PART  I
Q.2
Ans: A A 26dBm output in watts equals to 0.4 W because 400mW 10 log10 = 10 2.6 = 26 dB 1mW Q.3 The Characteristic Impedance of a low pass filter in attenuation Band is (A) Purely imaginary. (B) Zero. (C) Complex quantity. (D) Real value. Ans: A The characteristic impedance of a low pass filter in attenuation band is purely imaginary. Q.4 The real part of the propagation constant shows: (A) Variation of voltage and current on basic unit. (B) Variation of phase shift/position of voltage. (C) Reduction in voltage, current values of signal amplitude. (D) Reduction of only voltage amplitude.
Q.5 matching.
Ans: C The real part of the propagation constant shows reduction in voltage, current values of signal amplitude. The purpose of an Attenuator is to: (A) increase signal strength. (B) provide impedance (C) decrease reflections. (D) decrease value of signal
strength. Ans: D The purpose of an Attenuator is to decrease value of signal strength. Q.6 In Parallel Resonance of: R L C circuit having a R L as series branch and C forming parallel branch. Tick the correct answer only. (A) Max Impedance and current is at the frequency that of resonance. (B) Value of max Impedance = L / (CR). (C) ranch currents are 180 Degree phase shifted with each other. (D)
2 fr = 1 1 R 2 2 LC L .
Ans: D In parallel resonance of RLC circuit having a RL branch and C forming parallel branch,
fr = 1 2 1 R2 LC L2
Q.7
In a transmission line terminated by characteristic impedance, Zo (A) There is no reflection of the incident wave. (B) The reflection is maximum due to termination. (C) There are a large number of maximum and minimum on the line. (D) The incident current is zero for any applied signal. A In a transmission line terminated by characteristic impedance, Zo, there is no reflection of the incident wave. Ans:
Q.8 has
For a coil with inductance L and resistance R in series with a capacitor C (A) (B) (C) (D) Ans: Resonance impedance as zero. Resonance impedance R. Resonance impedance L/CR. Resonance impedance as infinity. B
For a coil with inductance L and resistance R in series with a capacitor C has a resonance impedance R. Q.9 Laplace transform of a unit Impulse function is (A)s. (B) 0. (C) e .
s
(D) 1.
Ans: D Laplace transform of a unit Impulse function is 1 Q.10 Millmans theorem is applicable during determination of (A) (B) (C) (D) Load current in a network of generators and impedances with two output terminals. Load conditions for maximum power transfer. Dual of a network. Load current in a network with more than one voltage source.
a Q.11
Ans: D Millman's theorem is applicable during determination of Load current in network with more than one voltage source. Asymmetrical two port networks have Zsc1 = Zoc2 (A) Zoc1 Zoc2 (C) Z oc1 Z oc2 and Z sc1 Z sc2
(B) (D)
Zsc1 = Zsc2
Ans: D Asymmetrical two port networks have ZOC1 ZOC2 and ZSC1 ZSC2 Q.12 An attenuator is a (A) Rs network. (C) RC network. Ans: A An attenuator is a R's network. Q.13 A pure resistance, R L when connected at the load end of a lossless 100 line produces a VSWR of 2. Then R L is (A) (C) 50 only. 50 or 200 . (B) 200 only. (D) 400 . (B) RL network. (D) LC network.
Ans: C A pure resistance, RL when connected at the load end of a lossless 100 line produces a VSWR of 2. Then RL is 50 ,,or 200 as follows:
VSWR = VSWR = R O 100 = =2 RL RL RL RL = =2 R O 100 R L = 50 R L = 200
Q.14 is
The reflection coefficient of a transmission line with a shortcircuited load (A) (C) 0. 1.00 . (B) . (D) 1.0180 .
Ans: A The reflection coefficient of a transmission line with a shortcircuited load is 0. Q.15 All pass filter (A) passes whole of the audio band. (B) passes whole of the radio band. (C) passes all frequencies with very low attenuation. (D) passes all frequencies without attenuation but phase is changed. Ans: D All pass filters, passes all frequencies without attenuation but phase change. Q.16 A series resonant circuit is inductive at f = 1000 Hz. The circuit will be capacitive some where at (A) f > 1000 Hz. (B) f < 1000 Hz. (C) f equal to 1000 Hz and by adding a resistance in series. (D) f = 1000+ fo ( resonance frequency) Ans: B A series resonant circuit is inductive at f = 1000 Hz. The circuit will be capacitive some where at f < 1000 Hz. Q.17 Compensation theorem is applicable to (A) nonlinear networks. (C) linear and nonlinear networks. (B) linear networks. (D) None of the above.
Q.18
1 (A) (C)
s (B) (D)
(s + )2 + 2 .
(s + )2 + 2 .
2
(s + )2 + 2 .
(s + )2 + 2
(s + )2 + 2
Q.19 A network function is said to have simple pole or simple zero if (A) the poles and zeroes are on the real axis. (B) the poles and zeroes are repetitive. (C) the poles and zeroes are complex conjugate to each other. (D) the poles and zeroes are not repeated. Ans: D A network function is said to have simple pole or simple zero if the poles and zeroes are not repeated. Q.20 Symmetrical attenuators have attenuation ' ' given by I I R 20 log10 R 20 log10 R R I I R S S S (B) (A) I I 10 log10 R 20 log10 S I I R . S . (C) (D) Ans: D Symmetrical attenuators have attenuation given by
= 20 log10
Q.21
IS IR
The velocity factor of a transmission line (A) is governed by the relative permittivity of the dielectric. (B) is governed by the skin effect. (C) is governed by the temperature. (D) All of the above. Ans: A
The velocity factor of a transmission line is governed by the relative permittivity of the dielectric. Q.22 8.686 . If ' ' is attenuation in nepers then (A) attenuation in dB = / 0.8686. (C) . attenuation in dB = 0.1 .
Ans: B is attenuation in If nepers then attenuation in dB = 8.686 . Q.23 f c is For a constant K high pass filter, characteristic impedance Z 0 for f < (A) (C) resistive. capacitive. (B) inductive. (D) inductive or capacitive.
Ans: D For a constant K high pass filter, characteristic impedance Zo for f < fc is inductive or capacitive. Q.24 A delta connection contains three impedances of 60 each. impedances of equivalent star connection will be (B) 20 each. (A) 15 each. (C) 30 each. (D) 40 each. The
Ans: B A delta connection contains three impedances of 60 each. The impedances of equivalent star connection will be 20 each. Q.25 Which one of the following is a passive element? (A) A BJT. (B) An Inductor. (C) A FET. (D) An Opamp. Ans: B Which one of the following is a passive element? An Inductor Q.26 Millman theorem yields (A) equivalent resistance of the circuit. (B) equivalent voltage source. (C) equivalent voltage OR current source. (D) value of current in milli amperes input to a circuit from a voltage source.
Ans: C Millman's theorem yields equivalent voltage or current source. Q.27 The zparameters of the shown Tnetwork at Fig.1 are given by (A) 5, 8, 12, 0 (B) 13, 8, 8, 20 (C) 8, 20, 13, 12 (D) 5, 8, 8, 12
Ans: B The Z parameters of the T  network at Fig 1.1 are given by 13, 8, 8, 20 Z11 = Z1 + Z3 = 5 + 8 = 13, Z12 = Z3 = 8, Z21 = Z3 = 8, Z22 = Z2 + Z3 = 12 + 8 = 20
5 1 1 3 1 8 2 12 2 2
Fig 1.1
Q.28
To a highly inductive circuit, a small capacitance is added in series. The angle between voltage and current will (A) decrease. (B) increase. (C) remain nearly the same. (D) become indeterminant. Ans: C To a highly inductive circuit, a small capacitance is added in series. The angle between voltage and current will remain nearly the same.
Q.29
L1 + L 2 + 2M L1 + L 2 2M L1 + L 2 (C) L1 L 2 + 2M
L1 + L2 + 2M
1 Fig 1.2
Q.30
The characteristic impedances z 0 of a transmission line is given by, (where R, L, G, C are the unit length parameters) (R + jL) / (G + jC) (A) (B) (R + jL )(G + jC) (C)
(D)
Ans: D The characteristic impedance Zo of a transmission line given by, ( where R, L, G, C are the unit length parameters
Zo = ( R + j L ) (G + j C )
Q.31
The relation between R1 and R 2 for the given symmetrical lattice attenuator shown in Fig.3 is (A) (B) (C) (D) R1 = R 2 = R 0
R1 = R 2 / R 2 0 R1 = R 2 / R 0 2 R2 = R 2 / R 0
1
Ans: B The relation between R1 and R2 for the given symmetrical lattice attenuator shown in Fig 1.3 is
a Ro R1
c
Ro R2
2
R R2 1 =
Ro
R2 VS b R1 d Fig 1.3
Q.32 given by
If Laplace transform of x(t) = X(s), then Laplace transform of x(tt0) is (A) (C)
( t 0 ) X(s )
e t 0 s X(s )
(B)
X(s t 0 )
t 0s X(s ) (D) e
Ans: D If Laplace transform of x(t) = X(s), then laplace transform of x(t t0) is given by
e t0 s X ( s )
Q.33 The following constitutes a bilateral element (A) A resistor. (B) FET. (C) Vacuum tube. (D) metal rectifier. Ans: A Q.34 Voltages v1 and v 2 in the given circuit are (A) (B) (C) (D) 20 volts each. 10 volts each. 16 volts, 4 volts. 4 volts, 16 volts.
Ans: B Voltages v1 and v2 in the given circuit are Q.35 Step response of series RC circuit with applied voltage V is of the form V V i(t ) = e t RC i(t ) = 1 e t RC R R (B) (A) V V i(t ) = e t RC i(t ) = 1 e t RC R R (C) (D)
Ans: form
12
8 1 Fig 1.1 2
Q.36
( )
L2
L1 + L2 + 2M
Q.37
In the circuit shown, maximum power will be transferred when Z L = (4.5 + j 6.5) (A) (B) (C) (D)
Z L = (4.5 j 6.5)
Ans: B In the circuit shown, maximum power will be transferred when ZL = (4.5 j 6.5) Q.38 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) in terms of reflection is given by coefficient 1 1 1+ . (A) (B) + 1 .
(C)
1+ 1 .
(D) 1 + .
Ans: C
VSWR = 1+ 1
Q.39
For a 2port network, the output short circuit current was measured with a 1V source at the input. The value of the current gives h12 (A) (B) y12 (C) Ans:
h 21
(D)
y 21
R R1 = o R2
R1 R2 R2
c Ro
VS b R1 Fig 1.3 d V(s ) s+3 = I(s ) (s + 2 )2 When i(t) is the unit step function, the value of v (t) in the steady state is given by 3 2. (B) 1. (A) 3 (C) 0. (D) 4 . H(s ) = Ans: Q.41 An RLC series circuit is said to be inductive if L > 1 C (A) (B) (C)
Q.40
L = 1 C
L < 1 C
(D) L = C
Ans: A
A RLC series circuit is said to be inductive if L > 1/C. Q.42 Laplace transform of an unit impulse function is given by (A) 1 (B) 1 (C)
1s
2 (D) 1 s
Ans: A Laplace transform of an unit impulse function is given by 1. Q.43 plane. (C) On the imaginary axis. (D) On the origin. Ans: D A function H(s) = 2s/(s2 + 8) will have a zero at the origin. Q.44 For a two port reciprocal network, the three transmission parameters are given by A = 4, B = 7 and C = 5. The value of D is equal to (A) 8.5 (B) 9 (C) 9.5 (D) 8 Ans: B For a two port reciprocal network, the three transmission parameters are given by A = 4, B = 7 and C = 5. The value of D is equal to 9. AD BC = 1 4D = 1+ 35 = 36 D = 36/4 = 9 Q.45 bandwidth. (C) bandwidth. Ans: D Higher the value of Q of a series circuit, narrower is its pass band. Q.46 An ideal filter should have (A) Zero attenuation in the pass band. (B) Zero attenuation in the attenuation band. (C) Infinite attenuation in the pass band. (D) Infinite attenuation in the attenuation band. Ans: A An ideal filter should have Zero attenuation in the pass band. Broader is its resonant curve. (D) Narrower is its Higher the value of Q of a series circuit (A) Sharper is its resonance. (B) Greater is its
2 A function H(s ) = 2s s + 8 will have a zero at (A) s = j4 (B) Anywhere on the s
Q.47 For an mderived high pass filter, the cut off frequency is 4KHz and the filter has an infinite attenuation at 3.6 KHz, the value of m is (A) 0.436 (B) 4.36 (C) 0.34 (D) 0.6 Ans: A For an mderived high pass filter, the cut off frequency is 4KHz and the filter has an infinite attenuation at 3.6KHz, the value of m is 0.436
m = 1 f fc
2 2
Q.48
If Zoc = 120 and Zsc = 30 , the characteristic impedance is 30 (A) (B) 60 120 (D) 150 (C) Ans: B If Zoc = and Z 120sc = 30 , the characteristic impedance is 60.
Zo =
Z oc Z sc =
120 30 = 60
Q.49
The reflection coefficient of a line is 1 . The line is (A) Open circuited. (B) Short circuited. (C) Terminated in Z o . (D) Of infinite length. Ans: A The reflection coefficient of a line is 1. The line is open circuited.
Q.50 as reactance.
If a transmission line of length less than 4 is short circuited, it behaves (A) (C) Pure capacitive reactance. Parallel resonant circuit. (B) Series resonant circuit. (D) Pure inductive
Ans: D If a transmission line of length less than /4 is short circuited, it behaves as pure inductive reactance. Q.51 Zo (C) LG = CR (D) LR = GC Ans: C A line becomes distortion less if (A) It is properly matched (B) It is terminated into
A line becomes distortion less if LG = CR Q.52 stub (C) stubs Ans: A Double stub matching eliminates standing waves on the Source side of the left stub. Q.53 If ZOC = 100 and ZSC = 64 , the characteristic impedance is (A) (C) 400 80 (B) 60 (D) 170 and Zsc = 64 the characteristic , impedance is 80 F(s ) = Both sides of the stub (D) In between the two Double stub matching eliminates standing waves on the (A) Source side of the left stub (B) Load side of the right
Q.54
The final value of f (t) for a given (A) (C) Ans: Zero 18 (A)
(s + 4)(s + 2)
(B) 1 15 (D) 1 6
f ( s) =
s ( s + 4)( s + 2) is Zero.
If the given network is reciprocal, then according to the reciprocity (A) (C)
(B) (D)
y 22 = y12 y11 = y 22
Ans: A If the given network is reciprocal, then according to the reciprocity theorem y21 = y12 Q.56 The frequency of infinite attenuation (f ) of a low pass mderived section is (A) Equal to cut off frequency (f c ) of the filter. (B)
f = .
(C) (D)
Close to but greater than the f c of the filter. Close to but less than the f c of the filter.
Ans: C The frequency of infinite attenuation (f) of a low pass mderived section is Close to but greater then the fc of the filter. Q.57 The dynamic impedance of a parallel RLC circuit at resonance is C LR (A) (B) R LC (C)
L CR
L CR
(D)
LC R
Q.58
(C)
1 (s + 2)
(B)
(s + 2)
(D) 2s.
Ans: (C)
1 Laplace transform of the function e is s + 2
2t
Q.59
A (3 + 4j) voltage source delivers a current of (4 + j5) A. The power delivered by the source is (A) 12 W (B) 15 W (C) 20 W (D) 32 W Ans: A A (3 + 4j) voltage source delivers a current of (4+ j5) A. The power delivered by the source is 12 W
Q.60
In a variable bridged Tattenuator, with R A = R o , zero dB attenuation can be obtained if bridge arm R B and shunt arm R C are set as R B = 0, R C = (A) (B) R B = , R C = 0 (C) R B = R, R C = (D) R B = 0, R C = R
Ans: A In a variable bridged Tattenuator, with RA = RO, zero dB attenuation can be obtained if bridge arm RB and shunt arm RC are set as RB = 0, RC = .
Q.61
Consider a lossless line with characteristic impedance Ro and VSWR = S. Then the impedance at the point of a voltage maxima equals (B) R0/S (A) SR0 (C) S2R0 (D) R0 Ans: A Consider a lossless line with characteristic impedance Ro and VSWR = S. Then the impedance at the point of a voltage maxima equals SRo
Q.62
If f1 and f 2 are half power frequencies and f o is the resonance frequency, the selectivity of RLC circuit is given by f 2 f1 f 2 f1 f0 2f 0 (A) (B) (C)
f 2 f1 f1 f 0
(D)
f2 f0 f1 f 0
Q.63
Ans: A If f1 and f2 are half power frequencies and f0 be resonant frequency, the selectivity of RLC cir f 2  f1 f0 A symmetrical T network has characteristic impedance Z o and propagation constant . Then Z1 = Z o sinh and Z 2 = 2 Z o tanh 2 (A) (B) (C) (D) Z1 = Z o sinh and Z 2 = 2 Z o tanh 2 Z1 = 2Z o tan 2 and Z 2 = Z o sinh Z1 = Zo tanh 2 and Z 2 = 2 Z o sinh
Ans: C A symmetrical T network has characteristic impedance Zo and propagation constant . Then the series element Z1 and shunt element Z2 are given by Z1 = 2 Zo tan /2 and Z2 = Zo / sinh F(s ) = Q.64 plane (C) On the imaginary axis Ans: (D) On the origin D A function is given by. It will have a zero on the A function is given by (A) Infinity
(s
2s
2
F (s) =
2s 2 ( s + 8)
origin. Q.65 For a linear passive bilateral network h 21 = h12 (A) (C)
(B) (D)
h12 = g12
Ans: B For a linear passive bilateral network h21 =  h12 Q.66 A constant K bandpass filter has passband from 1000 to 4000 Hz. The resonance frequency of shunt and series arm is a (A) 2500 Hz. (B) 500 Hz. (C) 2000 Hz. (D) 3000 Hz. Ans: C A constant k band pass filter has pass band from 1000 to 4000 Hz. The resonant frequency of shunt and series arm is 2000Hz Q.67 A constant voltage source with 10V and series internal resistance of 100 ohm is equivalent to a current source of (A) 100mA in parallel with 100 ohm. (B) 1000mA in parallel with 100 ohm. (C) 100V in parallel with 10ohms. (D) 100mA in parallel with 1000 ohm. Ans: A A constant voltage source with 10V and series internal resistance of 100 ohm is equivalent to a current source of 100mA in parallel with 100 ohm. Q.68 Input impedance of a shortcircuited lossless line with length 4 is Zo (A) (B) zero
2 (C) infinity (D) z 0 Ans: C Input impedance of a /4 isshortcircuited loss less line with length
Q.69
Laplace transform of unit impulse is (A) u(s) (C) s Ans: B Laplace transform of unit impulse is 1
Q.70
In a two terminal network, the open circuit voltage at the given terminal is 100V and the short circuit at the same terminal gives 5A current. If a load of 80 resistance is connected at the terminal, the load current is given by (A) 1Amp (B) 1.25 Amp (C) 6 Amp (D) 6.25 Amp Ans: A Ina two terminal network, the open circuit voltage at the given terminal is 100V and the short circuit at the same terminal 5A. If a load of 80 resistance is connected at the terminal, the load current is given by 1 Amp.
Q.71 network,
Given VTH = 20V and RTH = 5 , the current in the load resistance of a (A) (C) is 4A is 4A or less (B) is more than 4A. (D) is less than 4A.
network, Q.72
Ans: D Given VTH = 20V and RTH = 5 , the current in the load resistance of a is less than 4A. The Laplace transform of a function is 1/s x Eeas. The function is (A) E sin t (B) Eeat (C) E u(ta) (D) E cos t Ans: C The Laplace transform of a function is 1/s Eeas. The function is E u(t 
). Q.73 For a symmetrical network (A) Z11 = Z22 (C) Z11 = Z22 and Z12 = Z21 Ans: C Q.74 A constant k low pass Tsection filter has Z0 = 600 at zero frequency. At f = fc the characteristic impedance is (A) 600 (B) 0 (C) (D) More than 600 Ans: B A constant k low pass Tsection filter has Zo = 600 at zero frequency. At f = fc, the characteristic impedance is 0. (B) Z12 = Z21 (D) Z11 x Z22 Z122 = 0
Q.75
In mderived terminating half sections, m = (A) 0.1 (B) 0.3 (C) 0.6 (D) 0.95 Ans: C In mderived terminating half sections, m = 0.6.
Q.76
In a symmetrical T attenuator with attenuation N and characteristic impedance R0, the resistance of each series arm is equal to (A) R0 (B) (N1)R0 2N N R0 R0 2 N 2 1 (D) N 1 (C) Ans: C In a symmetrical T attenuator with attenuation N and characteristic impedance Ro, the resistance of each series arm is equal to 2N Ro 2 N 1
Q.77
For a transmission line, open circuit and short circuit impedances are 20 and 5. The characteristic impedance of the line is (A) 100 (B) 50 (C) 25 (D) 10 . Ans: D For a transmission line, open circuit and short circuit impedances are 20 and 5. The characteristic impedance of the line is 10
Q.78 then
(A) (C)
k=
(B) (D)
k =
Ans: B If K is the reflection coefficient and S is the Voltage standing wave ratio, then
k =
VSWR 1 VSWR + 1
Q.79 A parallel RLC network has R=4, L =4H, and C=0.25F, then at resonance Q= (A) 1 (B) 10 (C) 20. (D) 40
Ans: A A parallel RLC network has R = 4, L = 4H, and C = 0.125F, then at resonance Q = 1. Q.80 A delta connection contains three impedances of 60 each. The impedances of the equivalent star connection will be (A) 15 each. (B) 20 each. (C) 30 each. (D) 40 each. Ans: B A delta connection contains three impedances of 60 each. The impedances of the equivalent star connection will be 20 each. Q.81 If VTH and R TH are the Thevenins voltage and resistance and R L is the load resistance, then Thevenins equivalent circuit consists of (A) series combination of R TH , VTH and R L . (B) (C) (D) series combination of R TH and VTH . parallel combination of R TH , VTH and R L . parallel combination of R TH and VTH .
