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Cisco ASA Firewall and Security Appliance Configuration - Best Practices
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It is a firewall security best practices guideline.checkthenetwork. 8/9/2011 . management – Refers to the management port of the ASA failover+stateful – Refers to the interface used in a failover pair of ASA’s.e. Consistency is the key. The desire is to obtain a consistent. do not use . effective security architecture.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. Several have undesired interactions that are often not noticed.cisco.nat-control versus no nat-control Bypassing Nat when nat-control is enabled Access-List versus Inspection Rules Enabling ICMP to Firewall Interfaces Enabling ICMP through the Firewall Traceroute and Enabling Cisco IOS traceroute Reverse Route Verification Interfaces – Types and Naming When defining names use all lowercase letters. dmzXXX_organization_purpose – Refers to the resource where access is being controlled to / from.Check The Network Contents Interfaces – Types and Naming Interfaces – Security Level and inter / intra interface Connections to the ASA . Included within is a documented baseline configuration script. dmzg02_our_applications. controlled access to remote users or a remote site. An extranet net example allows limited. outside – Refers to the side/port of the firewall that is connected to the Internet or extranet.65 http://www. It describes the hows and whys of the way things are done.2(4)9 The link to the configuration file is here: Link: Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices Configuration for Firewall Deployment 1 . An extranet firewall will normally be deployed in a two leg design and have not additional DMZ’s defined. Several areas and commands that affect the overall security architecture of the ASA series firewall are called out. The following interface naming conventions are accepted for use: inside – Refers to the side/port of the firewall where the network is considered trusted and protected.html. dmzg03_b2b_access.L2 and L3 Device Access – ACS Configuration Redundant Pair / Failover Setup Routing – Protocols and Static Routes Enable Traffic without NAT -.com/en/US/products/ps6120/prod_models_comparison. In the case of a nonVLAN interface xxx is replaced with the interface designator i. These settings also implement the best practices described herein. XXX is replaced with the VLAN number of the L2 network supporting the DMZ. Several of the commands are disabled by default. deploy and maintain Cisco ASA firewalls. There will be many Cisco ASA firewalls deployed to support the network security architecture.. Throughout this document references to firewall and a set of particular attributes will be relevant to the Cisco ASA series operating firmware code version ASA 7. These are the commands and settings that will build a base line configuration in a Cisco ASA firewall.(dash) but do use _ (under bar). The present equipment standard for firewalls is the Cisco ASA line of firewalls Cisco model comparison chart: http://www..Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment . usually in a b2b (business to business) environment. The interface’s name is set with the following command: failover lan interface failover+stateful Ethernet0/3 Interface configuration example trunk on g0/2: interface GigabitEthernet0/2 speed 1000 duplex full no shutdown Interface GigabitEthernet0/2. More examples: dmz986_partner1_access. The document highlights best practice for firewall deployment in a secure network. most often a locally owned and managed network.Check The Network Page 2 of 10 Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment General The document provides a baseline security reference point for those who will install.
inspection engines. filtering. For security. Example: By default. interfaces at the same security level are not required to use NAT to communicate. setting security 50 on both interfaces.34 Where ASA’s will be deployed in multiple locations supporting ACTIVE/ACTIVE or DR.failover+stateful – Direct cable.networkmining. we always want to use access lists.com/cisco_training Network Intelligence Understand better yr telco network efficiency & prepare migration plan www. do not bounce traffic off of the firewall.33 255.2 ). We want this command: (reference ASDM GUI location below) no same-security-traffic permit intra-interface Disabled by default Best practice – Apply the keep it simple theory here. the following connection practices are in use. www.. Unless this is a VPN device. dmzXXX – Security 50 organization-purpose dmzXXX – Security 50 organization-purpose (No default communication between same security) We make a design / security choice here: dmzXXX – Security 60 organization-purpose dmzXXX – Security 70 organization-purpose (communication possible between security levels) Note we are using same security levels for DMZ’s. the firewall can allow this traffic under other correct configuration conditions (NAT and ACL).Check The Network vlan 65 no shutdown description our applications production only nameif dmz65_our_applications security-level 55 ip address 10. We want this command: (reference ASDM GUI location below) no same-security-traffic permit inter-interface Disabled by default Security levels to be applied: inside – Security 100 most trusted. Page 3 of 10 Complete CCIE Training Over 80 hours of R&S CCIE Training Videos for only $299.com Interfaces – Security Level and inter / intra interface Higher numbers are treated as higher security. Best practice – Do not use the firewall for router functions. Reference Cisco ASA Command security-level ( 7.L3 connection on a /28 network – No 802. and further it has routes to networks via the same connected interface. access. no crossover Management Interface 0/0 – Direct to management network only if it exists.30. 