Aspire Assignment Answers | Syllable | Consonant

ANSWERS TO THE ASPIRE ASSIGNMENTS: unix assignment-1: UNIX Assignment 1 1.

Write a command to list all the files inside a folder i.e. if there is afolder inside a folder then it should list all files inside the sub-folder which is inside the folder to be listed. Sol) $ find -type f 2. Search all the files which contains a particular string, say “include”within a folder. Sol) $ ls -F|grep -v */|xargs grep include$ find -type f -print0|xargs -0 grep include 3. Rename all the files within a folder with suffix “Unix_” i.e.suppose a folder has two files a.txt and b.pdf than they both should be renamed from a single command to Unix_a.txt and Unix_b.pdf Sol) $ for f in $(ls -F|grep -v */);do mv "$f" "Unix_$f"; done 4. Rename all files within a folder with the first word of their content(remember all the files should be text files. For example if a.txt contains “Unix is an OS” in its first line then a.txt should berenamed to Unix.txt Sol) $ for f in $(ls|grep .txt);do mv "$f" "$(cat $f|tr ' ' '\n'|head-1)".txt;done 5. Suppose you have a C project in a folder called “project”, itcontains .c and .h files, it also contains some other .txt files and.pdf files. Write a Linux command that will count the number of lines of your text files. That means total line count of every file.(remember you have to count the lines in .txt files only) Sol) $ ls|grep .txt|xargs wc –l 6. Rename all files which contain the sub-string 'foo', replacing itwith 'bar' within a given folder. Sol) $ for f in $(ls -F|grep -v */|grep "foo");do mv "$f" "${f//foo/bar}";done 7.

Show the most commonly used commands from “history”? [hint:remember the history command, use cut, and sort it] Sol) $ history|cut -d' ' -f5|sort|uniq -c|sort -r|head -5

unix assignment2:

Answer-1 Mkdir training training/level1 training/level2 training/cep level1/sdp level1/re level1/selevel2/sdp level2/re level2/se cep/sdp cep/re cep/se Answer-2 Cp –r dir1 dir2 command will copy a directory structure dir1 todir2 .Answer-3 Ls lg command is used to find out if you have the permission to send a message. Answer-4 Ls –l command is used to display all the content of directory along with size in bytes. Answer-5 Date +%T command is used to display date and time in 24-hour format .Answer-6 Date +%t command is for printing the year, month, and date with a horizontal tabbetween the fields. Answer-7 Cat > chapaContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapb Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapcContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapdContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapeContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapAContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapBContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapCContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapDContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapEContents of file Ctrl+DCat > chap01Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap02Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap03Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap04Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap05Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap11Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap12Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap13Contents of fileCtrl+D Cat > chap14Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap15Contents of fileCtrl+D Answer-8

Ls *[abcde] or Ls *[a-z] Answer-9 Ls *[A-Z] Answer-10 Ls *0? Answer-11 Ls *[bde] Answer-12 Grep –c programmer personnel Answer-13 Sed –n ‘/programmer/p’ personnel Answer-14 Sed ‘s/programmer/software professional/g’ personnel Answer-15 The command sleep waits a given number of seconds before continuing. Type % sleep 10 This will wait 10 seconds before returning the command prompt %. Until the commandprompt is returned, you can do nothing except wait

DBMS ASSIGNMENT 1: EMP EMP_NO NOT NULL NUMBER(4) EMP_NAME VARCHAR(25) DESIGNATION CHAR(4) JOINING_DATE DATE SALARY NUMBER(7,2) DEPT_NO NUMBER(2) DEPT