Ans: B If VTH and RTH are the Thevenins voltage and resistance and RL is the load resistance, then Thevenins equivalent circuit consists of series combination of RTH and VTH. Q.82 If f (t ) = r (t ), F(s ) =
e s
(A) (C)
(B) (D) e s s2
s+
1 s+
e s s
The integral of a step function is (A) A ramp function. (C) Modified ramp function. Ans: A
The integral of a step function is a ramp function. Q.84 band is For a prototype low pass filter, the phase constant in the attenuation (A) (C)
(B) 0 2 (D)
Ans: C For a prototype low pass filter, the phase constant in the attenuation band is Q.85 frequency. (C) equal to the cutoff frequency. (D) None of these. Ans: B In the mderived HPF, the resonant frequency is to be chosen so that it is below the cut off frequency. Q.86 In a symmetrical attenuator with attenuation N and characteristic impedance R o , the resistance of each shunt arm is equal to (A) (C) RO N 1 Ro N +1 (B) (N1)R O N +1 Ro (D) N 1 symmetrical attenuator with attenuation N and characteristic In the mderived HPF, the resonant frequency is to be chosen so that it is (A) above the cutoff frequency. (B) Below the cutoff
Ans: D N + 1 In a Ro N 1
impedance Ro, the resistance of each shunt arm is equal to Q.87 In terms of R,L,G and C the propagation constant of a transmission line is (A) (C)
R + jL G + jC
(B) (D)
(R + jL)(G + jC)
R + j L G + jC
= ( R + j L)(G + jC )
Q. 88 ratio, S =
A line has Zo = 3000 . If ZL = 1500 , Voltage standing wave (A) (C) 1 2 (B) 0.5 (D)
Ans: C A line has Zo = 3000 . If ZL = 1500 , Voltage standing wave ratio, since ZO > Z o = 3000 ZL , S = 2 Z L 1500 Q.89 In a series resonant circuit, the resonant frequency will be (A) Geometric mean of half power frequencies. (B) Arithmetic mean of half power frequencies. (C) Difference of half power frequencies. (D) Sum of half power frequencies Ans: A In a series resonant circuit, the resonant frequency is the geometric mean of half power frequencies. 1 F(S) = s + 3 . It would have a zero at A function is given by (A) real axis of splane. (B) imaginary axis of s(C) at infinity. (D) at the origin.
Q.90 plane.
Ans: C
1 s + 3 . It would have a zero at infinity. A function is given by In a series parallel circuit, any two resistances in the same current path
F (S ) =
(A) Parallel with each other (C) Parallel with the voltage source voltage source
Ans: B In a series parallel circuit, any two resistances in the same current path must be in Series with each other Q. 92 Superposition theorem is not applicable in: (A) Voltage responses (B) Power responses (C) Current responses (D) All the three
Ans: B Superposition theorem is not applicable in Power responses. Q.93 Kirchoffs first law is used in the formation of: (A) Loop equations (B) Nodal equations (C) Both (D) None of the above Ans: B Kirchoffs first law is used in the formation of Nodal equations. Q.94 Bridged T network can be used as: (A) Attenuator (C) High pass filter (B) Low pass filter (D) Band pass filter
Ans: A Bridged T network can be used as Attenuator. Q.95 One neper is equal to (A) 0.8686 dB (C) 118.686 dB (B) 8.686 dB (D) 86.86 dB
Ans: One neper is equal to 0.1151 x attenuation in dB. Q.96 Total reflection can take place if the load is: (A) 0 (B) (C) 0 and (D) Zo Ans: C Total reflection can take place if the load is 0 and . Q.97 The characteristic impedance of a distortion less line is: (A) Real (B) Inductive (C) Capacitive (D) Complex Ans: A The characteristic impedance of a distortion less line is Real. Q.98 Terminating half sections used in composite filters are built with the following value of m: (A) m = 0.6 (B) m = 0.8 (C) m = 0.3 (D) m = 1 Ans: A
Terminating half sections used in composite filters are built with the following value of m = 0.6. Q.99 A transmission line works as an (A) Attenuator (C) HPF (B) LPF (D) Neither of the above
Ans: B A transmission line works as an LPF (Low Pass Filter). Q.100 In a loss free RLC circuit the transient current is: (A) Sinusoidal (B) Square wave (C) Oscillating (D) Nonoscillating Ans: A In a loss free RLC circuit the transient current is Sinusoidal.
PART II
NUMERICALS
Q.1. the Line. Open and short circuit impedances of a transmission line at 1.6 KHz are 900300 and 400100 . Calculate the characteristic impedance of (7) Ans: Given Zoc = 900300 Zsc = 400100 The characteristic impedance of the line is given by
1 Z o = Z oc Z sc = 900 400 300 100 2 1 = 360000 400 2 = 600 200
Q.2.
Define Laplace transform of a function f(t). Find the Laplace transforms for the functions f1(t) = eat sin t . u(t) Ans: F1(s) = L(eat sin t)
F1 (s) = e at sin t e st dt =
0
1 ( s + a )t sin t e dt 2j 0
( s + a) sin te ( s + a )t + cos te ( s + a )t = = 2 2 2 2 (s + a) + 0 (s + a) +
Q.3.
Find the power dissipated in 8 resistors in the circuit shown below using Thevenins theorem.
(6) Ans: To find RTH, open circuiting the 8 resistor and shortcircuiting the voltage sources
10 10 10 5 10 10 10 5 5 5 10
RTH = 5 To find VOC, Let the potential at x be V1. On applying kirchoffs current law at point x
V1 + 20 V1 V1 + 10 + + =0 10 + 5 10 10
10V + + 10 10 x (V1) Fig 2.b.5 + 5 10 20V
15V
10V
+ + 
10 10 + 5 
10 20V
15V
resistor is Drop across 5 11.25 5 = 3.75 V 15 resistor left Current through 10 to point x is
V1 + 10 10 8.75 1.25 = = = 0.125 A 10 10 10
10
1.25 = 1.25V 10
Power loss in 8 resistor = (0.96) 2 x 8 = 7.37 Watts Q.4. Design an asymmetrical Tnetwork shown Z oc1 = 1000 , Z oc2 = 1200 and Z sc1 = 700 . below having
(6) Ans: Given ZOC1 , Z = 1000OC2 = 1200 and ZSC1= 700 . From the Fig 3.b ZOC1 = R1 + R3 , = 1000 R1 = 1000  R3 ZOC2 = R2 + R3 , = 1200 R2 = 1200 R3 R1 = 400 R2 = 600 R 2R 3 = R1 + = 700 R2 + R3 (1200 R33= 600 R )R 3 Z SC1 = (1000 R 3 ) + = 700 1200 2 (1200 R 3 )R 3 R 300 = R 3 = 3 Fig 3.b 1200 1200 R32 = 360000 R3 = 600 we know that R1 + R3 = 1000 R1 = 400 we know that R2 + R3 = 1200 R2 = 600 Q.5. Calculate the transmission parameters of the network shown below. Also verify the reciprocity & symmetricity of the network.
Z SC1
(8)
Ans:
1 + I1 V1 1
2 I2 3 4 + V2
1 + I1 V1 I3 3
2 I2 4 + V2 2
Fig 4.b.1
11
13
Fig 4.b.2
On open circuiting the terminals 22 as in Fig 4.b.2 Applying Kirchoffs voltage law (KVL) for the first loop V1 = I1 + 3(I1 I3) = 4I1 3I3  (1) Applying KVL for the second loop 0 = 9 I3 3 I1 I1 = 3 I3 7I3 = I1
I3 = I1 3
3 I 1 = 3I 1 3 4 V2 = 4 I 3 = I 1 3 V1 = 4 I 1
L (3) L (4)
C= A=
I1 V2 V1 V2
=
I 2 =0
I1 3 = mhos ( 4 3) I 1 4 3I1 9 = 4 4 I1 3
=
I 2 =0
I1 I3 Fig 4.b.4
Fig 4.b.3
Applying Kirchoffs voltage law (KVL) for the first loop of Fig 4.b.4 V1 = I1 + 3(I1 I3) = 4I1 3I2  (5)
I2 = I3 Applying KVL for the second loop 0 = 3(I3  I1) + 2I3 5I3 = 3I1 and also I 2 = I3 . Hence are get
5 I1 = I 2 3 From (5) and (6) 5 29 V1 = 4 I 2 3 I 2 = I2 3 3 I1 = and 5 I3 3
K (6) L (7)
B= D=
V1 I2 I1 I2
=
V2 = 0
=
V2 = 0
AD
7 9 5 29 3 15 29 = = = 4 1 4 2 4 3 3 4 4 AD BC 1 AD BC =
The circuit is neither reciprocal nor symmetrical. Q.6. In a symmetrical Tnetwork, if the ratio of input and output power is 6.76. Calculate the attenuation in Neper & dB. Also design this attenuator operating between source and load resistances of 1000 . Ans: Let Pin be the input power, Pout be the output power and N be the attenuation in Nepers.
Pin = 6.76 Pout
N=
(8)
( given )
R1 = 444
R1 = 444
R2 =902.77
Attenuation D = 20 log10(N) = 20 log10(2.6) = 8.299dB Fig 5.b Load Resistance, RO = 1000 (given)
Series arm resistance (R 1 ) = R O (N  1) (2.6  1) = 1000 = 1000 0.44 = 444 (N + 1) (2.6 + 1)
Q.7.
(6)
Ans: f(t) = (1  et) sint (f(t))= L((1et) sint) i.e.F(s) = L(sint)  L(et sint) F(s) = F1(s) F2(s) F1(s) = L(sint) 1 1 ( s j ) t F1 (s) = (e jt e jt )e st dt = e ( s + j ) t )dt (e 2j 0 2j 0 1 1 1 s = s j s + j = 2 2 2j 0 s + F2(s) = L(e sint) F2 (s) = e t sin te st dt =
0
1 sin te ( s + ) t dt 2j 0
( s + ) sin te ( s + ) t + cos te ( s + ) t = = 2 2 (s + ) + (s + ) 2 + 2 0 s F(s) = F1 (s)  F2 (s) = 2 2 s + (s + ) 2 + 2 Q.8. (i) (ii) waves. (iii) and V.S.W.R. Ans: Given ZO = 100 and ZR = 150
i) K= ZO  ZR 100  150 50 = = = 0 .2 ZO + ZR 100 + 150 250
A lowloss coaxial cable of characteristic impedance of 100 is terminated in a resistive load of 150 . The peak voltage across the load is found to be 30 volts. Calculate, The reflection coefficient of the load, The amplitude of the forward and reflected voltage waves and current (8)
ii)
Let the amplitude of the forward voltage wave and the reflected vol tage wave be VR and Vi respective ly. K= VR Vi
 0.2 = VR Vi
I R = 0.2 I i
iii)
VSWR =
Q.9.
Calculate (i) The total inductance of these coils. (ii) The coefficient of coupling between coils coils & and coils and . It is given that L1 = 1.0H, L 2 = 3 H, L3 = 7 H, M12 = 0.5H, M 23 = 1H, M13 = 1H Ans: i
Coil 1 L1 M12 Coil 2 L2 M23 M13 Fig 10.a Coil 3 L3
and
(7)
K 12
The inductance of the coils is given by For coil 1 = L1 M12 + M13 = 1.0 0.5 + 1.0 = 1.5 H For coil 2 = L2 M23  M12 = 3.0 1.0 0.5 = 1.5 H For coil 3 = L3 + M13  M32 = 7.0 1.0 + 1.0 = 7 H The total inductance of the coils = 1.5 + 1.5 + 7 = 10 H The coefficient of coupling between coils (1) and (2) is M 12 0 .5 0 .5 = = = = 0.289 3 1.732 L1 L2 The coefficient of coupling between coils (2) and (3) is
M 23 L2 L3 M 31 L3 L1 1 21 1 7 1 = 0.22 4.58
K 23 =
Q.10.
It is required to match 300 load to a 400 transmission line, to reduce the VSWR along the line to 1.0. Design a quarterwave transformer at 100 MHz. Ans:
(7)
When the line is made /4 long, the input impedance becomes, 2 ZO Z in ( / 4) = At any value of s ZR But when standing wave ratio s is equal to 1, then ZO = ZR
Z Z S ( / 4) = O = Z O ZO
2
Z S ( / 4) = 400 = Z in
Hence, the characteristic impedance of a quarterwave transformer should be 400. Q.11. A network function is given below P(s ) =
2s s 2 + 2s + 2 (s+ 2 )
Obtain the polezero diagram (use graph paper). Ans: The Scale factor H = 2. On factorization of the denominator we get (s + 2)(2s + s2 + 2) = (s + 2)(s + 1 j)(s + 1 + j) The poles are situated at s =  2, s = (1 + j), s = (1 j) The zeroes are situated at s = 0. The polezero diagram is shown below.
j X X 2 O 1 X
(6)
1 1
1 2
Q.12.
For the network of Figure 1, replace the parallel combination of impedances with the compensation source.
(6)
+j4
VC = 9.2739.10
Fig.2.b.2
Zeq
Fig.2.b.1
Z eq =
Q.13.
(6)
F1 ( s ) =
1 ( s + 1)
and
Hence
F2 ( s) =
1 ( s + 2)
F1 (t ) = e t
and
F2 (t ) = e 2t
1 1 L1 = L [ F1 ( s ) F2 ( s)] = f1 (t ) f 2 (t ) ( s + 1)( s + 2)
= e
0
( t ) 2
d = e
e
0
d = e t . e t
= e t [e + 1] = e 2t + e t = e t e 2t
Find the sinusoidal steady state solution (i ss ) for a series RL circuit. (8)
Ans: The driving voltage is given by V v(t) = V cos t = [e jt + e  jt ]    Eq  1 2
Q.14.
Considering voltage source Vejt / 2 and applying Kirchoffs voltage law di e jt L + Ri = V  Eq 2 dt 2 The steady state current is given by iss1 = A ejt where A is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq  1 and Eq  2 V R jLA + RA = 2
V 2 A= R + j L
L Vcost i
Fig.5.a.
di e jt  Eq  3 + Ri = V dt 2 The steady state current is given by iss2 = B ejt where B is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq 1 and Eq  3
V 2 V = LB + RB = B j R j L 2
On applying superposition principle, the total steady state current iss is the summation of the currents iss1 and iss2. iss = iss1 + iss2
iss = iss =
V e jt e jt V [R cost + L sin t ] + = 2 2 R + j L R j L R + 2 L2
L cos t tan 1 R R 2 + 2 L2
V
Q.15.
Given two capacitors of 1 F each and coil L of 10mH, Compute the following: (i) Cutoff frequency and characteristic impedance at infinity frequency for
(ii)
a HPF. Cutoff frequency and characteristic impedance at zero frequency for an Draw the constructed sections of filters from these elements Ans:
2C =1F 2C =1F L=10mH
LPF.
(6)
L = 10mH
2C = 1F 2C = 1F
L 10 2 10 3 = = 10 2 10 3 = 1.414 10 2 C 1 10 6
1 4 LC = 1 4 5 10
3
= 1 . 12 KHz
= 4 . 5 KHz
Q.16.
In a transmission line the VSWR is given as 2.5. The characteristic impedance is 50 and the line is to transmit a power of 25 Watts. Compute the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum voltage and current. Also determine the magnitude of the receiving end voltage when load is (100 j 80) .
Ans: Given the standing wave ratio, S = 2.5 Characteristic impedance, Zo = 50 Power, P = 25 Watts. We know that
(8)
P=
Vmax Z max
V max SZ o
25 =
Vmax
2.5 50
V max = 56 Volts
V min =
V max S
56 = 22 .36 Volts 2 .5
I max =
Vmax Zo
56 = 1.12 Amp as 50
P = I R R R = 25
(Q Z R
25 = I R 100
IR =
V R = I R Z R = 0.5 100 2 + 80 2 = 0.5 10000 + 6400 = 0.5 16400 = 0.5 128 .06 = 64 .03 Volts
Q.17.
Compute the values of resistance, inductance and capacitance of the series and shunt elements of a T network of 10 Km line having a characteristic
o and propagation constant of 0.0840 per 5000 Hz. Draw the T network from the loop Km at a frequency of 2 calculated values. o impedance of 280 30
(14)
e l = e ( 0.613 + j 0.514 ) = e ( 0.613 ) 29 .47 = 1.84 29 .47 = 1.6 + j 0.91 e l = e ( 0.613 + j 0.514 ) = e ( 0.613 ) 29 .47 = 0.54 29 .47 = 0.47 j 0.27
sinh l =
tanh
e l 2 e l 2 e l 1 1.6 + j 0.91 1 0.6 + j 0.91 = = = 2 e l 2 + e l 2 e l + 1 1.6 + j 0.91 + 1 2.6 + j 0.91 = 0.31 + j 0.24 = 0.39 37 .87
C 2 = 331 .3 C =
Z1 l = Z o tanh = (280 30 ) (0.39 37 .87 ) = 109 .27.87 2 2 = 108 .1 + j14 .95 R1 = 108 .1,
L1 = 14 .95 L1 =
Z1/2
.95
2)
82.6 j331.3
Fig 9
Q.18.
Design an unbalanced  attenuator with loss of 20 dBs to operate between 200 ohms and 500 ohms. Draw the attenuator. (8)
Ans: It is given that,
1 Ri1 = 200 , therefore, Gi1 = 200 = 5mS
Ri 2 = 500 , therefore , Gi 2 =
1 = 2 mS 500
We know that
G3 = G1G 2 sinh Ai = 1 1 1 10 2 1 10 2 = mho = mho 200 500 sinh 2.3 3.1623 4.94 10 4.94
Similarly
G i1 1 10 2 1 1 G3 = = 10 2 tanh Ai 200 tanh 2.3 15 .63 2 0.98 15 .63
mhos
G2 =
i = 3e amp u ( t ) Find the total charge in coulomb that passes through the conductor.
Ans: Given i = 3et u(t) Amp. We know that
dq = i = 3e t u (t ) dt
Q.20.
A current I = 10t A flows in a condenser C of value 10 F . Calculate the voltage, charge and energy stored in the capacitor at time t= 1 sec.
Ans: Given I = 10t Amp. C = 10F,
(7)
The voltage across the condenser is given by 1 1 V = Q = I .dt = 10t. dt C C 1 t2 = 10 = 5t 2 10 5 Volts 6 2 10 10 When t = 1, The voltage across the condenser is V = 5 105 Volts The charge across the condenser is given by
t2 Q = I . dt = 10t. dt = 10 = 5t 2 Coloumbs 2
At t = 1, the charge is given by Q = 5 x 1 = 5 Coulombs The energy stored in the capacitor is given by
E = P. dt = V . I .dt Joules 5t 2 5t 2 50t 3 50 t 4 . I . dt = . 10t. dt = . dt = C C C C 4 50 t 4 = 5 = 125 10 4 t 4 Joules 10 4 At t = 1, the energy stored in the capacitor is given by E = 125 x 104 Joules. =
Q.21.
Define Laplace transform of a time function x(t) u(t). Determine Laplace transforms for (i) ( t ) (the impulse function) (ii) u(t) (the unit step function) (iii) tn eat, n +ve integer
Ans: (i)The Laplace transform of impulse function
(7)
F(s) = 1
(ii) The Laplace transform of unit step function, u(t) is given by
1 1 F ( s ) = L (u (t )) = e st dt = e st = s 0 s 0 (iii)The Laplace transform of tn eat, n + integer is given by
F(s) = L( t ) = t .e
0 n n st tn 1 dt = e st + nt n 1e st dt s 0 0 s
n s
n 1 st
dt =
n L( t n 1 ) s ( n 1) L( t n 2 ) s
similarly
L( t n 1 ) =
L (t n ) =
n n 1 n 2 2 1 . . L . L (t n n ) s s s s s n 1 n = n = n +1 s s s
L e at .t n =
Q.22.
(s  a )n +1
Find the Inverse Laplace transform for
2s + 3
(i)
s 2 + 3s
3s 2 + 4
2 (ii) s(s + 4)
Ans: (i) 2s + 3 2s + 3 = 2 s + 3s s (s + 3)
K2 = 1 2s + 3 1 1 = + s (s + 3) s s + 3
2s + 3 1 1 1 L1 = L s + s + 3 s (s + 3 ) = 1 + e 3 t u (t )
(ii)
3s + 4 3s + 4 = 2 s ( s + 4) s ( s + j 2)( s j 2)
2 2
When s = 0, K1 = 1 When s = + j 2, K3 =
4K1 = 4 K 3 ( j 4)( j 2) = 12 + 4 = 8
8 8 = =1 j4 j2 8
When s = j 2,
K 2 ( 8) = 8
K 2 ( j 4 j 2) = 3( 4) + 4 = 12 + 4 = 8
For the circuit shown, at Fig.4 the switch K is closed at t=0. Initially the circuit is fully dead (zero current and no charge on C). Obtain complete particular solution for the current i(t). (14)
Fig.4
Applying Laplace transformation to Eq. 1 q (0 + ) I (s) 1 1 6 [ s.I ( s ) i (0+ )] + 5 I ( s ) + LLL Eq.2 + = s s s+2 0.25 0.25 At time t = 0+, current i(0+) must be the same as at time t = 0 due to the presence of the inductor L. i(0+) = 0 At t = 0+, charge q(0+) across capacitor must be the same as at time t = 0 q(0+) = 0 Substituting the initial conditions in Eq. 2 1 6 I ( s )[ s + 5 + ]= 0.25 s ( s + 2) 6s I ( s )[ s 2 + 5 s + 4] = ( s + 2)
I (s) =
K3 K1 K2 6s = + + ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 4) ( s + 1) ( s + 2) ( s + 4) K (s + 2 )(s + 4 ) + K 2 ( s + 1)(s + 4 ) + K 3 ( s + 1)(s + 2 ) = 1 ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 4) K 1 (s + 2 )(s + 4 ) + K 2 ( s + 1)(s + 4 ) + K 3 ( s + 1)(s + 2 ) = 6 s Let When s = 1, When s = 2, When s = 4,
3 K 1 = 6 2 K 2 = 12 6 K 3 = 24
K 1 = 2 K2 = 6 K 3 = 4
2 6s 6 4 = + + (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 4) (s + 1) (s + 2) (s + 4)
6s 6 4 1 2 L1 = L ( s + 1) + ( s + 2) + ( s + 4) ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 4) t 2t 4t = 2 e + 6e 4 e
Q.24.
