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GS.TS.

Nguyn vit Trung Chng 4 : Ch to v lp dng kt cu thp

S tay T vn gim st

CHNG 4. CH TO V LP DNG KT CU THP


4.1. CH TO V CH SA CU KIN THP 4.1.1. VT LIU Vt liu trong cu thp c th l thp cn khng chu hn ghp hoc thp cn chu hn ghp. Thp cn khng chu hn ghp gm : Thp cc bon l Mc - tanh. Thp kt cu hp kim thp l Mc - tanh. Thp cn chu hn ghp gm : Thp cc bon l Mc - tanh. Thp hp kim thp. Cng tnh ton khi chu lc dc trc (Ro) v khi chu un (Ru) ly theo bng 3-1 qui trnh thit k cu cng theo trng thi gii hn 1979. Vi cc loi thp khc khng c trong bng 3-1 th cn c vo ca-ta-l, hoc tin hnh th nghim xc nh loi thp tng ng c trong bng 3-1 tra bng. - Thp dng ch to kt cu thp phi c : Ca-ta-l hoc cc chng ch v phm cht ca thp, nh my sn xut..... Ph hp vi chng loi thp trong qui nh trong thit k. Khng c khuyt tt nh hng n vic gia cng hoc cht lng ca kt cu thp. - Trong bng 3-1 ch cho cng tnh ton khi chu lc dc trc v khi chu un, i vi cc loi cng tnh ton khc ca thp trong cc cu kin ca kt cu v lin kt ly bng cng Ro nhn vi cc h s tnh chuyn theo dng ng sut. Cc h s tnh chuyn cho trong cc bng 3-2 v 3-3 ca Qui trnh 1979. 4.1.2 LIN KT

Trong ch to kt cu thp c th s dng cc lin kt bu lng, inh tn, hn hoc bu lng cng cao. 4.1.2.1 Lin kt bu lng : - Khng dng bu lng thng lin kt c nh trong cc kt cu ghp. - Cc bu lng tinh ch dng lin kt c nh trong cc kt cu ghp ch c th c ng knh nh thua ng knh l khng qu 0,3mm. S lng rng en trong cc bulng ny theo qui nh: Nhiu nht l 2 v t nht l 1 nu t di ai c ( - cu); Nhiu nht l 1 nu t di u bulng. Khi dng bulng tinh ch mun khi lng cn t cc rng en n tnh hoc c m. - Sai s cho php v ng knh l so vi ng knh thit k ly theo bng 41 ca Qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng.

In ngay 8/5/08

2 - Bu lng thng (bulng th) ch dng lp rp tm thi, cc bulng ny c ng knh b hn ng knh l inh 1mm v chiu di tng ng vi b dy ca tp thp ghp. Khng cho php dng rng en vi s lng vt qu 4 v vi b dy tng cng vt qu 40mm. Sc chu lc tnh ton ca lin kt bulng ly theo bng 8 ca qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. 4.1.2.2 Lin kt inh tn nc ta hin ti trong xy dng cu cng lin kt inh tn vn c dng kh ph bin. - S lng inh tn ti thiu lin kt cc thanh theo hng dc (tr cc thanh cho ca h ging) c php dng nh sau: + Vi mt hng inh tn l 3; vi t hai hng inh tn tr ln l 2; trn cnh th ra ca on thp gc l 5; + Cc mi ni v lin kt cc thanh chu ko hay lc chu ko lc chu nn, phi c s lng inh tn bng nhau t ra l hai hng u tin k t mt ct ca thanh hay ca bn thp ni chu ton b ni lc. Trong trng hp cc mi ni v lin kt ca thp gc c hai hng inh th chic inh u tin phi b tr gc ca thp gc. - ng knh ca inh tn b tr thp gc ca cc thanh ch khng nn ln hn 1/4 b rng ca cnh thp gc. Trong nhng trng hp bt buc, i vi cc thanh ging, np tng cng, bn ngn... c php b tr cc inh tn c ng knh 23mm trn thp gc cnh rng 80mm v ng knh 26mm trn thp gc cnh rng 90mm. - Chiu di thn inh tn trong bn thp khng c ln hn 4,5 ln ng knh l inh; s bn thp ghp li bng inh tn 23mm khng nn nhiu hn 7 lp; vi ng knh 26mm khng nn nhiu hn 8 lp. Khi tn inh bng hai ba tn hi p hoc c dng gi hi p ng lc th b dy tn ghp c th c tng ln n 5,5 ln ng knh l inh v s bn tn ghp khi y c th tng ti 8 lp vi ng knh l inh 23mm v ti 9 lp i vi ng knh l 26mm. Khi chiu dy ca tp bn ghp vt qu 3,5 ln ng knh l inh th phi dng loi inh tn c thn hnh nn ct v u kiu chp cao. - Khong cch gia cc inh tn phi tun theo cc qui nh ti a v ti thiu nh trong bng 3-17 ca qui trnh thit k cu cng theo trng thi gii hn. - Sau khi phn dm cu, dn lp rp hnh thnh mt h thng cng c nghim thu v lm bin bn th c th bt u cng tc tn inh. Khi lp rp theo kiu hng v na hng cng tc tn inh c th bt u sm hn trnh cho cc con li chu lc nhiu do m kh rt li ra thay th bng inh tn. S khoang lp rp cha tn inh k c khoang ang lp khng c nhiu qu 3. Khi tn inh tho con li v bulng n u tn inh n . - Cc l lp inh tn phi p ng cc yu cu nh trong bng 41 ca qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng, ngoi ra so vi tng s l inh mt mi ni cho php. + Khng qu 10% l c o n 1mm; + Khng qu 20% l b lch hng trc (khng ng tm) n 2% b dy ca tp thp ghp nhng khng lch qu 2mm; + Tng s cc l o v lch hng trc mt mi ni khng c vt qu 25% tng s inh tnh ton mi ni v khng c vt qu 50% tng s inh trong mi mt ct ngang.