DEPT_NO NOT NULL NUMBER(2) DEPT_NAME VARCHAR(25) BUDGET NUMBER(15,2) MANAGER VARCHAR(25) Create tables EMP, and DEPT, the structure for which are given above. Write SQL queries for the following : 1. Display each employeeâ??s name and date of joining. 2. Display employees earning more than Rs.5,000. Label the column name â??Employeeâ??. 3. Display all employee names and employee numbers in the alphabetical order of names. 4. Display all employee names containing the letter â??Sâ??. 5. Display the employees hired in 1981. 6. Display the minimum and maximum salary. 7. Display the list of employees along with their department name and its manager. 8. Display the number of different employees listed for each department. 9. Delete the records of all the employees hired in 1981 from EMP table. 10. Update the salary of all the employees to Rs. 10,000. Answers: 11. select EMPNAME, JOININGDATE from emp 12. select EMP_NAME as Employee from emp where SALARY>5000 13. select EMPNAME, EMPNO from emp order by EMP_NAME 14. select EMPNAME from emp where EMPNAME like "%ra%" 15. select EMPNAME from emp where YEAR(JOININGDATE)=1981 16. select min(SALARY), max(SALARY) from emp 17. select e.EMPNAME, d.DEPTNAME, d.MANAGER from emp e, dept d where e.DEPTNO=d.DEPTNO 18. select count(*), d.DEPTNAME from emp e, dept d where e.DEPTNO= d.DEPTNO group by e.DEPTNO 19. delete from emp where YEAR(JOINING_DATE)=1981 20. update emp set SALARY=1000 JAVA ASSIGNMENT-1

1. Write a program to find the difference between sum of the squares and the square of the sums of n numbers? Program:

import java.io.*; importjava.util.Scanner; class Difference { publicstaticvoid main(String args[]) throwsIOException { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the value of n: "); int n=s.nextInt(); int a[]=newint[n]; int i, sqr, diff, sum=0, add=0; System.out.print("The "+n); System.out.println(" numbers are : "); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { a[i]=s.nextInt(); sum+=(a[i]*a[i]); add+=a[i]; } sqr=add*add; diff=sqr-sum;

System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Sum of Squares of given "+n); System.out.println(" numbers is : "+sum); System.out.print("Squares of Sum of given "+n); System.out.println(" numbers is : "+sqr); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Difference between sum of the squares and the square of the sum of given "+n); System.out.print(" numbers is : "+diff); System.out.println(""); } } Out put:

Enter the value of n: 4 The 4 numbers are : 2 3 4 5

Sum of Squares of given 4 numbers is : 54 Squares of Sum of given 4 numbers is : 196

Difference between sum of the squares and the square of the sum of given 4

numbers is : 142

-------------2. Develop a program that accepts the area of a square and will calculate its perimeter.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclassCalculateSquarePeri {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) {

Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Area of Square : "); double a=s.nextDouble(); double p=4*Math.sqrt(a);

System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Perimeter of the Square : "+p); System.out.println(""); }

}

Output:

Enter the area: 23 Perimeter of the square is: 19.183326093250876

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Develop the program calculateCylinderVolume., which accepts radius of a cylinder's base disk and its height and computes the volume of the cylinder.

Program:

import java.io.*; importjava.util.Scanner; classcalculateCylinderVolume { publicstaticvoid main(String args[]) throwsIOException { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the height : "); doubleht=s.nextDouble(); doublevol=Math.PI*rad*rad*ht; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Volume of the cylinder is : " + vol); } }

Output:

Enter the radius : 12 Enter the height :

13

Volume of the cylinder is : 5881.061447520093

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Utopias tax accountants always use programs that compute income taxes even though the tax rate is a solid, never-changing 15%. Define the program calculateTax which determines the tax on the gross pay. Define calculateNetPay that determines the net pay of an employee from the number of hours worked. Assume an hourly rate of $12.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateTax {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in);

System.out.println("Enter the no. of working days in the year : "); int d=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of working hours in a day : "); int h=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of hours worked in over time : "); intot=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of hours took leave : "); int l=s.nextInt(); double gross=((d*h)+ot-l)*12; double tax= gross*0.15; double net=gross-tax; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Gross Pay (in $) : "+gross); System.out.println("Tax (in $) : "+tax); System.out.println("Net Pay (in $) : "+net);

}

}

Output:

Days worked by employer in a year : 300 Enter the no. of working hours in a day : 6 Enter the no. of hours worked in over time : 1 Enter the no. of hours took leave : 1560

Gross Pay (in $) : 2892.0 Tax (in $) : 433.8 Net Pay (in $) : 2458.2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. An old-style movie theater has a simple profit program. Each customer pays $5 per ticket. Every performance costs the theater $20, plus $.50 per attendee. Develop the program calculateTotalProfit that consumes the number of attendees (of a show) and calculates how much income the show earns.

