All Things American

AP U.S. History Study Guide
Tomás Lautaro Monzón / May 2011

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 1 / New World Encounters
OUTLINE / awaiting 2nd review

Pre-Columbian America
• • • • • • The first migrants reached Northern America some fifteen to twenty thousands years ago thanks to shallower oceans/Beringia First migrants were following their sources of food (giant mammals, megafauna) The physical isolation of different bands of migrants (collectively called PaleoIndians), as well as the fact that they did not domesticate animals, likely contributed to their loss of immunities against European diseases The Paleo-Indians quckly populated nearly the whole of America (a few thousand years as they followed game, leading to the mass extinction of megafauna and horses (later re-introduced by Europeans) In North America, the agricultural revolution came to the Southwest before the Atlantic coast Agriculture gave way to permanent settlements, social hierarchies, and the expansion of Native American population, especially around urban sectors (e.g. in the Southwest and Miss. Valley); would also reduce belligerence associatied w/gathering food however, N. Am. natives do not build large civs. like their Latin Am. counterparts; Native American societies achieved great social/cultural fears (e.g. Chaco Canyon, the massive pueblo of the Anasazi, serving religious/political funcs.; the Anasazi’s transportation system, replete with highways, some almost a hundred miles long; large ceremonial mounds by the Adena and Hopewell people of Southern Ohio;; Cahokia, a ceremonial site marking the achievement of a loose collection of cultures gathered along the Miss. River) Trade was long-distance (e.g. Florida to Ohio) These civs. disappeared right before the arrival of the Europeans (currently blamed on either climatic changes and/or internal warfare)

• •

Aztec Dominance (Pre-Columbian America)
• • Little before Columbus’ first voyage, the Aztecs swept through the Valley of Mexico Their conquest was aided by them seeing the foreign Spanish as gods destined to arrive

Eastern Woodland Cultures (Northeast Region along Atlantic Coast)

2

Less than a million at conquest time

All Things American / Monzón
• • • • • • Supplemented farming w/occasional hunting and gathering Linguistic ties among different Indian groups had little effect on unity amongst the groups and would in time facilitate their conquest Only ones to establish stratified gov’t. Most Native Americans defined their place in society by kinship English-conquered settlements were matrilineal while Great Lakes comms. were patrilineal Eastern Woodland communities organized diplomacy, trade and war around reciprocal relationship, impressing the Europeans

A World Transformed
• • • • • Native Americans initially saw Europeans as a source of trade for superior goods (e.g. guns v. bows/arrows) but otherwise were not usually attracted to their culture Christianity was generally rejected by women aiming to preserve control over the distribution of food within the village Native Americans did not favor hostility between them and the Europeans because it would hard their trade for guns, knives, etc., which they’d grown dependent on Europeans didn’t always want native goods because they carried disease Diseases ultimately destroyed the cultural integrity of N. Am. tribes; those who survived were led to question traditional beliefs due to the enormous death toll (90-95% pop. loss w/in 1st century of European contact)

African Slavery
• Before the New World conquest, the Portuguese (1st to reach Africa) were purchasing almost a 1,000 slaves a year off the West African coast; by 1650, most West African slaves were headed for the New World (approx. 10.7 mil. slaves in total) African leaders traded their own people for European manufactures

European Conquest
• • • • Viking expeditions to Newfoundland marked first Eur. foray into America, but they were not documented until about a 1,000 years later (founded Greenland) Conquistadores, men eager for personal glory and material gain, were byproducts of Spain’s Reconquista (won 1492) against the Muslim presence in the South of Spain; they were ready to “serve the crown” Columbus set off to “Asia” not anticipating America; only two years after his first voyage, Spain and Portugal made the Treaty of Tordesillas, which indicated that all land west of the Azores were to belong to Spain (not incl. Brazil) Columbus’ “discovery” culminated in a flood of conquistadores hungry for gold, who led the extermination of Caribbean Indians in less than two decades – as they populated Hispaniola, Jamaica, etc.

3

All Things American / Monzón
• • • Hernan Cortes heard rumors of wealth in Mexico, and through superior technology (e.g. horses) he and a small army overthrew the Aztecs and made Mexico the midwest European stake for the time being The Spanish crown fully supported exploitation The encomienda system was established in an attempt by the Spanish crown to bring order to the greed of the conquistadores (the king would reward conquistadores who’d conquered land, and people in the conquered settlements would work for the encomenderos in exchange for legal protection and religious guidance (mostly forced Catholicism) Gold exports to Spain (200 tons 1500-1650) as well as silver exports caused an inflation for the ordinary Spaniard French interest in New World conquest began in 1608 (Champlain founds Quebec) as they look for a shorter route to Asia and a supposed Northwest Passage French saw the Indians as necessary economic partners (fur trade) French dream of a vast American empire was difficult as the French crown remained indifferent to Canadian affairs and gave sporadic support English interest in the New World resurfaced in the 1570s John Cabot had explored the Hudson Bay region in 1507, but ensuing matters at home (e.g. the Protestant reformation, the English conquest of Ireland in the 1560s) caused interest to wane Conquest/occupation became ill-fated as the Outer Banks colony of Roanoke was hard to reach and once the colonists got there, the second group of them (led by artist John White, under Sir Walter Raleigh’s command) were left stranded as the Spanish Armada had severed America/England communications; all ships were put to military use and none re-supplied the Roanoke colonists

• • • • • • •

4

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 2 / England’s Seventeenth Century Colonies
OUTLINE / incomplete

Breaking Away
• • • • • • • English pop. growth 1580-1650, 3.5 – 5 million Strains agrarian economy and results in the overcrowding of London as well as the creation of a wandering poor that threatened the elite’s rule and order over England 1620s was marked by political turmoil in England by Stuart monarchs that succeeded Queen Elizabeth Parliament began taxing the colonies in the New World In 1629, Charles attempts autocracy but it backfries, prompting constitutional reform from Parliament (English Bill of Rights is passed 1688) Charles takes up arms against Pariliament and instigates the English Civil War (1649) Later Stuart monarchs failed to restore stability (Cromwell (a Puritan) rules for almost a decade but is not liked); England rises up during the Glorious Revolution (1688) and prompts later monarchs to respect the rule of Parliament; transfer of power The Chesapeake, the new England colonies, the Middle Colonies and the Southern colonies formed distinct regional identities that have survived to the present day

The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth
• • • • • Following Smith’s reorganization of Virginia, the Virginia Company realized they’d gotten no output from the whole ordeal Thus, in 1609, a new charter was issued by the King in which commercial and political responsibility of Virginia rested in the company The Virginia Company, aiming to raise scarce capital, opened the joint-stock company to the general public, allowing common Englishmen to buy stakes in Virginia However, the attempt did nothing to re-energize Virginia, when John Smith, suffers a gunpowder incident and returns to England, Virginia remains without capable leadership and undergoes the “starving time” (1609-1610) Surrounding Native Americans heightened the danger of living in Virginia. Despite initial friendliness, cultural.ideological difference kept the Virginians and resident Powhatans from coexistence, leading to Powhatan attack in 1622 and 1644, the latter of which marked the demise of the Ppwhatan empire 1619-1622, record migration to Virginia; most were teens/early twenties who immigrated as indentured servants, whom could work a master’s land for several years and then be rewarded with land and other needs themselves, though
5

All Things American / Monzón
they were often cheated out of this reward, leading to a growing social class of landless Virginians Virginia’s sex ratio was overly male There wasn’t the idea of raising a family at the end of your indenture; this, and omnipresent death (due to diseases and a Powhatan attack) must’ve led to feeling of impermancnece to Virginians who survived All this disaster came from the greediness of the Virginia Company’s officials, prompting King Charles to transform the company into a Royal Colony. However, Sandy’s House of Burgesses, composed of wealthy, strong-willed men, refused to be relieved of control over Virginia King Charles, 3,000 miles away, acquiesced and generally let Virginians have their way The assembly later divided the colony into eight counties, each with a “county court” that would serve as the center for social, political and commercial activities in Virginian counties for years after the American Revolution

• • •

• •

Reforming England in America
• • • • • • • The Piglrims were originally a group of people who lived in Scrooby Manor (a small community north of London) and believed the Church of England retained too many traces of Cathoilicism, prompting their migration to Holland Holland provided them with isolation from a Catholic faith, buit also caused them to begin to assimiliate to the Dutch culture, prompting their journey to America The churches of Purtian Massachussets were voluntary institutions that accepted men, women and blacks Death by execution for capital crimes was characteristic of Puritan Mass. The colony’s gov’t. was a civil gov’t. In 1631, the category of “freeman” was extended to all adult male members of the Congregational church, leading to almost 40% of the colony’s audlt males voting in elections for individual town reps. The Mass. Bay gov’t. was neithger democractic nor theocratic; the Congressional magisrates were elected not beause they represented the wishes of the people, but instead because they had a responsibility to serve God; they also could not hold Civil Office In New England, the town was the center of public life. Men and women often convened towards a common purpose; meetinghouses where religious services and town meetings would be held existed. This gave a sense of shared purpose. However, indivs. still had a keen eye for profit, they would sell “shares” in village lands Bay Colonists managed to live in peace with each other, relying on civil courts to mediate differences

• • •

6

All Things American / Monzón
• In 1648 the Colonial Legislature made Lawes and Liberties, the first alphabetized code of law printed in English; the documents explained the responsibilities of the commoner, and also discouraged magistrates from randomly exercsiign authority Mass. Bay colony spawned four new colonies New Hampshire in 1677. Hartford, Windsor, Witherfield in the Conn. River Valley in 1639. Thomas Hooker, a renowned minister, helped define Congregational chuch policy, through his well-crafted writings. In 1639, Conn. towns passed the Fundamental Orders (blueprint for civil gov’t.) and in 1662, Conn. was given a charter

• • •

7

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 3 / Putting Down Roots: Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society
OUTLINE

Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the 17th Century
• • • • • • Early New Englanders believed the family was ordained by God and was essential to the maintenance of family order Families were patriarchal The migration of nuclear families to New England colonies meant these would preserve English customs better than individuals; the incoming nuclear family also had to be self-sufficient (e.g. food, nursing) The sex ratio (about three males for every two males) meant single migrants could also start a family too The Great Migration (1630s, 1640s) brought 20,000 people to New England but even after it concluded, population growth continued, reaching 120,00 by the end of the seventeenth century The reason for this pop. growth was not fertility but survival; factors like cool climates, pure drinking water, and a dispersed population all contributed to less disease, better health and a male life expectancy of about 80 yrs. (a bit less for women) This longevity meant that New England males would get to witness the birth of their grandchildren, which led to social stability through the fact that the traditions of particular families and communities literally remained alive in the memory of the colony’s oldest citizens Young men and women in New England were usually the ones to initiate courtships; parents would only intervene if the partner was of “unsound moral character”) Puritan beliefas made single life morally suspect Farming land was essential to the survival of families Men usually brought land to the marriage; women were expected to bring a dowry worth on half what the groom offered (usually money/household goods; often in the form of a hope chest with goods accumulated over time) Surplus crops were sold or bartered for other needs like metal tools Early American farmers were not economically self-sufficient

• • • •

• •

8

All Things American / Monzón
• • • • Most marriages were between women/men no more than 13 miles apart (this was reinforced by religion, a common purpose and family values) Over time, families intermarried, making the town community an elaborate kinship network; original founders in New England thus dominated local politics and economy for generations In 1662, a gathering of Conregational ministers established the Half-Way Covenant, which allowed the grandchildren of people in full communion to be baptized even if their parents could not demonstrate conversion themselves By the end of the 17th century, the Congregational churches were addressing the spiritual needs of particular families instead of reaching out to the larger Christian community By 1642, it was mandatory for colonists to educate their families; by 1647, at least eleven schools existed (thanks to local taxes), some of which were very advanced and taught basic Latin) The literacy rate for both men and women comprised a majority The New England Primer, published in 1690, taught children the alphabet as well as the Lord’s Prayer Harvard College opened its doors in 1636, teaching young men logic, rhetoric, divinity and languages (e.g. Hebrew); many graduates became Congregational divines) Yale College opened 1702 The role of women in New England is a controversial topic Women worked on family farms, but generally handled tasks like washing, clothes making, gardening, dairying and cooking (the last of whichw as essential to the survival of the household) Some wives achieved economic independence by selling surplus poultry During this period, women described themselves as “deputy husbands”, concisely citing their dependence on family patriarchs as well as their roles as decision makers Women outweighed the amount of men at the New England congregation (2:1 ratio) Women had no propersty rights; their hsubands were free to dispose of her things if he desired and divorce was difficult to attain Most women, however, easily accomodted ot the roles they thought God had ordanined The absence of noblemen or paupers in New England, whom because of their high class would’ve been considered natural rules, led colonists to choose leaders from people amongst their own ranks These elected leaders became provincial gentry
9

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

All Things American / Monzón
• • Puritan voters, thus, wanted leaders who would join Congregational churches and defend orthodozx religion (wealth helped but was not a deciding factor) Social mobility in New England was very plausible, as described in the story of a servant threatening to makes his master his servant when his master tells him he can’t cover the cost of keeping him (gov. John Winthrop’s diaries, 1640s) Possession of land gave agrarian families a sense of independence from external authority, and yeomen (independent farmers), whom composed the majority of northern colonists, rarely placed personal ambition over traditional community bonds for the aforementioned independence was balanced by a strong feeling of local identity Old World servants were seldom recruited, for the type of work – mixed cereal/dairy farming – did not befit large amounts of workers Sumptuary Laws dictated dress code for Mass. Bay/Conn. residents Many New World families sent their teenage children to work in nearby homes for four or five years, though this was not so much servitude as it was an apprenticeship

• • •

The Challenge of the Chesapeake Government
• • • • • • • Most migrants to the Chesapeake region were poor to middle class farmers that, in addition to being cut off from the security of family, also came in already owin four/five yaers of work (seven fort hose under 15) Most were 18 to 22 years old The sex ratio was 2.5 males to 1 female in the 1600s High mortality rates, usually caused by disease or contaminated salt water, led to a profound effect on Chesapeake society Life expectancy for males was abt. 43; less than 29 children, 25% of whom died in infancy Young women could not marry/reproduce until they completed their serviute; the unbalanced sex raito kept men from seeking wives Children often did not even see their parents, as widows/widowers (husband/wife death was usually quikc) often remarried, carrtyhing their children to new unions; children were thus often raised by people whom had no blood relation The heavy demand for women meant that even the poorest or least moral of women could aspire for higher social status Nonetheless, as servants in such a limate, women were usu. subjects of rape

• •
10

All Things American / Monzón
• • • • • • • • • Childrbearing was dangerous; life expectancy was short Tobacco was the Chesapeake staple Easy to grow because it didn’t need much land More workers in the field meant greater harvest, and this led to a Chesapeake social structure reflecting a scramble to bring men/women of black (slaves), white (indentured servants) and Indian races A gentry of younger sons of English merchants and artisans composed the Chesapeake’s societal top These men came in with capital used to immediately acquire laborers/land The gentry sat as justices of the peace on country courts, and directed Anglican church affairs and got military titles Below the gentry were freemen who, after completing their indenture, remained poor; largest group Below the freemen were indentured servants, who, cut off from family ties, sick to the point of death and unable to attain sexual release, considered their indentury slavery despite its temp. nature Newcomers with capital could easily infiltrate the gentry In the 1680s, a dramatic life expectancy boost enabled American-born persons to be important leaders, rather than immigrants from England The new leaders’ interest in gov’t. created a political/culutrual stability The College of William and Mary was founded in 1693; a new capital called Williamsburg was founded The rich became richer as their large amount of laborers grew more tobacco, the tobacco brought in more capital, and the capital brought in more laborers New gov’t. lessend social mobility for freemen, making the gentry morepowerful Infant death caused gov’t. to not support building elementary schools This new govt. was called the Creole gov’t.

• • • • • • • •

Race and Freedom in British America
• • • • English colonials did not hesitate to enslave black people or Native Americans out of econ. considerations Naitive American begin exterminate and white servants not being in large supply justified the purchasing of black slaves English writers associated African blacks with heathen religion, barbarous behavior and sexual promiscuity; thus their enslavement ensured African first landed in Virginia in 1619
11

All Things American / Monzón
• Englihsh settlers considered some blacks to be slaves for life, while some Africans worked only a sservants and couldpurchase their freedom (some in the 1600s became successful planters); the small aount of blacks versues colonists in 1669 kept the Virginian gov’t. from establishigns slave laws White indentured servants were not preferred to black slaves; the problem was supply As the black slave population grew larger and lawmakers drew up stricter codes, racism began to rear its ugly head into society By 1700, slavery was based on the color of aperson’s skin; even Christiantity could not free the African slave Slaves were property; black women constantly feared rape and children born to slave women became slaves regardless of the father’s race (e.g. mulattos/pure Africans) The amount of blacks in a colony’s population determined whether they could preserve a cultural identity (in South Carolina, 60% of the pop. was black, meaning slaves on rice plantations established kinship networks and created unique language, like Gullah, that meshed English w/ African vocab. In other places like Virginia where the pop. was 40% black, black-whtie contact was more frequent Newcome blacks were more likely than Creole slaves to attempt to escape or rebel Regardless of the circumstances, blacks created an imaginative reshapring of African/European customs into what we consider African American, modifying Christianity, music and folk art By the early 18th century, black pop. increase was more a product of live births rather than new slaves Regardless, uprising occurred such as the Stono uprising (Sept. 1739, where 150 S. Carolina blacks killed several white planters) Some black slaves became mariners, escaping the durgdgery of plantation and bringin news about distant rebellions, as well as spreading radical political ideologies to Caribbean slaves

• • • •

• • •

• • •

Rise of a Commercial Empire

12

After the Restoration in 1660, the newly restored Stuart monarchs began to establish rules for the colonies

All Things American / Monzón
• Diff. groups had different interests: the king wanted money, English merchants wanted to exclude the Dutch from lucrative American markets and needed gov’t. assistance to compete with them, Parliament gentry wanted a stronger navy through an expansion of the domestic shipbuilding industry Europe agreed that England should increase exports/decrease imports and grow richer at the expense of other Eur. states (mercantilism) In 1660, Parliament passed a Navigation Act, stating o no ship could trade in the colonies unless it had been manufactured in England/America and carried a crew that was at least three-fourths English (colonists counted as Englishmen) o certain enumerated goods not produced in England (tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyewoods, rice, molasses, rosisn, tars and turpentines) could be transported from the colnoies only to an English or colonial court The Navigaiton Act (1660) encouraged English shipbuilding and kept European rivals from getting the enumerated goods anywehere Except England Colkonists didn’t count as Englishmen when it came to paying taxes A second Naviagation Act (1663) made it so that all American imports had to first be transsshiped through England, heightening the price of goods in the Colonies Navigation Acts repealed the Dutch but failed to halt the growth of Salem and Newport as formidable competing ports Colonist reposnse to the acts was varied The collection of Enlgish customs on tobacco redueced planters’ profits; lack of competiton from the Dutch drove down sale prices Virginians protested the acts: New Englanders ignored them at first, letting Dutch ships into their ports In 1673. a third Navigation Act established a plantation duty, which was essentially customs that were charged at colonial ports, keeping merchants from finding ways to escape paying customs English customs officers were bein dispatched to America by 1675, as the coverage area of their respective institutions had been extended to the colonies The ineffieicny of the institutions prompted 1696 legislation that urged colonial governors to keep rival ships out of American ports and also set up vice13

• •

• • •

• • • • •

• •

All Things American / Monzón
admiralty courts, which earned the rank of the colnosis but were often successful in resolving maritime conflict • • By 1700, Am. goods transshipped through England accounted for 25% of all English exports, and during the 1700s Eur.-Am. smuggling abated Edward Randolph (1676) dispatched to Boston to gather info. about the conduct of colonial trade

Colonial Factors Spark Political Revolt, 1676-1691
• • • • The English Crown aimed at unity agmonst the colonies through the Navigation Acts, but the instability of the Colonies led to regional evolt during the finale decades of the 17th century Following 1660, Virginia faced econ. depression after tobacco profits had been low for a while; incoming indentured servants seeking better lives were dismayed By 1670, Virginia was swept by poverty, promting the disfranchisement of landless freemen, whom were regarded as troublemakers In 1675, Indians attacked Virginia and killed a few colnonists and governonr William Berkeley called for the construction of a line of defense forts, a plan considered inefficienet and believed to be Berkeley’s way of protectiong a stake in the fur trade Nathaniel Bacon, a planter hwo’d arrived in Virginia in 1674, boldly offered to lead a volunteer army against the Indians (Bacon had also for long envied Bacon’s Green Spring faction, and had also been prohibited from oining the fur trade, which was reserved for Berkeley/friends) Earning Berkeley’s disapproval, Bacon and his followers set out on various foiled expeditions, not really knowing what they could’ve been fighting for by aggravating the governor (such as legitimate reforms ever so desired by the black slaves and poor whites n Bacon’s own army), Bacon’s Rebellion Bacon aimed to push white settlers out and obtain fur trading lands Burned Jamestown to the ground Women also voiced their opinions feverishly during the Rebellion Bacon died in 1676; by then Berkeley had regained control over Virginia, followed by self-serving governors that healed divisiosn amongst Virginian rulers

• • • •

14

All Things American / Monzón
• After 1660, royal officials demanded full compliance w.the Navigation Acts, and growing commerce attracted Anglicans (close with England) that brough restlessness to Purtian orthodoxy) Indian conflict (e.g. King Philip’s War) took innocent lives and brought debt In 1684, debate over Mass.’ tie to England was solved by the annulemtnof the colnoy’s charter by the Court of Chncery, who then decided that the Bay Colony would be ruled by the crown, who did not shared its religious viewpoints By 1689, James II had established the Dominion of New England, incorporating Mass., Conn, Rhode Island, Plymouth, NY, NJ and NH into the tyrannical reign of Sir Edward Andros, whom abolished rep. gov’t. and enforeced the Navigation Acts/collected taxes Early 1689, news of the Glorious Revolution reached Boston, prompting the Bay Colnoy’s overthrow of the Andros regime Tireless lobbying from Increase Mather, father of a Congregational minister, prompted the abandoining of the Dominion of New England and the issue of anew charter in 1691 Governor selection was now done by the king, and selection of reps. was based on property instead of chruhc memebership Jacob Lesiler (German minister) led NY Leisler’s Rebellion, a product of restnment against the commercial success of Anglo-Dutch families Leisler attacked a local fort in 1689; later exercised insecure authority over NY A new royal governor, Henry Slaughter, arrived in 1691 and wrested control of NY from Leisler following his execution Years later, warring political factions bearing Leisler’s name struggled to control NY Antiproprietyary and anti-Catholic sentiment in Maryland exploded after Gloriosu Revolution news arrived in 1609 Outspoken protestant John Coode formed the Protestant Assoc; forced Lord Baltimore’s governor, William Joseph to resign; transformed Maryland into a royal colnony by 1691(not a violent rebellion) Anglicanism was declared the established religion, and Cathoilics were excluded from public office
15

• •

• •

• • • • • • •

All Things American / Monzón
• By 1715, however, Maryland returned to the hands of the Calvert family until 1776

16

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 4 / Experience of Empire: 18th Century America
OUTLINE

Growth and Diversity
250,000 US pop. in 1700 grows to 2,150,000 by 1770; mostly caused by natural reproduction that in turn led to half of the population being under 16 ● Non-English immigration of groups hoping to set up as independent farmers in the backcountry (British frontier, 800 miles from western Penn. All the way to Georgia) diversify pop. and create a violent society mingling them alongside Native Americans/African Europeans

Scots-Irish

Largest group of non-English colonists are Scots-Irish (around 150,000 in pop.); Presbyterians seeking prosperity/freedom in America; settled in Penn. Usually challenging authority by settling on tracts of land already (squatters)

Germans

Second largest group of non-English settlers (100,00+); come from upper Rhine valley; first wave were Mennonites seeking religious toleration; settled in Penn.; by mid-century, German immigrants were looking to better their material lives; settled in Penn. By 1766; ethnic differences bred disputes as both Germans and Scots-Irish, wanting to keep their culture and tongue; dealt with a pressure to “Anglicize”; prompting migration to Virginia/Carolina backcountry

Convict Settlers
The 1718 passage of the Transportation Act prompted the shipping of approx. 50,000 convicts to America ● The convicts were sold as indentured servants (Chesapeake) and faced resentments from settlers that worried their forming a criminal class

Native Americans, “Middle Ground”
Native Americans warring in coastal areas were prompted to migrate to the western backcountry to escape European diseases ● Refugee Native Americans who had lost too many people to be able to maintain a cultural identity thus join stronger groups (Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Shawnee) and established new multiethnic communities ● Backcountry Native Americans aimed to find common ground with the Europeans, whenever possible playing the French against the British, because the Europeans provided essential metal good and weapons

17

All Things American / Monzón
Europeans trade goods, however, also eroded traditional roles as Indian leaders reinforced their power by controlling the character of commercial exchange (prompting traders to go to chiefs if they needed goods); they later weakened Indian ability to resist organized white aggression when the number of European traders at the middle ground expanded and independent Indian traders (no more chiefs) grew as a result ● Disease continued to take a toll (-72% of Indian pop. 1685-1790), hurting the middle ground as Europeans knew that taking things from the “sick” wasn’t smart

Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century

Until the 1821 independence of Mexico, Spain struggled to control a vast northern frontier

Conquering the Northern Frontier
native American hostility and failure to find precious metals cooled Spanish enthusiasm for the northern frontier by 1692 ● 1565 St. Augustine never attracted addt’l. Spanish migrants ● California, too far/hard to reach, never figured prominently

People of the Spanish Borderlands
● ● ● ● ● ●

North American Spain grew slowly for danger of Indian attack and a harsh physical environment detracted migration Migrants were mostly male soldiers; they married Indian women and created large numbers of mestizos Spanish colonials exploited Native American population (servitutde) and dealth with with strong resistance to Catholicism Spanish settlements were mostly military outposts/Catholic missions Most migrants came from other Spanish colonies Spain’s empire stretched from Florida to Carolina (late 1700s)

The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture
Largest towns at this time were Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Charles Town ● English colonies witness the rapid growth of an urban cosmopolitan culture thanks to an expanded consumer marketplace

Provincial Cities
Colonial portside cities, despite containing only about 5% of the colonial pop. (most colonists became farmers) greatly influenced colonial culture ● Wealthy colonists attempted to replicate the latest English ideas – homes akin to Grand Country houses in Great Brtiain, hosting concerts, plays, etc.

American Englihtenment
18

All Things American / Monzón
The appeal of the European enlightenment to colonists was its focus on a search for sueful knowledge, ideas, and inventions that would improve the quality of human life; its challenges to Christianity were not heeded (using the power of reason to understand benevolent God’s work, self-evident natural laws for Church, State) ● The educated, not the commoners, were in turne with the Englihtenment (use of reason/science to explain the world)

Benjamin Franklin
Regarded as a genuine philosopher, Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) absorbed the new cosmopolitan culture and the pursuit of reason/useful knowledge as he investigated (study of electrivity), intented (lighting rod, 1756) and organized groups that discussed philosophy and European literature and science (in Philadelphia); Franklin became the symbol of material progress through human ingenuity ● Believed in a “God” but not in church hierarchy

Economic Transofmraiton
● ● ● ● ●

an abundance of land and the extensive growth of agriculture allowed the colonial economy to keep pace with the stunning pop. growth (tenfold in 1700s) England remained an important trading partner as it featured an emerging consumer society rich enough to buy goods like sugar, tobacco Exports to the West Indies (27% of all exports in 1768) helped cover the cost of purchased British goods, preserving American credit Paper money begins Hat and Felt Act limited production of colonial goods that competed with British exports

Birth of a Consumer Society
The post-1690 acceleration of the British economy (thanks to small factories that began producing goods more efficiently) caused a 360% increase in American imports (Staffordshire china, cloth) along with increased American debt ● Intercoastal trade (Southern colonies to New England, Middle; tobacco/rice for meat/wheat) increased (30% of total tonnage by 1760) ● Increased imports caused the American culture to “Anglicize” by way of British goods; intercoastal trade united dispersed settlmeents more regularly ● Conestaga wagons markes the first kind of mobile home and allowed for more trade movement

Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies

The Great Awakening prompted colonists to rethink basic assumptions about church, state, society

The Great Awakening

began in New England, 1730s
19

All Things American / Monzón

brought a profound infusion of evangelical exhortaitons (Edwards’ return to pure Calvinism) and revival spirit that corssed denominational borders and varied in intensity from region to region (most in Mass., Conn., RI, Penn., NJ, Southern colony of Virginia)

The Voice of Popular Religion

● ● ● ●

Preachers like George Whitefield, Gilbert Tennent, and Jonathan Edwards vividly depicted the horrors of hell to caputivate audiences in an effort to restore religiois vitality (itinerant preachers) Whitefield was an effective public speaker that also marketed his work through asdvetisements in British/American newspapers Tennent was a Scots-Irish Presbyterian who preached crude anti-inellctualism New Lights were people who flocked to hear these preachers speak; cause the split of several congregations through their support of questioning authority The Great Awakening founded colleges (New Lights founded colleges like Brown, Princeton, Rutgers for young men to continue studying the works of itinerant preachers), encouraged individuals o be active in their denominations (seek salvation), gave Americans optimism about the future (progress w/god’s help), and even appealed to African Americans (they condemned slavery as a sin)

Clash of Political Cultures

The English Constituion o not a formal document o English Bill of Rights was derived from the Magna Carta and writ of habeaus corpus o in theory, the Constituion called for three main governing and or legislative groups that each represented a different socio-economic interest and together kept each other’s ambitions in check; the monarchy/council of advisors (King), a wo-chamber (House of Lords and House of Commons) Parliamnet (nobility) (commoners)

The Reality of British Politics
Corruption (a king that had a close group of followers in parliament, representing his interests) (an uninhabited district that still had parliamentary representation and allowed a wealthy politican to “influence” the entire constituency) kept the English gov’t. from separate interests/checks and balances ● “Commonwealthmen” were radical publicissts who wrote of this corruption (e.g. Trenchard, Gordon)

Governing the Colonies: An American Experience
● ●

American gov’t. was different Royal governors, guided by a council of about twelve men chosen by London’s Board of Trade, possessed enormous power (veto legislation, dismiss judges) anf the memebrs of their councils did not represent a clear American autocracy

20

All Things American / Monzón
Anyone who owned a small amount of land could vote in countryside elections (95% in Mass.), “middle-class democracies”; still, they could not raise taxes nor dismiss elected memebers of colonial assemblies ● Weekly journals didesminated info. to the public

Colonial Assemblies
“The rise of the colonial assemblies”; these believed they had a special obligation to protect colonial liberties and thus had little tolerance for attacks against them ● they were legislative institutions ● the laws they made became increasingly Anglicized, and this applied to nearly all colonies across America

Cnetury of Imperial War

a number of wars sparked by the ambitions of Britan/France occurred in North America, and the political fragmentation of British colonies became a weakness

King William’s and Queen Annes’ Wars
King William’s War (Canadians raiding N frontiers of NY and Mass.) and Queen Anne’s War demonstrated both colonists and EUropenas the enormous stake sof war ● Native Americans (Irqouious w/British, Algonquin w/French) were swept up in continued conflict on frontier regions as the British continued to push into French claimed territory ● Main issues became control of Miss. River and Ohio River Valley

King George’s War, and its Aftermath
King George’s War (an army of New England troops capturing French-claimed loousiburg in June 1745), demonstrated the capability of Am. colonial forces but ultimately ended in disappointment when a British treaty traded Lousibourg for other land, prompting colonists to doubt the sense of a participating in imperial wars ● Warfare (undeclared) continued in the 1750s as the French, realizing the goods the British had to trade w/the Indians, rushed to capture the Ohio Valley ● George Washington led militia troops in 1754 and captured Fort Necessity; was ultimately overrun

Albany Congress and Braddock’s Defeat
Benjamin Franklin devised the Albany plan in 1754, calling for a Grand Council that would consolidate the needs/interests of the various colonies; failed because it required the support of colonial assmeblies and Parliament, which it did not get ● In 1755, British general Edward Braddock leads a failed attempt to take Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley in order to stop French expansion; nearly 70% (incl. Braddock) died/were wounded

21

All Things American / Monzón
Seven Years’ War

● ● ● ●

In 1758, William Pitt, head of the ministry, began his plan of French extermination (following large military expenditures) by having taken personal command of army/navy and taking Lousiburg again George III had officially declared war w/the French Lousiboug’s conquest cut off supplies to New France; Duequesne was abandoned in 1758l several other outpusts fell James Wolfe took Quebec in 1759, exacting victory The Peace of Paris was signed 1763; Britain was left w/Canada, Fla. and all lands east of Miss. River

Perceptions of War
● ● ● ● ●

The success of the Seven Years’ War gave colonists a sense of America that lay beyond the plantation and village Colonies had been drawn into closer contact with Britain; they’d cooperated amongst themselves The war trainded a corps of Am. officers The British later accused the Ams. of ingratitude, for they were reluctant in financing the war Am. colonies had sent a gross amount of their own men, though (5,000 out of 50,000 pop. in Mass.)