2 banks connected to our network on different DMZs. Download Now.L2 and L3 In consideration of the core network.. We use access-list rules to supersede this behavior and provide more control. there is an implicit permit from a higher security interface to a lower security interface (outbound). Change & Incident Mgmt .INE. better protected. Best practice – Avoid a difficult configuration and allows firewall log entries to reflect true meaning with reference to intra-interface. without the need for accesslists.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment . This will simplify the security policy assignments. The security policies defined here will override some of the defaults to create a more secure environment. This command: same-security-traffic permit interinterface will allow communication between same security level interfaces additionally. An example case being in a Vendor-DMZ firewall. If same-security-traffic permit inter-interface is enabled bank A would see bank B without access-lists.2 ) We generally do not want this feature enabled. Connections to the ASA .com easyCMDB Config. outside – Security 0 least trusted.1q Normally connected to a L3 buffer switch such as a Cisco 4948 G0/2 – dmz – L2 or L3 – 802.255.1q G0/1 – inside .1q for scalability G0/3 . When the firewall has a large L2 VLAN attached and hosts are using the firewall interface as a Default route.255. This is much like a router forwarding a packet and sending ICMP redirects.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. http://www.Your ITIL-based ITSM Solution www. Enabling this feature allows traffic entering an interface to exit the same interface. leave the hair-pinning to L3 devices. HARD CODE Speed and duplex G0/0 – outside – L2 or L3 – No 802. 8/9/2011 . Normally.easycmdb.240 standby 10. interfaces on the same security level cannot communicate without access-list entries. more trust. In the ASA security levels are use to determine how many of firewall functions are applied: NAT.86.30. most useful for VPN and hairpinning.86. the VLAN assignments should be the same at each location if possible.checkthenetwork. Reference Cisco ASA Command same-security-traffic ( 7. This opens other considerations.
Typically.1. ! Primary Unit ! We failover in 10 seconds failover failover lan unit primary failover lan interface failover+stateful Ethernet0/3 failover link failover+stateful Ethernet0/3 failover interface ip failover+stateful 1..failover+stateful.1 255. the Management interface is not in use. 8/9/2011 . Http traffic is left out for performance reasons.252 standby 1.1. Management of further devices past acl ruleset could also be upset.1.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. HTTP replication can generate a lot of traffic. Device Access – ACS Configuration Secure access to the ASA is implemented via commands in the default ASA configuration script.1.0/30 has been chosen for ASA firewalls.2 failover key hex 123456789abcdef00fedcba987654321 failover polltime unit 1 holdtime 10 ! the below command specifies hello’s sent every 2 seconds hold time ! is 5x polltime failover polltime interface 2 hold time 10 no failover replication http ! prompt redundant pair . Do you have time to have a look at our Hard Disk Drive Clock? Redundant Pair / Failover Setup When building a redundant pair the host name will be the same for both units.primary secondary unit/active or stand/hostname prompt priority state hostname http://www.1.1. ACS and TACACS+ configuration details are described in an external document. Stateful failover will be used but not to include http traffic. either the primary or secondary may be the active device. The 7.1.Check The Network L2 additional port settings on connecting switches o o spanning-tree portfast Spanning-tree bpduguard enable Page 4 of 10 If there is not a dedicated security management network in place. Per Standard DNS naming conventions. One unit will be designated PRIMARY or PRI for short. It requires a network assignment and address. Telnet is not allowed but several commands make reference to it by default. a host name may be odc-asa5520-b2b.2(4) code revision does not support a vrf environement.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment . G0/3 .x days but is not required / recommended now. You may find Cisco documentation that indicates connecting via L2 switches is preferred / mandatory.checkthenetwork.1 255.1.255.primary secondary unit/active or stand/hostname prompt priority state hostname ! Secondary Unit ! We failover in 10 seconds failover failover lan unit secondary failover lan interface failover+stateful Ethernet0/3 failover link failover+stateful Ethernet0/3 failover interface ip failover+stateful 1.252 standby 1. We have standardized the failover link on interface G0/3. The static routing required for the management network(s) could interfere with production traffic. the other SECONDARY or SEC for short It is best to adjust the device external label or host name tag with the prefix PRI or SEC.255. This was true in Pix 6. this is direct cabled. The above prompt setting will result in the prompt displaying primary-secondary / activestandby status / hostname. non routed management network. We are replicating over our failover interface and must consider bandwidth utilization. Since the assignment remains local to the device. network 1.1. http connections are very short lived and are quickly re-established if needed.255. We allow connections for SSH and HTTPS for the ASDM web interface.255. Normally we connect to the active device during normal maintenance and testing.03 documentation is wrong.1.. This port can presently support a truly isolated.2 failover key hex 123456789abcdef00fedcba987654321 failover polltime unit 1 holdtime 10 ! the below command specifies hello’s sent every 2 seconds hold time ! is 5x polltime failover polltime interface 2 no failover replication http ! prompt redundant pair . Some of the new ASA 8. In the configuration file use the following statement: prompt priority state hostname. The sticky label applied to the unit would be odc-asa5520-b2b-PRI or odc-asa5520-b2b-SEC While the pair is in operation. AAA is implemented via the ACS server.