Program: importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateTotalProfit {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s = newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the no. of attendees of a show : "); int n=s.nextInt(); double profit = (n*5)-(20+(n*0.5)); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Total Profit of the theater per show (in $) is : " + profit); }

} Output: Enter the no. of attendees per show : 50

Total Profit of the theater per show (in $) is : 205.0

7. Develop the program calculateCylinderArea, which accepts radius of the cylinder's base disk and its height and computes surface area of the cylinder.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateCylinderArea {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the base radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the height : "); doubleht=s.nextDouble(); double area=2*Math.PI*rad*(rad+ht); System.out.println("");

System.out.println("Surface Area of the cylinder is : " + area); }

}

Output:

Enter the base radius : 12 Enter the height : 13

Surface Area of the cylinder is : 1884.9555921538758

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Develop the program calculatePipeArea. It computes the surface area of a pipe, which is an open cylinder. The program accpets three values: the pipes inner radius, its length, and the thickness of its wall.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculatePipeArea {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the inner radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the length : "); doublelen=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the thickness : "); double thick=s.nextDouble(); double area=2*Math.PI*(rad+thick)*len; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Surface Area of the pipe is : " + area);

}

}

Output:

Enter the inner radius : 13 Enter the length : 20 Enter the thickness : 5

Surface Area of the pipe is : 2261.946710584651

9. Develop the program calculateHeight, which computes the height that a rocket reaches in a given amount of time. If the rocket accelerates at a constant rate g, it reaches a speed of g • t in t time units and a height of 1/2 * v * t where v is the speed at t.

program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateHeight {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the time (in seconds) : "); double t=s.nextDouble(); double v=9.8*t; double height=0.5*v*t; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Height reached (in meters) is : " + height);

}

}

Output:

Enter the time (in seconds) : 300

Height reached (in meters) is : 441000.0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Develop a program that computes the distance a boat travels across a river, given the width of the river, the boat's speed perpendicular to the river, and the river's speed. Speed is distance/time, and the Pythagorean Theorem is c2 = a2 + b2.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclassBoatDistance {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s= newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the width of the river (in meters) : "); doublerw=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the river's speed (in meter/sec) : "); doublers=s.nextDouble();

System.out.println("Enter the boat's speed (in meter/sec) : "); doublebs=s.nextDouble(); double time=rw/bs; //time takes to travel from shore to shore straight by the boat double w2=time*rs; //distance due to down stream doublebd=Math.sqrt((rw*rw)+(w2*w2)); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("The distance travelled by boat (in meters) is : "+bd); }

}

Output:

Enter the width of the river (in meters) : 15 Enter the river's speed (in meter/sec) : 200 Enter the boat's speed (in meter/sec) : 250

The distance travelled by boat (in meters) is : 19.209372712298546

11. Develop a program that accepts an initial amount of money (called the principal), a simple annual interest rate, and a number of months will compute the balance at the end of that time. Assume thatno

additional deposits or withdrawals are made and that a month is 1/12 of a year. Total interest is the product of the principal, the annual interest rate expressed as a decimal, and the number of years.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateBalance {

/** * @paramargs */ publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the principal amount : "); double p=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the annual interest rate : "); double r=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of months : "); double m=s.nextDouble(); doublesi=(p*(m/12)*r)/100; doublebal=p+si; System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Balance after " +(int)m);

System.out.println(" month(s) is : "+bal); }

}

Output:

Enter the principal amount : 15000 Enter the annual interest rate : 12 Enter the no. of months : 24

Balance after 24 month(s) is : 18600.0

JAVA ASSIGNMENT 2: 1.)Create a washing machine class with methods as switchOn, acceptClothes, acceptDetergent,switchOff. acceptClothes accepts the noofClothes as argument & returns the no of Clothes.

import java.util.*; class WashingMachine{Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in);public void switchOn () {System.out.println ("The lid is open.");} public void start () {System.out.println ("Start washing ...");}

public void acceptDetergent () {System.out.println("Adding Detergent.. ");start();}public intacceptClothes(){System.out.println("Enter no of clothes: ");int no=input.nextInt();return no;}public void switchOff () {System.out.println ("The lid is closed.");} public static void main(String[] args){WashingMachinewm=new WashingMachine();wm.switchOn();int numOFClothes=wm.acceptClothes();wm.acceptDetergent();wm.switchOff();System.out.println(numOFCl othes+" clothes get washed");}}

.