Derive necessary and sufficient condition for maximum power transfer from a voltage source, with source impedance R s + j X s , to a load
(7)
2V 2 R L (XS + X L ) (R S + R L ) 2 + (XS + X L ) 2
=0
(XS + X L ) = 0 i.e. X S =  X L
P=
(RS + R L )2
This implies the reactance of the load impedance is of the opposite sign to that of the source impedance. Under this condition XL + XS = 0 The maximum power is V 2R L For maximum power transfer, now let us vary RL such that
dP =0 dR L
V 2 (R S + R L ) 2  2 V 2 R L (R S + R L ) =0 [R S + R L ] 4
V 2 (R S + R L ) = 2 V 2 R L i.e. R S = R L
The necessary and sufficient condition for maximum power transfer from a voltage source, with source impedance ZS = RS + j XS to a load ZL = RL + j XL is that the load impedance should be a complex conjugate of that of the source impedance i.e. RL = RS, XL =  XS The value of the power transferred will be
P= V 2R L V 2R L V 2R L V2 = = = [R S + R L ] 2 [2R L ] 2 4R L 2 4R L
Q.25.
By using Nortons theorem, find the current in the load resistor R L for the circuit shown in Fig. 5.
(7)
Ans: To find the short circuit current Isc, first find the equivalent resistance from Fig 5.b.2.
R1 I + 9V R2 R4 RL R3 R1 R3
A
ISC R4
RE B
R2
B Fig 5.b.2
Fig 5.b.1
R E = R1 + =2+
R 2 R3 , R 2 + R3
Given R 1 = 2, R 2 = 2, R 3 = 2, R 4 = 3, R L = 1.5
To find the Nortons equivalent resistance, shortcircuit the voltage source as in Fig 5.b.3.
R 2 R1 R 4 R3 + R1 + R 2 3 ( 2 + = RN = R 2 R1 3+ 2+ R 4 + R3 + R1 + R 2 22 ) 2 + 2 = 3 3 = 9 = 1 . 5 22 6 6 2+2
Therefore the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 5.b.4 RN 1.5 1.5 I L = I SC = = 0.75 Amp. RN + R 4 1.5 + 1.5
Q.26.
Determine the ABCD parameters for the network shown at Fig.6. Is this network bilateral or not? Explain. (7)
Ans:
V 1 B A = V
1 + 1
1
I2 +
I1
=
0.5
V1 1
V 0.5 2
Fig 6.b.2
V2
2 I
2
0
1
1 + V1 1 I1 I4 0.5
I3 0.5
I2
+ V2
V2 = I 3 0.5 = A = V1 =3 V2
V1 3
8V1 I1 C = = 3 = 8 Mhos V2 V1 3
An element is a bilateral element if the impedance does not change or the magnitude of the current remains the same even if the polarity of the applied EMF if changed. Since the network consists of only resistive elements, the given network is a bilateral network.
Q.27.
Solve the differential equation given below and determine the steady state solutions. di +3 i = 2Sin 3t dt (i) di + 2i = Cos t (ii) dt
Ans: di e j 3t e 3 jt + 3i = 2 sin 3t = dt j
(7+7)
Consider
di e j 3t + 3i = dt j
(1)
(2)
A(3 + 3 j) = A=
1 j
(3)
1 1 = (3 + 3 j ) j 3 j 3
(4)
(5)
e j 3t = j B(3 j3) = B=
+ 3Be
j 3t
1 j
1 1 = j (3 j3) 3 j + 3
=2
(ii) di e jt + e jt + 2i = cos t = 2 dt
consider
di e jt + 2i = 2 dt
(1) Let the steady state current be given by iss1 = A.e jt (2) Now equation (1) and (2)
A. je jt + 2 Ae jt = e jt 2 A( j + 2) = A= 1 2
1 (2 + j )2
(3) Consider
di e jt + 2i = 2 dt
(4)
(5)
jt
B(2 j ) = 1 1 B= (2 j ) 2
(6)
iss = iss1 + iss 2 1 1 1 = e jt + e jt 2 (2 + j ) (2 j ) 1 (2 j )e jt + (2 + j )e jt = 2 5 1 2(e jt + e jt ) j (e jt e jt ) = 2 5 1 2 2 cos t + 2 sin t 2 cos t + sin t = = 2 5 5 1 1 5 cost tan 1 ( ) 5 2 1 = cos(t 26.6) 5 1 = cos(t 0.46) (Q angle is in radians) 5 =
Q.28.
A transmission line is terminated by an impedance z load . Measurements on the line show that the standing wave minima are 105 cm apart and the first minimum is 30 cm from the load end of the line. The VSWR is 2.3 and z 0 is 300 . Find the value of z R .
Ans: The standing wage minima points are the voltage minima points. The two consecutive Emin points are separated by 105Cms.
= 105 cms 2 = 2.1 m
(7)
+ =
= = 2 .1 2 .1 7 3 4 = = = 77 .14 7 7
+ + + = = ( ) 2 .1 2 4 4 y min 4 0.3 4 4
Given Zo = 300 and s = 2.3 The magnitude of the reflection coefficient K is given by
ZR =
1.0882 j 0.384 1.153 19 .9 = 300 = 300 0.989 22 .8 0.9118 + j 0.0384 = 350 42 .7 = 257 j 237 .5
Q.29.
State initial value theorem in the Laplace transform . What is the value of the function at t = 0, if its 4(s + 25) F(s ) = s(s + 10) Ans: The initial value theorem states that f (0) = lim[sF ( s )]
s
(4)
where F(s) is the laplace transform of the given function and f(0) is the initial value of the time domain function 25 f(t). 4 1 + s 4( s + 25) F (s) = F (s) = 10 s ( s + 10) s 1 + Given s f (0) = lim[s F ( s )]
s
25 4 1 + s 4 (1 + 0) = =4 f (0) = lim s s (1 + 0) s 1 + 10 s
For a series resonant circuit, R=5, L=1H and C=0.25f. Find the resonance frequency and band width.
Ans: The resonant frequency of a series resonant circuit is given by 1 1 10 3 1000 f0 = = = = = 318.5 Hz 6 2 0.5 2 LC 2 1 0.25 10 The bandwidth of a series resonant circuit is given by, f f 2 f1 = 0 Q , where fo is the resonant frequency and Q is the B.W = quality factor of the circuit and f1 and f2 are the upper and lower half power frequencies.
(8)
Q factor =
o L
R
L R LC
1 L R C
Q=
Q.31.
Calculate the voltage across the inductor of 2 Henry and the charge in the inductor at time t = 1 sec for the variation of the current as shown in the Fig.1. (4)
di = 2amp / sec dt
The voltage across the inductor di = L = 2 2 = 4volts dt
2 amp
1
s t
1.5
TIME t in sec
Fig 2.b
2
q = idt = 2tdt = t
q = (1)2 = 1 coulomb
Q.32.
A 60 Hz sinusoidal voltage V = 100 sin t is applied to a series RL circuit. Given R = 10 , and L = 0.01H, find the steady state current and its phase angle. (8)
Ans: The driving voltage is given by v(t) = 2sint = [ejt + ejt] = ejt + ejt  eq  2.c.1
R = 3
di + 3i = e jt dt
 eq  2.c.2
2sint
L= 1H
The steady state current is given by where coefficient. From eq 2.c.1 and 2.c.2 jA + 3A = 1 A is the undetermined
Fig.2.c.
A=
1 3 + j
Considering voltage source B and applying kirchoffs voltage law
di + 3i = e  jt dt
 eq  2.c.3
The steady state current is given by iss2 = B undetermined coefficient. From eq 2.c.1 and 2.c.3 jB + 3B = 1 1 B= 3 j
where B is the
On applying superposition principle, the total steady state current iss is the summation of the currents iss1 and iss2. iss = iss1 + iss2 =iss1 i +ss2 = A e j+ B ejt
iss = iss =
Q.33.
e jt e jt 1 [3 cost + sin t ] = + 3 + j 3 j 9 + 2
1 cos t tan 1 2 3 9 +
Find the Laplace transform of the functions:
n (i) t u (t).
(4)
Ans: (i)
t n 1 F ( s ) = L (t n ) = t n .e st dt = e st + nt n 1 e st dt s 0 0 s 0
n n n 1 st n 1 t e dt = s L(t ) s0 ( n 1) L (t n 2 ) s
simillarly L (t n 1 ) =
L (t n ) =
n n 1 n 1 2 1 L . L (t n n ) . . s s s s s n 1 n = n = n +1 s s s
(ii)
cosht
st
1 1 1 1 + . . 2 (s ) 2 (s + ) s = 2 s 2
Q.34.
Ans: Using partial fraction method, obtain the inverse laplace transform of
I (s) =
104 s( s + 250) 10 4 P Q = + s( s + 250) s ( s + 250) Multiplying both sides of eq.1 by s and s = 0, Let
P=
10 4 = 40 250
Multiplying both sides of eq.1 by (s + 250) and s =  250,
Q.35.
A capacitor of 5F which is charged initially to 10 V is connected to resistance of 10 K and is allowed to discharge through the resistor by closing of a switch K at t = 0. Find the expression for the discharging current. (8)
Ans: When the switch k is closed, the capacitor, which is charged initially to 10V, starts discharging. Let the discharge current be i(t). On applying Kirchoffs voltage law to the discharging loop as shown in
Fig 3.c
1 0 = Ri (t ) + i (t ) dt C0
10K
i(t)
 10V +
Q0 Cs
Fig 3.c
I (s) =
1 Cs + R
Q0 10 = 1 1 RC s + R s + RC RC Q0 Q C = 10 V
Q0 Cs
I (s) =
Q.36.
State the final value theorem and find the final value of the function s+6 I(s ) = s(s + 3) . where the laplace transform is
Ans: Final value theorem states that if function f(t) and its derivative are laplace transformable, then the final value f() of the function f(t) is
(2+3)
f ( ) = Lim f (t ) = Lim sF ( s ) t s0
Q.37.
A symmetric T section has an impedance of j100 in each series arm and an impedance of j400 in each shunt arm. Find the characteristic impedance and propagation constant of the network.
Ans:
(5)
Z oc = j100 j 400 = j 300 Z sc j100 ( j 400 ) = j100 + j100 j 400 ( j 2 40000 ) j 300 = j100 + j133 . 33 Z sc Z oc j 300 j 233 . 33
j100
j100
Z sc = j100 + Z sc
j400
Z sc = j 233 . 33 Zo = Zo =
Fig.4.b.
Z o = 264 . 57
Q.38.
A symmetrical T section has the following O.C. and S.C. impedances: Zo/c = 800 ohms Zsc = 600 ohms Determine T section parameters to represent the two port network.
Ans: Given Zoc = 800 and Zsc = 600
(8)
Z1/2 1
Z1/2 3
Z2 2 4
Fig 7.a
Z 2 = 400
Q.39.
State Thevenins theorem. Using Thevenins, find the current through 5 resistor as shown in the Fig. 3 below.
(8)
+ 
Ans: Thevenins theorem: It states that any two terminal networks consisting of linear impedances and generators may be 15 10 replaced by an e.m.f. in series with an impedance. The 5 e.m.f is the open circuit voltage at the terminals and the impedance is the impedance viewed 50V at the terminals when all the generators 10 15 in the network have been replaced by impedances equal to their internal impedance. Fig.5.a.1
I
15 + 50V 10 x Voc y 15 x 10 y 15 10
I1
10
I2
15
Fig.5.a.2
Fig.5.a.3
I=
50( 25 + 25) 50 50 = = 4A 25 25 25 25
x 15 10
Since both branches have equal resistance I1 = I2 = I / 2 = 2A = 50 2 x 10 = 30 V = 50 2 x 15 = 20 V Hence Voc = Vx  Vy = 10V On removing the voltage source and looking from the point x y as in fig.5.a.3 and fig.5.a.4, the resistance is Rth= (10  15) + (15 10) =6+6 = 12 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.5.a.5
IL = 10 = 0.59 A 12 + 5
10
15
Vy y Vx
Fig.5.a.4
RTH=
+ 
IL
Voc=10V
RL=
Fig.5.a.5.
State the superposition theorem. Using this theorem find the voltage across the 16 resistor.
(8)
Ans: Superposition theorem: It states that if a network of linear impedance contains more than one generator, the current which flows at any point is the vector sum of all currents which would flow at that point if each generator was considered separately and all other generators are replaced at that time by impedance equal to their internal impedances
V = 2A I R1 ' = 1 = R eq 50
Considering only voltage source V1 and removing voltage source V2 as in fig 5.b.2 The equivalent resistance is Req = [((205) + 16)  20] + 40 = [(4 + 16)  20] + 40 Req = [20  20] + 40 = 10 + 40 = 50 Current through R1 = IR1 R1= 40 100
+ 
R3= 5
V 20 = 1A I R2 ' = x = R 2 20
20
V1=100V
R2=
16
R4=
R5=
Voltage at x is Vx =100 2 40 = 20 V Current through R2 = IR2 Fig 5.b.2 Considering only voltage source V2 and R3= 5 40 removing R1= voltage source V1 as R4= 20 in fig 5.b.3 R5= 16 The equivalent resistance is R2= 20 20 Req1 = (40  20) + (5  20) + 16 + Req1 = 13.33 + 4 + 16 V2=100V Req1 = 33.33 Fig 5.b.3 Current drawn from V2
E2 100 = = 3A Req1 33.33
I R2 ' ' = 3
R1 40 = 3 = 2A R1 + R2 40 + 20
V2 is downwards.
The direction of current in R2 due to upwards, while due to V1 is Hence by superposition theorem the net current in R2 is IR2 = IR2 + IR2 = 1 2 = 1A The current through R2 is 1A upwards.
Zo
5F
4H
1/8F
8/s 4s
Fig.6.b.2
12s
Fig.6.b.1
8 4 s + 12 s 2 1 s = 1 + s 32 + 48 s + Z (s) = 5 s 4 s + 8 + 12 s 5 s 4 s 2 + 12 s 2 + 1 s 2 1 s 6 s + 4 30 s 4 + 22 s 2 + 1 + = Z (s) = 5s 2s 2 + 1 5 s ( 2 s 2 + 1)
1 30 s 4 + 22 s 2 + 1 = Y (s) 5 s ( 2 s 2 + 1) Y (s) = 5 s ( 2 s 2 + 1) 30 s 4 + 22 s 2 + 1
Q.42.
A sinusoidal voltage of rms value 20V and frequency equal to frequency of resonance is applied to a series RLC circuit having resistance R = 20 , inductance L = 0.05H and capacitance C = 0.05F . Calculate the value of current and voltages across R, L and C. Ans: C = 0.05F, L = 0.05H ,R = 20
(8)
fo =
1 2 LC
1 2 0.05 0.05 10
6
10 4
At f = fo ,
I= V 20 = = 1amp R 20
Two coupled coils (L1 = 0.5H and L 2 = 0.6H) have a coefficient of coupling, k = 0.9.
Ans: The mutual inductance, M is given by
Design a T type symmetrical attenuator which offers 40 dB attenuation with a load of 400 .
Ans: N is the attenuation in dB 20 log, N = attenuation Load Resistance, RO (given) = 400 N = Antilog(40/20) = Antilog(2) = 100 Series Arm Resistance (N  1) (100  1) R1 = R O = 400 = 400 .98 = 392.07 (N + 1) (100 + 1) Shunt Arm Resistance
(8)
R1 = 392.07
R1 = 392.07
R2 = 8.0008
Fig 6.b
A generator of 1V, 1000Hz supplies power to 1000 Km long open wire line terminated in its characteristic impedance (Z0 ) and having the
R = 15, C = 0.008F, L=0.004H, following parameters. G = 0.5mhos . Calculate the characteristic impedance, propagation constant and the phase velocity.
(8)
Ans:
L = 0.004H, C = 0.008F, G = ,Given R = 15 0.5mhos. = 2f = 2 1000 = 2000 3.14 = 6280 rad/sec Z = R + jL = 15+ j 6280 = 15 + j 25.13 = 29.26 0.004 590 Y = G + jC = 0.5 10 6 j + 6280 .008 10 6 = 106 j + (0.5 50.24) Y = 50.25 10 6 89.430
Zo =
= 0.04 rad/Km
Q.46.
Design a constant K band pass filter section having cut off frequencies of 2 KHz and 5 KHz and a nominal impedance of 600 . Draw the configuration of the filter. (8)
Ans: According to the design equations
L1 = R0 600 = = 63.68mH ( f 2 f 1 ) (5000 2000 )
L1/2 = 31.84mH
L1/2 = 31.84mH
C2 = 0.1769H
L2 = 14.33mH
Q.47.
Using current to voltage transformation, find the current flowing through the resistor R L = 80 as shown in Fig.1.
(4)
Ans:
20 2A 100 Fig. 2.a.1 RL= 80 100 20
I
200V RL= 80 Fig. 2.a.2
Using the current to Voltage transformation, the circuit in Fig 2.a.1 can be replaced by the circuit in Fig.2.a.2. Let the current flowing through the circuit of Fig 2.a.2 be I. Applying Kirchoffs voltage law 100I + 20I + 80I = 200 200I = 200 I = 1 Ampere
Q.48.
2t A current of I = e A flows in a capacitor of value C = 0.22 F . Calculate the voltage, charge, and energy stored in the capacitor at time t =2 sec.
(4)
Ans: Given I = e2t Amp. C = 0.22F, dQ = I = e 2t dt , Where Q is the charge across the capacitor
Q = I .dt = e 2t dt
0 0
The voltage across the capacitor is given by 1 1 V = Q = I .dt = e 2t . dt C C e 2t e 2t 1 = = = 2.27 106 e 2t 0.22 10 6 2 0.44 10 6 When t = 2, The voltage across the capacitor is V = 2.27 106 e4 Volts The charge across the capacitor is given by
Volts
Q = I .dt = e 2t dt
0 0
e = 0.5 e 2t 2 Coulombs At t = 2, the charge is given by Q = 0.5 e4 Coulombs The energy stored in the capacitor is given by E = P. dt = V . I .dt Joules 2t 2t e 4t e 4t e e = . I . dt = . e 2t . dt = . dt = C C C 4C 4t 4t e e = 1.136 10 6 e 4t = = 6 4 C 4 0.22 10 = At t = 2, the energy stored in the capacitor is given by E = 1.136 10 6 e 8 Joules
Q.49.
2t
(8)
I cos t
Fig. 2.c
v ss =
I 2
1 jt 1 jt e jt e jt + e +e L R
Find the Laplace transform of the functions: (i) sinh t . (ii) t cos 4t .
Ans:
(4)
=
=
1 ( s )t 1 ( s + ) t e dt 2 e dt 20 0
(4)
= e a(t  ) d = e at e a d
0 0
= e at
e
at
t e d a a
a a
at at
= e at
0
e a
t e e 1 e = e at 2 + 2 = 2 at e at e at + 1 a a a a
]
(8)
Q.52.
A unit impulse is applied as input to a series RL circuit with R = 4 and L = 2H. Calculate the current i(t) through the circuit at time t = 0.
Ans: Applying kirchoffs voltage law with a unit impulse as driving voltage,
But i (0+ ) = 0
( Ls + R ) I ( s ) = 1 and L =Given, R = 4 2H 1 1 1 1 I ( s) = = = ( Ls + R) (2s + 4) 2 ( s + 2) Or On inverse Laplace transformation, 1 i (t ) = e 2t 2
 Eq.3
Q.53.
Define the image impedances of an asymmetric network. Determine the image impedances of the L section shown in Fig.2. (6)
Ans: Image impedance is that impedance, which when connected across the appropriate pair of terminals of the network, the other is presented by the other pair of terminals. If the driving point impedance at the input port with impedance Zi2 is Zi1 and if the driving point impedance at the output port with impedance Zi1 is Zi2, then Zi1 and Zi2 are the image impedances
Zi1 Zi2 Zi1 Zi2
of the twoport network. From the Fig 4.a On open circuiting the output terminals 2 2, Z oc1 = j 300 + j 700 = j1000 On short circuiting the output terminals 2 2,
Z sc1 = j 300 On open circuiting the input terminals 1 1, Z oc 2 = j 700 On short circuiting the input terminals 1 1, j 300 j 700 j 2 210000 Z sc 2 = = = j 210 j 300 + j 700 j1000 The image impedance at terminal 2 2, Z o1 = Z oc1 Z sc1 = j1000 j 300 = j100 3 The image impedance at terminal 1 1, Z o 2 = Z oc 2 Z sc 2 =
Q.54.
j 700 j 210 = j 70 30
State Nortons theorem and using Nortons theorem find the current flowing through the 15 resistor.
(2+6)
I1
5
IN I2
50 V
Ans: Nortons theorem states that the current in any load impedance ZL connected to the two terminals of a network is the same as if this load impedance ZL were connected to a current source (called Nortons equivalent current source) whose source current is the short circuit current at the terminals and whose internal impedance (in shunt with the current source ) is the impedance of the network looking back into the terminals with all the sources replaced by impedances equal to their internal impedances. 15 Applying Nortons theorem, remove RL and short )(15 circuit the 15 terminals A and B as shown in Fig 5.a.2. Since there are two sources due to which current will flow between the terminals A and B, therefore I N = I1 + I 2
given by
the 5 by
50 = 10 5 A
Applying Superposition theorem, the Nortons current is given by I N = I 1 + I 2 = 5 + 10 = 15 A On open circuiting the current source and short circuiting the voltage source as shown in Fig 5.a.3, the Nortons resistance is given by (1 + 5) 5 30 RN = = = 2.73 1 + 5 + 5 11 The Nortons equivalent circuit is shown in Fig 5.a.4. The current through the 15 resistor is given by RN 2.73 15 2.73 = 2.31 IL = IN = 15 = 2.73 + 15 15 + 2.73 R N + RL Amperes
Q.55. Find the current in resistor R 3 of the network using Millmans theorem. (8)
R 1 = 2
R2 =1
V1=6V
R3=2
V2=6V
Fig 5.b
Ans:
R 1 = 2
R2 =1
V1=6V
R3=2
V2=6V
Fig 5.b
The two voltage sources V1 and V2 with series resistances R1 and R2 are combined into one voltage sources Vm with series resistances Rm.
