OPERATING SYSTEMS CONCEPTS

LECTURE NOTES

COURSE CODE: CSYS2402

Compiled by Mrs. G. Campbell
Copyright @ 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE OUTLINE .............................................................................................................. 7 LECTURE 1 – INTRODUCTION (1/2 HOUR) .................................................................. 14 DEFINE OPERATING SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 14 TYPES/CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ....................................................................... 15 Stand-alone ...................................................................................................................... 15 Network ............................................................................................................................ 15 Embedded ........................................................................................................................ 16 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 16 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 16 THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................... 18 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 21 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 21 LECTURE 2 - OPERATING SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS (1 HOUR) .................................. 23 FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 23 WHAT IS A USER INTERFACE? ............................................................................................... 24 SERVICES ............................................................................................................................. 25 Buffering .......................................................................................................................... 25 Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) .................................................. 25 Other Services .................................................................................................................. 26 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 27 LECTURE 3 - SOFTWARE AND FIRMWARE (1/2 HOUR) ........................................... 29 SYSTEM SOFTWARE.............................................................................................................. 29 APPLICATION SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 29 FIRMWARE ........................................................................................................................... 31 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 31 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 32 LECTURE 4 - FILE CONCEPTS (1 HOUR) ..................................................................... 34 FILE ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................. 34 FILE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 35 What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations ...................... 35 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 36 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 36 LECTURE 5 - DIRECTORY SYSTEMS (2 HOURS)........................................................ 38 DIRECTORY OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 38 DIRECTORY SYSTEMS TYPES OF DIRECTORIES/DIRECTORY STRUCTURES ................................ 38 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 41
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 41 LECTURE 6 - MULTI-PROGRAMMING AND TIMESHARING (1 HOUR) ................ 42 MULTI-PROGRAMMING ......................................................................................................... 42 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 43 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 43 TIME SHARING ..................................................................................................................... 44 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 44 LECTURE 7 - SCHEDULING CONCEPTS, CRITERIA, ALGORITHMS (6 HOURS) 45 SCHEDULING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................... 45 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 46 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 46 SCHEDULING CRITERIA ......................................................................................................... 48 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 48 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 48 SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ................................................................................................... 49 First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) ............................................. 49 Shortest Job First (SJF).................................................................................................... 49 Priority ............................................................................................................................ 50 Round robin (RR) ............................................................................................................. 50 Pre-emptive ...................................................................................................................... 50 Multilevel queues ............................................................................................................. 51 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 51 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 52 LECTURE 8- MULTIPLE PROCESSOR SCHEDULING (2 HOURS) ........................... 54 ASYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING .......................................................................................... 54 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING ........................................................................................... 54 HOMOGENOUS AND HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 55 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 55 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 55 LECTURE 9 - MEMORY MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR).................................................... 57 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 57 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 57 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 58 MEMORY HIERARCHY........................................................................................................... 59 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 59 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................. 60 LECTURE 10 - BASIC MEMORY HARDWARE – BASE REGISTER, LIMIT REGISTER (1 HOUR) ......................................................................................................... 61 WHAT IS A REGISTER?........................................................................................................... 61 TYPES OF REGISTERS ............................................................................................................ 61 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................... 62 LECTURE 11 - LOGICAL VS. PHYSICAL ADDRESS SPACE (1 HOUR) .................... 63
Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010

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............................... 80 LEAST FREQUENTLY USED (LFU) ..................................................................... 69 MEMORY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES – FIRST FIT..................................................................................................... 76 PRACTICE MCQS .... 64 LECTURE 12 – SWAPPING (1 HOUR) ................. 75 PRACTICE MCQS .................. 67 NON-CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ...................................... 80 ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................DEMAND PAGING (2 HOURS) ........................................ 80 MOST FREQUENTLY USED (MFU)...... 68 PRACTICE MCQS ..........................................................PURE PAGING (2 HOURS) ....................................................................................................... 65 PRACTICE MCQS .........................................................................PAGE REPLACEMENT (3 HOURS) .....................................................................................CONTIGUOUS VS NON CONTIGUOUS MEMORY ALLOCATION (4 HOURS) ...............................................................................INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL MEMORY (1 HOUR) ................................................................................................................................................................... 76 VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE ................................................................. 67 CONTIGUOUS ALLOCATION ............................................................................................................................................................................... 75 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................. 81 PRACTICE MCQS ................................ 74 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................... 65 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 67 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............. 82 DISADVANTAGES .......................................................................................................................................................... 82 Operating System Concepts Mrs...................................................... 72 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 78 ADVANTAGES: ........................... BEST-FIT.................................... G........................................................ Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 3 ............................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................... 80 OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT . 79 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............ EXTERNAL........................................................................................................................................................ 79 LECTURE 17 ................................................................... 80 FIFO .......... WORST-FIT ................................................................................................................... 70 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................... 65 LECTURE 13 ................................................................................................................... 79 DISADVANTAGES: ...................................................................................................... 76 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................... 75 LECTURE 15 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................................................................................. 63 PRACTICE MCQS ........................ 81 LECTURE 18 ...... 80 LEAST RECENTLY USED (LRU) .......................................................................................................... 80 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 76 LECTURE 16 ..................... 74 FRAGMENTATION – INTERNAL................ 72 PARTITIONS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 ADVANTAGES ......................... 70 LECTURE 14 – PARTITIONS AND FRAGMENTATION (1 HOUR)....

........................... 89 DISK CACHING .................................................... 91 PRACTICE MCQS ................................................................................................................................................................ 93 First come first served (FCFS) ................................................... 92 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................... 98 LECTURE 23 – BACKUP AND RECOVERY METHODS (1 HOUR) ............................................................................. 94 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................................................................................FILE SERVER SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) ..................MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE (2 HOURS) ............................................................................................................AUXILIARY STORAGE MANAGEMENT (1 HOUR) ............ 87 LECTURE 20 ....................................................................................... G.THRASHING................ 85 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ........................................... 89 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 93 SCAN and C-SCAN .................... 100 PRACTICE MCQS .......................................................................................................... 88 RAM AND OPTICAL DISKS .. 102 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .................................................. 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS . 93 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................. 91 OPERATIONS ON MOVING-HEAD DISK STORAGE ............................................................... FATHER......................... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 92 DISK SCHEDULING ................ 99 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS . 94 LECTURE 22 – RAID (2 HOURS) ..................................................................................................... 92 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................ 95 RAID LEVELS .................................................................................................................. SON TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIC TAPE ................................................. 103 PRACTICE MCQS ...................................................................................................... 101 LECTURE 25 .................................................................. 95 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS .............. 99 GRAND FATHER................................................................................................................. 88 BLOCKS ............ 90 LECTURE 21 ................................................................................ 88 INTRODUCTION ....... 88 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................ 101 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................ 100 LECTURE 24 ............................................................................................................................... 83 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 93 LOOK and C-LOOK ................................................................................................................................................ 83 LECTURE 19 – SEGMENTATION (1 HOUR) ..................................................................................... 86 PRACTICE MCQS ......... 93 Shortest seek time first (SSTF) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 MEASURES OF MAGNETIC DISK PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS (1 HOUR) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 4 .......................... 99 BACKUP TIPS ................................................................... 103 Operating System Concepts Mrs...................................

.........................RISC/CISC (3/4 HOUR) ....................................... 120 MacOS ................................. 104 ADVANTAGES ..................CO-PROCESSORS (1/4 HOUR)................................................................................................................................................... 117 Firewall... 117 AUTHENTICATION............................................................................................. 106 Advantages of RISC ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 SECURITY THREATS AND ATTACKS .................................................................................................... 120 Microsoft Windows ........................................................................ 104 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................ 118 CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... FIREWALL ............. 115 DEFINITION OF SECURITY..... G.......... 119 UNIX............. 116 Denial-of-service.......................... 110 Advantages of CISC . 119 OS/2 ............................................................................. 117 Virus protection..................................................................................................... 113 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ... 112 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION .. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 5 ............................................ 112 CRISC....................................... 111 Disadvantages of CISC ................................................................................................. 116 Worm .................................. 117 Authentication ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ENCRYPTION..... 115 FORMS OF SECURITY VIOLATION ........................................................................................................................ 117 TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ....................... 111 Examples of CISC Processors/Chips ...................................................................................................................................................... 115 PURPOSE OF SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................................LECTURE 26 .................................... VIRUS PROTECTION.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 MATH CO-PROCESSORS .............................................................. 119 OS/400 ................... 109 CISC ....................................... 113 LECTURE 28 – SECURITY (1 HOUR) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 108 Examples of RISC Processors............................................................................................................................................................................................ 116 Virus ......... 105 LECTURE 27 ........... 120 Novell Netware ....................................... 121 Operating System Concepts Mrs.......... 106 RISC (REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING) .......................................... 104 DISADVANTAGES ........................................................................................ 107 Disadvantages of RISC............................................. 117 Encryption ............... 117 PRACTICE MCQS .................................................... 104 PRACTICE MCQS ............................................................................ 116 Logic bomb .............................................................. 119 MS-DOS.................................................................................................................................................... 113 PRACTICE MCQS ........................................................................................................ 116 Trojan Horse ..........................................................................................................................

...................................... G............... 121 REFERENCES ........... Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 6 ....................................................................TUTORIAL QUESTIONS ..................... 122 Operating System Concepts Mrs.....................................................................

4. 5. manipulate operating systems 4. device and memory management. students should: 1. virtual memory. 2. deadlock and the tradeoffs in the design of large-scale multitasking operating systems. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 7 . appreciate the wide variety of operating systems within diverse platforms 3. Topics that will be examined include processes and interprocess communication/synchronization.COURSE OUTLINE THE COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES OF JAMAICA COURSE NAME: COURSE CODE: CREDITS: CONTACT HOURS: PRE-REQUISITE(S): CO-REQUISITE(S): SEMESTER: COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course presents the basic concepts of operating systems. use system tools to execute various computer functions UNIT I . students should be able to: 1. understand the fundamental concepts of modern operating systems 2. program loading and linking system calls and system programs. process scheduling.Introduction Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this course. define operating system describe the historical development of operating systems describe at least six (6) functions and services of an operating system explain the difference between application and system software define firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating Systems Concepts CSYS2402 3 45 (45 hours theory) None None (2 hours) Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. interrupt handling.

4. The history and development of the operating system. h. f. Storage. explain multiprogramming explain timesharing describe the CPU – I/O burst cycle distinguish between preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling state the functions of the dispatcher list and explain at least three (3) scheduling criteria describe at least four (4) scheduling algorithms given a table with process data: Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 3. students should be able to: a. Protection and Security. Directory Systems – Single-level. students should be able to: 1. c. Error Detection 3. Acyclic-Graph UNIT III – CPU Scheduling Specific Objectives: (9 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Tree-Structured.Content: 1. G. d. System Software b. Two-level. Program execution. b. Utilities UNIT II – Directory Systems Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. Operating Systems Functions: a. b. User Interface. list and describe at least five (5) file attributes describe at least five (5) file operations list at least five (5) directory operations describe at least four (4) directory structures compare and contrast the directory structures Content: 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 8 . File Operations 2. File Concepts – File Attributes. System Startup. Introduction: a. g. Resource Allocation. e. Define operating system. Spooling). 2. I/O – (Buffering. 2. Application Software c. Software and Firmware: a. File-system manipulation. Communications. 5.

5. 2. external (9 hours) Updated Jan 2010 (9 hours) UNIT V – Virtual Memory Operating System Concepts Mrs. Scheduling concepts – CPU – I/O Burst cycle. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 9 . students should be able to: 1. Multiprogramming. 8. Priority. j. 4. G. non-contiguous memory allocation Memory allocation strategies – first-fit. physical address space Swapping Contiguous vs. 2. Shortest Job First 5. Preemptive scheduling. 3. Calculate the average wait time for each scheduling algorithm c. distinguish between internal and external fragmentation Content: 1. 7. Scheduling algorithms – FIFO. correctly allocate the processes to holes using the three (3) memory allocation strategies 9. Scheduling criteria 4. Calculate the turnaround time for each process for each scheduling algorithm. Draw the GANTT chart for each process scheduling algorithm explain the advantages and disadvantages of each scheduling algorithm describe multiprocessor scheduling Content: 1. Multiple processor scheduling – Asymmetric & symmetric multiprocessing UNIT IV – Memory Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. 6. describe the memory hierarchy describe the basic hardware used in memory management distinguish between logical and physical addresses explain swapping distinguish between contiguous and non-contiguous memory allocation explain partitioning describe the three (3) memory allocation strategies given a list of free holes and a list of processes. Shortest Remaining Time. Time Sharing 2. limit register Logical vs. 5. 6. best-fit. 8. Scheduler. Round Robin. a.i. 3. 7. b. Memory hierarchy Basic memory hardware – base register. worst-fit Partitions Fragmentation – internal. Dispatcher 3.

Thrashing UNIT VI – Auxiliary Storage Management Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. 4. LFU e. distinguish between pure and demand paging 8. students should be able to: 1. Virtual address space 2. Pure paging – pages. define page 3. explain the purpose of the page table 5. students should be able to: 1. FIFO b.Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. define block describe the structure of a RAM disk describe the structure of an optical disk describe at least four (4) disk scheduling algorithms given a disk scheduling algorithm and a list of disk requests. Allocation algorithms 4. frames. page table. address structure. Optimal replacement c. address translation 3. explain segmentation 9. 5. describe the various RAID levels Operating System Concepts Mrs. address translation 6. Page replacement a. create the correct schedule to satisfy all requests 6. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 (5 hours) 10 . define frame 4. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in paging 6. G. state the advantages of disk caching 8. LRU d. 2. MFU f. explain thrashing Content: 1. use a diagram to explain and illustrate address translation in segmentation 10. explain the term “virtual address space” 2. describe at least two (2) page replacement algorithms 7. explain disk caching 7. Segmentation – segment table. Demand paging 5.

location transparency. SSTF. 3. G. 4. 2. 2.Processor and RISC and CISC Specific Objectives: (1 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit.Content: Blocks RAM and Optical disks Operations on moving-head disk – read. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 11 . SCAN. explain at least two (2) backup techniques explain at least one (1) recovery technique describe file-server systems describe distributed file systems explain the advantages and disadvantage of a distributed file system Content: 1. Disk caching 7. 3. explain the purpose of co-processors describe the characteristics of RISC architecture describe the characteristics of CISC architecture explain one advantage of RISC architecture explain one advantage of CISC architecture Content: Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. UNIT VII – File System Specific Objectives: (3 hours) Upon successful completion of this unit. students should be able to: 1. Disk scheduling – FCFS. positioning Measures of magnetic disk performance – transfer rate. location independence UNIT VIII – Co. positioning time. 5. students should be able to: 1. C-SCAN 6. LOOK. write. log-structured systems 2. File server systems – client-server computing 3. Distributed file systems – naming. 4. 2. 4. RAID 1. 3. seek time rotational latency 5. incremental backup. Backup and recovery methods – full backup.

Internal Tests 20% 3. Operating systems concepts. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 12 . virus. 4. (2008). describe at least four (4) security threats and/or attacks 3. 5. disadvantage UNIT IX – Operating Systems Security Specific Objectives: Upon successful completion of this unit. G. 3. & Gagne. Final Examination 60% (40MCQ’s 1 mark each and 5 Structured Questions 20 marks each to choose any 3) RESOURCE MATERIAL: Prescribed: Silberschatz. Advantages and disadvantages of co-processors 2. Firewall Case Studies – MS-DOS. worm. Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Presentations METHODS OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: 1. Denial-of-service Authentication. students should be able to: 1. Windows (1hours) METHODS OF DELIVERY: 1. Purpose of security Forms of security violation Security threats and attacks – Trojan Horse. A. advantage. Galvin. 2. define security 2. Encryption. RISC / CISC – development.. logic bomb. G. Apple Macintosh. 3. NJ: John Wiley Operating System Concepts Mrs. Virus protection. (8th ed).1. OS/2. 2. P. discuss various ways in which operating systems handle security threats or attacks Content: 1. 4. Common Coursework 20% 2. UNIX.B.

).Recommended: Tanenbaum. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 13 . An introduction to operating systems. (2005). W.).(6th ed.) OH: McGraw-Hill Stallings. G. NJ: Prentice Hall Shay. (1999). W. Operating systems: internal design principles (5th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall. A. Modern operating systems (3rd ed. (2007). Operating System Concepts Mrs.S.

people. The operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. We do not use the computer because of these software. We would however not be able to do these things on our computers without an operating system installed. The layers of a computer system Operating System Concepts Mrs. is to make the computer convenient to use. As new versions of the operating system are released. do our budget etc. spreadsheets etc.database systems. Define operating system An operating system (O/S) is a program which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. memory. surf the internet. These are all examples of operating systems. play a game. other computers etc. An upgrade usually costs less than purchasing the entire operating system. video games. Its primary goal therefore.CPU. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 14 . • users . users upgrade their existing computers to the new version. it typically has an operating system already installed. machines. MacOS. Unix. Linux. business programs. When you purchase a new computer. We use the computer because we want to type a document. G. I/O devices etc. DOS.Lecture 1 – Introduction (1/2 hour) Microsoft Windows 7. • operating system (type of system software) • application software/programs . A computer system is roughly divided into four (4) parts:• hardware . Without an operating system the user would have to communicate with the computer in binary form which would be very tedious and inconvenient. word processors.

g. command language. Microsoft Windows Server 2003.By itself. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business. track. • kernel/monitor/supervisor/executive • concerned with the allocation and sharing of resources • interfacing to the hardware such as interrupt handling. Windows XP. and Linux. Examples of network O/Ses include: Novell Netware. processor scheduling • always resident in memory once the computer is turned on • has a special area in memory reserved for it • superstructure • concerned with everything else • provides a user environment/interface that is convenient • basis of services to the user e. filing system.g. They can therefore be called multi-user operating systems. Early Microsoft Windows versions (e. and Linux. Stand-alone operating systems include DOS. Types/Categories of Operating Systems Operating systems fall mainly in 3 categories: Stand-alone. Network and Embedded. 200 Professional. so no need to know which sector. the hardware is of as much use as a CD player without CDs. Mac OS X. UNIX. Some stand-alone operating systems are called client operating systems because they work in conjunction with a network operating system. 98. Operating System Concepts Mrs. OS/2 Warp Client. mapping logical file structures onto physical devices. Early Microsoft Windows Server versions (NT Server. A network administrator also uses the network O/S to administer network security. A network administrator uses the network O/S to add and remove users. G. The hardware is capable of carrying out a wide variety of decisions and tasks in order to do this it needs to be given a set of instructions in a form that it can understand. Stand-alone A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer. UNIX. computers. or mobile computing device. 95. Based on the diagram above it is clear that in order for the user to direct the hardware it does so through different layers. An operating system is divided into the kernel and the superstructure. 3. 2000 Server). data management (control of I/O devices. and other devices to and from the network.x. ME). Network A network operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share network resources. block) and job control. storage management. NT Workstation. notebook computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 15 .

