OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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........................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. EXTERNAL.......................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)................................................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ........................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ..................... BEST-FIT....................................................................................................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................ 63 PRACTICE MCQS ............. 78 ADVANTAGES: ........................................................... 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ...................................... 72 PARTITIONS....... WORST-FIT ............................................................................................................................................................ 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) .................................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT ........................................ 65 LECTURE 13 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................ 75 PRACTICE MCQS .............. 82 DISADVANTAGES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL..................................................................................................................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................. 81 LECTURE 18 .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 FIFO ...........................................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT............................................................ 68 PRACTICE MCQS .... 75 LECTURE 15 ................................................................... 65 PRACTICE MCQS ....................................... 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION .. 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 74 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................. 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ......................... 76 LECTURE 16 .................................................................................................................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 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G............................................ 81 PRACTICE MCQS ....... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs...............................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) .................................................. 79 LECTURE 17 ................................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS .......................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................. 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) .............................................................................................. 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU).............................................................. 76 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 79 DISADVANTAGES: ..........................................................................

...... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ..............................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ................. 88 BLOCKS .................................................... 87 LECTURE 20 ............................. G.............................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 ................................................... 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................ 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................................. 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 LECTURE 25 .................................................................THRASHING............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................. FATHER......................................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS .............................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ......................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) .............................................. 88 INTRODUCTION ............. 90 LECTURE 21 .... 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ......................................................................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN ........................................................................... SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ......... 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ......................................................................................................................... 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................... 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS . 92 DISK SCHEDULING ................................................................................................................ 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ................ 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 83 PRACTICE MCQS .......................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................... 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................... 95 RAID LEVELS ............... 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................................................................. 89 DISK CACHING ....... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs.......................................................................................................... 99 BACKUP TIPS ...................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................. 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 103 PRACTICE MCQS ......................... 100 LECTURE 24 ...... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS ......................................................................... 93 First come first served (FCFS) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) .................................................................................................................................................................. 94 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................... 99 GRAND FATHER.................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY.......RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ......................... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS ................................................................................. 104 DISADVANTAGES .................................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 119 OS/400 ................................................................................ 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS ................................................. 116 Trojan Horse ........................................................................................................................... 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .... 120 Novell Netware .................................... 116 Virus ........................................ 111 Disadvantages of CISC ......................................................................................................................................................... 117 Virus protection............................................................................... 112 CRISC.............. 116 Denial-of-service................................................................................................................................................................................... 117 Firewall........... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) ...................................................................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 Advantages of RISC ................................................................ 120 Microsoft Windows .................................................................................. 119 UNIX................................................................................................................................................................................................ 104 ADVANTAGES .............................. 120 MacOS ............................................................................................................................................ 116 Worm .......................................................................................................................................................... 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................................. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ............................................................................................................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ..................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ......................................... VIRUS PROTECTION................................ 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... 110 Advantages of CISC ... FIREWALL ...................................................................................................... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 119 MS-DOS............................................ 109 CISC .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 ............................................................................. 117 Encryption .................................................................................................................................... 117 Authentication ......... 117 PRACTICE MCQS ....... 113 PRACTICE MCQS ............................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 118 CASE STUDIES ... ENCRYPTION............................................. 119 OS/2 ....................... G.................................................................................. 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 105 LECTURE 27 ........................... 104 PRACTICE MCQS ...............................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)............................................................................................. 116 Logic bomb ............................................... 107 Disadvantages of RISC................................................................................... 117 AUTHENTICATION...................................................................................................................................................................

....................... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs...................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..... G............................................................ 121 REFERENCES .................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ...............................................................

students should be able to: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . manipulate operating systems 4. virtual memory. 3.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. G. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. process scheduling. students should: 1. 4. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. device and memory management. interrupt handling. 5. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization. appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3.

Spooling). 2. h. b. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . Define operating system. Software and Firmware: a. Storage. f. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. System Software b. Operating Systems Functions: a. g. 2. File Concepts – File Attributes. File-system manipulation. System Startup. b. Introduction: a. I/O – (Buffering. Program execution. 5.Content: 1. User Interface. 4. Application Software c. c. 3. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Communications. G. d. Two-level. Directory Systems – Single-level. students should be able to: a. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Tree-Structured. Error Detection 3. File Operations 2. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Resource Allocation. e. Protection and Security. The history and development of the operating system. students should be able to: 1.

Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . Time Sharing 2. Scheduler. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. Shortest Remaining Time. b.i. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. j. Preemptive scheduling. 5. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. 4. 3. 6. 8. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. 4. a. 7. students should be able to: 1. Shortest Job First 5. Priority. 3. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. 2. 2. 7. best-fit. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. G. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. Multiprogramming. Scheduling criteria 4. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. Round Robin. Dispatcher 3. 8. limit register Logical vs. 5. 6.