Conclusion: Rule Britannia?

Most colonial Ams. considered themselves “equal partners” w/Britain; they didn’t foresee Britain’s disagreement

22

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 6 / The Republican Experiment
OUTLINE

Defining Republican Culture
In the 1780s, most American felt the revolution could fail if not grounded in a virtuous, republican gov’t.; ordinary Evangelical folk felt demanded God-given progress founded on goodness, ont wealth; they expected the revolution to bring greater liberty, a voice in gov’t. and an end to special privilege, conflicting with those that argued that liberty caused democratic excesses ● Republicanism summaried the choice of post-revolutionary gov’t. ● Era marked by sharp division over the relative importance of liberty and power ● Men concerned with the order of the republic feared the state assemblies, citing their constituents’ ineptitude at exercising control to help the common good rather than satisfy their own interests

Living in the Shadow of Revolution

although less wrenching than other revolutions, the American Revolution prompted the reevaluation of accepted social hierarchies and the possibility of equality in society

Social and Political Reform

● ● ●

Republicans fearful of privilege advocated the appearance of equality and certain social/political reforms (the abolishment of entail and primogeniture (expunging titles), the lowering of property requirements necessary to be able to vote, and the separation of church and state) the sudden accumulation of large fortunes by new families made other Americans particularly sensitive to aristocratic display (revolution shouldn’t produce a social class that separateds itself from the rest John Adams stimulated fear of female suffrage In the 1780s, Rep. lawmakers weren’t ready to deal w/universal manhood suffrage Western settlements’ legislators, not liking to travel so far, prompted the changing of several capitals o Savannah Augusta (Georgia) o Charles Town  Columbia (S. Carolina) o New Bern  Raleigh (N. Carolina) o Williamsburg  Richmond (Virginia) o NYC  Albany (New York) o Portsmouth  Concord (New Hampshire) Support for the disestablishment of the Anglican Church came from its beingconsidered special privilege as it had received tax money during colonial times when other churches didn’t
23

All Things American / Monzón
African Americans in the New Republic

Some Republicans (like Quaker John Woolmen) prompted the spreading of abolitionists practices that also caused a double standard as you would have white Aericans demanding slaves’ freedom while owning slaves themselves Afr. Ams. kept the issue of slavery in the spotlight through writing/petitioning and demanding equal rights; their cause was strengthened by the achievmeents of such black as scientist Banneker and poet Wheatley The lack of economic justification for slavery in the north facilitated the development of anti-slaveyr actions; such as New York’s Manumission Society (1785), Vermont’s abolitionist constitution (1777) and laws regasrding gradual emancipation Freed blacks faced systematic discrimination (denied equal standing at churches; excluded from voting, juries and militia duty; forced to live in segregated neighborhoods); blacks create their own churches Despite some thoughtful white Reps. in the South that freed their slaves, the extant econ. incentive to keep them was too great

The Challenge of Women’s Righs
At the time, few seriously accepred the notion of patriarchial power over women/children ● Women began demanding more of their husbands; their resposnisbiltiy was to nurture the rights values in their children and to iinstruct their husbands in proper behavior ● Education equal to that of men became essential for women seeking to fill such roles, but they were still defined in society as home-makers, wives and mothers

Postpoining Full Liberty

Reps. engrained the concept of equality as one to be developed positively by future generations

The States: Experiments in Republicanism

In May 1776, the Second Continental Congress invited the states to adopt constituions that would vividly reveal their social/regional differences

Blueprints for State Government
the americans who wrote the Constitutions all shared the notion that they be written documents that explicitly defined the rights of the people as well as the power of their rules ● beginning of Am. written law

Neutral Rights and the State Constitutions

new states constituons trwnded to emphasize natural rights – those common to men and women over which the gov’t. has no control, such as those of religion, speech and press

24

All Things American / Monzón
they granted great power to legislatures and since every male taxypayer could cast a ballot, unicameral legislatures dominated early state gov’t. ● little power was granted to governors; several states did away w/the office altogether; failed to see that the elected governors were now the servants of a free people

Power to the People
Mass.’ constitution, not adopted until 1780, called for a house and senate, a apopularly elected governor who could veto bills, and property qualifications for officeholders and voters ● set a vital precendent by relying on a specil convention of delgates to draw up its Constituion ● state gov’t. institutions were run by commoners poorer than the local gentry (“The People’s Men”

Stumbling Troward a New National Government

During the military crisis of the Revolution, the Second Continental Congress assumed national authority, but independence would necessarily result in the creation of greater central authority to conduct war, borrow money, regulate trade and negotiate treaties

Articles of Confederation
The Article sof Confederaiton created a weak nat’l. Congress that protected state sovereignty ● Each state possessed a single vote in Congress’ Congress lacked the power to tax and also did not own any lands west of the Appalachians ● Most felt apathy/hostility towards the weak central gov’t.

Western Land: Key to the First Constitution
● ●

● ● ● ● ●

The major point of dispute for the new gov’t. was the ownership of western lands Some of the older states claimed them under the auspieces of their royal charters, while other states felt such territories should be shared by all Americans, with ownership granted to the new confederation gov’t. Landless states like Maryland (who did not have ambiguous charters w/which to acquire western land) argued to share Private land companies sold tracts of land bought from Indians In 1781, Virginia ceded its holdings north of the Ohio River, to the Confederation Maryland accepted the Articles Robert Morris heads new Dept. of Finance

Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation’s Major Achievement
Confederaiton provides for western ladns’ survey, sale and governance, preventing chaos and securing a national source of revenue ● An impoverished Congress wanted to sell off the land in the West, Land Ordinance of 1785 divides townships into marketable section fo 640 acres each;

25

All Things American / Monzón
surviving was slow and many people didn’t have the money, though (min. urchase of 640 acres) ● Northwest Ordinance (1787)  three to five territories, each with a governor; at 60,000 pop., could request statehood ● Bill of Rights (trial to jury, free religion, due process of law) and allowed slavery

Strenghtening Federal Authority

Most criticism of Articles came from econ. frustration with halting recovery after Revolution

The nationalist Critique
resurgence of imported British luxuries abates value of paper money printed by Congress, and Revolutionary War debts still had to be paid ● Nationalists (James Madison, Alexander Hamiltion) callf or constitutional reform beginningwith a 5% tax cut on imported goods; RI denies plan

Diplomatic Humiliation
Congress also failed at foreign affairs; it could not comply with allowing Great Britain to collect its pre-war debts, and oculd not boot out the Spaniards when (disagreeing with the Southern boundary set by the Treaty of Paris) they closed the Miss. River to Am. citizens (1784), dealing a blow to Western farmers ● Although the Confederation had succeeded in resolving western settlement, it struggled as the Congress met irregularly and the nation lacked a permanent capital

“Have We Fought for This?”
The Genuis of James Madison
By 1770s/1780s, Reps. believed an excess of democracy – state sovereignty – was in actuality the malevolent factor in the republic, as ordinary citizens lacked virtue and threatened order ● A strong central gov’t. could secure order and commercial prosperity, but Montesquieu suggested that a republic over such a large territory facilitated corruption ● James Madison though differently and believed that an expanded republic was fine; that the smaller the area, the more likely that legislature majorities would tyrannize the propertied minority (as was the case w/RI)

Constitutional Reform
In 1786, Madison begins to spur a nationalist movement against the Articles of Confedration ● 1786, Shay’s Rebellion; armed farmers threatened to seize the federal arsenal in Springfield, spurred by always being in debt to eastern creditors, blaming an uncaring state gov’t. (Mass.)

26

All Things American / Monzón

Rebelloin draws attention to upcoming Philadelphia meeting to form a new constitution

The Philadelphia Convention

55 delegates meet; young, practical, prominent nationalists (lawyers, merchants, planters)

Inventing a Federal Republic
Madison proposes Virginia Plan o bicameral legislature (one house elected directly by the people; the other chosen by the first from state assemblies’ nominations) o Under this plan, states would lose identitiy because larger states would have more representation than smaller ones ● William Paterson proposes New Jersey Plan o unicameral legislature in which each stste had one vote o A state of 747,000 (Virginia) shouldn’t be represented equally as one of 68,000 (RI)

Compromise Saves the Constitution

In The Great Compromise, the final constition had a bicameral legislature (upper house w/equal state representation, lower house w/proportional representation (30,000 ppl.  one vote; slaves counted as per three-fifths rule)

Compromiising with Slavery

Delegates and compromises over slavery foreshadowed later sectional conflict

The Last Details

delgates create stronger executive by establishing that the president is elected by an electoral college separate from Congress; VP is 2nd most voted

We, The People

to bypass difficulties in ratification, delegates establish special state conventions (13) that would review the Constitution; only 9 states were needed for ratification

Whose Constituion? Struggle for Ratification
Federalists and Antifederalists
Federalists were better organized, more well-ffinanced and more capably led Antiferderalists argued that the size of the republic would lead to corruption, they demanded direct contact with the their represents; they also argued that the size of the population wouldn’t allow non-famous commonoers to be elected ● Federalists rebutted that “natural arisocrats” would represent citizens’ desires well ● By 1788, all states except NC and RI ratify the constitution
● ●

Adding the Bill of Rights
27

All Things American / Monzón

Antifederalits’ extant complaints about the insecurity of individual rights prompted the addition of a Bill of Rights in the form of ten Constituonal Amendments

Conclusion: Success Depends on the People

Initially, Americans, believed popular sovereignty was the way forward as it inhibited corruption, but the inefficiency of the people as riders leads to the realization that federal sovereignty is ultimately necessary

28

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 7 / Democracy in Distress
OUTLINE

Principle and Pragmatism: Establishing a New Government
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

In 1789, Washington began presidency, with John Adams as V.P. Created a strong, independent presidency; made public policy; paying country’s debt was the first presidency’s biggest causes Henry Knox heads Dept. of War; Edmund Randolph is part-time Attorney General Met with popular approval; embodied Republican values Congress creates executive departments (Depts. of War, State; The Treasury (1789)) Census was costly but important because it determined representation Congress makes federal court system w/ Judiciary Act of 1789; makes Supreme Court w/chief justice (John Jay) and five associate justices Congress passes 5% tariff which receives negative response from Southerners because it benefits Northerners

Conflicting Visions: Jefferson and Hamilton
Young lawyer Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) argued for a strong central government; seeking to Great Britain’s elaborate system of banking and credit for an economic model; expressing a fear of democratic excess; believing that if the central gov’t convinced the wealthy that their self-interest could be advanced by it, they would work to strengthen it, thus bringing prosperity to the commoners; didn’t believe in virtuous commoners; believes in lax interpretation of the Constitution ● Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State) believed not in industrial potential but in agricultural productivity as the best source of wealth; however, he urged farmers to participate in an expanding international market; he believed in the virtue of common folk and believed a central gov’t. oppress state and indiv. rights; he feared the selfish interests of a privileged order (pseudo-aristocrats); believes in strict interpretation of the Constitution ● Americans began to divide into Federalists (led by Hamilton) and Republicans (led by Jefferson)

Hamilton’s Plan for Prosperity/Security
Asked to suggest ways to resolve the matter of public credit, with the national debt standing at more than $54 million, Hamilton produces Report on Public Credit (1790) ● Called for the funding of national debt using old loan certificates; aims to fund debt at full face value, and made the federal government responsible for state debts; plan would signal national solvency and attract investment capital

29

All Things American / Monzón

● ● ● ● ●

Critics (incl. Madison) brought up the issue of patriosts who sold their certificates far below face value; proposes treating current holders less generously, but little records of orig. holders exist; proposal denied The assumption portion of the plan, which benefited states that hadn’t put their finances in order (Mass., S.C.) and cut off the supply of cut-rate securities (prohibiting western-land owners from profiting from future settlers), draws criticism Despite all this, in exchange for a new capital in Virginia, Washington approves assumption/funding Hamilton calls for the creation of a national bank to oversee the national economy, and be owned primarily by private stockholders Critics called it unconstitutional, believed it might persuade a large monied interest; people associated it w/the decay of public virtue Passes in 1791; by 1792, lots of people were entering bankruptcy Hamilton’s Report on Manufactures (1791) called for government stimulation of manufacturing; criticized of consolidating power at the federal level (Madison) and of promoting unmanageable urbanization (Jefferson); plan is denied

Charges of Treason: The Battle over Foreign Affairs
War in Europe thrust foreign affairs into the limelight ● Clear political divisions arise: Federalists urged a strong central gov’t, central economic planning, closer ties w/Great Britain; maintenance of public order; Republicans advocated states’ rights, strict interpretation of the constitution, friendship w/France, wary of economic growth ● By 1794, British soldiers still occupied US land (forts in Northwest Territory ● In 1793, France declares war on Great Britain; neutrality seems the best course of action; unclear whether Franco-American Revolutionary War treaties bind US to France ● Incompetent US French minister Edmond Genệt makes US ships seize British ships; ruins neutrality ● Washington issues Proclamation of Neutrality (1778); neutral shipping to France continues ● Britain blockades neutral shipping, seizes American ships trading in French West Indies (1793) ● Washington sends John Jay to London to negotiate removal of U.S. British forts, payment for seized ships, and acceptance of American neutrality ● Hamilton had secretly informed British that US would compromise on most issues ● Forts are vacated, small ships can now trade in West Indies, but compensation would need payback for Revolution-era debts, and neutrality wasn’t accepted ● Final treaty is seen as sellout (1795); Hamilton retires and is the actual betrayer ● Treaty is passed without ratification; Washington is challenged about executive secrecy in the interest of national security and constitutionality of his acts

30

All Things American / Monzón
Britain pushes Indians to attack US; fail due to lack of British support (e.g. Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794); US acquires lands around Ohio; last British presence migrates to Canada ● Spain assumed US/Britain would team up and strip Spain of its US lands, propose the opening of the Mississippi, the right to deposit goods in New Orleans without tax, a southern boundary on the 31st parallel, and a promise to stay out of Indian affairs ● Signed Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795, Thomas Pinckney)

Popular Political Culture

● ●

● ● ●

The ratification of Jay’s treaty caused a higher degree of factionalism that was not seen as beneficial (e.g. diff parties w/different solutions) and whose Republican/Federalists parties earned the rank of one another High literacy rate allows partisan journalism (e.g. Federalists’ “Gazette of the United States” (1789) and Republicans’ “National Gazette”) to provoke tension as they presented rumor/opinion as fact Political debate clubs start (1793; 24 by 1794), aimed towards political indoctrination Whiskey Rebellion springs up, after Republican Penn. Governor refuses to suppress tariff-opposing farmer, and Federalists blame Republicans for unnecessary agitation; causes civil/political unrest; Jefferson (Rep.) accuses Federalists of wanting to form an army for anti-Republican purposes Washington is making a statement for federal tariffs Washington’s 1796 Farewell Address warned Americans against political faction and entangling foreign alliances Waited until September to give time to Republicans

The Adams Presidency

● ● ●

● ●

Republicans urged Southerners to cast a ballot only for candidate Thomas Pinckney, aiming to deprive Adams of his presidency (Adams/Jefferson don’t work well together) Washington was Federalist Franco-American relations deteriorate because US had allowed Great Britain to define conditions for neutrality; Quasi-War starts (1797, French seize US ships) Denying anti-French sentiment from Republicans, Adams sends commission to obtain compensation for seized ships and demand release from 1778 traties (in exchange, offering France commercial privileges) Greedy intermediaries (X,Y,Z) halt negotiations by demanding bribes; XYZ Affair causes anti-French sentiment Anti-French settlement is used as an excuse to strengthen the military, aiming to stifle internal political opposition (Federalist v. Republicans) and thwart French aggression; Adams prioritizes Navy; idle army becomes expensive extravagance Federalists supposedly aiming to protect American security, but really wanting to harass Republicans, pass Alien/Sedition Acts

31

All Things American / Monzón

Alien Enemies Law

Alien Law

Naturalization Act

Sedition Law

President can depart foreigners of nations at war w/US who are suspicious ● President can depart foreigners arbitrarily ● 14 years before opportunity for US citizenship ● Criminalized criticism of US gov’t., turned federal courts into partisan tools; government attackers/critics are arrested

Jefferson/Madison draft Kentucky/Virginia Resolutions
● ●

Kentucky (Jefferson)

Virginia (Madison)

States have full authority over matters not defined in the Constitution Denied Alien/Sedition Acts “federal union” as compact

urged states to defend indiv. rights

no state legislatures should overthroew federal law

● ● ●

Adams sends new negotiators to France; new gov’t. headed by Bonaparte forms Convention of Montefontained; denies compensation but voids 1778 traties (1799) – Hamilton loses army ● Adams creates atmosphere fit for purchase of Lousiana Territory

The Peaceful Revolution: Election fo 1880
Jefferson becomes President; acknowledges partisan politics but reaffirms Republican beliefs ● Adams was first to live in Whtie House ● Federalists had lost touch with the public ● Adams appoints several federalists before leaving

Conclusion: Danger of Polticial Extremism

A surprise that the 1800 election did not endure violence

32

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 8 / Regional Identities in a New Republic
OUTLINE

Regional Identities in a New Republic
• Substantial population growth (2 million 1800  1810), improved regional transportation links, and attacks on slavery contribute to a growing sense of regionalism (people identified themselves as representatives og popular subcultures) Secession advocated 1800-1815; fails Founding Fathers are dying off and forthcoming presidents hadn’t witnessed the birth of the United States West’s rich soil and developing system of water transporation foster is growth after 1790; also, Miss. River becomes vital to its trade Western society is heterogeneous; makes for different folkways Indians (great number occupy Ohio Valley; lack unity (Tecumseh/Tonskatawa labeling himself as Indian, advocates cutting off contact w/whites)) Some Native American reps. ignore the people’s needs, sell huge tracts of land for whiskey/tinrkets Agriculture (84% in 1810; South grw tobacco, rice, cotton; North grows livestock/cereal; no innovations excepts 1809 fair) and the shipping industry (relied on transport of European goods as well as national exports (staples); benefit Boston, NY, Philadelphia merchants; 300% increase (boom) in export value/net earning 1793  1807); embargo against Britain stops it) Booming trade attracts investment capital; retards manufacturing (some cottonspinning mills, steamboat in 1807); workers feared machines, claiming they’d bring reduced wages, less jobs and unappreciation of craft) American cities are small (7% of pop.); high density pop. (40,000/1.5 sq. mi. in NY) deals w/higher rents; artisans, emrchants drive workforce; wealthy demand overseas luxuries

• • • • • • •

• •

Jefferson as President
• • • • • • Jefferson wasn’t a good public speaker Aims to reduce size/cost of fed. gov’t., repeal Federalist legislation and keep the peace; selectively chose a supportive cabinet Madison becomes Secretary of State, Albert Gallatin occupies treasury Gallatin links gov’t. cost to carrying trade Jefferson orders budget cuts (e.g. US army becomes half its size) to pay nat’l. debt establishes training for militia (Army Corps of Engineers, 1802)
33

All Things American / Monzón
• • • reassigns both moderate Federalists/Republicans to federal office (effaces “midnight appointees”) Jefferson’s moderation hastens Federalist decline They refuse to adopt popular forms of campaigning that were successful for Republicans in the late 1790s; new states increase Republican representatives; prominent federalists like John jay retire from nat’l. affairs In 1801, Spain transfers ownership of Lousiana to France Napoleon wants to establish American empire; Spain closes New Orleans port to Am. commerce Jefferson sends James Monroe/Robert Livingston to Paris to negotiate Louisiana purchase; Napoleon had lost interest in Am. after disease took a toll on his Haiti troops; Lousiana is sold to US for $15 mil. Purchase’s constitutionality is question; Napoleon’s impatientce forces Jefferson to ignore such claims Jefferson worries about the assimilation of the Lousiana pop. (long under autocratic rule) into US democracy; recommends transitional gov’t. w/forced taxes; Lousiana Gov’t. Bill is narrowly passed Jefferson organizes Lewis and Clark expeditions; their aim is to explore the commercial viability of the Missouri River; also to collect data on flora/fauna; party leaves May 1804, returns Nov. 1805 Tripoli piartes’ extortion in US commercial trade in the Mediterranean intensifies when USS Philadelphia is captured; 1805 treaty ends hostility Jeffeersonn is reelected (wins v. Pikcney 162-14); Reps. now control gov’t.

• • • • •

• •

Jefferson’s Criticis
• • • • Jefferson’s electoral victory is accompanied by sharp divisions in the Republican party and the US Federalists create Federalist-dominated circuit courts/judgeships w/Judicial Act of 1801; Federalist John Marshall is made chief justice Congress tries to repeal the act; Federalists claim doing so would be tantamount to removing non-criminal judges, which is unconstitutional In Marbury v. Madison (1803), Marshall sets impt. precedent for judicial review of federal statutes when it denies to take a stand on Marbury’s complaint to State Sec. Madison about his not getting a commission

34

All Things American / Monzón
• Extreme republicans try to resort tto impeachment to have a proper rep. body; Pickering, a troubled NH judge, is convicted but ultimately not impeached because he hadn’t committed any high crimes Jefferson attempts to impeach Samuel Chase, a vociferous anti-Republican Supreme Court justice; trial is heard in the Senate chamber and despite popular disapproval of Chase, Republican senators refused to extend the constitutional definition of impeachable offenses to suit opposing lawyer John Randolph’s argument; all charges drop March 1805 Decline of Federalists enoucrages dissension amongat Republicans Vociferous “Tertium Quids” dub Jefferson’s pragmatic policies as a sacrifice of Rep. virtue; John Randolph, John Taylor are main spokesmen; Taylor advocates regression to simple agrarian way of life Yazoo controversy popularizes Quids as they oppose Jefferson’s idea of 5 mil. acres being open for buyers that had unwittingly purchased land from private companies that in turn had been sold 35 mil. acres of land by a corrupt Georgia assembly; Quids called fraud and believe Rep. virtue is at stake; ultimately, Fletcher v. Peck (1810) favors Jefferson (decision explained how Court couldn’t take land from people who’d bought them) Hamilton’s distrust of Burr following his participation in a plan of New England/NY secession prompt them to gun duel; Hamilton is shot, dies Burr mounts treasonous expedition while in an 1895 tirp down the Ohio River, recruits adventureers for a plan to attack a Spanish colony; US Army (Miss. Valley) commander James Wilkionson joins; is later disillusioned; writes to Jefferson, denouncing Burr; Burr is arrested in 1807; Marshalls insists on following a strict constitutional definition of treason; Burr had covered up evidence of recruitment and isn’t proved guilty; goes into exile in Europe Three-fifths rule benefited South; South redefines 1808 bill about importation of slaves Illegal importation of slaves ensuses; despite Jefferson’s opposing 1808 Bill South urges state-defined slavery

• • •

• •

• • •

Embarassments overseas
• • As “neutral carriers”, American benefited from total war between France and Great Britain; conducted “broken voyages” to allow trade between France and its colonies Britain begins seizing US ships by 1805; issue a series of trade regulations known as the Orders in Council in which they forbad neutral US-French trade; Napoleon responds with Continental System (Berlin/Milan decrees 1806/1807) by which he aims to size any vessel that trades with the British Monroe/Pickney make treaty w/Great Britain; treaty doesn’t oppose impressment
35

All Things American / Monzón
• • USS Chesapeake is attacked by British Leopard (1807); American people are furious Jefferson, fearing war, passes Embargo Act (1807) against Britain/France

36

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 9 / Nation Building and Nationalism
OUTLINE

A great surge of westward expansion and economic development, accompanied by soaring nationalist fervor, characterized the United States after the War of 1812

Expansion and Migration
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) presents British – US, US – British Canada conquest/conflict, Anglo-American Convention places Lousiana Purchase/Canada border at 49th parallel, provides for joint U.S./British occupation of Oregon ● Lousiana is a state in 1812 ● Trans-Appalachian settlement has begun

Extending the Boundaries
Postwar expansionists desire East Florida, Andrew Jackson conquers it by 1818 (supporting Adams’ continental expansion) (Jackson had been chasing hostile Seminoles into East Florida) ● Spain is weakened by Latin American revolutions and empire breakup; cedes Florida by Adams-Onís Treaty (1819), treaty also establishes Pacific boundary between New Spain/Oregon

Settlement to the Mississippi
Far West exploitation grows; fur trading companies (e.g. John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company) trade with Indians ● Later companies such as the Rocky Mountain Fur Company rely on American “mountain men” that went after game on their own using Indian trails, and sold it to agents at animal meetings (“rendezvous”)

The People and Culture of the Frontier
American Trans-Appalachian settlement by their forcible expulsion of present Indian tribes (they’d been left defenseless when the British left the old Northwest in 1815), last stand occurs in 1831-32 as confederated Sac and Fox Indian refuse to leave Mississippi lands, are almost exterminated as they move West ● American uprooting of Indian communities was fueled by their being regarded as inferior or savage, an obstruction to progress; many disregarded Jefferson’s ideas of the “civilized” Indian being given a chance at an American life ● Federal government supported a policy that stripped Indians of their land east of the Miss. River; some Southern tribes held on to their agricultural settlements in Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, Jackson forcibly removes 5 Oklahoma tribes during his presidency ● Western US pop. steadily increases

37

All Things American / Monzón
● ● ● ●

● ●

New land passes through wealthy speculators before reaching farmers; surveyed land was auction off, difficult to buy during the recession (1819) Pre-survey squatters demanded preemption (first purchase rights); Congress makes laws (1799-1830) for squatters to buy land that they’d improved Local marketing centers spring up to service farmers’ needs; many pioneer families were indebted, had to produce more food for market About one-third of the American population is in the West by 1840; several new states (8); speculators looking for credit repayment allow rented farms; family farm-owner operated farms are basic of unit of US western civilization Most western settlers were families (seaboard states) seeking cheaper land Recreated urban safety/comfort in their Western homes, brought their values (e.g. Puritan self-denial, hard work, etc.)

38

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 10 / The Triumph of White Men’s Democracy

39

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 11 / Slaves and Masters
OUTLINE • Nat Turner’s rebellion, in which preacher/prophet Nat Turner, believing in a God ordained vision if black and white angels wrestling in the sky, rallies support and executes nearly sixty whites; rebellion lasts only 48 hours before Turner and company are hanged on the spot; the rebellion causes a wave of repression against slaves in which a series of new laws, aimed at restricting slaves from traveling, organizing, or achieving literacy are passed by whites Unfortunate result of the Turner rebellion pushes slaves to find subtler forms of rebellion; gives rise to a unique African American culture embracing unique family arrangements and religious ideas of liberation

The Divided Society of the Old South (p. 302) • Increasing economic importance of slavery in the South causes deeper racial division • • Inequality in the Old South was determined by class (unequal wealth) and caste (racial ancestry) White society was split up into large/small planters (those who owned 20 or more slaves) and non-slaveholders (the lower class); only ¼ of Southerners owned slaves in 1860 Most blacks worked on plantations (whether in the field or in the home) but a few worked in industrial settings Only 6% were free

• •

The World of Southern Blacks (p. 303) • Masters sought to ensure personal safety and profitability by using physical/psychological means to make their slaves docile • Despite the fact that the brutality of American slavery (esp. with the high turnover of personnel on plantations) restricted learning about the world and developing communal ties, African American slaves’ psychic survival as made possible by the development of a sense of belonging to a group with a unique plight This inner spirit did not generally translate into violent rebellion, but instead a mental defense against masters trying to take over their hearts and minds

Slaves’ Daily Life and Labor • By the time of the Civil War, 90% of the 4 million Southern blacks worked on plantations; close to half the population in the “Cotton Belt” of the South (S.C., Georgia, Alabama, Miss., Louis., Arkansas and Texas) was slaves
40

All Things American / Monzón
• On large plantations, slaves worked in groups under a white overseer; women and children worked too, some of which did lighter cleaning tasks, the youngest of which would be cared for during small breaks Mortality rates in plantations were high (e.g. Louisiana( A “task system” in S.C. and Georgia allowed slaves to complete their tasks in 8 hours, but most worked from sunup to sundown; some slaves worked closely with their masters; most demanded off hours Other slave jobs incl. house building and preaching; those with the highest status in slave comms. directly benefitted the community (e.g. preachers). Most slaves kept additional gardens or worked overtime in the hope of sustaining their families or purchasing freedom

• •

• •

Slave Families, Kinship, and Community • Slaves had a strong sense of kinship that kept slavery from being wholly demoralizing • • Most slave children lived in two-parent households (marriages lasted 20+ years), but would be broken up by the sale or death of one of the parents Slaves residing in small plantations (upper South) often had fragile marriages (they usu. lived on different farms) that would produce matrifocal (femaleheaded) families Masters used the threat of family breakup to keep their slaves in line Many slaves tried to modify their own sales in order to be shipped along with their relatives Grandparents, cousins, aunts were known through direct contact or family lore; infants were frequently named after grandparents Kinship did not exist only between blood relatives; orphans were easily welcomed by foreign families Strong kinship ties (also evidenced by “uncle”/”aunty” for elders and “brother”/”sister” for youngsters) meant slaves could depend on each other in times of trouble

• • • • •

African American Religion • Black Christianity was a distinctive variant of evangelical Protestantism that stressed portions of the Bible that spoke to the aspirations of an enslaved people thirsting for freedom • Only some blacks had access to Black-established churches (e.g. African Methodist Episcopal, 1816)
41

All Things American / Monzón
• • Slave religion was practiced at night Was a highly emotional affair that featured singing, shouting, and dancing; involved a chanting mode of preaching and expression of religious feelings through rhythmic movements (e.g. ring shout) Less emphasis on sinfulness than on the joy of life Sermons spoke about bondage (e.g. the deliverance of the children of Israel from slavery in Egypt) Songs spoke of freedom in the afterlife Religion gave slaves a sense of religious superiority over sinful slaveholders Provided unique outlets for blacks (e.g. preachers, singers)

• • • • •

Resistance and Rebellion • Several violent slave rebellions occur 1800 – 1831 o Virginian Gabriel Prosser mobilizes band to Richmond (1800) o Several hundred Louisiana slaves marching with guns; takes three hundred US soldiers to stop it (1811) o Vesey conspiracy; Charleston, S.C. Vesey conspires to seize local guns and take over the city (1822) o Turner’s rebellion (1831) o Slaves fighting alongside Seminoles in Southern Florida; many accompanied them westward • Most slaves did not violently rebel; some hid in remote areas or stowed away aboard ships headed North; still others used the Underground Railroad, a sympathetic network of blacks and whites that helped slaves get to the North; many were reluctant to leave relatives behind Passive rebellion was the most popular form; working lazily, stealing provisions, breaking tools, poisoning the master’s food; slave folklore, some of decidedly African origin (e.g. Brer Rabbit) told of such deviousness

Free Blacks in the Old South • Economic import of slavery made life hard for free blacks in the South; by the 1830s they were forced to choose between slavery or exile •
42

Restrictive laws established following Turner’s rebellion forced free blacks to have white guardians, have a license to travel, be put into states of economic

All Things American / Monzón
dependency not too far from slavery; the existence of slavery injured their rights, so they often protested against it, although doing so jeopardized the little status they had, for that status was dependent on the impression of loyalty to whites White Society in the Antebellum South (p. 312) • The majority of Southern whites were non-slaveholding yeomen; only 1% were large planters (50+ slaves) that got to enjoy a luxurious lifestyle The Planter’s World • Scarce large planters regardless served as a ruling gentry in places where plantation agriculture was dominant • Increasingly westward cotton agriculture (from S.C./Georgia to Alabama, Miss., and Louis.) meant that more large planters began as hard-driving businessmen that built up capital from commerce, speculation, banking, and slave trading and then used it to buy plantations; largest planter of the 1850s was Stephen Duncan of Miss. (8 plantations, 1018 slaves) Shrewd entrepreneurship and accurate record-keeping were key to being a successful large planter Other signs of gentility such as the import of duels and the aspiration of military or law careers over that of trade existed Women rarely enjoyed aristocratic lifestyles (some worked on the fields themselves); regardless, they were taught to play piano, speak French, dance and be fashionable from a young age