Research the features of the operating systems mentioned. Give the name of five (5) operating systems. time sharing and possibly transaction processing in a single system. each associated with a remote interactive terminal. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 16 .a multi-user system that combines batch processing. An operating system is a program that a.Embedded Most PDAs and small devices have an embedded operating system that resides on a ROM chip. 4. If no.a single user system in which two programs are multiprogrammed. 2. 8. Differentiate between multi-user and multi-programming.NET. • Transaction processing . Define operating system. • Time sharing . comment on its new features.the available processor(s) is shared among several programs coresident in main memory. What operating systems are you familiar with? Have you ever used Windows 7? If yes. Popular embedded operating systems include Windows CE . 5. 6. Is controlled by application software d. Tutorial Questions 1.g. Is there a difference between a multi-programming O/S and a multi-tasking O/S? 11. the background program is assigned to the processor whenever the foreground program is unable to proceed. Pocket PC 2002. Is no longer essential Operating System Concepts Mrs. Gives instructions to the hardware b. what does this mean? 9. E. airline reservation system. • Foreground background . all the terminals are connected to the same program. 7. in such a way that each user thinks he has a machine to himself. One (the foreground) interacts with the terminal and runs as long as it is able. • General Purpose . However. and Symbian OS. 10. Most modern operating systems are event/interrupt driven.resembles a time sharing system in that it serves a number of remote terminals. research its new features and comment on them. Operating systems can also be categorized in the following ways” • Multi-programming . G. Practice MCQs 1.shares the processor and memory among a number of programs. in order to improve CPU utilization. Palm OS. Controls the user c. 3. What are the main purposes of an operating system? What is the difference between the kernel and the superstructure? Describe the different categories of operating systems.

Executive 4. The part of the operating system that is always resident in RAM is called a. User. Select the correct sequence a. User. Users Operating System Concepts Mrs. hardware c. system software b. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 17 . Segment b. hardware. system software. user. hardware. application software. system software. Which of the following is TRUE for an operating system? a) It performs word processing tasks b) It is controlled by application software c) It provides a user interface d) It is inconvenient to use 5. Superstructure c. Application programs C.2. system software 3. Hardware B. application software d. A. application software. application software. User. Operating System D. Fence d. Hardware. _____________ is an important part of a computer system that provides the means for the proper use of the computer resources. G.

Eventually the programmer was replaced by professional computer operators.usually the programmer set up a job by loading the card reader. In those days machines were slow. There were still problems however. Programmers would leave their programs with the operators. would run each batch.The history and development of the operating system Operating systems first began to appear in the late 1950s. as soon as one job was finished.. take a dump (printout of errors in hexadecimal) if necessary. To overcome this: • automatic job sequencing was introduced. When a job was done. it would return control to the resident monitor. when a job stopped. remove the listing from the printer then set up the next job. Initially when the computer was turned on. improved utilization quite a bit. These changes. (E. Control cards were set up by the operator in order for the monitor to know the order in which jobs were to be run. The relative slowness of the I/O devices meant that the CPU is often waiting on I/O. when the program terminated. G.g. and with it the first rudimentary operating systems were created. Another way of saving time was to batch the jobs together and run them through the computer as a group. Efforts to remove the mismatch led to 2 developments: • introduction of I/O channel Operating System Concepts Mrs. then load the card reader or paper tape reader with the next job and restart the computer.66 per hour). making the operator distinct from the user and batching similar jobs. an operator could start the next job. but take 60 seconds to be read by the card reader). which would transfer control to a program. and left the programmer with a much more difficult debugging problem. Also as computer speed increased the ratio of set-up time to run time grew unacceptably out of proportion and the need arose to efficiently automate the job to job transition. that is. In the early days machines were hand operated. I/O devices were slow. If errors occurred then the programmer would halt the program. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 18 . This monitor is always resident in memory. During the time that tapes were being mounted or the programmer was operating the console. the operator would have to notice this by observing it on the console. determine why the program stopped. he would unload tapes. During this transition from one job to the next the CPU sat idle. the CPU sat idle. mounting magnetic tapes etc. the operator .g. the operator was slow. At that time computer time was very expensive (about $45. The output from each job would be sent back to the appropriate programmer. E. The operators would sort them into batches with similar requirements and as the computer became available. which would then go on to the next program. examine the contents of memory and registers and debug the program directly from the console. to process some cards by the CPU may take 4 seconds. control of the computer resided with the resident monitor. A small program called a resident monitor was created to automatically transfer control from one job to the next. then started the program by manipulating switches on the console.

Having several jobs in memory at one time requires memory management. in which the CPU switches to another job instead of sitting idle waiting on I/O. The user’s application software often would not work on the new computer because the programs were designed to work with a specific operating system. A devicedependent program is one that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. The first commercially successful time-sharing system. The users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located. This ability to run a program with different I/O devices is called device independence. MUSIC/SP. Once started the channel ran independent of central processor. A distributed operating system is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system. and the one which became the most widespread in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Time sharing used CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to accomplish this. read data from tape and not from card). Problems arose when a user wanted to switch computer models or manufacturers. Some operating systems still are device dependent. Proprietary software is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. is toward deviceindependent operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. time sharing and data communications (network operating systems) were introduced. high level user oriented programming languages. By 1970 multiprocessing. no changes need to be made to the application program to change from direct to offline I/O operation. This was achieved by job/CPU scheduling. Most of the first operating systems were device dependent and proprietary. Michigan Terminal System. (i. In addition. The user could now give instructions via commands instead of control cards. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 19 . even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. The mid 1980s also introduced distributed operating systems. Only the device driver must be changed. G. input was transcribed from cards to magnetic tape and the program got its input by reading card images to tape and these were later transcribed to punch cards or the printer. but only by the speed of the magnetic tape units. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Other early time sharing systems include: IBM CMS (part of VM/CMS). WYLBUR. • introduction of the technique of “off-lining” I/O instead of the computer using the slow peripheral devices directly. this allowed the simultaneous processing of more than one program at a time. they often produced an improved and different proprietary operating system. when manufacturers introduced a new computer or model. The trend today. By the mid 1960s multiprogramming was introduced. Time sharing allowed immediate access to all of the application programs that were running. was the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) which was first implemented at Dartmouth College in 1964 and eventually formed the basis of General Electric's computer bureau services. Multics. The main computer was therefore no longer constrained by the speed of the card readers and line printers. On into 1980s came interactive real-time systems that enabled on-line communication between the user and the computer. however.e.a piece of hardware to control I/O devices in an autonomous manner. Historically. IBM Time Sharing Option (TSO).

0 SunOS 3.0 Mac OS (System 1.The advantage of device-independence is that you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors. Decade 1950s Year 1954 1955 1956 1960s 1960 1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970s 1970 1972 1975 1976 1980s 1980 1981 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Sample of Operating Systems MIT's operating system made for UNIVAC 1103 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704.0) AIX 1. G. This feature usually represents a sizable savings in time and money. The following table lists some of the operating systems that have been developed over the years.0) OS/400 BeOS (v1) Linux Mac OS (System 7) Solaris 2. based on General Motors Operating System IBSYS (IBM) CTSS (MIT) MCP (Burroughs) OS/360 (IBM) Dartmouth Time Sharing System Multics (MIT. GE.0 Windows NT 3.0 OS/2 (1. Bell Labs) DOS/360 (IBM) CP/CMS (IBM) Unics (later Unix) (AT&T) DOS-11 (PDP-11) VM/CMS CP/M Cray Operating System Xenix PC-DOS MS-DOS Novell NetWare (S-Net) SunOS 1.1 Novell NetWare 4 Windows 95 Updated Jan 2010 20 .

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 21 . Who invented it? Describe the situation that most impacted the development of operating systems.6 Windows NT 4. Discuss the first operating system. 2.5 Solaris 10 5/08 SUSE Linux 11.0 Palm OS Windows 98 Mac OS 9 RISC OS 4 Windows 2000 Solaris 8 Windows ME Mac OS X Windows XP SUSE Linux Windows Server 2003 Ubuntu 5.0 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 openSUSE 11. 3.10 Mac OS X v 10. 6.0 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tutorial Questions 1. Describe the historical development of operating systems from 1980 to the present. In your description include the names and features of the older operating systems. G. Which of the following greatly impacted the development of the operating system? a) The CPU was slow compared to the operator Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe the historical development of operating systems.1996 1998 1999 2000s 2000 Mac OS 7.04 Windows Vista Ubuntu 7. Describe the features of as many operating systems as you can.2 FreeBSD 8. 5. 4. What generation do the different operating systems belong to? Practice MCQs 1. One factor that led to the development of operating systems was that a) The CPU was often idle b) The I/O devices were too fast c) Programmers could not debug problems d) The CPU was overworked 2.

Second Generation C. Fourth Generation Operating System Concepts Mrs. In what time period was the first operating systems developed? A. First Generation B. All of the following describe ways in which designers dealt with the difference in speed between the CPU and I/O devices EXCEPT: a) Multi-programming b) I/O channel c) Off-lining I/O d) Buffering 4. Third Generation D.b) The CPU was often idle c) The CPU was overworked d) The CPU was slow compared to I/O devices 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 22 . G.

A multi-user operating system allows more than one person to use the computer at a time. A multitasking/multiprogramming operating system can run more than one program at the same time by scheduling the processor’s time. requests any necessary user information.Lecture 2 . A single user operating system allows only one person at a time to use the computer. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. or multiprocessing. A multiprocessing operating system is where more than one processor is used to run more than one program at the same time. When a user turns on a computer. the operating system loads configuration information. This is done on a network. Finally. The processor chip finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS. Managing programs refers to how many users. • Manage other programs • Manage memory • Control/Co-ordinate/Configure the various hardware devices • Manage the sharing of resources (such as two persons trying to print at the same time on a network) • Schedule jobs • Establish an internet connection • Monitor performance • Provide file management and other utilities Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security. If memory is insufficient.Operating Systems Functions (1 hour) Functions Most operating systems perform familiar functions that include the following: • Start up or boot up the computer • Provide an interface between the hardware and the user that is more convenient than that presented by the bare machine. An operating system can be single user/single tasking. the power supply sends a signal to the system unit. A single tasking operating system can run one program at a time. which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. If the POST completes successfully. G. which manages memory and devices. and displays the desktop. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST) to check system components and compares the results with data in a CMOS chip. Operating System Concepts Mrs. which is firmware with the computer’s startup instructions. single user/multitasking. the operating system may use virtual memory. Booting is the process of starting or restarting a computer. multiuser. the BIOS searches for the system files and the kernel of the operating system. and how many programs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 23 . and loads them into memory from storage. an operating system can support at one time.

Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet service provider. move files. give a user more control over setting details. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 24 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. When working with a command-line interface the set of commands entered into the computer is called the command language. Command-line interfaces however. A job is an operation the processor manages. Minor errors such as a missing full stop. menu-driven interface. manage resources and troubleshoot network connections. network administrators and other advanced users work with a command-line interface. What is a Menu driven interface? A menu-driven interface provides menus as a means of entering commands. you interact with menus and visual images such as icons. What is a Command driven or command line interface? To configure devices. What is a Graphical user interface (GUI)? Most users today work with a graphical user interface. A driver is a program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Three types of user interfaces are command-line interface. delete files and create folders. G. generate an error message. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. and graphical user interface. grammar and punctuation. A command line interface is where a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys) to enter data and instructions. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. Command line interfaces often are difficult to use because they require exact spelling. File management utilities (such as Windows Explorer [Do not confuse this with Internet Explorer – a web browser]) allows the user to copy files. a menu is a list of items from which you may choose and option. As in a restaurant. All hardware devices are managed and scheduled among the various jobs or programs that are run. What is a User Interface? The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed. buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. Many current GUI operating systems incorporate features similar to those of a Web browser. Scheduling is done via a scheduling algorithm.Scheduling jobs determines the order in which jobs are processed. With a graphical user interface (GUI). Menu driven interfaces are easier to learn than command line interfaces because users do not have to learn the rules of entering commands.

the data is put in a buffer (in fraction of the time) rather than being put straight to a slow output device. After data is read and the CPU is about to operate on it the input devices are instructed to begin the next input immediately. Buffering is therefore the solution to the slowness of I/O devices. Buffering A buffer is high speed storage (memory). When the job/program is completed then the output is actually printed. Disk systems eliminated that problem. Output devices are slow compared to processing so in order to keep the CPU busy with processing and not waiting on an output device to finish before it can move on. By moving the read/write head from one area of the disk to the other. Data is put into a buffer (memory) until the output device can accept it. It puts the output to the disk in the form of a spool file instead of to the printer. A buffer can be a reserved section of primary storage or can be located on the I/O device itself. the disk can rapidly switch from one card to another. An area in memory being used for data awaiting processing or output is called a buffer area. An input buffer accepts data from a slow speed device at a slow speed but releases it at high speed to the CPU. The location of the card is recorded in a table and is kept by the operating system. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 25 . The CPU and input devices are therefore both busy. is satisfied by reading from the disk. the entire tape had to be written before it was rewound and read. Operating System Concepts Mrs. cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk. It therefore uses the disk as a very large buffer.Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. Requests for card reader input. G. The CPU is therefore free to carry on with other work while the spool file is being created. The problem with tape systems is that the card reader could not write onto one end of the tape while the CPU read from the other. An output buffer accepts data at a high (electronic) speed from the CPU and releases it at the slower speed of the output device. The CPU can then move on to do other things. The O/S provides certain services to programs and the users of the programs. Services provided differ from one operating system to the other. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) This method was invented at Manchester University in England. the print line is copied into a system buffer and written to the disk. These services are functions that are provided for the convenience of the programmer. Similarly when a job requests printer output. In disk systems. This section deals with some of the common services provided by operating systems. It attempts to keep both the CPU and the I/O devices busy all the time.

1. • File System Manipulation Programs need to read from and write to files. the operating system may take resources from a job (i. To prevent deadlock. the operating system must provide some means to do so. G.ensure that at least one of the following conditions does not hold. Deadlock prevention . • Input/Output Operations A user program cannot execute I/O operations directly. Hold and wait . Operating System Concepts Mrs. Another protocol allows a request from a job only when it has no resources. Pre-emption of resources.e. either normally or abnormally. A printer cannot be shared simultaneously). Example:. terminate process).g.must hold for non sharable resources (e. One protocol is that the job requests all the resources that it needs at the start. All 4 conditions must exist for deadlock to occur. which will never happen unless the operating system steps in.If there are 4 tape drives and 2 processes and each process holds 2 tape drives but needs 3. • Deadlock Prevention/Recovery This is a situation where waiting processes stay permanently in a wait state because other waiting processes are holding the resources that they have requested. or recover from one.when a process requests a resource it does not hold another resource. Each resource is either currently assigned to exactly one process or is available. the operating system should allow creation and deletion of such files. The program must be able to end its execution. then each will wait for the other to release its tape drives. mutual exclusion . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 26 . Processes currently holding resources granted earlier can request new resources.Other Services • Program execution The operating system loads a program into memory and runs it. (a read only file is sharable) 2.

How does buffering differ from spooling? 4. Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. memory. To reconcile conflicting demands. 3. All of the following are conditions for deadlock except: a) Circular wait b) Pre-emption c) Hold and wait d) Mutual exclusion 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 27 .3. With the aid of a diagram. 7. name and discuss a method by which the operating system is able to correct the imbalance between the speed of the CPU and the I/O devices.each job is assigned a number as to who gets a resource next (linear ordering .each process can request resources only in increasing order). 5. There must be a circular chain of two or more processes. Describe the conditions for deadlock. List examples of deadlock which are not related to a computer system environment. 4. All of the following are services provided by an operating system EXCEPT: a) File system management b) Buffering c) CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Mrs. • Accounting To keep track of which users use how much of what kinds of computer resources. The operating system should be able to take the appropriate action. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them. Describe how the banker’s algorithm works. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. What are some of the services provided by an operating system? Practice MCQs 1. each of which is waiting for a resource held by the next member of the chain.of resources that have already been allocated. 6. G. Circular wait . • Protection So that one job does not interfere with the others. No pre-emption (No taking away) . Errors may occur in the CPU. jam in the card reader etc. • Error Detection/Troubleshooting The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. State three (3) functions of an operating system. • Resource Allocation This is due to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time.