- Trc khi lp ghp phi kim tra cht lng b mt tm ghp: + Phi co sch g, bn xung quanh l v mp l. + Chiu dy tp bn ghp phi ph hp vi ng knh l inh v phng php tn inh; + Cn phi lp tc cho ngng tn inh khi sy ra tnh trng bn thp b c khot khi tn inh hoc khi thay th cc inh b h hng. - Khi lp dm trn gio ti cc mi ni phi lp s lng con li v bulng t nht bng 33% ca tng s, trong 2/3 l con li v 1/3 l bulng. - Khi lp hng v bn hng s lng con li phi lp theo qui nh ca tnh ton, s lng bulng t nht bng 40% s lng con li. Nu khng ch lp s con li tnh ton th cho php b s lng thiu bng cch ly bulng tin tinh ch thay th cho bulng lp rp. - ng knh ca con li phi nh hn ng knh qui nh ca l inh 0,2mm, chiu di phn thn tr phi ln hn b dy ca s tm thp s ghp. Sc chu cho php ca con li tnh nh sc chu cho php ca inh tn, tc l tnh theo kh nng chu lc theo ct v p mt l ch yu. Sc chu lc tnh ton ca lin kt inh tn c th ly trong bng 7 ca qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. - Kim tra cht lng tn inh. + Trong qu trnh tn inh u tin phi tn cc l khng c con li v bulng, sau n cc l c con li v cui cng l cc l c bulng, vic rt con li v bulng ra khi l phi bo m sao cho s con li v inh tn khng t hn s lng con li tnh ton, + Phi nung inh tn ti mu sng (1000 n 1100 ). Vic tn inh phi thc hin nhanh chng sau khi tn xong m inh hy cn mu xm, nu tn chm inh c th khng chon ht th tch l hoc u inh c vt nt. + Ngay sau khi tn xong phi nghim thu cng tc tn inh. Dng c kim tra l ba v bn can dy 0,2mm. Cc inh tn c xem l h hng nh qui nh bng 42 ca qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. Sau khi nghim thu u inh phi c ph du sn pha bt gai. + Trong trng hp cng tc tn inh khng m bo ng k thut cho php c inh kim tra xem l inh c c tn y hay khng. Hiu s gia ng knh l v thn inh ln nht l 0,5mm th c xem l inh khng c d. + Phi thay th cc inh tn b h hng bng cc inh tn mi, khi loi b inh tn b hng phi m bo khng b h hng tm ghp. Cm dng c c inh tn nu khng khoan s b m inh, trong trng hp ny chiu su khoan t nht phi bng chiu cao m inh cn ng knh mi khoan nh hn ng knh l 2 n 3mm. Cc inh tn li cn c kim tra sau khi hon thnh. + Khi kim tra cht lng cng tc tn inh cn kim tra nht k cng tc tn inh. Kt qu nghim thu cng tc tn inh phi ghi theo biu mu qui nh trong qui trnh. - Kim tra cng tc tn inh trong sa cha v gia c dm thp cn ch : + Khi khoan l inh mi trn cc b phn c cn c gia c phi khoan l theo cc l khoan sn trn ming thp v thm, trng hp ny c khoan theo ng knh thit k.

4 + Ch c khoan vo bn thp mi theo mu c hoc theo cc on ct t b phn kt cu ly dm cu ra. Quy trnh khng cho php khoan l theo v tr l c bng cch o nh du. + Khi khoan l bn thp mi theo v tr l c phi khoan vi ng knh nh hn thit k l 3mm, sau khi lp vo cc l inh sn c ca cc b phn c gia c mi khoan rng ra cho ti ng knh. + Sau khi tho inh c nu thy c h hng l inh ( h, khng nhn, vt, lp vv...) phi dng da sa cha hoc khoan rng ra, qui trnh cho php khoan l rng ra tt c cc b phn chu nn, cn b phn chu ko ch c khoan rng l khi cn tit din chu lc v phi c thit k ng ; + Nu cng tc sa cha, gia c tin hnh trong iu kin khng cm xe qua li th vic khoan v da cc l inh ch c tin hnh khi khng c xe trn cu. Sau khi khoan v da xong cn lp ngay con li hoc bulng tinh ch ch tn inh. + Khng cho php dng mi hn sa cha khuyt tt cc l inh c. + Cn lm sch l inh v mt tm ghp trc khi tn inh. + Tn inh theo ng qui nh trong thit k sa cha hoc thit k tng cng. + Sau khi tn inh phi sn lt v sn ph thp gia c. M inh mi tn cng cn c sn cn thn. + Cc inh tn h hng nm cc v tr khng th tn li c c th thay th bng bulng tinh ch. Cc inh lin kt khng chu lc c th thay th bng bulng th. Khi s lng inh tn cn thay th t nn thay bng bulng cng cao. 4.1.2.3 Lin kt hn: - Que hn v dy hn. + Que hn l in cc nng chy hn h quang. Trong qu trnh hn que hn lm nhim v gy h quang v b xung kim loi cho mi hn. Que hn gm li l nhng on dy kim loi c chiu di khong 250mm n 450mm v ng knh khong 1mm n 12mm. Bc ngoi lp kim loi l lp thuc hn, l hn hp cc ho cht, khong cht, fer v cht dnh kt. + Que hn thp c th gm 3 nhm chnh : Que hn hn cc loi thp cc-bon thp v hp kim thp Que hn hn thp cc-bon cao v thp hp kim Que hn hn thp hp kim cao, thp khng g. + Dy hn dng trong hn t ng hay bn t ng, khi dy hn c qun thnh tng cun. Dy hn l phn kim loi b sung vo mi hn ng thi ng vai tr in cc gy h quang v duy tr s chy h quang Dy hn thng c cc loi : Dy hn hn trong mi trng kh bo v (CO2) dy hn hn di lp thuc hn v dy trn hn h quang h. Ngoi cc loi trn cn c dy hn bt c cu to bi mt lp v bc kim loi trong n l mt hn hp gm bt kim loi v mt s thnh phn lin kt khc. + Que hn v dy hn phi c ng gi, bo qun cn thn v que hn cng nh dy hn c xu hng hp th hi m. Nu dng que hn, dy hn b m cc khuyt tt hn s xy ra nhiu hn lm gim cht lng hn, c th l : H quang tr nn mnh hn v khng n nh. S bn to nhiu hn, ht kim loi vng ra ln hn.