• • •

Planters and Paternalism • Masters saw themselves as benevolent, practicing parent-child relationships with their slaves; common term for their slaves was “our people” • The relationship was defined as a mix between paternalism and capitalism (“the coincidence of humanity and interest”); owing to the idea that slaves in the South were relatively well looked after because preserving their welfare and fertility was so vital Yet several cases of physical abuse/undernourishment occurred; also, no close relations (except with elite slaves) usually developed between master and slave; as all based on ability to meet production quotas; also, masters non-reluctantly broke apart slave families; ultimately concessions of anything less than harsh treatment were “gifts” from the master

43

All Things American / Monzón
• “The “paternalism” was still based on a “principle of fear” (e.g. whipping, threat of breaking up the family); slaves had little recourse due to lack of legal protection)

Slave Smallholders • 88% of all slaveholders had 20- slaves (1860) • Some only needed domestic slave work, but most were usually looking for slaves to relieve their own harsh agricultural labor; lived in Spartan log cabins; accommodated for slaves with shady lofts or sheds not up to plantation housing standards Although smaller slaveholders developed closer relations with their slaves (e.g. work together, eat at the same table), it did not produce equality; slaves preferred the chance of close-knit slave cultures on larger plantations

Yeoman Farmers • These non-slaveholders owned the land they worked themselves (like squatters, but at a higher social level), endured frontier conditions but were usu. ambitious/self-reliant, and could not produce surplus for market • • Concentrated in slave less backcountry; mountaineers hunted and distilled whiskey Yeoman women participated in every aspect of household labor (gardening, clothing, field labor); had large families because more children = more work hands; women were vital to holding the family together There’s abundant sympathy for women with abandoned women, or those with illegitimate children Difficulty of marketing downed performance of crops; reliance on livestock increases Despite believing that slavery contributed to an undesirable planter gentry, they opposed abolitionists because they saw slaveholding as a way of getting ahead in the world, and because the idea of a social class well below them was comforting on a psychological and economical level (e.g. free blacks that would compete with them for jobs)

• • •

A Closed Mind and a Closed Society • Slaveholders feared the rebellion against slavery of lower-class whites • Gradual change from slavery being considered a “necessary evil” (1820s) to a “positive good” (18230s) shows the efforts done by the slaveholding gentry to ensure everyone was on the same side about slavery; obviated efforts of American

44

All Things American / Monzón
Colonization Society and their proposal of a gradual emancipation plan/deportation of freedmen • The proslavery argument, delivered across books and pamphlets through to the Civil War, was aimed at Northern abolitionists and lower-class whites; argument was based on three reasons o Enslavement was the natural state of blacks o Slavery was sanctioned by the Bible and Christianity o It was consistent with the humanitarian spirit of the nineteenth century as it looked after backs that were “perpetual children” • The proslavery argument becomes an attack on the free labor system of the North o Workers in the North could be laid off any time, which could result in strikes and socialism • Censorship of abolitionist speak (including that from Southern clergymen) was widespread (e.g. burning abolitionist literature being sent through Southern mail), the ulterior motive of which was keeping the abolitionist literature from slaves; regardless, all the efforts only created a mood of panic and desperation that convinced Southerners of the need for secession

Slavery and the Southern Economy (p. 321) The Internal Slave Trade • Internal slave trade took off when upper South (practicing non-labor-intensive diversified farming) demand for slaves fell and slave prices rose • • Almost 700,000 slaves were sold to the lower South 1815-1860; slave trade provides vital capital Lessening slave use in upper South made them think whether slavery or industrialization was the way to go

The Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • The rise of short-staple cotton as the lower South’s cash crop strengthened the hold of slavery/plantation agriculture • Cotton gin (1793) allows cotton to become a major market crop; large planters monopolized land along rivers and thus obviated the problem of transporting their goods Centers of cotton production shifted westward 1800s – 1850s; accompanied by an increase in production from 13,000 bales in 1792 to 4.8 million bales in 1860 Slavery and cotton were inextricably linked;
45

• •

All Things American / Monzón
• • Cotton did not create general prosperity for the South Planters dealt with boom/bust cycle by managing their finances properly

Slavery and Industrialization • Benefit of a plantation agriculture economy obviated supporters of Southern industrialization, who saw dependence on the North for marketing facilities and manufactured goods as a threat to the Southern economy’s self-sufficiency • Small minority of slaves work in mills; debate develops over whether lower-class whites or slaves should populate the industrial workforce

The “Profitability Issue” • Earliest examinations on the cotton economy revealed that the price of slaves was increasing faster than the return on cotton, that slavery was dying off and that profitability of the economy depended on finding fertile land, most of which had been taken up by 1860 • Later examinations revealed that the returns equaled the highest returns possible in the industrial economy of the North, that slavery was sound through to the Civil War, and that new lands were constantly being procured thanks to railroads and levees

The Economy of the South • In comparison to the North, the South was an underdeveloped region where the cotton economy benefited a gentile minority and blocked off the wider opportunities that would come from a diversified economy • • • There was little incentive to work hard A lack of public education for whites and slaves failed to develop human resources So long as Southern economy relied on slavery, it was doomed

Conclusion: Worlds in Conflict (p. 326) • As observed by northern traveler Frederick Law Olmsted, treatment of slaves ranged from humane paternalism to flagrant cruelty; the South was a kaleidoscope of groups divided by class, race, culture and geography held together by a booming plantation agriculture

46

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 12 / The Pursuit of Perfection
OUTLINE In the winter of 1830-1831, Charles G. Finney hosts several masses in Rochester, New York, preaching evangelical Protestantism that allowed sinners to repent their deeds, thus providing a stronger sense of identity and purpose for the higher classes struggling with the side effects of rapid economic development ● Religiously inspired reformism both brought unity to divided sites like Rochester, but also inspired radical movements like abolitionism that would later cause civil war The Rise of Evangelicalism

Although, Enlightenment-age secularity was still seen as the basis of democracy, evangelic Protestants worked to increase membership in Protestant churches, capitalizing on the willingness of American to spread the beliefs themselves, believing that the nation would be safe once a right-minded minority preached and molded ordinary Americans into their higher level The Second Great Awakening in the South

The Second Great Awakening began in 1801 in the South of the US, in the form of highly emotional camp meetings (organized by Methodists, Baptists, or Presbyterians) that could last days and would feature a preacher leading a religiously needy mass of Southern planters and farmers in song and vociferous prayer; won some converts but did not promote social reform due to its conflict with the conservatism of southern slavery The Second Great Awakening in the North

Revivalism in the North, headed by Congregationalists and Presbyterians, began in New England as Thomas Dwight, new president of Yale College in 1795, defended Calvinism against the Enlightenment’s liberal views of religion, particularly attacking “Unitarians” that believed in the Deity as being a master architect of a rational universe rather than an omnipotent God; however, the limited appeal of Calvinist predestination inhibited Dwight’s efforts despite a series of on-campus revivals ● Nathaniel Taylor, a disciple of Dwight, preaches the idea that every individual had a control over his future (free agency), giving rise to a new evangelical Calvinism ● Lyman Beecher, the first practitioner of evangelical Calvinism, modified Taylor’s ideas and preached them at several Congregational New England churches around the War of 1812; earns followers ● Charles Finney departed radically from evangelical Calvinism, believed free agency gave way to free will; aimed to appeal to peoples’ emotion rather than doctrine/reason; sought instantaneous conversions by way of overnight sessions

47

All Things American / Monzón
where repentant members were given special attention, and encouraging women to participate ● Despite Beecher’s and other eastern evangelicals’ criticism of Finney’s methods, the same gradually lessened as it was evident that Finney left behind active churches thanks to his emotionalism From Revivalism to Reform Revivalism in the North gave way to social reform because people were looking for a way to preserve their moral values in a new market economy ● Several institutions form: Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, American Bible Society (Samuel Mills), American Tract Society (1825; distributed tracts to seamen, native Americans, urban poor), an asylum for rescuing “abandoned women” (prostitutes; an example of new moral revival societies) ● Beecher’s temperance movement was directed against drinking; it mostly attacked patriarchs, and women played a vital role; whiskey was the most popular drink by the 1820s; drunkenness was seen as a threat to public morality and the family; elite feared riotous behavior from drunken poor; American Temperance Society (1826) protests against hard liquor (not beer nor wine) through lecturers, literature, revival meetings; temperance movement is effective as shown by the decrease in per capita consumption of whiskey by more than 50% in the 1830s ● Cooperating missionary and reform societies constitute “the benevolent empire”, fostering a willingness to change American attitudes and providing the middle class with self-control/self-disciple befit for the new market economy Domesticity and Changes in the American Family

The evangelical reform of the 1820/30s changed the roles and view of the American family Marriage for Love

New import on mutual affection meant parents exercised less control over marriages ● Despite extant patriarchy and a difficulty of divorce, women began to behave more like the companions of their husbands and less like their servants, evidenced by affectionate forms of address (“honey”, “darling”) and the mutual exchange of advice and ideas between the two The Cult of Domesticity

The Cult of Domesticity summarizes the new role of the woman; she serves as the spiritual head of the family by providing a merciful savior mediating between a stern father and his erring children, instilling a strict ethical code in her family members; springs up as a result of the division between the working lives of men and women ● Industrialization gives rise to a daily routine in which the man heads out to the city in the early morning and leaves the woman at home to care for the

48

All Things American / Monzón
children(an idea which exalted motherhood), the upkeep of the home, and the welfare of the husband upon his return; some took up jobs themselves ● Despite the new arrangement possibly being construed as a rationalization for male dominance, women did not mind it, because their new position as official guardians of religious and moral values put them in a plausible position of superiority over men ● Middle-class women experienced a sense of solidarity that gave rise to a feminine subculture ● Women participated in a range of activities; some in crusades against intemperance and sexual vice; some in benevolent societies, where they handled money, organized meetings ● Catharine Beecher campaigns to make school teaching a woman’s occupation, as only women could instill unique virtues in young males ● The domestic ideology did not befit lower-class unmarried women, whom often toiled in sweatshops or factories, although due to their being barely able to support themselves as well as being at the mercy of male sexual predators, prostitution was a plausible alternative The Discovery of Childhood Families became “child-centered”, in which the care and proper upbringing of the child was seen as the family’s main function ● Children were sent away for apprenticeships at a very early age; literature directed at juveniles becomes popular ● Child-centric families give way to intimate relations between children and parents; guided by a pursuit of moral perfection, parents used less corporal punishment and more guilt-trip style punishments in which they’d send the children to their rooms to reflect on their sins1 ● Increased emphasis on child care makes smaller families, aided by the practice of safe-sex using the withdrawal methods or early condoms; abortion becomes more popular ● Southern, rural families short of labor were in essence “older” because they focused on attaining larger families whilst Northern, urban families hoping to send their children into a competitive world demanding special talents were “newer” in wanting smaller families Institutional Reform

Reform of educational (schools) and rehabilitative (asylums, prisons) institutions begins Educational Institution Reform

Schools are to serve as an extension of children’s upbringing beyond the home, as well as a home for poor and immigrant children ● Before the 1820s, education was mostly private (charity or “pauper” schools); public education was most popular in the North (ordered by law in new England) and weakest in the South

1

“A mother’s sorrow or a father’s stern and prolonged silence was deemed more effective in forming character than were blows or angry words.”
49

All Things American / Monzón
Movement for public education begins 1820s/30s as a central demand of workingmen’s movements, who viewed it as the unifying agent between the rich and poor; initially met by criticism from selfish taxpayers; Horace Mann of Mass. works to establish a state board for education and attain proper funding for schools (establishes and is head of board by 1848; also discouraged corporal punishment); converts opposing middle/upper class people by conceiving education as a means of social discipline and a pathway to betterment for the poor ● Schools taught reading, writing, and arithmetic ● Criticism is drawn at the lack of a future for poor children after elementary education, as well as at the evangelical Protestant tone of “moral instruction” that was also taught in schools, (one-culture-fits-all), including industry, punctuality, sobriety, frugality; prepared generations of industry-ready, yet brainwashed Americans ● Education institutes for adults such as lyceums, mechanic’s institutes, or debating societies also existed in nearly every town (e.g. Abraham Lincoln got much of his education from the New Salem debating society) Rehabilitative Institution Reform

1820s/30s sees increasing attention to criminals and lunatics; reformists’ thinking that illnesses of the mind could be corrected coincided with economic development making communities less cohesive (inhibiting neighborly treatment of deviants) to produce the development of special institutions for the confinement and reformation of deviants such as prisons, insane asylums, and poorhouses in New York and Philadelphia ● In theory, solitary confinement would allow deviants to reflect on their sins and, aided by custodians that were to provide moral advice and training, reform themselves; in practice, a rigorous set of rules set forth by the earliest wardens (believing it would foster self-discipline), the segregation of genders, lack of public support, overcrowding, and resulting use of brutality made the institutions inefficient ● Dorothea Dix rallies for improvement 1838 – Civil War; succeeds in the opening of new hospitals and reorganization of existing rehabilitative institutions Reform Turns Radical
● ● Some evangelical reformers turned radical Divisions in the Benevolent Empire

Rifts begin occurring in existing benevolent societies: division in the Temperance Society over whether their anti-intemperance campaigns should also target beer and wine, not only their users as well as their sellers; a secession from the American Peace Society by a small group who believed that even defensive violence by nations or individuals was a violation of Christian beliefs (formed New England Non-Resistance Society, lead by Henry C. Wright) Antislavery Movement – American Colonization Society

50

All Things American / Monzón
Many in the American Colonization Society believed slavery was an inveterate evil that could only be eliminated gradually and with the cooperation of slaveholders ● They form the West African colony of Liberia in 1821 and sponsor free trips there to willing emancipated blacks; is met with criticism from Northern blacks denouncing it as racial prejudice; instigates white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison to take action ● Garrison launches radical anti-slavery movement in Boston, 1831 through the Liberator, a forceful abolitionist publication; follows up by forming American Anti-Slavery Society (1833) Antislavery Movement - The Abolitionist Enterprise
● ● ● ●

● ●

The abolitionist movement is a direct outgrowth of the Second Great Awakening Many abolitionists were commuted to a life of Christian activism and sought an opportunity to give back Theodore Dwight Weld, following conversion in 1826, turned his attention to the moral issues raised by slavery by the 1830s; becomes an abolitionist in 1832 following his disapproval of the Colonization Society’s efforts; begins a series of abolitionist revivals at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, leads a student walkout to Oberlin College; tours Ohio/western NY in 1835/36 preaching abolitionism Abolitionism becomes popular in Ohio/NY; abolitionists had to deal with fierce oppression in large cities but won over mobile families engaged in small businesses or trades Were wary of traveling South with their ideas (e.g. abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy’s death in Miss.) Racism that was wary of blacks becoming economic challenge provided they became citizens caused violence against abolition

Antislavery Movement – Garrison’s Ideals

In the late 1830s, Garrison urges abolitionists to stop voting and attacks the church of failing to take a stand on the issue; disillusions abolitionists thinking they could influence or take over the government ● Upon electing a woman abolitionist as the head of American Anti-Slavery Society in 1840, Garrison causes a minority led by Lewis Tappan to break off and form their own organization ● The ordeal causes Garrison to lose favor with abolitionists ● Liberty Party, pushing an antislavery agenda, forms in 1840 and enters the political sphere Antislavery Movement – Black Abolitionists

51

All Things American / Monzón
Black abolitionists often operated separate from their white counterparts due to uneasy relations (e.g. Negro Convention, 1830) ● Publications (Frederick Douglass’ North Star, 1847; David Walker’s Appeal … to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829) gave a voice to black abolitionists ● The Underground Railroad, through a network of black-run “stations” and “vigilance committees”, was run by courageous ex-slaves like Harriet Tubman and helped save many slaves from bondage

Antislavery Movement – A Success?

Although it failed to convert a majority of Americans to the idea that slavery was sinful, the movement brought slavery to the forefront of public consciousness ● Southern response was a militant and uncompromising defense of slavery; in 1836, they urged Congress to reject any antislavery proposals without reading them ● Northerners not before interested in abolitionism became aware when it threatened their own liberties

From Abolitionism to Women’s Rights

Women’s involvement in abolitionism, such as those involved in sending petitions to Congress on behalf of the American Anti-Slavery Society, gave way to a women’s rights movement ● Some abolitionist females, like Sarah and Angelina Grimké, spoke out on their own and demanded leadership positions in the abolitionist movement; an 1840 ordeal involving the withdrawal of American men from the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London on the basis that women would also be present was an example of an extant male dominance; after the episode, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton organize a women’s rights campaign in New York (Seneca Falls Convention, 1848), demanding suffrage and property rights

Radical Ideas and Experiments

● ●

Some reform movements did not follow evangelical Protestantism Short-lived utopian socialism was a radical movement of foreign origin as it began with British Richard Owen’s socialist community in New Harmony, Indiana; it and a sister community both failed; inspired Charles Fourier’s “phalanxes”, which were cooperative communities established across the northeast and Midwest; also were short-lived

52

All Things American / Monzón
Successful utopianism movements included the attempts of the Shakers; began as a religious movement in England; these were people who believed in simple living, communal ownership, and strict celibacy; called Shakers due to their dancelike movements when expressing religious fervor; established Oneida community in 1848 in New York; outlawed marriage and believed in “free love” ● Transcendentalism, the belief that an individual could attain a higher form of reason in the form of spiritual oneness with the universe, was headed by Ralph Waldo Emerson; most members were dissatisfied Unitarians; involved Margaret Fuller, the female intellectual of the time; community forms in Concord, Mass. ● A separate community formed at Brook Farm in Mass. In 1841; this was a cooperative community that believed in spontaneity and the value of art ● Henry David Theoreau’s living alone experiment was also a transcendentalist venture; documented in his Walden (1854)

Conclusion: Counterpoint on Reform?

Perfectionist movements had goals too high; revivals could not make everyone like Christ, temperance could not solve all social problems, abolitionism would not bring a peaceful end to slavery, and transcendentalism could not fully remove people from the nature of daily life

53

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 13 / An Age of Expansionism
OUTLINE By the 1840s and 1850s, the idea of Young America is popularized by such writers as Ralph Waldo Emerson as a progressive new generation that would lead a surge of expansionism, constituted by a belligerent foreign policy, a positive attitude towards a developing market economy, and a celebration of American virtues (e.g. youngest president yet, James Polk, is elected in 1845; “too young to be corrupt …”) ● In reality, however, those “Young Americans” were young Democrats wanting to secede from their party’s aversion to expansions, and before 1848 existed mainly in the form of westward expansion; it was after that the focus shifted to internal improvements

MOVEMENT TO THE FAR WEST

Westward movement reaching the pacific by pioneers seeking fertile land or religious freedom set the stage for annexations and crises in the 1840s

Borderlands of the 1830s

● ●

An ongoing debate over the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick, Canada poisoned Anglo-American relations until 18242, when the WebsterArbushton Treaty gives half of the disputed territory to the US, and the other to British Canada Joint occupation of Oregon from 1827 on In 1821, Mexico’s independence from Spain allows it to claim Texas, NM, Ariz., Cali. Nevada, Utah, and much of Colorado; Mexico’s free-trade policy provokes westward expansionists when the policy is extended to the US California, a scarcely populated land of huge estates and large cattle herds, composed of a Mexican minority and a farm-working Indian majority, was controlled by a chain of 21 mission states Following Mexico’s 1833 Secularization Act, which rid Indians of church control and opened California lands for settlement, a new class of rancheros, which took over nearly 50,000 acres of land and establish harsh servitude for the Indians, springs up; rancheros become American legends, icon of California American interest in California was cowhides; interest rises in eastern business circles

54

All Things American / Monzón
The Texas Revolution

● ● ●

In the 1820s, Mexico spurred American immigration by a land grant to Stephen Austin, by which 300 hundred families, attracted by fertile, inexpensive land, settled in Mexico Anglo-American settlers refused to follow Mexico’s rules of no slavery, conversion to Roman Catholicism, and paying import duties; Mexico inhibits further Americna immigration but crimes continue Texans complain about representation in Mexican government; they remonstrate in 1832 against the arrest of several Anglo-Americans by a Mexican commander Austin rallies in favor of Texans; only succeeds in lifting the immigration ban In 1834, General Santa Anna takes over Mexico and establishes militant rule; sends reinforcements to Texas after finding out that Texans had been dodging customs collections; Texan victories occur at Anahuac and San Antonio

The Republic of Texas

American delegates in Texas convene and declare their independence March 1836 and establish a constitution ● Texas Mexicans (tejanos) join fight against Santa Anna, although some would later be subject to anti-Mexican sentiment regardless ● Losses at the Alamo and Goliad (1836) are matched by decisive victory at San Jacinto (1836); Santa Anna is captured and forced to sign Texan independence treaty that recognized Texan expanse all the way to the Rio Grande ● San Jacinto hero, Sam Houston, becomes president of Texas and seeks US annexation; Lone Star Republic attracts thousands seeking 1820-acre land grants following the Panic of 1837

Trails of Trade and Settlement

A substantial trade route developed between Missouri and Santa Fe following New Mexico’s open-trade policy; merchants would travel in large caravans to be protected from hostile Indians; federal gov’t. would provide troops as necessary; profits from textiles and manufactured goods justified the risk ● Souring Mexico-Texas relations inhibited Santa Fe trade (esp. with 1842 Mexico banning on importation of many of the Santa Fe goods) ● The Oregon Trail (2,000 miles across several mountain ranges, about six months long) brings thousands of Americans to California and Oregon (esp. 1843)

The Mormon Trek
55

All Things American / Monzón

Members of the largest American religious denomination (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints; Mormons) travel across Oregon Trail to establish a colony in the region of the Great Salt Lake ● The death of Joseph Smith, their leader, at an earlier settlement in Carthage, Illinois (esp. following his controversial backing of polygamy) is what moves Mormons to the Great Salt Lake (led by Brigham Young, 1846) ● “The state of Deseret” (Mormon Utah) became a western settlement success story thanks to its communitarian form of social organization, a centralized government, and religious unity; however, it faced political problems because upon their original settlement, Utah was Mexican property, and following its independence, Mormons fought to remain autonomous against the US government; Young eventually becomes the appointed territorial governor for Utah

MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR

Expansionist ideals (esp. the United States’ Manifest Destiny) lead to diplomatic confrontation with Great Britain and a war with Mexico

Tyler and Texas

John Tyler became President after William H. Harrison’s death; he was a proslavery and pro-states’ rights Virginian who didn’t agree with Whigs (his own party) that now supported Henry Clay’s American System ● Beginning 1843, Tyler seeks the annexation of Texas as a slave state to favor the South; he enlists the help of pro-slavery John C. Calhoun sees the plan as an opportunity to determine the might of the abolitionist institution; fake reports of GB offering economic assistance to Texas in return for the abolition of slavery are used to rally support for annexation ● A treaty is brought to the Senate in 1844, blaming GB for an attack upon Texas’ livelihood and naming annexation as the only solution; deal is seen as a proslavery act, thus the Senate votes against it

56

All Things American / Monzón
The Triumph of Polk and Annexation

Tyler’s failure to annex Texas, as well as being out of tune with Whig ideals, force him to bail out of 1844 election ● Anti-annexation former President, Martin Van Buren, would’ve won the Democratic nomination had the convention been held before the annexation issue took hold; strikes a deal with Whig candidate, anti-expansionist Henry Clay to publicly oppose annexation ● Avowed expansionist James Polk takes the Democratic nomination, calling for the simultaneous annexation of Texas and assertion of American claims to Oregon; Polk wins by a finite margin, evident of an ambivalent expansionism amongst Democrats

The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny

● ●

Polk’s victory earns support, and eventually allows for the annexation of Texas John O’ Sullivan, a proponent of the Young America movement, coins the Manifest Destiny; this ideal suggests that the United States will expand all the way to the Pacific based on divinely ordained expansionism (going back to Puritan roots), free development (extending democracy), and the need for larger territorial expansion to accommodate population growth

Polk and the Oregon Question

● ●

In 1845-46, Polk feeds expansionist fever against GB’s control in Oregon by adapting an aggressive foreign policy that laid claim to the territory An 1845 offer to GB of a boundary at the 49th parallel is refused on the basis of no access to the Columbia River or all of Vancouver Island; offended, Polk gets Congress to void the joint occupation treaty by 1846 Taking the act as a threat to move north towards the 54DEGREESIGN 40’ expansionists wanted, GB accepts 49th parallel but their rights to navigate the Columbia River are made temporary by US Congress; state of tension arises whilst negotiations are going on due to GB warships that are dispatched to the Western Hemisphere Polk’s final treaty alienates Old Northwest expansionists who supported his original call for all of Oregon, but it avoided war and gave the US what it wanted (its first deepwater port on the Pacific near Puget Sound) The acquisition of Pacific lands was seen as essential (by Northerners) to counterbalance the annexation of slaveholding Texas

War with Mexico
57

All Things American / Monzón

● ●

● ●

When the US annexed Texas, it prompted a belligerent response (suspsending diplomatic relations) from Mexico as Texas had taken a disputed claim over the land between the Nueces River and Rio Grande Polk sends John Slidell to Texas negotiate the claim, as well as possibly purchase California and New Mexico; Mexico refuses his offer, so Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to advance into the disputed territory in 1846; Mexican victory at Matamoros (April 21) begins fighting Mexican-American War is declared May 13 American victories at Matamoros, Monterrey; Taylor is replaced by General Winfield Scott due to his not invading Mexico, but scores another victory at Buena Vista (1847); regarded as a national hero An expedition led by Colonel Stephen Kearny captures New Mexico; also captures California along with an expedition of explorers by 1847 General Scott’s lays siege to port city Veracruz in 1847; marches to Mexico City by August and captures it September 14

Settlement of the Mexican-American War

Mexico’s unwillingness to cooperate with Polk’s terms doesn’t affect diplomat Nicholas Trist’s effort (who was accompanying Scott’s army) to get California and New Mexico, which Mexico cedes to the US for $15 million in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; treaty also establishes Rio Grande as the border between Texas/Mexico and ensures that the US would assume substantial claims of American citizens against Mexico; overall, 20% land gain; 1853 Gadsden Purchase later acquires southernmost parts of Arizona and New Mexico ● Unwillingness to acquire Mexico is based on racism towards its population and anticolonialist sentiment; prime goal was vital trading ports of San Francisco and San Diego in California ● War with Mexico fostered political dissension (e.g. Whigs opposing expansionism based on morals, Northern abolitionists labeling the war as an effort to spread slavery, debating of the Wilmot Proviso which would end prohibit slavery in new territories) that inhibited further expansion but fostered internal development

INTERNAL EXPANSIONISM

Internal development, spurred by technological advances such as the railroad and the telegram, as well as socio-cultural developments such as the discovery of gold

58

All Things American / Monzón
in California in 1848 and a new wave of immigrants ready to exploit all the new land, resulted in economic growth, urbanization, industrialization, and a new working class The Triumph of the Railroad

The first two American railroads began operations in 1830 and 1831, borrowing the technology from steam locomotives already in use in England; however, the lower unit cost of transporting freight along canals restricted the popularity of railroads to port cities that didn’t have good canal routes to the interior ● European investment fueled railroad extension (9000 mi, 1850 to 20,000 mi, 1860), which increasingly succeeded over canal boat shipping thanks to improved track construction and the development of more efficient locomotives ● The development of railroads fostered the domestic iron industry, helped set the pattern for the separation of ownership by selling stock to the general public, developed “preferred stock” (with no voting rights, and a fixed rate of return) and long term bonds at a fixed interest rate; despite dominant laissez-faire, state and local governments often assisted railroad barons economically

The Industrial Revolution Takes Off

An increasing amount of goods, but not all, adopted a factory mode of production (incl. wool, 1830s; cotton, 1840s; iron, 1850s; firearms, clocks, sewing machines) which enabled the gathering of a supervised workforce in one place, cash wages for workers, the use of interchangeable parts, and manufacture by repetitive, easily distributable tasks; the factory mode was in turn made possible by improved technology such as the sewing machine (1846), the use of coal rather than charcoal for smelting, the accurate vernier caliper (1851), etc. ● American society remained largely agricultural in 1860, but even agriculture saw technological revolution by way of the steel plow (1837), mechanical reaper (Cyrus McCormick) (1834), etc. ● A dynamic interaction between transportation, industry (esp. the mechanization of the same), and agriculture made a resilient American economy (e.g. farmers that shipped their harvest to larger markets by railroad)

Mass Immigration Begins

The mechanization of the industry was fueled by an availability of male, ablebodied, low-wage labor (hence the extensive use of women and children in
59

All Things American / Monzón
factories) that was remediated by an influx of mostly Irish, but also German and other European immigration from1840 to 1860 of no less than 4.2 million people Irish immigrants left for America due largely to the potato famine in Ireland (1845 – 1854); they came across in ships carrying limber and settled in northeastern states, where their devotion to Catholicism, amongst other things, earned them the rank of native-born Americans Immigrant Germans came in with diversified agricultural skills and a small amount of capital which not only allowed them to become successful midwestern farmers (or artisans) but also to escape the rank encountered by the Irish, regardless of whether they were Catholic or Protestant The influx of immigration causes congestion in industrial centers, to which middle-class reformers respond to by working for the professionalization of police forces, sanitary water, sewage disposal system, and upgraded housing standards; have little success C ities become segregated by ethnicity (e.g. rich living in comfortable suburbs), although communal events, as well as the fact that both poor and rich walked the same streets, contribute to a unifying effect

The New Working Class

Immigrant wage workers fuel the Industrial Revolution; add to or replace nativeborn workforce (e.g. Lowell, Mass.; 3.7% - 61.7% foreign workers, 1836-1860) ● Cost-conscious employers lengthen workdays and make employees handle more machinery; cause reform movements by both males and females (e.g. Female labor Reform Association); somewhat successful; immigrant wage workers were more conservative; as a whole, the transition from agricultural to industrial wage labor took time and was difficult

CONCLUSION: THE COSTS OF EXPANSION

An apparent future of wage labor contradicts with American ideals of opportunity and upward mobility

Stephen Douglas, the 1860 Democratic candidate considered the embodiment of the Young American ideal, notices sectionalism resulting from acquisition of new lands, and sees slavery as a major obstacle; loss reflects the futility of youthful expansionist ideas against the tensions and divisions that the very same had b

60

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 14: The Sectional Crisis
OUTLINE

Brooks Assaults Sumner in Congress
A violent 1856 episode on the floor of the Senate, between pro-slavery southern Representative Preston Brooks and anti-slavery Charles Sumner, in which Brooks physically attacks Sumner following a fiery speech condemning the South for wanting to extend slavery, are representative of the bitter sectional antagonism that had developed by 1856 ● Southerners felt truly threatened by abolitionist-resembling Republicans that were mobilizing the North against “slave power” which after all, was their way of life ● The 1854 Kansas-Nebraska acts instigates or revives sectionalism

THE COMPROMISE OF 1850

Increasingly sectional, uncompromising parties fail to disrupt second party system (Whigs v. Democrats), emotion and ideology are not yet as divisive

The Problem of Slavery in the Mexican Cession
The Constitution gave the federal government the right to abolish int’l slave trade but not to restrict slavery within states ● Northerners disliked slavery but detested abolitionism, regarding the Constitution as a binding contract between slave and free states and seeing no legal or desirable way to emancipate southern slaves ● Missouri Compromise established a slavery line that extended westward under which new states could practice slavery; Mexican Cession of California and New Mexico presented slave/free state imbalance as they were both south of the line, and no two new free states were there to even it out

The Wilmot Proviso Launches the Free-Soil Movement

Congressman David Wilmot begins the “Free-Soil crusade” in August 1846, when he proposes an amendment that would ban slavery in any new territory obtained from Mexico; spoke for northerners that were upset by the “prosouthern” policies of the Polk administration (denying “all of Oregon” in favor of Mexican war, making tariffs too low for Northern manufactured goods, and failing to allow federal funding for the improvement of rivers and harbors)
61

All Things American / Monzón
Pr oposing that slavery be banned in new territories to prevent job competition from slaves and free blacks made a connection between racism and resistance to slavery that enabled Wilmot to gain favor with a Northern majority (esp. Northern whigs) ● Congressional voting on the Wilmot Proviso reveals deep sectional affinities (Northerners for it, Southerners against) and the bill is defeated ● Imminent 1848 election and end of the Mexican-American War emphasize need to develop a bisectionally supported plan