A. cache D. Scheduling 5. ____________ allows you to send a second job to the printer without waiting for the first job to finish printing. Paging C. What is deadlock? a) A user is locked out of a program due to insufficient authority levels b) A job recovers from hanging and reboots slowly c) A job is in a permanent wait state due to another job holding a needed resource d) A computer hangs because the kernel is overwritten 4. buffer C. Thrashing D. G. A. RAM B. Spooling B. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 28 . One of the services provided by an operating system is deadlock prevention. A __________ is an area of memory or storage in which data and information is placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device.d) Record management 3. registers Operating System Concepts Mrs.

defrag in Windows • Backup – Copies selected files to another disk/tape.g. enter data into a database. Scandisk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 29 . G. banking. play games etc. In other words software is any instruction that tells the computer what to do. Norton disk doctor. E. create graphs.Software and Firmware (1/2 hour) This topic is mostly revision as it was already covered in the course Fundamentals of Information Technology. database management. System Software There are two types of system software: operating system and utility. It alerts you if an additional disk is needed. NovaBACKUP • Anti-virus – Prevents.g. Application software is the user’s reason for using the computer. There are two types of software: system software and application software.Lecture 3 . Examples include: Microsoft Windows XP. We do not use the computer because we want to use Microsoft Windows 7.g. word processing. E. The software that allow us to do these things are application software.g. Examples include: accounting.g. we use the computer to type documents. As mentioned before.g. DOS etc. Trend Micro PC-cillin. Operating systems tell the computer what to do and how to do it. Utilities provide a useful service to the user by providing facilities for performing common tasks. PKZIP. WinZip. • Diagnostic utility – Compiles technical information about your computer hardware and reports physical and logical problems. E. E. The following are examples of utilities: • File viewer – Displays the contents of a file. MSBACKUP. an operating system consists of the programs that control or coordinate the operations of a computer and its devices. Norton Anti-virus. Linux. draw pictures. E. removes viruses from a computer system. graphics. E. detects. OS/2. Unix. when to do it. do our accounting. AVG etc. The opposite RESTORE utility should also exist in order to recover the files in case of loss/damage. Application software Application software is designed to fulfil a specific set of activities. Example of a physical problem – scratch on disk. Quickview in Windows. • Defragmenter – Reorganizes files and unused space on a disk so that data can be accessed quickly and programs run faster. Example of a logical problem – corrupted file. • File compression – Reduces the size of a file usually to a ZIP extension. The following are examples of types of application software: Operating System Concepts Mrs. spreadsheet. WinRAR. Software is a collection of machine interpretable instructions that define the activities related to performing a specific task by computer. McAfee.

g. fieldtype. WordPad. E. E. Outlook Express. print. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 30 . Quattro Pro. E. Pascal. query. Solitaire etc. COBOL etc. mail merge. Combine word processing and graphics packages. Dbase. font size and type. which means that they will run on different computers. justify. fieldsize. Visi-Calc. WordPerfect. Communication software allows users to send messages and files from one location to another. page number. formulas. and information or c) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. Monopoly. Microsoft Word.a large piece of paper divided into columns and rows into a grid of cells. Microsoft Publisher • Graphics Provide facilities that allow user to do various kinds of computer graphics. Foxpro. etc. G.• Word-processing Allow easy creation. Web Browsers. Can sort. Oracle. Network Operating Systems (NOS). E. However.Bold. text in each cell. Corel Draw. Visual Basic. Outlook (Email).g. Requires a lot of main memory and usually special circuit board (graphics card) and a high resolution screen. • Communication Software This is any program that a) helps users establish a connection to another computer or network or b) manage the transmission of data. Multiplan • Database Management Information is vital to business. • Entertainment software These software include games. Adobe Photoshop • Programming languages/program development software Used to create programs. underline. Chess. C++.g. table of contents.g. many companies insist on using the most common languages so they can take advantage of programs written elsewhere and to ensure that their programs are portable. C. This is the electronic equivalent to accountant’s ledger . posters. Windows Media Player. Field. Microsoft Access • Desktop Publishing To produce documents. Page Maker. software that allows you to listen to music of watch movies. A database is a collection of organized of information stored in a way that makes it easy to find and present. E. Most were developed for writing specific types of applications. Operating System Concepts Mrs. newsletters. margins.g.g. correction. footnotes. E. editing. AmiPro • Spreadsheets Designed to manipulate numeric data in a tabular form. spell check. Netscape Navigator. save. instructions. Symphony. Features include:. Microsoft Excel. User can enter numbers. Lotus 1-2-3. Database management software allows you to create and maintain a database. E.g. People called programmers use programming languages to tell the computer what to do. keys.g. Foxpro. Wordstar. Hundreds of programming languages or language variants exist today. E. printing of documents.

mouse. The reset control signal takes place as part of the switching on operation. the area on device is specific to the manufacturer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 31 .g. MS-Word) differ from a text editor (e. When you turn on a computer: • Run BIOS programs (basic input output system) checks hardware . memory. b) A teacher calculating student grades. a) Preparing a letter to a customer. keyboard. printer port. Firmware are programs held in ROM (i. On smaller machines the 2 programs may be combined into a single program called a monitor. Lotus Smartsuite.g.g. Differentiate between system software and application software. Normally a special control program is loaded which in turn loads and runs a program called a command interpreter or shell. hard-coded in the hardware).• Integrated Packages Collections of packages which have been designed to be used together. Notepad)? Operating System Concepts Mrs. When you turn on a computer the first thing that tells the computer what to do is firmware. Firmware therefore facilitates booting. Open Office. Microsoft Office. On a small microcomputer based system the firmware ROM normally containing a special ‘loader program’ to load a program into memory from the floppy disk. serial ports (modem) • Loads operating system (usually independent of the machine) must look at particular address (ie goes to booting device) For PCs operating system must be on track 0. Corel Wordperfect Suite. diskette drive.e.monitor. Identify the type of application software that would be best suited in the following situations. Give examples of the type chosen. This is made with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology. E. E. c) A financial controller making a speech to the shareholders of a company. G. hard disk. Tutorial Questions 1. Firmware Firmware is also known as micro-code or micro-program. e) A publishing house who wants to produce a magazine. 3. How does a word processor (e.g. 2. Spreadsheet data might be easily fed into a database or displayed in a diagrammatic form using a graphics package. cd-rom drive. E. When the computer is switched on a control signal is sent to the microprocessor which causes it to reset its current instruction register to the location address of a firmware instruction. location 0. This is software embedded in hardware. For mainframes etc. The processor immediately starts to execute the instruction in firmware. d) A human resource manager who wants to perform various queries on employee data.g. They are stored permanently in ROM and are ready when the computer is switched on. sector 0 of boot disk.

Which of the following is TRUE about application software? a) It provides a user interface b) It allows the user to perform a specific task c) It is in charge of the utility programs d) It controls the hardware 3. Application software B. 5. Do some research and describe other popular utilities. What are the two types of system software? a) Application software and operating system b) Utility and application software c) Utility and operating system d) Special purpose and general purpose 4. 6. Antivirus software Operating System Concepts Mrs. A. How does software differ from firmware? Give examples of how firmware is used. Anti-virus d. Restore c. Which of the following types of system software provides a maintenance function? a) Application software b) Utility c) Operating system d) Special purpose 5.4. [Make sure that you include the ones made for mobile devices] Practice MCQs 1. ______________ consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its functions. Research the various web browsers. What are the utilities that you have used? Comment on them. 7. All of the following are TRUE statements about firmware EXCEPT: a) Assists in the booting process b) Programs held in the boot sector c) Forms a part of the operating system d) Programs held in ROM chips 6. Defrag 2. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 32 . 8. System software C. The utility that is always provided with a backup utility is a. Scandisk b. Utilities D.

Disk defragmenter D. Disk cleanup B. ____________ utility compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs and then prepares a report outlining any identified problems.7. Disk scanner C. A. Diagnostic utility D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 33 . A. Disk scanner C. Disk defragmenter B. ____________ is a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that data can be accessed more quickly and programs can run faster. G. Diagnostic 9. Disk cleanup Operating System Concepts Mrs.

bytes. msdos. TIF database file – MDB. Files are normally organized into directories (folders) for ease of use. date and time of creation. write. It is a characteristic of a file. Some common files that are readonly by default in Windows include boot. A file is named and is referred to by its name.sequence of subroutines and functions object/executable file . BMP.File concepts (1 hour) Files store data and programs. Examples include read-only. but Windows will prompt you with a special dialog box asking you to confirm that you want to move or delete the read-only file. Read-only files can be deleted and moved. DBF etc. It is a sequence of bits. execute • Ownership – who owns the file. It has other properties such as its type. abstracting out the physical properties of the storage device. "writing" to the file is disabled. compressed. records. its length etc. the file. but not changed. A file with the readonly attribute turned on can be opened and accessed normally by your computer.sys. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows the attrib command can be used to change and display file attributes. system. In other words. File attributes are maintained in the directory structure. It is mapped onto a physical device. It is a logical storage unit. A file is a named collection of related information usually saved on secondary storage.TXT source file . A read-only file is any file with the read-only attribute turned on. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 34 . The operating system implements the abstract concept of a file by managing storage devices such as tapes and disks. The operating system abstracts from the physical properties of its storage devices to define a logical storage unit. io. A file is a logical entity which represents a named piece of information. hidden. • Type – some operating systems support different file types and handles them differently • Location – information on the device and location of the file data • Size – current size of the file (in bytes) • Various dates – date created. last accessed • Protection – access control – who is allowed to read. File Attributes A file has the following attributes: • Name – a string of characters that identifies the file.sequence of characters organized into lines (and possibly pages) . The owner decides on the file operations allowed and by whom. G. Common File types:text file . For convenient use the operating system provides a uniform logical view of information storage.sys. COM graphics files . A file is a collection of related information. In MS-DOS.sequence of words organized into loader record blocks – EXE.ini. A file attribute (or just attribute) is a specific condition in which a file or directory can exist. A read-only file can be viewed.Lecture 4 .JPG. last modified. Operating System Concepts Mrs. archive.

ini. 2. Since most computers have plenty of hard disk space. Any file can be marked as Hidden.A hidden file is any file with the hidden attribute turned on. The archive attribute is usually turned on when a file is created or modified. The most popular hidden files you might encounter in a Windows system include msdos. G. read from the file. compression isn't usually recommended.sys. Some of the things we would want to do are:• create a file. Once the file is backed up by a backup program. append new information to the file • create a copy of a file. the archive attribute is turned off. working with a file that is compressed will use more processor time than working with an uncompressed file because Windows has to decompress and then recompress the file during use.sys. rename a file etc. Files marked Hidden and System do not normally display unless the file manager option to display them is selected. Open a file Check permissions. Most Windows powered computers are configured by default not to display hidden files in normal file searches.sys and boot. rewind the file. The most popular system files you might encounter on a Windows computer include msdos. Return error code if not. operating system and other control program files are marked as System files as a means of identification. However. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 35 . 1. A system file is any file with the system attribute turned on. File Operations A file is a means of storing information for later user. especially since the trade off is an overall slower computer thanks to the extra processor usage needed. io. What the Operating System must do for each of the 5 basic file operations NB. io. write to the file. delete the file • edit/modify the file. The archive attribute is used for backup. A compressed file is any file with the compressed attribute turned on. Most Windows computers are configured by default to display compressed files in blue text in normal file searches and in folder views. ntdetect. This way. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views. Setting the compressed file attribute on a file will reduce the size of the file but will allow Windows to use the file just as any other. display). Many files that you'll encounter in normal computer use will likely have the archive attribute turned on. Return integer (file descriptor) if permitted. however.sys. When finished with a file Close it. To avoid constant searching most operating systems keep a table of open files.com and ntldr. An archive file is any file with the archive attribute turned on. Before you can use a file you must Open it. Creating a file Operating System Concepts Mrs. the backup program can use the archive attribute to determine which files have changed and need to be backed up and which have not changed and do not need to be backed up. copy file to an I/O device (printer.

jpg. then the write pointer is updated. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of this scheme as compared to the scheme when the user has to explicitly open and close the file. A file is a) A collection of directories Operating System Concepts Mrs. system call must specify name of file and the information to be written. Make an entry in the directory (directory entry records name/location of file) 3. Writing to a file (must be opened as output) 1. Truncate Maintains file attributes but erases the content of the file. Tutorial Questions 1. 2. G. Delete Release file space and erase the directory entry so that it can be reused by other files. doc. Other file operations include: Rewind (only with tapes) Current file position pointer is reset to the beginning of the file.Find space on the file system. com. 3. 4. Describe five file attributes. Describe five file operations. system searches directory to find location of file. Suppose systems automatically open a file when it is referenced for the first time and close the file when the job terminates. exe. Reading a file (open as input) specify name. bmp).g. directory entry has stored a pointer to current end of file using this pointer the address for the next block is computed and the information can be written. 3. Practice MCQs 1. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 36 . System specifies where in memory the next block of the file should be put. 5. Describe the type of file. Make a list of as many file types that you can (e. When the next block is to be read the pointer to next block is updated. 2. Append Writes information to the end of the file. Seek Repositions the location pointer for the file.

Truncated D. Location Operating System Concepts Mrs. Identifier C.b) A group of application programs c) A mapping of the physical properties of a storage device to a logical storage unit d) A group of related databases with minimum duplication and redundancy 2. Which of the following is NOT a file attribute? A. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 37 . Name B.

Directory structure provides a mechanism for organizing the many files on the file system. Studies showed that most files were small. They include the following: • • • • • • • • Search for a particular file Create a file Delete a file Rename a file Create directory List directory Traverse the file system Backup Nowadays. A directory structure organizes and provides information about files on the system. To handle this problem. Directory Systems Types of directories/directory structures The term directory system can also be referred to as type of directory or directory structure. Directory Operations Directory operations are those actions performed on a directory by a user. since physical tape reels are quite large (e. not physical. There was a problem in determining which files were on which tape.Lecture 5 . 2. The table of content or index is used to location specific chapters or topics. Each file was implemented by mapping it onto its own reel of tape. but it suffers from some inefficiency. location. The device directory records information such as name. G. The following describes the different directory systems: Operating System Concepts Mrs. To solve this problem a directory was added to the tape. systems were created to store multiple files on one tape. creation date. therefore they would take up a small amount of tape.Directory Systems (2 hours) Early file systems were tape based. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 38 . The advantage of this approach is simplicity. size and type for all files on that device. but the user only has to worry about logical directory and file structure. These are all directory operations.400 feet). A directory is therefore similar to a table of content or index in a text book. Just think of all of the things that you can do in MyDocuments or Windows Explorer. The directory lists the name and location of each file on the tape. directories are known as folders and are identified by a folder icon . A file can be on more than 1 disk. This allows the file to be easily located.g.

Users may also create their own subdirectories. If a file is needed which is not in the current directory. A file name is prefixed by user name. Allows users to create their own subdirectories and organize their files accordingly. All files must have unique names. The current directory should contain most of the files that are of current interest to the user.e. This structure is efficient for searching. each user has a current directory. Tree. This isolates one user from another. Every file has a unique path name. to a specified file. Windows. In normal use. Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file directory. then the user must either specify a path name or change the current directory. Two level – There is one master file directory but a separate directory per user. system files and grouping files. G. grouping and other operations such as deleting. UNIX. There are limitations in terms of sharing files with other users.Single level .the simplest directory structure. The tree has a root directory. It however has significant limitations in terms of the naming of a large number of files as well as supporting different users and topics (groups). DOS. When a user lists the directory he sees only his files. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 39 .structures . It is easy to support and understand. A path name is the path from the root through all the subdirectories. All files are in the same directory.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

NB.EXAMPLE OF A TREE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that the path to file D is ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A Acyclic Graph . Note that files have multiple path names.e. This occurs in cases where two users need to use a common directory as their own directory. can be access through more than one path). Symbolic links Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 40 . This directory system therefore allows for the sharing of directories and files. G. EXAMPLE OF AN ACYCLIC GRAPH DIRECTORY STRUCTURE The diagram shows that file D has multiple paths which are:ROOT\DIRECTORY2\DIRECTORY2A and ROOT\DIRECTORY1 There are different ways in which acyclic graphs (shared files and directories) are implemented.A shared directory or file exists in the file system in two (or more) places at once. therefore distinct file names may refer to the same file. It is not the same as two copies. The following is an example using Unix. The same file may be in two different directories (i. Changes made by one user to the file are viewed immediately by the other user.

Research the General-Graph directory. Practice MCQs 1. 3. NTFS). A two-level directory structure a) Has a root directory and two subdirectories b) Is the most complex directory structure c) Has two files in each directory d) Has a separate directory per user 2. Compare and contrast FAT with NTFS.• • • • A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a directory) Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to Can be relative or absolute. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 41 . Research on the various filing systems (such as FAT. How does it deal with the problems of the acyclic graph directory? 2. G. Problem: What happens when the original file is deleted? Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links) • The original and copy entries are the same • Problem: What happens when one deletes the original or copy entries? Tutorial Questions 1. Which of the following directory systems allow files to be in more than one directory at the same time? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 4. All of the following are TRUE for the tree structure EXCEPT: a) Files are organized into directories and sub-directories b) Changes made by one user of the file is viewed immediately by the other user c) Every file has a unique path name d) Duplicate file names are seen as different files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Differentiate between the tree structure and the acyclic structure. HPFS. Which of the following directory systems have a separate directory for each user? a) Single level b) Two level c) Tree d) Acyclic 3.

G. a tape. another job can be using the CPU. file pointers. This is also called concurrent processing. Eventually the job may have to wait for something. Eventually the job may have to wait for something (e.e. (i.g. variables. Memory management software keeps track of the jobs being run.Lecture 6 .). keyboard input etc. but in a multi-programmed environment the CPU will switch to another job. Process images) so that movement between the disk and main memory is Operating System Concepts Mrs. the current instruction.Multi-programming and TimeSharing (1 hour) Multi-programming A single user cannot keep either the CPU or the I/O devices busy at all times. The basis of the multi-programmed operating system is that by switching between jobs the CPU becomes more productive.g. The basic idea is that the operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool and begins to execute it. By switching between processes the operating system can make the computer more productive. The operating system picks one of the jobs in the job pool (ready queue) and begins to execute it. Normally the CPU would sit idle. Multiprogramming or multi-tasking is an attempt to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute. normally the CPU would sit idle. Process State Diagram Updated Process State Diagram While one job is waiting (e. for an I/O device). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 42 . In a multi-programmed environment the operating system would switch to another job. addresses etc.

CPU registers. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 43 . What are the main advantages of multi-programming? 2. Related processes that are co-operating to get some job done often need to communicate with one another and synchronize their activities. Practice MCQs 1.transparent to the user and so that the job can be restarted at the same state at which it was stopped. Ready Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. Memory management software should also protect the operating system and the Job in that the Process/Job should not be placed in an area in memory reserved for the kernel. The Process Control Block (PCB) has the process state. information associated with each process. Describe the operation of the PCB. accounting information. program counter. In other words. New B. Which of the following process states indicates that the process is waiting to be assigned to the processor? A. What is the purpose of multi-programming? a) To improve the process state b) To prevent deadlock c) To perform aging d) To increase CPU utilization 3. G. form part of a) Interprocess communication b) Kernel c) Ready queue d) Process image 2. Waiting D. memory management information. This communication is called interprocess communication (message passing). Running C. CPU scheduling information. values in variables. Differentiate between a process and a program. file pointers etc. The location of current instructions. and I/O status information.

it was suggested that multiple users could share a machine by using one user's idle time to service other users. Similarly. while multitasking more broadly encompasses the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. This required a hardware interrupt system capable of pausing a running process. These solutions alone were not sufficient to build a fully functional time-sharing system. G. Time-sharing. regardless of the number of users. But because computers in interactive use often spend much of their time idly waiting for user input. Differentiate between multi-programming and time sharing. small slices of time spent waiting for disk. Computers capable of providing time-sharing services would usually operate in batch mode overnight. however. Operating System Concepts Mrs. refers to a computer supporting multiple simultaneous users. and giving processor time to another process. it was not possible to allow a single user exclusive access to the machine for interactive use.Time Sharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. Tutorial Questions 1. In order to provide smooth service to multiple users. Because early mainframes were extremely expensive. tape. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 44 . Time-sharing is related to multitasking in that both systems involve a single computer processor executing multiple processes in an apparently simultaneous manner. a time-sharing system needed a way to deal with multiple processes that did not frequently pause for input/output. or network input could be granted to other users.