5 ngn ca mi hn su hn, c th gy nt y. Lp x ph mt trong khi hn khng u, do b mt b th hn. C th xy ra nt mi hn. C th to nhiu bt kh. Gy ra s dn hy--r do tng lng hy--r trong mi hn. + Cn phi kim tra cht lng dy hn v que hn trc khi dng, nu b m cn sy kh. - Chun b kim loi hn v lp ghp. + Ch c s dng lin kt hn khi thp c tnh hn c. Tnh hn l kh nng ca kim loi cho php hnh thnh mi hn bng cc cng ngh hn thng thng. Cn c vo tnh hn c th chia vt liu thnh 4 nhm: Vt liu c tnh hn tt nh thp cc - bon thp v thp hp kim. Vt liu ny cho php hnh thnh mi hn c tnh cht c hc cao bng cng ngh hn thng thng m khng phi s dng cc bin php c bit nh nung nng s b khi hn. Vt liu c tnh hn trung bnh, l nhng vt liu cho php hnh thnh mi hn vi tnh cht c hc cn thit trong nhng iu kin nht nh, y khi hn phi nung nng s b v lm gim tc ngui. Thuc nhm ny c mt s thp hp kim thp v thp hp kim trung bnh. Vt liu c tnh hn km, l nhng vt liu ch cho php hnh thnh mi hn trong nhng iu kin cng ngh rt c bit v phc tp. Thuc nhm ny c thp cc-bon, thp hp kim cao v mt s thp c bit nh thp chng g, thp chu mi mn...... Vt liu khng c tnh hn hay vt liu khng hn c, y ngay sau khi s dng cng ngh c bit mi hn cng khng m bo cht lng, cc khuyt tt nh r, nt thng xy ra. + B mt tip xc ca mp kim loi v vng ln cn trong khong 20mm n 30mm trc khi hn cn c lm sch du, m, g, nc v cc cht bn khc. Nu khng mi hn c th b r. + Khi lp ghp cc chi tit hn c bit phi ch n khe h sao cho khng vt qu gi tr cho php nh trong bng 1. + Kch thc ca mch hn gc phi cn c theo tnh ton v cng v bn mi c gng qui nh nh nht nhng khng c nh hn cc tr s nh qui nh trong bng 318 ca qui trnh thit k cu theo trng thi gii hn. Chiu di ca mch hn gc chnh din v bn sn khng c nh hn 60mm v khng nh hn 6 ln kch thc cnh mch hn. H CHO PHP CA CC LIN KT HN GIP MI Bng 1 Chiu dy tm hn (mm) 10 15 16 20 21 30 Kch thc khe h cho php (mm) Khng vt mp 13 24 36 C vt mp 0,5 2 43 24

6 Cc mch hn ni thng phi hn 2 bn khng ph thuc vo hnh dng mp. Trong trng hp hn hai bn c kh khn th cho php hn mt bn, vi mi hn chu ko sau khi hn phi gia cng c kh mch hn. Chiu dy mt hn ni khng c nh hn chiu dy bn thp c hn. - Qui trnh khng cho php hn trc tip nhng b phn ph (phn hng, cc b phn lan can, ng ngi I b...) vi cc b phn ca dm ch , dm ca dm h mt cu,cc thanh ca dn ch. Ch c hn nhng b phn ph ny vi cnh th ra ca np tng cng. - Khng c hn trc tip cc thanh ging ngang v cc thanh cho ca h lin kt dc vi cnh dm. Cho php hn bn nt nm ngang chng ln cnh chu nn ca dm. - Cc khuyt tt ti mi hn. + Chy loang mt mi hn, y l hin tng kim loi hn chy loang ra b mt ca kim loi c bn. Nguyn nhn ca khuyt tt ny do dng in qu ln, chiu di h quang hn ln hay v tr t que hn khng ng. + Vt lm mp hn, y l hin tng c nhng ch lm su trn kim loi c bn theo cnh mp hn khi dng in hn qu ln hoc khi h quang qu di. Khuyt tt ny lm gim tit din chu lc ca kim loi c bn v c th l nguyn nhn lm cho lin kt hn b ph hu. + Chy thng : Khi hn c th xut hin cc l thng xuyn mi hn, nguyn nhn do h chn mi hn qu ln, dng hn qu ln hoc cng xut m hn qu ln v tc hn qu nh. + Thiu ht cui ng hn (lm u v cui) hin tng ny xy ra khi kt thc ng hn, nguyn nhn do ngt h quang mt cch t ngt hoc do ngn la h quang b thi lch. S thiu ht ny lm cho tit din mi hn b gim lm pht sinh ng sut tp trung v c th pht sinh vt nt . + R kh: Hin tng ny thng xy ra khi lng kh cc-bon trong thp c bn cao, khi trn mp hn c du, m, sn hoc khi cc cht bm vo dy hn hay que hn, khi vt liu hn m hoc kh bo v c ln tp cht. Ngoi ra cn do iu chnh ngn la hn khng thch hp v hn qu nhanh khi s dng phng php hn trong mi trng kh bo v l CO2. + Ln x : Hin tng ny thng xy ra khi khng lm sch g mp hn, khi hn nhiu lp m vic ty g lp hn trc khng trit . X ln vo kim loi mi hn lm gim tit din chu lc gy ra hin tng tp trung ng sut. + Hn khng ngu : Kim loi c bn v kim loi mi hn khng dnh (khng ngu) hoc gia cc lp khi hn nhiu lp khng dnh nhau. Nguyn nhn l do cha lm sch b mt kim loi, khe h qu hp, dng hn qu nh, tc hn ln v lch v tr que hn khi trc mi hn sinh vt nt. S tn ti ca cc mng na c na chy lng ca qu trnh kt tinh cng vi ng sut co ngt l nguyn nhn chnh ca nt nng. Nt nng thng phn b bn trong mi hn nn kh pht hin, nhng vt nt nng pht trin n b mt mi hn d pht hin hn. Nt ngui thng pht sinh nhng ch c hin tng tp trung ng sut do tit din chu lc cu mi hn b gim yu. - Phng php kim tra cht lng mi hn : + y l phng php tm ra cc c trng bn ca kim loi c bn, vt liu hn v mi hn. Cho php dng cc mu kim tra bng cch quan st bn ngoi th nghim. + Cc tm dng ly mu th nghim tnh cht c hc phi c ch to t cng mt loi thp nh kim loi c bn, chng c hn nh vo vt hn sao cho mi hn trn c tin hnh cng v tr khng gian nh mi hn tht v l phn ko di thm ca mi hn tht. Cc tm