Squatter Sovereignty and the Election of 1848
Michigan Senator Lewis Cass develops concept of popular sovereignty, where the actual settlers, following a convention, would decide on the status of slavery in their state; idea appealed esp. to Democrats ● Congress’ failure to resolve the slavery issue enables it to enter the arena of presidential politics; Democrats choose Lewis Cass, Whigs select military hero Zachary Taylor (without a platform) ● Van Buren’s Free-Soil party, supported by Whigs dismayed by a slaveholding candidate, Democrats disgruntled by southern influence in their party, and former Liberty Party adherents, represents first significant party appealing to slaveryconcerned voters ● Taylor becomes president 1848

Taylor Takes Charge

Taylor tries to expedite annexation of California and New Mexico; Cali’s appeal to be a free state infuriates Southerners, who gradually become more united and consider secession

Forging a Compromise
Senator Henry Clay draws up the basis for the Compromise of 1850 by planning to: allow Cali. in as a free state, resting on the unsuitableness to cotton of arid New Mexico to decide the fate of slavery, grant the Texas-Mexico disputed region to New Mexico, and prohibiting the exchange of slaves at auction as well as permitting the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia ● Taylor opposed the bill and Democratic/Whig Congresmmen had trouble deciding an omnibus bill; later, Taylor’s death and the fragmentation of the bill make De

62

All Things American / Monzón
mocrats prime supporters as well as modifiers of some of the individual acts (e.g. allowing complete popular sovereignty in New Mexico/Utah) ● New Fugitive Slave Law denies accused runaway blacks of a fair trial and the right to testify on their behalf; threatens free blacks who could no longer prove their identity; is unpopular in pro-abolition areas of the North ● Compromise passes thanks to support to specific parts from northern Democrats and southern Whigs; keeps sectional peace for a while; bisectional support removes slavery from political spotlight

POLITICAL UPHEAVAL, 1852-1856
Democrat (pro-Manifest Destiny with balance between slave/free states) and Whig (anti-expansion for it would risk bringing slavery to the forefront) aversion to take stands on slavery that would alienate voters form either section of the country actually gave voters different ways of dealing with the same ● Collapse of the second party system due to their incapability to find platforms other than slavery fosters sectional agitation

The Party System in Crisis
Protestant Whigs find a plausible platform in immigration, as they disliked the influx of Catholic immigrants; they elect General Winfield Scott as their candidate; publicize Catholic upbringing of his daughters; strategy backfires when Scott turns abolitionist ● Whigs lose touch with the people; voter apathy becomes common as no party offers alternative ideals to the other; Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce wins out of his party’s support for the 1850 Compromise rather than popular Democratic approval

The Kansas-Nebraska Act Raises a Storm
Expansionist Stephen Douglas seeks popular sovereignty organization of Kansas and Nebraska to further creation of a Pacific-reaching railroad ● Votes for the Kansas-Nebraska Act are evenly divided; Northerners interpret it as a surrender to slave power; Southerners initially lack interest but later push to support it

63

All Things American / Monzón
Breaks sectional peace because it makes a concession only to the South; Whig party breaks when sectionalism over the Act divides it, and Democrats lose their power as a unifying national force; Democratic seats are replaced by various labels ● “Anti-Nebraska” Whigs, dismayed Democrats and Free-Soilers form Republican Party ● Pierce’s expansionist Ostend Manifesto (an appeal to Spain for Cuba) was interpreted by Northerners as support of the southern idea of a Caribbean slave trade

An Appeal to Nativism: The Know-Nothing Episode

Political Nativism emerges during the 1840s as a result of hostility towards Catholic immigrants (e.g. anti-Catholic riots and propaganda); a local organization in New York called that is eventually called the Know-Nothing party is founded in 1849; aims to lengthen naturalization period to undercut immigrant voting strength; party finds support from former Whigs and Democrats, as well as native-born workers fearing competition; generally opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act ● Succeeds rapidly (increasingly gains statewide support, becomes prime opposition of the Democrats and replacement of the Whigs by 1855) but falls just as quickly (due to an extant split over the question of slavery that coincides with the KansasNebraska act and a post-1856 re-prioritization of the issue, as well as an “antipolitical” character that only allowed inexperienced leaders at the helm of the effort); Republicans grow popular

Kansas and the Rise of the Republicans
The Republican Party is an outgrowth of an 1854 anti-Nebraska coalition; argues against a “salve-power conspiracy” that threatens greater American liberty/equality; generally against pro-immigrant policies (e.g. no alcohol, observance of the Sabbath, etc.) ● Quickly establishes national presence, ready to make a presidential bid by 1856 ● Republicans view the West as an opportunity for economic expansion; if slavery was permitted to expand “free labor” would be threatened as sovereign slaveholders would monopolize the beat land and favor pro-slavery gov’t measures; sometimes use racial prejudice

64

All Things American / Monzón
A bitter contest for territorial control erupts following organization of Kansas in 1854; Missourians cross the border in large numbers and gain control’ legalize slavery and prohibit anti-slavery outbursts ● Armed border conflict between an anti-slavery faction that organizes a “freestate” within Kansas, and the Kansas territorial gov’t, culminates in a monthslong guerilla war headed by anti-slavery zealot John Brown; press publicizes a federal gov’t that supports a proslavery minotirty; ordeal allows Republicans to gai favor as they propagandize an evil and aggressive “slave power”

Sectional Division in the Election of 1856
Republicans (anti-slavery Kansas, nationwide prohibition of slavery) nominate Mexican-American War Colonel John Frémont; Democrats (popular sovereignty), nominate James Buchanan; American party (remnant of the Know-Nothing party) nominates ex-president Millard Fillmore; serves as an opportunity for antiDemocrats and anti-Republicans to fight for the revival of sectional compromise ● Democrat Buchanan wins but Republicans win 11/16 free states; Republican success worries Southerners and revives talk of secession

The House Divided, 1857 – 1860

Growing sectionalism forges idea that North and South should exist separately

Cultural Sectionalism
Churches had become divided by the mid-1840s over the slavery issue; Methodist, Baptist, and Protestant churches in the North denounced slaveholding as a sin whilst their southern counterparts biblically defended it ● Southern writers (Gilmore Simms, Edgar Allan Poe) wrote plantation romances that glorified Southern civilization while Northern writers (Emerson, Thoreau, Melville) expressed strong antislavery sentiments; Harriet Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is wildly successful and affects both North and South ● Banning of Northern textbooks, encouraging Southern youth to remain in the South for higher education, a movement for industrial development, and growing endorsement of a southern nation appear

The Dred Scott Case

65

All Things American / Monzón
The Supreme Court’s verdict – that no African American had a right to citizenship, even if he/she had lived in a free state – rendered both the Missouri Compromise and the Republican platform unconstitutional ● Earns heated response from Northerners who label it the worst pro-slavery act yet; Republicans argue that statewide slavery bans could still be enacted; ordeal adds to their “slave power” platform

The L ecompton Controversy
Kansas develops pro-slavery Lecompton constitution; give fair vote only for slavery clause; because free-state majority can’t speak against slavery, they boycott but as a result allow the constitution to protect existing slave property; eventually, free-state majority gains gov’t control, pro-slavery minority boycotts; pro-slavery US president Buchanan votes to admit Kansas under Lecompton constitution; Reps. and Dems. vote down the move; Lecompton is resubmitted to Kansas; effaced ● Douglas had spoken out against ordeal; gains favor with anti-Buchanan Northerners but loses chance of uniting Dem. Party (Buchanan is Dem.) through solving slavery by pop. sovereignty

Debating the Morality of Slavery

Former Whig Abraham Lincoln runs against Douglas for Illinois Senate in 1858; argues that the nation cannot continue united being half-and-half; attacks Douglas’ unwillingness to take a stand on the morality of slavery and the fact that he was not a principled opponent of it; believes solution to sectionalism is moral opposition to human bondage; Douglas attacks Lincoln’s plan to allow blacks the right to the fruits of their own labor but not to citizenship

The South’s Crisis of Fear
● ●

A Southern “crisis of fear” develops through a set of pre-1860 events In Harpers Ferry, Virginia, radical abolitionist John Brown seizes federal arsenal; aims to instigate a guerilla war that would reach the Southern plantation; northern

66

All Things American / Monzón
abolitionists’ alleged funding of the effort convinced Southerners of northern insurrection; they place vigilance committees to patrol slaves; orators preach secession ● Rep. House candidate, John Sherman, endorses Southern non-slaveholding majority’s plausible uprising against the elite; Southerners oppose; Sherman eventually isn’t elected; his ideas raise fear of a Republican president; rising price of slaves also cause fear of subversion by the minority

The Election of 1860

● ●

● ● ●

Lincoln, having been born in Illinois (vital Rep. state) and being a “rags-toriches” story, is nominated by the Republicans instead of radical William Seward and his opposition to Nativism Economic issues join 1860 election (federal aid for internal improvements, high protective tariff) Douglas succeeds in getting Democratic nomination and making pop. sovereignty the slavery platform, but pays the price of a two walkouts by delegates seeking federal protection of slavery Constitutional Union party represents sectional compromise spirit Lincoln wins 180 – 123 (three opponents combined); didn’t appear on the Southern ballot but won because he’d gotten votes in the North (the majority) Southerners interpreted it as a complete catastrophe, because with an anti-slavery administration, they could no longer influence politics and decisions they way they had before; secession becomes a reality

CONCLUSION: EXPLAINING THE CRISIS
Main concern of 1850s was the “right/wrong” of slavery and whether it should be extended; why economic differences between the North’s industry and the South’s agriculture were such a problem (although second to slavery) is odd ● Main root of sectional strife was that the South was a slave region stalwart on remaining this way, and the North was a free-labor region stalwart on remaining this way; had the South abolished slavery earlier, it wouldn’t have all been such a dilemma

67

All Things American / Monzón
The lack of a party that offered true alternatives to the other (decline of the second party system) provided for a situation in which newly mobilizing politicians were themselves the instigators of sectional strife; thus, if some of the movements are more appealing than others, there must be another reason why this is (in the 1820s, slavery had proved a resolvable issue) ● That reason is a cultural and social effect of slavery; the difference in economies of either region contributed to: in the North, a rising middle class befit for the market economy with the help of an evangelical Christianity that encouraged selfdisciple and social reform; in the South, the necessity of slaves was aided by an evangelicalism that supported personal piety but not social reform ● The notion that white liberty/equality depended on no social/economical change remained strong in the South ● Each region’s population was foreign to the other, so when this central conflict became the topic of political discourse, sectional compromise was no longer possible

68

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 15 / Secession and the Civil War
THE EMERGENCE OF LINCOLN

The man elected to the White House in 1860 was striking in appearance – 6 feet 4 inches tall, with long legs and “stovepipe” hat – but had little to no previous career, in difference to many of his competitors Born to poor and illiterate parents on the Kentucky frontier in 1809, Lincoln received little formal schooling and th us taught himself before moving to New Salem in 1831 and attempted to provide for himself by working as a surveyor, shopkeeper, local postmaster, and most unsuccessfully, a merchant, which left him in debt for years After he decides to study law in New Salem, he moves to Springfield in 1837, where his ascension to leadership in the Illinois Whig party gave him a chance to display a combination of political skill with a down-to-earth, humorous way of addressing others Following his time as a Whig Congressman (1847-1849), Lincoln did not seek reelection based on his stand against the Mexican-American War; after a Democratic candidate is elected in his place, Lincoln decides to focus on building his law practice The Kansas-Nebraska Ac t of 1854 allowed Lincoln to express his anti-slavery, anti-popular sovereignty views (esp. attacking Douglas), combining his driving political ambition and personal beliefs and making a stronger platform for himself; joins the Republican party and is nominated for President in 1860 The southern secession that Lincoln’s ascension to the presidency caused raised doubts about him, but his effectiveness as a war leader through the resulting Civil War was based on a capability to not only identify with the Northern cause of keeping the political system in America alive, but also rally support for the same

The Civil War

The Civil War questioned the principle of democracy (esp. as European nations had accepted that popular sovereignty would develop into anarchy), the shortcomings of a white man’s democracy (European nations had begun to grant blacks citizenship), and the rights of the federal government versus the state governments (esp. with the Southern secession)

THE STORM GATHERS
69

All Things American / Monzón

Only the failure of a compromise, and the formation of a united Norhtern resolve to preserve the Union would lead to armed conflict

The Deep South Secedes

● ●

● ●

On December 20th, 1860, a convention at Charleston approves and summarizes secession of N.C. based on the idea of sovereign states that could secede if the national government did not respect their institutions (e.g. slavery) Cooperationists, in other states, unsuccessfully suggest that the slave states should act as a unit By Feb. 1, S.C., Alabama, Miss. Fla., Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had seceded, Virginia, Tennessee, N.C. and Arkansas’ diversified agriculture, and thus, ties to free labor and the northern economy did not see Lincoln’s election as reason enough to secede, esp. due to the survival of a strong Unionist Whig element in those states On Feb. 4, Deep South delegates meet in Alabama to devise a constitution for the Confederate States of America; rejecting proposals from Southern extremists to reopen Atlantic slave trade, abolish 3/5ths clause, and prohibit admission of free states, but accepted denying the central government from imposing tariff or interfere with slavery Jefferson Davis becomes President, Alexander Stephens becomes VP Rejection of extremist policies illustrate attempt to get upper South’s cooperation; main aim of new nation is rebuilding the nation to what it was before the Republican party; only justification for Southern secession was more security for slavery

The Failure of Compromise
Congress sought compromise with the South; develops Crittenden compromise which extends Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific and prohibited federal government from ever abolishing or regulating state slavery ● Republicans question the adamancy of their policy against slavery; compromise is defeated as South vows to only accept a compromise once the Republican-filled Congress agrees to it (Lincoln, as president-elect, leads negation of the compromise) ● Republicans believe the only way to resolve the crisis was to remove any chance that slaveholders could extend their domain (e.g. to the Caribbean); Lincoln felt that acquiescing to secessionist threats weakened the preservation of American government

70

All Things American / Monzón

And the War Came
● ●

● ● ●

Northern coercive action against the South risked breaking commercial links; failed compromises, however, foster united Northern resolve for strong action Lincoln expresses that the South would have to attack first, and that only military installation would be defended, not conquered (if they were already taken by the South) ; shortly after taking office, Lincoln is informed of resource-hungry Fort Sumer in S.C., which the South is demanding ownership of; the North’s transport of aid to the fort is interpreted as a hostile action, and so they bombard Fort Sumter, assuming responsibility for the first shot (April 12, 1860) Slave-holding Union states (Ark., Tenn., N.C, and Virginia) join the Confederacy after Lincoln calls upon loyal states to form a militia against the South Attack on Sumter wakens Unionist fervor In the border slave States of Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, and Maryland, local Unionism and federal intervention prohibited secession (Kentucky proclaims neutrality but joins the Union after South sends troops into it, Maryland was brought into the union by martial law, and Missouri remains divided as pro-Union forces fail to gain a foothold)

71

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 16: The Agony of Reconstruction
Robert Smalls, a black man whose white ancestry exempted him from servitude and enabled him to become a pilot at Charleston Harbor, became an iconic abolitionist when he took over a Confederate ship at the breakout of the Civil War and surrendered it to the Union army ● He goes on to become a distinguished state politician (despite being denied from Congress) and businessman during Reconstruction, and essentially emulated a rich white American; fights for public education, federal civil rights laws, and land purchasing by blacks ● Mired by white supremacy and extralegal violence, Reconstruction failed to gain equality for newly freed blacks but did succeed in reorganizing labor and family life, as well as ideologies about and institutions of the government

THE PRESIDENT VERSUS CONGRESS

A major clash between the White House’s quick Restoration policy (just no slavery) and Congress’ more radical policy (displacement of Confederate elite, basic citizenship rights for blacks) looms over Reconstruction

Wartime Reconstruction
During the war, Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan provided that once 10% of the voting pop. of a Confederate state accepted emancipation, a loyal gov’t. (Unionist) could be set up; Louis. and Ark. follow through; met with criticism from Radical Republicans (who sought rights for blacks, esp. suffrage) and moderate Congressmen who viewed Unionists as detrimental to impending N. victory ● Congress passes Wade-Davis Bill (required 50% Unionism, allow fed. courts to enforce emancipation); Lincoln pocket vetoes it

Andrew Johnson at the Helm

Andrew Johnson (senator of Tenn. during Civil War; remained loyal; anti-planter elite) became President following Lincoln’s assassination; was a pro-slavery

72

All Things American / Monzón
Jacksonian Democrat; some Radical Republicans initially hope that his fervent Unionism would heavily punish ex-Confederates ● Johnson’s Reconstruction policy involved placing states under the control of provisional governors (anti-Confederate Southerners); wealthy planters had to gain indiv. Presidential pardon; gave white majorities a free hand in determining status of blacks ● Johnson urged illegalization of secession, repudiation of Confederate debt, and ratification of the 13th amendment ● Northern public opinion is upset by Black Codes (state laws denying blacks a choice of employer and forcing a separate penal code) and the election of exConfederate governors in 1865 (Johnson easily pardoned)

Congress Takes the Initiative
Clash occurs between Congress’ anti-Confederate rule, pro-black rights Reconstruction policy (Rep. leaders believed a Dem. state should have equal rights for all citizens; if anything, blacks could subjugate ex-Confederate power) and Johnson’s pro-prewar federal system, anti-pop. sovereignty for secession/slavery Reconstruction policy ● Johnson’s 1866 vetoes of a Freedman’s Bureau extension (agency for slave’s relief, education, employment) and a civil rights bill (nullifying Black Codes and giving rights to freedmen) shocked moderate Reps. who believed the proposals were less radical than black suffrage or ex-Confederate rights; vetoes are eventually overridden; Johnson founds anti-Congress’ Reconstruction policy party (Nat’l Union) ● Congress passes 14th Amendment (nat’l responsibility to ensure equal rights to all Americans; also penalized South for slavery, repudiated Confederate debt, and denied federal office to ex-Confederates); Southerners would have no chance of being admitted to Congress unless their states ratified the Amendment ● Johnson’s pro-states rights’ take is countered by race riots (states failed to protect ex-slaves); Radical Reps. gain favor

Congressional Reconstruction Plan Enacted

Congress passes Radical Reconstruction (1867/1868); 1st act places South under military rule; subsequent acts make readmission possible for states that embrace black suffrage; ex-Confederates were prohibited from voting; blacks would supposedly be protected from white supremacists once they had the vote; military rule ends because even some Radicals were unwilling to support centralized gov’t/military rule; problem of enforcing equal suffrage in the South remains
73

All Things American / Monzón

The Impeachment Crisis
Johnson’s obstructive method of preventing Radical Reconstruction by placing conservative Democrats in Congress was countered by Tenure of Office Act that demanded Senate approval of removal of cabinet officers ● Plan to impeach Johnson begins as he persists in removing Radical cabinet members ● Johnson avoids impeachment because 1) 7 Rep. senators demanding acquittal prevented two-thirds needed, and 2) the most recent cabinet member Johnson tried to replace, Secretary of War E. Stanton, was appointed by Lincoln, not him; thus Johnson hadn’t committed a crime (his lawyers’ argument) ● Johnson’s acquittal occurs because such amount of congressional power threatening the executive was unwelcome (by non-Radicals); Johnson promises to (and does) enforce Congress’ Reconstruction Acts in order to be acquitted

RECONSTRUCTING SOUTHERN SOCIETY

An attempt at Southern interracial democracy is attempted by middle-class Northerners following the Civil War, breeding terrorism (KKK) and slavery-like conditions for freedmen

Reorganizing Land and Labor
Scorched Earth approaches during the Civil War had left Southern territory irreparable due to Confederate bonds being half the amount they were before, and due to planter elite having lost their most productive assets (slaves) ● A new labor system had to be established before Southern reconstruction could begin; slaves wanted to have economic indep. By keeping communal work system instead of adopting Northerners’ idealized wage working future ● Gen. Sherman (N.) and Freedmen’s Bureau set aside 40-acre plots of confiscated land for 3-year black occupancy (after which they could buy the land); by 1865, blacks “owned” 300,000 acres ● Plans for effective land redistribution fail to get through Congress; Congressional tenderness for property rights, wariness of giving blacks something they hadn’t earned, and the desire to restore cotton production quickly kept small land-owning blacks from gaining titles

74

All Things American / Monzón
Contract labor system (slave works for fixed wages for a year) becomes popular; Freedmen’s Bureau enforces these but some members take planters’ sides; Bureau fades away by 1869 ● Sharecropping becomes dominant; slave or slave family works small piece of landlord’s land, sharing risk of crop failure (like in 1866/’67); tenant is forced to use credit until cotton is sold at end of harvest; landlords often cheated them out of their profit when they needed money

Black Codes: A New Name for Slavery?
Black Codes forced segregation; when overturned, private institutions kept segregation going; blacks organized boycotts or appealed to ruling military; still found it impossible to gain admittance to establishments catering to whites (e.g. hotels) ● Quasi-slavery persisted in different places: black unemployment was made illegal (forcing them to find unfair employers), black property rights were limited, violence and discrimination (incl. murders) extended beyond the protective capacity of N. troops in the South (groups esp. kept blacks from voting); freedmen organized largely unsuccessful militia

Republican Rule in the South
Southern Reps. were composed of carpetbaggers (businessmen seeking policy that favored private enterprise) and scalawags (S. born former Whig planters seeking to realize dreams of industrial development); poor yeomen farmers seeking protection for their small lands from the Rep. party); and newly enfranchised blacks (concerned w/ education, civil rights, and ownership; composed the majority) ● Succeeded in establishing public edu. as well as funds for public improvements; supported state aid to private enterprise (such as railroads) but failure of such programs (subsidized railroads falling into bankruptcy) caused by corruption (embezzlement of public funds, state lawmakers’ bribery; blacks didn’t participate largely in corruption) cause Reps. to lose favor with the pop. and cause state debts to rise ● Democrats capitalized on racial prejudice; made “good government” synonymous with white supremacy ● Small amount of elected Rep. black Congressmen in the South usu. showed more integrity than their white counterparts; no black governors were elected during Reconstruction

Claiming Public and Private Rights
75

All Things American / Monzón

Blacks saw marriage as allowing for an independent head of a household that would manage the labor of wives and children (esp. against apprenticeship system that made children of ex-slaves be forced to accompany a white mentor, accounting to slavery) ● Many blacks married illegally because their view of each partner supporting one another without legal sanction contradicted with the legal responsibility for family upkeep the husband would assume, as by the Bureau ● Blacks now use courts to sue for crimes; black churches are founded (e.g. Women’s Christian Temperance Union); Bureau succeeds in forming all-black schools; blacks claimed rights over property and family

RETREAT FROM RECONSTRUCTION

Issues other than Reconstruction swiftly take over white consciousness from 1868 on

Rise of the Money Question
Question between preserving greenbacker-supported paper money (supported by credit-hungry west and manufacturers), or returning to specie payments (defended by the East) ● Surges in 1868 due to Johnson-induced business recession; Dem. Party makes soft-money Civil War debt redemption part of its platform, but elects Ulysses Grant (hard-money supporter); Grant becomes Pres. 1868; 1870s legislation from Congress assures specie payments to bondholders but protects public credit by exchanging defaulted bonds ● Remaining $356 million in soft money is allowed to naturally stop circulating, but Panic of 1873 causes fervent support from debt-ridden farmers for long-term softmoney use ● By 1875, Grant had vetoed Congressional soft-money efforts and approved full specie payments by Jan. 1, 1879, upsetting suffering commonwealth; Greenback Party forms in 1876 and by election of 14 congressmen, keeps the money issue alive

Final Efforts of Reconstruction

76

All Things American / Monzón
1870’s 15th Amendment prohibits prevention of suffrage by ethnicity or previous servitude; does not prohibit other filters (literacy tests, poll taxes) that would keep S. blacks from voting anyway ● Women’s movement for suffrage was divided between one side whom argued black suffrage was creating gender qualification, and another whom argued that this was “the Negroe’s hour” and that they could wait to vote ● Enforcement of the policy depended on Rep. survival which depended on black support

A Reign of Terror against Blacks
The Ku Klux Klan, a grassroots vigilante movement bent on restoring white supremacy by violent intimidation of blacks, forms greatest threat to S. Rep. 1868 – 1872; Grant loses Louis. and Georgia in 1868 election due to threats and murders ● 1870s Force Acts make interference w/suffrage a crime, allowing use of the army and suspension of the writ of habeas corpus to quall insurrection (KKK-inspired insurrections had increased Dem. power in S.); decline of KKK activity ensures peaceful elections in 1872 and causes Dem. party to adopt radical, pro-white platform instead of moderate Rep. platform (attracting whites that previously hadn’t voted) ● However, more overt groups (e.g. White League) continue to terrorize blacks post-1872; Grant doesn’t use force by 1875 due to increasing public criticism of federal intervention as being on the behalf of a corrupt Rep. party ● Radical Reconstruction wanes as Reps. now hold only 3 S. states, and because N. electorate wouldn’t tolerate use of force to maintain black rights movement alive

Spoilsmen v. Reformers
The Republican party is losing the high-minded crusade against slavery ideals that ex-Reps. such as Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner had created; scandals such as the Crédit Mobilier (Grant’s VP taking money that was the property of Union Pacific Railroad) and Jay Gould (1869; businessman Gould asks relative of Grant to help him get specie) scandals cause formation of separate Liberal Republicans dedicated to honest reconciliation between N. and S., advocating laissez-faire policies (so no federal aid for internal improvement) ● 1872 election has Dem. and Lib. Reps. elect a poorly prepared New York tribune editor; Dems. Stay away from polls and Grant winds by 56% despite corruption ● Additional scandals post-1872 (Grant’s secretary, Babcock, being the ringleader of a conspiracy between federal revenue officials and distillers to defraud the gov’t of liquor tax; also Secretary of War Belknap following his bribery for Indian trading posts) add further disapproval of the Grant administration

77

All Things American / Monzón

REUNION AND THE NEW SOUTH

The wane of Reconstruction paves the way for reconciliation but leaves both African Americans rights unprotected and poor S. whites at the mercy of landlords

The Compromise of 1877
1876 election pits Rep. Hayes against Dem. Tilden; priority is on honest gov’t; popular vote results point to Tilden as the likely winner but contested votes from Rep. controlled S. states causes Congressional formation of a special electoral commission (7 Dems., 7. Reps., 1 indep.) to decide the election; indep. resigns and is replaced by Rep., Rep.-controlled Congress approves Hayes but Dem. House plans filibuster (if it succeeds neither candidate would have a majority, House would have to decide Tilden) ● Some S. Dems. were willing to forego filibuster if N. troops were taken out of South; Compromise of 1877 elects Hayes and stops troops from resisting complete Dem. takeover of South, erasing 2-party system in South

“Redeeming” a New South
The new men in power in the South are called the Redeemers; composed of explanter elite who sought to restore the old order, middle-class men favoring diversified economic development, and professional politicians; have no coherent ideology but do agree on laissez-faire and white supremacy ● Laissez-faire favored only planter elite frustrated with state subsidies going to industrialists, whom also favored from less gov’t control; Redeemers promoted industrialization; white supremacy became a Redeemer defense against economic grievances ● Poor whites suffered as much as blacks from corrupt Redeemer regimes that favored a crop lien system in which local merchants could take harvested crop from indep.-owned farms; leads to protests from lower-class farmers

The Rise of Jim Crow

78

All Things American / Monzón
Jim Crow laws (1876 – 20th century) affirmed segregation and disenfranchisement of blacks; despite Redeemers’ publicized respect of the 14th and 15th Amendment, threats to blacks who wanted to vote Rep. (incl. whippings) made it clear that the Dem. Redeemers wanted to stay in power ● Nadir of race relations begins now; white Dems. now in control of voting machinery stuffed ballot boxes and upped req’s for black voters; despite some districts featuring blacks voting freely, lynchings increased 1889 – 1899 (esp. with fake charges of rape against white women); a convict-lease system enables entrepreneurs to risk-freely use black convicts for agonizing work (e.g. Parchman Farm); segregation laws become a response to blacks’ refusal to accept separate institutions; Supreme Court legislation 1878 – 1898 increasingly invalidates Reconstruction amendments and laws, leaving blacks w/out protection

CONCLUSION: HENRY MCNEAL TURNER AND THE “UNFINISHED REVOLUTION”

Henry McNeal Turner, a black man born into freedom, becomes convinced (through his careers as a minister of the African Methodist Episcopal, a member on the Freedmen’s Bureau, and a member of the Georgia legislature) that racial prejudice won’t allow for equal rights; supports emigration or total separation of blacks; Northerners and Southerners reunited only because North had given South a free hand in determining African Americans’ fate, whom were hit the hardest (“unfinished revolution”)

79

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 17 / The West: Exploiting an Empire
OUTLINE

In the last three decades of the nineteenth century, white settlers flooded lands west of the Mississippi River, seeking free western lands at the expense of extant cultures (Indians, Chinese, Mexican) and lending to the West becoming a “great colonial empire” (which was aided by federal support for railroads, land distribution, upkeep of soldiers and Indians) with a greatly changed landscape (from unfenced vistas to bustling cities and ghost towns)

BEYOND THE FRONTIER

Western (past the Mississippi) lands were composed of a range of areas, some “uninhabitable” (1825-1860): treeless Great Plains, Prairie Plains with rich soil and rainfall, semiarid High Plains, the natural border of the Rocky Mts., Pacific Mountains (right before Pacific Ocean) kept out rainfall from Western Plateau; Plains weren’t suited for agriculture due to less than 15 in./yr., of rain and hot summertime winds

CRUSHING THE NATIVE AMERICANS
In 1865, ¼ million Native Americans lived west of Mississippi River (most live in Great Plains, see Life of the Plains Indians), some re-settlers (Winnebago, Cherokee, etc.), others native; Pueblo groups (Hopi, Pueblos, Navajo, etc.) cultivated corn and built high-altitude adobe homes; nomadic Navajo (sheep herders, ornament makers), Apaches (belligerent horsemen) lived in tepees, cultivated several crops around New Mexico; Californian tribes (Klamath, Yurok, etc.) feed on roots, fruit, game; Pacific Northwest tribes develop complex civilization (incl. woodwork) that resists white invasion) ● Most tribes had been forced into submission by 1870s (Ute cedes Utah lands after 1855; Navajo, Apache confined by 1873; Californian tribal pop. declines due to white disease)

Life of the Plains Indians
Plains Indians (incl. Sioux of northern Plains; Cheyenne, Crow, Arapaho, Pawnee of central Plains; Kiowa, Apache, Comanche of southern Plains) are nomadic and warlike (expert horsemen who drove off white resistance by racing and shooting arrows quickly; tribes develop warrior elites; very little internal warfare) ● Lived in indep. bands, each with a chief and council of elder men; had a common sign language; buffalo provided food, shelter and clothing; men hunted and usu. held positions of authority, women child reared and made art, but also played

80

All Things American / Monzón
important political/cultural role (e.g. kinship descending from the mother’s side amongst the Navajo, Zuni)

“As Long as Waters Run”: Searching for an Indian Policy

● ●

Antebellum policies (e.g. Indian Intercourse Act, 1834) protected Indians from white settlement; situation changes in the 1850s as western expansion calls for definite borders to individual Indian groups; Indians refuse to stay within borders to pursue buffalo 1850s; Indians first pushed out of Kansas, Nebraska Ensuing warfare (Chivington massacre, confrontation between settling whites and Chief Black Kettle, 1864; also Fetterman massacre, during Sioux War (1865-67), Red Cloud eliminates Captain William J. Fetterman’s troop as a reply against plans to build Bozeman Trail, to connect various mining towns, straight through Sioux territory) sparks public debate over the nation’s Indian policy Peace advocates favoring gradual civilization of Indians win over Westerners and other whites demanding firm control; Bozeman Trail construction is halted and a Peace Commission is sent to end Sioux War and resolve Indian issues by creating small Indian reservations Two areas (Dakota Territory, Oklahoma) hold groups of small reservations supervised by gov’t. agents; southern Plains and Sioux tribes agree (1867, ’68)

Final Battles on the Plains

Indian maladaptation to reservation lifestyles (marked by poverty and isolation) spark new warfare; Kiowa/Comanche loot throughout Texas; Black Hills Gold Rush of 1875 sets off majority of Indian warfare in the West, by Sioux tribe (incl. “Custer’s Last Stand”), which ends by 1881 but is followed by small outbreaks (1877 Nez Percé of Oregon’s failed excursion to Canada, 1890 Teton Sioux of N. Dakota Ghost Dances [spiritual dances that would supposedly end white invasion and bring back the buffalo, amongst other things] and how they’re violently stopped by Custer’s old regiment in the infamous Wounded Knee Massacre)