Demand paging 5. LRU d. address structure. Page replacement a. state the advantages of disk caching 8. Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Allocation algorithms 4. LFU e. Virtual address space 2. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. address translation 6. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. students should be able to: 1. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. define page 3. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. students should be able to: 1. explain thrashing Content: 1. 3. page table. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. explain segmentation 9. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. Pure paging – pages. define frame 4.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. Optimal replacement c. 4. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. MFU f. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. Segmentation – segment table. G. 5. explain the purpose of the page table 5. address translation 3. FIFO b. explain disk caching 7. frames.

location independence UNIT VIII – Co. 4. positioning time. File server systems – client-server computing 3. incremental backup. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. Backup and recovery methods – full backup. RAID 1. students should be able to: 1.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. Disk caching 7. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. log-structured systems 2. location transparency. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. SCAN. seek time rotational latency 5. SSTF. students should be able to: 1. 2. G. Distributed file systems – naming. 3. write. 4. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 5. 3. 2. 5. C-SCAN 6. 2.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . 3. LOOK. Disk scheduling – FCFS.

1. OS/2. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. 2. G. advantage. G. define security 2. UNIX. Virus protection. (8th ed). Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. 2. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. Denial-of-service Authentication. (2008). RISC / CISC – development. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. worm. P. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. Apple Macintosh. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. & Gagne. Internal Tests 20% 3. Encryption.B. virus. describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 3.. 3. students should be able to: 1. A. Common Coursework 20% 2. 4. logic bomb. Operating systems concepts. 4. Galvin. 5. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse.

W. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. An introduction to operating systems.). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . (2007). Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.(6th ed.Recommended: Tanenbaum. (2005).). NJ: Prentice Hall. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay.S.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. Modern operating systems (3rd ed. W. (1999). A.

These are all examples of operating systems. • users .CPU. video games. Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient.database systems. users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. word processors. memory. spreadsheets etc. is to make the computer convenient to use. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. We use the computer because we want to type a document. play a game. MacOS.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7.people. business programs. When you purchase a new computer. G. Unix. machines. A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . surf the internet. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. I/O devices etc. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. We do not use the computer because of these software. do our budget etc. Its primary goal therefore. other computers etc. DOS. Linux. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. As new versions of the operating system are released. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . it typically has an operating system already installed.

Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. Mac OS X. track. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. storage management. OS/2 Warp Client. or mobile computing device. block) and job control. filing system. Windows XP. G. 200 Professional. Operating System Concepts Mrs. UNIX. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer.By itself. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 .g. 95. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices.g. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. UNIX. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. Network and Embedded. command language. and Linux. Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. ME). • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. 3. so no need to know which sector. 2000 Server). computers. and Linux. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. NT Workstation. notebook computer. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users.x. 98. and other devices to and from the network. data management (control of I/O devices.

Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes.NET. 5. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven. Practice MCQs 1. Pocket PC 2002.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. Gives instructions to the hardware b.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. G. Palm OS. 7. An operating system is a program that a. If no. • Transaction processing .a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. comment on its new features.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. 4. and Symbian OS. • General Purpose . research its new features and comment on them.g. 2. Is controlled by application software d. what does this mean? 9.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. • Time sharing .a multi-user system that combines batch processing. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . 3. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. all the terminals are connected to the same program. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming. 6. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. E. Controls the user c. • Foreground background . Tutorial Questions 1. 8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 . Define operating system. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. 10. in order to improve CPU utilization. airline reservation system. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. However. Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming .

application software.2. application software d. Executive 4. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. User. system software 3. G. Application programs C. A. system software. Hardware. User. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. Fence d. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. system software. Superstructure c. Operating System D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . application software. user. hardware. hardware. hardware c. User. Segment b. system software b. Select the correct sequence a. application software. Hardware B.

Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. as soon as one job was finished. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console. In those days machines were slow. This monitor is always resident in memory. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. he would unload tapes. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. an operator could start the next job. the CPU sat idle. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. which would then go on to the next program. There were still problems however. which would transfer control to a program. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job.. When a job was done. improved utilization quite a bit. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. when a job stopped. mounting magnetic tapes etc. Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators. In the early days machines were hand operated. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. I/O devices were slow. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. Initially when the computer was turned on. that is. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. the operator . During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle.g. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). when the program terminated. (E. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs.g. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. would run each batch. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. E. it would return control to the resident monitor. These changes. determine why the program stopped. the operator was slow. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. G. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds.66 per hour). A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program.

in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . Some operating systems still are device dependent. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Operating System Concepts Mrs. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. (i. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. MUSIC/SP. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. Historically. read data from tape and not from card). • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). Multics. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO).e. Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. Only the device driver must be changed. G. WYLBUR. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. high level user oriented programming languages. The trend today. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. Michigan Terminal System. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. By 1970 multiprocessing. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. however. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. In addition.

0) AIX 1. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1. GE. G.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2.0 Mac OS (System 1.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.0 SunOS 3.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .0 Windows NT 3. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money.0 OS/2 (1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT.

In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. Describe the historical development of operating systems.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. 4. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11. 6.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2. 2.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. 5.6 Windows NT 4. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can. Discuss the first operating system. Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems. 3.2 FreeBSD 8.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11.10 Mac OS X v 10. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . Third Generation D. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. First Generation B. G. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Second Generation C. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A.