Rm= 0.667 R 3 = 2 Vm = 6V
+ 
Fig 5.b.2
The equivalent circuit is given by Fig 5.b.2 According to the Mill man theorem, V Y + V2 Y2 6 0.5 + 6 1 Vm = 1 1 = =6 Y1 + Y2 0.5 + 1 volts
1 1 = = 0.667 Y1 + Y2 0.5 + 1 Hence the current through R3 is given by Vm 6 = = 2.25 amps I3 = Rm + R3 0.667 + 2
Zm =
Q.56.
Find the z parameters of the given network. From the z parameters, find the h parameters equivalent and the ABCD parameters equivalent.
(10)
Ans:
Z1 = j40 Z1 = j80
1 + I1 V1 1
Z1 = j40
Z1 = j80
I2 +
Z3 = j160
Z3 = j160
V2
Fig 6.a.1
Fig 6.a
Assuming open circuit at the output terminals 2  2, of Fig 6.a.1 The voltage equations in the first loop are given by V1 = I 1 j (40 160) = I 1 j120 Eq.1
V2 = I 1 j160
Eq.2
V Z11 = 1
From Eq.1,
= j120
I2 = 0
I1
Z 21 =
I2 = 0 From Eq.2, Assuming open circuit at the input terminals 1  1, of Fig 6.a.1 The voltage equations in the first loop are given by V1 = I 2 j160 Eq.3
V2 I1
= j160
Eq.4
V2 I2 V1 I2
= j80
I1 = 0
Z 12 =
= j160
Where Z11 , Z 21 , Z 22 , Z12 are the Z parameters of a network. The h parameters in terms of Z parameters are given by Z j 2 16000 h11 = = = j 200 Z 22 j80 , Where Z = Z11 Z 22 Z12 Z 21
1 1 = Z 22 j80 mhos Z j160 h21 = 21 = = 2 Z 22 j80 Z j160 =2 h12 = 12 = j80 Z 22 The transmission (ABCD) parameters in terms of Z parameters are given
h22 =
Ans: Let, Z1 ( s) = R + Ls
Z (s) = Z (s) =
Q.58.
( R1 + Ls )( R2 Cs + 1) + R2 R2 Cs + 1
( R1 + R2 ) + R2 LCs 2 + R1 R2 Cs + Ls R2 Cs + 1
Calculate the half power frequencies of a series resonant circuit whose resonant frequency is 150 KHz and the band width is 75 KHz. Derive the relations used. (10)
Ans: If f1 and f2 are the half power frequencies, the bandwidth of a series resonant circuit, B.W is given by B.W = f 2 f1 = 75 KHz The resonant frequency fo is given by
fo =
f 2 f1 = 75 KHz Adding Eq.1 and Eq.2 2f2 = 385 f2 = 192.5 KHz Subtracting Eq.2 and Eq.1 2f1 = 235 f1 = 117.5 KHz
Q.59.
The combined inductance of two coils connected in series is 0.6 H and 0.1 H depending on the relative directions of the currents in the coils. If one of the coils, when isolated, has a self inductance of 0.2 H, calculate the mutual inductance and the coefficient of coupling.
Ans: Let the self inductances of the two coils be L1 and L2, the coefficient of coupling be K and the mutual inductance be . Given L1 = 0.2H  Eq.1 L1 + L2 = 0.6 + 2 L1 + L2 = 0.1  2  Eq.2 Subtracting Eq.1 from Eq.2, we get 0.5 = 4  Eq.3 = 0.125 0.2 + L2 + 0.25 = 0.6
(6)
L2 = 0.15 The coefficient of coupling is given by 0.125 0.125 0.125 K= = = = = 0.722 L1 L2 0.2 0.15 0.030 0.173
Q.60.
A loss less line of characteristic impedance 500 is terminated in a pure resistance of 400 . Find the value of standing wave ratio.
Ans: In a loss less line, the reflection coefficient is given by Zo ZR 500 400 100 K = = = = 0.11 Z o + Z R 500 + 400 900 The standing wave ratio of a loss less transmission line is given by 1 + K 1 + 0.11 1.11 S= = = = 1.25 1 K 1 0.11 0.89
(4)
Q.61.
A loss less transmission line has an inductance of 1.5 mH/Km and a capacitance of 0.02 F Km . Calculate the characteristic impedance and phase constant of a transmission line. Assume = 5000 rad sec .
Ans: Given R = 0, G = 0, since the line is lossless. L = 1.2 x 103 H/Km C = 0.05 x 106 F/Km The characteristic impedance, ZO is given by
ZO =
R + jL G + j C
(6)
= ( R + jL)(G + jC ) = ( jL)( jC ) = j LC
Since the line is lossless, = 0, and assuming = 5000 rad/sec = + j j = j LC = LC = LC = 5000 1.2 10 3 0.05 10 6 = 0.0387
Q.62.
(8)
We know that R2R3 = R12 = R02 R1 = R0 = 600 R1 = 600 R0 600 R2 = = = 6.06 ( N 1) 100 1
R3 = 59.4 R1=600 R1=600
R0
R3 = R0(N 1) = 600(100 1) = 59.4 The required symmetrical bridge T attenuator is shown in Fig.9.a
Q.63.
Show that the input impedance at the sending end is Zo for an infinite length of the transmission line.
Ans: The input impedance at the sending end of the transmission line is given by
Z + Z o tanh l Z in = Z o L Z L tanh l + Z o
Where Zo is the characteristic impedance and ZL is the load impedance. For an infinite length of the transmission line, l =
Z + Z o tanh Z in = Z o L = Zo Z L tanh + Z o
Q.64.
A transmission line is terminated by an impedance ZR . Measurements taken on the line show that the standing wave minima are 105 cm apart and the first minimum is 30 cm from the load end of the line. The VSWR (7) is 2.3 and Zo = 300 . Find ZR .
Ans: The standing wage minima points are the voltage minima points. The two consecutive Emin points are separated by 105 cms.
= 105 cms 2 = 2.1 m
+ =
= = 2 .1 2 .1 7 3 4 = = = 77 .14 7 7
+ + + = = ( ) 2 .1 2 4 4 y min 4 0.3 4 4
Given Zo = 300 and s = 2.3 The magnitude of the reflection coefficient K is given by
s 1 2 . 3 1 1 .3 = = 0.394 = s + 1 2 .3 + 1 3 . 3 k = 0.394 77 .14 = 0.0882 j 0.384 k =
k=
ZR =
1.0882 j 0.384 1.153 19 .9 = 300 = 300 0.989 22 .8 0.9118 + j 0.0384 = 350 42 .7 = 257 j 237 .5
Q.65.
A capacitor of10 F capacitance is charged to a potential difference of 200 V and then connect (i)The potential difference across the parallel combination (ii)Energy stored by each capacitor. (4)
Ans: We know that, Q = CV, where Q is the charge on the capacitor and V is the potential difference across the capacitance C. Charge on the capacitor 10 F = 10 x 106 x 200C. When this capacitor is connected in parallel with 30 F, let the common voltage be V volts. Hence, Q1 = C1V = 10 x 106 x VC. And Q2 = C2V = 30 x 106 x VC. Q = Q1 + Q2 Q 10 x 106 x 200 = (10 x 106 + 30 x 106) V. 10 10 6 200 V = = 50 Volts 40 10 6 Or 1 = CV 2 Q Energy stored by capacitor 2 (ii) , Energy stored by 10 F capacitor 1 = 10 10 6 (50) 2 = 0.0125 J 2 Energy stored by 30 F capacitor 1 = 30 10 6 (50) 2 = 0.0375 J 2
Q.66.
3t An exponential voltage v(t ) = 4e is applied at time t = 0 to a series C= 1 F 3 . Obtain the RLC circuit comprising of R = 4 , L = 1H and complete particular solution for current i(t). Assume zero current through inductor L and zero charge across capacitance C before application of exponential voltage.
(8)
K t = 0 R = 4
L= 1H
i(t) 4e3t
C = 1/3 F
Applying Laplace transformation to Eq. 1 q (0 + ) I (s) 4 [ s.I ( s ) i (0+ )] + 4 I ( s ) + 3 LLL Eq.2 + 3 = s s s+3
At time t = 0+, current i(0+) must be the same as at time t = 0 due to the presence of the inductor L. i(0+) = 0 At t = 0+, charge q(0+) across capacitor must be the same as at time t = 0
q(0+) = 0 Substituting the initial conditions in Eq. 2 3 4 I ( s)[ s + 4 + ] = s ( s + 3) 4s I ( s)[ s 2 + 4 s + 3] = ( s + 3) 4s I (s) = = ( s + 3)( s 2 + 4s + 3)
By partial fraction method,
4s
4s ( s + 3) 2 ( s + 1)
K Eq.3
K3 K1 K2 + + ( s + 1) ( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2
L Eq.4
L Eq.5
To find the coefficient k2, Multiplying Eq.4 with (s+3)2 and differentiating with respect s = 1
2 d 4s d (s + 3) = K1 ds s + 1 ds s + 1
d + K 2 (s + 3) ds
( s + 1) 2 ( s + 3) ( s + 3) 2 4( s + 1) 4 s = K1 + K2 ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 3)(2 s + 2 s 3) 4 = K1 + K2 2 ( s + 1) ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 3)( s 1) 4 = K1 + K2 ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 1) 2
When s =  3, 4 = K2 4
4s ( s + 1)( s + 3) 2 =
K2 = 1 1
( s + 1) +
1
( s + 3)
6
( s + 3) 2
Q.67.
(4)
Ans:
(i)
F ( s ) = L (cos
f (t ) = cos 2 t
2
(ii)
f (t ) = t sin 2t
Let f1 (t ) = sin 2t
F (s) = F ( s) =
d 2 ds s 2 + 4 4s
(s
+4
Q.68.
= 2 Find the value of v(t) given its laplace transform V(s) s + 3s + 2 . Ans: Since the degree of the numerator is equal to the degree of denominator, dividing the numerator by denominator we get 4 s + 12 V ( s) = 1 + 2 ( s + 3s + 2) By partial fraction method 4s + 12 V1 ( s ) = ( s + 2)( s + 1) Let
s 2 + 7s + 14
(4)
(8)
 Eq.1
Considering voltage source Vejt / 2 and applying Kirchoffs voltage law 1 e jt R i + i dt = V C 2  Eq.2 Differentiating Eq.2 with respect to dt 1 di V i + R = j e jt C dt 2  Eq.3 The steady state current is given by iss1 = A ejt where A is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq.1 and Eq.3
R
L Vcost i
Ae jt + j RAe C A V + jRA = j C 2
V 2 1 R+ j C
j t
V j e j t 2
Fig.3.c.
A=

Eq.4
1 eR i + i dt = V C 2  Eq  5 Differentiating Eq.5 with respect to dt di V 1 i + R = j e j t 2 C dt  Eq.6 The steady state current is given by iss2 = B etj where B is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq 1 and Eq  6 Be jt V j RBe jt = j e jt C 2 B V jRB = j C 2 V 2 B= 1 R j C On applying superposition principle, the total steady state current iss is the summation of the currents iss1 and iss2. iss = iss1 + iss2 =iss1+ i +ss2 = A et j+ B ejt
jt
1 sin t R cos t + C
Q.70.
A
(6)
Ans: Given R1 = ,  j 200 R2 = j , 100 R3 =  j 200 Let the arms of the T network be R12, R23 and R31. The values of R12, R23 and R31 are given by
R2 R3 j 2 20000 j 200 j 200 j100 R12 = = = = R1 + R2 + R3 j 200 j 200 + j100 j 300 3 R1 R2 j 2 20000 j 200 j 200 j100 = R23 = = = R1 + R2 + R3 j 200 j 200 + j100 j 300 3 R3 R1 j 2 40000 j 400 j 200 j 200 R31 = = = = R1 + R2 + R3 j 200 j 200 + j100 j 300 3
Q.71.
What is the input impedance at the sending end if the transmission line is loaded by a load ZL = Zo ?
Ans:
The input impedance at the sending end of the transmission line is given by
Z + Z o tanh l Z in = Z o L Z L tanh l + Z o
Where Zo is the characteristic impedance and ZL is the load impedance. When ZL = Zo,
Z + Z o tanh l Z in = Z o o = Zo Z o tanh l + Z o
Q.72.
A loss free transmission line has an inductance of 1.2 mH/km and a capacitance of 0.05F/km. Calculate the characteristics impedance and propagation constant of the line.
Ans: Given R = 0, G = 0, since the line is lossless. L = 1.2 x 103 H/Km C = 0.05 x 106 F/Km The characteristic impedance, ZO is given by
ZO =
R + jL G + j C
(8)
= ( R + jL)(G + jC ) = ( jL)( jC ) = j LC
Since the line is lossless, = 0, and assuming = 5000 rad/sec = + j j = j LC = LC = LC = 5000 1.2 10 3 0.05 10 6 = 0.0387
Q.73.
In the network shown in Fig.2, find the value of Z L , so that it draws the maximum power from the source. Also determine the maximum power.
(8)
Ans:
a
100 V j6 Fig 5.b.1 j6 ZL j6
Fig 5.b.2
j6
V TH
V TH
j 4.8
ZL
Fig 5.b.2
Z TH = Z ab
6 j6 6 + 6 + j 6 ( j 6 ) = 6 j6 6+ j6 6 + j6
12 j 6 = 6 53.12 = 3.6 j 4.8 2+ j Thevenins equivalent circuit is shown in Fig 5.b.2 = For maximum power transfer ZL = 3.6 + j 4.8
Q.74.
Find the transmission parameters of the network shown in Fig.3. Determine whether the given circuit is reciprocal and symmetric or not.
(8)
2
5 10
1
+ I1 V1
10 I3 5
10 I2 = 0 + 10 V2
2 Fig 6.a
1 Fig 6.a.1
V1 = 10 I1 + (I1 I3) 5 = 15 I1 5 I3 And 0 = ( I3  I1) 5 + 20 I3 Or 5 I1 = 25 I3 1 I 3 = I1 5 eq.2 From eq.1 and eq.2 V1 = 14 I1 With I2 = 0, V2 = 10 and I3 = 2 I1
eq.1
V1 V2
= 7 C
I 2 =0
I1 V2
=
I2 =0
1 mho 2
1
+ I1 V1
10 I3 5
10 I2 10
2
V2=0
1 Fig 6.a.2
When the output port is short circuited, V2 = 0, I2 = I3 V1 = 10I1+ (I1I3)5 = 15 I15I2  Eq.3 And 0 = (I3  I1) 5 + 10 I3 .. eq.4 Or 5 I1 = 15 I3 D
I1 I2 V1 I2
=3
V2 = 0
B =
= 40
V2 = 0
Q.75.
3s (s + 1)(s + 4) . Plot the pole zero A transform voltage is given by plot in the splane and obtain the time domain response. V(s ) =
Ans:
(8)
3s ( s + 1)( s + 4) The transform voltage is given by From the function it is clear that the function has poles at 1 and 4 and a zero at the origin. The plot of poles and zeros in shown below: V ( s) =
4
X
1
O
1 2
of the zeros.
(s+1) and (s+4) are factors in the denominators, the time domain response t 4 t is given by i (t ) = K 1 e + K 2 e To find the constants K1 and K2 From the pole zero plot M01 = 1 and 01 = 1800 Q21 = 3 and 21 = 00 M e j01 1 e j180 K1 = F 01 j 21 = 3 j 0 = e j180 = 1 Q21e 3 e Where 01 and 02, 21 and 12 are the angles of the lines joining the given pole to other finite zeros and poles. Where M01 and M 02 are the distances of the same poles from each
Q21 and Q12 are the distances of given poles from each of the other finite poles. Similarly, M02 = 4 and 02 = 1800 Q12 = 3 and 12 = 1800 M e j02 4 e j180 K 2 = F 02 j12 = 3 =3 Q12 e 3 e j180 Substituting the values of K1 and K2, the time domain response of the current is given by i (t ) = e t + 4e 4t Q.76. A 100 mH inductor with 500 selfresistance is in parallel with a 5nF capacitor. Find the resonant frequency of the combination. Find the impedance at resonance, quality factor of the circuit and the half power bandwidth. Ans: Given L = 100 mH , R = 500 C = 5nF ,, The resonant frequency of the parallel combination is given by
1 fr = 2 1 R LC L
2
(10)
1 fr = 2
1 1010 2 = (5000) 2 5 1 = 2000 10 6 25 10 6 2 1 = 1975 10 6 = 7.07 KHz 2 L 100 10 3 1 = 10 6 = 400 K = = 9 25 Impedance at resonance CR 500 5 10 Q factor = 1 L 1 100 10 3 2000 5 = = =4 5 R C 500 5 10 9 500
B.W = f 2 f 1 =
f r 7.07 10 3 = = 789.06 Hz Q 4 5
When the far end of the transmission line is open circuited, the input
o impedance is 650 12 ohms and when the line is shortcircuited, the
o input impedance is 312 8 ohms. Find the characteristic impedance of the line.
(4)
Ans: Given Zoc = 650120 ohms and Zsc = 312 80 ohms. The characteristic impedance, Zo is given by
A lossless line has a characteristic resistance of 50 . The line length is 1.185 . The load impedance is 110 + j80 . Find the input impedance.
Ans: Given Ro = 50, l = 1.185, ZL = 110 + j80 . Z + jZ o tan l Z in = Z o R Z o + jZ R tan l The input impedance is given by,
(4)
l =
l =
(110 + j80 ) + j 50 tan 66 Z in = 50 50 + j (110 + j80 ) tan 66 (110 + j80 ) + j 50 2.25 Z in = 50 50 + j (110 + j80 ) 2.25
110 + j192.5 110 + j80 + j112.5 Z in = 50 = 50 130 + j 247.5 50 + j 247.5 180 110 + j1925 Z in = 50 130 + j 247.5
Q.79.
Design an mderived T section (high pass) filter with a cut off frequency f c = 20kHz , f = 16kHz and a design impedance R o = 600 .
Ans: For mderived filter
(8)
f 16000 m = 1 = 1 = 0.6 f 20000 c For a prototype low pass filter R 600 H = 2.39mH L= o = 4f c 4 20000
1 1 = F = 0.007 F 4Ro f c 4 20000 600 In the Tsection, mderived high pass filter, the values of the elements are C=
0.024 F 0.024 F 0.026 F
3.98 mH
mderived Tsection filter
Q.80.
L 2.39 = = 3.98mH m 0.6 2C 2 0.007 = = 0.024 F m 0.6 4 0.6 4m C= 0.007 = .026 F 2 2 1 (0.6) 1 m A sinusoidal current, I = 100 cos2t is applied to a parallel RL circuit. Given R=5 and L=0.1H, find the steady state voltage and its phase angle.
(8)
Ans: The driving current is given by I i(t) = I cos 2 t = [e jt + e  jt ] 2  Eq  1 jt Considering current source Ie / 2 and applying kirchoffs current law
I cos t
Fig. 2.b
V 1 e j t V dt + =I 2 L R  Eq  2 The steady state voltage is given by vss1 = A ejt where A is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq  1 and Eq  2 A A I + = jL R 2 I 2 A= 1 1 + R j L Considering current source Iejt / 2 and applying kirchoffs current law
t
V 1 e jt V dt + =I 2 L R  Eq  3 The steady state voltage is given by vss2 = B ejt where B is the undetermined coefficient. From Eq 1 and Eq  3 B B I + = jL R 2 I 2 B= 1 1 R j L On applying superposition principle, the total steady state voltage vss is the summation of the voltages vss1 and vss2. vss = vss1 + vss2 = A et j+ B ejt
t
L = 0.1H,,Given R = 5 I = 100A and = 2 The steady state voltage is given by 100 v ss = cos t + tan 1 0.04 1 1 + 25 0.04 100 v ss = cos( t + 2.29) = 500 cos( t + 2.29) 15
Q.81.
Define the unit step, ramp and impulse function. Determine the Laplace transform for these functions.
Ans: The unit step function is defined as u(t) = 0 t0 1 t>0 The laplace transform is given by
f(t) 1.0 t
(6)
1 1 F ( s) = Lu (t ) = e dt = e st = s 0 s 0
st
f(t)
The ramp function is given by f(t) = t The laplace transform is given by 1 t F ( s) = Lf (t ) = t.e st dt = e st + .e st dt s 0 0 s 0
= 0+
1 st 1 1 1 e dt = s . s = s 2 s0 1 F ( s) = 2 s
f (t )dt = 1
0
The unit impulse function is given by u (t ) u (t t ) f (t ) = Lim t t 0 Which is nothing but the derivative of the unit step function. d f (t ) = u (t ) dt f(t) has the value zero for t > 0 and at t = 0. Let g(t) = 1  et g(t) approaches f(t) when is very large. d g ' (t ) = g (t ) = e t dt
g ' (t )dt = .e
0 0
dt = 1
Q.82.
(4)
When s = 1, When s = 2,
B = 5
B=5 C = 6
2C = 12
Q.83.
Z 1 = 2 Z OC Z OC ( Z OC Z SC )
Z 2 = 632.46
Z1/2 Z1/2 3 1
Z2 2 4
A transmission line has the following primary constants per Km loop, R=26 , L=16mH, C=0.2F and G=4 mho. Find the characteristic impedance and propagation constant at =7500 rad/sec. (4)
Ans: R + j L = 26 + j x 7500 x 16 x 103 = 26 + j x 120 = 122 77 G +j C = 4 x 106 +j x 7500 x 0.2 x 106 = 4 x 106 + j x 1.5 x 103 = 0.0015 89
Zo =
R + j L G + j C
Q.85.