2)Create a calculator class which will have methods add, multiply, divide & subtract

class Calculation{public int add(inta,int b){return a+b;}public int subtract(inta,int b){if(a>b){return ab;}else{return b-a;}}public int multiply(inta,int b){return a*b;}public int divide(inta,int b){if(a>b){return a/b;}else{return b/a;}}}public class Calculator{public static void main(String []args){Calculation cal=new Calculation();int add=cal.add(5,10);int sub=cal.subtract(5,10);intmul=cal.multiply(5,10);int div=cal.divide(5,10);System.out.println(add);System.out.println(sub);System.out.println(mul);System.ou t.println(div);}} 3. Create a class called Student which has the following methods:

i. Average: which would accept marks of 3 examinations & return whether the student haspassed or failed depending on whether he has scored an average above 50 or not.ii. Inputname: which would accept the name of the student & returns the name. import java.util.*; public class Student{ Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in); public String average(){System.out.print("Enter Marks1: ");double m1=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Marks2: ");double m2=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Marks3: ");double m3=input.nextDouble();double tm=m1+m2+m3;double avg=tm/3;if(avg<50){return "Failed";}if(avg>50){return "Passed";}return " ";}public String getName(){System.out.println("Enter Name:");String name=input.nextLine();String result=average();return name+" get "+result;}public static void main(String[]args){Student data=new Student();String nameAndResut=data.getName();System.out.println(nameAndResut);}}

4).Create a Bank class with methods deposit & withdraw. The deposit method would acceptattributes amount & balance & returns the new balance which is the sum of amount &balance. Similarly, the withdraw method would accept the attributes amount & balance &returns the new balance balance amount if balance > = amount or return 0 otherwise.

import javax.swing.*;class Customer{intbal; Customer(intbal) {this.bal = bal;}int deposit(intamt) {if (amt< 0) {System.out.println("Invalid Amount");return 1;}bal = bal + amt;return 0;} int withdraw(intamt) {if (bal<amt) {System.out.println("Not sufficient balance.");return 1;}if (amt< 0) {System.out.println("Invalid Amount");return 1;}bal = bal - amt;return 0;}void check() {JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null,"Balance:" + Integer.toString(bal));} }public class Bank{public static void main(String[]args){Customer Cust=new Customer(1500);String st1=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to deposit:");intdep=Integer.parseInt(st1);

int bal1=Cust.deposit(dep);Cust.check();String st2=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to withdraw:");int with=Integer.parseInt(st2);int bal2=Cust.withdraw(with);Cust.check();}}

int bal1=Cust.deposit(dep);Cust.check();String st2=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to withdraw:");int with=Integer.parseInt(st2);int bal2=Cust.withdraw(with);Cust.check();}}

5)Create an Employee class which has methods netSalary which would accept salary & tax asarguments& returns the netSalary which is tax deducted from the salary. Also it has a methodgrade which would accept the grade of the employee & return grade.

import java.util.*;class Employee{static Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in);public double netSalary(double salary, double taxrate){double tax=salary*taxrate;doublenetpay=salary=tax;returnnetpay;}public static String grade( ){System.out.print("Enter Grade: ");String grade=input.next();return grade;}public static void main(String[] args){Employee emp=new Employee();System.out.print("Enter Salary: ");double sal=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Tax in %: ");double taxrate=input.nextDouble()/100; String g=emp.grade();double net=emp.netSalary(sal,taxrate);System.out.println("Net Salary is: "+net);System.out.println("Grade is: "+g);}} 6. Create Product having following attributes: Product ID, Name, Category ID and UnitPrice. CreateElectricalProduct having the following additional attributes: VoltageRange and Wattage. Add a