255. If new networks or locations come onto the network and require service from an ASA protected resources. Source address routes from Extranets should not be routed through the entire network. For example if you are operating with no nat-control and need to add a dynamic nat or pat. NAT control is disabled. so you do not need to perform NAT on any networks unless you choose to perform NAT Reference: Cisco ASA Command nat-control ( 7. 8/9/2011 .checkthenetwork.90.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment . you must configure NAT to translate the inside host address.Check The Network You can now PING and nsLookup from within Microsoft Excel Also consider IP Tools for Excel Instant Productivity: IP Tools for Excel Page 5 of 10 Routing – Protocols and Static Routes The Cisco ASA supports the OSPF routing protocol while being used in single context mode. We make a design / security choice here: NAT many to one and loose event logging granularity Use a Network pool and NAT one to one Enable Traffic without NAT -. For added network engineering safety. The pool addresses are routed internally as built during installation or added independently as required. Note the NAME tag on this sample route entry at odc-4948-fwbuff-a/b: ip route 192. Best practice in the environment is for a 1 time setup Supporting improvements in static route maintenance.168.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi.168..0/24 Best practice – Single point of route administration A single point of administration allows for building the ASA firewall and injecting its required routes one time. The ASA will not advertise its networks into OSPF directly.nat-control versus no nat-control A feature in the ASA that can be chosen is No NAT-Control We want this command: (reference ASDM GUI location below) nat-control Default no nat-control By default.0 10. we know how to handle and add the required route to the network and can do so in a controlled manner.11. In some situations it would appear that no nat-control is handy and is the way to go.. Choose a NAT pool for growth if possible. the no nat-control is negated and the data flows that used to work will no longer work until you add the appropriate NATs. Best practice – Start with nat-control and avoid the potential of breaking existing data flows by entering a NAT command. Best practice – Avoid route table additions and maintenance by the use of source address NAT. http://www. Where a firewall supports Extranet access.2 ) NAT control requires that packets traversing from an inside interface to an outside interface match a NAT rule. We will default our configurations to enforcing nat-control. the process for allowing access would simply be access-list modifications. The ASA must receive internal routes via OSPF.0 255. the ASA’s will join the OSPF routing domain at the inside firewall buffer switches. The ASA should NAT the source addresses to predetermined pool addresses as policy requires. There are several configuration interactions that will negate the no nat-control.255. Often we will sacrifice event logging granularity when we NAT many to one. careful consideration must be given before injecting those foreign network numbers into route tables. Provision and route NAT pool(s) at turn-up time. receiving internal routes. required ASA originated routes will be static routes at the inside firewall buffer switches.14 Name odc-asa5540-dmz995-our_app1 ip prefix-list allowed-static-to-ospf permit 192. consistency and security.10. A single point of administration is then defined. It will be a receive only neighbor. for any host on the inside network to access a host on the outside network.90. These routes will be filtered and redistributed into OSPF as appropriate using a route-map and ip-prefix lists. If an additional network or service is added to the firewall later.