7 phi c cng mt ngi thc hin vi cng ch hn, vt liu hn v thit b hn nh khi hn vt liu tht. Kch thc tm, hnh dng kch thc mu cng nh phng php ct ly mu t phi phi theo tiu chn. Cn phi th nghim : Ko tnh lin kt hn gip mi 2 mu, hn gc v hn ch T : 3 mu mi loi, th un ng ( dai va p) kim loi mi hn gip mi v vng xung quanh mi hn theo ng nng chy 3 mu mi loi, th un tnh mi hn gip mi : 2 mu. Ngi gim st cn kim tra cc th nghim trn thng qua phiu th nghim, kim tra xem ngi hn mu c phi l ngi hn thc trn kt cu khng. + Quan st bng mt. Phng php ny dng pht hin cc khuyt tt trn b mt. C th quan st bng mt thng hoc kt hp vi dng knh lp. Theo hnh dng b ngoi mi hn phi tho mn cc yu cu sau : B mt mi hn nhn, nhp nh nh. C s chuyn tip u ti kim loi c bn. Khng c vt nt, khng c r kh tp trung hay phn b. Cc khuyt tt cn c sa cha theo cch : Cc ch gin on khi hn v cc ch kt thc h quang phi c hn kn. Cc vt nt, ch hn khng ngu hoc c khuyt tt vt qu cho php phi c ty b phm vi ln hn kch thc khuyt tt (di hn 10mm v mi pha) ri hn sa li. Cc ch c vt ct kim loi c bn su hn cho php 0,5mm i vi cc tm dy di 10mm v 1mm vi cc tm dy trn 10mm phi c lm sch v hn sa li bo m chuyn tip u vo kim loi mi hn. Cc khuyt tt c hn sa cha phi c kim tra li v ti mi v tr ch c sa cha nhiu nht l 2 ln. + Kim tra bng chiu tia Rn-ghen hoc tia Ga-ma : Khi chiu tia Rn-ghen hoc tia Ga-ma nhng ch c r kh, ln s hoc hn khng ngu trn phim s xut hin cc vt sm. + Phng php siu m : Da vo kh nng ca chm tia siu m phn x li theo hng khc khi i vo ch c khuyt tt ca kim loi hn t pht hin c v tr v kch thc khuyt tt. + Phng php thm thu bng du ha : Dng phng php ny xc nh d r, nt, r r ca kim loi mi hn c b dy nh hn 10mm bng cch qut du ha ln mt mt mi hn, pha cn li qut vi trn vng ng hn v kh. Du ha s thm thu qua vng khuyt tt v c pht hin d dng. Phng php ny c th xc nh c cc khuyt tt nh ti 0,1mm + Th tnh cht c hc : y l phng php xc nh bn ca mi hn so snh vi thit k xem c t hay khng. Cc mu th nghim cng c hn cng ch vi vt tht hoc c ct t sn phm ra to mu. - Sc chu lc tnh ton ca cc mi hn ly theo bng 6 ca Quy trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. 4.1.2.4 Lin kt bng bulng cng cao : Cng vi lin kt hn lin kt bulng cng cao c dng kh ph bin hin nay. - Lin kt bulng cng cao lm vic nh lc ma st gia cc tm bn, lc ma st c to ra nh lc cng trong cc bulng. - S lm vic ca lin kt vi mt bulng trong lin kt ma st cho mt mt tip xc xc nh theo cng thc : T = k m Nf Trong : N - Lc cng trong thn bulng (tn) f - H s ma st

8 k - H s ng nht m - H s iu kin lm vic, khi tnh ton trong thi cng ly m = 1, trong thit k ly m = 0,95. Cc s hng f, k, N tra trong cc bng 2, 3 v 4 ca Quy trnh thi cng v nghim thu dm cu thp lin kt bng bulng cng cao. - Tnh ton trong thi cng c xt ng thi s lm vic ca bulng cng cao v con li, vi con li tnh ton nh inh tn. - bulng t lc cng l N cn xit bulng vi mmen xit Mx Mx = Ndk Trong : d - ng knh thn bulng (mm). k - h s mmen xon, k c quyt nh trong thit k cho tng loi bulng v phng php bi trn. C th xc nh h s k theo thc nghim. N - lc cng trong thn bulng (tn).