. Operating System Concepts Mrs. .Scheduling concepts. .8 Store z CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst . The programs therefore have to be scheduled. the different programs need to take turns in using the processor. criteria.determines which jobs are admitted to the system for processing and loads them into memory. Read from file add x to amount } } } } } } CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Store y Write to file CPU burst Wait for I/O I/O burst Multiply by 16.Lecture 7 . algorithms (6 hours) Scheduling concepts In order for multi-programming to take place. Ready Queue/Job Queue – holds a list of jobs/processes which are ready and waiting to execute. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 45 . An example is shown in the diagram below. Long Term Scheduler/Job Scheduler . Scheduling is done via scheduling algorithms which will be discussed later. . . G. CPU – I/O Burst Cycle .Process execution that consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. The following defines various scheduling concepts.

6. Research alternate names for the various schedulers. Short term scheduler C. This involves a) switching context. intermediate level of scheduling. switches from an active to wait state or ii. What is the role of the dispatcher? What is the difference between an I/O bound and CPU bound process? How does the long-term scheduler relate to CPU and I/O bound processes? Practice MCQs 1. Differentiate between pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive scheduling.Short Term Scheduler/CPU Scheduler .If a new job arrives with certain criteria then the current job will be pre-empted (stopped) for the other. Tutorial Questions 1. A. Swapping may be necessary to free up memory. 4. Medium term scheduler D. At some time later the process can be reintroduced into memory and continued where it left off. Medium Term Scheduler .This is the module which gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short term scheduler. It removes processes from memory and thus reduces the degree of multiprogramming. It controls the degree of multiprogramming (the number of processes in memory). Long term scheduler B. it therefore must be very fast. Dispatcher . Non pre-emptive scheduling . CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a job either i. The short term scheduler must select a new process for the CPU quite often. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 46 .Some systems introduce an additional. Pre-emptive scheduling . terminates.Non-preemptive means that once the CPU is given to a job it cannot be pre-empted (stopped) until it completes its CPU burst. Dispatch latency is the time that it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another. switches from wait state to ready or iv. CPU scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. b) switching to user mode c) jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart the program.selects from among the jobs in memory which are ready to execute and allocates the CPU to one of them. G. __________ selects processes from the pool and loads them into memory for execution. 2. The distinction between these two schedulers is the frequency of their execution. The long term scheduler executes much less frequently. 3. switches from an active to a ready state or iii. 5. Differentiate between the short term and the long term scheduler. This scheme is called swapping.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 47 .2. Which of the following is true for the high level scheduler? a) It ensures a good mixture of CPU bound and I/O bound jobs b) Its selects which job gets to use the processor next c) It removes jobs from memory d) It uses a processor scheduling algorithm Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

turnaround time B. The criteria for selecting/comparing CPU scheduling algorithms are:• CPU utilization .time from submission of request until the first response is produced. throughput Operating System Concepts Mrs. waiting time C. The number of processes that are completed per unit of time is called a: A.Scheduling criteria Different scheduling algorithms have different properties and may favour one class of processes over another. Tutorial Questions 1. G.how long it takes to execute a job • waiting time – the amount of time that a job spends in the ready queue • response time . Describe the various scheduling criteria. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 48 . response time D. • throughput . CPU scheduling algorithms can be rated on which of the following criteria? a) Pre-emption b) Blocking c) Throughput d) SJF 2.how busy you keep CPU. Practice MCQs 1.work done/number of jobs completed per unit of time • turnaround time . The aim is to keep the CPU as busy as possible.

P1. P3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 49 . P3. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 24 P2 27 P3 30 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P2. G. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: Operating System Concepts Mrs. The average waiting time would therefore be (6+0+3)/3 = 3 Shortest Job First (SJF) In SJF scheduling when the CPU is available the job that is the shortest gets the CPU next. Then the Gantt chart would be as follows: P2 0 3 P3 6 P1 30 The waiting time for P1 = 6.Scheduling algorithms The purpose of a scheduling algorithm is to select and allocate the CPU to a waiting process. For example: Process P1 P2 P3 Burst Time 24 3 3 Suppose the processes arrive in the order P1. the jobs/processes are executed in the order in which they enter the system. for P3 = 3. SJF is optimal in that it gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of jobs. The operating system has to predict the CPU time that will be used. P2. First Come First Served or First In First Out (FCFS/FIFO) For this type of scheduling. for P2 = 0. This is a non-preemptive algorithm.

Usually the smaller number is the highest priority. If there are n jobs in the ready queue and the time quantum is q. 100 msec). • externally . Blocking/starvation occurs when a job is constantly being passed over because of its low priority. A priority number is associated with each job. If the time quantum is small then overload would be too high. memory requirements. number of open files etc. No job waits for more than (n-1)q time units. system administrator). Priority can be defined:• internally – based on time limits. If the time quantum is large then RR equates to FIFO.by a person (e. Round robin (RR) In RR scheduling (also called circular queue) each job gets a time quantum or time slice (e.g. This process is called aging. After this time has elapsed the job is pre-empted and added to the end of the ready queue. Examples of pre-emptive algorithms are: Operating System Concepts Mrs. Example of RR with time quantum 20 Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Burst Time 53 17 68 24 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 20 P2 37 P3 57 P4 77 P1 97 P3 117 P4 121 P1 134 P3 154 P3 162 Pre-emptive A pre-emptive algorithm stops a job in middle of the job running if a job that satisfies a criteria comes along. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 50 . then each job gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. G.g. The operating system may increase the priority the longer the job is in the queue.P1 0 The average waiting time = (0+6+3+7)/4 = 4 7 P3 8 P2 12 P4 16 Priority In priority scheduling the job with the highest priority gets the CPU next.

Multilevel queues Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which jobs are easily classified into different groups. Jobs are permanently assigned to one queue. generally based on some property of the job.g. Given the information in the table below: Job A B C D E Copyright @ 2010 CPU Burst time (sec) 10 1 2 1 5 Priority 3 1 (highest) 3 4 2 Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Campbell 51 .• Shortest remaining time first (SRTF) – stops the shortest job if an even shorter job enters the system. if a new job arrives with CPU burst length that is less than the remaining time of the current job then the current job will be pre-empted for the other. These two types of jobs have quite different response time requirements. A multi-queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue into separate queues. such as memory size or job type. foreground jobs may have priority over background jobs. E. and so might have different scheduling algorithms. In addition. a common division is made between foreground (interactive) jobs and background (batch) jobs. What is the purpose of a CPU scheduling algorithm? 2. Example: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 Arrival Time 0 2 4 5 Burst Time 7 4 1 4 The Gantt chart would be as follows: P1 0 2 P2 4 P3 5 P2 7 P4 11 P1 16 Average waiting time = (9+1+0+2)/4 = 3 • Pre-emptive priority – stops the highest priority job if a job with a higher priority enters the system. Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm. In other words. Tutorial Questions 1. G.

G. What advantage is there in having different quantum sizes on different levels of a multi-level queuing system? Practice MCQs 1. How does a multi-level feedback queue differ from a multilevel queue? 5. Priority. Given the following information (Taken from CCCJ Aug 2003 exam) Job Id. 4. Distinguish between Shortest Job First and Shortest Remaining Time. A multilevel feedback queue a) Allows jobs to move between queues of different priority b) Have one common queue for batch and interactive jobs c) Assign jobs permanently to a queue d) Allows a job to be in more than one queue at the same time 3. CPU Burst Time (secs) Priority A 6 4 B 2 3 C 9 1 (Highest) D 3 2 a) Use Gantt charts to illustrate the order of execution of these processes using:i.a) What is the turnaround time and waiting time of each job for FIFO. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 52 . Priority iv. All of the following affect the degree of multiprogramming except: a) Job scheduler b) Number of partitions c) Medium term scheduler Operating System Concepts Mrs. SJF iii. The problem of starvation can be solved by a) Blocking b) Dispatching c) Multilevel queues d) Aging 2. SJF. RR (timeslice = 2sec) b) Which algorithm gives the best throughput after 10 secs. which algorithm is the most efficient? Why? 4. Round Robin (Time quantum of 2 seconds) b) What is the throughput after 13 seconds for each of the scheduling algorithms? c) What is the turnaround time for each process for each of the scheduling algorithms? d) In this situation. FCFS ii.

Shortest job first B. First come first served C. Fragmentation D.d) CPU scheduler 4. Starvation C. Which of the following indicates that the process that requests the CPU first is allocated first? A. Paging Operating System Concepts Mrs. Aging B. What is the purpose of a processor scheduling algorithm? a) To manage multiple CPUs b) To select and allocate the CPU to a waiting job c) To prevent starvation d) To increase the average waiting time 6. Round robin scheduling 10. How does a multi-level feedback queuing system carry out aging? a) Swaps jobs out of memory b) Improve the scheduling strategies c) Move jobs to a higher priority queue d) Use longer time slices in RR scheduling 8. G. Which of the following indicates that a low priority process does not get access to an available resource due to the fact that the system is always busy? A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 53 . Which scheduler reduces the degree of multiprogramming? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 9. The amount of time that a job gets to use the CPU in round robin scheduling is called a) Circular queue b) Time slice c) Aging d) Priority 5. Priority scheduling D. Which scheduler uses a processor scheduling algorithm? a) Short term b) Medium term c) Intermediate term d) Long term 7.

For this reason. This forces the applications to wait while the operating system catches up.Multiple processor scheduling (2 hours) In a multiprocessing system tasks are handled simultaneously. All processors are allowed to run a mixture of application and operating system code. Asymmetric multiprocessing Asymmetric multi-processing (ASMP) is where only one processor accesses the system data structures. which reduces the overall throughput of the system. Multi-processing involves a computer having more than one CPU. A multiprocessing computer can execute multiple threads simultaneously. Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multi-processing (SMP) is used to get higher levels of performance. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 54 . A thread is a part of a program that can run independently of other parts. The remainder of the processors run user applications. the chance of hitting a CPU bottleneck is greatly reduced. SMP is more complex than ASMP. the whole computer can go down. hosts for multiuser interactive sessions. independent executable components of applications) of execution. G. Multithreading operating systems allow programmers to design programs that have threaded parts that can run concurrently. the single processor running the operating system can fall behind the processors running user applications. Any processor can run any type of thread. The main difference is in how the processors operate. If the processor that fails is an operating system processor. all running at the same time. A large amount of coordination must take place to keep everything synchronized. a multiprocessing operating system actually does so. alleviating the need for data sharing. SMP systems provide better load-balancing and fault tolerance. A multitasking operating system only appears to execute multiple threads at the same time. Multitasking is an operating-system technique for sharing a single processor among multiple threads (small. and single-user systems for running resource intensive desktop applications. Multiple-processor computers are commonly used as high-end server platforms.Lecture 8. SMP systems are usually designed and written from the ground up. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A processor failure reduces the computing capacity of the system. The operating system typically sets aside one or more processors for its exclusive use. As a result. one thread for each processor in the computer. Multiprocessing operating systems can be either asymmetric or symmetric. The processors communicate with each other through shared memory. Because the operating system threads can run on any processor.

Multitasking D. Tutorial Questions 1. 2 Motorola 68030) Each processor has its own queue and its own scheduling algorithm.g. Practice MCQs 1. Multithreading D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 55 . • Homogenous system (all processors identical – e. Multiprogramming 2. Multiprogramming B. all Pentium 4) – There is a separate queue for each processor or they all use a common queue. How does multi-programming differ from parallel processing? What is a thread? What is the difference between user threads and kernel threads? What is the dining philosopher’s problem? What is a semaphore? Describe busy waiting and the critical section problem? Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing. the multiple processors involved are full-fledged general purpose CPUs. 3 Pentium II. A ____________ operating system can support two or more CPUs running programs at the same time. Multiprocessing C. They are tightly integrated so that they can work together on a job by sharing memory. multiuser D. which is the most sophisticated and fastest type of multiprocessing. Parallel processor C. G. A.Homogenous and Heterogenous systems Multiprocessing can also be categorized as being homogenous or heterogenous. Coprocessor B. 4. A. multiprocessing C. In parallel processing. 3. 1 AMD. 6. A. ________________ is the ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program at the same time. multitasking B. Jobs are typed by their structure and must be run on a particular processor. • Heterogenous system (different processors – e. 5. multiprogramming 3. ___________ method uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program. 2.g. Multitasking Operating System Concepts Mrs.

multiprogramming Operating System Concepts Mrs. symmetric multiprocessing C. asymmetric multiprocessing B. When one processor accesses the system data structure and therefore reduces data sharing this is known as: A. multiprocessing D. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 56 .4. G.

Transparency Memory allocation should be invisible to the process. though the code. Multiple Segments The process is logically composed of a number of segments: code. This is done in such a way that the process is not aware of the movement between disk and main memory . If more than one process is in memory at any one time there is an additional need to enforce mutual protection between them. and if such a program is simultaneously part of two or more process images it may be desirable to keep a single physical copy of the code segment.Distinguish between the logical address seen by the executing program and the physical address of the actual memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. it still should not matter. stack and data segments must appear to be logically contiguous. Protection Even if only one process is in memory at a time. Tutorial Questions 1. G. Research the MMU or PMMU. It may be required to have these segments in physically disjoint memory areas.Lecture 9 . Each machine has a certain amount of memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 57 . If we must keep several processes in memory.Memory Management (1 hour) Introduction Multi-programming causes processes to have to share memory. which appears logically in all the appropriate process images. it will be sharing the memory with the kernel/monitor.the memory management software presents an interface that simulates an apparently infinite memory. we must share memory. 2. If the process had to be put on the disk and then reloaded into a different memory location. and arranges for the appropriate images to be present in main memory when they are required. data. It is therefore necessary to have another layer of software in the operating system that stores process images on disk. 3. Everything cannot hold in this limited space at any one time. Find out the different memory requirements of different modern operating systems. Code sharing If the code of a program is invariant (not altered by the program). There are four requirements of a memory management system:1. It should not matter where in memory the process has been placed. 4. 2. and it is imperative that a malfunction of the process should not overwrite kernel code or data. Memory mapping . stack and system data.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 58 .Practice MCQs 1. All of the following are requirements for a memory management system except: a) Protection b) Transitivity c) Multiple Segments d) Code Sharing Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.

Discuss the different secondary (auxiliary) storage device. It is the job of the operating system to co-ordinate how these memories are used. 5. medium priced volatile main memory (RAM) and a large amount of slow. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Make sure you find out some of the precautions that you need to take. MEMORY HIERARCHY Tutorial Questions 1. with a small amount of very fast. Compare and contrast them. while the access time increases and the amount of storage at each level increases. The part of the operating system that manages this hierarchy is called the memory manager. If another reference is made to this location. but very fast. which can be organized in a hierarchy. 4. When a memory access is made. 2. plus its neighbours are copied to the cache. some medium speed. 3. There is a wide variety of storage in a computer system.Memory hierarchy Most computers have a memory hierarchy (storage hierarchy). cheap. Research the cost of different types and sizes of RAM as well as the cost of different types and sizes of hard disks. expensive. As we move down the hierarchy the cost per bit decreases. non-volatile disk storage. The higher levels are expensive. Describe the different types of cache. Research how to increase the RAM in a computer. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 59 . Describe the different types of RAM. G. they can be fetched directly from the cache without having to go to the slower speed main memory. volatile cache memory. the contents of the accessed location.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 60 . cache. Magnetic Disk B. cache 3. Cache B. cache b) Cache. RAM. Memory that is at the top of the hierarchy is a) Slower and more expensive b) Non-volatile and slower c) Non-volatile and more expensive d) Faster and more expensive 2. What are the characteristics of memory at the bottom of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 5. hard disk c) Register. G. Which of the following is the fastest and MOST expensive type of storage? A. RAM. Cache D. RAM. RAM. What are the characteristics of memory at the top of the hierarchy? a) Cheaper and larger in capacity b) Cheaper and smaller in capacity c) Faster and larger in capacity d) Faster and smaller in capacity 4. Main memory D. Select the correct ordering of memory in the storage hierarchy.Practice MCQs 1. register. Electronic Disk C. Which of the following storage device is the slowest? A. a) Hard disk. register. hard disk d) Hard disk. Registers C. Magnetic Disk Operating System Concepts Mrs. Main Memory 6. register.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. For example. memory management software ensures that memory is shared among different programs. if the base register holds 300020 and the limit register holds 120800. high-speed storage area within the CPU. Therefore. G. This can be done by using two registers: a base register and a limit register. limit register (1 hour) What is a register? A register (or memory register) temporarily stores one computer word in the main internal memory of a digital computer.Lecture 10 . whereas the limit register specifies the size of the range. and even to programmers. CPU instructions operate on these values directly. the compiler is responsible for translating high-level operations into low-level operations that access registers. each CPU instruction can manipulate 32 bits of data. these include a program counter. It is a special. Base registers or segment registers are used to segment memory. program counter. Usually. or RAM. There are generally only a few registers available on a processer. and some addressing registers. In other words it holds the data that the CPU is currently working on. There are also registers that are reserved for certain tasks. Intel chips have 6 general purpose registers. and flags. In general. registers are storage locations internal to the processor. In other words. RAM is much slower than registers and there is a lot more RAM than registers. stack register. For example a 32-bit CPU is one in which each register is 32 bits wide. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 61 . and several specialized registers including a base register. The operating system needs to ensure that each program has its own memory space.Basic memory hardware – base register. The number of registers that a CPU has and the size of each (number of bits) help determine the power and speed of a CPU. data has to be loaded into a CPU register from memory before the CPU can process it. flags register. Memory. then the program can legally access all addresses from 300020 to 420820 (inclusive). Only assembly language programs can manipulate registers. stack. In high-level languages. To do this there needs to be a way to determine the range of legal addresses that the program may access. is located external to the CPU and holds the instructions and the data that the program requires. the movement of data in and out of registers is completely transparent to users. Types of registers As previously stated. Effective addresses are calculated by adding the contents of the base or segment register to the rest of the effective address computation. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address.

the so-called bound or limit (or alternatively the physical memory address of the next word after the end of the segment.A bounds register is a device which stores the upper and lower bounds on addresses in the memory of a given computer program. A base-bound register (base-limit register) is hardware used for virtual-memory allocation. Find out the processors that have 32-bit registers. A base-bound register is associated with each segment of data or code and defines the position in physical memory of word zero for that segment. Operating System Concepts Mrs. in which case it is a bounds register). G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 62 . Discuss the other types of registers. the so-called base. 2. Tutorial Questions 1. and the number of words available to that segment.

b) placed in a fence register. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 63 . The fence register is a type of bounds register. The logical address space is used by user programs. Physical address space (1 hour) Memory is divided into two sections. Differentiate between a logical and a physical address. Tutorial Questions 1. while a logical address space is an address generated by the CPU. The user never sees the real physical address but only the logical address. but the first address beyond the fence. Consider the segment table. This is known as relocation mapping or memory mapping. The logical address is also known as the virtual address.Lecture 11 . The fence address can be a) built into the hardware. logical address)? See if you can come up with a formula. This arrangement may affect the addresses that the user program uses. The physical address space is therefore an address as seen by the memory unit. the first address of the user program is not 00000.Logical vs. User programs are run in their own area of memory. G. The fence address is added to the address generated by the user process at the time that it is sent to memory. Operating System Concepts Mrs. It is possible to place the monitor into either low memory or high memory. Segment Base Length 0 219 600 1 2300 14 2 90 1000 3 1327 586 4 1952 196 What are the physical addresses for the following logical addresses (segment. 2. Monitor < Fence address User Memory We can protect the monitor code and data from changes (accidental or malicious) by using a fence address. Although the address space of the computer starts at 00000. one for the user and one for the resident monitor.