8/9/2011 .Check The Network Page 6 of 10 Once you enable any sort of dynamic NAT / PAT.. now all traffic between this zone and any other zone either requires NAT rules or NAT exemption.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment .checkthenetwork. 'no nat-control' rule no longer applies for that zone.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. http://www..
net The DDOS Specialist Identify and block DDOS attacks automatically and in real time.0.com Computer Training Courses Microsoft.0 dmzg02_our_applications icmp permit 0. The ASA provides application inspection services through its Modular Policy Framework. Commands to enable ICMP inspection: policy-map global_policy class inspection_default inspect icmp inspect icmp error WANT TO LEARN A LITTLE BIT MORE YOU MAY NOT HAVE KNOWN? SEE BELOW FOR NEW INFORMATION.0 0.0.0 echo‐reply dmzg02_our_applications icmp permit 0.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment .220.127.116.11. W/ 2500 Web SSL VPN Lic. www. CompTIA A+ www. ICMP can be used to attack your network. The ICMP inspection engine allows ICMP traffic to be inspected like TCP and UDP traffic.0. we recommend that you do not allow ICMP through the security appliance in an ACL.0.0 0. A good discussion on Cisco’s implementation of NAT in the ASA is found here: Cisco ASA NAT Implementation Access-List versus Inspection Rules An access-list is a filter that will permit or deny traffic.0 0.. While ICMP is required. we will actually NAT to the source IP address with the Static identity NAT command. Best practice – Enable Inspection for ICMP Two inspection engines that should be enabled during installation are ICMP and ICMP Error inspection. its use should be better controlled and inspected per above. ICMP ping is usually disabled so the firewall is invisible to the casual user.0.0. but only for the accepted ICMP types echo-reply unreachable echo time-exceeded 0 3 8 11 Example: ! For each named interface name ‐ no icmp permit 0. This effectively looks like a no NAT.com/dubai Enabling ICMP to Firewall Interfaces ICMP is often found to be generously enabled.0.0 0. Cisco ASA5540-SSL2500-K9 Cisco 5540 Adaptive Security Appl. The ICMP inspection engine ensures that there is only one response for each request. and that the sequence number is correct.0. Without the ICMP inspection engine. In most cases.0.newhorizons..inside) 18.104.22.168.riorey.0 0.0 unreachable dmzg02_our_applications http://www. even internal applications. $14.netechinc. With reference to firewall interfaces and not flows through the firewall.3.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. We would do this when we are ready to interrogate the contents of the log for purposes of learning about our applications and applying inspection as appropriate.0. static (DMZxxx. We will enable HTTP inspection according to our needs with policy maps. on an outside interface.0.0.0.3.0 echo dmzg02_our_applications icmp permit 0.0. Best practice: TURN IT ON.0 Reference: Bypassing NAT when nat-control is enabled Throughout the firewall’s configuration we will employ many of the available types of NAT as appropriate.0 unreachable outside icmp deny 0.0.0 0. Any HTTP flow not adhering to the basic checks is dropped by default. They support ICMP Path MTU discovery. 8/9/2011 . Without stateful inspection.0 outside ICMP configurations can be allowed as required on Inside and DMZ. These settings are not made with access lists entries.0 1.995 www.0 netmask 255. We do need to allow ICMP unreachable messages.0. An acceptable configuration for outside ICMP would be: icmp permit 0. Problem is that many HTTP applications do not conform.0.2. Two of the basic checks of this engine ensure conformance to RFC 2616 and the use of RFC-defined methods only. The HTTP inspection engine is disabled by default.0. in ASDM see Configuration > Properties > Device Administration > ICMP Rules.checkthenetwork. We can change the action from dropped to log. which is needed for IPSec and PPTP operation. Cisco Networking Database Administration.0.Check The Network Page 7 of 10 Bypassing Nat when nat-control is enabled When our inside hosts communicate with our protected DMZ resources we will require a NAT statement because we are enforcing NAT control.0. Many of the inspection engines are not enable by default. They should be applied as required per system under a controlled environment.
0.0.0.0 0.0..checkthenetwork.0.0.0.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment .0.0 time‐exceeded dmzg02_our_applications icmp deny 0. 8/9/2011 .0 0.0 dmzg02_our_applications Page 8 of 10 http://www.Check The Network icmp permit 0.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi..