behavior to change the Wattage and price of the electrical product. Display the updatedElectricalProduct details. import java.util.*;class Product{intproductID;Stringname;intcategoryID;doubleprice;Product(intproductID,Stringname,intcatego ryID,double price){this.productID=productID;this.name=name;this.categoryID=categoryID;this.price=price;}}public class ElectricalProduct extends Product{intvoltageRange;intwattage;ElectricalProduct(intproductID,Stringname,intcategoryID,doublepri ce,intvoltageRange, intwattage){super(productID,name,categoryID,price);this.voltageRange=voltageRange;this.wattage=wat tage;}

COMMUNICATIOM ASSIGNMENT: 1. Identify the sounds in the following words. How many sounds can you find in each word? Try and rewrite the words using the phonetic symbols.

S.No. Word Phonetic symbol No. of sounds

1) added æ d ə d 4 2) project p r ɑ dʒ ɛ k t 7 3) man m æ n 3 4) king k ɪ ŋ 3 5) duck d ə k 3 6) come k ə m 3 7) here h ɪ r 3 8) chocolate tʃ ɒ k l ə t 6 9) comfortable k ə m f ə r t ə b ə l 11 10) environmentə n v a j r ə n m ə n t 12 11) technology t ɛ k n ɑ l ɪ dʒ i 9

12) bear b ɛ r 3 13) computer k ə m p j u t ə r 9 14) English ɪ ŋ g l ɪ ʃ 6 15) Manager m æ n ə dʒ ə r 7 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. What do you understand by the term schwa? Explain what you have understood with the help of examples.

Schwa is the most common sound in the English language. It occurs only in unstressed syllables and getting it correct helps spoken English to sound more natural and fluent. Any vowel letter can be pronounced as schwa and the pronunciation of a vowel letter can change depending on whether the syllable in which it occurs is stressed or not.

The phonetic symbol for schwa is: /e/

Example:

:- To survive the cold weather you have to make thorough preparations..

The schwa sounds are marked in underlined ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. How many sounds do we have in English?

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet but there are 44 sounds in the English language. This means that the number of sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters.

The sounds are organized into the following different groups:

Short vowels

Long vowels

Diphthongs (double vowel sounds)

Voiceless consonants

Voiced consonants

Other consonants --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. 'Put’ and 'Cut’ are spelt in a similar fashion but pronounced differently. Could you explain why?

Words rhyme when their sounds are the same from the last stressed vowel sound to the end of the word. In single-syllable words it's easy to find rhymes. Cat, sat, hat, and fat all rhyme. There are some non-rhyming words, specifically about words you would expect to rhyme, but do not.

Example: Cut and Put These two words have some similar spelling but they are pronounced in a different way.

Cut is pronounced as /kʌt/

Put is pronounced as /pʊt/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Could you explain connected speech?

When we speak naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop, and then say the next word in the sentence. Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other. To make speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and end of those words. These changes are described as features of connected speech.

Sounds twinning (gemination)

When a word ends in a consonant sound and the following word begins with the same consonant sound, we don't pronounce two sounds - both sounds are pronounced together as one.

I'm a bit tired We have a lot to do Tell me what to say She's slept for three hours I've finished

Sounds disappear (elision)

When the sounds /t/ or /d/ occur between two consonant sounds, they will often disappear completely from the pronunciation.

I'm going nex(t) week That was the wors(t) job I ever had! Jus(t) one person came to the party! I can'(t) swim --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Why does 'Who is' sound as who(w)iz is connected speech?

When one word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel, another sound, a /w/ or /j/ can be added depending on the particular sounds to make a smooth transition. This is a type of linking (Vowel to Vowel Linking).

Here, in this example, ‘who’ ends with vowel sound and ‘is’ begins with a vowel sound. So, the sound /w/ is added to make a smooth transition. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Why does Visit us sound as 'Visi tas'?