430 2. Adding the fence address to a user program in RAM is a) Relocation mapping b) Code sharing c) Blocking d) Compaction Operating System Concepts Mrs.a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. G. 112 Practice MCQs 1. 400 4. 10 1. 11 0. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 64 . 500 3.

Swapping on a virtual memory computer is therefore the transfer of program segments (pages) into and out of memory. Swapping therefore attempts to put only currently running processes in memory. the system may actually do no useful work. Discus the concept of the swap file in Windows. Tutorial Questions 1. it is known as thrashing and is indicative of insufficient RAM for the present workload. 2. Swapping (writing modified pages out to the system swap space) is a normal part of a system's operation. spending all its resources moving pages to and from memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 65 . In extreme cases. running it for a while. G. It occurs when a process needs to be in memory to execute and can be swapped to a backing store (temporarily) then brought back into memory for continued execution. Describe the concept of swapping. as the CPU and I/O loads that can be generated in such a situation can quickly outweigh the load imposed by a system's real work. ___________ consists of bringing in each process in its entirety. The reason to be wary of excessive swapping is that the following situation can easily occur. the page is swapped out again • If this sequence of events is widespread. The disadvantage however is the time taken to perform swapping (overhead). Thrashing is extremely detrimental to system performance. it is possible to experience too much swapping. Practice MCQs 1. Although paging is the primary mechanism for virtual memory.Lecture 12 – Swapping (1 hour) When a process running on a computer attempts to allocate more memory than the system has available. over and over again: • • • Pages from a process are swapped The process becomes runnable and attempts to access a swapped page The page is faulted back into memory (most likely forcing some other processes' pages to be swapped out) A short time later. The advantage of swapping is that more processes can use memory more efficiently. It is not necessary to keep inactive processes in memory. This is done in order to free up sufficient physical memory to meet the RAM allocation requirements of the requestor. Swapping maximizes available memory. excessive paging is not desirable. the kernel begins to swap memory pages to and from the disk. It should also be noted that not all processes can be swapped so care must be taken. Why would swapping be necessary? 3. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

A. Swapping D. Scheduling B. G. Fragmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Paging C.then putting it back on the disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 66 .

Three major methods of allocating disk space are in use: contiguous. There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. For direct access to block n of a file which starts at block b. Contiguous allocation This requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous addresses on the disk. The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file.Contiguous vs non contiguous memory allocation (4 hours) In almost every case. If too little space is allocated. many files will be stored on the same disk. G. The algorithms suffer from fragmentation. Another problem of contiguous allocation is to know how much free space (holes) to give to a file. To read a file. we can immediately access block b + n. There is no need to declare the size of a file when it Operating System Concepts Mrs. linked.This re-allocates the files to allow all free space to be one contiguous space. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. since all blocks are linked together. Overestimating the file size also wastes space. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. For sequential access. then the file cannot be extended/made larger. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 67 . Compaction . The directory contains a pointer to the first (and last) blocks of the file. If the file to be created is n blocks long. simply read blocks by following the pointers from block to block. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. This solves the fragmentation problem.Lecture 13 . Thus both sequential and direct access can be supported by contiguous allocation. which has been contiguously allocated is fairly easy. Free disk space gets broken into little pieces as files are allocated and deleted. The main problem is how to allocate space to these files so that disk space is effectively utilized and files can be quickly accessed. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address of the first block and its length. Each block contains a pointer to the next block. The blocks chosen for the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies or algorithms: first fit. the file system remembers the disk address of the last block and when necessary reads the next block. the disk blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. Accessing a file. best fit. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous. we must search for n free contiguous blocks. indexed. Non-contiguous allocation a) Linked allocation Each file is a linked list of disk blocks. worst fit.

Brown needs fast and easy access to the files using both sequential and direct access methods.is created. It also does not suffer from wasted space. Brown use? Give reasons for your choice. which is an array of disk block addresses. Since the files are linked together by pointers scattered all over the disk. Mr. If the index block is damaged then the entire file is lost. a programmer. In order to conserve on space. added at the end. 5. The nth entry in the index block points to the nth block of the file. How would you represent each with a diagram? 2. consider what would happen if a pointer is lost or damaged. The directory contains the address of the index block. Hence we cannot support a direct access capability for linked allocation files. we use the pointer in the nth index block entry to find and read the desired block. removed from the end? Operating System Concepts Mrs. List the advantages and disadvantages of each storage allocation method. A file currently consists of 100 blocks. Another problem is reliability. we must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until we get to the nth block. How many disk I/O operations are involved with contiguous. Discuss the criteria that should be used in deciding which storage allocation strategy should be used for a particular file. Tutorial Questions 1. The sizes of the files are known from the start and will not grow in size. To find the nth block of a file. Which storage allocation method would you recommend that Mr. It is never necessary to compact disk space. the files should use memory space in an optimal manner. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 68 . removed from the start. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space. The pointers are however not scattered all over the disk. Explain three (3) storage allocation methods. removed from the middle. Some operating systems support direct access files by using contiguous allocation and sequential access files by using linked allocation. Each access to a pointer requires a disk read. Another disadvantage is the space required for the pointers. Index allocation supports direct access without suffering from external fragmentation. The major problem with linked allocation is that it can only be used effectively for sequential access files. added in the middle. b) Indexed allocation Each file has its own index block. John Brown. needs to work with certain files. link and indexed allocation methods if one block is: added at the start. To read the nth block. The pointer overhead of the index block is generally worse that the pointer overhead of linked allocation. 3. 4.

Practice MCQs 1. Which of the following is true about linked allocation? a) It can be used only for sequential files b) It requires compaction c) It is very reliable d) There is external fragmentation 2. A disadvantage of contiguous allocation is a) It allows access to sequential files only b) It allows any free block to be used c) It is unreliable d) It suffers from fragmentation 3. Which storage allocation method requires compaction utilities? a) Contiguous b) Linked c) Indexed d) All of the above 4. Which storage allocation method requires de-fragmentation utilities? a) Contiguous b) Indexed c) Linked d) Listed 5. Which of the following is TRUE for a contiguous storage allocation scheme? a) The directory points to the first and last block b) The access method is limited to sequential only c) The directory points to the first block d) There is no need for compaction 6. All of the following are TRUE for indexed storage allocation EXCEPT: a) The directory points to the index block b) Only sequential access is allowed c) It does not suffer from fragmentation d) All of the pointers are in one block 7. Which of the file allocation methods is not randomly accessed? A. Contiguous allocation B. Linked Allocation C. Indexed allocation D. Addressed allocation

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Memory allocation strategies – first fit, best-fit, worst-fit The memory allocation strategies or algorithms are used to find space for a new file in contiguous memory allocation. The free contiguous blocks for placement of the file are chosen by one of three memory allocation strategies. The strategies are as follows: • first fit - allocate the first set of blocks that is big enough. • best fit - allocate the smallest set of blocks that is big enough. We must search the entire list, unless the list is ordered by size. • worst fit - allocates the largest set of blocks. Tutorial Questions 1. Given a computer with 33 blocks of memory with block sizes 512KB and a file size of 2519KB. Place the file in memory using contiguous allocation – a) first fit, b) best fit and c) worst fit. Please note that blocks 1-4, 7-14, 16-24 and 28-33 are free. 2. Given a computer with 14 blocks of memory with blocks 1-3, 5-6, 9-12 free. a) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 5-6, which storage allocation algorithm was used? b) If a 2 block file is to be saved in blocks 1-2, which storage allocation algorithm was used?

Practice MCQs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 1 1. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 7 and 8, then the allocation algorithm used is a) First fit b) Best fit c) Worst fit d) Just fit 2. Using Figure 1. If a two block file is to be placed in blocks 13 and 14, then the allocation algorithm used is
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a) b) c) d)

First fit Best fit Worst fit Just fit

3. Which type of contiguous storage allocation uses the smallest set of blocks that is large enough? a) Best fit b) Least fit c) Smallest fit d) Worst fit 4. Given memory that has 10 blocks with blocks 3 and 8 in use. Where would you place a 2block file using the worst-fit algorithm? a) Blocks 1 and 2 b) Blocks 4 and 5 c) Blocks 9 and 10 d) All of the above

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This leaves holes too small for new processes and eventually no holes will be large enough for new processes. external fragmentation (see next section) can occur when processes are removed from memory. Partitioned memory Types of partitioning In fixed partition multi-programming. This method suffers from internal fragmentation (see next section). In variable partition multi-programming. the partition sizes are set and do not change. Bounds registers keep track of the upper and lower boundaries of each partition. Each region may have one program to be executed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 72 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. thereby protecting each partition from interference by other jobs. a program is selected from the job queue and loaded into the free region. When a region is free.Lecture 14 – Partitions and Fragmentation (1 hour) Partitions Memory is divided into a number of regions or partitions. This however comes with a lot of overhead. External fragmentation can be dealt with in the following ways: • Coalescing – this is where adjacent free blocks are merged into one large block. The degree of multiprogramming is therefore dependent on the number of partitions. No space is wasted initially. G. However this is sometimes not enough to reclaim significant amount of memory • Compaction (garbage collection) – this is where memory is rearranged into a single contiguous block of occupied space and a single contiguous block of free space. These are also called base and limit registers (or low and high). However. Internal fragmentation is not possible as partitions are the exact size. partition sizes vary depending of the size of the jobs being run. The operating system does this by keeping a table indicating which parts of the memory are available and which are occupied by the different programs. Jobs are scheduled to go to the different partitions based on the size. Another drawback is that there may be a process that does not fit in any partition. Partition sizes vary dynamically.

G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 73 .Example of fixed partition multi-programming with absolute translation and loading Example of fixed partition multi-programming with relocatable translation and loading Operating System Concepts Mrs.

What are they? Practice MCQs 1. Single and variable Operating System Concepts Mrs.Example of variable partition multi-programming Tutorial Questions 1. The degree of multi-programming is dependent on a number of things. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 74 . Fixed and variable C. Multiple and fixed B. What are the names of the two (2) types of partitions? A. G. Single and multiple D.

2. the extra space wasted. Practice MCQs 1. Compaction is the a) Compression of sizes of files b) Rearrangement of the location of files c) Deletion of files d) Fragmentation of files Operating System Concepts Mrs. Tutorial Questions 1. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 75 . external Fragmentation is wasted memory space (available but cannot be used). G. Differentiate between internal and external fragmentation. In the diagram below only part of a memory partition is being used by the job but the free space cannot be used by any other job free Used < Wasted space Memory partition Example of internal fragmentation External fragmentation – this occurs when a region of memory is unused and available but is still too small for any waiting job. Use diagrams to depict both internal and external fragmentation. The diagram below shows a waiting job that cannot fit into memory even though space is available free used free used Memory Example of external fragmentation Waiting job Compaction – this is where the operating system shuffles the memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block. Internal fragmentation – this occurs when a job is in a region of memory that is larger than the job needs.Fragmentation – internal.

Tutorial Questions 1. swapping are necessary because the entire logical address space of a process must be in physical memory before the process can execute. _____________ is a portion of a storage medium. Register C. Memory management procedures such as paging. E. which functions as additional memory. Cache B. and not the amount of physical memory that must be dedicated to the program at any given time. But if you look at a program it shows in many cases that the entire program is not needed. Virtual memory D. Practice MCQs 1. 2) arrays lists. This limits the size of a program to the size of physical memory. G. partitioning. Virtual memory is the separation of user logical memory from physical memory.g.Introduction to Virtual Memory (1 hour) We have just looked at memory management strategies. 1) code to handle errors. What is virtual memory? 2. A. Buffer Virtual Address Space The virtual address (VA) space of a program refers to how much memory the program would need if it needed all the memory at once. Virtual means that this is the total number of uniquelyaddressable memory locations required by the program. It allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Why is virtual memory necessary? 3. Virtual memory allows the execution of processes that may not be completely in memory. Even where the entire program is needed it may not need all of it at the same time. These had the goal of keeping many processes in memory simultaneously to allow multiprogramming. segmentation. List the various virtual memory strategies. Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 15 . usually the hard disk. The main advantage is that user programs can be larger than physical memory. However they all require the entire process to be in memory before the process can execute. tables are often allocated more memory than they need. Virtual memory/storage is the use of secondary storage (disk) to simulate the presence of primary storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 76 .

VA is determined from the compiled address. Memory is divided into fixed size blocks (or page frames) and accommodates a process’ pages. The physical address (PA) then is (block_number * page_size + offset). offset> where the page is determined by dividing each process into fixed size pages. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 77 .1). VA has two components: the page number and the address in page (or offset or displacement) An example of Virtual Address to Physical Address Mapping Operating System Concepts Mrs. the offset is a number in the range 0 . In pure paging systems the entire VA space of a process must reside in physical memory during execution.(page size .A virtual address is represented as <page. but pages are not kept in contiguous blocks.

Paging is to solve the problem of fragmentation.g. If the page tables indicate that the virtual memory page is not currently in real memory. (E. which looks up the real address (from the page table) corresponding to a virtual address and passes the real address to the parts of the CPU which execute instructions. Programs or processes are divided into fixed size pieces called pages and main memory is divided into fixed size partitions called page frames or blocks. For example. The page table organizes the pages. The user program believes that memory is one contiguous space.page size is 4K blocks by default). Virtual memory is used to increase the degree of multiprogramming.Pure paging (2 hours) Paging is the most common virtual memory system. Operating System Concepts Mrs. In reality. therefore in logical memory the pages seem to be placed one after the other in the proper sequence. or fetches data from a specific virtual address or stores data to a particular virtual address.Lecture 16 . It does this by mapping contiguous logical space on to small disjoint areas of physical memory. Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Logical Memory 0 1 2 3 1 4 3 7 Page Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 0 Page 2 Page 1 Page 3 Physical Memory Dynamic address translation If during the execution of an instruction. containing only this one program. G. In pure paging the total program is kept in memory as sets of (non-contiguous) pages. Some of the pages are stored on disk and brought into memory when required. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 78 . the next in memory location 3 and the last is in memory location 7. the other is in memory location 4. in the following diagram. Novell Netware . the hardware raises a page fault exception (special internal signal) which invokes the paging supervisor component of the operating system. a file is made up of 4 pages. The first page is in memory location 1. the virtual address must be translated to the corresponding physical address. This is due to the fact that you have more space in memory because all the pages would not be there to take up space. The basic idea of paging is to divide the memory into page frames of fixed size (typically between 512 and 2048 bytes). The page table maps logical memory to physical memory. the program is scattered throughout physical memory. sometimes called a memory management unit. They are therefore scattered in memory. This is done by a hardware component. which also holds other programs. A Page table (set of dedicated registers) has a bit indicating whether page is resident (gives memory address) or non-resident (gives disk address). a CPU fetches an instruction located at a particular virtual address.

Discuss PTBR and TLB. Describe paging. Advantages: • Efficient memory usage • Simple partition management due to is contiguous loading and fixed partition size • No compaction necessary • Easy to share pages Disadvantages: • Job Size <= Memory Size • Internal fragmentation (half the page size on the average) • Need special hardware for address translation • Some main memory space used for page map tables (PMT's) • Address translation lengthens memory cycle times Tutorial Questions 1.Paging solves the problem of external fragmentation. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 79 . Operating System Concepts Mrs. Explain the concept of a page table. G. 4. 3. Differentiate between a page and a page frame. 2.

uses number of reference bits to know if page was recently used. LRU. A page fault occurs when a required page is not currently in memory and has to be loaded in. the page that has been used the least so far. Locked pages cannot be replaced. Least recently used (LRU) The O/S replaces the page which has not been used for the longest period of time. Allocation algorithms therefore are used to decide the number of page frames that a particular process receives. FIFO The O/S chooses the oldest page. A version of this algorithm is LRU approximation .Page replacement (3 hours) Page replacement algorithms decide which page is overwritten when a new page needs to be brought into memory. This algorithm suffers from Belady’s anomaly which is where the page fault rate may increase as the number of page frames increase. MFU. Optimal replacement The O/S replaces the page that will not be used for the longest period of time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 80 . Most frequently used (MFU) The O/S replaces the page with the highest count.Lecture 17 . This does not suffer from the anomaly. In other words. Least frequently used (LFU) The O/S replaces the page with the smallest count. This has the lowest page fault rate. The algorithms are FIFO. Allocation algorithms When several processes are running in memory it is possible that the different processes could be allocated different amounts of memory. This is hardware and overhead intensive. In other words. LFU. This method never suffers from the anomaly. The allocation algorithms are as follows:• split them equally – memory is equally divided up among the processes Operating System Concepts Mrs. which may be difficult. Optimal replacement. the page that has already been used the most. In general you want the one with the lowest page fault rate. G. NB. Therefore the operating system needs to estimate when next it will be used.

2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 7. LFU. 2. Given the following table of jobs to be run. LRU stands for: A. Least regularly used C. 5. FIFO. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 2. 7. LRU? 3. 1. 8. Practice MCQs 1. First-in-first-out algorithm 2. If the following pages were used in the following order: 8. 4. 9. how many blocks would the operating system give to each job using each allocation algorithm? Job A B C D Memory Requirement (MB) 10 20 5 10 Priority 2 1 (highest) 3 4 4. FIFO. 3. Memory on John’s computer is made up of 10 blocks each 1MB. 2. 5. Last recently used Operating System Concepts Mrs. Optimal page replacement B. 8. 4. 8. 3. 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 81 . 6. A. What page would be replaced next using MFU. 5. Least recently used page replacement C. 3. Research the second-chance and any other page replacement algorithms. 8. 4. 9. 4. Least recently used B.• proportional allocation – each process is allocated memory based on the amount of memory that each process will use • by priority of process – higher priority processes will be allocated more memory and lower priority processes will be allocated less memory Tutorial Questions 1. 2. 5. 9. LFU. 9. LRU? 2. ___________ algorithm associates each page with the time when the page was brought into memory. G. What is a page fault? 5. Likely regularly used D. Counting based page replacement D. 8. 3.