The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. and loads them into memory from storage. the operating system may use virtual memory. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. requests any necessary user information. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. When a user turns on a computer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and how many programs. If the POST completes successfully. An operating system can be single user/single tasking.Lecture 2 . A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. multiuser. single user/multitasking. which manages memory and devices. G. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . the operating system loads configuration information. Managing programs refers to how many users. A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. This is done on a network. A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. an operating system can support at one time. If memory is insufficient. or multiprocessing. Finally. and displays the desktop.

What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. move files. Command-line interfaces however. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. and graphical user interface. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. menu-driven interface. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. grammar and punctuation. delete files and create folders. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. generate an error message. As in a restaurant. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. G. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm. A job is an operation the processor manages. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Minor errors such as a missing full stop. give a user more control over setting details.

the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . The CPU can then move on to do other things. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. Similarly when a job requests printer output. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer. Operating System Concepts Mrs. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. G. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. In disk systems. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. is satisfied by reading from the disk. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Requests for card reader input. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices.

must hold for non sharable resources (e. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). The program must be able to end its execution. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. the operating system must provide some means to do so. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. Example:.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. Hold and wait . mutual exclusion .e. terminate process). All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. Deadlock prevention . Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. Pre-emption of resources. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. 1.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. either normally or abnormally. (a read only file is sharable) 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . To prevent deadlock. G. or recover from one.

• Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. Circular wait . • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. To reconcile conflicting demands. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain. How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. 7. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. Errors may occur in the CPU. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. With the aid of a diagram. 3.each process can request resources only in increasing order). Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 . The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering . 4. Tutorial Questions 1. jam in the card reader etc. State three (3) functions of an operating system. 2. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. No pre-emption (No taking away) . • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. 6.of resources that have already been allocated. Describe the conditions for deadlock.3. memory. 5. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them.

One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. G. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device. cache D. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing.d) Record management 3. A. Thrashing D. Scheduling 5. Spooling B. A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . RAM B. Paging C. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs. buffer C.

enter data into a database. OS/2. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. removes viruses from a computer system. AVG etc. G. E. DOS etc. Examples include: accounting. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. Unix. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. E. do our accounting. WinZip. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. detects. E. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . banking. play games etc.g. E. MSBACKUP. spreadsheet. Trend Micro PC-cillin. Scandisk. WinRAR. when to do it. E. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. E. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage.g. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities.Lecture 3 . draw pictures. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. word processing. As mentioned before. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.g. There are two types of software: system software and application software. Linux. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. McAfee. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. create graphs.g. we use the computer to type documents. Norton disk doctor. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. Norton Anti-virus. Quickview in Windows. defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape. graphics. database management.g.g. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents. PKZIP.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs.

mail merge. Outlook Express. underline. COBOL etc.g. justify. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. Page Maker. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Quattro Pro. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. E. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. text in each cell. E. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. fieldsize. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Pascal. formulas.g. footnotes. newsletters. query. Chess. Visual Basic. instructions. table of contents.g. Features include:. WordPad. Monopoly. Network Operating Systems (NOS). E. Solitaire etc.g. Foxpro. font size and type.g.Bold. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Lotus 1-2-3.g. etc.g. E. E. printing of documents. spell check. Field. margins. Visi-Calc. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. Outlook (Email). Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. Can sort. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. E. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. E. editing. Symphony. Microsoft Word. • Entertainment software These software include games.g. Windows Media Player. fieldtype. WordPerfect. Corel Draw. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . Combine word processing and graphics packages. print. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. G.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. However. page number. User can enter numbers. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. posters. C++. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. keys. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. Netscape Navigator. Foxpro. correction. Web Browsers. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. save. C.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. which means that they will run on different computers. Wordstar. Microsoft Excel. E. Dbase. Oracle.

Differentiate between system software and application software. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. For mainframes etc. E. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package.g. How does a word processor (e. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. printer port.• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. hard-coded in the hardware).g. Tutorial Questions 1.monitor. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. E. keyboard. mouse. Give examples of the type chosen. cd-rom drive. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i.g. memory. b) A teacher calculating student grades. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program.e. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data. G. Microsoft Office. hard disk. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . Corel Wordperfect Suite. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 . The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer.g. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. E. Open Office.g. sector 0 of boot disk. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. diskette drive. location 0. This is software embedded in hardware. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. 2. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. Lotus Smartsuite. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0.

A. G. 7. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Anti-virus d. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. Research the various web browsers.4. Application software B. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. 5. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. 8. Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. 6. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5. System software C. Defrag 2. Utilities D. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. Restore c. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . Scandisk b.

____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems. A. Disk scanner C. G. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. Disk defragmenter D. Disk cleanup B. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . Disk scanner C.7. Disk defragmenter B. Diagnostic 9. Diagnostic utility D. A.

Examples include read-only. last modified. Common File types:text file . its length etc. The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom.ini. A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. G. It is a characteristic of a file. COM graphics files .sys. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. Read-only files can be deleted and moved.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) .TXT source file . A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. It is a sequence of bits. write. date and time of creation. It has other properties such as its type. system. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device.sys. It is mapped onto a physical device.JPG. It is a logical storage unit. In other words. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. A file is named and is referred to by its name. BMP.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. the file. A file is a collection of related information.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . hidden. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. msdos. In MS-DOS.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE. TIF database file – MDB. records. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 .Lecture 4 . compressed. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. bytes. but not changed. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. Operating System Concepts Mrs. archive. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer. io. "writing" to the file is disabled. For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage. DBF etc. A read-only file can be viewed. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file.

Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. G. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. The archive attribute is used for backup. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. Return error code if not. write to the file.com and ntldr. compression isn't usually recommended. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos.sys. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. however. rewind the file. read from the file. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on.sys and boot. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files. io. However. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. delete the file • edit/modify the file.ini. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. copy file to an I/O device (printer. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. 2. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. This way. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. When finished with a file Close it.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. Open a file Check permissions. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. 1. io. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed.sys. rename a file etc.sys. the archive attribute is turned off. ntdetect. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches. display). Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Any file can be marked as Hidden. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. Before you can use a file you must Open it. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use.

Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file. Append Writes information to the end of the file. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. Describe five file operations. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Describe the type of file. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. com.Find space on the file system. 2. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file. system searches directory to find location of file. Describe five file attributes. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. doc. jpg. 4. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. Practice MCQs 1. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. G. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. 3. exe. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. bmp). Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. 2. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. then the write pointer is updated. 4. Tutorial Questions 1. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file.g.

Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Name B. Identifier C.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. G. Truncated D.

since physical tape reels are quite large (e. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. The device directory records information such as name. Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape.400 feet). G. Studies showed that most files were small. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. location. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. 2. A file can be on more than 1 disk. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape.Lecture 5 . size and type for all files on that device. not physical. creation date. The advantage of this approach is simplicity. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. This allows the file to be easily located. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . To handle this problem.g. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. but it suffers from some inefficiency. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. These are all directory operations.

grouping and other operations such as deleting. Windows.g. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory.e. This isolates one user from another. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. each user has a current directory. The tree has a root directory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 . A file name is prefixed by user name. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user. system files and grouping files. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. Tree. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. This structure is efficient for searching. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. In normal use.Single level . DOS. G.structures . Every file has a unique path name. Users may also create their own subdirectories. All files are in the same directory. to a specified file. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. It is easy to support and understand. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). All files must have unique names. Operating System Concepts Mrs. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users.the simplest directory structure. UNIX.

e. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user. can be access through more than one path). Note that files have multiple path names. It is not the same as two copies. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented. Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. NB. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . The same file may be in two different directories (i. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 .A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. The following is an example using Unix. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file.

NTFS). 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Research the General-Graph directory. HPFS. Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3. G. 4.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure.

The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. normally the CPU would sit idle. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . Eventually the job may have to wait for something.Lecture 6 . Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e.g. another job can be using the CPU. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run. variables.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. G.). In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. keyboard input etc. the current instruction. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e.g. This is also called concurrent processing. (i. for an I/O device). Normally the CPU would sit idle. a tape. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. addresses etc. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. file pointers.e.

Describe the operation of the PCB. Running C. memory management information. What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. program counter. Waiting D.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. values in variables. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . Practice MCQs 1. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. Differentiate between a process and a program. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. G. New B. The location of current instructions. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. information associated with each process. 3. CPU registers. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. accounting information. In other words. and I/O status information. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). file pointers etc. Tutorial Questions 1. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. CPU scheduling information.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Similarly. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. G. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. and giving processor time to another process. Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. however. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . Tutorial Questions 1. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. regardless of the number of users. tape. Time-sharing. or network input could be granted to other users. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. small slices of time spent waiting for disk.

The programs therefore have to be scheduled. .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait.8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . An example is shown in the diagram below. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 7 . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. . .Scheduling concepts. . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. criteria. . G. The following defines various scheduling concepts. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler .determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .

The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often.This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. This scheme is called swapping. Long term scheduler B. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 . 5. This involves a) switching context. 6. Short term scheduler C. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. switches from an active to wait state or ii. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. Medium term scheduler D. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. Dispatcher . Non pre-emptive scheduling . Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. G. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. Medium Term Scheduler . Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory).selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them.Some systems introduce an additional.If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. switches from wait state to ready or iv. Research alternate names for the various schedulers.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. A. Tutorial Questions 1. it therefore must be very fast. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. intermediate level of scheduling. switches from an active to a ready state or iii.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler . __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. 3. terminates. Pre-emptive scheduling . 4.

2. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .

how busy you keep CPU. turnaround time B.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . • throughput . The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. G. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization . Describe the various scheduling criteria.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. waiting time C. response time D. Practice MCQs 1. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 .time from submission of request until the first response is produced.

the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. P2. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. for P2 = 0. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. This is a non-preemptive algorithm. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6. P3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. P1. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. for P3 = 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . G. P3.

system administrator). Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. A priority number is associated with each job.g. 100 msec). Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 .by a person (e. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e. G. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. memory requirements. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO. number of open files etc. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. • externally .P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next. Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high.g. then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. This process is called aging.

such as memory size or job type.g. In other words. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm.• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. Campbell 51 . a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. G. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. Tutorial Questions 1. generally based on some property of the job. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. In addition. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. E. and so might have different scheduling algorithms.

which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. 3. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. Priority iv.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. SJF iii. Priority. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . 4. FCFS ii. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. SJF. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i. G. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7. Round robin scheduling 10. Aging B. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Shortest job first B. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs.d) CPU scheduler 4. Priority scheduling D. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Starvation C. First come first served C. Fragmentation D. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8.

one thread for each processor in the computer. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. all running at the same time. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. the whole computer can go down. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. SMP is more complex than ASMP. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. The remainder of the processors run user applications. For this reason. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Any processor can run any type of thread. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. alleviating the need for data sharing. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance.Lecture 8. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. independent executable components of applications) of execution. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. The main difference is in how the processors operate. A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. G. As a result. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms.

g. multitasking B. Multiprogramming B.g. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm. G. multiprocessing C. Practice MCQs 1. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. 3. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. Multiprocessing C. 1 AMD. A. Multitasking D. 4. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. multiprogramming 3. Tutorial Questions 1. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs. Parallel processor C.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. 3 Pentium II. 5. Multithreading D. A. 6. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. A. multiuser D. In parallel processing. Multiprogramming 2. Coprocessor B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . 2. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e.

When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. asymmetric multiprocessing B. multiprocessing D. symmetric multiprocessing C. multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs.4. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 .

2. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. 4.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. If we must keep several processes in memory. stack and system data. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . Memory mapping . G. we must share memory.Lecture 9 . 2. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). 3. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. Tutorial Questions 1. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. it still should not matter. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. Research the MMU or PMMU. though the code. Each machine has a certain amount of memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. data.

All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.Practice MCQs 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .

with a small amount of very fast. cheap. 2. the contents of the accessed location. 3. G. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. 5. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. some medium speed. non-volatile disk storage. The higher levels are expensive. which can be organized in a hierarchy. Compare and contrast them. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. volatile cache memory. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Describe the different types of RAM. expensive. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. If another reference is made to this location. Operating System Concepts Mrs. When a memory access is made. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system. Describe the different types of cache. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). 4. but very fast.

Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. a) Hard disk. RAM. cache 3. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Magnetic Disk B.Practice MCQs 1. hard disk d) Hard disk. Registers C. RAM. RAM. register. cache. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. hard disk c) Register. RAM. Cache B. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy. Cache D. Electronic Disk C. register. Main memory D. register. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Main Memory 6. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. cache b) Cache. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 .

limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. these include a program counter. high-speed storage area within the CPU. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. Memory. whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. G. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. stack register. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. For example. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . registers are storage locations internal to the processor.Basic memory hardware – base register. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space. program counter. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. stack. or RAM. In general. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. In high-level languages. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. and even to programmers. In other words. Types of registers As previously stated. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. It is a special. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. and flags.Lecture 10 . Usually. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). and several specialized registers including a base register. and some addressing registers. flags register. Therefore. Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it.

Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. and the number of words available to that segment. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. in which case it is a bounds register). the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment. Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the other types of registers. 2. the so-called base.

The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . The logical address space is used by user programs. User programs are run in their own area of memory. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory.Lecture 11 .Logical vs. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. G. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. one for the user and one for the resident monitor. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. The logical address is also known as the virtual address. but the first address beyond the fence. The fence register is a type of bounds register. the first address of the user program is not 00000. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. Tutorial Questions 1. b) placed in a fence register. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. Consider the segment table. 2. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address.

400 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 .a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 430 2. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. 10 1. 500 3. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 11 0.

Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. Swapping maximizes available memory. excessive paging is not desirable. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. Tutorial Questions 1. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. 2. In extreme cases. G. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory. Describe the concept of swapping. the system may actually do no useful work. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). running it for a while. Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . it is possible to experience too much swapping. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. Practice MCQs 1.

then putting it back on the disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 . Swapping D. Paging C. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling B. G. A.

To read a file. since all blocks are linked together. best fit. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. If the file to be created is n blocks long. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. many files will be stored on the same disk. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block.Lecture 13 . Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. indexed. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. If too little space is allocated. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. For sequential access.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. Accessing a file. linked. Compaction . worst fit. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. G. This solves the fragmentation problem. we can immediately access block b + n. Each block contains a pointer to the next block.

is created. It also does not suffer from wasted space. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. John Brown. added at the end. 5. needs to work with certain files. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. which is an array of disk block addresses. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. G. removed from the middle. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. To find the nth block of a file. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. It is never necessary to compact disk space. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. removed from the start. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. To read the nth block. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods. Another problem is reliability. The directory contains the address of the index block. In order to conserve on space. added in the middle. 4. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. Tutorial Questions 1. a programmer. 3. Mr. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. However. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. When a region is free. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Partition sizes vary dynamically. This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. This however comes with a lot of overhead. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). Operating System Concepts Mrs. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. the partition sizes are set and do not change. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. Each region may have one program to be executed. In variable partition multi-programming. G. No space is wasted initially.

G.Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .

Fixed and variable C. Multiple and fixed B. G. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. Single and multiple D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . What are they? Practice MCQs 1.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Tutorial Questions 1. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. the extra space wasted. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation.Fragmentation – internal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). Practice MCQs 1. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. 2.

But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. G. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. What is virtual memory? 2. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. Virtual memory D. A. segmentation. List the various virtual memory strategies. usually the hard disk. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Register C.Lecture 15 . which functions as additional memory. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. Operating System Concepts Mrs. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. Tutorial Questions 1. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. Memory management procedures such as paging. Practice MCQs 1. E. Cache B. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. 1) code to handle errors. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 . Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory.g. 2) arrays lists. partitioning.

but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks. In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.(page size . offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 . Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset).1). VA is determined from the compiled address.A virtual address is represented as <page. the offset is a number in the range 0 . G. VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs.

in the following diagram. This is done by a hardware component. In reality. The first page is in memory location 1. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. (E. sometimes called a memory management unit. which also holds other programs.g. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence.Lecture 16 . or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address. Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. Novell Netware . the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address. It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming. a file is made up of 4 pages. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. the other is in memory location 4. They are therefore scattered in memory. Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction.page size is 4K blocks by default). The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. G. The page table organizes the pages.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). containing only this one program.

4. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe paging.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Explain the concept of a page table. G. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. Discuss PTBR and TLB. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . 2.

the page that has been used the least so far. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation . Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. This has the lowest page fault rate. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . LRU. Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count. Locked pages cannot be replaced. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. NB. This does not suffer from the anomaly. Optimal replacement. This method never suffers from the anomaly. In other words. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time.Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. This is hardware and overhead intensive. MFU. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used. LFU. the page that has already been used the most. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. G. The algorithms are FIFO. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase.Lecture 17 . In other words. which may be difficult.uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used.

What is a page fault? 5. 2. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. 8. 8. 1. Given the following table of jobs to be run. 4. LFU. FIFO. What page would be replaced next using MFU. LRU stands for: A. 3. 3. 5. LRU? 2. 4. 5. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 8. 8. Least recently used page replacement C. Optimal page replacement B. LFU. Least recently used B. G. Practice MCQs 1. 4. A. Likely regularly used D. 6. 7. 9. Counting based page replacement D. LRU? 3. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 5. 9. 4. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. 8. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. Least regularly used C. 2. 9. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. 5. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 2. 2. 2. 3. 9. FIFO. 3.

Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed.Lecture 18 . So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Advantages Demand paging. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. As there is more space in main memory. The pager will only load these pages into memory. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. Therefore. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. or you can load in the page when required. This is known as demand paging. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time.

G. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Practice MCQs 1. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing.• Programs running on low-cost. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Possible security risks. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Tutorial Questions 1. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs.

Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Buffering C. 4 096 bytes C. Frame allocation D. 3 670 bytes D. Paging B. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. 26 C. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. G. 3 648 bytes 10. 4 000 bytes B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. Thrashing B. 23 D. 25 9.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. How many pages does it need? A. 8. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software. A. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. 40 B. Belady’s anomaly C. Spooling D.

This method is similar to paging but unlike pages.d). offset) = (s.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment. The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. they use segmentation. Given a logical address (segment. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. which are of fixed size. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. Instead. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments. A segment table is maintained for each process. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. 7. ii. Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. 3. 2. G. 4. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5. Operating System Concepts Mrs. offset>. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm.

Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.8. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1.

A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. Operating System Concepts Mrs. To improve the performance of a disk. The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. A block on a disk is the sector.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. numbered from 0. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media.another name for main storage.Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. RAM and Optical disks RAM . some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track.random access memory . What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. Each location has a 0 or 1. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). so that the location is known. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off. Disk capacity therefore doubled. Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. G. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. 2. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap. size and speed.Lecture 20 . RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. but the data can be read immediately. Block . each one with its own address. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer.e. Tutorial Questions 1. (i. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. This does not provide permanent storage. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. DVD R+. Discuss RAM disks. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. calculators. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage. read many) EO (erasable optical) .4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. Tutorial Questions 1.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks.sometimes called associative registers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 .read only memory) . It is small hardware memory . Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. palm tops.g. They are used to store both video and audio files. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. G. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies. What is the difference between DVD R. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. DVD R-? 3. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. E. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. How do they differ from other disks? 2. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory.

Tutorial Questions 1. Describe disk caching. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . G. Operating System Concepts Mrs. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2.

In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . memory address 4. the disk address (drive. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1. The coating however will wear after enough use. G. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data.Lecture 21 .Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. surface. Head crash . The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track. cylinder. is this an input or output operation? 2.if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. sector etc. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. To improve the performance of a disk. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. due to power-cut).) 3. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1.

Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. This is also known as transfer rate. G. Other definitions • Positioning time .The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block).

This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. servicing requests as it reaches each track. It however may cause starvation of some requests. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). For example. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. In other words. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. until it gets to other end of disk. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. At the other end it reverses direction. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. otherwise the request will be queued. G. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. satisfying requests. in alternating directions. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. For example. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised.

46. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 73. 73. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. 22. 5. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 46 d) 73.5. 80.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. If the queue of requests is 80. which is in great demand. Tutorial Questions 1. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 22.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. 22. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. Practice MCQs 1. Explain how it works. and where to commence the next sweep. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 80 b) 46. 80 c) 73. 2. 46. G. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS.3. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. numbered 0 to 199. 46. If the queue of requests is 8. 80. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 48. 73. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 17. 91. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. 35. 60. 147. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Tutorial Questions 1. it can also be done at the operating system level. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. 4. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. e. Discuss the term RAID.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. Describe the standard RAID levels. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). Describe the non-standard RAID levels. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. In the example. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. Operating System Concepts Mrs. but can be expanded with further volumes. 3. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration.g. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers).which function as a slow RAID-1. As an example. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. G. 2.

A backup is a duplicate of a file.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. then changes since (incremental backup). Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup. or destroyed. Restore changes from audit. Operating System Concepts Mrs. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. The following describes the different types of backup. regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. To restore . It is laborious to restore at a point in time. The father then becomes the grandfather. dry. In order to recover you restore all files. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. The oldest backup is called the grandfather. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium.cool.save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 .restore the main backup first. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take.save to CD 1 etc. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. damaged. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. Father. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 . Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. things can still go wrong. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . father. Disadvantage . then the entire backup is useless. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). • • • • Grand father.save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 . Backup all files (main backup). Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place . G.if one change is messed up.

Did you have to type everything over)? 5.g. How did you solve the problem (e. 4. 6. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Do you backup? If yes. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2. 3. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes. Tutorial Questions 1. G. How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. 2. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . Practice MCQs 1. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. how often do you back up? If not.

Discuss the concept of a file server. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. database server. print server etc. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. who access remote files in the same way as local files.g. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. 3. A client does not share any of its resources. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 .File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. Discuss the other types of servers (e. the location of a file is transparent to users.) 4. If a user opens a non-local file. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. the open request is channelled to the file server. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. but requests a server's content or service function. The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. In this scheme. Operating System Concepts Mrs. called clients. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. G. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. mail server.Lecture 24 . Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. Tutorial Questions 1.

etc. When data are requested. • File name still denotes a specific. read. it's understood where the file actually resides. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. set of physical disk blocks.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. • In a conventional file system. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. sector>. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. on files. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. Dynamic. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. somewhere in the network. In a networked environment users want to share data files. Operating System Concepts Mrs. although hidden. A file system provides a service for clients.Lecture 25 . • This is a convenient way to share data. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. is hidden. the location of a file. Resources on other machines are remote. • In a transparent DFS. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency . Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. one-to-many mapping. the system and disk are known. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. G. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 .Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. • Better file abstraction. Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. Tutorial Questions 1.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. Research and give examples of various DFSs. includes the file’s logical storage location C. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. • Do NOT support migration. Practice MCQs 1. reveals the file’s physical storage location B. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . 3. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. G. In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A.

where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support. display . manage memory etc.375E -3) . At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. G.g.001375 = 1. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). -3 = characteristic or exponent. E. Operating System Concepts Mrs. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers.screen graphics. 10 = base/radix. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation. E. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. execute program flow control instructions. A more common use was to control input/output channels. These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.375E +1) .375 x 10-3 (1.375 x 101 (1. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer. However. Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. 2. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. and keyboard operations. 13.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU.75 = 1. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly.375 = mantissa/argument. Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. do input/output operations.g. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit.Lecture 26 . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers.

4. ‘superscalar’. ‘dual-core’. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 .3. G. Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. Practice MCQs 1.

E. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. G. Some computers. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. This is the normal type of computer. This software. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine. In other words. At that time. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. (More instructions per clock cycle). addressing modes. however the differences extend further.g.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . doing arithmetic. it lists the things that the processor can do. and comparing values. and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. Until the mid-1980s. the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.reduced instruction set computer. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. Operating System Concepts Mrs. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. number of registers. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. It is actually an interpreter. however. E. do not have a microprogramming level. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. MOVE. RISC.complex instruction set computer. RISC . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . On these machines.g. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps.Lecture 27 . IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. called the micro-program (or firmware). These have fewer instructions in their instruction set. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time.

I. who developed the M. If the processor has guessed incorrectly. high-speed caches.S. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. and better pipelining. If the processor guessed correctly. making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. Reduced instruction set machines. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. unlike complex instruction set machine. Typically. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. advanced compilers. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. which would require fewer transistors1. the results are discarded and there is no loss. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. G. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors.In the mid 1970s. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. For this reason.P. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. and make them cheaper to manufacture. and begins execution of the corresponding code. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. a PowerPC has 32 registers. Only load and store instructions access memory . a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. Due to these developments. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . For example. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. it has gained time. The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution .

Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. To some extent. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. This was largely due to a lack of software support. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. producing faster and cheaper processors . Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. In 1977. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. By 1994. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. Without commercial interest. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. In contrast. G. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Windows 3. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal.000. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike.

and OS/2. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. including IBM. and Motorola Corporation. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions. Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. becoming the first RISC microprocessor. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. SPARCserver. other manufacturers. including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. G. Since then. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. . Apple introduced the Power Mac. all instructions are 32-bits in length. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. Apple Computer. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. which appeared in 1994.5 and higher). Windows NT. Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. In the SPARC.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. Ultra1. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975).