The End of Tribal Life
“Assimilationists” of the 1870s/80s urge assimilation of Indians into white society by education, land policy and federal law; denationalization of Indian tribes weakened their leaders and made Indian indivs. answerable in regular courts ● Indian schools (e.g. Carlisle Indian School) taught farming, use of machinery, English; forbade Indian wear and long hair ● Dawes Severalty Act transforms tribal lands into small plots for distribution amongst members of tribe (diff. acre sizes), protected by federal gov’t. from speculators, surplus funded Native American schools; speculators still leased Native American land and combined with rudimentary tools and a lack of

81

All Things American / Monzón
knowledge of farming, most fertile lands were taken by white settlers, thus shrunk from 138 mil. – 48 mil. Acres ● Buffalo pop. Was exterminated by white settlers by way of transcontinental railroads and terrorism policies; 1872-’74, 3 mil. Buffalo are killed every year; nearly dead by 1883 ● 250,000 Native Americans left by 1900; most live poverty-stricken on reservations; lose cultural distinctiveness and become part of Western romantic folklore

SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST

1870 – 1900, 430 mil. acres of Western land are settled; increasing demand for agricultural, mineral and lumber products of the West accompanies settlers seeking to better their lot

Men and Women on the Overland Trail
Gold Rush of 1849 to California; mainly family groups traveling in caravans or on foot over Overland Trail; travelers usu. departed in the spring and avoided first snowfall; wagon trains elected leaders and futilely worked to impose discipline; men rose early in the morning to lead march, women fixed next day’s lunch, children sought supplies; travelers left behind trash, impacting environment; ● First stage of journey (300 mi. to Fort Kearney) was quick; second stage (300 miles. to Wyoming Territory) features dry grass, no wood, cold mountain nights, and imminent snowfall; 3rd stage was either south to Great Salt Lake Mormon settlements or remaining 800 miles to California’s Central Valley by October (incl. heat of Nevada, rocky slopes of Sierra Nevada) ● Journey took six months w/sixteen hrs. of arduous work a day; fueled by individualistic attitudes and dreams

Land for the Taking
1870s-80s sees westward railroad expansion but is expensive for most Americans; migrants from Mexico and Asia also settle western lands ● Between 1862-’90, US distributed 48 mil. acres of land under Homestead Act of 1862 (also addt’l. land to railroad companies, states, and private citizens); provides 160 acres of land to anyone who paid a registration fee and would cultivate it for 5 years; attracts land hungry Europeans but discourages Eastern farmers due to semiarid West; land however, 2/3 of all land claims are corrupted by corporations ● Timber and Culture Act (1873) encourages needed forestation by offering land to those who would plant trees, distributes 10 mil. acres of land; Desert Land Act (1877) allows indivs. to get 640 acres of arid land if they irrigated it, distributes 2.6 mil. acres of land fraudulently (faking a water bucket as “irrigation”; Timber and Stone Act (1878) allowed for lumber companies to cheat money out of ranchers who bought up to 160 acres of forest land

82

All Things American / Monzón
Speculation in water increases as irrigated areas make it a vital business weapon National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) of 1902 supports irrigation projects using money from public land sales, crops increase but water supply decreases ● Railroad companies propagandize Western life (brochures), organized land departments for pricing and distributing/publicizing Western and (incl. European agents)
● ●

Territorial Government

Federal gov’t. organized new W areas as territories (appointing gov., managing budgets); parties funded resource-hungry territories (e.g. Reps. in Wyoming)

The Spanish-Speaking Southwest
Cultural influence of 19th century S. Western Spanish minority is large Spanish moving Northward from Mexico bring mining and irrigation techniques; indep. Mexicans later bring ranching methods and create legal framework for land distribution (to comms. For grazing, indivs. as reward for service, and to Native Americans); Californios in California descend from original colonists but die off after 1875, Mexican-Americans continue influence; New Mexico majority of Spanish Mexicans dominated territory through opposition of invading Anglo ranchers ● Throughout Southwest, Spanish Mexican culture is shaped by a patriarchy that allowed property and economic rights for women, a modified caste system, a strong Roman Catholic influence, use of the Spanish language, and continuing immigration from Mexico
● ●

THE BONANZA WEST

Bonanzas in the form of mining, cattle, and farming cause boom-and-bust economy for West in addition to wasted resources, “instant cities”, and a pop. constantly on the move for riches

The Mining Bonanza
Newcomer opportunists would rather supply miners than find gold/silver themselves; California Gold Rush of 1849 sets pattern by sparking placer mining which was easy and was done by many; as remnant gold was more secluded, large corporations involving machinery, unionized labor and Eastern or European financial controllers took over mining; indiv. prospectors find easy gold deposits again in 1859 at Pikes Peak; drifter Comstock claim Comstock Lode, a thick ore found in Nevada, attracts thousands, produces $306 mil. of gold/silver 1859-1879; biggest strike comes in 1873 following Mackay and company’s Big Bonanza, a stream of gold found deep in the Sierra Nevada ● Addt’l strikes during 1870s; final strike is Black Hills Rush (1874-’76) in Sioux hunting grounds; despite army efforts to keep miners out, word of gold spreads and miners invade

83

All Things American / Monzón
Strikes gave way to urbanized mining camps/cities (in diff. to rural setting, w/farming) with democratic governments that established claim and other rules; had zero-tolerance for criminals (incl. hanging for major offenders); camps were mostly male (w/ abt. ¼ - ½ being foreign, esp. Chinese and skilled Latin American miners; however, they had to deal with 1850 Foreign Miners’ Tax that drove out Mexicans especially, as well as anti-Chinese riots, which resulted in decline of Chinese pop. w/Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882) but also had both prostitutes and respected women that became cooks or seamstresses for higher wages than in the East ● Mining pop. financed Civil War, influenced value of gold and silver, accelerated statehood, fostered family life and raised morality of West (by women), yet also invaded Indian lands

Gold from the Roots Up: The Cattle Bonanza
Thriving cattle (esp. longhorns from Mexico) on the “open range” (Texas Panhandle to Canada) provided beef 1865-1885; marketing the beef is planned by Joseph McCoy, who sets up deal w/Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad to ship 300,000 cattle into Chicago markets in 1867; enormous profits (Texas drivers bought steers for $4 a head and sold for $30) increase shipments (esp. Chisholm train) ● Cowboys pushed cattle northward to meet up w/major rail lines; some were black or Mexican; associations (e.g. Wyoming Stock Growers’ Association; 400 members w/2 mil. cattle) organized cattle owners and established legislation for ownership, roundups, drivers; romanticized cowboy films exaggerated plain lives; cattle drives decline post-1880 due to improvements in slaughtering and refrigerated transportation which, in addition to wheat planting on an increasing number of ranches, as well as introduction of more profitable breeds, modernized the industry; however, 4.5 million cattle by mid-1880s attracted distant capital (incl. absentee owners) ● Cattle crises (forced 1885 emigration of Oklahoma Indian Territory, 1886-’87 winter and new barbed wires [separating ranches and homesteaders’ lands] cause cattle deaths) recover, but ranches and cattle grow smaller (last roundup in 1905) and some switched to raising sheep (38 mil. sheep W of the Missouri River by 1900); “open range” days end

Sodbuster on the Plains: The Farming Bonanza
1870-1900 Western farmers (mils.) people the Plains and the Rockies, force Indian removal; by 1900, W. contains ½ US pop.; pops. moved gradually westward, first into Iowa, Minn. S. Dakota, later into “rain belt” (Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas) despite 1870s slump (due to depression) ● Exodusters were 6,000 African-Americans that emigrated Louis., Mississippi and Texas to Kansas (home of abolitionist movements of the 1850s), being fed up with discrimination in their hometowns, to become farmers or laborers,

84

All Things American / Monzón
homesteading 20,000 acres of land and ensuring a role for women in the labor field; other Afr. Ams. moved to Oklahoma; both groups took their customs w/them ● Scarcity of lumber and water (expensive access to wells and windmills) complicate Plains farming; inefficient $2.78 sod houses susceptible to rain damage become common; neighbors were distant; extreme winters (fatal ice buildup on cattle) and summers (110 degrees Fahrenheit; droughts and grasshoppers that would eat crops) also complicate matters

New Farming Methods
New techniques ease Plains farming: Glidden’s barbed wire (600 mi. of barbed wire by 1883); dry farming (plowing furrows up to 14 inches deep containing dust mulches) solves rainfall issue; importation of Plains-friendly wheat from Europe; new farm technology such as Oliver’s 1877 chilled-iron plow that resolved clogging issue w/thick prairie soils, spring-tooth harrow (1869), grain drill (1874), lister (1880), baling press (1866), hay loader (1876); cord binder (1878, enabled 20 acres of wheat/day) and thresher (enabled 300 bushels of grain/day); agricultural literature and science flourishes (esp. Hatch Act, 1887) ● Bonanza farms of the late 1870s, financed by outside capital, captured American imagination by the massive size (Darlymple’s Grandin Bonanza of 61,000 acres), use of machinery (200 pairs of harrows, 155 binders, and 16 threshers on Grandin), and output (600,000 bushels of wheat, 1881); bonanza farms decline during drought period (1885-1890) while diversified and more intensely cultivated crops of smaller farms survived

Discontent on the Farm
Department of Agriculture clerk Kelley’s disappointment with drab rural life leads to his National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, which fosters social, cultural activities (coop. stores, grain elevators, farm machinery factories) and futilely forbids political activism; membership grows during 1870s depression (800,000 members in 20,000 Granges by 1875); other rural alliances follow ● Farming boom dies post01887 due to 1887 and successive droughts; farmer pop. leaves (esp. W. Kansas) as crop prices decline, railroad rates rise; farmers had enabled California to send fruit, wine, wheat, Utah to flourish w/irrigation, Texas beef to become popular; by 1890 American farmers were exporting copiously and becoming more commercial/scientific (e.g. mail-order houses)

The Final Fling

W. pop. growth forces Congress to force removal of Creek and Seminole tribes from Oklahoma territory (opens Apr. 22, 1889); massive migration follows (by sunset, 12,000 homesteads and 1.92 mil. acres. officially settled; Oklahoma City develops overnight with 10,000 people)

CONCLUSION: THE MEANING OF THE WEST
85

All Things American / Monzón
Civil War-1900 represents forced mobilization of Native Americans into increasingly smaller areas and the growth of farms, ranches, mines, and cities in their place ● Historian Frederick Turner produces 1893 Turner’s thesis; the existence of a frontier and its settlement had shaped American character by fostering decidedly American individualism, independence, self-confidence, invention, and adaptation ● Opposing views emphasize ethnic/racial diversity, the role of women and men, struggles between economic interests v. gunfights, and the environmental impact (“English-speaking Americans [conquered the west, they didn’t settle it]”); West was settled by waves (Anglo, Mexican-American, Afr. Am., etc)

86

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 18 / The Industrial Society
OUTLINE

1876’s Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Penn. (incl. Corliss steam engine) demonstrates the industrialization of American society towards the 20th century (after the Civil War) as powered by a wage earning labor force

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
American industry owes success to ○ use of fossil fuels ○ abundant (incl. immigrants and farm families, 15 mil 1890-1914) work force, a burgeoning population (76 mil. by 1900) being exploited by new comm.. devices such as the telegraph and telephone ○ fostering of a national market due to railroads ○ production of new technology (some of which hurt older industries (e.g. tallow) but mostly helped (e..g. kerosene industry), even in agriculture (harvester, combine)) ● Results in confidence for Eur./Am. investors/entrepreneurs that provide large amts. Of capital (criticized under “robber barons”) as well as govt’s. that stimulate internal improvements ● Rate of industrialization is concentrated in NE and sparse in the West (which contributed raw material); 1865-1914 real GNP grows 4%/year

AN EMPIRE ON RAILS

Railroad is most significant innovation of 19th century

“Emblem of Motion and Power”
Railroads ○ Brought more direct routes; greater speed/safety/comfort, a large vol. of traffic, and year-round svc. ○ Carried goods that hadn’t been carried before (Texan cattle, Floridian fruit) ○ Ended self-sufficiency of country’s “island communities”, brought in outside products, encouraged economic specialization (Chicago’s meat, St. Louis’ beer) ● Railroad companies represent 1st conglomerates whose de-personalization of labor led to new problems in marketing/labor relations

Building the Empire

Quick post-Civil War railroad building (e.g. 35,000 mi in 1865 – 93,000 mi. in 1880) is funded by $4.5 billion+ of capital (by 1880) (provided by Am./Eur. investors, local $300 mil./state gov’ts. ($228 mil.), then federal gov’t. land grants ($65 mil., mils. of acres) (8% of sys.) that were difficult to market)
87

All Things American / Monzón

Land grants cause corruption (companies building fast/wastefully to collect permile subsidies; forming separate construction companies which would get expensive contracts) but ensure expansion into unlikely areas (Western expansion which own revenue wouldn’t have made possible; ppl would settle newfound lands and increase value of nearby land)

Linking the Nation via Trunk Lines
Previously conflicting plethora of railroad companies (incl. conflicting schedules) sees consolidation (incl. standardization of the gauge) by the Civil War ● Four major trunk lines emerge (railroad networks that emerge post-Civil War to connect the eastern seaports to the Great Lakes and western rivers; reflect integration of transportation that helped spur large-scale industrialization) ○ Baltimore and Ohio; Erie Railroad; New York Central Railroad (by Vanderbilt, merges w/other lines, provides 4500+ miles by 1877); Pennsylvania Railroad (by Thomson, Scott’ expands to Cincinnati, St. Louis, etc.) ○ Southern consolidation sparks only after wane of Reconstruction (5 major system by 1900) ● Railroads introduce automatic couples, air brakes refrigerated cars, and time zones (American Railway Assoc.)

Rails across the Continent

Congress charters U. Pacific Railroad Co. (led by General Dodge)/C. Pacific Railroad Co. (led by Crocker) to build west-/east-ward starting 1863 towards transcontinental railroad; two crews meet at Promontory, Utah in 1869; Chinese get no credit; it and subsequent transcontinental RRs symbolize American unity/progress

Problems of Growth

Fierce competition by overbuilding (companies laying down a parallel line to force rival line to buy it at inflated price) and rate wars (esp. rebates) spur attempts at unsuccessful pooling arrangements (e.g. Fink’s Eastern Trunk Line Association, 1877), unsuccessful consolidations (conglomerates cause Panic of 1893), and finally successful “Morganization” (financer J.P. Morgan’s post-1893 debt cuts, new stock for capital, no rebates, control given to “voting trust” of handpicked trustees); Morgan controls/finances railroads

AN INDUSTRIAL EMPIRE

Mass production of durable steel is made possible by late 1850s Bessemer process (aerating molten iron to remove impurities)

Carnegie and Steel

88

All Things American / Monzón
Great steel districts (supplying raw material, capital, and R&D departments) pop up around large coal deposits in Penn., Ohio, Alabama; output rises to 4 x GB (1900); iron ore mines also pop up ● Expansion of steel companies brings increasing attention to product development, marketing, and consumer preferences; expansion moves towards vertical integration (a type of organization in which a single company owns and controls the entire process from the unearthing of the raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished product) ● Andrew Carnegie, coming from low-paying jobs, became rich from shrewd investments, established J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works (1872), attracted affluent business partners, wins Brooklyn Bridge steel contract in 1878, builds Carnegie Steel ($40 mil. profit, 1900), employs 20,000 ppl; sells Carnegie Steel (pursuing philanthropy) to J.P. Morgan who builds United States Steel Corporation (1st billion-dollar company)

Rockefeller and Oil
Drake’s 1859 oil well sparks “black gold” fever after scientists find uses for petroleum; numerous, inexpensive individual refineries pop up in Cleveland, Pittsburgh; chaotic oil industry ● Rockefeller (taciturn and ruthless, pro-consolidation) builds Standard Oil Company; becomes vertically integrated, sells high-quality products at lowest unit cost, but also employed spies/extortions; 90% of US oil-refining capacity by 1879 ● Trust (business-management device for far-flung operations; allows stockholders to exchange their stock certificates for trust certificates, on which dividends are paid); Standard Oil Trust established 1881; trust becomes synonymous with monopoly, competition declines ● Standard Oil becomes holding company in NJ (large-scale mergers); other companies follow suit

The Business of Invention
● ●

Issue of 200,000 patents in the 1890s symbolizes active period of invention Field’s telegraph cable improvement (1866, revolutionizes communications); typewriter (1867), stock ticker (1867), calculating machine (1867); high-speed spindles, auto. looms, electric sewing machines transform clothing industry; Eastman’s 1879 gelatin-coating photo process; beer; refrigeration; Bell’s 1876 telephone (establishes Bell Telephone Co; 310,000 phones by 1895); Edison’s modern research laboratory at Menlo Park, NJ makes 1897 phonograph; 1879 incandescent lamp; Edison’s electricity in 1882 (2774 power stations by 1900); Westinghouse’s 1886 high-voltage AC (forms Westinghouse Electric Company in 1886), Sprague’s 1887 streetcar system

THE SELLERS

Increased attention to marketing ○ Nationwide advertising (ads in magazines) ○ Department/”chain” stores (new concept of browsing for goods; 67 A & P grocery stores by 1876; mail-order catalogs for rural customers (begun by
89

All Things American / Monzón
Ward in 1872); Sears, Roebuck and Co. exploited 4-color illustrations; national market leads to American community of consumers

THE WAGE EARNERS

Conditions of wage workers mostly improve during last ¼ of 19th century

Working Men, Working Women, Working Children
Working conditions were defined by low wages (avg. person made max of $500/year), little respite (no holidays), long hours (10 hours, 6 days/week) and low safety (1 in every 399 killed on railroads) ● Child employment (under 14) was widespread (1.8 million by 1900); girls earned less than boys ● Females became secretaries, typists, clerks; factory workers’ tasks were extensions of household activity (textiles, shoes, garments); some become lawyers (Mansfield), ministers; nurses, librarians and schoolteachers experience “feminization” ● Adults earned more than children, the skilled more than the unskilled, males more than females, native born more than foreign born; blacks took on menial jobs; discriminated Chinese/Japanese on Pacific Coast suffer from Chinese Exclusion Act (prohibiting immigrations of Chinese workers for 10 yrs.)

Culture of Work

Industrialization forces a shift from a rural to an urban culture of work (the clock, employers one never saw, strict rules, following the needs of the market instead of the rhythmic seasons, machines replacing skilled artisans, churning workforce (people leaving often), opportunity for social mobility (chance for advancement)

Labor Unions
Nat’l labor unions are considered unpleasantly radical by both employees (favoring American ideal of advancement) and employers; plagued by size ● Sylvis’ unsuccessful (post-1868) National Labor Union (conglomerate local unions) is superseded by Knights of Labor (founded 1869; pursues broad-gauged reforms (no trusts or drunkenness, worker-run factories) as much as practical issue like wages and hours; welcomed all laborers regardless of race, gender, and skill) whose membership of 730,000 post-1885 is defeated by Jay Gould (Haymarket Riot) ● Superseded American Federation of Labor (Gompers, 1886; loose alliance of nat’l craft unions that organized skilled workers by craft and worked for specific practical objectives (hours, wages); avoided politics; used exclusionary practices (high init. fees) to keep black and women workers)

Labor Unrest

Workers influenced working conditions ○ Set pace/quality/tone of workplace

90

All Things American / Monzón
Unions/fraternal orgs. provided support (companionship, news of job openings, insurance plans, social events) ● Employers believing supply/demand should dictate wages fired union members and used the court injunction to quell strikes (Supreme Court is sensible to working conditions, however; in Holden v. Hardy (1898), it upholds a law minimizing working hours for miners due to safety concerns; doesn’t do the same in Lochner v. New York (1905) because plaintiff was a baker) ● Hardening of employer’s attitudes causes US to have greatest number of labor insurrections amongst industrial world ○ Haymarket Riot (1886 demonstration in Chicago’s Haymarket Square to protest the slayings of two workers during a strike turned into a violent riot after a bomb explosion killed seven policemen; incident blamed on labor “radicalism” and resulted in public condemnation of organized labor (incl. demise of Knights of Labor) ○ Homestead Strike (1892, wage-cutting at Carnegie’s Steel Plant provokes violent strike in which three company-hired detectives and ten workers die; using ruthless force and strikebreakers, company officials effectively break strike, destroy union)

CONCLUSION: INDUSTRIALIZATION’S BENEFITS AND COSTS

American industrialization establishes standard of living (nat’l wealth is $88 billion in 1900) but also brings rapid change, social instability, exploitation of labor, and growing disparity between rich and poor, growth of corporate capitalism (esp. conglomerates) and a newfound materialism thanks to the distribution of goods

91

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 19 / Toward an Urban Society, 1877-1900
OUTLINE

Industrialization and urbanization reshape 1870-1920 America; much of the population increase 1860-1910 is due to immigration from rural America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia

THE LURE OF THE CITY

The city 1870-1900 lures one-half of the American population in addition to foreigners (NYC, Chicago, Philly have pops. 1 mil.+)

Skyscrapers and Suburbs
Before the advent of steel frames/girders, building made of masonry weren’t taller than 12 stories ● Sullivan leads architectural movement toward streamlined design and skyscrapers (Wainwright Building (1890), Prudential Building (1895)) complete w/electric elevators ● Public transportation (e.g. elevated street cars) enlarge cities; middle class moves out of the cities while working class pours in

Tenements and the Problems of Overcrowding

Dumbbell plans (4 apts. to a floor) crowded 4 – 16 families on a floor; privy, horse manure, and proximate wastes (incl. drinking water from the same deposits) made cities stink; also, increasing crime (slum youths) and alcoholism

Strangers in a New Land
1877-1890 immigration of 6.3 million ppl. (1890, 15% of US pop. is foreign). introduce poor, unskilled job seekers that settle on eastern seaboard through (mostly) Ellis Island (NY), crowding cities ● 1880-1910 new immigrants are characterized by shift of origin toward S, E Europe. and Catholicism/Judaism (poor, no ed., stuck in close-knit comms., clung to native culture); cause increased anti-Catholicism/-Semitism (e.g. Immigration Restriction League passes literacy test req. in 1894) (e.g. “wop”, “dago” for Italians; “bohunk” for Slavs, etc.)

Immigrants and the City

Mostly interbreeding immigrants made patriarchal, nuclear families that preserved their culture (keeping their lang., religion (Jews’ synagogues, the Roman Catholic church for Irish and Poles, parish schools for the Polish), community (Lithuanian newspaper in US, ethnic theaters for Poles, Czechs, Jewish, etc.)) and established immigrant associations that helped find jobs, homes, health insurance, etc. (some were national like Deutsh-Amerikanischer; Polish Women’s Alliance; Polish National Alliance (1880) also sponsored socializing opportunities)

92

All Things American / Monzón

Image 1 Photograph of Milwaukee by William Henry Jackson.

93

All Things American / Monzón

The House that Tweed Built
Political party machines (e.g. Tammany Hall, Dem. party reigning 1850 - 1930s) spearheaded by “bosses” (Tweed, Croker, Murphy, Kelly) and involving banks, real estate investors, engineers, etc. ran cities ● Architectural improvements (Tweed’s almost 3 mil. NY County Courthouse, Boston’s public library and NYC’s Brooklyn Bridge), internal improvements (provision of water/sewer lines, parks, pavement), attention given to the least privileged city voters (“bosses” that would assist individual families braving the winter or unemployment), and skillful political organization lead to the permanence and success of political machines ● Some “bosses” were corrupt while others were not; mostly upper-class anti-boss reformers not understanding the needs of the poor were unsuccessful with exceptions (fall of Tweed, 1872)

Social and Cultural Change, 1877-1900
Changes in mores, education, technology and family life as caused by cities 18771900 were accompanied by a desire to adopt new directions on questions of racial/social/econ. justice, as well as federal-state relations ● Bulk of 1877 47 mil. pop was WASPs (white Anglo-Saxon Protestants); 60% still lived on farm by 1900; life expectancy reaches 47 for all except minorities; cheap food made big meals, big people (esp. innovations like packaged cereal, icebox) ● Houses made of wooden shingles, complete w/outhouses and gardens accompanied quiet life ● Advent of anesthesia accompanies expansion of surgery; discovery that germs cause disease lead to microbiology; antiseptic practices at childbirth cut down puerperal fever; psychology springs up; tuberculosis (now curable) remains leading cause of death ‘til 1909

Manners and Mores
Incomplete adherence to Victorian morality, as well as youthful exuberance counterbalanced by strong pride in virtue, characterizes American pop. ● Advent of sports (golf, tennis, etc.) causes changes in fashion for both men/women ● Strong religious and patriotic values (e.g. successful mass revival meeting by evangelists Moody, Sankey) accompany reformers’ attention to new issues (Mugwumps’ end to corruption, Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1874, Willard; 500,000 by 1898), unsuccessful Comstock Law (1873) prohibiting mailing of “immoral” goods)

Leisure and Entertainment

Newfound idea of leisure time is accompanied by living room family time in the evenings; popular games incl. cards, backgammon, chess; unisex croquet becomes popular; sentimental ballads, classical music and later ragtime become popular; various conservatories are built; traveling circuses w/bands and acts; advent of

94

All Things American / Monzón
spectator sports (horse races, foot-/baseball (World Series by 1901)); colleges adopt sports (football, basketball); boxing was widespread but illegal and violent; advent of gas/electric lighting creates nightlife

Changes in Family Life
Industrialization lessens (lower-class’) time spent w/children; boarders usu. live in family home; conversely, middle-class fams. Become more self-sufficient (increased adolescence/schooling, emigration to the suburbs, women at home (women become child-oriented (Ladies’ Home Journal) but status of housewives declines)) ● Decline in fertility across all races reflects abstinence, decisions to limit family, women’s decision to pursue a career, and women’s decision to delay marriage

Changing Views: A Growing Assertiveness among Women

Idea of women being greater than their world changes as they enter the workforce (4 mil. female workers by 1890); coverture laws are revised in several states to allow a woman control of her earnings; increasing feminine activism in 1880s (e.g. Susan B. Anthony’s National American Woman Suffrage Association seeks enfranchisement)

Educating the Masses
Growing relevance of schooling accompanies improvements ($253 mil. of budget, 6000 public high schools, by 1900); also dev. of strict theoretical curriculum (values, math, reading) that causes many to drop out (also to earn money) (avg. adult had only 5 yrs. of school, 1900) ● Greater isolation/rural life of Southern pop. (avg. fam. size twice as large as in the North) discourage schooling/compulsory attendance; also Jim Crow cases (e.g. Plessy v. Ferguson) foster segregation, damaging edu. budgets (N.C., Alabama, S.C., Louis., Mississippi, Virginia, a series of Supreme Court Cases (Civil Rights Cases, 1883) all support “separate but equal” facilities but most black schools were run-down, black teachers underpaid (only 35% of black children attend school in South, 1890)) ● Kindergarten movement (St. Louis, 1873) reforms elementary education to include playtime learning; also, vocational training reforms for older children ● Teaching becomes a university study (345 teacher training institutions by 1900)

Higher Education
Land grants (e.g. Morrill land Grant Act of 1862) and private philanthropy (e.g. Rockefeller founding Univ. of Chicago) found great colleges ● Colleges’ expansion accompanies increasing attention toward vocational training (MIT’s focus on science/engineering, Johns Hopkins’ grad school, Eliot’s (Harvard) elective system) ● Women still had to fight for higher education (many form inspiring study groups (1870-1900, Decatur Art Class, Barnesville Shakespeare Club)); by 1900, though, Midwestern land grants spurring coeducation refute male opposition and yield 40% of coed colleges by 1900

95

All Things American / Monzón
Minorities faced less chances (esp. Chinese); black students populated black colleges (e.g. Booker T. Washington’s initially struggling, then model industrial/agricultural vocational Tuskegee Institute (Alabama); Washington sought black equality through both Atlanta Compromise (accepting white domination, favoring black rights through their own self-improvement) as well as behind-the-scenes lobbying ● Favoring a more aggressive strategy, W.E.B. DuBois (Fisk U., U. of Berlin, Harvard) produces sociological study into black neighborhood (The Philadelphia Negro (1898)) and reaches conclusion that education was the best way to change the Negro’s harmful environment; attacks Washington/favors aspiration of careers for blacks ● Enrollment seeking vocational training swells through 1900 (although less than 5% of college-age pop. goes to college); colleges stir reform spirit

The Stirrings of Reform

Social Darwinism (Spencer) held that evolution applied to human life, that reform took centuries; promoted competition and individualism, saw government intervention futile, and was used by influential members of social/economic elite to oppose reform

Progress and Poverty

George’s Progress and Poverty (1879) summarized his unappealing, simplistic idea that land formed the basis of wealth and “unearned increments” from the same should be taxed to thus equalize wealth/raise revenue for poor

New Currents in Social Thought
Darrow (former lawyer) believes poverty causes crime; Ely attacked laissez-faire as being an excuse for the wealthy to become rich while the poor starve); Veblen also analyzed “predatory wealth” and “conspicuous consumption” of the business class; Bellamy’s wildly popular Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1887), a tale of a future socialist utopia hosting cooperation instead of competition, has a dramatic effect on readers (fosters formation of Nationalist Clubs (1890s) seeking nationalization of public utilities); Rauschenbusch (minister) considered religion responsible for social justice; ● Protestant sects emphasizing individual salvation, as well as churches establishing themselves in city slums, give rise to the Social Gospel (most active, Gladden; preached by Protestant, focused on improving life conditions and salvation; adherents worked for child-labor laws and measures to alleviate property)

The Settlement Houses

Social Gospel thinkers (“youthful, idealistic, and mostly middle class”; many were women) establish settlement houses in the slums (Addams’ Hull House, Woods’ South End House, etc.); Hull house offered education and vocational training, facilities, medical care (also sought to homogenize immigrants whilst

96

All Things American / Monzón
keeping their own heritage); South End House focused on preventing dropouts, keeping kids off streets ● Other activists worked also (e.g. Kelley’s anti-child labor (Illinois Factory Act (1893), demands 8-hr workday for women/children under 14)) ● Settlement house movement’s limits included bitterness on the part of the inhabitants towards middle-class “strangers” telling them how to live, as well as the houses attracting only a minority of the larger immigrant poor ● Blacks formed their own houses

A Crisis in Social Welfare
Depression of 1893 upsets aid to the poor (forcing emergency relief programs by settlement workers; causing churches to change, not aid, poor families) ● New class of professional social workers bent on studying the poor spring up (e.g. Wyckoff, 1891; DuBois, Pettengill, Stead); some practical applications (Stead influences National Civic Federation (reform of urban life, 1900) from Chicago)

Conclusion: The Pluralistic Society

The fundamental effects 1877-1900 between growing industrialism and the rise of cities – poverty, the exploitation of labor, racial tensions, etc. – still led to a pluralistic society that by 1920 had most of its constituents living in cities and being descendants of people who had arrived after the American Revolution

97

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 20 / Political Realignments in the 1890s
OUTLINE The depression of 1893 brings national famine, unemployment (20% of workforce), and deaths ● Causes the reevaluation of reform, political realignment, a bitter debate over currency

Politics of Stalemate

Although pre-19th century politics was very involved (79% active electorate 187696), parties w/out suffrage included women (Congressional and state-level rejection for suffrage pleas, 1870-1910; suffrage only in Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado) and black men/poor whites (poll tax, “eight box” law, and literacy tests (despite “grandfather clause”) defended by states (Georgia, Mississippi) and Supreme Court (1898) abate active black electorate)

The Party Deadlock
Party loyalties stemming from Civil War traditions, ethnic/religious diffs., and class distinctions keep Civil War-era people in power as most Northern states voted Republican (nationally induced growth, protective tariff) and most Southern states voted Democrat (laissez-faire, states’ rights) ● Swing states (NY, NJ, Conn., Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois) receive special attention at election time; loyalties lead to close elections (1876-1892) ● Attention shifts from the presidency to local and state govt’s. following the impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Experiments in the States

State bureaus and commissions demonstrate influence over industrial society when they form advisory committees aiming to regulate railroads’ rate discrimination (some Pacific Coast commissions could/fix investigate rates as well as collect/publish statistics) (Illinois’ 1870 delaration of public railroads as state property are denied in the Wabash case of 1886; refocuses attention on Congress, who forms Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to oversee railroad activity)

Reestablishing Presidential Power
Presidents work to reestablish reputation of presidency Rutherford B. Hayes refutes fraudulent reputation by ending military Reconstruction, placing reformers in power; Congress passes Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act (partial coinage of silver) over his veto, however ● Garfield’s energetic ambition to unite Republicans (split by disagreements over tariff and the South), lower the tariff, and excite Latin American interests is shot by his assassination in 1881
● ●