Basic intrusion and protection must be configured and enabled. The ASA will perform basic intrusion protection even when the advanced IPS system is not installed in the system. we will see permit any any svc_ICMP_types_allowed. the ASA is configured to be invisible in a traceroute and to provide translation for inside hosts along the traceroute via the service‐ policy inspect icmp‐error mechanism. an access list entry is required. Traceroute and Enabling Cisco IOS traceroute By default you do not want most users to see traceroute through the network. This aids in keeping us invisible. Reference: Cisco Ping and Traceroute TechNote. Reverse Route Verification IP verify reverse‐path guards against IP spoofing (a packet uses an incorrect source IP address to obscure its true source) by ensuring that all packets have a source IP address that matches the correct source interface according to the routing table.checkthenetwork. Internet users will be denied traceroute to any. Note that on the outside interface we do not send a reset on attack. The alarms will be reported via SYSLOG and can be should be interrogated on an ongoing basis. ip verify reverse‐path interface inside ip verify reverse‐path interface management ip verify reverse‐path interface outside IP Audit One of the main functions of a firewall is to protect the network from bad things. Exceptions will be made where connections are L3 only and it is known that the L3 device is already performing reverse‐path verification and has an accurate route table and we are not the default route. ip audit name thisnet_audit_outside_attack attack ip audit name thisnet_audit_outside_info ip audit name thisnet_audit_inside_attack ip audit name thisnet_audit_inside_info ip audit name thisnet_audit_dmz_attack ip audit name thisnet_audit_dmz_info info attack info attack info action alarm drop action alarm action alarm drop reset action alarm action alarm drop reset action alarm ip audit interface outside ip audit interface outside ip audit interface inside ip audit interface inside thisnet_audit_outside_info thisnet_audit_outside_attack thisnet_audit_inside_info thisnet_audit_inside_attack http://www. In the ASDM Configuration > Global Objects > Service Groups the allowed ICMP types should be defined as a service object group and where ICMP is allowed in an access-list the service object group should be selected: object-group icmp-type svc_ICMP_types_allowed description Security .Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment . The best practice is to TURN IT ON. but doing so does increase security. To allow a traceroute originated from a Cisco IOS device beyond a firewall. by default they will have a two minute timeout.ICMP types allowed in this network icmp-object echo icmp-object echo-reply icmp-object time-exceeded icmp-object unreachable Best practice for ICMP is to allow only the minimum required however there is a critical tradeoff with ease of troubleshooting. Each time you begin a traceroute IOS starts at UDP port 33434 by default.. We find that it is usually enabled end to end for troubleshooting purposes.we will allow 90 probes (3x30)-default udp timeout=2minutes port-object range 33434 33524 Per this document. At a minimum. They will need to be tuned. The best practice is to TURN IT ON.com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi. We will not allow all ICMP message types. 8/9/2011 . Eliminating ping is not normally a favorable option. We create policies that are strict to start with.Check The Network Page 9 of 10 Enabling ICMP through the Firewall Allowing ICMP flows through the firewall to protected hosts is often required and implemented via the access lists. Cisco devices use a UDP probe in their traceroute routine. Example Rule: access-list dmz432_access_in extended permit udp object-group srvr-svc_ dmz432_network_devices any object -group svc_UDP_cisco_IOS_traceroute The recommended UDP object group allows for 90 probes. Although not a recommended best practice.. the default 3 x 30 possible hops. Since these are UDP connections. It may be desirable to enable it to selected devices. object-group service svc_UDP_cisco_IOS_traceroute udp description Cisco IOS uses a udp traceroute starting at 33434 .
Check The Network ! Set per configured dmz ip audit interface dmzXXXX ip audit interface dmzXXXX thisnet_audit_dmz_info thisnet_audit_dmz_attack Page 10 of 10 ! The below commands disable a few inspections we are not worried about ip audit signature 1002 disable ! Timestamp considered DOS but needed ! for RFC1323 support ip audit signature 2000 disable ip audit signature 2001 disable ip audit signature 2004 disable ip audit signature 2005 disable ip audit signature 6051 disable ! ICMP echo reply ! ICMP unreachable ! ICMP echo request ! ICMP time exceeded ! DNS zone transfer . The command looks kind of backward but DOES enable the signature identified..com/networksecurity%20Cisco%20ASA%20Firewall%20Best%20Practi..checkthenetwork. 8/9/2011 .no ip audit signature 2008 disable) home products search checkout sitemap contact Published by Productive Solutions Inc. Copyright © 1996-2011 All rights reserved The Productive Solutions Logo and How well do you communicate? are Trade Marks Other company names and products may be their respective trademarks.Cisco ASA Firewall Best Practices for Firewall Deployment .we are likely doing ! these and do not want to drop Be sure to enable the rest of the inspection signatures per the ASA Defaults configuration script. no ip audit signature 2008 (guess it means -. http://www. They are disabled by default.
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