Find out the Z parameters and hence the ABCD parameters of the network shown in Fig 5.a. Check if the network is symmetrical or reciprocal. 1 3
(10)
Fig.5.a
Ans: On open circuiting the terminals 22 as in Fig 5.a.2 Applying Kirchoffs voltage law (KVL) for the first loop V1 = I1 + 2(I1 I3) = 3I1 2I3  (1) Applying KVL for the second loop 0 = 3I3 + 5I3 + 2(I3  I1) 0 = 10I3  2I1 10I3 = 2I1 2I I I3 = 1 = 1 10 5 (2) From (1) and (2) 2 13 V1 = 3I 1 I 1 = I 1 5 5  (3) V2 = 5 I 3 = I 1  (4)
Z 11 = V1 I1
= 2 .6
I 2 =0
Z 21 =
V2 I1
=
I 2 =0
I1 =1 I1
3 I2 + V2
Fig 5.a.3
Applying Kirchoffs voltage law (KVL) for the first loop of Fig 5.a.3 V1 = 2I3  (5) Applying KVL for the second loop 0 = 2I3 + 3I3 + 5(I3 + I2) = 10I3+ 5I2 I2 =  2I3  (6) 1 I3 = I2 2 From (5) and (6) 1 V1 = 2 I 3 = 2 I 2 = I 2 2  (7) 1 5 V2 = 5( I 3 + I 2 ) = 5( + 1) I 2 = I 2 = 2.5 I 2 2 2  (8)
Z 22 = Z 12 = V2 I2 V1 I2
= 2 .5
I1 = 0
=1
I1 = 0
A=
Z 11 2.6 Z Z Z 12 Z 21 2.6 2.5 1 1 6.5 1 = = 2.6, B = 11 22 = = = 5.5 Z 21 1 1 1 Z 21 , Z 1 2.5 D = 22 = = 1 mhos, = 0.96 Z 21 Z 11 2.6 AD AD BC = 2.6 0.96  5.5 1 = 3.004 AD BC 1 The circuit is neither reciprocal nor symmetrical. C =
Q.86.
Calculate the driving point impedance Z(s) of the network shown in Fig 5.b. Plot the poles and zeros of the driving point impedance function on the splane.
(6)
R1=4
C=0.5F
Zs
L=0.5H
R2=1
Fig 5.b
j 2.2
2 4 16 = 1 j 3 2 i.e p1 = 1 + j 3 , z2 = 1 j 3 Where p1, p2 =
Q.87.
State Thevenins theorem. Using Thevenins theorem, calculate the current in the branch XY, for the circuit given in Fig.6.a.
36V 6 100V 18 X 36 20 Y
(2+6)
Fig 6.a.1
Ans: Thevenins theorem states that the current IL which flows from a given network (active) A to another network (passive) B usually referred to as load, is the same as if this network B were connected to an equivalent network whose EMF is the open circuit voltage (Voc) with internally equivalent impedance ZTH. Voc is the open circuit voltage measured across a and b terminals and is the impedance of the network (A) looking back into the terminals a and b with all energy sources on removing RL the circuit is shown Fig 6.a.2 In the circuit B to X 36I 18I + 36 = 0 54I = 36 36 2 I= = A 54 3 2 V BC = 36 = 24 Volts 3 Since the current flowing through the 6 resistor is zero.
36V 6 100V 18 B X
36
Fig 6.a.2
18 X 18 76V Y 20
36
Fig 6.a.3
Fig 6.a.4
Determine the condition for resonance. Find the resonance frequency when a capacitance C is connected in parallel with a coil of inductance L and resistance R. What is impedance of the circuit at resonance? What is the Quality factor of the parallel circuit?
Ans: Consider an antiresonant RLC circuit as shown in Fig. 7.a.i When the capacitor is perfect and there is no leakage and dielectric loss. i.e. RC = 0 and let RL = R as shown in Fig 7.a.ii
IL
RL L
(8)
IL
IC
RC
IC
Fig 7.a.i
Fig 7.a.ii
0C =
0 L 2 R + 0 L2
2
2
L C 2 1 R 2 0 = 2 + LC L R2 1 1 R2 + = 0 = LC LC L2 L2 If R is negligible 1 0 = LC 1 f0 = 2 LC The admittance at resonance is R C RC = R = Yo = 2 2 2 L L R + o L L 2 R 2 + 0 L2 = C Since, R 2 + 0 L2 = L RC The impedance at resonance is The quality factor, Q of the circuit is given by Zo =
Q=
Q.89.
o L
R
L L 1 1 = R C LC R
A coil having a resistance of 20 and inductive reactance of 31.4 at 50Hz is connected in series with capacitor of capacitance of 10 mF. Calculate i. The value of resonance frequency. The Q factor of the circuit. ii.
Ans: Given 2f L = 31.4 and f = 50Hz 31.4 L = = 0.1H 2 50 1 2 f o L = 2 f o C At resonance,
(8)
f0 =
1 2 LC
1 2 0.1 10 10
3
50 = 5.04 Hz 3.16
The value of resonance frequency is 5.04 Hz. 100 o = 2 f o = = 31.65 rad / sec 3.16 L 31.65 0.1 Q = o = = 0.158 20 R The Q factor of the circuit is 0.158
Q.90.
A transmission line with characteristic impedance of 500 is terminated by a purely resistive load. It is found by measurement that the minimum value of voltage upon it is 5V and maximum voltage is (8) 7.55V. What is the value of load resistance?
Ans: Given Vmax = 7.55V, Vmin = 5V V 7.55 S = max = = 1.51 Vmin 5 The standing wave ratio in terms reflection coefficient is given by 1+ k S= = 1.51 1 k 1.51 1.51k = 1 + k 0.51 k= = 0 .2 2.51 The reflection coefficient k is given by Z ZO Z 500 1 k = L = L = Z L + ZO Z L + 500 5 5Z L + 2500 = Z L + 500
6Z L = 2000 Z L = 333.3
Q.91.
Design a mderived low pass filter (T and section) having a design resistance of Ro=500 and the cut off frequency (fc) of 1500 Hz and an infinite attenuation frequency (f c ) of 2000 Hz.
Ans: For mderived filter
(8)
f 1500 m = 1 c = 1 = 0.661 f 2000 For a prototype low pass filter R 500 L= o = H = 106.103mH f c 1500
1 1 = F = 0.424 F Ro f c 1500 500 In the Tsection, mderived low pass filter, the values of the elements are mL .661 106.103 = = 35.067 mH 2 2 mC = 0.424 0.661 = 0.280 F
C=
1 (.661)2 1 m2 L = 106.103 = 22.596mH 4m 4 0.661 In the section, mderived low pass filter, the values of the elements are mC .661 0.424 = = 0.140 F 2 2
35.1 mH 35.1 mH 0.28 F 70.14 mH 0.09 F 0.140 mF 0.140 mF
22.6 mH
mderived Tsection filter
Q. 92.
mL = 106.103 0.661 = 70.134mH 1 (.661)2 1 m2 C = 0.424 = 0.09 F 4m 4 0.661 A capacitance of 4F is charged to potential difference of 400 V and then connected in parallel with an uncharged capacitor of 2F capacitance. Calculate the potential difference across the parallel capacitors.
Ans: Given that, C1 = 4F, V1 = 400V The charge on the capacitor C1 is Q1 = C1V1 = 4 x 106 x 400 = 1600 x 106 C2 = 2F, C = C1 + C2 F = 4 + 2 = 6 Charge on the capacitor C1 will be shared by C2 Q = Q2 = 16 x 104 C Potential difference across the parallel capacitor Q 16 10 4 V2 = = = 266.7 V C 6 10 6
(8)
Q.93. Voltage v(t) = V0 cos(t + ) is applied to a series circuit containing resistor R, inductor L and capacitor C. Obtain expression for the steady state response.
Ans: Application of the Kirchoffs voltage law t o transform equation L R i(t) V(t)=Vocos(t +
Fig.6.c
the
circuit
gives
the
I ( s ).Z ( s ) = V ( s )
 (1)
1 I ( s ). R + Ls + = V ( s ) Cs  (2) In sinusoidal steady state, (2) in the phasor form can be written as 1 j I . R + jL + = Vo e jC  (3)
Ie j 1 = V o e j 1 R + j L C  (4) Vo
Hence I =
Hence magnitude I =  (5) 1 L C 1 = tan 1 R  (6) And Hence the expression for the time domain response is, i(t ) = I cos(t + 1 )  (7) Where I and 1 are given by equations (5) and (6) respectively. In a series RLC circuit, R = 5, L = 1H and C=0.25F and the input driving voltage is 10e
3t
1 R + L C
2
Q.94.
inductor (L) and zero charge across capacitor (C) before closing the switch. Find steady state current flowing through circuit
Ans:
(8)
Applying Laplace transformation to Eq. 1 q (0+ ) I ( s) 1 1 10 [ s.I ( s ) i (0+ )] + 5 I ( s ) + + = 0.25 s 0.25 s s + 3  Eq.2 At time t = 0+, current i(0+) must be the same as at time t = 0 due to the presence of the inductor L. i(0+) = 0 At t = 0+, charge q(0+) across capacitor must be the same as at time t = 0
Q.95.
Define image impedances and iterative impedances of an asymmetric twoport network. For the two port network, calculate the open circuit and short circuit impedances and hence the image impedances.
(4+4)
Ans: Image impedance is that impedance, which when connected across the appropriate pair of terminals of the network, the other is presented by the other pair of terminals. If the driving point impedance at the input port with impedance Zi2 is Zi1 and if the driving point impedance at the output port with impedance Zi1 is Zi2, Then Zi1 and Zi2 are the image impedances of the twoport network.
Zi1 Zi2 Zi1
t1
Zi2
with impedance Z t2 connected at the input, is Z t2, Then Z the iterative impedances of the twoport network.
Z t1 Z t1 Z t2
and Z
Z t2
Zsc1 = Z1 +
The image impedances in terms of open circuit and short circuit impedances are given by the relations Z i1 = Z oc1 Z sc1 = 15 14 = 14.49 Z i 2 = Z oc 2 Z sc 2 = 25 23.33 = 24.15
Q.96.
(8)
F ( s ) = L (e
( s + )t = cos( t ).e dt 0
Ans: (i)
F ( s ) = L(u (t a )) = 1.e st dt 0 e st 1 = e as = s s 0
Q.97.
(6)
1 j 200
mhos
mhos
3 j 400
mhos
1 j100
mhos
Q.98.
Calculate the value of the load resistance R L for maximum power transfer in the circuit shown in Fig.5. Calculate the value of maximum power.
(8)
Ans: The two current sources are parallel and the supply of current is in the same direction and hence can be replaced by a single current source as in Fig.6.b.2. On removing RL, the resultant circuit is similar to a Nortons circuit as in Fig 6.b.3.
1.5A
8
Fig.6.b.2. RL
1.5A
8
Fig.6.b.3.
Converting the Nortons circuit to equivalent Thevenins circuit as in Fig 6.b.4, ETh = 8 x 1.5 = 12 Volts. R i = 8 RNort = Ri = 8 Therefore for maximum power transfer, RL = Ri = 8 ( ETH ) 2 (12) 2 = = = 4 8 4.5 Watts Maximum power 4 Ri
Q.99.
ETh = 12V Fig.6.b.4
State and prove final value theorem. Find the final value of the function S+9 I(S) = S(S + 5) where the Laplace transform is Ans: Final value theorem states that if function f(t) and its derivative are laplace transformable, then the final value f() of the function f(t) is f () = Lim f (t ) = Lim sF ( s ) t s0 On taking the laplace transform of the derivative and limit is taken as s
(8)
df (t ) st df (t ) Lim L = Lim dt e dt = Lim {sF ( s) f (0)} s 0 dt s 0 0 s0 df (t ) st But Lim e dt = df (t ) = f () f (0) s 0 0 dt 0 However, f(0) being a constant f () f (0) = f (0) + Lim {sF ( s)} s0 f () = Lim {sF ( s)} s0 Lim {sF ( s)} = Lim f (t ) s0 t Applying final value theorem, we get s+9 s + 9 9 i() = Lim sI ( s ) = Lim s. = Lim = = 1.8 s( s + 5) s 0 s + 5 5 s s0
Q.100.
Design a symmetrical bridged Tattenuator to provide attenuation of 60dB and to work into a line of characteristic impedance 600 .
Ans:
R3 = 599.4K R1 R1 = 600
(8)
Ro
R2 =0 .60
RO= 600
Q.101.
Design a Constant K Band Pass filter Tsection having cutoff frequencies 2 kHz & 5kHz and a normal impedance of 600 . Draw the configuration of the filter.
Ans: We know that Ro 600 L1 = = = 63.68 mH ( f 2 f1 ) (5000 2000) L 1 = 31.84 mH 2 (f f ) (5000 2000) C1 = 2 1 = = 0.0381 F 4 Ro f 2 f1 4 600 5000 2000 2C1 = 0.0762 F R ( f f 1 ) 600(5000 2000) L2 = o 2 = = 14.33 mH 4 f 2 f1 4 5000 2000 1 1 C2 = = = 0.1769 F Ro ( f 2 f 1 ) 600 (5000 2000) The configuration of the filter is given in
(8)
Fig 9.b.
0.762 F 31.84 mH 31.84 mH 0.762 F
0.1769 F
14.33 mH
Fig 9.b
Q.102. the
Calculate the value of RL which will be drawing maximum power from circuit of Fig.1. Also find the maximum power. (8)
Ans:
3 6
a
+
RL 3V
a
Voc
+
3V
+
6V
+
6V
Fig 2.b.1
Fig 2.b.2
a
+
RTH 6V
a
IL
RL
Fig 2.b.3
Fig 2.b.4
When the terminals ab are open circuited as shown in Fig 2.b.2, the open circuit voltage is given by Voc = 6 V When the terminals ab are open circuited and the voltage sources are shorted as shown in Fig 2.b.3, the Thevenins resistance is given by RTH = 6
The Thevenins equivalent source is associated with Voc = 6 V battery with a series resistance RTH = 6 to the load resistance as shown in the Fig 2.b.4. The value load resistance RL is equal to the value of RTH because RL draws maximum power from the source. RL = RTH = 6 Hence the maximum power (6) 2 36 Pmax = = = 1.5 4 6 24 Watts ( Pmax ) = E2 4 RL
PART III
DESCRIPTIVES
Q.1.
(7)
Q.2.
Design a prototype low pass filter (L.P.F.), assuming cut off frequency c .
Ans: Consider a constant K filter, in which the series and shunt impedances, Z1 and Z2 are connected by the relation Z1 Z2 = R02 Where R0 is a real constant independent of frequency. R0 is often termed as design impedance or nominal impedance of the constant K filter. Let Z1 = jL and Z2 = 1/jC
Z 1 Z 2 = j L R0 = L 1 2 = = R0 j C C
L (eq 3a.1) C
At cut offfrequency fc
c 2 LC
4 fc =
=1 1 ( eq 3 a . 2 )
LC
Given the values of R0 and c, using the eq 3a.1 and 3a.2 the values of network elements L and C are given by the equations R 1 L= o C= f c Ro f c
Q.3.
Ans: Advantages of m  derived filters: (i) M  derived filters have a sharper cutoff characteristic with steeper rise at fc (cutoff frequency). The slope of the rise is adjustable by fixing the distance between fc and f. (ii) Characteristic impedance (Z0) of the filter is uniform within the pass band when m  derived half sections, having m = 0.6 are connected at the ends. (iii) M  Derived filters are used to construct composite filters to have any desired attenuation/frequency characteristics. Q.4.
For a series R L C circuit in resonance, derive values of Resonant Frequency, Q of the circuit, current and impedance values at resonance. Give the significance of Q. Why is it called Quality Factor?
Ans: The impedance of the series RLC circuit is given by
Z = R + j L + j 1 = R + j L j C C
(14)
1 = R + j L = R + jX C
The circuit is at resonance when the imaginary part is zero, i.e. at = 0, X = 0 To find the condition for resonance X = 0.
0L 1 =0 0C
R
0L = 1 0C
0 =
2
1 LC
0 =
I
1 LC radians / sec
f0 =
1 2 LC
Hz
At resonance, X = 0
Z0 = R
I0 = V R
The Qfactor of an RLC series resonant circuit is given as the voltage magnification that the circuit produces at resonance.
0L
R
1 R
L C
2f 0 L 1 = R 2f 0 CR
0L
0C
Bandwidth = f 2 f 1 =
f0 Q
The ability to discriminate the different frequencies is called the Q factor of the circuit. The quality factor of the circuit determines the overall steepness of the response curve. Higher the value of Q of a series resonant circuit, the smaller is the bandwidth and greater is the ability to select or reject a particular narrow band of frequencies.
Q.5.
Write short notes on: (i) Compensation Theorem. (ii) Stub matching. (iii) Star delta conversion. Ans: (i) Compensation Theorem: The theorem may be stated as Any impedance linear or nonlinear, may be replaced by a voltage source of zero internal impedance and voltage source equal to the instantaneous potential difference produced across the replaced impedance by the current flowing through it. Proof:
(14)
fig 5.ii.(a) fig 5.ii.(b) Consider a network of impedance and voltage source, together with the particular impedance Z1, that is to be replaced, considered as the load. By Kirchoffs law to fig 5.ii.(b), I1Z1+Z I = V1.
(iii)
Where the summation extends over a number of unspecified impedances in the mesh shown in fig 5.ii.(b). By Kirchoffs law to fig 5.ii.(a), the equation is the same as for fig 5.ii.(b) except the equation for the right hand side mesh. Z1I1 = IZ1 + V1. All the equations are identical for the two networks, and so are the currents and voltages through out the two networks, that is networks are equivalent. (ii) Stub matching: When there are no reflected waves, the energy is transmitted efficiently along the transmission line. This occurs only when the terminating impedance is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line, which does not exist practically. Therefore, impedance matching is required. If the load impedance is complex, one of the ways of matching is to tune out the reactance and then match it to a quarter wave transformer. The input impedance of open or short circuited lossless line is purely reactive. Such a section is connected across the line at a convenient point and cancels the reactive part of the impedance at this point looking towards the load. Such sections are called impedance matching stubs. The stubs can be of any length but usually it is kept within quarter wavelength so that the stub is practically lossless at high frequencies. A short circuited stub of length less than offers inductive reactance at the input /4 while an open circuited stub of length less than /4 offers capacitive reactance at the input. The advantages of stub matching are: Length of the line remains unaltered. Characteristic impedance of the line remains constant. At higher frequencies, the stub can be made adjustable to suit variety of loads and to operate over a wide range of frequencies. Star delta conversion: At any one frequency, a star network can be interchanged to a delta network and viceversa, provided certain relations are maintained. Let Z1, Z2, Z3 be the three elements of the star network and ZA, ZB, ZC be the three elements of the delta network as shown in Fig 5.iii.a. and Fig 5.iii.b The impedance between the terminal 1 and terminal 3 is
(Z B + Z C )Z A ZB + ZC + Z A
Z1 + Z 2 =
(1)
Z2 + Z3 =
(4)
(5)
(6)
Consider Z1Z2 + Z2Z3 + Z3Z1 = Z1Z2 From eq.4, eq.5, eq.6 we get
Z Z Z + Z Z ZC + Z Z Z Z 1 Z 2 = B A C( Z +B Z A + Z ) 2 B A C B C A
2 2 2
Z Z
1
Z B Z A Z C (Z B + Z C + Z A ) (Z B + Z C + Z A ) 2
Z Z
1
Z AZ BZC Z Z Z = A B C Z B + ZC + Z A ZA
From eq .6
Z Z1Z 2 Z 1Z= =B A Z C Z AZ 1
ZB =
Z Z
1
Z2
ZA =
Z Z
1
Z3
Q.6.
(7)
Ans: An attenuator is a four terminal resistive network connected between the source and load to provide a desired attenuation of the signal. An attenuator can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical in form. It also can be either a fixed type or a variable type. A fixed attenuator is known as pad. Applications of Attenuators: (i) Resistive attenuators are used as volume controls in broadcasting stations.
(ii) (iii)
Q.7.
Variable attenuators are used in laboratories, when it is necessary to obtain small value of voltage or current for testing purposes. Resistive attenuators can also be used for matching between circuits of different resistive impedances.
(7)
What is Line Loading? Why is it required? State methods of loading a transmission line Ans: The transmission properties of the line are improved by satisfying the
L C = R G
condition
Where L is the inductance of the line, R is the resistance, C is the capacitance and G is the capacitance of the line per unit length. The above condition is satisfied either by increasing L or decreasing C. C cannot be reduced since it depends on the construction. The process of increasing the value of L to satisfy the condition
L C = R G
so as to reduce attenuation and distortions of the line is known as loading of the line. It is done in two ways. (i) Continuous loading (ii) Lumped loading. Continuous loading: Continuous loading is done by introducing the distributed inductance throughout the length of the line. Here one type of iron or some other material as mumetal is wound around the conductor to be loaded thus increasing the permeability of the surrounding medium. Here the attenuation increases uniformly with increase in frequency. It is used in submarine cables. This type of loading is costly. Lumped loading: Lumped loading is done by introducing the lumped inductances in series with the line at suitable intervals. A lumped loaded line behaves as a low pass filter. The lumped loading is usually provided in open wire lines and telephone cables. The a.c resistance of the loading coil varies with frequency due to Hysteresis and eddy current losses and hence a transmission line is never free from distortions.
Q.8.