98

All Things American / Monzón
VP Arthur constructs American navy, passes civil service reform (Pendleton Act, 1883), lowers tariff ● Dem. Cleveland (first since 1861) continues naval construction, resolves fraud in railroad, lumber, and cattle companies, minimizes gov’t. involvement (through many vetoes), attacks the tariff ● Harrison (Rep., 1888) defends tariff again

Republicans in Power: The Billion-Dollar Congress

Harrison’s 1888 election gives Reps. control of Congress, becoming the majority party and earning the rank of Democrats who then use the “diasappearing quorum” rule (allows House members to join in debate but then refuse to answer the roll call to determine whether a quorum was present) to aggravate the Republican regime

Tariffs, Trusts, and Silver

Several Rep. legislations are passed ○ McKinley tariff act raises tariff duties, promoting fledgling industries ○ Dependent Pensions act granted pensions to Union army veterans/family ○ Sherman Antitrust Act (1890); marks first attempt at regulating big business by declaring illegal all contracts restraining trade or commerce; enacts heavy consequences for violation; is weakened by Supreme Court in 1895 (excludes manufacturing from the act) ○ Sherman Silver Purchase Act bipartisan act under which US Treasury would buy silver annually and print Treasury notes for it; pleased both specie and paper money proponents ○ Unsuccessful federal elections bill to protect Southern black voting rights

The Rise of the Populist Movement

The elections of 1890 are accompanied by socialization of farmers opposing mortgages, drought, and low crop prices; membership to the National Farmers’ Alliance and Industrial Union increases (130,000 members, 1890)

The Farm Problem
Farm discontent 1870-1900 was the product of an industrial society farmers didn’t control/understand; their grievances (lower crop prices, mortgages, and rising railroad rates) had varying degrees of justification ● Different places had different geographical problems (overworked land in New England; drought in Kansas, Nebraska; southern crop lien system) and farm income fluctuated substantially (e.g. sharp drop during 1870s depression compared to increase in the 1860s) ● Farmers’ excitement about industry, not farms led to growing anger

The Fast-Growing Farmers’ Alliance

By the 1880s, the two major assocs. were the National Farmers’ Alliance (Northwestern) and the Farmers’ Alliance and Industrial Union (Southern)
99

All Things American / Monzón
Southern alliance grew under Macune (1886); characterized by centralized control/secrecy; excluded bankers, lawyers, merchants from membership but welcomed farmers’ friends; published literature, lectures, and established coop. grain elevators and retail stores to spike up profits; sought to control Dem. party rather than forming their own ● Colored Farmers’ Alliance united black farmers in the South (250,000 circa 1891, before tragic strike (Patterson)) ● The Northwestern Alliance (1880) sponsored social/economic programs but quickly turned to politics through establishment of 1st major Peoples’ party (Kansas, 1890); led by skilled reformers (Watson’s indiscriminate oppression, Polks’ scientific farming/coop. action, Lease’s pro-female efforts, etc.), Alliance adopts Ocala Demands in 1890, calling for sub-treasury system ensuring best crop prices, free silver coinage, no more tariffs, a federal income tax, direct democracy, and tighter railroad regulation ● Kansas Peoples’ party elects several congresspeople before 1890 elections

The People’s Party
1892 formation of People’s Party is done to promote reform; party features blacks and whites speaking out with equal strength; chooses Weaver as candidate, using Ocala Demands as platform; despite earning more than a million votes, Weaver’s platform earns Dem. rank/fraudulent oppression and little enthusiasm from urbanites ● 1892 marks dissolution of Alliance due to lessening membership, although it had been one of the most powerful protest movements in American history

100

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 21 / Toward Empire
OUTLINE The Rough Riders were an intriguing mix of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen led by Theodore Roosevelt who welcomed war with Spain to free Cuba and exercise military prowess ● Expansionism characterizes the 1890s

America Looks Outward

1890s expansionism targeted island communities for their strategic use

Catching the Spirit of the Empire

Pre-1870s isolationism (fostering a desire to stay out of foreign entanglements) changed as developments in communication increased American interest in foreign affairs and imperialism

Reasons for Expansion

Expansionism/imperialism was facilitated by the end of the frontier, the increase of exports ($1.4 billion worth in 1900; mercantilism through 1960s), political backing, social Darwinism applied to worldly nations, the “biogenetic law” supporting cultural domination of primitive peoples and religious backing (Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis favored Christian/economic imperialism); Americans thus feel need for “foreign policy”

Foreign Policy Approaches, 1867-1900
Foreign policy varied per area (isolationism to Eur., Monroe Doctrine to N./S. America, desire for occupation to Pacific Islands (e.g. Hawaii)); ● Attempts at expansion (usu. by State Secs.) focus mostly in Latin America or Pacific (Seward’s unsuccessful attempt at annexing Alaska; Pres. U. Grant’s failure to annex Santo Domingo) and seek Pan-Americanism (Pan-American Union post-1889), tariff reciprocity (McKinley Tariff Act (1890), though later ended), peaceful intercourse (Treaty of Washington (1817) resolves Alabama claims2, arbitration of disputes (as agreed to between US/GB following Venezuela/British Guiana dispute (Pres. Cleveland)), and expanded trade (greater American exports post-1890)

The Lure of Hawaii and Samoa
The re-taxation of historically un-taxed Hawaiian sugar following 1890 McKinley Tariff Act causes unemployment and lessened production; ascent of nationalist Queen Liliuokalani increases power of natives, cause American revolt, and convince Congress of timeliness for annexation attempt ● Hawaii is named Republic following deposing of the Queen; interest for annexation resurges 1898 following Spanish-American War as annexationists

2

Requite for Confederate ships built in British shipyards.

101

All Things American / Monzón
redouble arguments about Hawaii’s commercial/military importance; joint resolution annexes it by 1898 ● Naval authority over Samoa is given to Germany, GB, and US; 1899 agreement leaves US in control of only Pago Pago harbor

The New Navy

Dying 1870s US Navy is revamped in 1880s by new, young officers advocating the use of an internationally powerful navy in guarding colonial property (Naval Advisory Board, 1881); Congress authorizes ship construction (’83, , ’89, ’90); erudite naval strategist Mahan supported strategic bases as entrances into commercial markets; Navy Sec. Tracy (1889) organizes Bureau of Construction and Repair, Naval Reserve (1891), also adopts new weapons and first-class battleships; by 1900, US Navy was 3rd in the world

War with Spain

The war with Spain in 1898 expands America into the Caribbean and Pacific, gave it “world power”/empire status, strengthened the presidency, and increased international involvement

A War for Principle

● ●

Cuban insurgency against Spain heightens following taxation/decline of sugar market; insurgents form junta in NYC to raise money, buy weapons, and sway Am. public opinion; Spain responds by “reconcentration policy” (Weyler) Pres. McKinley seeks moderate CoA3 Yellow journalism (sensationalist reporting by profit-seeking, mostly NYC newspapers) sympathized w/the insurgents; through McKinley, US professes neutrality but recognizes insurgents’ struggle (McKinley’s plea for Spain to fight humanely); new 1897 Madrid gov’t. half-acquiesces Following 1898 Spanish-led Havana revolts, US places Maine near harbor; is attacked, causing public/Congressional opinion to move towards war; MckInley’s reluctant but appropriates $50 mil. Following failed attempt at armistice (despite revoking of reconcentration policy), Congress passes Teller Amendment (1898), recognizing Cuba as indep. and allowing force to expel the Spanish) Cuban blockade is followed by Apr. 25 declaration of war

“A Splendid Little War”
● ●

War lasts ten weeks; is sign of burgeoning American power Draft seeking 125,000 volunteers for then abated army gets 1 million; surplus volunteers are placed into Nat’l Guard units characterized by common hometown origins and familiarity of its troops (e.g. Galesburg); War Dept.’s low supplies and old weapons (no smokeless powder) cause disease (esp. canned beef) (e.g. Cuba)

3

Course of Action.

102

All Things American / Monzón

Little journalistic censorship

“Smoked Yankees”
Mostly West-coast black troops would make ¼ of Cuban invasion force; Pres. intervention was needed to permit draft of black men preferred for their resistance to disease ● Continuing discrimination against black soldiers demoralizes them and causes violent reply nationwide (e.g. riots); confusion of war allows for blacks to take command, win several honors

The Course of the War
Naval strategy sought destruction of Spanish fleet, attack of its merchant marine and colonies (Mahan’s Naval War College, 1898); increasingly professional army would blockade Cuba, send arms to insurgents, and attack slightly ● Victories change strategy (quick acquisition of Philippines from Spanish (Dewey, 1898); defeat of Cervera’s Cuba-stationed, sole Caribbean Spanish navy (Sampson, 1898); Rough Riders-led advance from Daiquiri to Santiago (incl. four black regiments and other regulars; incl. battles of El Caney, San Juan Hill, Kettle Hill (heavy losses)); surrender of Santiago following Cervara’s final defeat (1898) ● Puerto Rico is also taken w/minimal resistance by US; war characterized by minimal losses (5,000, most due to sickness)

Acquisition of Empire
1898 Spain/US meeting gives US indep. of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam, and occupation of Manila until Philippines agreement was reached ● McKinley’s own and public opinion, promoting Christianization and commercial importance of the Philippines as well as considering a Filipino pop. not ready for indep., results in Treaty of Paris (1898) ceding Philippines to US for $20 mil.

The Treaty of Paris Debate
Opponents of annexation argued capitalist ineptitude of future immigrants, antiassimilation, the cost of a larger army/gov’t/debt, and the diversion of attention from racially oppressed at home to abroad, nat’l. development to foreign occupations (incl. industrialists, psychologists, working-men (Carnegie, James, Bryan, Adams, Addams, Gompers)) ● Anti-Imperialist League (formed 1898), most popular in New England, claimed 30,000 mostly Democrat members; char. by lack of a coherent platform as some wanted naval bases in island possessions, others wanted them in some islands but not in others) prolongs Treaty debate but following outbreak of fighting between American troops and Filipino insurgents demanding independence, is quickly approved w/out clause for eventual independence

Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines

Philippine-American War is char. by heavy losses, interracial warfare, and three years of fighting
103

All Things American / Monzón
Aguinaldo (Filipino leader) had welcomed Spanish-American War in hopes of Philippine indep.; helped Am. troops fight Spanish (e.g. Dewey) and established provincial governments in the wake of conquests ● By 1899, Filipino army used guerilla tactics to combat US might; both were char. by atrocious violence ● McKinley’s platform of expansionism and economic solvency allows him to win election; sends civilian gov’t. commission to Philippines under Taft (1900); Aguinaldo is taken prisoner by Am. troops and forced to call ceasefire to guerillas; McKinley restated eventual indep.; Taft Commission Westernizes country (schools, roads, hierarchial gov’t.) until indep. in 1946

Governing the Empire
● ●

Questions arise regarding the status of protectorate pops. 1901-1904 Supreme court cases conclude that indiv. Constitutional principles should be applied to them at will (Hawaii given territorial status/pop. given citizenship in 1900; Foraker Act (1900) establishes civil gov’t./territory status in Puerto Rico; US secures role in forming indep. Cuban gov’t. by Platt Amendment (1900), repairing damage and establishing institutions)

The Open Door
Open Door policy reflects foreign policy towards China; urges respect of nations’ rights/privileges of other nations (esp. following Eur.-forced Chinese “concessions” encroaching on American econ. participation), the continuing collection of tariffs by China, and no duties discrimination amongst nations ● The policy allowed US to keep commercial advantages it would’ve lost had China separated into spheres of influences; only GB agrees to policy ● Following army involvement in quieting Boxer rebellion, State Sec. Hay emphasizes American policy and recognizes Chinese indep.

Conclusion: Outcome of the War with Spain

Outcome is marked by continuing racial discrimination against minorities and the popularity of the Rep. party through 1932

104

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 22 / The Progressive Era
OUTLINE

First McClure’s, then other publications and writers gave rise to muckrackers who exposed the corruption of public and prominent figures, epitomizing progressivism (1890 – before WWI), a movement for social change that feared industrialization and political corruption

The Changing Face of Industrialism

Extant poverty is overshadowed by 20th century technology and enterprise (e.g. burgeoning words, new and mass), reforms against the latter (e.g. fear of “trusts”) and changes in the workforce (less unemployment, focus on large outputs)

The Innovative Model T
Mass production first came with Olds’ 1904 runabouts; then the accessible Model T (1908) was being made on assembly lines by 1913 (sold 11,000 in 1908) ● Federal Aid Roads Act (1916) provided federal funds for state-sponsored road and highway construction/admin.; results in “a national network of two-lane allweather intercity roads”

The Burgeoning Trusts
Series of consolidations leads to 1900s oligopolies (railroads, utilities/steel; U.S. Rubber, Consolidated Tobacco); outsourcing production (e.g. United Fruit) also leads to decreased competition (e.g. U.S. Steel); finance capitalists (e.g. J.P. Morgan) increasingly replaced earlier industrial ones, esp. through establishment of “interlocking directorates” that allowed for business control ● Debate over trusts’ management shapes Progressive Era;some are against business conglomerates (seeking indiv. opportunity and competition), others are for it (see big enterprise as a mark of the times); however, both Progressives/titans shared expansive view of US

Managing the Machines
Business aggrandize (in size/management) through assembly lines (esp. continuous for iron/steel, chemicals, etc.) and R&D labs (Eastman Kodak (1912), General Electric (1900)); ● Central management office now supervises production flow (record-keeping, accounting, etc.); workers lose folkways to “scientific” labor management (e.g. Taylor’s emphasis on efficiency; machines/management now sets pace, not workers) ● Mechanization of workers leads to monotony-induced safety hazards (also the fault of little attention paid to proper conditions) (e.g. Triangle Shirtwaist Co. fire (1911); followed by Schneiderman’s remonstration against factory working conditions)

105

All Things American / Monzón

Society’s Masses

Efforts of increasingly numerous immigrant(5.7 mil. 1911-1920)/native unskilled workers (who despite the mechanization of labor still had trouble finding work) to improve their lot becomes hallmark of Progressive Era

Better Times on the Farm
Prospering farmers’ rural free delivery/parcel post knits them closer to urban society ● Still, rising land/crop prices and farm tenancy (esp. in South; bring diseases; incl. Rockefeller Sanitary Commission’s 1909 wipeout of hookworm) are problems ● Western irrigation (Cali.’s dams/canals; also Id., Mont., Utah, Wy., Col. and Or.; irrigation is low-paid job for mostly migrant workers) makes lands blossom, creates divide between owners/workers (also, Newlands Act (1902) brings researchers)

Women and Children at Work
Closing of professions like medicine/science to women, and an extant belief in their domesticity when married being a profession (e.g. Brooks, 1906) shifts (increasing) 5 mil. service workers (circa 1900) to clerical workers (circa 1920) (e.g. bookkeeping); most women workers were unskilled/earned low wages; black women usu. worked more than white women despite lesser opportunities for advancement ● Critics (e.g. Phillips’ The Hungry Heart (1909)) feared the endangerment of domesticity and rising divorce/declining birth rates ● Increasing public indignation abates 3 mil. (1900) child labor force ● Middle-class female reform (e.g. 1907-1911 Women’s Trade Union success in founding maternity/pediatric clinics) becomes popular; other women take pride in domesticity (e.g. Sanger’s birth control)

The Niagara Movement and the NAACP
Extant violence/discrimination (Jim Crow laws, disfranchisement, and violence (e.g. Mississippi, 1904)) against, and poverty (most were sharecroppers; peonage/illiteracy is widespread in South) of, blacks leads to reform ● DuBois’ (begun 1905) Niagara Movement sought equal rights and edu. of Afr. Am. youth through militant action ● Subsequent race riots (e.g. Illinois, 1908) lead to formation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) by white/black reformers in 1909; DuBois publishes its The Crisis; overturns “grandfather clause” (Guinn v. United States (1915)) and residential segregation (Buchanan v. Worley (1917)); blacks still suffer

“I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force
106

All Things American / Monzón

● ●

● ●

1901-1920 14.5 mil. “new” immigrants from S./E. Eur. and Mexico conflict with “old” immigrants who question their values as well as labor agents (padroni) who find them jobs but deduct a few from their wages (e.g. Sklirirs) Newfound birds of passage represent temp. migrants who aim to make money in US, then return “Americanization” programs (e.g. Ford’s English classes, International Harvester Corporation’s Lesson One) attempted to equate differences between samenationality groups; countered by Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)’s more trustworthy programs (1912) Increasingly numerous Mexicans entering Texas, NM, Cali. and Ariz. (esp. after 1910 Mexican rev.) transform Southwest by working in construction of roads, irrigation projects; form barrios that preserved their culture Extant anti-Chinese hostility (e.g. 1910’s Angel Island detainment center) causes transient and shrinking (abt. 50% less 1880s-1920), mostly female/elderly immigration Rising Japanese immigration settles in farms along the Pacific Nativist sentiment is accopmnied by anti-immigration legislation (e.g. literacy test, 1917)

Conflict in the Workplace

Increasing concentration on efficiency leads to labor unrest (251 strikes in Chicago, 1903), absenteeism, and even a drop on in productivity (10%, 19151918)

Organizing Labor
Gompers’ American Federation of Labor’s skilled worker audience earns support from businesses yet contrasts emotional unions ● 1903 WTUL organized women of all skills, lobbied for female safety laws, and despite low membership had influence through successful strikes (shorter workweeks at Triangle Shirtwaist Co.; an arbitration committee at Hart, Schaffner and Marx in Chicago (1910)) ● Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) founded 1905 (Jones, Flynn, Haywood); aimed to unite Am. working class into one union to promote labor’s interests; organized unskilled/foreign workers, advocated social revolution (e.g. capitalist repression) and led major strikes (Lawrence, Mass., Paterson, NJ (both 1912); moderately successful

Working with Workers
Applied psychology campaigns link productivity to job safety and worker happiness ● Lee influences company newsletters/softball teams/prizes; through Ford’s fivedollar day (double wage rate, 8-hr. workday, and personnel dept., abates turnover, absenteeism), company (and later others who copy the plan) get greater control over a stable work force

Amoskeag
107

All Things American / Monzón
Textile, Amoskeag Co.’s self containment hired/fired women, children, immigrants and expected high effieicny/loyalty that surprisingly led to great camaraderie between he workers ● Amoskeag family units were vital to adapting to factory work life (looked after each other, taught children the ways, etc.); preserved idea of quality products v. quantity ● A 1910 welfare and efficiency program (helped immigrants, established health care/playgrounds), the Amoskeag Textile Club’s social opportunities, and the Amoskeag Bulletin kept a single strike from happening 1885-1919; Amoskeag closed 1935

108

All Things American / Monzón
A New Urban Culture

A growing middle class’ higher standard of living, 1900-1920, increased participation in skilled professions, led to mass consumption, and gave ways to new forms of entertainment

Production and Consumption

Booming advertising agencies make use of new sampling techniques; mass production in the clothing industry and made accessible, standard clothes for rich and poor; income from manufacturing increases through 1920

Living and Dying in an Urban Nation
Youthful immigration and medical advances make median age 25, increase life expectancy to 54 for white men, and lessen the death rate (except for infants) ● Socioeconomically separated cities (incl. modern urban zoning in LA (19091915) into residential, industrial, and a third, areas; zoning also heightened ethnic discrimination and kept foreigners together) grow colossally, esp. industrial cities (NY, Chicago, Philly) that produced textiles, manufactured specific goods, etc.

Popular Pastimes

Workforce mechanization makes for more leisure time (baseball as a national pastime, football as a dangerous sport (incl. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), 1910), movie theaters, phonographs (growth of the music business, ragtime as a dance craze, nightclubs, black southern folk music, jazz in New Orleans), vaudeville (drew on the immigrant experience), changing fiction (sci-fi, westerns, mass production in book publishing))

Experimentation in the Arts

Experimentation in the arts is illustrated by: Duncan and Denis’ “improvisation, emotion, and the human form” in unconventional dance; the realism (apartments, street scenes) of the Ashcan School (Bellows, Sloan); modernism at a 1913 show at the New York Armory (Picasso, Matisse, Van Gogh); postimpressionists using avant-garde colors and patterns (Marin, Weber, Dove); an outburst of unconventional poetry (Monroe, Eliot)

Conclusion: A Fremont of Discovery and Reform

A fundamental contrast between extant racism, repression and labor conflict with hope, progress and change, accompanied by sweeping changes in culture, science, politics, journalism, and other fields shaped the Progressive Era and in turn, a progressive generation

109

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 23 / From Roosevelt to Wilson in the Age of Progressivism
OUTLINE

The election of 1912, pitting progressive Rep. Roosevelt, Dem. Wilson, conservative Rep. Taft (whose attempts to emulate Roosevelt’s policies failed following the split of the Rep. party (circa 1910)), and Socialist Debs, served as a forum for the effects of industrial growth as was made possible by a new professional class, reform movements, and the activist character of the Roosevelt and Wilson admins.

The Spirit of Progressivism
Progressivism is defined by: the genuine concern of reformers about the effects of industrialization; their fundamental optimism about progress and the capability to resolve societal problems; their belief that it was their right to intervene in people’s lives; their willingness to use the authority of government and state to instill reform; the usage of a reformist logic consisting of a combination of evangelic Protestantism and the natural/social sciences; and the movement having attracted all of society (diff. from S, W populism) ● Progressives lacked a single unifying concern (clean up gov’t, clean up streets, women’s rights, child labor laws, temperance, factory safety, indiv. morality, collective action, scientific labor management) ● “Disparate groups united in an effort to improve the well-being of many groups in society.”

The Rise of the Professions
The professional societies characteristic of the era (e.g. National Child Labor Committee, American Medical Association (1901, 70,000 members by 1911), bar assoc., National Education Association (1905)) came as a result of increasing employment in professional jobs (law, medicine, religion, etc.) and the coalescing of the employed into societies based on those professions ● Indiv. professionals impacted the world around them (e.g. Hamilton’s pioneering research into lead poisoning; 1910 study of industrial poisons got 1911 compensation law passed in Illinois)

The Social-Justice Movement
● ●

1890s progressivism began in the cities and sought their reform Social-justice movement (incl. Addams) sought to rid cities of long-standing social/habitat problems; sought tenement house laws, child labor regulations, and better working conditions for women’ also pressured municipal agencies for better comm. svc.; (form National Conference of Social Work (1915) to communicate and pursue workforce reforms)

110

All Things American / Monzón

NY’s Charity Organization Society presented 1900 exhibit on dangers of tenement living (Veiller), spurring follow-up studies (e.g. The Standard of Living Among Working Men’s Families in New York City (1909)) and executive attention (NY State Tenement House Commission approached by Pres. Roosevelt)

The Purity Crusade
Temperance unions (e.g. Women’s Christian Temperance Union) had grown since their 19th-centrury inception and succeeded in securing a national law for the same in Jan. 1920 (Prohibition) ● Unions against prostitutions succeeded by state-banned brothels and 1910 Mann Act (prohibited immoral interstate transport of women)

Woman Suffrage, Women’s Rights
Increasingly active professional feminists and their orgs. (e.g. Women’s Trade Union League; also National Association of Colored Women (1895) which established kindergartens, retirement homes) furthered Progressive aims ● Growing General Federation of Women’s Clubs (1 mil. by 1912) (Decker is leader 1904) sought work rights and community beautification; movement for suffrage in 1914 was char. by disunity, male opposition ● Catt and Shaw’s (1904) National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890; approx. 2 mil. in 1920) used organization and lobbying; Paul and Burns’ Congressional Union used militant acts; shift to pragmatic logic behind female vote suggesting higher morality of women allows for 19th Amendment in 1920 ● Working hours/conditions for both women and children were modified (legislation for max. hours of employment, diff. hours depending on indiv. occupations, child labor regulation (1930s))

A Ferment of Ideas: Challenging the Status of Quo

● ●

Symbolizing Progressive logic, James’ pragmatism (incl. Pragmatism (1907)) was char. by rejection of abstract truths, the belief that truths should benefit the individual, and that people were shaped by (but could themselves shape) the environment Educator Dewey (incl. Democracy and Education (1916)) applied pragmatism to education, emphasizing personal growth, free inquiry and creativity against dogmatism and rote learning Lindsey imrpvoed children’s environment (playgrounds, slum clearance, tech. schools) Growing pre-WWI socialism fails to infiltrate workforce (Socialist Labor party (1877)) but Debs’ moderate views and public approval attracted people of all classes to the Socialist party (900,000 votes (1912)) Brandeis brief (from Muller v. Oregon, 1908) demonstrates legal system shift to “sociological jurisprudence”

Reform in the Cities and the States

Progressives’ reliance on gov’t-sponsored reform and the value of experts heightened presidential power
111

All Things American / Monzón
Interest Groups and the Decline of Popular Politics
Experts’ participation and direct primary took away control of gov’t. from parties/politicians ● Lessening voter turnout due to post-Civil War partisanship and candidate-centric campaigns (esp. amongst the poor and disfranchised blacks) is also due to formation of unaffiliated professional interest groups (e.g. labor assoc.) that pressured gov’t. for their demands

Reform in the Cities
Urban reform assocs. (e.g. National Municipal League (1894)) reorder municipal gov’t. (engineers overseeing utility regulation, city planners to oversee city construction), stressing continuity and expertise (experts staffed a gov’t. headed by elected officials) ● Proliferation of experts/commissions increased efficiency but widened the gap between voters and decision makers; state gov’t. control over cities lessens ● Increasing number of cities adopted nonpartisan commission rule (e.g. Galveston (~1900)) ● Reform-minded mayors gain fame (Pingree (Detroit); Johnson (Cleveland), who educated the public on gov’t. policies and turned to city-owned utilities (“gas and water socialism” that spread to most Am. cities by 1915))

Action in the States

● ●

Reformers sought to change state gov’t. too, seeking workforce rights (Maryland workers’ comp. law (1902)), railroad/utility management (NY’s 1905/1906 utility regulation laws), corporate/inheritance taxes, and institutional reform (incl. univs.) State commissions usu. regulated business (incl. max prices) after 1900; however, some had inexperienced officials and limited growth of complex industries (e.g. railroads) Progressives’ alternative was to democratize gov’t. through popular initiative, referendum, and recall (dir. primaries succeed the most) Growing state-level reform brings game to reform govs. (e.g. Folk’s campaign v. Southern Pacific Railroad; La Follete’s “Wisconsin idea”, which established an industrial commission, improved education/workforce/utilities and lowered railroad rates/increased railroad taxes drew on experts for stat. support) Post-1905 reformers sought nat’l. reform for broad issues (factory safety, child labor, etc.)

112

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 24 / The Nation at War
OUTLINE The sinking of the British Lusitania following its invasion of German waters in 1915 led to Pres. Wilson’s neutrality-preserving attempts to change German policy through diplomatic notes ● Progressivists’ reluctance to war matched the nation’s; regardless, the failure of diplomacy in 1917 forced the US to enter a war that would leave it being a world power, dominant in Latin America and having ended a European total war

A New World Power
1901-1920 foreign policy left largely to the executive discretion was aggressive and nationalistic at first, increasingly paying attention to issues in the possessions, building a stronger navy, and entering the Caribbean, Europe, the Far East and Latin America ● Overseas economic ventures also increased (2.5 bil. in overseas investments by WWI)

“I Took the Canal Zone”
Roosevelt maximized presidential power by strengthening the military/navy (w. War Sec. Root, forms Army War College; stiff tests for promotions, etc.)) and forcing GB to acquiesce to plans for the Panama Canal (Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901) ● Isthmian Canal Commission (1899) fails in acquiring Colombian permission (despite Hay-Herrán Convention (1903) w/99-year lease and US payment) which leads Roosevelt to influence Panamanian revolt and make Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903), which grants US 10 mi. canal zone across the Isthmus of Panama in return for Panama indep., $10 mil. to Colombia, and $250,000 annual rental ● American outcry is somewhat soothed by addt’l. payment/canal rights to Colombia (1921) as proposed by Wilson

The Roosevelt Corollary
Interests in the canal and Caribbean/Latin American protectorates yield Roosevelt Corollary (extension of the Monroe Doctrine warning Latin American nations to keep their affairs in order or face American Intervention) as these nations defaulted on Eur. payments ● It and Lodge Corollary (1912, forbade foreign corps. from purchasing Latin American military interests) led to Am. intervention (e.g. D.R.’s revenue system, Cuba as a protectorate)

Ventures in the Far East

Taft-Katsura Agreement (1904) violated Open Door policy (toward China and Philippines) by giving Japan control of Korea in return for not invading the Philippines
113

All Things American / Monzón

Japanese-American relations strained 1906 following Cali. attempt at no more Jap. Immigrants; through Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907), Japan promises to send no agriculture laborers; satiates relations

Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
Taft and state sec. Knox promoted domestic/int’l US interests w/dollar diplomacy, which aimed to replace Eur. with Am. loans (e.g. assuming Honduran debt to ward off English loaners (1909), assisting in the formation of banks) and thus establish econ. as opposed to military ties ● Failed Knox/Straight (banker)/Harriman (railroad magnate) plan for Manchurian railroads abate Am. prestige in Asia and cause Russia/Japan to seek spheres of influence

Foreign Policy under Wilson

Wilson’s inexperience w/foreign policy combined w an idealistic attitude to form an agenda of moral diplomacy (sought peace and extension of democracy)

Conducting Moral Diplomacy
Sec. state Jennings Bryan’s imperialistic pacifism led to unsuccessful cooling-off treaties (arbitration of international disputes to permanent investigative commissions) w/GB, Italy, etc. ● Aggressive Latin Am. policy continued Roosevelt-Taft policies in Panama, made Nicaragua an Am. satellite (1914, for building military bases/canal) and made dependencies of Nicaragua, Haiti, D.R., and Cuba

Troubles Across the Border
Diaz’s Mexico (overthrown 1911) had encouraged foreign investments (esp. $1 billion from US); the ascension of Huerta (1913) displeased Wilson, who announced intervention ● First blockading Mexico’s ports, then storming Veracruz with Marines, the US came close to war; in 1914, Huerta resigned following Wilson’s plea that he wanted to help Mexico, and an associate of liberal Madero (Pres. before Huerta), Carranza, rises to power ● Villa, one of Carranza’s generals, revolts by violent raids and murders of Americans (also burning Columbus, NM) and causes Wilson to call Gen. Pershing. Into Mexico to find Villa; Carranza becomes nervous with Am. presence, though, and Wilson orders Pershin home ● Wilson had tried to extend Am. progressivism (incl. morality as much as pragmatic self-interest and a desire for peace) on a sharply divided society

Toward War

Mobilization, imperialism, the alliance system, and other indirects (e.g. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) caused World War I in Europe, worrying Wilson and his policies

114

All Things American / Monzón

Allies halt German advance in Paris 1914

115

All Things American / Monzón

The Neutrality Policy
Both progressives (Wald, Addams, Kelley, Howe; La Follette’s Magazine and its rally against big businesses that benefited from war orders; League to Limit Armament; Women’s Peace Party; etc.) and the general public accepted neutrality ● Immigrants were divided over support for the Allies (US, GB, Russia, France) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria) ● An American majority bound by culture sympathized with England and resented Germany as “arrogant and militaristic” ● Unsuccessful propaganda campaigns arise (Allied testaments to historical ties v. German propaganda about strength and will)

Freedom of the Seas
Despite extant legislation stipulating neutral trade of nonmilitary goods w/belligerent countries, GB increasingly interrupted American shipments to the Central Powers (e.g. confiscating cargo, forcing ships to pass through neutral ports first, etc.) yielding Wilson’s protests and GB’s agreement to reimburse forbidden shipments ● Allied war orders, loans and trade fueled Am. economy (esp. GB and Fr.’s purchases of arms, grain, cotton, clothing; Allies used Am. bankers for loans)

The U-Boat Threat
The threat of German submarines caused state sec. Bryan to urge Wilson to forbid Am. travel in war zones, but Wilson (believing in int’l. law) refused; ● Lansing takes over as state sec., urging strong stands against German violations of Am. neutrality; sinking of unarmed Fr. Sussex (1916) causes Wilson to deliver ultimatum to Germany (if attacks on cargo/passenger ships don’t cease, USGerman relations will be severed) ● Germany (lacking enough submarines for war) acquiesces, unsuccessfully demanding end of Allied blockade ● The strength of Wilson’s act meant that if Germany resumed merchant shipping attacks, war was likely; event still seen as act for peace

“He Kept Us Out of War”
Caught between preparedness advocates (e.g. American Rights Committee, National Security League, Roosevelt, etc.) and pacifists, Wilson launches preparedness campaign in 1916 ● Reps. nominate moderate Supreme Court justice Hughes, wooing both Roosevelt progressive and Rep. conservatives (called for tougher policy against Germany); Dems. nominate Wilson, who runs on a “he kept us out of war” platform ● Wilson wins 1916