When one word ends with a consonant sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound there is a smooth link between the two. This type is known as consonant to vowel linking. Here, ‘visit’ ends with consonant sound and ‘us’ begins with a vowel sound. So, there is a smooth link between these two words --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. Based on the lessons you have accessed, write a brief note on what you have understood about pronunciation in English.

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet but there are many more sounds in the English language. This means that the number of sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters.

The word 'CAT' has three letters and three sounds but the word 'CATCH' has five letters but still only three sounds. If we write these words using sound symbols, we can see exactly how many sounds they have.

CAT is written /k æ t/ CATCH is written /k æ ʧ/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. What is linking /r/?

In standard British English the letter 'r' after a vowel sound at the end of word is often not pronounced. However, when the following word begins with a vowel the /r/ sound is pronounced to make a smooth link. This is linking /r/.

An Example is: ca(r) (no r in pronunciation) The car is here (r is pronounced and links to the following word) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. What are voiceless and voiced sounds? Please explain this with the help of examples.

In English, some consonants are voiced like /v/ and some are voiceless like /f/. You can’t see the difference, you might be able to hear the difference, but you can definitely feel the difference.

When making voiced sounds, throat vibrates

When making voiceless sounds, it’s just air coming through the mouth.

For Example, 1. Van and Fan 2. Pull and Bull 3. Tin and Din

The following sounds are usually voiceless: ptkf

The following sounds are usually voiced

bdgv

BASICS OF PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT: 1. *Write a program to accept an array of names and a name and check whether the name 2. is present in the array. Return the count of occurrence. Use the following array as input 3. {“Dave”, “Ann”, “George”, “Sam”, “Ted”, “Gag”, “Saj”, “Agati”, “Mary”, “Sam”, 4. “Ayan”, “Dev”, “Kity”, “Meery”, “Smith”, “Johnson”, “Bill”, “Williams”, “Jones”, 5. “Brown”, “Davis”, “Miller”, “Wilson”, “Moore”, “Taylor, “Anderson”, “Thomas”, 6. “Jackson”}*/ 7. 8. 9. import java.io.*; 10. import java.util.StringTokenizer;

11. 12. public class CountOccurance 13. { 14. public static void main(String args[])throws Exception 15. { 16. InputStreamReader isr=new InputStreamReader(System.in); 17. BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(isr); 18. 19. System.out.println("ENTER ARRAY OF NAMES:"); 20. String arrNames=br.readLine(); 21. 22. StringTokenizer st1=new StringTokenizer(arrNames); 23. 24. System.out.println("ENTER THE NAME TO BE SEARCHED:"); 25. String name=br.readLine(); 26. 27. int countNoOccurance=0; 28. 29. while(st1.hasMoreTokens()) 30. { 31. if(name.equalsIgnoreCase(st1.nextToken())) 32. { 33. countNoOccurance++; 34. 35. }

36. } 37. 38. System.out.println("THE NAME "+name+" HAS BEEN APPEARED "+countNoOccurance+" NO. OF

2) write a program to calculate gcd of two numbers #include <iostream> 02 using namespace std; 03 04 int gcd(int, int); 05 int GCD(int a, int B); 06 07 int main() 08 { 09 int num1, num2; 10 11 //get two numbers 12 cout << "Please enter two positive integers seperated by a comma: "; 13 cin >> num1 >> num2; 14 while ((num1 < 0) || (num2 < 0)) 15 { 16 cout << "Please enter two positive integers: "; 17 cin >> num1 >> num2; 18 } 19 20 //Display GCD of two numbers.

21 cout << "The greatest common divisor of " << num1; 22 cout << " and " << num2 << " is "; 23 cout << gcd(num1, num2) << endl; 24 system("pause"); 25 return 0; 26 } 27 28 // Recursive call to function 29 int gcd(int x, int y) 30 { 31 if (x % y == 0) 32 return y; 33 else 34 return gcd(y, x % y); 35 } 36 37 38 // Iterative call to function 39 int GCD(int a, int B) 40 { 41 while (1) 42 { 43 a = a % b; 44 if ( a == 0) 45 {

46 return b; 47 } 48 b = b % a; 49 if (b == 0) 50 { 51 return a; 52 }

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