T Mx c th xc nh c lc cn t vo tay n ca c-l khi bit tay n (khong cch t tm bulng cng cao c xit n ng tc dng ca lc) hoc ngc li. - Kim tra cht lng bulng, vng m ai c. + Bulng, vng m, ai c phi c kch thc ng theo tiu chun qui nh trong thit k. cc kch thc tiu chun ca bulng cng cao k c vng m v ai c c th tham kho trong cc bng t 1n 4 ca qui trnh v bulng cng cao dng trong cu thp. Trong cu thp thng dng bulng cng cao c ng knh ren t 18mm n 24mm. + Tiu chn bulng cng cao dng trong cu thp qui nh tnh cht c hc ca bulng, vng m v ai c nh sau: Gii hn bn nh nht 110 kb/ mm2 Gii hn bn ln nht 130 kb/mm2 cng t 325 388 HB ( 35 41HRc). tht tng i j% khng nh hn 35. dn di tng i d% khng nh hn 8. dai va p ak KGm/ cm2 khng nh hn 5. Vi ai c gii hn bn khng nh hn 110kb/mm2 ( khi th cng vi bulng), cng t 283 341HB (30 37HRc). Vi vng m cng phi t 283 426HB (30 45HRc). + Cp chnh xc mi ghp ren ca bulng v ai c cho php l 7H/ 8G theo TCVN 1917 - 76. Sai lch v kch thc hnh hc ca bulng, ai c v ca ren phi tun theo cc qui nh trong TCVN. + khng vung gc gia mt ta m bulng vi ng tim ca thn bulng khng vt qu 1 . + Bulng, ai c, vng m khi vn chuyn phi ng trong hm kn, trn hm phi ghi r : Tn nh my ch to. Tn v qui cch sn phm. S hiu ca l sn phm. Khi lng tnh. Khi lng c b. Cc bulng vng m, ai c phi c m bo v, khng b g.
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9 + Phi loi b cc bulng, vng m, ai c c vt nt. + Trc khi lp rp, ren bulng phi c vn thng sut d dng bng tay trn ton b chiu di ren. Bulng, vng m, ai c phi c lau chi, lm sch bi, sch cc lp du, m... v khi cn bi thm mt lp du mng va khi xit du khng thm vo b mt bn ma st. V sinh, bi trn cu kin phi theo ng qui nh ca thit k, thng thng c th dng hn hp 90% xng cng nghip v 10% du nhn cng nghip. - B mt ma st . + B mt tip xc ca cc thanh, bn ghp trc khi lp phi c ty sch bng phun ct, phun ht gang hoc bng la. Nu c to mt ma st trc xng v c ph lp m (hay ph lp khc) bo v, trc khi lp rp phi lm sch bi, du m, nc ngng t trn mt. Trc khi gia cng mt cn ty sch vy g, sa cha cc khuyt tt. Kim tra sai s hnh hc ca cc cu kin theo ph lc 1 ca Qui trnh thi cng v nghim thu dm cu thp lin kt bng bulng cng cao. Cc mp sau khi o ct, hn, dp vv... phi c mi nhn bng my mi v khng c lm vo thp c bn qu 0,5mm. Phng php gia cng mt t h s ma st tnh ton phi tun theo ch dn trong n thit k, nu khng c ch dn th dng phng php phun ct hoc phun ht gang. Nu to ma st bng lp sn c bit th phi bo m chiu dy lp sn theo qui nh. + Mt ma st c ty sch phi c bo v cn thn trnh b bn li do g, du m, sn... Khi b bn li cn gia cng li bng cch ty sch bn. Sau khi mt tip xc c ty sch m xut hin lp g nh (c vng, qut tay thy c mu vng nhng khng c bi vng) cng nh trn mt tip xc b ma, sng hoc hi nc ngng t m c sy kh ( nh thi bng hi p) th khng phi gia cng li mt tip xc. Sau khi mt tip xc c phun ct khng c qu 3 ngy m k t khi phun xong n khi xit cht ton b bulng ca mi ni hay lin kt hoc trm kn cc k h ca tp bn thp trong thi cng. + Vic gia cng li b mt ma st c thc hin nh gia cng ln u. Cn s dng li cc bn thp tho ra trong cc lin kt hon chnh th khng th gia cng to mt ma st nh cc phng php thng thng m phi c bin php cng ngh c bit c thit k chp nhn. + Kim tra sch bi, sn, g... trn mt tip xc c phun ct c th dng knh lp vi phng i 6 ln soi trn b mt, nu khng thy bi bn l c. Kim tra sch du m bng cch nh 2 n 5 git xng trn mt bn thp. Sau thi gian t nht 15 giy dng giy lc thm xng cn ng li trn mt bn thp. Nh xng cng loi ( dng 2 n 5 git) ln mt giy lc cng loi kim tra. cho hai t giy bay ht xng, nu mu sc giy ca hai ch vt xng bay hi ging nhau l t yu cu. + Ngi kim tra cn kim tra thit b lm sch b mt, phng php bo v b mt lm sch v c qu trnh lp, xit bulng c lm bn b mt ma st khng. - Kim tra lp rp bulng cng cao. + Lp theo ng trnh t v phi m bo. Tin hnh lp cm trc khi lp vo kt cu nhp. Cc l inh ca tp bn phi ng tm. nh v bng cc con li thi cng. Lp s bulng m bo s lm vic ca lin kt theo tng giai on chu lc ca qu trnh thi cng v dng c-l lc xit ti tr s t 50% n 90% lc cng tiu chun. Kim tra kch thc v khp kn ca tp bn nu t yu cu tin hnh trm kn cc khe ghp lin kt. Xit cht s lng bulng ny n dng lc cng tiu chun. Lp cc bulng vo cc l cn trng v xit ngay n lc cng tiu chun.

10 Rt tng con li thi cng v thay bng bulng, thay n u xit n lc cng tiu chun n . + Chun b y iu kin che chn khi ma cng nh thit b sy kh sau khi ma. + u tin dng c-l gi xit bulng nhng sau phi dng c-l lc c b phn ch th chnh xc xit li kim tra. Xit t t khng git cc, sau khi xit xong bulng phi c nh du bng sn trnh nhm ln. M men xit do c-l lc to nn c chnh xc khng thp hn 0 5% m men xit yu cu v phi thng xuyn kim tra chnh li c-l lc (trc mi ca phi kim tra 1 ln). + Trong mi tp bn cn xit cht bulng t ch tp bn c p cht ti ch t cht hn (vi d xit t hng inh lin kt xng n u t do hay trng tm m inh n mp sao cho nhng bu lng nt, mi ni hay u thanh c xit sau cng). + Sau khi xit mi bulng phi c hai vng m pha ui v pha u. t vng m phi ng theo chiu qui nh ca nh ch to. + Bulng c xit ti lc cng thit k khng cho php s dng li cho mt lin kt bulng cng cao khc. + Kim tra khp kn ca tp bn bng cch dng l chun c b dy 0,3mm, nu tt c cc pha mp ca tp bn khng h qu 0,3mm l t yu cu. + Kim tra lc cng trong thn bulng bng c-l lc c chnh xc cao. S lng bulng cn kim tra quy nh nh sau: Khi s lng bulng mi ni di 5 cn kim tra 100%. Khi s lng bulng mi ni di 5 n 20 cn kim tra 5 bulng . Khi s lng bulng mi ni trn 20 cn kim tra 25%. Nu trong s bulng kim tra ch cn c 1 bulng khng t mmen xit th phi kim tra ton b s bulng cn li. nh du s bulng c kim tra v bulng khng mmen xit trnh b xt khi xit li. Kt qu kim tra phi c ghi trong nht k cng trnh. Gc quay ca c-l lc khi kim tra bulng khng ln hn 100 n 150. + Phi kim tra hnh dng v kch thc ca kt cu sau khi lp rp. Sai s phi nm trong quy nh nh trong Ph lc 1 v Ph lc 4 ca Quy trnh thi cng v nghim thu dm cu thp lin kt bng bulng cng cao. 4.1.3 CH TO CU KIN THP - gim st vic ch to cu kin thp trong Nh my cn da vo cc ti liu sau: + h s n thit k kt cu thp + quy trnh ch to kt cu thp do Nh my kt cu thp bin son v c TVGS chp thun p dng + cc Quy trnh c lin quan ca B xy dng, B cng nghip v ch to kt cu thp v gia cng kim loi + cc quy nh nu trong phn ni v cc lin kt inh tn, bu lng, mi hn trn 4.2 LP DNG KT CU THP TRN GIO