Define selectivity and Q of a series RLC circuit. Obtain the relation between the bandwidth, the quality factor and selectivity of a series RLC circuit. (8)
Ans: The impedance of the series RLC circuit is given by
Z = R + j L +
j 1 = R + j L jC C
1 = R + j L = R + jX C The circuit is at resonance when the imaginary part is zero, i.e. at = 0, X = 0 To find the condition for resonance X = 0. 1 L C 0 L = 0R 0C 1 0 L = 0 C 1 2 0 = I LC 1 0 = radians / sec LC 1 f0 = Hz 2 LC The Qfactor of an RLC series resonant circuit is given as the voltage magnification that the circuit produces at resonance. L 2f 0 L 1 = 0 = = R R 2f 0CR Voltage magnification = Q factor
L Q factor = R LC
1 L R C
0 L 1 =0 0C
f0 Q Bandwidth = The ability to discriminate the different frequencies is called the Q factor of the circuit. The quality factor of the circuit determines the overall steepness of the response curve. Higher the value of Q of a series resonant circuit, the smaller is the bandwidth and greater is the ability to select or reject a particular narrow band of frequencies. f 2 f1 =
Q.9.
(4)
N =
I S VS = I R VR
The attenuation in Neper (Nep) is given by 1 Nep = loge(N) The relation between decibel and neper is dB = 20 x log10(N) = 20 x loge(N) x log10(e) (log10(e) = 0.434) = 20 x loge(N) x 0.434 = 8.686 loge(N) Attenuation in decibel = 8.686 x attenuation in Neper. Attenuation in Neper = 0.1151 x attenuation in decibel.
Q.10.
(5)
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is defined as the ratio of maximum and minimum magnitudes of voltage on a line having standing waves.
VSWR = Vmax Vmin
VSWR is always greater than 1. When VSWR is equal to 1, the line is correctly terminated and there is no reflection.
Q.11.
State the relationship between reflection Coefficient K and voltage standing wave ratio.
Ans: At the points of voltage maxima, Vmax = VI + VR where VI is the r.m.s value of the incident voltage. where VR is the r.m.s value of the reflected voltage. Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are in phase and add up. At the points of voltage minima, Vmin = VI  VR Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are out of phase and will have opposite sign.
(5)
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is defined as the ratio of maximum and minimum magnitudes of voltage on a line having standing waves.
VSWR = Vmax Vmin
The voltage reflection coefficient, k is defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to incident voltage.
k= VR VI
Vmax Vmin VI + VR VI VR 1+ = 1 VR VI VR VI
VSWR ( s ) =
ks =
1+ k s 1 s +1 1 k
For the circuit in Fig.4 show the equivalency of Thevenins and Nortons
Ans:
Ri = R1  R2 a a
Isc= E/R1
Voc = E x R2/(R1+ R2)
Fig 6.a.2 b RL Ri =R1R2 b Fig 6.a.3 RL
From the Fig 6.a.2 (Thevenins equivalent circuit), the load current is given by
ER2 ER2 Voc R1 + R2 R1 + R2 ER2 = I L (Th) = = = R1 R2 R1 R2 + R1 RL + R2 R L R1 R2 + R1 R L + R2 RL Ri + RL + RL R1 + R2 R1 + R2 From the Fig 6.a.3 (Nortons equivalent circuit), the load current is given by E RR ER2 1 2 I R ER2 R R1 + R2 R1 + R2 = I L (Nor) = sc i = 1 = R1 R2 R1 R2 + R1 RL + R2 RL R1 R2 + R1 RL + R2 RL Ri + RL + RL R1 + R2 R1 + R2 ER2 I L (Th) = I L (Nor) = R1 R2 + R1 RL + R2 RL
Q.13.
(7)
R j L 1 = 2 R + j L R + 2 L2 YC = j C YL = Y = Y L + YC =
R j L + j C R 2 + 2 L2 L R + j C 2 Y= 2 2 2 2 2 R + L R + L
0 L
R + 0 L2
2 2
=0
IL
0C =
0 L
R 2 + 0 L2
2
L R 2 + 0 L2 = C R2 + L 2 = 0 L2 C
0
2
I 2
IC
R2 1 = 2 + LC L
Fig 10.b.ii.
0 =
1 R2 + 2 LC L If R is negligible
0 =
1 R2 LC L2
0 =
1 R2 > LC L2
Q.14.
Define unit step, ramp and impulse function. Derive the Laplace transforms for these functions.
Ans: The unit step function is defined as t<0 t0 f(t) 1.0 0 t
(7)
0 u (t ) = 1
f(t)
t 0
F (s) =
1 s2
The unit impulse function is given by u (t ) u (t t ) (t ) = Lim t t 0 Which is nothing but the derivative of the unit step function.
(t ) =
d u (t ) dt
(t) has the value zero for t > 0 and unity at t = 0. Let g(t) = 1  e t g(t) approaches (t) when is very large.
g ' (t ) =
d g (t ) = e t dt
t
g ' (t )dt = . e
0 0
dt = 1
What is convolution in time domain? What is the Laplace transform of convolution of two time domain functions?
Ans: Consider the two functions f1(t) and f2(t) which are zero for t < 0. The convolution of f1(t) and f2(t) in time domain is normally denoted by f1(t) * f2(t) and is given by
(7)
f 2 (t) * f 1 (t) = f 1 ( ) . f 2 (t  ) d
0
t
and
Where is a dummy variable part The Laplace transform of convolution of two time domain functions is given by convolution theorem. The convolution theorem states that the Laplace transform of the convolution of f1(t) and f2(t) is the product of individual Laplace transforms. L [ f1(t) * f2(t) ] = F1(s) * F2(s).
Q.16. network.
State and prove the superposition theorem with the help of a suitable (8)
Ans:
Superposition theorem: It states that if a network of linear impedances contains more than one generator, the current which flows at any point is the vector sum of all currents which would flow at that point if each generator was considered separately and all other generators are replaced at that time by impedance equal to their internal impedances
I1 = I1 + I1 I2 = I2 + I2
Z1 + 
I1
I2
Z2
Z3
Z1
I1
I2
Z2
Z3 + V2
Let the currents due to V1 alone be I1 and I2 and currents due to V2 alone be I1 and I2 and the currents due to V1 and V2 acting together be I1 and I2. Applying kirchoffs voltage law When V1 is acting alone, as in Fig 2.a.1, then I1 I2 Z3  (1) I1(Z1 + Z2)  I2Z2 = V1 Z1 I2(Z2 + Z3)  I1Z2 = 0  (2) Z2 When V2 is acting alone, as in Fig 2.a.2, then + +  (3) I1(Z1 + Z3)  I2Z2 = 0 V2 V1 I2(Z2 + Z3)  I1Z2 = V2  (4) When both V1, and V2 are acting, as in Fig 2.a.3, then Fig 2.a.3  (5) I1(Z1 + Z2)  I2Z2 = V1 I2(Z2 + Z3)  I1Z2 = V2  (6) Adding equations (1) and (3), (I1 + I1) (Z1 + Z2) (I2+ I2)Z2 = V1  (7) Adding equations (2) and (4), (I2 + I2) (Z1 + Z2) (I1+ I1)Z2 = V2  (8) Comparing equations (5), (7) and (6), (8) I1 = I1 + I1 I2 = I2 + I2 which proves the superposition theorem.
Q.17.
Fig 3.a
Fig 3.a.1
Z OC
= Z2 +
Z OC =
4Z 2 (Z A + Z1 ) + Z1 (Z1 + 2Z A ) 4( Z A + Z 1 )
Z SC
Z sc
Z SC
= =
2Z A Z1 + 4Z A Z 2 + Z1 + 4Z1Z 2
Z SC =
Z A Z 1 (Z 1 + 4 Z 2 ) Z 1 (2 Z A + Z 1 ) + 4 Z 2 ( Z A + Z 1 )
Q.18.
Define the hparameters of a two port network. Draw the hparameter equivalent circuit. Wher
Ans: In a hybrid parameter model, the voltage of the input port and the current of the output port are expressed in terms the current of the input port and the voltage of the output port. The equations are given by V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 1 I1 2 I2 I2 = h21I1 + h22V2 2 port
1
+ V1 
network
+ 
When the output terminal is short circuited, V2 = 0 V1 = h11I1 I2 = h21I1 I V2 h11 = 1 ohms 21 I1 Where h11 is the input impedance expressed in ohms and h21 is the forward current gain. When the input terminal is open circuited, I1 = 0 V1 = h12V2 I2 = h22V2
h12 = 22
V1 I2 mhos V2 2
Where h12 is the reverse voltage gain and h22 is the output admittance expressed in mhos. The equivalent circuit of the hybrid parameter representation is shown in Fig 4.a h12V2 is the controlled voltage source and h21I1 is the controlled current source.
Fig 4.a
h parameters are widely used in modeling of electronic components and circuits particularly transistors where both the open circuit and circuit conditions are utilized.
Q.19.
Design a symmetrical bridgedT attenuator shown below use necessary assumptions for simplification.
(6)
RA
IS
R1
R1
b
Es R0
IS  I1 f IR  I1
R2
IR
RO
IS IR
e
o
g
Fig. 5.a
(i)
(ii) Consider the loop abfcde of the circuit in Fig 5.a Es = (IS  I1)R1 + (IR  I1)R1 + IRRO + ISRO Solving (i) and (ii) & (iii) we obtain
2R 1 R O R1 + R O + RA IS =N = IR 2R 1 R O R O  R1 + RA
+ ISR
(iii)
Usually the load and arm impedances are selected in such a way that R12 = RO2 = R2RA
R1 = R O = R 2R A
2R 1 R O R1 + R O + RA N= = 2R 1 R O R O  R1 + RA
2 2R O 2R O + RA 2R O 2 R A
1+
N=
RO RA R = 1+ A RO RO RA
N = 1+ RA RO
RA = N 1 RO
R A = R O ( N 1) N = 1+
RO R2
QR O = R 2R A
RO =N1 R2 RO N1
R2 =
Q.20. removed in
What are the disadvantages of the prototype filters? How are they composite filters? Ans: The two disadvantages of a prototype filters are: The attenuation does not increase rapidly beyond cutoff frequencies (fc), that is in the stop band. The characteristic impedance varies widely in the pass band from the required value. In mderived sections attenuation reaches a very high value at a frequency (f) very close to cut off frequency but decreases for frequencies beyond (f) and the characteristic impedance is more uniform within the pass band. Composite filters are used to overcome the two disadvantages. A composite filter consists of One or more constant K sections to produce a specific cut off frequency. One or more mderived sections to provide infinite attenuation at a frequency close to (fc). Two terminating half sections (mderived) that provide almost constant input and output impedances. In a composite filter, the attenuation rises very rapidly with frequency in the range of fc to f, and falls only marginally with frequencies after f.
(8)
Q.21.
Draw the equivalent circuit of a section of transmission line. Explain primary and secondary parameters.
Ans: A uniform transmission line consists of series resistance (R), series inductance (L), shunt capacitance (C), and shunt conductance (G). The series resistance is due to the conductors and depends on the resistivity and diameter. The inductance is due to the magnetic field of each of the conductor carrying current. The inductance is in series with resistance since the effect of inductance is to oppose the flow of the current. The shunt capacitance is due to the two conductors placed parallel separated by a dielectric. The dielectric is not perfect and hence a small leakage current flows in between the wires, which results in shunt conductance. All the four parameters are uniformly distributed over the length of the line. The series impedance Z L ohms/unit length per unit length is Z = R + j The shunt admittance Y C seimens/unit length per unit length is Y = G + j
(6)
Where Z 1/Y. The parameters R, L, G, C are normally constant for a particular transmission line and are known as primary constants of a transmission line. The characteristic impedance, Zo are the and propagation constant, secondary constants of a transmission line and indicate the electrical properties of a line. Characteristic impedance, Zo is the input impedance of a infinite length is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio line. Propagation constant, of the input to the output current. The equivalent T section of transmission line of length x is shown in the Fig 7.a.
R L L R
Q.22.
Define hparameters and transmission parameters of a twoport network. Determine the relation between them.
Ans: In a hybrid parameter model, the voltage of the input port and the current of the output port are expressed in terms the current of the input port and the voltage of the output port. The equations are given by V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 eq1
Fig 7.a
(8)
I2 = h21I1 + h22V2 When the output terminal is short circuited, V2 = 0 V1 = h11I1 h11 =
eq2 I2 = h21I1
V1 I1
V2 = 0
I h21 = 2 I1
V2 = 0
current gain.
Where h11 is the input impedance expressed in ohms and h21 is the forward When the input terminal is open circuited, I1 = 0 V1 = h12V2 h12 =
I2 = h22V2
V1 V2
I1 = 0
h22 =
I2 V2
I1 = 0
Where h12 is the reverse voltage gain and h22 is the output admittance expressed in mhos. Transmission (ABCD) Parameters: The ABCD parameter equations are given by V1 = AV2 B I2 eq3 I1 = CV2 D I2 eq4 When the output terminal is short circuited, V2 = 0 Where B is the impedance expressed in ohms. V1 = BI2 I1 = DI2
B= D= I1 I2 V1 I2
V2 = 0
V2 = 0
When the output terminal is open circuited, I2 = 0 Where C is the admittance expressed in mhos.
V1 = AV2
A= C= I1 V2 V1 V2
I 2 =0
I1 = CV2
I 2 =0
To find the relation between h parameters and ABCD parameters I1 = CV2 DI 2 1 C I 2 = I1 + V2 D D  Eq.5 V1 = AV2 BI 2 1 C V1 = AV2 B I1 + V2 D D AD BC B V1 = V2 + I1 D D  Eq.6 Comparing equations Eq.1, Eq.2, and Eq.5, Eq.6, The h parameters in terms of ABCD parameters are given by B AD BC h11 = h12 = D D C 1 h21 = h22 = D D Describe various types of losses in a transmission line. How these losses Q.23. are reduced? (8) Ans: The three types of losses are
Radiation loss: The radiation loss is due to the electromagnetic field
around the conductors. The loss of energy is proportional to the square of the frequency and also depends on the spacing between the conductors. These losses are more in open wire lines than that in coaxial cables. The radiation loss increases with frequency and is more evident in high frequency cables. Radiation losses can be reduced by decreasing the spacing between the conductors and allowing only low frequency signals to pass through.
chemical compounds in a coaxial cable. The dielectric medium possesses finite conductivity and there is leakage of current and loss of energy between the conductors. This loss is due to the imperfect dielectric medium. Dielectric loss is proportional to the voltage across the dielectric and inversely proportional to the characteristic impedance of the dielectric medium. Dielectric loss increases with frequency. Dielectric losses can be reduced by choosing a perfect dielectric or by using air as dielectric.
is the energy loss in the form of heat dissipated in the surrounding medium by the conductors. This loss is due the existence of the resistance in the line conductors. It is expressed as I2R loss, where I is the current through the conductor and R is the resistance.
Q.24.
(6)
Yi2 Yi1 Y2 Y3
Yi1
Yi2 Y2 Y3
Fig 8.b.1
Fig 8.b.2
Let Y1, Y2 and Y3 be the admittances and Yi1 and Yi2 be the image admittances of the asymmetric network. From Fig 8.b.1 Y (Y + Y i 2 ) Y1Y 2 + Y 3Y 2 + Y 2 Y i 2 + Y1Y 3 + Y1Y i 2 = Y i1 = Y 2 + 1 3 Y1 + Y 3 + Y i 2 Y1 + Y 3 + Y i 2
Y1 Y i1 + Y 3 Y i1 + Y i 2 Y i1 = Y1Y 2 + Y 3 Y 2 + Y 2 Y i 2 + Y1Y 3 + Y1Y i 2 (1)
Y i2 = Y 3 +
Y i1 =
(4 A)
1 2 Z i1
where Z i1 =
2
Yi 2 =
1 , Z i2
Y1 =
1 , Z1
Y2 =
1 , Z2
Y3 =
1 Z3
Z1Z 2 (Z1 + Z 3 ) ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )( Z 1 + Z 2 )
( from ( 4 )) ( due to ( 4 A ))
Yi2 = Yi2 =
( Y1 + Y3 ) ( Y1 + Y 2 )
( Y1 Y3 + Y3 Y 2 + Y1 Y 2 )( Y1 + Y 2 ) ( Y1 + Y3 )
( Y1 Y3 + Y3 Y 2 + Y1 Y 2 )( Y1 + Y3 ) ( Y1 + Y 2 )
Z + Z 2 + Z 3 Z1 + Z 3 ) )( ( 1 ( Z + Z 2 + Z 3 )( Z 1 + Z 3 ) Z1 Z 3 Z1 Z 2 Z 3 1 = = 1 Z1 + Z 2 Z1 Z 3 2 ( Z1 + Z 2 ) Z i2 2 Z1 Z 2 Z i2 = Z1 Z 3 2 ( Z1 + Z 2 ) ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )( Z 1 + Z 3 )
Q.25.
In Laplace domain a function is given by (s + )sin cos + F(s ) = M 2 2 2 2 2 s + + (s + ) + where , , & M are constants. Show by initial value theorem
Lim f (t ) = Msin
t 0
(6)
Lim f (t ) = Lim sF ( s)
t 0
Q.26.
Check, if the driving point impedance Z (s), given below, can represent a passive one port network.
4 3 2 s Z(s ) = s s ++ 2s 5 (i) (ii) Also specify proper reasons in support of your answer. 3
Z(s ) =
s 4 +s 2 +1 s + 2s 2 2s +10
(8)
Ans:
(i )
Z ( s) =
s 4 + s 2 +1 s 3 +2s 2 2s + 10
(ii )
The given function is not suitable to represent the impedance of one port network due to following reasons : In the numerator, one coefficient is missing. In the denominator, one coefficient is negative. s 4 s 3 + 2s 2 Z ( s) = s +5 The given function is not suitable for representing the driving point impedance due to following reasons. In the numerator, one coefficient is negative. The degree of numerator is 4, while that of denominator is 1. Then a difference of 3 exists between the degree of numerator and denominator and is not permitted. The numerator gives s2(s2s+2) that is double zero, at s = 0,
State the Millman theorem and prove its validity by taking a suitable (8)
Ans: Millmans theorem states that if n voltage sources V1, V2, ,Vn having internal impedances Z1, Z2, , Zn, respectively, are connected in parallel, then these sources may be replaced by a single voltage source Vm having internal series impedance Zm where Vm and Zm are given by the equations
Zm = Vm =
where Y1, Y2, , Yn are the admittances corresponding to Z1, Z2, , Zn Proof: A voltage source V1 with series impedance Z1 can be replaced by a current source V1Y1 with shunt admittance Y1 = 1/Z1 The network of Fig 2.a.1 can be replaced by its equivalent network as shown in Fig 2.a.2, where
1/Zn ,
I1= V1Y1, I2= V2Y2,    In= VnYn , and Y1 = 1/Z1 , Y2 = 1/Z2 ,   , Yn = Network of Fig 2.a.2 is equivalent to that of Fig 2.a.3 where by and Ym = Y1 + Y2 +    + Yn I m = I1 + I2 +    + In Reconverting the current source of Fig 2.a.3 into an equivalent voltage The equivalent circuit of 2.a.4 is obtained where
Zm = 1 Y1 + Y 2 + Y3 +
source,
Vm =
Im I + I2 + I3 + = 1 Y m Y1 + Y 2 + Y3 +
V1Y1 + V 2 Y 2 + V 3 Y3 + Y1 + Y 2 + Y3 +
2.a.4
Fig
theorem
To find the current in the resistor R3 in the Fig 2.a.5 using Millmans
R 1 = 2 R2 =2
V1=4V
R3=1
V2=10V
Fig 2.a.5
The two voltage sources V1 and V2 with series resistances R1 and R2 are combined into one voltage source Vm with series resistances Rm. According to the Millman theorem,
Vm =
Zm =
Q.28.
State the advantages of using Laplace transform in networks. Give the s domain representations for resistance, inductance and capacitance.
Ans: The advantages of using Laplace transform in networks are: The solution is easy and simple. It gives the total solution i.e. complementary function and particular integral as a single entity. The initial conditions are automatically included as one of the steps rather that at the end in the solution. It provides the direct solution of nonhomogenous differential equations. The s domain representations for resistance, inductance and capacitance are
(7)
I(s)
+ V(s) 
V(s) = R I(s)
(0) +
V (s) =
v (0 ) 1 I (s) + Cs s
I(s)
1/Cs + V(0)/s
+ V(s) 
Q.29. section.
Ans: At any one frequency, a network can be interchanged to a T network and viceversa, provided certain relations are maintained. Let Z1, Z2, Z3 be the three elements of the T network and ZA, ZB, ZC be the three elements of the network as shown in Fig.3b.1 and Fig 3.b.2 Z1 1 Z3 2 Fig 3.b.1 The impedance between the terminal 1 and terminal 3 is
(Z B + Z C )Z A LLLL eq.1 Z B + ZC + Z A
Z2 3
ZA 1 ZB 4 2 Fig 3.b.2 ZC 4 3
Z1 + Z 2 =
(Z A + Z C )Z B LLLL eq.3 Z B + ZC + Z A
Q.30.
(8)
Q.31. (8)
if the impedance (ZL = RL + j XL), connected across the output is the complex conjugate of the source impedance.
Given ZS = RS + j XS and ZL = RL + j XL The power P in the load is IL2RL, where IL is the current flowing in the circuit, which is given by, V V V I= = = ZS + Z L R S + j X S + R L + j X L (R S + R L ) + j (X S + X L )
 (1)
This implies the reactance of the load impedance is of the opposite sign to that of the source impedance. Under this condition XL + XS = 0 The maximum power is V 2R L P= (RS + R L )2 For maximum power transfer, now let us vary RL such that dP =0 dR L
V 2 (R S + R L ) 2  2 V 2 R L (R S + R L ) =0 [R S + R L ] 4
V 2 (R S + R L ) = 2 V 2 R L
i.e. R S = R L The necessary and sufficient condition for maximum power transfer from a voltage source, with source impedance ZS = RS + j XS to a load ZL = RL + j XL is that the load impedance should be a complex conjugate of that source impedance. RL = RS, XL =  XS
Q.32.
An amplifier is used to increase the signal level by a give amount, while an attenuator is used to reduce the signal level by a given amount. An amplifier consists of active elements like transistors. An attenuator is a four terminal resistive network connected between the source and load to provide a desired attenuation of the signal. An attenuator can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical in form. It also can be either a fixed type or a variable type. A fixed attenuator is known as pad. Applications of Attenuators:
(i)
laboratories, when it is necessary to obtain small value of voltage or current for testing purposes.