The Final Months of Peace
116

All Things American / Monzón
Further limitation of neutral trade and a renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare yields a redoubling of Am. peace efforts to which Germany reveals its true aims (Jan. 1917) to force Russia out of the war and gain territory in Eur., Afr., Belgium, and Fr. ● Wilson’s ambitious plan for sea freedom, respect for all nations, arms limitations, and a League of Nations is vitiated by German submarine warfare on all ships (through which Germany plans to defeat England), severing US-German relations ● The Zimmerman telegram (hinting at a German-Mexican alliance in case of US attack of Mexico) spurs public indignation; Wilson authorizes naval Am. attacks on U-boats; war declared Apr. 6

Over There

Allies’ losses (881,000 tons of Allied shipping sunk, French army mutinies, Bolsheviks seize power in Rus., It./GB defeats) contrast patriotic entry of Ams. into WWI

Mobilization

Pershing is chosen as head of American Expeditionary Force (AEF); Am. army is understaffed and underprepared for war; Selective Service Act (1917) fully drafted 2.8 mil. men, including blacks that weren’t allowed to appear in postwar celebrations

War in the Trenches
Mostly trench warfare (pinned down by artillery, poison gas and gunfire and made worse by diseases, shell shock, etc.) took 9 mil. lives ● First soldiers land June 1917; Admiral Sims’ convoy technique cuts shipping losses 1917; 1918 German assault drives Allies back to the Marne River (Ams. fight at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood); 1918 counterattack drives Germans back along entire western front (incl. breaking of main German railroad supply line); Germany requests armistice 1918 ● Small Allied participation helped turn tide

Over Here

Wilson quickly mobilized Am. economy and swayed public opinion 1917-18

The Conquest of Convictions
Wilson’s propaganda campaign began with the Committee on Public Information (CPI) (headed by journalist Creel and enlisting known Progressives, it distributed/sponsored anti-German literature/films and hosted increasingly emotional speeches) and spread throughout the nation (German instruction ceases in Cali,, German music and foodstuffs are banned or depreciated, etc.) ● Vigilantism flourished against antiwar Ams. (e.g. Little, 1917) and Germans (Prager, 1918); Wilson encourages this through Espionage Act (1917; imposed sentences for all found guilty of aiding the enemy) and Sedition Act (1918;

117

All Things American / Monzón
imposed penalties on antiwar or antigov’t. ppl.), hoping to unite US against Germany in the war ● Conservatives use opportunity to disfranchise antiwar socialists (e.g. Haywood, 1921; Debs, 1918) and ban socialist literature (e.g. Appeal to Reason), engendering “Red Scare” following Bolshevik victory in Russia (esp. 1918 troops sent to Russia whose underlying obj. was to possibly bring down Bolsheviks); Russia was also blockaded and its participation in post-war peace conferences barred

A Bureaucratic War
$32 billion in war expenses was funded by higher taxes and “Liberty Bonds” sales Wilson established an array of specialized planning boards to oversee nearly all aspects of the economy: War Industries Board (WIB) (Baruch) oversaw Am. factory production and determined priorities, allocated raw materials and fixed prices; Food Administration (Hoover) supplied food to armies overseas whilst encouraging Am. dietary frugality (incl. “victory gardens”); Fuel Administration (Garfield) introduced DST and rationed/saved coal/oil; Railroad Administration standardized rates, limited passenger travel, and sped up arms shipments; War Shipping Board oversaw shipping; Emergency Fleet Corporation, shipbuilding; War Trade Board, foreign trade ● Gov’t.-business partnership grew and prospered together
● ●

Labor in the War
Organized labor joined with the gov’t. on a lesser scale (e.g. Gompers’ War Committee on Labor to enlist workers’ support for the war) ● Wilson adopted social-justice objs. Through War Labor Board (WLB), which standardized wages/hrs/ (esp. 8 hr. workday), allowed but discouraged strikes, ordered equal payment for women (who, along w/Afr Ams. and Mex.-Ams., filled void created by men now in war; female employment steady at 8 mil.; women did not mostly leave the home yet; semiskilled s. blacks also move North, stirring racial tensions as they competed for white jobs (e..g Illinois race war, 1917); some also fought in war) with varying success (equal fem. payment in railroad indust.) ● SW’s demand for cheap labor yields nat’l. laxing of immigration restrictions ● US becomes creditor nation

The Treaty of Versailles

Wilson’s peace-centric Fourteeen Points was a generous but unsuccessful plan for peace in Europe that was only half agreed to by nations that wanted to simply see Germany crippled (though this happened anyway)

A Peace at Paris
Wilson’s personal involvement in the peace talks (aided by a manipulated delegation) was attacked following the 1918 loss of Dem. seats in Congress ● Dominated by the “Big Four” (GB, US, Fr., It.), draft treaty called for the formation of Poland and Czechoslovakia, that Germany would assume $33 billion

118

All Things American / Monzón
in reparations, a League of Nations (US domestic affairs remained out of its jurisdiction); following heave congressional opposition, treaty is signed 1919

Rejection in the Senate
Opposition was between Borah-led Reps. against League of Nation, Kellog-led “mild reservationists”, and Lodge-Led “strong reservationists” seeking major changes ● Wilson has a stroke ● Fixed treaty fails 1919 (39-55) ● Joint resolution in 1921 ending the war is passed; Hardin becomes Pres. 1920

Conclusion: Postwar Disillusionment

“World War I was feared before it started, popular while it lasted, and hated when it ended”

119

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 25 / Transition to Modern America
OUTLINE Ford’s mass production, born in Highland Park in 1913 and perfected at River Rouge in the 1920s, became the hallmark of American industry, increasing productivity but also furthering labor mechanization ● It also led to a decade of escape and frivolity accompanied by a consumer goods revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution
Post-1922 boom occurred mostly amongst industries producing consumer goods, rising national per capita 30% to $681 in 1929; installment credit programs were also established ● Developments in industry technology (usage of electric motors, efficiency studies, fragmenting the industrial process) also increased industrial productivity

The Automobile Industry
The nations’ argest in the 1920s, the automobile industry was hurt by the ubiquity of the democratized vehicle, which made sales slump due to their long life ● Most focused on the stimulating effects of the automobile (e.g. raw material production) and its cultural impact (e.g. filling stations everywhere, the first shopping center)

Patterns of Economic Growth
Other industries also continued to grow (e.g. the electrical industry, dominated by power stations turning coal into electricity and fed by ubiquitous appliances like the vacuum cleaner; radio/films, including the successes of KDKA and NBC (incl. Amos ‘n Andy), as well as the “talkies” starting 1929; chemical engineering/synthetics) ● Prolific corporations controlled themselves internally (e.g. no more J.P Morgan); 1920-1928 mergers yielded less companies with more wealth ● Increasing emphasis on marketing (linking good life to a new product; incl. Woolworth’s “five and tens”, Rexall and Liggetts) and standardization (homogeneity even into rural areas) was also present

Economic Weaknesses
Consumer goods revolution overshadowed decline of traditional industries (e.g. railroads, textile mills), including farming (hardest hit, with less exports and per capita farm income) ● Steady (yet unequally wealthy) urban workforce enjoyed from price stability (meaning scattered, but real wage gains); lacked successful organization (conservative labor unions accomplished nothing, aggressive ones were seen as

120

All Things American / Monzón
radical; injunctions, “yellow-dog contracts”4, and welfare capitalism were used to discourage union membership) ● Increasing corporate profits and bank accounts created a thriving middle- to upper-class that invested heavily in the stock market (speculation) ● Success of industry contrasted w/unequal wealth distribution, growth of consumer debt, saturation of demand for goods, and rampant speculation ● Southern blacks moving north found low-paying jobs and established rapidly growing ghettos (incl. Harlem in NY)

City Life in the Jazz Age

Growing metropoli characterized by skyscrapers (e.g. Tribune Tower) brought over half the country (incl. rural Ams. seeking opportunities) and culturally replaced community ties from rural times

Women and the Family
Accelerated female employment during WWI slows down postwar (no marked increase in female employment); also, 19th Amendment robbed women of a unifying cause and did little to offset sex roles (men still breadwinners) ● Extant feminist vitality shifted from social reform (e.g. Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921, which sought federal aid for state program for maternal/infant health care) to gender-specific attempts (National Woman’s Party’s female equality) to individualistic aims (reform of the woman against Victorian constraints by “flappers” who drank alcohol, assaulted the traditional double standard in sex, increased divorce rates (thanks to more liberal laws), decreased the birthrate, etc.) that still fell short of changing traditional sex roles (even the newly independent woman worked long hours for meager wages and could not enjoy the consumer goods revolution) ● The American family changed as women took more jobs, birth control made less children, and children found adolescence (char. by a constant search for excitement) to be a life stage (college attendance increased)

The Roaring Twenties5
Prohibition increased crime (speakeasies, rival bootleggers; esp. among middle-, upper-class) and sports became a national mania (golf, spectator sports (boxing (incl. Dempsey), baseball (Ruth, 1927), football (esp. on college campuses))) ● Popular heroes serve as escape from drab industrial world (Lindbergh and his flight, Ederle’s swim across the English Channel, etc.)3

The Flowering of the Arts

In bemoaning the loss of traditional America, Jazz Age writers suggested the country was coming of age intellectually (Pound’s “botched civilization”, Eliot’s 1922 The Waste Land and its images of fragmentation/sterility, Hemingway’s men alienated from society finding identity in their own courage, Fitzgerald’s

4 5

Forbade a worker’s union membership. “A time of pure pleasure seeking.”

121

All Things American / Monzón
1925 The Great Gatsby and its criticsm of American youth, Lewis’ criticism of commercialism and small-town America, Mencken’s defense of public rationality v. excessive boosterism); revolution also attracted playwrights (e.g. Rice, Anderson), women (esp. about Eastern aristocrats and Southern life) ● Art captured grim realities of American life (e.g. Hopper, Burchfield); ● Harlem Renaissance epitomizes black cultural advancement during the era (jazz and blues spread throughout the nation by Afr. Ams. also became popular; Johnson’s commentary on 50 yrs. of suffering since Lincoln’s Emancipation; NACP moving to Harlem; literature defending black rights, expressing their plight (McKay, Hughes); plays and concerts at 135th St. YMCA; Harlem successes spreads through poetry circles/theater groups); black college enrollment increases ● 1920s literary flowering features paradox between writers’ disillusionment about the new American society (thus their individualistic, removed from society attitudes) and the varied, rich nature of the work they produced

The Rural Counterattack

A rural attack on urban culture, seeking preservation of a Protestant Anglo-Saxon culture, was heightened by a wartime nationalistic spirit not happy with 1/3 of the pop. being foreign-born and a decaying progressivism focusing on social problems to justify Prohibition/immigration restriction

The Fear of Radicalism
The spread of Communism amongst a foreign-born minority, strengthened by wartime attack on Bolshevism (incl. Russian Revolution, triumph of Marxism), hgave rise to a Red Scare in 1919 ● Following several bombings and labor strikes (New York, Seattle, then his home), Attorney General Palmer leads alien attack; rounds up thousands of alleged Communists (mostly innocents) and either jailed or deported them without due process; Am. public supported these actions and urged more (Gen. Wood, evangelist Sunday) ● Radical nature of Red Scare led to its demise as leaders/institutions spoke out (Dept. of Labor, Hughes, Harding; Palmer becomes obscure following hysteric announcement of an alleged May 1 Communist revolution in NY); however, the Red Scare left an unspoken hostility towards immigrants (e.g. the case of Sacco and Vanzetti, 1920)), symbolizing Am. bigotry/intolerance

Prohibition
Prohibition, a mixed rural (Anti-Saloon League backed by Methodists/Baptists) and urban (moral/societal concern w/drunkenness) campaign, began w/1917 18th Amendment prohibiting sale/manufacture of alcohol, then Volstead Act (excluded medicinal/religious/private uses) ● Drinking did decline, but middle-/upper-class bootleggers illicitly shipped/manufactured plausibly fatal whiskey and gave rise to speakeasies; urban

122

All Things American / Monzón
resistance to prohibition led to its 1933 repeal but led to Am. breeding of law disrespect (e.g. city police/justices tolerating bootleggers (incl. token fines))

The Ku Klux Klan
Fueled by postwar fears and shrewd promotional techniques, post-1920 rebirth of KKK spurred nativist terrorism and slowly entered the political world (e.g. 1924 censure blocking at Dem. nat’l. convention); KKK appealed to low-class, insecure whites seeking Protestant reassurance and belonging absent in their local churches ● Increasingly gruesome KKK terrorism bothered nat’l. Am. conscience, earning rank from skilled politicians and Am. public; KKK disappears by 1930s

Immigration Restriction
Nativist sentiment influenced 1920s immigration restriction laws (esp. due to fear of mass postwar Eur. immigration); Congress passes weak 1921 emergency restriction act (500,000 Eurs. still enter) ● IQ tests emphasizing the ineptitude of all but Anglo-Saxon stock immigrants leads to 1924 National Origins Quota Act, which limited Eur. immigration to 150,000 Anglo-Saxon immigrants, and banned Asian ones ● Rural participation in getting the act passed marked the largest contribution of the same; mechanized industries no longer depending on armies of unskilled immigrants didn’t object the law, but Mexicans filling a need for Pacific-side farm employment continued to enter, becoming a major group

The Fundamentalist Challenge

Fundamentalists (alienated from modernization, they preserved traditional beliefs) contradicted urban life as middle-/upper-class Americans favored a gentle Christianity favoring respectability yet aggressive fundamentalists sects (e.g. Pentecostals) grew sharply; several brought their reliefs to cities, however (e.g. McPherson’s Church of the Four-Square Gospel)

Politics of the 1920s

Despite Republicans controlling both houses 1919-1931 (and the White House 1921-1933), using the time to halt reform legislation and establish friendly gov’t.business relations, Democrats won over new voters (esp. from city ethnic groups) and laid the groundwork for a future Dem. majority

Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
Harding’s genial identity with the Am. era of 1920 was overshadowed by his lack of capacity to govern and the sabotage of his admin. by corrupt officials (Attorney Gen. Daugherty and Interior Sec. Fall (Teapot Dome scandal6); Harding dies 1923 ● Coolidge’s presidency was benign and reserved

6

Fall was bribed by 2 oil promoters for leases on naval oil reserves in Elk Hills, Cali. and Teapot Dome, Wyoming.

123

All Things American / Monzón

The embodiment of Am. faith in individualism and free enterprise, Hoover sought cooperation between gov’t. and business

Republican Policies
Harding’s “normalcy” became the keyword for 1920s GOP policies, which represented a mixture of traditional and innovative measures that were neither wholly reactionary nor entirely progressive ● Tariff acts (1921, also Fordney-McCumber) raised the tax; ; Treasury Sec. Mellon used new 1921 budget system to remove corporate excess profit/wealthy personal profit taxes; creates slight surplus; by 1930s, gov’t. collected 1/3 less taxes ● Postwar decline in farm prices and overproduction led farmers (and respective special-interest groups) to demand higher tariffs which would increase and/or protect crop prices (esp. by exporting surplus) and invite federal supervision over aspects of agriculture; Coolidge vetoes propositions ● Gov’t. interference in economy broadens post-1920s, as federal employee numbers double, Hoover establishes Commerce Dept. (set of bureaus overseeing Am. production and workforce)

The Divided Democrats
Wartime dissatisfaction and the 2nd Industrial Revolution split the Dem. party into South/West faction supporting rural counterattack v. North/Midwest Dem. faction hosting foreign/multi-religion participation against rural facets ● 1924 Dem. nat’l. convention in Madison Square Garden epitomized split as wear Dems. were forced to choose lawyer Davis as candidate who later had trouble securing a campaign indep. from Coolidge; a discontented La Follette ran as Progressive ● Despite schism, Dems. took 78 seats from Reps. (1922), gained 13 new congressmen, came close to House/Senate control (1926), etc.

The Election of 1928
1928 voters were stuck between an inexperienced, poorly educated Catholic Smith (immigrant, for Dems.) and an old-stock Protestant Hoover (Reps.); Hoover wins easily ● Dems.’ failure to offer alternative economic policies ensured Smith’s defeat, but not without his earning a Dem. majority in 12 large cities, suggesting the growth of a Dem. electorate consisting of immigrants

Conclusion: The Old and the New

A still fragile Am. economy was being driven by a 2nd Industrial Revolution, but being hurt by rural-based values, uneven distribution of more prosperity than before, and a nativism that bred hostility

124

All Things American / Monzón Chapter 26 / Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal
OUTLINE

The Great Depression of 1930s America forced hard times and a need to adapt on Ams. but also affected Am. institutions mainly through FDR’s ambitious relief program, the New Deal

The Great Depression

The 1929 stock market crash halted the prosperity of the 20s and created widespread unemployment

The Great Crash
The Great Depression is mainly caused by overproduction/under-consumption due to an unequal distribution of wealth (esp. w/more money going to producers than consumers), economic conditions in Europe, post-1919 decline in agriculture, corporate mismanagement, and speculation ● The 1920s cheapening of credit (Federal Reserve Board) led to stock market speculation by indivs. and corps. alike (NY Stock Exchange was $67. bil, 1929) at incredible prices (e.g. $10 down and $90 on margin (loan)), creating a bull market climate (fascination with expensive stocks prohibiting analysis of underlying economy flaws) where fewer than 3 mil. Ams. owned stocks) ● Oct. 24 faltering of stock prices (Black Thursday) led to numerous stock sales, which then caused the curtailment of consumer loans, the abating of mass production, the swelling of unemployment (25%, 1932) and the decrease of the GNP

Effect of the Depression
Depression caused widespread unemployment, slight famine, family poverty, higher vagrancy (e.g. hobo jungles along railroad routes), and further agricultural demise by abating of crop prices and turndown of long-overdue mortgages ● The poor (incl. immigrants who were the first to be laid off in factory settings) fared better in poverty than middle-/upper-class people who often rejected help

Fighting the Depression

The incapability of Reps. to handle the Depression allowed for dominant Dem. power that achieved some alleviation

Hoover and Voluntarism

Hoover’s unrealistic reliance on voluntarism (i.e. private charities and local gov’ts. that would supposedly alleviate suffering) and his rejection of federal aid changed as he adopted several federal support boards (e.g. Federal Farm Board, public works projects, Reconstruction Finance Corporation) to provide money/create jobs

125

All Things American / Monzón

Hoover’s treatment of the bonus army (WWI vets. demanding immediate payment of war bonuses; were attacked by Am. troops as they stayed in Washington) cause nat’l. disenchantment with his leadership

The Emergence of Roosevelt

FDR’s pragmatic understanding of politics and natural credibility allowed him to appeal to both Dem. wings (traditionalists v. new urbanites), win the nomination and become President in 1932, defeating Hoover in a landslide and symbolizing proximate Am. prosperity

The Hundred Days
Proclaiming broad use of executive power to heal the Depression, Roosevelt issued tide-turning legislation during his first hundred days as President ● Closed all banks and later reopened only strong ones through federal aid while preserving private ownership (“[saving] capitalism … in eight days”); established the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to construct energy-producing dams across seven SE states

Roosevelt and Recovery
The patriotic National Recovery Administration (NRA) compromised business’ and labor’s goals by allowing major companies to write codes for realistic production limits, allocate percentages to individual produces, and set firm guidelines for prices while forcing minimum wage/working hours upon them as well ● NRA disillusionment occurred as minimum wages were too low and companies avoided collective bargaining through ineffective company “unions” ● Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) (1933) allocated acreage between farmers, encouraging them to take land out of production by paying them subsidies; rose farm income by 1935 as smaller harvests yielded higher crop prices; large farmers using effective machinery on smaller lands often drove off smaller tenants that then swelled the cities; AAA eventually shuts down ● Farm Security Administration (FSA) unsuccessfully tried to aid sharecroppers in their purchase of new land

Roosevelt and Relief
Believing in federal aid, Roosevelt/Hopkins (relief program director) distributed millions to Am. states for starving individuals ● Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (put young males to work in public works), Public Works Administration (PWA) (Ickes), Civil Works Administration (CWA) (Hopkins; had more than 4 million employed; helped many survive the winter); finally, Works Progress Administration (WPA) (Hopkins) promoted selfrespect through $5 bil. of Congress money feeding a federal payroll and supporting creative Ams. (e.g. Federal Theatre Project and other projs. allowing plays, circuses, writers, and artist to distribute their talent; National Youth

126

All Things American / Monzón
Administration (NYA) found vocational training opportunities for youngsters still in school) ● Work relief programs were underfunded and thus failed to stimulate the American economy by giving money to its consumers

Roosevelt and Reform

Bolstered by 1934 Dem. victory, Roosevelt adopted reform programs that would directly assist struggling workers/sharecroppers that had no political voice ( i.e. fixing Am. inequality) instead of business and large farmers

Challenges to FDR
The 3 largest challenges to FDR were Detroit priest Coughlin (initially supported the New Deal, now called for monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system through a charming voice on the radio), California physician Townsend (whose Townsend Plan appealed to the elderly nationwide by planning to give them a monthly $200 provided they spent it within 30 days), and Louis. senator Long (whose disillusionment with the New Deal made him form “Share the Wealth” clubs who advocated giving every American a home and $2500 income by seizing or heavily taxing fortunes of $5 mil. and above) ● Minor progressives had also formalized movements (Sinclair, Olson, etc.)

Social Security
Taking advantage of a Dem. majority, Roosevelt proposed the Social Security Act (established a system of old age, unemployed and survivors’ insurance funded by wage/payroll taxes; also established funding for states to distribute welfare/pensions) ● Despite its defects (paltry pensions, a trust fund that took money out of circulation, usu. substandard unemployment benefits, and participation of fewer people than those who needed it), Roosevelt established the principle of federal responsibility for the elderly/unemployed/handicapped

Labor Legislation
The Wagner Act (signed into law 1935) created a Nat’l. Labor Relations Board to outlaw union-busting tactics and allow formal unions to permanently negotiate with the relevant company on issues of wages or hours if enough workers supported it ● Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) passed amidst heavy opposition (esp. Southern conservatives) established minimum wage (40 cents) and a standard workweek (40 hrs.) for nonunionized workers ● Other proposals sought to break up public utility holdings, bring electricity to an Am. majority, etc. ● FDR’s reform legislation increased Am. life quality but failed to address major societal wrongs

Impact of the New Deal
127

All Things American / Monzón

Union-favoring legislation had varying levels of success

Rise of Organized Labor
Weak trade unions assisting mostly skilled workers left unskilled workers in basic industries (e.g. auto, steel) unprotected; prompts Lewis (United Mine Workers) to form Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), determined to use the Wagner Act to extend collective bargaining to other industries ● Though by the end of the 1930s, the CIO had mobilized workers in the auto, textile, steel and other industries (also favoring women and Afr. Ams. because they formed a large part of the unskilled), only 28% of Ams. belonged to unions and some remained unorganized (e.g. restaurant workers); progress was hurt by employer resistance and traditional hostility to unions

The New Deal Record on Help to Minorities
Even the New Deal’s nationwide relief policies often helped Afr. Ams. less (e.g. lower wage scales (NRA), thousands of Afr. Am. evictions (AAA), no Social Security coverage for farming/domestic Afr. Am. servants, etc.) ● Regardless, Afr. Ams. took office (e.g. Bethune in the National Youth Admin.) and were defended (e.g. Anderson singing in 1939) and supported (Hopkins had more than a million blacks working for the WPA) by Dems., which earned their support ● Mexican American immigration to mostly Ariz./Cali. was barred but those already in the US were initially employed the WPA ● Nat. Ams. were supported by Collier (supporter of Indian rights) who as commissioner of Indian affairs secured modest gains for them (e.g. educational programs)

Women at Work

While extant discrimination of female employment (esp. wives) kept wages low (e.g. NRA) and unemployment widespread (mostly in heavy industry), in addition to college enrollment abating, women worked mostly in service/clerical jobs and the number of wives increased

End of the New Deal

Roosevelt’s enthusiastic 1936 reelection contradicted imminent defeats in Congress

The Election of 1936
1936 saw formation of a Union party (led by Progressive Lemke) and a Liberty League (led by ineffective Rep. Landon) attacking the New Deal’s supposed assault on property rights ● Roosevelt’s appeal to class sympathies (securing further Dem. support by adding diverse religious/ethnic groups to traditional South/West votes; also strongly

128

All Things American / Monzón
supported labor and the middle-class; Reps. were left with upper-class and rural Ams. only) earned him reelection; Dems. also did well in Congress

The Supreme Court Fight

Roosevelt’s unsuccessful “court-packing” scheme, aimed at legally replacing elderly members of the Supreme Court that often opposed his policies, earned heavy criticism from mostly Dems. (causing bad Pres.-Congress rifts; reluctant supporters of FDR’s New Deal policies were now wholeheartedly against them); later, justices vacated spots and FDR was able to choose new justices; “courtpacking” scheme died

The New Deal in Decline
Growing Congressional resistance of new proposals (e.g. health insurance system) prompted FDR to unsuccessfully target main opponents, further straining Pres.Congress relations ● 1937 recession occurred as FDR cut back on New Deal program budgets (to avoid a growing deficit); critics urged revival of gov’t. spending; 1938 $3.75 bil. revives economy ● Dems. lose Am. favor to Reps. in Congress in 1938; bipartisan conservative coalition forms along w/the decline of the New Deal

Conclusion: The New Deal and American Life
Roosevelt’s reluctance to gov’t. involvement in the economy and planned deficits kept the New Deal from being successful in the economic realm as Am. inequalities remained ● The New Deal’s societal impact (e.g. Social Security) only tended to help the more vocal/organized groups, not oppressed minorities ● His political success with respect to Dem. majority occurred because his strong leadership appealed to minority groups and organized labor, overshadowing his limitations as a reformer

129

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 29 / Affluence and Anxiety
OUTLINE William Levitt’s Levittown, a set of 17,000 homes built on a former potato field on Long Island, symbolized the flight to the suburbs of postwar America, what with its cheap yet attractive housing and mass production background ● A massive shift in population toward the suburbs (up 46% by ’60) was accompanied by a baby boom that started during WIII that upped the pop. by 19% (’50-’60) ● Residential construction and the stimulated production of consumer goods, in directly opposing the poverty of the Depression, led to profuse materialism and conformity ● Anxiety was created by events abroad (e.g. the threat of nuclear warfare) and at home (e.g. McCarthyism and the Civil Rights movement)

The Postwar Boom

Pent-up demand for consumer goods and Cold War-era gov’t. spending stimulated newfound econ. growth

Postwar Prosperity

● ● ● ● ●

Econ. stimuli (Eur. Aid plans, Kor. War-induced rearmament, heightened personal savings) forced overwhelmed industries to gradually meet demand; GNP rises Adoption of new technology (e.g. primitive computers) heightened Am. industry’s capital investment Benefitting areas (e.g. Sunbelt of S, W) overshadowed worse off areas (e.g. New England) and industries (e.g. steel, agriculture) Unemployment grew to 7% and higher Growth slumbered in second half of the ‘50s Workers had more leisure time

Life in the Suburbs

● ● ● ● ●

Traditional distinctions of ancestry, education, and size of residence failed to differentiate a considerably diverse middle class (job-wise) that filled the suburbs; still, some suburbs were mostly white/Christian while others incl. Jews/blacks The need of the automobile in the suburbs further spurred production Highway dept. stores open up “Togetherness” became a ‘50s code word that summarized the centrality of the home for family activity and living Suburbs made extended family become farther apart from the nuclear Trends toward earlier marriage made women return to the home/childrearing as opposed to seeking professional opportunities; still, number of working wives doubled (’40-’60) esp. as they sought to cover child expenses

130

All Things American / Monzón
The Good Life?

Profuse consumerism still left many Americans anxious/dissatisfied

Areas of Greatest Growth
The popularity of ‘50s organized religion (e.g. churches, synagogues; also formation of new churches like the Assemblies of God) suggested its role in filing a genuine human need ● Overwhelmed school districts received little nat’l. help; debates over edu. innovations (e.g. kindergarten, foreign languages) were accompanied by increased college enrollment ● Advertisers contaminated an initially artistic growth of television (e.g. playwrights like Rose, Serling) through designing big-prize programs that stressed instant success; Doren scandal (’59) made networks return to comedy, action and adventure shows

Critics of the Consumer Society
1950s self-criticism was characterized by a range of authors ○ Keats; The Crack in the Picture Window; idea of houses “vomited up” and occupants who’d lost any sense of individuality ○ Gordon, Gordon, Gunther; The Split-Level Trap; concerned with the psych. Effect of suburban living; “gimme” kids and “Disturbia” ○ Whyte; The Organization Man; shift to a social ethic based on teamwork, belongingness, and thus conformity ○ Riesman; The Lonely Crowd; “inner” v. “outer-directed” Ams. Who now adapter their behavior to conform to social pressures and produced a tolerant consumerist society ○ Mills; White Collar, Power Elite; a villain corporation that stripped bluecollar office workers of personality ● Beats were literary groups that rebelled against the materialistic society; produced “beatniks” (rebel youth char. by drug use, long hair, sexual promiscuity, etc.) ○ Kerouac’s On the Road sought Buddhist beatitude (a state of inner grace) ● Abstract expressionism (Pollock, Rothko’s color field painting style) mirrored literary rebellion ● Evoked disapproval from “normal” Ams. yet set the tone for ‘60s counterculture

The Reaction to Sputnik
USSR launch of Sputnik (’57) fomented nat’l. sense of humiliation that led to superior, yet smaller ’58 Explorer ● Eisenhower forms crash program in missile dev. (Killian); NASA is founded ● National Defense Education Act (NDEA) authorized scientific/foreign lang. programs in Am. schools ● Critics noted USSR’s larger econ. growth, opposed Am. “consumption over production” attitude

Farewell to Reform
131

All Things American / Monzón

Depression-era reform spirit disappeared in postwar years

Truman and the Fair Deal

Truman’s Fair Deal (nat’l. medial insurance, federal aid to edu., Fair Employment Practices Committee, new farm subsidy program) was never enacted save for a higher min. wage and broadening of Social Security likely due to bipartisanism in Congress

Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism
Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism sought budget balance (military spending in check, private initiative, reduction of fed. activities), delegation of domestic issues (to industrialists like Humphrey, Wilson; also lobbying to Adams; was made harder after more Dems. in Congress post-1954 elections); ● Continued New Deal ($1 min. wage, extension of Social Security, creation of Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare (’53)) but rejected Dem. proposals (e.g. edu. aid and compulsory health insurance) ● Highway Act of 1956 benefitted travelers, agriculture, industry through construction of 41,000 mi. of roads ● Eisenhower’s political moderation still managed to balance budget

The Struggle over Civil Rights
Nat’l. conscience was captured by the paradox between denunciation of USSR human rights violations v. denial of black rights ● Northern blacks didn’t reap full industrial benefits, Southern blacks were rigidly segregated in public facilities

Civil Rights as a Political Issue
Truman’s ’46 plans to reinstitute FEPC, establish a civil rights commission, and deny fed. aid to segregator schools was blocked by Southern opposition and anticivil rights 1948 Dem. platform; same fate to ’49 plans ● Did succeed in making civil rights an issue, strengthening civil rights div. of Justice Dept., and desegregating the armed forces

Desegregating the Schools
NAACP criticized public edu. segregation (Marshall); ’54 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka unanimously illegalized it but ensuing desegregation went slowly, esp. in the South ● Anti-Brown Southern Manifesto (’56) encouraged school boards to make pupil placement laws; less than 1% of blacks attended schools w/whites by end of decade ● Eisenhower quietly achieved desegregation in D.C., navy yards, veterans’ hospitals; South mistook silence for support, stopped 9 blacks from attending Little Rock High School (Ark.)