11 - gio lp ng kt cu thp phi ch to ng theo bn v thit k v bo m cc yu cu v cu to, yu cu v ln v.v... nh nu phn cng trnh ph tm phc v thi cng. - Cao nh gio lp dng kt cu thp phi bo m sao cho c th t c di bin di dn hoc y dm cc chng n c b cao t nht 80 cm. - Ti v tr cc nt dn hoc u cc on dm cao nh chng n phi m bo ng vng xc nh trong thit k. - Cn phi nghim thu gio trc khi lp dng kt cu thp. Sai s so vi thit k ca gio ly theo quy nh phn cng trnh ph tm phc v thi cng. - Khi lp ghp trn gio ti cc mi ni phi lp s lng con li v bulng t nht bng 33% ca tng s l, trong 2/3 l con li, 1/3 l bulng. - Cn tin hnh cng tc lp rp theo ng s lp rp v cc quy nh v k thut k c cc quy nh v trnh t t v c nh cc b phn ca kt cu. Phi kim tra nng lc ca cu cu cc b phn, ng di chuyn ca cn cu ly v lp c cc cu kin mt cch an ton, thun li. - Vic t cc cu kin cn ghp ni sao cho trng l inh c tm quan trng nht nh nn khng c tho dy buc cc b phn ra khi mc ca cn trc trc khi lp y s lng cc con li hay bulng hoc trc khi k cc b phn c th tip tc lp rp, hn m khng cn dng cn cu iu chnh v tr cho ng nh trong thit k. - Trong thi gian lp rp i vi mi ca lm vic phi ghi nht k cng tc theo Ph lc 41 trong Quy trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. - Sau khi phn dm cu lp rp hnh thnh mt h thng cng c nghim thu v lm bin bn c th bt u cng tc tn inh, lp bulng cng cao. - Trc khi tho chng n lp cu cn o c v tr ca cu trn mt bng v trc dc. - Cn lp bin bn cng tc lp t gi. Khi t gi di ng phi xt n nhit khng kh lc t v bin ti a ca nhit . - Nu dng kch h kt cu nhp xung gi hoc iu chnh v tr th lc nng ca kch phi vt t nht l 25% so vi trng lng phi nng. Phi dng lp g dn mng gia kch v phn st thp tip gip truyn lc u v trnh trn trt . - Sai s cho php khi lp ghp kt cu nhp ly theo bng 43 Quy trnh thi cng v nghim thu cu cng. 4.3 LP HNG KT CU NHP THP - Lm gio theo thit k (trng hp lp bn hng). -Kim tra cn trc, ng, phng tin vn chuyn cu kin trc khi tin hnh lp rp. Vi kt cu lin kt bng bulng cng cao cn cn kim tra vic to mt ma st, cht lng bulng, vng m... - Khi lp hng kch thc phn cng xon phi tnh ton sao cho m bo n nh ca phn lp v cng ca cc b phn kt cu ca phn . H s n nh chng lt t nht phi bng 1,3 nu lp mt pha; 1,2 nu lp cn bng hai pha. - Khi lp rp ch cho php cn trc di ng sang khoang dn khc khi khoang lp khp kn hnh thnh mt h thng bt bin hnh v sau khi t s lng con li v bulng theo tnh ton.