This is known as demand paging. since protection fault can be used to get page fault. Less loading latency occurs at program startup. where all memory for a process is swapped from secondary storage to main memory during the process startup. as opposed to loading all pages immediately: • • Only loads pages that are demanded by the executing process. When a process is to be swapped into main memory for processing. G. To do this a lock bit is associated with each page. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.Lecture 18 . as less information is accessed from secondary storage and less information is brought into main memory. This process avoids loading pages that are unlikely to be used and focuses on pages needed during the current process execution period. As there is more space in main memory. So demand paging may have lower performance than anticipatory paging algorithms such as prepaging. more processes can be loaded reducing context switching time which utilizes large amounts of resources. Therefore. The pager will only load these pages into memory. When demand paging is used it is sometimes necessary to allow some of its pages to be locked in memory. Demand paging is the characteristic of a virtual memory system which retrieves only that part of a user's program which is required during execution. Compare demand paging to pure swapping. the pager guesses which pages will be used prior to the process being swapped out again. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 82 . Easy to share pages Can run a program larger than physical memory • • • • Disadvantages • Individual programs face extra latency when they access a page for the first time. Does not need extra hardware support than what paging needs.Demand Paging (2 hours) The operating system may try to predict the pages that will be needed next and load them into memory so that they are ready when needed. Repaging is an attempt to bring in all of the pages that will be needed at one time. not only is unnecessary page load during swapping avoided but we also try to preempt which pages will be needed and avoid loading pages during execution. Advantages Demand paging. Locked pages cannot be replaced until a process is complete. or you can load in the page when required.

Possible security risks. Research methods used by operating systems to reduce thrashing. Predicting the page that will be needed next and loading it into RAM is a) Page replacement b) Multiprogramming c) Demand paging d) Optimal replacement 3. How does pure paging differ from demand paging? 2. G. Memory management with page replacement algorithms becomes slightly more complex. The problem of the page fault rate increasing as the number of pages increase is called Operating System Concepts Mrs. A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. Practice MCQs 1.• Programs running on low-cost. including vulnerability to timing attacks. Continuously removing the same page from RAM is a) Thrashing b) Most frequently used c) Page table d) Segmenting 4. High paging activity thrashing can occur if the number of pages/frames are too small. Thrashing can cause severe performance problems. A page that cannot be replaced until the job has been completed is a a) Demand page b) Locked page c) Priority page d) Virtual page 2. Tutorial Questions 1. low-power embedded systems may not have a memory management unit that supports page replacement. Internal fragmentation Needs special address translation hardware • • • • Thrashing Thrashing occurs if the currently active pages are habitually removed from memory unto disk. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 83 . The generation of needless traffic to and from disk is known as thrashing.

26 C. 40 B. G. A. Given a paging scheme in which pages are 8KB. Frame allocation D. How many pages does it need? A. 4 000 bytes B. 25 9. 8. Thrashing B. How much space would be wasted if a file of size 36 KB were to be saved? a) 0KB b) 4KB c) 28KB d) 288KB 7. Belady’s anomaly C. 23 D. If a page size is 4KB and a process is 97856 bytes. Page allocation Operating System Concepts Mrs. Paging B. How much is the internal fragmentation? A. Spooling D. 3 648 bytes 10. _____________ indicates that the operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software.a) b) c) d) Newton’s Law Virtual Storage Belady’s Anomaly Starvation 5. 3 670 bytes D. 4 096 bytes C. When the page fault increases as the number of allocated frames increases is known as: A. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 84 . What is a page fault? a) There is something wrong with the page b) The page size needs to be increased c) The required page is not currently in memory d) The page has encountered fragmentation 6. Paging The following refers to questions 8 & 9. Buffering C.

The hardware also compares the offset d with the length l to determine if the address is valid. The segment table contains the starting physical address of the segment as well as the size of the segment for protection. This method is similar to paging but unlike pages. which are of fixed size. A virtual address consists of a segment number and a displacement or an offset within the segment.Lecture 19 – Segmentation (1 hour) Some systems do not use paging to implement virtual memory. Given a logical address (segment. G. A segment table is maintained for each process. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 85 . offset) = (s. Example of Segmentation Operating System Concepts Mrs. The physical address is obtained by adding d to k. This virtual memory strategy provides a 2 dimensional addressing system. segments can be of arbitrary length to suit the situation.d). they use segmentation. Instead. A CPU register holds the starting address of the segment table. we access the sth entry in the segment table to get base physical address k and the length l of that segment. so that an application's virtual address space is divided into variable-length segments.

Describe the use of overlays as a virtual storage strategy. Discuss the ways in which this strategy is implemented. • Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s location in memory. – limit – specifies the length of the segment. 3. We need a segment replacement algorithm (just like a page replacement algorithm). Describe a reasonable segment replacement algorithm. Tutorial Questions 1. Use a diagram to explain the concept of a segment table. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 86 . Jane is able to create a program that is larger than her computer’s RAM i. 4. each table entry has: – base – contains the starting physical address where the segments reside in memory. ii. What problems could arise with segment replacement that would not occur with page replacement? 5.Address Translation in Segmentation Based on the diagrams above: • The Logical address consists of a two items: <segment-number. so segmentation can be demand segmentation. segment-number s is legal if s < STLR. • Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses. offset>. • Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of segments used by a program. List the names of operating systems that use segmentation. Operating System Concepts Mrs. 2. 7. Why are paging and segmentation sometimes combined into one scheme? 6. How does segmentation differ from paging? Just as paging can be demand paging. Segmentation has no internal fragmentation but has external fragmentation if a segment is too large to fit into a slot. Discuss the strategy that allows Jane to do this. G.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 87 . what is the physical address for the logical address 12? a) 0012 b) 5500 c) 5511 d) 5512 Operating System Concepts Mrs.8. If a paging scheme has pages of 4KB and segmentation scheme has a maximum segment size of 32KB. b) segmentation? Practice MCQs 1. How does paging differ from segmentation? a) In paging blocks are of a fixed size whereas in segmentation blocks vary in size b) In paging blocks vary in size whereas in segmentation blocks are of a fixed size c) Paging blocks are contained within segmented blocks in memory d) There is no difference between them 2. Given a segment that starts at memory area 5500. G. How much space is wasted if a 6KB file is saved in a) paging.

numbered from 0. Another approach was to have separate heads on each side of the platter. It is treated as a single unit in data transfer. Discuss the different auxiliary storage media. The essential property of a block device is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all the other ones. but the data can be read immediately. size and speed. some disks (called fixed head disks) have a read/write head for each track. so that the location is known. Disk capacity therefore doubled.A physical unit of transfer between tape (secondary) and internal (primary) storage. Tutorial Questions 1. Operating System Concepts Mrs. memory mapping) Tutorial Questions 1. To improve the performance of a disk. The physical address of each block is mapped to a logical address in RAM. A block on a disk is the sector. What is auxiliary storage? How does it differ from primary storage? 2. each one with its own address. RAM and Optical disks RAM .Auxiliary storage management (1 hour) Introduction Disks were originally designed for file storage so the primary design criteria were cost. Each location has a 0 or 1. Use diagrams to show blocks on different types of secondary storage. G. Engineers are always trying to provide additional storage capacity. 2. Block . The kernel of the operating system gets loaded here when you boot up the machine. Explain the terms ‘blocking factor’ and inter-block gap.Lecture 20 .e. One approach was to improve recording density (reflected by the number of tracks per inch and hence the total number of tracks). A block device is one that stores information in fixed size blocks. The head therefore did not have to move to a specific track. Blocks I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 88 . (i.random access memory . Once data is placed in each box it remains until replaced by more. RAM is arranged like a series of boxes. RAM is volatile which means that information is lost if the power is switched off.another name for main storage.

Optical disks have more storage capacity than magnetic disks and are less susceptible to damage.RAM disks A RAM disk is commonly used in data banks. Disk caching – This is the process of placing data onto the disk so that possible future access to this data is faster. Tutorial Questions 1. therefore the web page is downloaded to disk and used from the disk instead of viewing the data over the phone line. G. palm tops. The primary use is to allow a part of memory to be reserved for used like an ordinary disk.sometimes called associative registers.4 1/2" 700MB/80 minutes WORM (write once. Optical disk These are made up of a thin metal polymer compound. What is the difference between DVD R. DVD R-? 3. It is small hardware memory . DVD R+. It holds data that was recently accessed from secondary storage in anticipation of use in the near future. Caching – This is the process of reading something into memory. Data is recorded by laser burns and read by another laser of lower intensity detecting the pattern of light reflected from beam by surface of disk. Disk caching Cache – a special area of memory available to the processor. Subsequent access if they occur will be fast. Types of optical disks:CD-ROM (compact disc . Discuss RAM disks. E.magnetic molecules in disk surface aligned when heated by a laser beam. but once files have been copied to this area they can be accessed extremely quickly. Cache memory works at the high speed of the processor. Differentiate between magnetic disk and optical disk. calculators. How does a Blu-Ray disc differ from the regular DVD? 4. This does not provide permanent storage. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 89 . if it is needed there is no need to read from the disk again as it is already in memory. This allows fast access to data that might be needed in the future. the internet via a phone line is slow compared to disk access. DVD-ROM (digital video/versatile disk – read only memory – used to store movies.g.read only memory) . Operating System Concepts Mrs. read many) EO (erasable optical) . They are used to store both video and audio files. How do they differ from other disks? 2.

Operating System Concepts Mrs. Describe disk caching.Tutorial Questions 1. What is a cookie? What is its purpose? 2. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 90 . G.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 91 . is this an input or output operation? 2. In order to access data from moving-head magnetic disk storage. G. the read/write head has to move to the appropriate track.g. due to power-cut). Sectors are pie-sliced sections (blocks) that are read all at once. designers did all of the following EXCEPT: a) Properly schedule the use of the disk b) Create fixed head disks c) Double disk capacity d) Eliminate seek time Operating System Concepts Mrs. The operating system can improve on the average disk service time by scheduling the requests for disk access. the disk address (drive. sector etc. To improve the performance of a disk. Thus the disk itself is cheaper to produce and use. Floppy disks have a hard coated surface so that the read/write head can sit directly on it without destroying the data. Head crash .if the read/write head touches the disk surface (e. surface. you learnt about tracks and sectors on magnetic disk. The request specifies pieces of necessary information:1.Lecture 21 . memory address 4.) 3. The read/write head is therefore positioned over the appropriate data in order to access it.Moving-head disk storage (2 hours) Operations on moving-head disk storage In Fundamentals of Information Technology. the head scrapes the recording media off the disk therefore destroying the data. The disk also has to rotate to the appropriate sector. The coating however will wear after enough use. When a process needs I/O to or from disk it issues a system call to the operating system. It is important that the disk be as fast as possible. Tracks are concentric circles on which data is stored. cylinder. amount of information to be transferred Practice MCQs 1.

Research the speeds of various brands of hard disks. This is also known as transfer rate. Is there a relationship between the speed of the disk and the price? Practice MCQs 1. Tutorial Questions 1.Measures of magnetic disk performance Disk speed composed of 3 parts:• Seek time – the time taken for the read/write head to move to the appropriate track • Latency time – the time taken for the disk to rotate to the desired sector (block). This is also known as rotational latency or rotational delay. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 92 . G. What is the time taken for a disk’s read/write head to move to the appropriate track? a) Seek time b) Transfer time c) Latency time d) Track time Operating System Concepts Mrs.The time required for a storage medium such as a disk to be positioned and for read/write heads to be properly located so that the desired data can be read or written. Other definitions • Positioning time . • Transfer time – the time taken for data to move between the disk and main memory.

Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 93 . LOOK and C-LOOK LOOK is similar to SCAN. No requests are serviced on the reverse direction. This policy will have better throughput than FCFS but a request may be delayed for a long period if many closely located requests arrive just after it. The movement time should be less than FCFS but the policy is fairer than SSTF. sharing the resource between the processes fairly and efficiently. Shortest seek time first (SSTF) This is the most common algorithm. when the read/write head reaches the end of the disk it goes immediately to the start of the disk. For example. The disk drive needs some mechanism to resolve this contention. Since no reordering of request takes place the head may move almost randomly across the surface of the disk. Circular Scan or C-SCAN is similar to SCAN but I/O requests are only satisfied when the read/write head is travelling in one direction across the surface of the disk. This policy aims to minimise response time with little regard for throughput. SCAN and C-SCAN The read/write head starts at one end of disk (outermost cylinder) and moves toward the other end (innermost cylinders). For example. servicing requests as it reaches each track. It however may cause starvation of some requests. otherwise the request will be queued. until it gets to other end of disk. Disk scheduling algorithms include:First come first served (FCFS) The disk controller processes the I/O requests in the order in which they arrive. processes will contend to access an auxiliary storage device such as a disk. thus moving backwards and forwards across the surface of the disk to get to the next requested location each time. At the other end it reverses direction. Each time an I/O request has been completed the disk controller selects the waiting request whose sector location is closest to the current position of the head. a sweep out towards the outer edge of Operating System Concepts Mrs. However the drive now makes use of the information it has about the locations requested by the waiting requests. G. This method is fair but suffers from wild swings from one area of disk to another. in alternating directions. It services jobs that require data closest to the current head position. In other words. satisfying requests. the drive sweeps across the surface of the disk.Disk scheduling In multi-programming environment different processes may want to use the system's resources simultaneously. If the disk drive is available it will service a user’s request immediately. The movement across the surface of the disk is still apparently random but the time spent in movement is minimised. As soon as the disk is available the user job to use the disk next will be selected by a disk scheduling algorithm.

3. numbered 0 to 199. Starting from its current head location what is the disk arm movement to satisfy the requests using FCFS.the disk will be reversed when there are no waiting requests for locations beyond the current cylinder. 46 d) 73.1: what is the head movement to satisfy the SCAN algorithm? 3. 60. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 100 tracks numbered 0 to 99 is currently servicing a request at track 62 and has just finished track 70. 46. 80 c) 73. 48.5. 22. 22. 22. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 94 . and where to commence the next sweep. 80. Explain how it works. 91. 22 Operating System Concepts Mrs. 5. 80. The queue of pending requests in FIFO order is 86. 73. C-LOOK involves the drive head sweeping across the disk satisfying requests in one direction only. If the queue of requests is 8. if that is the most central one for which a sector is currently requested. 46. What is the difference between SCAN and C-SCAN? Answer tutorial question # 2 using CSCAN. 73. Sector queuing is an algorithm for fixed-head devices. As in LOOK the drive makes use of the location of waiting requests in order to determine how far to continue a sweep. Which algorithm is known as the elevator algorithm? Why? 6. G. SCAN and SSTF algorithms? 4. 73. Practice MCQs 1. 2. Thus it may curtail a sweep towards the outer edge when there are locations requested in cylinders beyond the current position. 35. 17. Suppose the read/write head of a moving head disk with 10 tracks numbered 0-9 is currently servicing a request at track 9. If the queue of requests is 80. Tutorial Questions 1. and commence its next sweep at a cylinder which is not the innermost one. The drive is currently servicing a request at cylinder 143 and the previous request was at cylinder 125. what is the head movement to satisfy the SSTF disk scheduling algorithm? a) 22. 147. Explain two (2) methods that can be used by the operating system to schedule the usage of a hard disk on a server. Suppose a disk drive has 200 cylinders. 46. Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) is based on C-SCAN. which is in great demand. 80 b) 46.

Lecture 22 – RAID (2 hours)
RAID was first defined in 1987 to describe a redundant array of inexpensive disks. This technology allowed computer users to achieve high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the technique of arranging the devices into arrays for redundancy. Marketers representing industry RAID manufacturers later reinvented the term to describe a redundant array of independent disks as a means of dissociating a "low cost" expectation from RAID technology. RAID is now used as an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that can divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. The different schemes/architectures are named by the word RAID followed by a number, as in RAID 0, RAID 1, etc. RAID's various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance. When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID technology, they are said to be in a RAID array. This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the array is seen by the computer user and operating system as one single disk. RAID levels The standard RAID levels are a basic set of RAID configurations and employ striping, mirroring, or parity. A RAID 0 (also known as a stripe set or striped volume) splits data evenly across two or more disks (striped) with no parity information for redundancy. RAID 0 was not one of the original RAID levels and provides no data redundancy. RAID 0 is normally used to increase performance, although it can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB. A RAID 1 creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks. This is useful when read performance or reliability are more important than data storage capacity. Such an array can only be as big as the smallest member disk. A classic RAID 1 mirrored pair contains two disks (see diagram), which increases reliability geometrically over a single disk. Since each member contains a complete copy of the data, and can be addressed independently, ordinary wear-and-tear reliability is raised by the power of the number of self-contained copies.

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A RAID 2 stripes data at the bit (rather than block) level, and uses a Hamming code for error correction. The disks are synchronized by the controller to spin in unison. Extremely high data transfer rates are possible. This is the only original level of RAID that is not currently used. The use of the Hamming(7,4) code (four data bits plus three parity bits) also permits using 7 disks in RAID 2, with 4 being used for data storage and 3 being used for error correction. RAID 2 is the only standard RAID level, other than some implementations of RAID 6, which can automatically recover accurate data from single-bit corruption in data. Other RAID levels can detect single-bit corruption in data, or can sometimes reconstruct missing data, but cannot reliably resolve contradictions between parity bits and data bits without human intervention. (Multiple-bit corruption is possible though extremely rare. RAID 2 can detect but not repair double-bit corruption.) All hard disks soon after implemented an error correction code that also used Hamming code, so RAID 2's error correction was now redundant and added unnecessary complexity. Like RAID 3, this level quickly became useless and it is now obsolete. There are no commercial applications of RAID 2. A RAID 3 uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. RAID 3 is very rare in practice. One of the side effects of RAID 3 is that it generally cannot service multiple requests simultaneously. This comes about because any single block of data will, by definition, be spread across all members of the set and will reside in the same location. So, any I/O operation requires activity on every disk and usually requires synchronized spindles. In the example shown, a request for block "A" consisting of bytes A1-A6 would require all three data disks to seek to the beginning (A1) and reply with their contents. A simultaneous request for block B would have to wait. However, the performance characteristic of RAID 3 is very consistent, unlike higher RAID levels, the size of a stripe is less than the size of a sector or OS block so that, for both reading and writing, the entire stripe is accessed every time. The performance of the array is therefore identical to the performance of one disk in the array except for the transfer rate, which is multiplied by the number of data drives (i.e., less parity drives).