When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. code size has become a non-issue. easier implementation of new chips. An alternative architecture. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. Atari. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. In a nutshell. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. used by many workstations and also some personal computers. However. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. Most personal computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 . and stands for complex instruction set computer. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space.design.it costs less than £10. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. This also improved performance. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. fast code. In contrast to RISC. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. computers executed instructions sequentially. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. which supports fewer instructions. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. At that time. use a CISC architecture. Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. Pronounced sisk. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. The Amiga. In a microprogrammed2 system. G. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory.

an example of a complex instruction set computer. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. etc. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3.according to their byte length. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. Due to the large number of addressing modes. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. This is a result of having instructions. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from an address pointed to by a register. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 .000 versions of integer add in the VAX. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. to/from a specific location in memory. In particular. In the VAX. no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. has the following modes: to/from a register. there are more than 30. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. However. typically about 8 registers. which can operate directly on memory. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler.market factors. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. G. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over . The VAX. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. flood. or processing capability. Loss of data. or sexual preference). Theft. Loss of files/data.g. Loss of computer and data. young child) Technical error – system failure e. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. May need to re-install software. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. pricing data. customer lists. Loss of time. civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. hurricane. lightening. Loss of data. theft of marketing information (e. Identity theft. Damage to computer due to improper use. loss of time in having to re-enter data. Loss of computer. Illegal access to files. This can lead to things like software piracy. entering incorrect data. medical information. adding data twice. or marketing plans).g. Huge repair bill.g. Physical damage to computer. delete a file by accident.Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Loss of income due to software piracy. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer.g. low voltage. Also leads to theft of intellectual property.. information. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. personal history. not adequately trained/experienced (e. Effect Loss of data. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. data. fire. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. hard disk crash. Category Human error – e. G. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. power surges.. Loss of sales due to piracy. vandalism. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects.g. loss of time. software.

a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. releasing the virus. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. In some cases. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. and then starts replicating from there. A computer virus shares some of these traits. In other cases. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. There are similarities at a deeper level. The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. A biological virus is not a living thing. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Unlike a cell. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. as well. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. as well. Obviously. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. Instead. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . Once it is running. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It may be benign or have a negative effect.it is not alive. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. G. and the cell remains alive.

However. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period.g. Zone Alarm). In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. called a ciphertext. Norton Antivirus.g. The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. (e. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Trend Micro-PCcillin). while authentication is proving it. Authentication. Encryption. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. Tutorial Questions 1. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. Virus protection. so it can be understood.g. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. hackers). Unlike a virus or worm. the correct decryption key is required.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. McAfee. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. G. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. which can cause severe damage to databases. This must be updated regularly. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). Define the term cryptography.

What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6.org/ 3. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 . What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1.2. 5. John has a password to the human resource system. G. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Discuss various encryption software.eccouncil.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. and speech recognition. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. then he can still see such files. Solaris.g. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. only on the network. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. G.SYS and MSDOS.SYS. There is limited or no security. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. Linux is a popular. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. which means its code is available to the public. Linux. Read. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Operating System Concepts Mrs. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Java. You can set expiration dates on passwords. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. Hidden etc. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. There are a large number of built-in servers. You can set attributes on files e. like UNIX. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. the Internet. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems.

It also supports encryption. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. changing settings). Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. policy changes. It allows directory access control. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. startup modes. There is also secured wireless access. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. object access. account management. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. most reliable Windows operating system. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). change. There is also support for biometric devices. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. You are able to create multiple user accounts. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature. read/write capability. You can set security on admin tasks (e.You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. file system permissions. event log.g. privilege use and system events. service permissions. commands. lockout policies. delete etc. Operating System Concepts Mrs. user rights. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . Templates include password policies.read only. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. Windows NT has security holes. fields. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. There is also a screen saver password. There are also different levels of authority . Software restrictions . G. This accepts user id and password. There are audit logs and audit trails. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. file vault and firewall. directories/libraries. virus). Windows XP has increased security. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security. There is also auditing which records login. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS).g. records (views). This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers.

What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. Modify. entertainment.Windows CE . Create. Tutorial Questions 1. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. and mobile devices and on handheld computers. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Erase. There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. There is a screen saver password. G. Write.NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3. called the Pocket PC. Netware accepts a userid and password. There are also inherited rights and file attributes. You can encrypt communication. and FileScan (sees filenames). Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support.

G. Tanenbaum. Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. Operating Systems Concepts. Webopedia: Online computer dictionary.d. Discovering computers 2008. (2006).. Shelly G. John Wiley & Sons Inc.: USA. http://www. Gagne.). (3rd Ed.REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers.. Operating System Concepts Mrs. P.webopedia. Silberschatz.J. (2007). Prentice Hall: USA.B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 . 7th E. (2004). Abraham. & Cashman. Modern Operating Systems. T.B. Andrew S. Galvin. KY:Course Technology Publishing. G.com. Complete Shelly Cashman Series.

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