12 - Khi lp hng hoc bn hng s lng con li cn lp c xc nh theo tnh ton v cho trong bn v thi cng. S lng bulng lp rp t nht phi bng 40% s lng con li. Nu khng l t s lng con li tnh ton th cho php b s lng thiu bng bulng tinh ch thay cho bulng lp rp, khi bulng tinh ch va lm nhim v ca con li (chu ct v p mt) va lm nhim v ca bulng lp rp (p cht cc tm ca lin kt). - Khi lp hng v bn hng dn thp cn kim tra gc quay bin di dn ch trong mt phng thng dng ca hai khoang k nhau bng cch so snh cc gc o c so vi gc ca dng hnh hc vng cu to m ni sn xut kt cu quy nh trong thit k. - Cng tc tn inh c tin hnh sao cho s khoang lp rp cha tn inh k c khoang ang lp khng c nhiu qu 3 khoang trnh cho con li khng chu lc nhiu kh rt ra. Vi kt cu lin kt bng bulng cng cao rt con li c d dng cn tin hnh thay con li bng bulng trc giai on lin kt (ly theo thit k thi cng). Khng c rt con li khi ton b s l cn li cha c thay bng bulng v xit ti lc cng thit k. Sau rt con li n u thay bng bulng v xit ti lc cng thit k n . Vi kt cu lin kt bng inh tn lp v tn inh theo trnh t nu phn lin kt inh tn. Vi kt cu lin kt bng hn th lp n u, kim tra chnh xc v hn ti , ch tho cu khi mi hn ngui v lin kt c kim tra t yu cu v b phn hn bo m khng b h hng nu tho cu. - Trong qu trnh lp hng phi thng xuyn theo di vng, so snh vng thc t vi n hi ca nhp trong tng giai on lp rp c ch n vng ngc iu chnh. Bin php chnh m bo v tr v hnh dng ng thit k l m bo cho cc l inh trng kht nhau. - Khi lp hng hoc na hng bo m n nh ca kt cu nhp v m bo cc tr tm khng phi chu lc ngang sau khi lp xong khoang u tin, kt cu nhp phi c neo trc tip vo m tr chnh. - Khi lp hng cn bng vic hp long thng rt kh khn, gii quyt tnh trng ny bn nt ti ch hp long c th ch khoan l trc vi ng knh nh, khi lp rp mi khoan l m rng cho n ng knh thit k. 4.4 LAO CU THP Kt cu nhp c lp rp trn bi, trn ng u cu hay trn gio ri lao dc, lao ngang hoc cho ni ra v tr. 4.4.1 LAO DC KT CU NHP - Phi lm tr tm , mi dn, hay ni lin tc cc dm, dn nh trong thit k thi cng, phi kim tra n nh, vng v ng sut trong cc b phn kt cu. - Cn phi kim tra cc thit b cho cng tc lao ko nh ti, mp, cp, h th, con ln v vic b tr chng chun b cho cng tc lao ko. - Lp mi dn trn cc chng n k, sau khi lp xong c th d ht cc im k kim tra vng v n nh ca mi dn v nu cn thit phi tng cng mi dn bo m lm tt khi lao cu. - Cho php t thuyn trt hoc ng ln trn y bin di dm ch hoc y dm dc. Khi ng ln trn t y dm dc th trn tr lao phi t b ci ln bo him vi cao thp hn cao y bin di dn ch nhiu nht l 3cm.

13 - Khi lao dc c th to cho ng ln di c dc nhiu nht l 0,5% v pha sng gim nh sc ko. - i vi ng ln trn t bin di dn hoc y dm c vng th phi dng cc g ngang c chiu cao thay i m di to cho ng ln thnh mt ng thng. - Nu dng ray hoc dm thp lm ng trt hay ng ln th chnh lch cao cc nh ray hoc nh dm khng c qu 1mm, trong mt ct ngang ca mt ng ln gm nhiu ray, s ray ng ln trn thng t hn 1 so vi s ray ng ln di. Nn t ray hay dm thp trn t vt g vic phn b lc c u. Cc u ray v dm phi t ni nhau trn cng mt cao , cn phi da cc g cho con ln khng b mc kt. - cho dm, dn lt vo tr v thot ra khi tr dc d dng th nn un cong hai u ng ln trn. Khi ng trt trn gin on chiu di thuyn trt phi m bo b tr s con ln tnh ton. - Con ln thng lm bng thp trn c hoc rng nhng bn trong BT. ng knh con ln thng t 8cm n 12cm vi chiu di ln hn b rng ng ln di t 20cm n 30cm. Khong trng tnh gia cc con ln ti thiu l 15cm c th dng ba chnh li khi b lch hng. - Khi lao dc bng ti ko bt buc phi c thit b hm ( thng dng ti hm). - Khi thi cng cu mt nhp nu gp sng su nc ln lm tr tm s kh khn v tn km, trng hp ny c th tin hnh lao dc trn tr ni. Qu trnh lao dc c chia lm hai giai on : Giai on u ko dc trn h ng ln b tr trn nn ng, giai on ny bn ln trn ch nn b tr phm vi gn v gia dn. Giai on mt kt thc khi mt u kt cu nhp hng ra pha sng c th k trn phao ni, phn cn trn ng thay ton b h con ln bng mt xe gong hoc bn ln ln pha cui. V tr ca phao ni cn phi m bo khi ko n v tr c th h kt cu nhp xung gi. bo m an ton u kt cu nhp phi c neo chc xung phao ni. 4.4.2. LAO NGANG KT CU NHP - Khi lao ngang ng ln trn t di hai dm ngang u nhng b trng v tr t gi, ng ln di t trn m, tr chnh v tr tm (nu cn) thng v h lu m, tr chnh. Sau khi ko kt cu nhp vo v tr dng kch t vo mt ray ca ng ln trn nng kt cu nhp ln, lp t gi v h xung gi. - Tnh lc ko v lc hm khi lao ngang phi xt n lc gi ngang cu. - Lc lao ngang trn xe lao cn m bo: Ti trng phn b u trn tt c cc bnh gong ca xe lao. Kh nng di chuyn dc ca mt u kt cu nhp gim nh hng ca lc x pht sinh do ng trt khng song song do di chuyn qu ca xe lao v do thay i chiu di kt cu nhp v do chnh lch nhit . Xe lao phi n nh. Chiu cao ca mp bnh xe (g bnh) khng c nh hn 20mm. - Khi sng ngang dm cu khng c vn mt gc ln hn 0,001. 4.4.3 LAO CU BNG PHAO NI - Vic chuyn ch kt cu nhp phao ni phi c c quan vn ti ng sng ng . Trong lc ch ni qua cc lung i ca thuyn b th khng cho php thuyn b qua li. - Cn b tr cc thit b cng dy dy neo gia tr ni v kt cu nhp.