(iii)
for matching between circuits of different resistive impedances when insertion losses can be tolerated.
Q.33.
(6)
47
Zi1
Zi2
Insertion loss: If a network or a line is inserted between a generator and its load, in general, there is a reduction in the power received in the load, and the load current will decrease. The loss produced by the insertion of the network or line is known as the insertion loss. If the load current without the network is I1 and the load current with the network inserted is I2, then the insertion loss is given by
Insertion Loss = 20 log 10 = log e I1 dB I2
I1 nepers I2 The value of the insertion loss depends on the values of the source and the
load. Q.34.
Explain the basis for construction of Smith chart. Illustrate as to how it can be used as an admittance chart.
Ans: The use of circle diagram is cumbersome, i.e. S and circles are not concentric, interpolation is difficult and only a limited range impedance values can be obtained in a chart of reasonable size. The resistive component, R and reactive component, X of an impedance are represented in a rectangular form while R and X of an impedance are represented in circular form in the Smith charts. Smith charts can be used as impedance charts and admittance charts. If the normalized admittance is Y = Y/YO = g jb Any complex admittance can be shown by a single point, (the point of intersection R/YO circle and j X/ZO) on the smith chart. Since the inductive resistance is negative susceptance, it lies in the region below the horizontal axis, and since capacitive reactance is positive susceptance, it lies in the region above the horizontal axis. The points of voltage maxima lie in the region 0 to 1 on the horizontal axis, since the conductance is equal to 1/S at such points. The points of voltage minima lie in the region 1 to 0 on the horizontal axis, since the conductance is equal to S at such points. The movement in the clockwise corresponds to travelling from the load towards generator and movement in the anticlockwise corresponds to travelling from the generator towards load. Open circuited end will be point A and short circuited end will be B
(8)
Q.35. What is resonance? Why is it required in certain electronic circuits? Explain in detail
(6) Ans: An a.c. circuit is said to be in resonance when the applied voltage and the circuit current are in phase. Thus at resonance the equivalent complex impedance of the circuit consists of only the resistance, the power factor of the circuit being unity. Resonant circuits are formed by the combination of inductance and capacitance, which may be connected in series or in parallel giving rise to series resonant and parallel resonant circuits, respectively. In other words property of cancellation of reactance when inductive and capacitive reactance are in series, or cancellation of susceptance when in parallel is called resonance. Such cancellation leads to operation of reactive circuit leading only to resistive circuit under unity power factor conditions, or with current and voltage in phase. There are two types of resonance, series resonance and parallel resonance. Parallel resonance is normally referred to as antiresonance. In a series resonant circuit, the impedance is purely resistive, the current is maximum at the resonant frequency and the current decreases on both sides of the resonant frequency. In a parallel resonant circuit, the impedance is maximum and purely resistive at the resonant frequency. The impedance decreases on both sides of the resonant frequency. It is easy to select frequencies around the resonant frequency and reject the other frequencies. The resonant circuits are also known as tuned circuits in particular parallel resonant circuit is also known as tank circuit. The resonant circuits or tuned circuits are used in electronic circuits to select a particular radio frequency signal for amplification. Q.36.
Determine the relationship between yparameters and ABCD parameter for 2Port networks. By using these relations determine yparameters of circuit given in Fig.7 and then deduce its ABCD parameters.
(7)
Ans: For a Two port Network, the YParameter equations are given by (1) I1 = Y11 V1 + Y12V2 (2) I2 = Y21 V1 + Y22V2 The ABCD parameter equations are given by V1 = AV2 B I2 (3)
I1 = CV2 D I2 (4) From Equations 1 & 2 Y21V1 = I2 Y22V2 V1 = I 2 ( V1 = ( Y 1 ) ( 22 )V2 Y21 Y21 (5)
A= C=
B= D=
Y11 Y21
I1 R
1 + V1 1 Fig 7.a.2
Ls
I2
+ V2 
+ V1 L
2 + V2 2 Fig 7.a.1
In s domain the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig 7.a.2 When port 2 is short circuited as in Fig 7.a.3, V2 = 0 V1 = I1R I
1 I Y11 = 1 = V1 R I1 = I 2 I 1 I Y21 = 2 = 1 = V1 V1 R
I2
+ V1 Ls
Fig 7.a.3
I1 R
I2
+ V2 
Ls
1
V2 = I1 ( R) Y12 = I1 1 = V2 R
Fig 7.a.4
(To find Y22 and Y12)
Q.37.
What is the significance of poles and zeros in network functions. What is the criteria of stability of a network? For the transform current
2s (s + 1)(s + 2) , plot its poles and zeros in splane and hence obtain the time domain response. I(s ) =
Ans: Poles and zeros provide useful information about the network functions. (1) In impedance functions, a pole of the function implies a zero current for a finite voltage i.e. on open circuit, while a zero of the function implies no voltage for a finite current i.e. a short circuit. (2) In admittance functions, a pole of the functions implies a zero voltage for a finite current, i.e. short circuit, while a zero of the function implies zero current for a finite value of voltage i.e. an open circuit. (3) The poles determine the variation of the response while zero determine the magnitude the coefficients in the partial fraction expansion and hence determine the magnitude of the response. Any active network or any general system is said to be stable if the transfer function has its poles confined to the left half of the splane. A system will be stable if its polynomial roots have negative real parts. The transform current is given by
I ( s) = 2s (s + 1)(s + 2)
(7)
From the function it is clear that the function has poles at 1 and 2 and a zero at the origin. The plot of poles and zeros in shown below:
j
X
2
X
1
O
1 2
(s+1) ad (s+2) are factors in the denominators, the time domain response is given by i(t ) = K1 e t + K 2 e 2t To find the constants K1 and K2 From the pole zero plot M01 = 1 and 01 = 1800 Q21 = 1 and 21 = 00
M 01e j01 e j180 K1 = F = 2 j 0 = 2e j180 = 2 e Q21e j 21
of the zeros.
Where 01 and 02, 21 and 12 are the angles of the lines joining the given pole to other finite zeros and poles. Where M01 and M 02 are the distances of the same poles from each
Q21 and Q12 are the distances of given poles from each of the other finite poles. Similarly, M02 = 2 and 02 = 1800 Q12 = 1 and 12 = 1800
K2 = F M 02 e j02 2 e j180 =2 =4 1 e j180 Q12 e j12
Substituting the values of K1 and K2, the time domain response of the current is given by t i(t ) = 2e + 4e 2t Q.38.
Determine the condition for resonance for the parallel circuit as shown in Fig.8. Determine its (i) resonant frequency 0 (ii) impedance z (j ) at 0 (iii) half power bandwidth (iv) quality factor of the circuit.
(4)
The admittance
YL = R j L 1 = 2 R + j L R + 2 L2 Y C = j C Y = Y L + YC =
R
IL
R j L + j C R 2 + 2 L2
IC
L + j C Y= 2 2 2 2 R + L R + 2 L2
Fig 9.
0C
L +
0 0
L2
0 =
2
R2 1 + 2 LC L
0 =
R2 1 + = 2 L LC
R2 1 LC L2
If R is negligible
f0 = 1 2 LC 0 = 1 LC
(ii)
Yo = R
2 2
R + o L2
We know that L RC 2 R 2 + 0 L2 = Yo = C L
The impedance at resonance is Z O = L RC
(iii) Half power bandwidth: It is the band of frequencies, which lie on either side of the resonant frequency where the impedance falls to1/2 of its value at resonance. The impedance near resonance is
1 (1 + j C = = 1 1+ R + j L + j C ( R + j L ) 1 j L 1 L ) + R j C RC jC = 1 j L j j L 1+ (1 2 ) R C R LC
L R (1 + ) RC j L Z = j L 1 1+ (1 2 ) R LC
Let =
o =1+ o o
L
R
o L = Qo (1 + ) o R
1 1 = o2 2 2 LC o LC
2
1 = o2 = (1 + ) 2 LC
2 2
as o LC = 1
2
1 + (Q o 2 ) 2 = Q o 2 = 1 or =
Since =
f fo o 1 = = o fo 2Q o f1 f o = fo , 2Q o f2 fo = + fo 2Q o
Bandwidth
f 2 f1 =
fo Qo
o L
R
L R
L 1 1 = R C LC
Q.39.
For the case of distributed parameters, determine the expressions for: (i) Characteristic impedance ( z 0 ) (ii) Propagation constant ( ) (iii) Attenuation and phase constants ( and )
(7)
IS
ZO Y(x)
IR
ZO
Fig 10.a Where Z = R + jL (series impedance per unit length) and Y = G + jC (admittance per unit length) When the line is terminated in ZO,
Z 1 2 (x) + Z o y (x) Z Z o = (x) + 2 Z 1 2 (x) + Z o + y (x)
Z Z 1 Z 1 (x) (x) + Z o + + 2 (x) + Z o y (x) 2 y (x) 2 Zo = Z 1 2 (x) + Z o + y (x)
Zo =
Z = Y
( R + j L ) (G + j C )
IR
1 Y = IS 1 + Z + ZO 2 Y
IS ZY = 1+ + Z OY IR 2
e =
= 1+
Z Y (x) 2 Z + Y x 2 Y Z Y (x) 2 = 1 + Z Y x + 2
Eq (1)
e x
2 (x) 2
Eq ( 2 )
= ( R + jL )(G + jC ) = + j
( + j ) 2 = ( R + j L )(G + j C ) 2 2 + 2 j = RG 2 LC + j ( LG + RC )
+ j = ( R 2 + 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 ) = 2 + 2
2 +2 = ( R 2 + 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 )
] ]
2 2 = RG + 2 LC + ( R 2 + 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 )
1 2 LC RG + ( R 2 + 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 ) 2
Q.40.
Ans:
The voltage and current of the input port are expressed in terms of the voltage and current of the output port. The equations are given by
 eq 6.a.1 I1 = CV2  DI2 When the output terminal is open circuited, I2 = 0 V1 = AV2
V A= 1 V2 I C= 1 V2
V1 = AV2  BI2
D=
I1 I2
A network is said to be reciprocal if the ratio of the response variable to the excitation variable remains identical even if the positions of the response and the excitation are interchanged.
A network is said to be symmetrical if the input and output ports can be interchanged without altering the port voltages and currents. With excitation V1 at input port and shorting the output V1 =  BI2
I2 1 = V1 B
 eq 6.a.3
With interchange of excitation and response, the voltage source V2 is at the output port while the short circuit current I1 is obtained at the input port. 0 = AV2  BI2 I1 = CV2  DI2
AV 2 and B ADV 2 AD = V 2 C I 1 = CV 2 B B I1 BC AD = V2 B I2 =
eq 6.a.4
When V1 = V2, the left hand side of eq.6.a.3 and eq.6.a.4 will be identical provided AD  BC = 1 Thus the condition of reciprocity is given by AD  BC = 1 From the concept of symmetry for Zparameter network,
Z11 = Z 22 = V1 AV2 BI 2 A = = I1 CV 2 DI 2 C V2 D = I2 C
at I2 = 0 at I1 = 0
For a symmetrical for Zparameter network Z11=Z22 This implies for the ABCD parameters
A D = C C
OR
State the types of distortions in a transmission line. Derive the conditions to eliminate the two types of distortions.
Ans: Distortion is said to occur when the frequencies are attenuated by different amounts or different frequency components of a complex voltage wave experience different amounts of phase shifts. Distortions in transmission lines are of two types: Frequency distortion: when various frequency components of the signal are attenuated by different amounts then frequency distortion is said to
(8)
occur. When the attenuation constant is not a function of frequency, there is no frequency distortion.
=
1 ( RG 2 LC ) + ( R 2 + 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 ) 2
Comparing the coefficients of 2 and the constant terms K = RG and Comparing the coefficients of 2 and the constant terms K = RG and L2G2 + R2C2 = 2KLC L2G2 + R2C2 = 2RGLC (LG RC)2 = 0 LG = RC
R G = C L
Delay distortion: When various frequency components arrive at different times (delay is not constant) then delay distortion or phase distortion is said to occur. When the
phase velocity is , is a constant multiplied by independent of frequency or phase constant there is no delay distortion or phase distortion.
= 1 2 ( LC RG ) + ( R 2 + 2 L2 )( G 2 + 2 C 2 ) 2
Comparing the coefficients of 4 and 2 (2K2 LC)2 = L2C2 4 K4 + L2C2 4K2 LC = L2C2 2K2(K2  LC ) = 0 K = 0 or L2G2 + R2C2 = 2RG(2K2 LC) L2G2 + R2C2 = 2RG(2LC LC) L2G2 + R2C2 = 2RGLC
K= LC
(LG RC)2 = 0 LG = RC The condition to eliminate both the frequency and delay distortions is
R G = C L R G = L C
Q.42.
Derive the design equations of an asymmetrical lattice attenuator to have a characteristic impedance of R 0 and attenuation of N in nepers.
(8) Ans: The open circuit impedance of the lattice network looking from the input terminals ab is
a
Ro
R1
I1
c
R2 Ro
R2
R oc =
IS (I1IR)
VS
(ISI1) IR
The short circuit impedance of the lattice network looking from the input terminals ab is
R sc = R1 R 2 R1 R 2 2 R1 R 2 + = R1 + R 2 ( R1 + R 2 ) ( R1 + R 2 )
( R 1 + R 2 )( R 1 + R 2 ) ( R1 + R 2 ) = 2 R1 + R 2 + R1 + R 2
d
R1
(ISI1+IR)
Fig 9.b.1
Applying kirchoffs voltage law for the loop acdb of Fig 9.b.1
I 1 R1 + I R R o + ( I s I 1 + I R ) R1 = V s = I s R o I s R o = I R R o + I s R1 + I R R1 I s ( R o R1 ) = I R ( R o + R1 ) Is ( R o + R1 ) = N = IR ( R o R1 )
Attenuation
N =
( R o + R1 ) ( R o R1 )
N ( R o R1 ) = ( R o + R1 ) R1 ( N + 1) = R o ( N 1) N 1 R1 = R o N + 1
Since
Ro = R1 R 2
R2 = Ro R ( N + 1) = o R1 R o ( N 1)
2 2
N + 1 R2 = Ro N 1
Q.43.
(2+2)
+
V Ideal voltage source
+
I
Ideal current source
Q.44.
Define input impedance of a transmission line. Derive an expression for the input impedance
Ans: Input impedance of transmission line is defined as the impedance measured across the input terminals. If Vs is the sending end voltage and Is is the sending end current then Input impedance, Zin is given by
Z in =
Vs Is
Consider a transmission line of length l terminated in an impedance ZR. Let VR be the voltage cross ZR and IR be the current flowing through it. The voltage, V and current, I at a point distance x from the sending end of a transmission line are given by
VR IR
Z in = Z o
Z R + Z o tanh j l Z o + Z R tanh j l
But tanh j = j tan
Z in = Z o Since
Z R + jZ o tan l Z o + jZ R tan l 2
Z in = Z o 2 Z o + jZ R tan l
Z R + jZ o tan
Q.45. (6)
Where ZR is the terminating impedance, Zo is the characteristic impedance of the line, is the propagation constant of the line and l is the length of the line. At high frequencies the line is lossless, i.e. = 0 and = j
Z cosh( jl ) + Z o sinh( jl ) Z in = Z o R Z o cosh( jl ) + Z R sinh( jl )
, = 2
l =
Z in
2 = 4 2
Zo =
The impedance at the input of a quarter wave transformer depends on the load impedance and characteristic impedance of the transmission line. When Zo varies, the input impedance of the quarter wave transformer also changes accordingly. The load is matching to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. When ZR is high, the input impedance is low and viceversa, Zo being constant. If the load is inductive the input impedance
is capacitive and viceversa. The quarter wave transformer has a length /4 at only one frequency and then is highly frequency dependant.
Q.46.
Derive the expression of resonant frequency for a parallel RLC circuit in terms of Q, R, L and C.
Ans: Consider an antiresonant RLC circuit as shown in Fig. 9.a.i When the capacitor is perfect and there is no leakage and dielectric loss. i.e. RC = 0 and let RL = R as shown in Fig 9.a.ii
IL R L
L
(8)
IL
IC
RC
IC I
The admittance 1 R jL = 2 YL = R + jL R + 2 L2 YC = jC
Fig 9.a.i
Fig 9.a.ii
R jL + jC R 2 + 2 L2 L R + j C 2 Y= 2 2 2 2 2 R + L R + L At resonance, the susceptance is zero. L L 0 C = 2 0 2 2 0C 2 0 2 2 = 0 R + 0 L R + 0 L L 2 R 2 + 0 L2 = C 2 R 1 2 0 = 2 + LC L 2 R 1 1 R2 0 = + = 2 LC LC L L2 1 1 0 = f0 = LC 2 LC If R is negligible The quality factor, Q of the circuit is given by L 1 Q= o = R o CR RQ 1 or o = o = L QCR Y = YL + YC =
Q.47.
Write short notes on:(i) Smith chart and its applications. (ii) Poles and zeros of a network function.
Ans: (i) Smith chart and its applications. The Smith chart, developed by P.H.Smith in 193839 is plotted within a circle of unit radius of reflection coefficient that is it is a circular chart drawn with an outside radius that represents unit magnitude of reflection coefficient (K = 1). The magnitude of K is represented by the radius from the centre. The lines representing constant values of r and x (i.e., resistance and reactance) are superimposed on this chart. The lines of constants r and x form two orthogonal families of circles. The smith chart plots K in polar coordinates and has lines corresponding to ( Z R Z O ) i.e.,
(10)
normalized Z. the advantages of Smith Chart are that the lines are less crowded in the low impedance region and also that the usual values of K and Z are contained in the finite area. The values of Z are much easier to read when plotted. Smith Charts are used for: Smith chart as admittance diagram. Converting impedance into admittance. Determination of input impedance. Determination of load impedance. Determination of input impedance and admittance of shortcircuited line. Determination of input impedance and admittance of on opencircuited line. (ii) Poles and zeros of a network junction. Poles and zeros provide useful information about the network functions. (1) In impedance functions, a pole of the function implies a zero current for a finite (2) In admittance functions voltage i.e. on open circuit, while a zero of the function implies no voltage for a finite current i.e. a short circuit., a pole of the functions implies a zero voltage for a finite current, i.e. short circuit, while a zero of the function implies zero current for a finite value of voltage i.e. an open circuit. (3) The poles determine the variation of the response while zero determines the magnitude of the coefficients in the partial fraction expansion and hence determine the magnitude of the response. Any active network or any general system is said to be stable if the transfer function has its poles confined to the left half of the splane. A system will be stable if its polynomial roots have negative real
parts.
Q.48.
Define unit step, Sinusoidal, Co sinusoidal function. Derive the Laplace transforms for these function.
Ans: The unit step function is defined as u(t) = 0 t 0 1 t>0 The laplace transform is given by
(8)
f(t) 1.0
1 1 F ( s ) = Lu (t ) = e st dt = e st = t s 0 s 0 The Sinusoidal function is defined as (e jt + e jt ) 2j F(t) = sint = The laplace transform is given by
F(s) =
1 1 j t st ( s j ) t j t e ( s + j )t )dt (e e )e dt = 2 j (e 2j 0 0
1 1 1 = s j s + j = 2 2 2j 0 s + The Co sinusoidal function is defined as 1 d (sin t ) F(t) = cos t = dt The laplace transform is given by 1 F(s) = [sF ( s ) f (0)] 1 s = s 2 0 = 2 2 2 s + s +
Ans: The transmission properties of the line are improved by satisfying the L C = condition R G , where, L is the inductance of the line, R is the resistance, C is the capacitance and G is the capacitance of the line. The above condition is satisfied either by increasing L or decreasing C. C cannot be reduced since it depends on the construction. The process of increasing the value of L to L C = satisfy the condition R G so as to reduce attenuation and distortions of the line is known as loading of the line.
It is done in two ways. (i) Continuous loading. (ii) Lumped loading. Continuous loading: Continuous loading is done by introducing the distributed inductance throughout the length of the line. Here one type of iron or some other material as mumetal is wound around the conductor to be loaded thus increasing the permeability of the surrounding medium. Here the attenuation increases uniformly with increase in frequency. It is used in submarine cables. This type of loading is costly. Lumped loading: Lumped loading is done by introducing the lumped inductances in series with the line at suitable intervals. A lumped loaded line behaves as a low pas filter. The lumped loading is usually provided in open wire lines and telephone cables. The a.c resistance of the loading coil varies with frequency due to hysteresis and eddy current losses and hence a transmission line is never free from distortions.
Q.50.
State and prove the theorem connecting the attenuation constant, and characteristic impedance Z o of a filter.
Ans: Theorem connecting and Zo: If the filter is correctly terminated in its characteristic impedance Zo, then over the range of frequencies, for which the characteristic impedance Zo of a filter is purely resistive (real), the attenuation is zero and over the range of frequencies for which characteristic impedance Zo of a filter is purely reactive, the attenuation is greater than zero. Proof:  The characteristic impedance Zo is given by
(4)
= 20 log10
IS IR
2
Let Z1 = jX 1 , and Z 2 = jX 2
Z oT =
2
j 2 X1 + jX 1 X 2 4
Z0 = j A =
IS X A = 1+ 1 j IR 2X 2 X2
IS X = 1 + 1 2X IR 2
1+
X 12 X 1 X 2 + 4X 2 X 2 2 2
X1 X2 X2 X + 12 12 1 X 2 4X 2 4X 2 X 2
IS =1 IR
= 20 log10 1 = 0 , If Z o is real Case (b) Z 0 is imaginary (purely reactive)
Z0 = j X 12 + X 1 X 2 = jB 4 Z IS X = 1+ 1 j o X2 IR 2X 2
= 1+
X1 B + 2X 2 X 2
(i)
Low Pass Filters: In a low pass filter, the pass band extends from zero to cutoff frequency f1 in which region the attenuation is zero. The attenuation band extends from cutoff frequency f1 to infinity and in this range the attenuation is large as shown in Fig 9.c.1.