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This makes it best for applications that demand the highest transfer rates in long sequential reads and writes, for example uncompressed video editing. Applications that make small reads and writes from random places over the disk will get the worst performance out of this level. The requirement that all disks spin synchronously (in lockstep), added design considerations to a level that did not give significant advantages over other RAID levels, so it quickly became useless and is now obsolete. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. However, this level has commercial vendors making implementations of it. It's usually implemented in hardware, and the performance issues are addressed by using large disk caches. A RAID 4 uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. This allows each member of the set to act independently when only a single block is requested. If the disk controller allows it, a RAID 4 set can service multiple read requests simultaneously. RAID 4 looks similar to RAID 5 except that it does not use distributed parity, and similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block level, rather than the byte level. Generally, RAID 4 is implemented with hardware support for parity calculations, and a minimum of 3 disks is required for a complete RAID 4 configuration. In the example, a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait, but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1. Unfortunately for writing the parity disk becomes a bottleneck, as simultaneous writes to A1 and B2 would in addition to the writes to their respective drives also both need to write to the parity drive. In this way RAID example 4 places a very high load on the parity drive in an array. The performance of RAID 4 in this configuration can be very poor, but unlike RAID 3 it does not need synchronized spindles. However, if RAID 4 is implemented on synchronized drives and the size of a stripe is reduced below the OS block size a RAID 4 array then has the same performance pattern as a RAID 3 array. Both RAID 3 and RAID 4 were quickly replaced by RAID 5. A RAID 5 uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. RAID 5 is popular because of its low cost of redundancy. This can be seen by comparing the number of drives needed to achieve a given capacity. RAID 1 or RAID 1+0, which yield redundancy, give only s / 2 storage capacity, where s is the sum of the capacities of n drives used. In RAID 5, the yield is
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Tutorial Questions 1.. RAID 6 does not have a performance penalty for read operations. some with hardware support for parity calculations (hardware RAID cards) and some using the main system processor (motherboard based RAID controllers). G.which function as a slow RAID-1. using Windows Dynamic Disks or with mdadm in Linux. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Performance varies greatly depending on how RAID 6 is implemented in the manufacturer's storage architecture – in software. but it does have a performance penalty on write operations because of the overhead associated with parity calculations. 2. Although RAID 5 is commonly implemented in a disk controller. firmware or by using firmware and specialized. Describe the failure rate and performance of each RAID level. 4. while mdadm supports a fully-functional (non-degraded) RAID 5 setup with two disks . Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 98 . In the example. In some implementations a degraded RAID 5 disk set can be made (three disk set of which only two are online). A simultaneous read request for block B1 would have to wait. it can also be done at the operating system level. a read request for block A1 would be serviced by disk 0. but the same four drives can be used to build a 3-TB array under RAID 5. As an example. A minimum of three disks is required for a complete RAID 5 configuration. but a read request for B2 could be serviced concurrently by disk 1.g. Describe the standard RAID levels. four 1TB drives can be made into a 2-TB redundant array under RAID 1 or RAID 1+0. but can be expanded with further volumes. Describe the non-standard RAID levels. e. Discuss the term RAID.where Smin is the size of the smallest disk in the array. 3.

The oldest backup is called the grandfather. This method allows you to have the last 3 backups at all times. Each time that you backup you reuse the oldest backup medium. Backup all files (main backup). Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. Backup Tips • Always Label backups with a felt tip pen • Store disk/tape in proper place .restore the main backup first. To restore . regardless of whether or not the files have changed since the last backup Grandfather. then each incremental backup in the same sequence. It is laborious to restore at a point in time. damaged. or disk that can be used if the original is lost. then the entire backup is useless. the son becomes the father and the new backup becomes the son. clean location • Do not put disks in the sun • Do not put magnetic backup media near magnets • Restore data every now and again to ensure disk/tape still good and backup will be available in emergency. • • Full – backup that copies all of the files in a computer (also called archival backup). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 99 . The father then becomes the grandfather. • • • • Grand father. Restore newest/last tape/disk Backup of changes to audit files. dry.save to CD 3 (Son) • Day 4 . things can still go wrong. son technique for magnetic tape • Keep 3 tapes/CDs/DVDs etc • You will always have the last 3 days backups • Day 1 .save to CD 2 (Father) • Daye 3 .save to CD 1 (Grandfather) • Day 2 .save to CD 1 etc. then changes since (incremental backup). Son (or Three-generation backup) – backup method in which you recycle 3 sets of backups. A backup is a duplicate of a file. If your computer fails you can restore from the backup. Backup is therefore the main risk management solution. Incremental – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full or last incremental backup.if one change is messed up. The following describes the different types of backup. father. Differential – backup that copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup Selective – backup that allows a user to choose specific files to back up. Father. Disadvantage . Restore changes from audit. the middle backup is the father and the latest backup is called the son.Lecture 23 – Backup and recovery methods (1 hour) Backup is the key – the ultimate safeguard Regardless of the precautions that you take. In order to recover you restore all files.cool. or destroyed.

G. Describe how to restore based on the different backup methods. How did you solve the problem (e. why did you have to? Have you ever lost valuable data because you did not have a backup? Describe the situation. How would you recover using a generation backup? a) Use the oldest backup b) Use the latest backup c) Use the last full backup and the oldest backup d) Use the last full backup and the latest backup 5. Practice MCQs 1. 6. Tutorial Questions 1.g. then each incremental backup in sequence b) Use the last full backup first then the last incremental backup c) Use the last generation backup then the previous backup d) Use the last incremental backup Operating System Concepts Mrs. how often do you back up? If not. A backup procedure that saves only files that have changed is a) Main backup b) Preferential backup c) Differential backup d) Incremental backup 2.• Keep a backup offsite in case something happens to the current location such as a fire. Do you backup? If yes. 2. Did you have to type everything over)? 5. 4. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 100 . How would you recover from an incremental backup? a) Use the last full backup first. Which backup method should John use? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 4. 3. Which backup method copies only the files that have changed since the last full backup? a) Differential b) Generation c) Incremental d) Selective 3. Discuss the time limit for thumb drives. John would like to create a CD with all of his lecture notes for the semester. why not? What type of backup do you perform? What backup medium do you use? Have you ever had to restore a backup? If yes.

Tutorial Questions 1. The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme. who access remote files in the same way as local files. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. A file server is a high-performance computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer files that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network.g. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. Discuss the concept of a file server. In this scheme. database server. 3. Differentiate between the peer-to-peer and the client-server architecture? 2. mail server. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 101 . The files can be downloaded or manipulated in some manner by a client. The operating system automatically converts accesses to shared (non-local) files into messages to the file server. It runs one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. A file server is usually not performing any calculations. and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. but requests a server's content or service function. Detail the specifications of a server that would be required by the college in order to adequately service the students using the labs. A client does not share any of its resources. The main problem with this scheme is that the file server may become a bottleneck.Lecture 24 . If a user opens a non-local file.File server systems (1 hour) Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters.) 4. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. print server etc. where the clients are the workstations using the storage. called clients. Operating System Concepts Mrs. the location of a file is transparent to users. Every access to a remote file may require a considerable amount of message transfer overhead. G. All shared files reside at this single centralized site. the open request is channelled to the file server. Discuss the other types of servers (e.

You may also split the files by rows/columns on different servers. A file system provides a service for clients. it's understood where the file actually resides. regardless of where they reside? o Locality . A local file can be accessed by a user residing on any site in the system. The server interface is the normal set of file operations: create. Location transparency • The name of a file does not reveal any hint of the file's physical storage location. sector>.Does a user access all of the files in a system in the same manner. although hidden. is hidden. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 102 . • In a conventional file system. • Promotes sharing the storage space itself. • In a transparent DFS. the location of a file. When data are requested. • Better file abstraction. Dynamic. the data does not all have to reside in one place as in a centralized system. • File name still denotes a specific. • Separates the naming hierarchy from the storage devices hierarchy. Operating System Concepts Mrs. G.Distributed file systems (1 hour) A Distributed File System (DFS ) is simply a classical model of a file system distributed across multiple machines. the system and disk are known. • Can expose correspondence between component units and machines. etc. read. A distributed file system (DFS) consists of software that keeps track of files stored across multiple servers or networks. The resources on a particular machine are local to itself. a DFS converts the file names into the physical location of the files so they can be accessed. The file location may or may not be transparent to the user. • File replication means multiple copies of a file. • Example: A user filename maps to <cylinder. • This is a convenient way to share data.Lecture 25 . Location independence • The name of a file does not need to be changed when the file's physical storage location changes. set of physical disk blocks. Naming is the mapping between logical and physical objects. Resources on other machines are remote. on files. There are two major issues that dominate the design criteria in a distributed file system:o Transparency .Where do files reside in the system? Each site maintains its own local file system. the data can exist on various file servers on the network. mapping returns a SET of locations for the replicas. The purpose is to promote sharing of dispersed files. In a networked environment users want to share data files. somewhere in the network. one-to-many mapping.

In the naming structure of a file if location transparency is used what happens? File name: A. reveals the file’s logical storage location Operating System Concepts Mrs. reveals the file’s physical storage location B.Most DFSs today: • Support location transparent systems. 3. 2. (automatic movement of a file from machine to machine. G. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 103 . includes the file’s logical storage location C. Distinguish between a centralized versus a distributed system. Practice MCQs 1.) • Files are permanently associated with specific disk blocks. • Do NOT support migration. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a distributed file system. Research and give examples of various DFSs. Tutorial Questions 1. does not reveal the file’s physical storage location D.

001375 = 1. -3 = characteristic or exponent. 13. Coprocessors were first seen on mainframe computers. execute program flow control instructions. 10 = base/radix. manage memory etc. Operating System Concepts Mrs.375 x 10-3 (1. and keyboard operations.375 = mantissa/argument. do input/output operations. A more common use was to control input/output channels. The decimal point is moved/floated along the digits to a position in between first or second non-zero most significant digit. where they added additional "optional" functionality such as floating point math support.g. A co-processor is therefore a microprocessor that performs specialized functions that the central processing unit cannot perform or cannot perform as well and as quickly.Co-processors (1/4 hour) A single CPU works in conjunction with specialized “slave” processors that perform dedicated chores/tasks. coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Many Micro-computers today have slave processors that handle tasks such as high speed mathematical computation.375 x 101 (1. E. However. Math Co-processors This is a separate processor that handles floating point (real numbers). Disadvantages • Some co-processors cannot fetch instructions from memory.screen graphics.Lecture 26 .375E +1) .g. Advantages • The co-processor is often designed to do certain tasks more efficiently than the main processor. E. • Co-processors allow a line of computers to be customized. 2. • By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor. so that customers who do not need the extra performance need not pay for it. What is the co-processor used to do in this particular computer.75 = 1. G. Describe the different types of co-processors in use in modern computers. At any point in time two or more processors within the system unit may be performing work simultaneously. resulting in far greater speeds for the computer as a whole. display . Identify a computer that uses a co-processor. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 104 . These processors require the host main processor to fetch the coprocessor instructions and handle all other operations aside from the coprocessor functions • Co-processors carry out only a limited range of functions Tutorial Questions 1.375E -3) . the time taken to perform an entire job will be largely constrained by the CPU.

‘dual-core’. What is a co-processor? a) A processor that works for another processor b) A processor that is in charge of another processor c) A processor that works alongside another processor d) The main processor in a micro-computer Operating System Concepts Mrs. ‘superscalar’. Practice MCQs 1.3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 105 . Explain the concepts: ‘pipelining’. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of co-processors. 4. G.

It is actually an interpreter. On these machines. RISC (Reduced instruction set computing) A RISC processor is a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. These designs also differ in their instruction lengths. RISC. E. it lists the things that the processor can do. Operating System Concepts Mrs.RISC/CISC (3/4 hour) What is an Instruction set? An instruction set is the set of available instructions that the computer can understand and perform. The machine language typically has between 50 and 300 instructions mostly for moving data around the machine.complex instruction set computer. do not have a microprogramming level. This is the normal type of computer. In other words. is usually located in ROM (read only memory). and the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction. E. There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures. doing arithmetic. It is often assumes that these designs differ based on the size of the instruction sets. They take many clock cycles to complete one instruction. RISC . addressing modes. A RISC program is therefore longer than the equivalent CISC and takes up more storage space. JUMP and carrying them out as a series of little steps. RISC makes the processor simple (non complex) so that they can execute more instructions in the same amount of time. a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions.reduced instruction set computer. fetching the machine language instructions such as ADD. Introduction to RISC and CISC CISC . G.Lecture 27 . IBM RS 6000 and those based on the MIPS chip or using SUN SPARC architecture. however. Two basic computer design philosophies predominant in the market today are the complex instruction set and the reduced instruction set. MOVE. and comparing values. Multiplication is the equivalent of a repeated addition. This software. In removing the complexity in the way that the processor is designed some instructions are removed. (More instructions per clock cycle). These have fewer instructions in their instruction set.g. Until the mid-1980s. however the differences extend further. number of registers. the hardware executes the machine language instructions directly. At that time.g. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 106 . Some computers. Some machines have a layer of primitive software that directly controls the hardware and provides an interface between the hardware and operating system. called the micro-program (or firmware). the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had larger sets of instructions.

The latter CPU led to the founding of MIPS Technologies. Since almost all instructions make use of register addressing. The RISC concept was used to simplify the design of the IBM PC/XT. which would require fewer transistors1. developments in technology made RISC attractive to computer designers. the computer would get more done in a shorter amount of time. and begins execution of the corresponding code. and make them cheaper to manufacture. a PowerPC has 32 registers. use same length instructions so that the instructions are aligned on word boundaries and may be fetched in a single operation. Only load and store instructions access memory . and better pipelining. Another technique utilized by reduced instruction set machines is pre-fetching coupled with speculative execution . making the other 80% superfluous to requirement. the results are discarded and there is no loss. IBM designed the first reduced instruction set computer. Pipelining was a key technique in achieving this. His argument was based upon the notion that a computer uses only 20% of the instructions.P. A processor based upon this concept would use few instructions. Typically. most RISC microprocessors have floating-point units (FPUs) built in. a reduced instruction set computer stores its instruction in 32 bits. and was later used in the IBM RISC System/6000 and Sun Microsystems SPARC microprocessors.In the mid 1970s. Another way in which reduced instruction set computers sought to improve performance was to have most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle. These instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations . RISC microprocessor (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipe Stages). Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. G. high-speed caches.I. there are only a few addressing modes in a reduced instruction set computer and there are a large number of general-purpose registers. who developed the M. RISC microprocessors also emphasize floating-point performance making them popular with the scientific community whose applications do more floating-point math. If the processor guessed correctly. For example. unlike complex instruction set machine. it does not wait to see if the condition has been met. Advantages of RISC • 1 They can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. It "guesses" whether or not the condition will be met. Reduced instruction set machines. Due to these developments.S. Pipelining allows the next instruction to enter the execution cycle while the previous instruction is still processing. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 107 . If the processor has guessed incorrectly. Many of the MIPS architects also played an important role in the creation of the Motorola 68000. The transistor is a solid-state electronic device used primarily for switching and amplification. The concept was developed by John Cocke of IBM Research during 1974. it has gained time. For this reason. By reducing the number of transistors and instructions to only those most frequently used. Some of these developments were great increases in memory size with corresponding decreases in cost. RISC architecture makes use of a small set of simplified instructions in attempt to improve performance. advanced compilers. If the processor has fetched a branch instruction.

Disadvantages of RISC • • • • • • • • • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler. This was largely due to a lack of software support. RISC developers have also failed to remain in competition with CISC alternatives.an Apple Mac G3 offers a significant performance advantage over its Intel equivalent. By 1994. it cannot compete with a CISC CPU that boasts twice the number of clock cycles. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. Intel had the resources to plow through development and produce powerful processors.000. the differences were not great enough to persuade buyers to change technologies. Many companies were unwilling to take a chance with the emerging RISC technology. which makes them cheaper to design and produce. Compiler technology has also become more sophisticated. The Macintosh market has been damaged by several problems that have affected the availability of 500MHz+ PowerPC chips. Instructions are executed over 4x faster providing a significant performance boost! Today. This is primarily due to advancements in other areas of computer technology. This will increase the size of the application and the amount of overhead required. Programmer must pay close attention to instruction scheduling so that the processor does not spend a large amount of time waiting for an instruction to execute Debugging can be difficult due to the instruction scheduling Require very fast memory systems to feed them instructions RISC chips require more lines of code to produce the same results and are increasingly complex. Despite the speed advantages of the RISC processor. To some extent. processor developers were unable to manufacture RISC chips in large enough volumes to make their price competitive. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. G. the PC compatible market has stormed ahead and has broken the 1GHz barrier. producing faster and cheaper processors . Although RISC chips might surpass Intel's efforts in specific areas. the Intel x86 is arguable the only chip which retains CISC architecture. 1MB of DRAM cost about $5.1 and Windows 95 were designed with CISC processors in mind. the same amount of memory cost only $6 (when adjusted for inflation). Although Apple's Power Macintosh line featured RISC-based chips and Windows NT was RISC compatible. RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software.• • RISC chips are simpler as they require fewer transistors. Windows 3. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 108 . In contrast. RISC chips took over a decade to gain a foothold in the commercial world. Although their CISC chips were becoming increasingly unwieldy and difficult to develop. Despite the advantages of RISC based processing. Without commercial interest. In 1977. The price of RAM has decreased dramatically. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. RISC supporters argue that it the way of the future. so that the RISC use of RAM and emphasis on software has become ideal. Another major setback was the presence of Intel. the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike.

