 1. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor.g.g.375E +1) .Lecture 26 . What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. 2. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.375E -3) . Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). 10 = base/radix.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks.375 = mantissa/argument. 13. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. execute program flow control instructions.screen graphics.001375 = 1. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation.375 x 101 (1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . and keyboard operations. E. A more common use was to control input/output channels. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. However. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. manage memory etc. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. Operating System Concepts Mrs. do input/output operations. -3 = characteristic or exponent.

What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors.3. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. Practice MCQs 1. G. ‘superscalar’. ‘dual-core’. 4.

This is the normal type of computer. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. and comparing values. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. number of registers. Some computers. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. E. On these machines. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. it lists the things that the processor can do. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. addressing modes.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. do not have a microprogramming level. RISC . Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. E. MOVE. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. however the differences extend further. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. At that time. These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. In other words.g. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. RISC. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). doing arithmetic.Lecture 27 .g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. however. Until the mid-1980s. G. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. called the micro-program (or firmware).complex instruction set computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . It is actually an interpreter. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. (More instructions per clock cycle). IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture.reduced instruction set computer. This software.

use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. advanced compilers. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. If the processor guessed correctly. the results are discarded and there is no loss. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. Typically.In the mid 1970s. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. Only load and store instructions access memory . The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974.I. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. which would require fewer transistors1. it has gained time. and begins execution of the corresponding code. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. G. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. For this reason. unlike complex instruction set machine. and better pipelining. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer.S. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Due to these developments. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. For example. a PowerPC has 32 registers. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. high-speed caches. and make them cheaper to manufacture. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers.P. Reduced instruction set machines. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. who developed the M.

To some extent. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. In contrast. Without commercial interest. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. producing faster and cheaper processors . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Windows 3. In 1977. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. This was largely due to a lack of software support. Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. By 1994. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. G. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software.000. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required.

Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. . G. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. other manufacturers. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. SPARCserver. Ultra1. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. have built PCs based on the PowerPC.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. which appeared in 1994. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. all instructions are 32-bits in length. Apple Computer.5 and higher). and Motorola Corporation. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. and OS/2. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. Windows NT. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. Since then. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. including IBM. Apple introduced the Power Mac. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . In the SPARC. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers.

the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. Pronounced sisk. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. code size has become a non-issue. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. In a microprogrammed2 system. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. In contrast to RISC. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . However. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. easier implementation of new chips. At that time. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. use a CISC architecture. G. This also improved performance.design. computers executed instructions sequentially. although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. In a nutshell. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. Most personal computers. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. fast code. which supports fewer instructions. used by many workstations and also some personal computers.it costs less than £10. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. and stands for complex instruction set computer. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. Atari. An alternative architecture. The Amiga. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor.

the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. Due to the large number of addressing modes. etc. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers.000 versions of integer add in the VAX. typically about 8 registers. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . has the following modes: to/from a register.market factors. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. In the VAX. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. In particular. which can operate directly on memory. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. to/from a specific location in memory. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.according to their byte length. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. The VAX. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. G. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. However. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. This is a result of having instructions. to/from an address pointed to by a register. an example of a complex instruction set computer. there are more than 30.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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or sexual preference).g. pricing data. personal history. low voltage. data. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. young child) Technical error – system failure e.. Loss of files/data. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. Huge repair bill. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . Loss of data. Loss of computer. not adequately trained/experienced (e. software. Loss of sales due to piracy. Theft. Illegal access to files. medical information. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. theft of marketing information (e. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. adding data twice. power surges. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. Identity theft.g.g. Effect Loss of data.g. flood. Category Human error – e. or marketing plans). lightening. Loss of data.. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. loss of time in having to re-enter data. or processing capability. hard disk crash. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. hurricane. Loss of time. fire. vandalism. delete a file by accident. May need to re-install software. G. entering incorrect data. loss of time. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. customer lists. information. Loss of computer and data. This can lead to things like software piracy.g. Physical damage to computer. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. Damage to computer due to improper use. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. Loss of income due to software piracy. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake.

such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. It may be benign or have a negative effect. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. and then starts replicating from there. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. Instead. G. as well. Obviously. Unlike a cell. Once it is running. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts.it is not alive. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. A computer virus shares some of these traits. as well. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. In some cases. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. and the cell remains alive. There are similarities at a deeper level. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. releasing the virus. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. A biological virus is not a living thing. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. In other cases. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time.

the correct decryption key is required. Tutorial Questions 1.g. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. Zone Alarm). Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. hackers). (e. which can cause severe damage to databases.g. Define the term cryptography. Virus protection. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. G. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Encryption. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. Unlike a virus or worm. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Norton Antivirus. McAfee. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . Trend Micro-PCcillin). Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. However. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. Authentication. while authentication is proving it. so it can be understood. called a ciphertext. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. This must be updated regularly.g. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs.org/ 3. John has a password to the human resource system. Discuss various encryption software. He is able to view all employee data except salary. 5. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1. G. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4.eccouncil. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www.2.

Linux. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. the Internet. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. You can set attributes on files e. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. Read. and speech recognition. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Linux is a popular. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. Solaris. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it.SYS. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. There is limited or no security. which means its code is available to the public. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. then he can still see such files.SYS and MSDOS. only on the network. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. G. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. Java. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. There are a large number of built-in servers. You can set expiration dates on passwords. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . like UNIX. Hidden etc.g.

There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. service permissions. startup modes.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. file vault and firewall. There are also different levels of authority . You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). commands. It also supports encryption. There is also support for biometric devices.g. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default.read only. There is also auditing which records login. object access. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . This accepts user id and password. directories/libraries. records (views). Operating System Concepts Mrs. You are able to create multiple user accounts. read/write capability. event log. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. G. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. There are audit logs and audit trails. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. fields. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. lockout policies. changing settings). most reliable Windows operating system. account management. Software restrictions . You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. There is also a screen saver password. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). privilege use and system events. file system permissions. You can set security on admin tasks (e. policy changes. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. change. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. delete etc. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. virus). Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. user rights. Templates include password policies. Windows XP has increased security. It allows directory access control. Windows NT has security holes.g. There is also secured wireless access. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords.

Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Modify. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. G. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. entertainment. called the Pocket PC. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 .Windows CE .NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Erase. You can encrypt communication. There is a screen saver password. Create. Read. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. and FileScan (sees filenames). There are also inherited rights and file attributes. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. Write. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Tutorial Questions 1. Netware accepts a userid and password. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3.

). Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Operating Systems Concepts.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers.: USA. Modern Operating Systems. Discovering computers 2008. (3rd Ed. (2006). Operating System Concepts Mrs.webopedia. John Wiley & Sons Inc. P. Galvin. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . Silberschatz. Shelly G. G. T. 7th E.d. KY:Course Technology Publishing. (2004)..B.. Prentice Hall: USA. (2007). Andrew S. Tanenbaum.B. & Cashman.com. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. http://www.J. Gagne. Abraham. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers.

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