Pass Band
Attenuation Band
Attenuation Band
Pass Band
f1 Frequency
f1 Frequency
(ii)
High Pass Filters: In a high pass filter, the pass band extends from cutoff frequency f1 to infinity in which region the attenuation is zero. The attenuation band extends from zero to cutoff frequency f1 and in this range the attenuation is large as shown in Fig 9.c.2.
Pass Band
Pass Band
f1 Frequency
f2
f1 Frequency
f2
(iii) Band Pass Filters: In a band pass filter, the pass band extends from cutoff frequency f1 to cutoff frequency f2 in which region the attenuation is zero. The attenuation band extends from zero to cutoff frequency f1 and cutoff frequency f2 to infinity and in this range the attenuation is large as shown in Fig 9.c.3. (iv) Band Stop Filters: In a band stop filter, the pass band extends from zero to cutoff frequency f1 and cutoff frequency f2 to infinity in which region the attenuation is zero. The attenuation band extends from cutoff frequency f1 to cutoff frequency f2and in this range the attenuation is large as shown in Fig 9.c.4.
Q.52.
(8)
IS
R1
R1
c
IR
RO
IS IR
Es RO R2
S (R 1 + R2 + R O ) = R R2 (R 1 + R2 + R O ) R2 S Q N = R
 Eq.1
N =
(R 1 + R O ) R O = R 2 ( N 1) R 1 R2 When the terminal (ab) is open, the input impedance looking through the terminal a b is given by R (R + R O ) RO = R 1 + 2 1 R2 + R 1 + R O R ( R + R 1 + R O ) + R2 (R 1 + R O ) RO = 1 2 R2 + R 1 + R O R O ( R2 + R 1 + R O ) = R 1 ( R2 + R 1 + R O ) + R2 (R 1 + R O ) i.e N  1 =
R O + R2 R O + R 1 R O = R 1 R 2 + R 1 + R O R 1 + R 1 R2 + R O R2 R O = 2 R 1 R2 + R 1
Q.53. frequency.
2 2
Explain how the reactance and impedance of a high pass filter varies with
(8) Ans:
Z1 =
1 j C
And the shunt impedance be Z 2 = jL 1 L 2 Z 1 Z 2 = jL = = Ro jC C Hence , Ro being a real quantity. The characteristic impedance of a T section is given by
Z Z OT = 1 + Z 1 Z 2 2 The reactance frequency curve is shown below. For a HPF, 1 L + 2 2 C 4 C L 1 1 = C 4 2 LC 1 = Ro 1 4 2 LC The cut off frequency is given by Z OT =
4 c LC = 1 1 1 c 2 = c = 4 LC 2 LC 1 fc = 4 LC
2
Z OT = Ro 1
f 1 = Ro 1 c2 = Ro 1 c 2 2 4 LC f
2
Zo Ro ZOT
fc
f(Hz)
ZO profile of HPF
Q.54.
Differentiate between: (i) Unilateral and Bilateral elements. Give examples. (ii) Distributed and lumped elements.
(8)
Ans: (i) Bilateral elements: Network elements are said to be bilateral elements if the magnitude of the current remains the same even if the polarity of the applied voltage is changed. The bilateral elements offer the same impedances irrespective of the flow of current. e.g. Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors. Unilateral elements: Network elements are said to be unilateral elements if the magnitude of the current passing through and element is affected, when the polarity of the applied voltage is changed. The unilateral elements offer varying impedances with variations in the flow of current. e.g. Diodes, Transistors. (ii) Lumped elements: When the circuit elements are lumped as single parameters like single resistance, inductance, capacitance then they are known as lumped elements. Distributed elements: When the elements are distributed throughout the entire line, which are not physically separable then they are known as distributed elements Q.55. is:
Determine the input impedance of a transmission line when the far end (i) Short circuited. (ii) Open circuited.
(6)
Ans: In general the input impedance of a transmission line, when the far end is terminated by any impedance ZR, is given by Z + jZ o tan l Z in = Z o R Z o + jZ R tan l (i) When the far end is open circuited, ZR = and IR = 0 Zo 1 + j Z tan l 1 R = Zo Z in = Z o = jZ o cot l Z o + j tan l j tan l Z R (ii) When the far end is short circuited, ZR = 0 and IR = 0 + jZ o tan l Z in = Z o = jZ o tan l Zo + 0 Q.56.
State Nortons theorem. Derive the Thevenins equivalent from a given Norton equivalent circuit.
Ans: Nortons theorem states that the current in any load impedance ZL connected to the two terminals of a network is the same as if this load impedance ZL were connected to a current source (called Nortons
(8)
equivalent current source) whose source current is the short circuit current at the terminals and whose internal impedance (in shunt with the current source ) is the impedance of the network looking back into the terminals with all the sources replaced by impedances equal to their internal impedances.
a Network containing impedances and sources a
IL
ZL
IL Isc
Zi ZL
b Zi a
IL
ZL
b Thevenins equivalent
From the Norton equivalent circuit the load current is given by Zi I L ( N ) = I SC Zi + ZL  Eq.1 Where, I SC is the short circuit current (Nortons equivalent current source) Zi is the Nortons equivalent impedance and ZL is the load impedance of the total network. From the Thevenins equivalent circuit, the load current is given by V oc I L (Th ) = Zi + ZL  Eq.2 Where, VOC is the open circuit voltage (Thevenins equivalent voltage source) Zi is the Thevenins equivalent impedance and ZL is the load impedance of the total network. On short circuiting the terminals a and b of the Thevenins equivalent network
Voc Zi V oc = I sc Z i I SC =
From Eq.2 and Eq.3
 Eq.3
I sc Z i Zi + ZL  Eq.4 Comparing Eq.1 and Eq.4 I Zi I L (Th ) = sc = IL (N ) Zi + ZL  Eq.5 From the above conditions it is evident that the Nortons equivalent can be replaced by a Thevenins equivalent circuit governing the relations of Eq.3 and Eq.4. I L (Th ) =
Q.57. With the help of frequency curves, explain the effect of coefficient of coupling on the primary and the secondary currents. Ans: When the coefficient of coupling is small, the effect of coupled impedances is negligible. The current versus frequency curve of the primary is similar to the resonance curve of the primary circuit alone and the current versus frequency curve of the secondary is similar to the resonance curve of the secondary circuit alone. (6)
Fig 7.b.1 Primary current versus frequency curves for different values of coefficient of coupling As the coefficient of coupling k increases, the primary current versus frequency curve broadens and the maximum value of the primary current reduces. With increase in k, the secondary current versus frequency curve broadens but the peak value of the increases and a stage reaches when the secondary current is maximum. For this value of k, the secondary current curve is broader with relatively flat top than the resonance curve of the secondary circuit alone. For the same value of k, the primary current has two peaks. At k = kc (critical coefficient of coupling), the resistance component of impedance reflected from the secondary into primary is equal to the resistance of the primary.
k = 0.02(k>kc)
k = 0.01(k=kc)
SECONDARY CURRENT
k = 0.005(k<kc)
fc
FREQUENCY
Fig 7.b.2  Secondary current versus frequency curves for different values of coefficient of coupling When k > kc (i) Both the primary and secondary currents have lower and lower values than at resonance. (ii) Both the primary and secondary current curves will have more and more prominent double humps. (iii)The peak spread increases. Q.58.
Define the terms voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and reflection coefficient. State and derive the relations between VSWR and reflection coefficient. (2+2+4)
Ans: At the points of voltage maxima, Vmax = VI + VR where VI is the r.m.s value of the incident voltage. where VR is the r.m.s value of the reflected voltage. Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are in phase and add up. At the points of voltage minima, Vmin = VI  VR Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are out of phase and will have opposite sign. VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is defined as the ratio of maximum and minimum magnitudes of voltage on a line having standing waves. Vmax VSWR = Vmin The voltage reflection coefficient, k is defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to incident voltage.
k=
VR VI
VSWR( s ) =
Vmax Vmin
VI + VR VI VR
1+ = 1
VR VI VR VI
1 k s 1 k = s +1
Q.59.
s=
1+ k
What is an attenuator? Give two uses of an attenuator. With the help of a suitable example give the relation for the attenuation constant (N) in Nepers, for a symmetric Tnetwork.
Ans: An attenuator is a four terminal resistive network connected between the source and load to provide a desired attenuation of the signal. An attenuator can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical in form. It also can be either a fixed type or a variable type. A fixed attenuator is known as pad. Applications of Attenuators: Resistive attenuators are used as volume controls in broadcasting (i) stations. Variable attenuators are used in laboratories, when it is necessary (ii) to obtain small value of voltage or current for testing purposes. (iii) Resistive attenuators can also be used for matching between circuits of different resistive impedances.
RA 1 RO V 2 Fig 9.a RA 3
(2+2+4)
I1
RB
I2
RO
The characteristic impedance is resistive, Ro since resistive elements are only used in the attenuator. Consider a symmetric T attenuator a shown in Fig 9.a. The attenuator is driven at the input port by a voltage source V of internal impedance Ro and it feeds a resistor Ro at the output port. The T network consists of a divided series arm RA and one central shunt arm RB. The output current I2 is given by
Q.60.
(4)
Ans:
1 )( R + Ls ) R + Ls Cs Z i ( s) = = 1 1 + RCs + LCs 2 + ( R + Ls ) Cs R L( + s ) L Z i ( s) = R 1 LC ( s 2 + s + ) L LC R ( + s) L = 1 R ) C (s 2 + s + L LC Input impedance Z i(s) (
Q.61.
(6)
f 2 (t) * f1 (t) = ( ) . f 2 (t  )d
0
and
Now
.f (t  )f
1 0
( )d
may be written as
2
.f (t  ) u (t ) f
1 0
( )d
Where u(t  ) is a shifted step function because u(t  ) = 1 t = 0 >t and the integrand is zero for values of > t
L[ f 1 (t ) * f 2 (t )] = .f 1 (t  ) u (t ) f 2 ( )d e st dt 0 0 (t  ) = x at t = 0, x =  dt = dx at t = , x = 
L[ f 1 (t ) * f 2 (t )] = .f 1 (x ) u ( x) f 2 ( )d e s ( x ) dx 0
= f1 (x ) u ( x)e sx f 2 ( ) e s d dx
= f1 (x ) u ( x)e sx dx f 2 ( ) e s d
0 0
(4)
Ans: Ideally a broadcast receiver should have uniform response to amplitudemodulated signals occupying a total bandwidth of 10KHz centered on the carrier frequency. Double tuned circuits with critical coupling are used as load impedances in the IF (intermediate frequency) amplifier stage of a super heterodyne receiver. The critically double tuned circuits have almost a flat topped response with small double humps. They also give high fidelity, i.e. equal reproduction of all audio modulating frequencies. The response drops rapidly with frequency at the edges of
the 10KHz pass band i.e. it has high selectivity. The response curve is shown in Fig 7.c. the pass band extends from P1 to P2 having response equal to the center frequency.
RESPONSE SINGLE
Fig 7.c FREQUENCyY Response curve of an amplifier with single tuned and double tuned
The bandwidth between P1 and P2 is equal to 2f where f is the bandwidth between the current peaks. The slope of the response curves depends on the quality factor (Q) of the circuit. Higher Q, the curves are steeper. Therefore high Q circuits are used for better selectivity. Double tuned circuits are used for good selectivity.
Q.63. Derive an expression for a condition of minimum attenuation in a transmission line. (8) Ans: In a continuous long line, the signal received may be too low to serve any useful purpose. Hence communication lines should have minimum attenuation. The attenuation constant is given by
=
Eq.1
1 2
[{ (R
+ 2 L2 )(G 2 + 2 C 2 ) + ( RG 2 LC )

Consider R, G and C to be constant and L to be variable, the optimum value of L to provide minimum attenuation is given by differentiating the d =0 . attenuation constant with respect to L and equating dL Squaring and differentiating Eq.1 with respect to L d 1 2 2 L(G 2 + 2 C 2 ) = 2C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 dL 2 ( R + L )(G + C )  Eq.2 d =0 Equating dL d = dL
2 L(G 2 + 2 C 2 )
( R + L )(G + C )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2C = 0
2 L(G 2 + 2 C 2 )
or, ( R + L )(G + C )
2 2 2 2 2 2
= 2C
L R = C G
Q.64. section.
Z3 2
Fig 4.c.1
2
Fig 4.c.2
The impedance between the terminal 1 and terminal 3 is (Z + Z C )Z A Z1 + Z 2 = B Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.1 The impedance between the terminal 3 and terminal 4 is (Z A + Z B )Z C Z2 + Z3 = Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.2 The impedance between the terminal 1 and terminal 2 is (Z A + Z C )Z B Z1 + Z 3 = Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.3 Adding eq.1, eq.2 and subtracting eq.3 Z AZC Z2 = Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.4
Adding eq.2, eq.3 and subtracting eq.1 Z B ZC Z3 = Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.5 Adding eq.3, eq.1 and subtracting eq.2 ZBZA Z1 = Z B + ZC + Z A  Eq.6 Consider Z1Z2 + Z2Z3 + Z3Z1 = Z1Z2 From eq.4, eq.5, eq.6 we get
Z B Z AZC + Z B Z A ZC + Z B Z AZC (Z B + Z C + Z A ) 2 Z Z Z (Z + Z + Z ) Z1 Z 2 = B (A C+ ZB + ZC ) 2 A ZB C A Z Z Z Z ZBZ Z1 Z 2 = Z +A Z B +CZ = A Z C A B C A From eq .6 Z Z Z1 = B A ZA
Z1 Z 2 =
Z Z
1
ZC =
Z Z
1
ZBZA Z C = Z1 Z C ZA
2
From eq .5 Z3 =
1
Z1
Z B ZC ZC
2
Z Z
From eq.4 Z2 =
1
ZA =
Z Z
1
Z B ZC Z A = Z3 Z A ZC
2
Z3
Z AZC ZB
2
Z Z
ZB =
Z Z
1
Z AZC ZB = Z2 ZB ZB
2
Z2
Q.65.
(8)
Ans: VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is defined as the ratio of maximum and minimum magnitudes of voltage on a line having standing waves. At the points of voltage maxima, Vmax = VI + VR where VI is the r.m.s value of the incident voltage. where VR is the r.m.s value of the reflected voltage. Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are in phase and addup. At the points of voltage minima, Vmin =  VI   VR Here the incident voltages and reflected voltages are out of phase and will have opposite sign. Vmax VSWR = Vmin The voltage reflection coefficient, k is defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to incident voltage. VR K= VI
VSWR( S ) = Vmax Vmin = VI + VR VI VR 1+ = 1 VR VI VR VI
S=
1+ K
1 K S 1 K= S +1
(8)
Q.66.
load. Such sections are called impedance matching stubs. The stubs can be of any length but usually it is kept within quarter wavelength so that the stub is practically lossless at high frequencies. A short circuited /4 offers inductive reactance at the input while an stub of length less than /4 offers capacitive reactance at the open circuited stub of length less than input. The advantages of stub matching are: Length of the line remains unaltered. Characteristic impedance of the line remains constant. At higher frequencies, the stub can be made adjustable to suit variety of loads and to operate over a wide range of frequencies. Q.67.
Explain Z parameters and also draw an equivalent circuit of the Z parameter model of the two port network.
Ans: In a Z parameter model, the voltage of the input port and the voltage of the output port are expressed in terms the current of the input port and the current of the output port. The equations are given by V1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 V2 = Z21I1 + Z22 I 2 When the output terminal is open circuited, I2 = 0, we can determineZ11 and Z21, where Z11 is the input impedance expressed in ohms and Z21 is the forward transfer impedance. V1 = Z 11 I 1
(8)
V2 = Z 21 I 1 Z 11 =
when I 2 = 0
V1 V Z 21 = 2 I 1 ohms and I 1 ohms When the input terminal is open circuited, I1 = 0, we can determine Z12 and Z22, Where Z12 is the reverse transfer impedance and Z22 is the output impedance expressed in ohms. V1 = Z 12 I 2 V2 = Z 22 I 2 Z1 2 =
when I1 = 0
I1
+
I2
Z11
+ +
Z22
V1
Z12I2

V2 Z21I1

Fig 3.b
Q. 68.
The equivalent circuit of the Z parameter representation is shown in Fig 3.b Where Z12I2 is the controlled voltage source and Z21I1 is the controlled voltage source. What is an attenuator? Define the terms Decibel and Neper. Derive the relation between the two.
Ans: An attenuator is a four terminal resistive network connected between the source and load to provide a desired attenuation of the signal. An attenuator can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical in form. It also can be either a fixed type or a variable type. A fixed attenuator is known as pad. The attenuation in decibel (dB) is given by 1 dB = 20 x log10(N) I V N= S = S I R VR where The attenuation in Neper (Nep) is given by 1 Nep = loge(N) The relation between decibel and neper is 1 dB = 20 x log10(N) = 20 x loge(N) x log10(e) = 20 x loge(N) x 0.434 = 8.686 loge(N) Attenuation in decibel = 8.686 x attenuation in Neper. Attenuation in Neper = 0.1151 x attenuation in decibel.
(2+3+3)
Q. 69.
Write short notes on any TWO of the following: Lowpass filter and its approximation/design. (i) T and  attenuators. (ii) Single stub matching in transmission line. (iii) Hparameters, its relations with zparameters and y(iv) (2x7=14) parameters.
Ans: i) Consider a constant K filter, in which the series and shunt impedances, Z1 and Z2 are connected by the relation Z1 Z2 = R02 Where R0 is a real constant independent of frequency. R0 is often termed as design impedance or nominal impedance of the constant K filter.
L/2 (Z1/2) L/2 (Z2) (Z1/2) C (Z1/2) L/2 (Z1/2) L/2 C/2 2Z2 L (Z 2Z2 C/2
(Z1 = jL, Z2 = 1/jC) (Z1 = jL, Z2 = 1/jC) and Z2 = 1/jC Let Z1 = jL Tsection filter
Z 1 Z 2 = j L R0 = 1 L 2 = = R0 j C C
section
section
L (eq 3a.1) C
At cutofffrequency fc
c 2 LC
4 fc = =1
1 ( eq 3 a . 2 ) LC
Given the values of R0 and c, using the eq 3a.1 and 3a.2 the values of network elements L and C are given by the equations R 1 L = o C = fc Ro fc
(ii) T and attenuators:
RA 1 RO V 2 RA V1 3 1 RO RO 4 V 2 RA RA RO 4 RB V2 3
I1
RB
I2
Fig 11.ii.1
Fig 11.ii.2
(T attenuator)
(  attenuator)
Attenuators are of two types. They are symmetrical and asymmetrical attenuators. Symmetrical attenuators are placed between two equal impedances of value equal to the characteristic impedance of the attenuator. The characteristic impedance is resistive, Ro since resistive elements are only used in the attenuator. Depending on the placement of the elements, T and configurations are shown in Fig 11.ii.1 and Fig 11.ii.2. The attenuator is driven at the input port by a voltage source V of internal impedance Ro and it feeds a resistor Ro at the output port. The T network consists of a divided series arm and one central shunt arm. The output current I2 is given by RB I 2 = I1 R A + R B + RO R + R B + RO R I R =1+ A + O N = 1 = A I2 RB RB RB
Where N is the attenuation in Nepers. The network consists of a series arm and two shunt arms. The output voltage V2 is given by
R A  R O = V1 + ( R A  R O ) R A RO R A + RO R A RO + ( ) R A + RO
V 2 = V1
RB
RB
N =
V1 = V2
RB + (
R A RO ) R A + RO R (R A + RO ) RB =1+ =1+ B R A RO R A RO R A RO R A + RO R A + RO
N =1+
RB R + B RA RO
Asymmetrical attenuators are placed between two unequal impedances of value equal to the image impedances of the network. The image impedances are resistive, Ri1 and Ri2 since resistive elements are only used in the attenuator. Depending on the placement of the elements, asymmetrical are shown in Fig 11.ii.3 and Fig 11.ii.4T and
(iii)
(iii) Stub matching: When there are no reflected waves, the energy is transmitted efficiently along the transmission line. This occurs only when the terminating impedance is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line, which does not exist practically. Therefore impedance matching is required. If the load impedance is complex, one of the ways of matching is to tune out the reactance and then match it to a quarter wave transformer. The input impedance of open or short circuited lossless line is purely reactive. Such a section is connected across the line at a convenient point and cancels the reactive part of the impedance at this point looking towards the load. Such sections are called impedance matching stubs. The stubs can be of any length but usually it is kept within quarter wavelength so that the stub is practically lossless at high frequencies. A short circuited stub of length less than /4 offers inductive reactance at the input while an open circuited stub of length less than /4 offers capacitive reactance at the input. The advantages of stub matching are: Length of the line remains unaltered. Characteristic impedance of the line remains constant. At higher frequencies, the stub can be made adjustable to suit variety of loads and to operate over a wide range of frequencies. In a hybrid parameter model, the voltage of the input port and the current of the output port are expressed in terms the current of the input port and the voltage of the output port. The equations are given by
V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 I2 = h21I1 + h22V2 When the output terminal is short circuited, V2 = 0 V1 = h11I1 I2 = h21I1
V V h12 = 1 h11 = 1 V2 I1 I = 0 1 V =0
2
Where h11 is the input impedance expressed in ohms and h21 is the forward current gain. When the input terminal is open circuited, I1 = 0 V1 = h12V2 I2 = h22V2
V2= 0 I1 = 0
Where h12 is the reverse voltage gain and h22 is the output admittance expressed in mhos. The Z parameter equations are given by V1 = Z11I1 + Z 12 I 2 V2 = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 The Y parameter equations are given by I1 = Y11V 1 + Y12V2 I2 = Y21V 1 + Y22V2 The h parameters in terms of Z parameters are given by 1 Z Z h11 = 1221 22 21 = 12 Z 22 Z 22 Z22 22 Where Z = Z11Z22 Z12Z21 The h parameters in terms of Y parameters are given by
h12 = 22 11 = 21