Sun's workstations based on the SPARC include the SPARCstation. Arithmetic operations are performed only on values in the registers. There are already a number of different operating systems that run on PowerPC-based computers. RISC 1 and 2 The first "proper" RISC chips were created at Berkeley University in 1985. which appeared in 1994. have built PCs based on the PowerPC. a RISC technology developed by Sun Microsystems. SPARC Short for Scalable Processor Architecture. G. 801 To prove that his RISC concept was sound. SPARCserver. Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. Another RISC feature of the SPARC is that only load and store instructions are allowed to access memory. John Cocke created the 801 prototype microprocessor (1975). becoming the first RISC microprocessor. The first computers based on the PowerPC architecture were the Power Macs. Windows NT. Alpha Processor A powerful RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and used in their line of workstations and servers.Examples of RISC Processors Power Mac In 1994. including IBM. Ultra1.5 and higher). Intel has invested a considerable amount of money in the company and have utilized the technology in their processor Operating System Concepts Mrs. Since the unbundling of ARM from Acorn. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 109 . including the Macintosh operating system (System 7. It also takes advantage of pipelining to approach the goal of one instruction per clock cycle. It was never marketed but plays a pivotal role in computer history. MIPS Another computer classified as having a reduced instruction set. In the SPARC. Their ARM and StrongARM chips power the old Acorn Archimedes and the Apple Newton handwriting recognition systems. Apple Computer. other manufacturers. The name is derived from IBM's name for the architecture. It contains many general-purpose registers (32 in all) and a floating-point unit. based on the PowerPC RISC microprocessor. The term SPARC® itself is a trademark of SPARC International. Since then. all instructions are 32-bits in length. Apple introduced the Power Mac. A Power PC chip is A RISC -based computer architecture developed jointly by IBM. an independent organization that licenses the term to Sun for its use. ARM One of the most well known RISC developers is Cambridge based Advanced Research Machines (originally Acorn Research Machines). and OS/2. . Ultra2 and SPARCcluster. and Motorola Corporation. Pre-fetching and speculative execution are other methods the PowerPC uses to speed execution of instructions.

although they do require special decoding circuits that count bytes within words and frame the instructions 2 Firmware Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. CISCbased systems still cover the vast majority of the consumer desktop market. fast code. If Samsung had bought the Amiga in 1994. Pronounced sisk. In a microprogrammed2 system. Other advantages of using microcode included fewer transistors.it costs less than £10. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instruction. the ROM contains a group of microcode instructions that correspond with each machine-language instruction. microcode acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the electronics of the computer. Variable-length instructions were used to limit the amount of wasted space. In contrast to RISC. Another characteristic of complex instructions set is their variable-length instruction format. since instructions could be retrieved up to ten times faster from ROM than from main memory. code size has become a non-issue. When a machine-language instruction arrives at the processor. CISC Since the emergence of RISC computers. conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). used by many workstations and also some personal computers. One of the main advantages for the ARM is the price. At that time.design. they would possibly have used the chip to power the low-end Amigas. The first instruction had to complete the execution cycle before the next instruction could begin. and stands for complex instruction set computer. and a micro-programmed design can be easily modified to handle new instruct ions sets. although these instructions did require multiple clocks cycles to execute. and pre-1994 Macintosh systems also use a CISC microprocessor. CISC philosophy used microcode to simplify the computer's architecture. which supports fewer instructions. The argument for its continued use indicates that the chip designers should make life easier for the programmer by reducing the amount of instructions required to program the CPU. easier implementation of new chips. In an age of dwindling memory hard disk prices. The Amiga. Most personal computers. Atari. This also improved performance. computers executed instructions sequentially. In a nutshell. use a CISC architecture. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) is a retroactive definition that was introduced to distinguish the design from RISC microprocessors. An alternative architecture. However. Complex instructions came about in order to maximize the performance of early computers. it executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. in which the CPU supports as many as two hundred instructions. The majority of these systems are based upon the x86 architecture or a variant. This reduced the amount of time spent retrieving instructions from memory. G. Designers combined sequences of instructions into single instructions. is RISC (reduced instruction set computer). Due to the high cost of memory and storage CISC microprocessors were considered superior due to the requirements for small. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 110 .

G. Due to the large number of addressing modes. However. because the micro-program instruction sets could be written to match the constructs of high-level languages More instructions can fit into the cache. Advantages of CISC Less expensive due to the use of microcode. to/from an address offset from a base address in a register. since earlier generations of a processor family were contained as a subset in every new version Different instructions take different amount of time to execute due to their variablelength Many instructions are not used frequently. typically about 8 registers. to/from an address pointed to by a register. This is a result of having instructions. there are more than 30.according to their byte length. binary and arithmetic operations have two or three operands3. to/from a specific location in memory. to/from an address offset from a base address in memory. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 111 . no need to hardwire a control unit Upwardly compatible because a new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers Fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. creating a demand from people who have not • • • • • • • • • 3 Parameters. Another characteristic of the CISC design philosophy is the small number of general-purpose registers. the Intel market has become the definition of personal computing. an example of a complex instruction set computer. the average Macintosh is more expensive than the Intel PC. CISC microprocessors are more expensive to make than their RISC cousins. In particular. Approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program As discussed above. which can operate directly on memory. A large number of addressing modes also characterizes complex instruction set computers. since the instructions are not a fixed size Disadvantages of CISC Instruction sets and chip hardware became more complex with each generation of computers. In the VAX. while string operations have three or five operands. to/from an address pointed to by a memory location. The VAX. etc.market factors. has the following modes: to/from a register. Variables Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs. allowing for more efficient use of memory Simplified compiler. This is caused by one factor that the RISC manufacturers have no influence over .000 versions of integer add in the VAX.

used a computer previous. The x86 market has been opened by the development of several competing processors, from the likes of AMD, Cyrix, and Intel. This has continually reduced the price of a CPU of many months. In contrast, the PowerPC Macintosh market is dictated by Apple. This reduces the cost of x86 based microprocessors, while the PowerPC market remains stagnant. Examples of CISC Processors/Chips VAX The VAX is one example of a CISC. It has a large number of addressing modes. Another CISC characteristic it exhibits is variable-length instructions. Binary and arithmetic operations require 2 or 3 operands, but string operations need 3 or 5 operands . Motorola 68000 Another computer family that is classified as a complex instruction set computer is the Motorola 68000 family. It contains few general-purpose registers: 8 data registers and 8 address registers. It also uses variable-length instructions. Each inst ruction in one of these computers requires 0, 1, or 2 operands. IBM370 and Intel line Other typical complex instruction set computers include the IBM 370 and Intel's 80x86 line of computers.

CRISC Complex instruction set computers (CISC) and reduced instruction set computers (RISC) have been combined to form a hybrid known as a Complex/Reduced instruction set Computer (CRISC). Today, the distinction between RISC and CISC is becoming rather fuzzy. The first hints of RISC technology began to appear in Intel's 80x86 processor in 1989, when the 486 had a FPU4, more hard-wired instruction logic, and pipelining. Other manufacturers have followed suit such as Cyrix. Cyrix's M1 also takes advantage of pipelining to increase instruction execution. The M1 has the same micro-architecture as the Intel 80x86 family of complex instruction set machines.. Another RISC characteristic the M1 has borrowed is a large number of general-purpose registers. The M1 has 32 general-purpose registers by using a technique called dynamic register naming, which makes it appear as if there are only 8 registers in use at a time. This preserves compatibility with existing software that expects to see only 8 registers. The Pentium is another CISC/RISC hybrid. It uses variable-length instructions and few generalpurpose registers as a complex instruction set computer would, but it adopts RISC-like features, pipelining and a floating-point unit. In the aftermath of the CISC-RISC conflict, a new enemy has appeared to threaten the peace. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) was developed by Intel for the server market, thought it will undoubtedly appear in desktops over the next few years. The first EPIC processor

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will be the 64-bit Merced. The market may be divided between combined CISC-RISC systems in the low-end and EPIC in the high-end. Summary/Conclusion Complex instruction set computers and reduced instruction set computers differ greatly. CISC has a large, complex instruction set, variable-length instructions, a large number of addressing modes, and a small number of general-purpose registers. On the other hand, RISC has a reduced instruction set, fixed-length instructions, few addressing modes, and many general-purpose registers. Today, designers are producing a hybrid of the two design philosophies known as a complex/reduced instruction set computer. These computers combine characteristics such as variable-length instructions, few general-purpose registers, pipelining, and floating-point units. As the world goes through the 21st century the CISC Vs. RISC arguments have been swept aside by the recognition that neither terms are accurate in their description. The definition of 'Reduced' and 'Complex' instructions has begun to blur, RISC chips have increased in their complexity (compare the PPC 601 to the G4 as an example) and CISC chips have become more efficient. The result are processors that are defined as RISC or CISC only by their ancestry. The PowerPC 601, for example, supports more instructions than the Pentium. Yet the Pentium is a CISC chip, while the 601 is considered to be RISC. CISC chips have also gained techniques associated with RISC processors. Intel describe the Pentium II as a CRISC processor, while AMD use a RISC architecture but remain compatible with the dominant x86 CISC processors. Thus it is no longer important which camp the processor comes from, the emphasis has onceagain been placed upon the operating system and the speed that it can execute instructions. The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. Tutorial Questions 1. Write an algorithm to do multiplication of 2 numbers by doing a repeated addition. 2. Use a table to compare RISC to CISC. 3. Identify the different brands of RISC and CISC computers. Practice MCQs 1. The computer that executes more instructions in a clock cycle is a) FCFS b) RISC c) SCAN d) CISC 2. Which of the following is a feature of a RISC processor? a) Instructions consist mostly of register-to-register operations
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b) There is microcode that acts as a transition layer between the instructions and the computer c) Instructions have a variable-length format d) Instructions require multiple clocks cycles to execute 3. Which of the following is a feature of a CISC processor? a) Fewer transistors and cheaper to manufacture b) Most instructions complete execution in one machine cycle c) Designers have combined sequences of instructions into single instructions d) More problems for the programmer and longer programs 4. What is the reason for a processor chip having variable length instructions? a) To allow them to be fetched in a single operation b) To limit the amount of wasted space c) To reduce the need for micro-code d) To reduce the number of instructions

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Lecture 28 – Security (1 hour) Definition of security Computer security refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization.g. personal history. Loss of sales due to piracy. Category Human error – e. flood. loss of time in having to re-enter data. power surges. hurricane. Employees do things to deliberately modify the data. or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files (e. Identity theft.g.. Illegal access to files. This can lead to things like software piracy. low voltage. Physical damage to computer. young child) Technical error – system failure e. adding data twice. data. Loss of time. Theft. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 115 . or processing capability. medical information. delete a file by accident. or marketing plans). May need to re-install software. insects Unauthorized use and access – hacker/cracker gets access illegally. booting file missing/corrupted Virus – program that causes damage to files or computer. G. A security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware. fire. Updated Jan 2010 Operating System Concepts Mrs.g. Loss of computer and data. Loss of computer. Effect Loss of data. or sexual preference). civil disorder Competing entity could use data against your company. hard disk crash. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. customer lists.g. Loss of data. less data integrity (incorrect data) therefore incorrect information will be retrieved. information. entering incorrect data. loss of time. lightening.g. vandalism. Huge repair bill. Also leads to theft of intellectual property. Forms of security violation The following table indicates the different security risks and their effects.. software. pricing data. not adequately trained/experienced (e. Purpose of security The purpose of security is to either prevent a security risk from happening or to reduce its effects. Loss of data. theft of marketing information (e. Damage to computer due to improper use. Disasters (Natural or otherwise) – earthquake. Loss of files/data. Loss of income due to software piracy.

The program also claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit. Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: Ubiquitous (ever-present). In other cases. Unlike a cell. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. Instead. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. A computer virus must piggyback on some other program or document in order to get executed. at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself.Security threats and attacks Trojan Horse A Trojan appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Once it is running. Worm A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. There are similarities at a deeper level. but there are enough similarities that the name sticks. G. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. and then starts replicating from there. In some cases. Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. It may be benign or have a negative effect. the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 116 . It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. releasing the virus. A biological virus is not a living thing. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. it is then able to infect other programs or documents. Logic bomb A logic bomb is a type of virus that activates when certain sequence of activities are done on the computer. Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. A computer virus shares some of these traits.it is not alive. Obviously. and the cell remains alive. Virus A computer program that is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. as well. the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts. a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -. as well. Operating System Concepts Mrs.

the password could have been guessed or secretly taken. Some firewalls also protect systems from viruses and junk email (spam). the correct decryption key is required. thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. Encryption Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. Operating System Concepts Mrs. Firewall A firewall is a program and/or hardware that filters the information coming through the internet to prevent unauthorized access. G. Trend Micro-PCcillin).g.g. Firewall Authentication Authentication is a security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions and establish the authenticity of a message. McAfee. A distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Encryption is the conversion (encoding) of data into a form. a denial of service attack interrupts network service for some period. so it can be understood. An example of authentication is fingerprint scanning. (e. called a ciphertext. which cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people (e.s of firewalls include: Black Ice. An example of identification is using a password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. Identification is the act of claiming who you are. Authorization is a process of allowing someone or something to do something based on the previous two. However. Unlike a virus or worm. hackers). Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 117 . The computers act as "zombies" and work together to send out bogus messages.Denial-of-service An assault on a network that floods it with so many additional requests that regular traffic is either slowed or completely interrupted. Define the term cryptography. Zone Alarm). Norton Antivirus. This must be updated regularly. Virus protection. The key is an algorithm that undoes the work of the encryption algorithm. Virus protection Antivirus software (e. In order to easily recover the contents of an encrypted signal. Tutorial Questions 1. Encryption. which can cause severe damage to databases.g. Authentication. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. while authentication is proving it.

eccouncil. Which security feature prevents a hacker from making sense out of files that he has gained access to? a) Encryption b) Firewall c) Inheritance d) Profile 3. Discuss various encryption software. John has gotten the system administrator password by accident but was not able to use it at his computer. 5. What security feature has been activated to prevent John from using this password? a) Administrative protection b) Authority level c) Location control d) Password blocking Operating System Concepts Mrs. He is able to view all employee data except salary. Describe the term Secure Socket Layer 6. What security feature has been activated to limit John? a) Anti-virus b) Authority level c) Encryption d) Firewall 4. What are your comments on becoming a certified ethical hacker? Visit the website http://www. What is the most popular security feature of operating systems? a) Biometric identification b) Directory encryption c) Time and location controls d) User ids and passwords 2.org/ 3. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 118 .2. Differentiate between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption 4. John has a password to the human resource system. G. What is a Virtual Private Network? Practice MCQs 1.

SYS and MSDOS. You can set expiration dates on passwords. Operating System Concepts Mrs. OS/2 accepts login ID and password and a set of permissions or rights are granted by the LAN administrator. is a network O/S designed for ecommerce applications. MS-DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) refers to several single user. This is usually done to the system files such as IO. DOS used a command-line interface when Microsoft first developed it. Linux is a popular.g. Each user has a certain level of access rights or authority on different files and directories. G. only on the network. multitasking UNIX-type operating system that is open source software. You can limit by specific time of day and specific workstations for each user. a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems. A single user operating system allows only one user at a time. OS/2 OS/2 Warp Client is IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking. A password is not compulsory on the local computer. Hidden etc. is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand-alone and network operating system. Read. Unix can be defeated by Trojan Horses. scripting languages and interpreters which are particularly vulnerable to attack because there are so many portals of entry for hackers to exploit. the Internet. which means its code is available to the public. There is limited or no security. then he can still see such files. UNIX UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed at Bell Laboratories.SYS. command-line operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. There are a large number of built-in servers. Example: a fake login screen will allow you to put in your id and password. You can turn off rights/privileges to sub-directories. If someone knows that the file is there or lists hidden files. A trojan horse appears to be something that it is not so that you give out certain information. Later versions used both command-line and menu-driven user interfaces. like UNIX. Java. thereby allowing it to be read by unscrupulous persons. OS/2 Warp Server for e-business is IBM’s network O/S designed for business. and speech recognition. Solaris.Case studies Most operating systems use a system of passwords and user ids in order for a user to gain access to the computer and its files. The security is very good but can be vulnerable to attack. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 119 . Another example is a fake web site on which you give out your credit card information. Linux. You can set attributes on files e.

Software restrictions . fields. directories/libraries. This O/S uses a secure key chain to manage passwords. You are able to group users and set the authority level for the group (user profile). change. There is also support for biometric devices. startup modes. commands. You can be kicked off the system if you enter an incorrect password 3 times. The system can force a user to change their password after certain intervals. file system permissions. Windows XP Home edition versus Windows XP Professional Windows XP when it came out was Microsoft’s fastest. Blank passwords are not allowed in the Professional edition. There is also auditing which records login. Windows Server 2003 is an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server and includes features of previous server versions. event log. You may restrict a terminal that a user can use as well as the time that a user may log on to the system. You are unable to disable simple file sharing in the home edition so be careful on a network if you do not have a firewall. providing better performance and a new GUI with a simplified look. There is also a screen saver password. If you still have FAT then you do not have this feature.g. Operating System Concepts Mrs. A built-in firewall (called ICF) filters incoming traffic without attempting to manage or restrict outbound connections. object access.OS/400 This accepts user id and password. Authority levels can be set on files/objects. You are able to create multiple user accounts. read/write capability. file vault and firewall. There is enhanced system recovery from failure with System Restore feature. It allows directory access control. NTFS also allows you to encrypt files and folders using the Encrypting Files system (EFS). If you use NTFS you can set permissions down to the file level. You can set security on admin tasks (e. If you set a password but the user hits cancel button then the operating system will bring up the default desktop under which you have free reign. The Internet connection firewall protects against hackers. delete etc. policy changes. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 120 . There are also different levels of authority .You can also prevent certain programs from running (e. There is also secured wireless access. The professional edition has a Security Configuration Manager (SCM) which allows the administrator to define security templates that can be applied via group policy. account management. MacOS Mac OS X is a multitasking GUI operating system available only for Apple Macintosh computers. This accepts user id and password. Templates include password policies. There are audit logs and audit trails. Windows XP has increased security. lockout policies. It also supports encryption. records (views). most reliable Windows operating system. privilege use and system events. Windows NT has security holes. Microsoft Windows Windows 95/98 had limited security.read only. Home edition starts off with administrative privileges and no password by default. user rights.g. G. virus). changing settings). service permissions.

Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss the security features of different operating systems. Modify. You can encrypt communication. G. What are the security features common to most modern operating systems? 2. Read. The rights that can be set include: Superviros. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 121 . There are also inherited rights and file attributes. Write. Which operating system do you believe is the most secure? Operating System Concepts Mrs. There is also biometric support as well as smart card support. Erase. Novell Netware NetWare is a network O/S designed for client/server networks. There is a screen saver password. entertainment. and FileScan (sees filenames).NET is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications. Netware accepts a userid and password. The supervisor may set trustee directory and trustee file assignments. Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system from Microsoft that works on a specific type of PDA. and mobile devices and on handheld computers.Windows CE . There is security at the user level as well as at file and directory levels. called the Pocket PC. Create. Compare the security features of Windows 7 to previous versions? 3.

Past Operating Systems Concepts examination papers. http://www. Discovering computers 2008. Shelly G.webopedia. KY:Course Technology Publishing. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Gagne. Prentice Hall: USA. Abraham. (2004). Webopedia: Online computer dictionary. Silberschatz. & Cashman. G.J. Galvin.B. Complete Shelly Cashman Series. (3rd Ed. Campbell Copyright @ 2010 Updated Jan 2010 122 .. (2007). Modern Operating Systems.).REFERENCES CCCJ lecturers.com.. (2006). Tanenbaum. P. Operating Systems Concepts.d.: USA. T. G. 7th E. Operating System Concepts Mrs.B. Andrew S.

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