14 - Phi kim tra n nh ca phao theo hai hng ngang v dc trong trng thi khng ch cng nh trong trng thi ch kt cu nhp vi sc gi l 100 kg/m2. Mn phao, thuyn phi cao hn mt nc t nht bng 29cm trong trng hp phao kn, v t nht bng 50 cm trong trng hp phao h. - Khi lng nc c th cha trong cc phao phi m bo h c kt cu nhp xung gi v gii phng c phao ra khi kt cu nhp. Khi xc nh h thp ca phao phi xt n vng ca kt cu nhp v bin dng n hi ca tr k trn phao ni. - Mc nc trong phao hoc trong cc khoang s lan khng c chnh qu 5cm so vi thit k. - Khi dng hi p lm chm, ni tr phao phi dng p lc k thy ngn t v tr iu khin kim tra mc nc trong loi phao c l h di y - Tr ni dng ch kt cu nhp sau khi lp ghp phi c th nghim vi ti trng vt qu ti trng tnh ton 20%. - Neo gi phao phi th nghim vi ti trng vt 30% so vi ti trng tnh ton . - H thng phao di chuyn bng tu ko phi c b tr cc neo bo him phng khi h thng phao chch hng. Phi tnh sao cho cc loi neo ny gi c h thng phao khi sc gi bng 50kG/m2. - Khi ch ni v c lao trn tr ni cn phi t trn kt cu nhp dng c o sc gi v xc nh hng gi. - Chiu su mc nc khi lao phi m bo su hn mc nc ti a ca phao t nht 20cm (tnh theo mc nc thp nht c th xy ra trong thi gian ch ni). - Trc khi ch ni phi c thng tin v d bo kh tng trong thi gian ch. Ch cho php ch ni khi tc gi ln nht l 10m/s. Nu gi mnh hn phi neo h thng phao. - Tr ni c dng hnh ch nht trn mt bng m c mn nc v b rng kh ln th khi di chuyn trn dng nc c tc nc ln hn 1m/s cn trang b mi r dng. - Tr ni cn c thit k vi cc ti trng : + Trng lng kt cu nhp khi ch. + Trng lng tr ni v cc thit b. + Trng lng nc trong phao. + Ti trng gi. + p lc thy tnh. + Lc sng - Khi dng tu lai t h tr ni tt nht nn di chuyn t h lu ln thng lu v khi d dng khng ch dc tc di chuyn. 4.5 SN CU THP

4.5.1. CHT LNG SN - Tr loi sn gc pxy sn bo v cu thp c sn xut thnh b, mi b bao gm t hai dn ba loi sn. + Sn lt + Sn ph trung gian. + Sn ph ngoi cng. Trong mi trng hp u phi c sn lt v sn ph ngoi cng. - B sn bo v cn phi t cc yu cu k thut sau: + Mng sn phi c tnh cch ly cao. + Sn lt phi c dnh bm trn mt thp cao.

15 + Sn ph phi ph hp vi sn lt v ph hp gia cc lp ph v c dnh bm cao vi lp trong, chu c tc ng ca thi tit v bn mu. + B sn phi to thnh mng ph c chiu dy v bc kn b mt thp, ngoi ra cn chu c axit, kh CO2 v mt s ha cht khc. + Thi hn bo v mt thp phi t trn 4 nm. - B sn bo v cu thp phi t cc tnh nng nh quy nh trong bng 1 ca Tiu chun sn dng trong cu thp v kt cu thp. - Nu sn lc tri nng (nhit trn 250 C) phi gim lng du lanh 4 - 5% vi lp lt v lp ph trung gian, 8 - 10% vi lp ngoi. Khi sn bng c gii phi pha thm 5% cht ha tan nha thng hoc xpi-rt trng. Khi sn bng tay cng cn pha long sn nu khi bo qun sn b c li mt phn. Cm khng c pha sn bng du ho, ma-dut hoc cc cht tng t. - Trc khi sn phi ht mng ph trn mt ri khong v lc k. 4.5.2. KIM TRA B MT SN - Phi lm sch b mt cn sn bng phun ct, phun ht gang, bn chi in v cc dng c c gii ha khc, ch cho php lm bng tay khi khi lng cng tc t. - Ch c lm sch b mt bng phng php h nng hoc ho hc khi c s ng ca c quan ch qun. Khi h nng khng cho thp b t nng, khi dng phng php ho hc phi loi tr hon ton lp phn ng trn b mt. - Phi lm sch b mt ngay trc khi sn d trnh bn li. Nu iu kin no m sau khi lm sch b mt khng sn lt ngay trong cng ngy cn bi mt lp du sn ln b mt gia cng. Nu cch qu 3 ngy m th phi co g lm sch li . - Khi lm sch b mt cho php li cc b phn c lp sn c cn tt ngha l khi lp sn khng c cc h hng sau : + Cc vt rn nt trn mt xuyn sut b dy ca lp sn n b mt thp . + G thp ni ln trn mt lp sn. + C g di lp sn hoc lp sn b rp ln. + Lp sn c b rn v d vn. + Lp sn c dnh bm vo vo thp khng tt. 4.5.3. PHNG PHP SN - Nn dng my s sn sn kt cu. Ch sn bng tay nu khi lng cng tc t hoc c nhiu b phn tit din nh khi sn theo phng php c gii s hao ph sn nhiu. - Phi sn thnh tng lp mng, u, khng st. Qua lp sn ph khng c nhn thy b mt thp, lp sn lt v lp sn trc. Trc khi sn lt b mt kim loi phi c lau kh. Ch sn lp sau khi lp trc kh (khng dnh). - Sau khi lp sn lt kh ly bt do trt v mit mt cho phng cc ch lm v cc khe nh ca kt cu . - Khi dng my sn s bng hi p khng kh phi c lc sch du bng cch cho qua b phn lc kh. Trc khi cho sn vo bnh phi lc sn qua sng 1600 l trn 1cm2 v phi khuy k sn trong bnh theo nh chu k. - Khi sn my cn phi di ng m s mt cch iu ha, khong cch n b mt cn sn khong 260mm n 360mm v thng gc vi b mt sn. Khi a m s t gii ny sang gii khc phi ng m li.

16 - Khng c php sn khi tri ma, tri c sng m hoc khi nhit khng kh thp hn 1oC. - Nhit ca sn khng c chnh lch nhiu vi nhit b mt cn sn, do vy trc khi sn nn sn pha mt thi gian ngoi tri bn cnh b mt cn sn. - Trc khi sn phi nghim thu cht lng lm sch b mt, c bit ch kim tra cc ch khe hp kh lm sch. - Phi kim tra v nghim thu sau khi mi lp sn kh. Trc khi sn lp sn ph th nht phi nghim thu cht lng lm nhn b mt. Mt n hai ngy m sau khi sn lp cui cng phi kim tra v nghim thu ton b cng tc sn. - Phng php th nghim cht lng sn xem trong Tiu chun sn dng cho cu thp v kt cu thp. Hin ti ngoi phng php sn bo v cu thp cn c cc phng php khc nh m km vv...