132

All Things American / Monzón

Brown decision spurred creation of a Commission for Civil Rights (following ’57 work of Eisenhower/LBJ) that would push for suffrage

The Beginnings of Black Activism

● ●

● ●

Rosa Parks’ refusal to relinquish a seat to a white man on an Montgomery public bus led to the Montgomery bus boycott (where women were very active) led by MLK, Jr. Legal harassment and violence forced protesters to be more assertive; finally, Alabama law was declared unconstitutional MLK emerged as an acclaimed charismatic leader; formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), led Prayer Pilgrimage (’57) in Washington, sought suffrage, conceptualized passive resistance and with it hoped to capture middle-class white America, Other leaders collaborated (Robinson’s Woman’s Political Caucus) ’60 A&T College “sit-in” spurred similar acts throughout the South; successfully desegregated many public facilities; spurred formation of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Conclusion: Restoring National Confidence

The ‘50s ended with an Am. tranquility that no longer feared a second Red Scare, Kor. War or Depression, but an awareness that the abundance of consumer goods couldn’t mask Am. ideals and the reality of race relations

133

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 30 / The Turbulent Sixties
OUTLINE In the first televised debates, Kennedy won over supporters with his healthier, more confident manner and well-substantiated viewpoints vs. Nixon’s seemingly older, pro-Eisenhower defense ● Kennedy promised to stimulate edu., health care, and civil-rights in US toward the New Frontier while committing to US victory abroad ● Despite a marginal victory, JFK (LBJ as VP) symbolized the appeal of youthful reform in a nation that would soon undergo sweeping social change

Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War

JFK’s prioritization of foreign policy against USSR sought to resolve immediate dangers (e.g. alliance of Cuba, dev. Conflict in Vietnam); JFK chose hard-line “New Frontiersmen” that would match his intent to win the war (McNamara (Defense Sec.), Rostow, Bundy)

Flexible Response

JFK/McNamara flexible response plan mobilized both nuclear and conventional army reserves (e.g. 1000 Minuteman ICBMs, 5 new combat-ready divisions) in order to have multiple operational plans in case of USSR attack; sought to put USSR on the defensive

Crisis over Berlin

E. Ger. Talent that was fleeing to W. Ger. through Berlin convinced USSR to seek a peace treaty in order to control all of Berlin; Khrushchev-Kennedy negotiations (’61) forced a stalemate (as US had superior nuclear power) in which each side kept its original area and the Berlin wall was built

Containment in Southeast Asia
● ● ●

● ●

JFK called for nation building policy (e.g. econ. aid) to support pro-Western gov’ts. Relied heavily on counterintelligence to beat back communist regimes in Latin. Am. The encroachment of an Am. supported Diem in Vietnam (nationalist) by communist forces in N. Vietnam led to the sending of advisors (Taylor, Rostow) that believed in sending troops More advisors, a flow of supplies and the creation of “strategic hamlets” failed to get Diem the popular support the needed The risk involved in losing Vietnam leading to losing SE Asia led Kennedy to tacitly approve an anti-Diem coup, solidifying Am. involvement

134

All Things American / Monzón

Image 2 Signs by Robert Rauschenberg (1970) memorializes some of the important events of “The Turbulent Sixties”.

135

All Things American / Monzón
Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco
Eisenhower/Rep. gov’t. had been training Cuban exiles to topple the Castro regime in the heavily criticized Bay of Pigs invasion that proved unsuccessful ● JFK took responsibility for planning to attack a neighboring nation’s sovereignty and continued to harass Castro regime through an embargo and support of antiCastro operations

Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis
USSR construction of missile sites in Cuba (likely to one-up US nuclear advantage) was seen as a threat to Am. security; JFK proposed an ultimatum (incl. navy blockade of Cuba) threatening nuclear war if the sites weren’t dismantled ● Six days of possible nuclear war was broken by accepted USSR deal to remove missiles in exchange for an Am. promise to not invade Cuba, avoiding having to take Jupiter missiles out of Cuba (Dobrynin) ● Success in mediating the crisis made AM. people proud against USSR, made JFK more popular and more mature; however, evident nuclear superiority of US compelled USSR to form nuclear crash program

The New Frontier at Home
JFK’s administration reflected his youth through the appointment of activists to the cabinet, reliance on experts to drive decisions, and JFK’s own cool, collected personality ● JFK encouraged political participation of youth involved in politics only postWWII

The Congressional Obstacle

The presence of a conservative coalition of Reps. and S. Dems. in Congress obstructed nearly all attempts at reform (including JFK’s own New Frontier program)

Economic Advance
2% annual growth and rising unemployment compelled JFK to get economy moving through funding of defense and space programs (e.g. $6 bil. increase in arms spending) ● A desire to keep inflation low led JFK to conflict with businesses through wage regulation programs that wouldn’t allow businesses to up prices; ensuing stock market decline (’62) was blamed on Kennedy ● A ’63 $13.6 bil. tax cut went against prosperity orthodoxy but made for sustained econ. advance for the rest of the decade ● JFK’s econ. success (higher employment and personal income while cost of living remained mostly the same) failed to address the public sector and the distribution of wealth

Moving Slowly on Civil Rights
136

All Things American / Monzón
JFK’s approach to civil rights was markedly cautious/uninvolved JFK’s fear of alienating S. Dems. led him to put RFK in charge of securing black suffrage; his and LBJ’s attempts, one limited by budget and both by reliance on voluntary cooperation, failed to make dramatic gains ● Blacks were appointed to high positions (e.g. Marshall, US Circuit Court) ● Freedom rides (tested bus segregation laws) by members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) proved unsuccessful (’61); ICC finally banned segregation ● Some gains (Meredith’s entrance into Ole Miss, takedown of segregationist Wallace)
● ●

“I Have a Dream”
MLK’s ardent backing of a Birmingham demonstration, violently thwarted by anti-civil rights police commissioner Connor, got fed. attention and got Birmingham protesters most of their demands ● JFK then supported desegregation laws that barely got passed after his death (e.g. housing); protesters kept the pressure on the gov’t. through March on Washington (incl. MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech; ’63) ● JFK’s strategy to wait for a public consensus on the civil rights issue (following Connor’s violence) and then take an executive stand ultimately extended voting rights

The Supreme Court and Reform
Under the leadership of pragmatist Warren, whilst opposed by liberal judges, the Supreme Court extended to the legally oppressed (e.g. need for a lawyer, being able to plea the Fifth) (e.g. Escobedo v. Illinois (’64), Gideon v. Wainwright (’63)) ● In Baker v. Carr (’62), the Court’s decision to oppose rural overrepresentation directly involved it in the reapportionment process, leading judges to constantly define new districts ● Court’s activism came under criticism as a threat to security/law; John Birch Soc. Demanded Warren’s impeachment ● ’62 Engel v. Vitale, outlawing school prayer, upset conservative Ams.; still, Court promoted social justice by aiding the underprivileged

“Let Us Continue”

Oswald’s assassination of Kennedy and subsequent events shocked a nation that LBJ had to reorganize

Johnson in Action

Lacking Kennedy’s wit, charm and youth, a persuasive LBJ (esp. the “Johnson treatment”) had a greater ability in and knowledge of legislation which improved his relations w/Congress as he passed Kennedy tax cut ($10 billion+ reduction of income tax increased consumer spending) and civil rights measure (1964 Civil Rights Act illegalized public segregation of Afr. Ams. following LBJ/Dirksen (N. Rep.) opposing of S. Dems.)
137

All Things American / Monzón
The Election of 1964
Johnson declared an unconditional war on poverty (esp. Harrington’s book, The Other America) through establishment of a modestly funded Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) that set up vocational programs (e.g. Head Start, Job Corps) and services that allowed the war on poverty to reduce those in by 10 mil. (’64-’67) ● Johnson’s ’64 reelection was made harder by an RFK who aimed to become VP (LBJ chose Humphrey as VP, though) and opponent Goldwater (an outspoken Dem. who attacked New Deal programs/sought return to free enterprise) ● Johnson won through compromise platform of liberal reform w/balanced budgets (Great Society); Dems. got more Congress seats

The Triumph of Reform
Medicare (for seniors)/Medicaid (for the poor) advanced Dem. health reforms; Primary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 gave more than a bil. in aid to parochial/public schools ● LBJ/Dirksen passed Civil Rights Act of 1965 (banned literacy tests, called for registrars to make sure) following violent response of Alabama police against MLK-backed Selma demonstrations and LBJ’s publicizing of the civil rights issue; 166,000 Afr. Ams. were added to the voting rolls (esp. in South) ● ’64 Dem. landslide allowed LBJ/Congress to pass 89 bills before ’65 (incl. Transportation and Housing and Urban Affairs dept., immigration reform, etc.) but failed to garner public adulation of LBJ, esp. as Cold War/Vietnam became impt. issues ● Still, Dem. reforms improved life for the poor and the formerly segregated despite brewing dissent/rebellion throughout the nation

Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War
Johnson’s continued containment strategy relied on Kennedy’s advisors (McNamara, Bundy, Rusk) despite his experience in int’l. affairs (e.g. Naval Affairs Committee during WWII) ● LBJ avoided communist problems in Latin Am. through covert anti-communist aid (e.g. Brazil, Panama, D.R.)

The Vietnam Dilemma
LBJ supported the SVN gov’t., which following Diem’s overthrow was in control of up to seven factions at a time; continued to send econ. aid but also coordinated undercover anti-North ops. ● Gulf of Tonkin episode where N. Vietnamese attacked US Maddox because of suspected involvement in nearby raid, and were attacked by it, another US destroyer, and air strikes in retaliation ● Leads to Gulf of Tonkin resolution which impressed N. Vietnamese of Am. resolve to protect SVN as well as oppose Goldwater’s tougher Vietnam policy

138

All Things American / Monzón

LBJ had escalated the war through a resolution that would enable him use of force against N. Vietnamese and decrease his credibility to Congress

Escalation
Am. involvement began through aerial attacks of Vietcong Hanoi and use of Am. ground forces in defensive ops. in SVN, esp. as SVN politics grew more conflictive and Joint Chiefs/advisers pressed LBJ for military action ● Ensuing July decisions allowed for more N. Vietnam bombings and offensive ground ops. despite McNamara’s prediction of numerous deaths; LBJ settled for a large-scale yet limited war as he sought to compromise between conservatives that would condemn him for leaving SVN to communism and econ. backlash if Am. army backed out ● While LBJ wasn’t fully responsible for the Vietnam War (Truman, JFK, Eisenhower had thought it a vital interest and the Saigon situation called for more Am. involvement) the secrecy/deceit and commitment to a dangerous military operation that surrounded the Vietnam decisions were all LBJ

Stalemate
Failure to target port cities and Vietcong resistance made North bombing ineffective; Gen. Westmoreland’s search-and-destroy ops. as well as reliance on Am. firepower failed v. communist guerilla warfare and caused many civilian casualties (e.g. My Lai; this was used as anti-Am. propaganda in the North) ● Fighting only achieved a stalemate that prohibited a “communist victory”

Years of Turmoil

Disenchantment with middle-class values, opposition to materialism, and increased college enrollment amounted to the forming of a counterculture by college youth during the escalation of the Vietnam War (’65-’68)

The Student Revolt
Free Speech movement at Berkeley Univ. directed against admin. Soliciting of funds for off-campus causes (Savio) demonstrated a college youth that opposed a depression-born generation that viewed affluence as the ultimate answer ● Students for a Democratic Society (ADS) (founded ’62) was a student org. that grew rapidly as it embraced liberal reforms and individualism; inefficient leadership led to its dissolution yet it symbolized Am. youth experimentation (“drugs, sex and rock music”; mostly upper middle class kids) during its heyday

Protesting the Vietnam War
Anti-Vietnam student demonstrations begun at Univ. of Michigan and spread as the war escalated; reached its climax in ’68 at Columbia Univ. as SDS/Afr. Am. students stormed NYC buildings until being quieted by police; inspired hundreds of other protests ● Student draft deferment system meant college-bound kids were least likely to be drafted; an ensuing sense of guilt fueled the protests

139

All Things American / Monzón

Protests gave students a voice in their education (e.g. student participation in faculty committees) and sparked a cultural revolution

140

All Things American / Monzón

Image 3 Adveristmenet for the Woodstock Music & Art Fair, a symbol of the cultural revolution in America throughout the 141 1960s.

All Things American / Monzón

The Cultural Revolution

A pervasive “flower power” revolution was characterized by informality (e.g. jeans v. business suits), rock music that symbolized social protest (e.g. Dylan, The Beatles), experimentation (esp. sex and drugs (the dev. of LSD; Leary) and social movements (the Yuppies)

“Black Power”
The civil rights movement fell on hard times in the latter half of the ‘60s as Northern Afr. Ams. remained in poverty despite earlier gains in the South ● Northern urban riots (Rochester, Watts (LA), Detroit, etc.), the demise of the civil rights coalition (militant overthrow of MLK’s SNCC (Carmichael); rallies for ethnic separation and later antisocial violence (incl. Black Panthers)), MLK’s loss of Johnson’s support (following his denouncing of Vietnam) and of conservative NAACP/Urban League made matters worse (esp. arsons in Washington, D.C.) ● Still, militant Afr. Ams. promoted black nationalism as Afr. Ams. sported Afro hairstyles demanded black studies programs in the colleges, etc.

Ethnic Nationalism
Ethnic groups’ nationalism (from Puerto Ricans to Poles) led to Ethnic Heritage Studies Act (’72) ● Chávez’s mobilization of poorly paid Cali. farm workers (e.g. Mex. Am. boycott of grapes) led to ’70 union victory and higher wages but at the cost of 95% of workers that lost their jobs; still, his efforts promoted Mex. Am. nationalism that fueled reform (e.g. bilingual programs; LA walkout (’68)) and an appreciation of their heritage (e.g. “Chicanos”)

Women’s Liberation
Women’s activism in civil/political movements throughout the 60s was overshadowed by an extant relegation to stereotypic gender roles (e.g. nonprofessional jobs) ● Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique (’63) attacked such stereotypes; ’64 Civil Rights Act (outlawing discrimination based on gender) stimulated women’s calls for equal wages, laws banning abortion and enforcement of rape laws ● National Organization of Women (NOW) (Friedan) was hurt by extremist women’s perspectives (e.g. Brownmiller; opposed sexual intercourse with men) but managed to get Congress to send Equal Rights Amendment to ratification in ‘72

The Return of Richard Nixon

Nixon staged a remarkable comeback in ’60 as the nation came face-to-face with the war in Vietnam and domestic cultural insurgency

Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson
142

All Things American / Monzón
A controversial Vietcong offensive at Khe Sanh (’68) was followed by a Tet offensive in which Vietcong attacked various provincial cities but were repulsed by Am./SVN forces in everywhere but Hue; the heavy Am. losses in Tet were publicized to negative Am. response and convinced LBJ of the need to find an alternate way to end the fighting ● Heretofore inconclusive fighting led to considering a peace treaty with Hanoi (Clifford) and cost LBJ the presidency

The Democrats Divide
The growth of the anti-war movement (esp. incl. Fulbright/Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings), the rise of Senator McCarthy as a morally idealistic competitor for the Dem. party and RFK’s rise as a contender through his support of blue-collar workers and ethnic groups further frustrated the LBJ nomination ● Pro-war VP Humphrey won the Dem. nomination following RFK’s assassination; ensuing violent protest at the Dem. Nat’l. Convention (Chicago, ‘68) marred Humphrey’s nomination and the Dem. party

The Republican Resurgence
Nixon (having maintained ground working for Goldwater (’64) and GOP)/Spiro won GOP nomination; reaped antiwar/anti-Dem. sentiment through promise of peace ● Rise of segregationist Wallace as a Dem. contender and his appeal to working class powerlessness minimized Humphrey’s appeal but less so toward the elections ● Nixon wins by a small popular vote margin (’68)

Conclusion: The End of an Era

Growing concern with liberal reform and accompanied violence, the counterculture, an active foreign policy, and the growth of federal power was symbolized by the election of a GOP Nixon that would reject the policies of the ‘60s

143

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 31 / A Crisis in Confidence, 1969-1980
OUTLINE • The covert theft and inspection of the documents and belongings of the Dem. Nat’l. Committee in the Watergate complex (Jun. 17, ’72) by five men led by McCord, a former CIA employee, grew out of a paranoia that characterized the Nixon presidency The leaking of the Pentagon papers by former DoD official Ellsberg (’71), Nixon’s ensuing attacks, his authorization of espionage methods such as wiretaps and use of the IRS to spy on select presumed citizen enemies, reflected his concern with reelection in ‘72 While Nixon covered up Watergate, it later unraveled and cost him WHY YOU MAD?office The Watergate break-in, the Arab oil embargo, the erosion of consumer purchasing power, the intensification of the Cold War and the Sandinista revolution in Central America, all were events that challenged the confidence of the American people and the validity of traditional nat’l. values

• •

Nixon in Power
• Despite a newfound air of moderation, a Nixon innately sensitive to criticism sought isolation in the White House (esp. w/a cabinet that made many domestic decisions for him) but was passionate about foreign policy and worked heavily with adviser Kissinger

Reshaping the Great Society
• • • Nixon delegated responsibility for social problems to state/local authority yet instituted revenue sharing in which fed. aid reached needy local gov’ts. Nixon delegated public school integration to the Supreme Court which quickly became hated by Southerners The appointment of moderate justices (Blackmun, Powell) to the Supreme Court and that Court’s reluctance to opposing 60s reform demonstrated extant commitment to social justice among Ams.

Nixonomics
• • Nixonomics, the reduction in gov’t spending/stimulation of the Federal Reserve Board only increased Vietnam-era inflation and heightened unemployment Connally’s (new treasure sec.) devaluation of the dollar and Nixon’s 90day freeze on wages/prices finally balanced trade/heightened indust. prod. By ‘72

Building a Republican Majority
144

All Things American / Monzón
• Nixon wins over pro-Wallace southerners through pro-desegregation agenda and general opposition of liberal Dems. (Agnew’s scathing speeches) but didn’t secure the desired Rep. majority

In Search of Détente
• Nixon/Kissinger’s search for détente began through Chinese amicability (Am. tour, ‘72) that led USSR to Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) that limited anti-/offensive ballistic missiles and symbolized first step toward nuclear arms control

Ending the Vietnam War
• Nxion’s 3-part plan to end Vietnam (gradual withdrawal of Am. forces, renewed bombing and a hard line in negotiations with Hanoi) led to increased antiwar demonstrations (Kent State, ’70; demonstrated “silent majority[‘s]” blame on the students for their deaths and not the national guard) and a disguised surrender (’73 Hanoi truce removed Am. troops but left Vietcong troops in SVN)

The Crisis of Democracy
• ’72 Watergate ultimately led Nixon to his resignation despite attempts to cover it up

The Election of 1972
• A host of Dem. party events (Muskie’s loss of composure, Wallace’s shooting, McGovern’s “anti-establishment” platform opposed by the middle-class) and foreign policy gains heightened Nixon’s appeal and led to a landslide victory in ’72 despite voter partisanship (ethnic groups voted Dem., Sunbelt pop. voted GOP)

The Watergate Scandal
• The appointment of a special committee to investigate the Watergate scandal, the imprisonment or resignation of those involved (Liddy, Hunt, Dean (who revealed Nixon’s involvement), Haldeman, Ehrlichman) and finally, the forced release of Nixon’s Oval Office tapes led to Nixon’s resignation in ‘74 The scandal revealed the power of the modern presidency (Nixon, having originally won by a small margin, was obsessed w/securing a foothold) as well as the power of checks/balances and investigative journalism

Energy and the Economy
• War in the Middle East touched off a gas-centric energy crisis that profoundly impacted Am. economy

The October War
• The surprise ’73 Arab attack on Israel unified Arab countries (relying on USSR for arms/political support) who now called for their lands back and compelled
145

All Things American / Monzón
Nixon/Kissinger to seek broker status in this October War; achieved through selective support/stalemate The decision of Arab Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to gradually cut oil production the longer Israel kept their lands and then the cutoff of shipments to US/Netherlands produced a worldwide shortage, doubled gas prices, led to domestic preservation techniques, and demonstrated Am. reliance on Middle E. countries for its abundant lifestyle

The Oil Shocks
• • Twin oil shocks (Arab oil embargo, Iranian embargo) also led to a recession and compelled benign tax cut attempts offset by a growing deficit (Ford, Carter) World supply caught up by demand in ’79 but extant Am. inflation and high gas prices undermined Am. faith in the future

The Search for an Energy Policy
• • Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (’70) highlighted success of the environmentalist movement (despite their later defeat) and warned against Am. reliance on fossil fuels Congress passes compromising long-term nat’l. energy policy (combining nocontrol Rep. policy v. full-control Dem. policy) through increased production (new Alaskan pipeline) and conservation (continuing price control and emphasis on fuel efficiency); still, oil imports only increased

The Great Inflation
• Oil shocks caused higher prices of food, automobiles, milk, bread; Carter/Ford policies failed to curb it, as well as Federal Reserve Board’s tight-money policy (’79)

The Shifting American Economy
• • Oil shocks caused a slowing rate of econ. growth accompanied by loss of primacy of Am. industry (and ensuing layoffs) as foreign industries exported more efficient alternatives (e.g. more importer cards, more efficient Eur. steel) The proliferation of public employee unions (e.g. teachers, social workers) and the growth of Am. multinationals (e.g. IBM) moved Am. industry to the Sunbelt fed off new technology and skilled labor but overshadowed growing unemployment

Private Lives – Public Lives
• The diversification of gender roles (e.g. more working women and the emergence of a homosexual community) changed the American family/society

The Changing American Family
146

All Things American / Monzón
• • • Untraditional nuclear families where both parents usu. worked declined in unmarried couples became more prolific; compelled conservatives to call for change Divorce rate leveled off (about half of all first marriages) and birthrate increased Sole mothers headed many impoverished fams.; children were 40% of that nation’s poor

Gains and Setbacks for Women
• • • • • • • Women, both married and single, rapidly entered college or the workforce (61%) in blue-collar positions Still, most worked in classically female jobs (e.g. secretaries) or in lower, nonmanagerial positions; female executives steadily increased, though Pay equity was best for younger women who had the chance to go to college Female business ownership increased throughout the decade The ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was minimized by opposition from working-class women that feared the protection of their wages/hrs. NOW opposed Schlafly’s tirade against the sexual revolution the ERA would produce Conservatives and Catholic/Protestants heartily opposed federally funded abortion following Roe v. Wade (’73); pvt. Clinics supported it; became a pres. issue

The Gay Liberation Movement
• • • • ’69 Stonewall riots began the gay liberation movement that urged homosexuals/lesbians to proudly “come out of the closet”; gay rights gradually became a supported issue The 80s AIDS epidemic shifted gay activism to the defensive as they worked to increase nat’l. consciousness Clinton disappointed homosexuals by promising them an end to sexual discrimination in the army when public resistance forced him to institute a “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy Spotted homosexual marriage laws (e.g. Vermont) in the 2000s accompanied changing public attitudes towards gays but overshadowed extant discrimination/violence (e.g. the beating of gay Shepard, ’98)

Politics after Watergate
• The political paralysis caused by Watergate demonstrated how powerful the presidency had gotten and increased Congress/White House tensions

The Ford Administration
• Despite conservative Ford’s good intentions, his announcements of pardoning Nixon (but not his accomplices) in ’74 and revealing the CIA’s participation in assassination attempts (e.g. Fidel Castro) led to negative, suspicious public reaction; Ford appoints Bush to reform CIA, outlaws assassination
147

All Things American / Monzón
• • Vetoed many Dem. econ. aid bills

The 1976 Campaign
Heretofore unknown Carter wins by the slight margin created by the ethnic vote/South, resting on a platform of inexperience and honesty that worked against Ford’s lack of inspiration in leadership even though he took the vote of the higher classes/West (’76)

Disenchantment with Carter
• • • • Carter’s successfully humble and all-satisfying personality failed due to his lack of political philosophy Carter’s appointment of both close friends and well-known Dems. would create tension/conflict as one group sought change and the other protected the president Carter unsuccessfully attempted or blocked econ. reform, welfare and Social Security overhaul (Califano) and a health insurance plan ‘79 “national malaise” speech and the firing of certain cabinet memebrs exacerbated Carter’s lack of leadership

From Détente to Renewed Cold War
• Am. foreign policy is weakened through the War Powers Act (’73), oil control exercised by OPEC and threats of revolutionary nationalism in the Middle E. and Latin Am.

Retreat in Asia
• • Congress’ denial of aid to a losing SVN allowed only for partial evacuation of loyal SVN by Am. troops Am. attack on Cambodia following their seizing of the Mayaguez was pointless ( and caused 40 deaths)

Accommodation in Latin America
• • Carter reacted to resentment over Am. owning Panama Canal by signing two treaties that both return the Canal Zone to Panama and gradually allowed them to operate the canal; met with Rep. resistance but passed The overthrow of Somoza by communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua (’79) led to economic aid in ’81 that set a precedent

The Quest for Peace in the Middle East
• • Initial attempts by Kissinger to mediate Israel-Arab conflict succeeded in removing Israel forces from Arab land Starting ’78, Israeli/Arab leaders met with Carter and begin the Camp David accords; led to ’79 peace treaty that promised gradual return of the Sinai to Egypt; ’79 Iranian revolution (the ousting of the disliked shah and the participation of US in securing a militant gov’t under Khomeini) and ensuing

148

All Things American / Monzón
Iranian hostage crisis (following US support of shah, US embassy was stormed and hostages taken; Carter concentrated naval forces on Persian Gulf as warning) demonstrated failure to resolve Middle East conflict (esp. failed search-and-rescue mission) and accompanying American weakness

The Cold War Resumes
• • • Deterring détente as a cause of failed econ. incentives and public disapproval of USSR emigration policy still contrasted with Carter’s emphasis on human rights, which threatened Soviets State Sec. Vance concentrated on SALT II talks; Brzezinski (nat’l. security adviser) reverses détente through extant mobilization (new MX missile) and improved China-US relations USSR invasion of Afghanistan escalates Cold War (’79) through US symbolic acts (e.g. boycott Moscow Olympics (’80)); détente is doomed, SALT II withdrawn, and Carter frustrated

Conclusion: A Failed Presidency
• The loss of public support during Carter and the overall failure of the presidency was accompanied by an inability to wield American power globally

149

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 32 / The Republican Resurgence, 1980-1992
OUTLINE Reagan’s relaxed, confident nat’l. speech on behalf of Goldwater’s Rep. candidacy called for a return to individual freedom and began Reagan’s political career ● His mastery of media outlets, appeal to middle-class qualms (high taxes, expanding welfare, bureaucratic regulation) and inherent legislative flexibility accompanied Am. shift to conservative Republicanism (Falwell’s Moral Majority, growing Sunbelt population seeking relaxed gov.t econ. involvement, rising Neoconservatism emphasizing capitalism) ● A likeable Reagan (elected ’80) advertised the restoring of Am. self-confidence through reupholstering of basic ideals; had successes/victories home/abroad but left a legacy

Reagan in Power

Newfound appeal of conservatives to traditionally Dem. ethnic groups ushered realignment hindered only by a still appealing New Deal legacy

The Reagan Victory
Double-digit inflation (which Reagan blamed on high taxes/nat’l. spending) and humiliating overseas crises (Afghanistan invasion, Iranian hostage crisis) allowed Reagan to gain favor from blue-collar groups ● Carter’s accusations of a warmongering Reagan backfired as econ. conditions overshadowed such concerns7 ● Reagan won thanks to Sunbelt and shifting ethnic groups (’80); GOP gains control of Congress despite sizeable Dem. house majority

Cutting Spending and Taxes
Reagan instituted supply-side economics (stimulation of the private sector through tax cuts) through mass reduction of non-critical/popular social services such as food stamps, public service jobs and thus nat’l. spending ● Reagan demonstrated legislative power through 10% tax cut

Limiting the Role of Government

Reagan’s goal of deregulation was furthered by controversial acts (Interior. Sec. Watt’s opening of land to development, Transportation Sec. Lewis’ relieving of emission laws and inhibition of Jap. auto imports, PATCO strike end)

7

This also meant that those voting Dem. simply sought a solution to econ. problems and hadn’t necessarily switched ideologies a la FDR’s election (’32).

150

All Things American / Monzón
Attempts to cut entitlement programs (e.g. Social Security) were unsuccessful due to Congress ● Support of women’s activism (save for the appointment of Connor to Supreme Court) and Afr. Am. rights (due to low GOP voter turnout) was low

Reaganomics

Paradox between supply-side cuts and increased defense spending made for conflicting econ. expectations

Recession and Recovery
A ’81 recession is caused by supply-side/tax cuts v. tight-money policy/more defense spending ● Less than planned cuts in misc. taxes and social services combined with ’83 10% tax cut boomed auto industry/customer buying power and kept inflation in check (lowering int’l. energy/food prices also helped)

The Growing Deficit
A rising deficit prefaced likely gov’t.-pvt. sector competition; Congress designs Gramm-Rudman plan to lower deficit to $155 billion by ’88 by compromising no more defense spending v. Dem. inability to enact new social programs ● The balance of overseas trade was threatened as imports outnumbered exports as Ams. bought int’l.-produced goods instead of keeping personal savings; Reaganomics had kept living standard high but at the expense of nat’l. mortgaging through increased foreign investment

The Rich Grow Richer
Econ. gains (inflation of 4% throughout the 80s, growing employment, expansion of the service sector and female employment, edu/tech. training becoming prime ways to success) and losses (cheap int’l. oil hurt Sunbelt producers, blue-collar jobs declined by automation and goods produced abroad) were overshadowed the richening of the rich due to less blue-collar jobs and more tax cuts ● Increased family wealth and median family income directed mostly toward the rich compelled middle-class to work more; were convinced posterirty wouldn’t fare as well as they had (rising real estate prices, past identification w/affluence long-gone)

Reagan Affirmed
Reagan’s ability to deliver on his promise of a restarted economy (despite growing rich-poor gap) dimmed Dem. prospects for ’84 despite their accusations of the class gap and the growing deficit (Mondale, Ferraro) ● Great Reagan victory (won normally Dem. states of the NE and swing states of the Midwest, incl. blue-collar/females as much as white males) didn’t mark political realignment (Dem. still controlled the House; rich voted for Reps. while underprivileged ethnic groups voted Dem.; middle-class sought balance by a Rep. for Pres. and Dems. for Congress)

151

All Things American / Monzón
Reagan and the World
Reagan’s determination to restore Am. supremacy/increase defenses was a continuation of Carter’s policies ● Def. Sec. Weinberger emphasized proliferation of new weapons and thus growth of the defense budget ● Iranian hostages released ‘81 ● State Sec. Haig (outspoken) and then Shultz (relaxed), as well as UN Ambassador Kirkpatrick formed a functioning foreign policy team; still, Congress made it harder for Reagan to achieve diplomatic v. domestic goals; he did end the Cold War, though

Challenging the “Evil Empire”
Reagan’s belief that the USSR was an odious int’l. enemy led him to escalate arms race by placing missiles in range in Eur. despite criticism; USSR broke off disarmament talks ● The development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), “Star Wars”, was Reagan’s end to deterrence and new reliance of nuclear retaliation to keep the peace; USSR kept deploying more accurate ICBMs

Turmoil in the Middle East
’82 attempt to quell Arab-Israeli conflict-threatening Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) through Am. involvement in multinational peacekeeping unit that would permit PLO to flee to Tunisia turned sour when PLO attacked Am. troops ● Reagan pulled out; was a humiliating attempt a la Carter’s Iran

Confrontation in Central America
Despite intentions of seeking moderate, middle-class regimes to support, US made critical error in Nicaragua by first supporting leftist Sandinistas (promoting original middle-class components) and then recalling the aid based on accusations of Cuba/USSR involvement and driving out of the moderates ● Covert aiding of anti-Sandinista Contras (’83) by CIA/Reagan was stopped by ’84 Boland Amendment (Congress); Contras left in a precarious position ● Success of low-casualty anti-Communist “rescue mission” in Grenada represented sole US gain using built-up defense; USSR relations soured and Cold War tensioned

Trading Arms for Hostages
The Iran-Contra affair (involving officer McFarlane’s shipment of weapons to Iran in trade for release of Am. hostages (incl. NSC, CIA Casey and North) with the subsequent diversion of Iranian funds to aid the Contras) challenged Congressional authority (Boland) and caused heavy political fallout esp. for Reagan ● Dems. in Congress rejected most of Reagan’s subsequent proposals

152

All Things American / Monzón
Reagan the Peacemaker
S tarting ’85, Reagan sought cooperative USSR-US relations (esp. following Gorbachev’s rise to power and his policies of perestroika and glasnost); Intermediate Nuclear Forces agreement (’87) called for mutually verified disarmament ● Reagan/Gorbachev popularity soared; USSR-US coop. work to end Iran-Iraq and Afghanistan wars

Social Dilemmas

The AIDS epidemic and the proliferation of domestic drugs threated Am. social fabric yet Reagan failed to respond adequately

The AIDS Epidemic
AIDS grew from being scattered, unusual immunodeficiency cases to HIV to a gay-unique disease to a terror that threatened IV drug users and any patients who received blood transfusions ● Ensuing research (e.g. that AIDS could only be spread by the fusion of blood/semen; that transfusions were safe) failed to quell a terrified middle-class; languid admin. efforts (’88 Watkins Report advising antidiscrimination laws and prevention education (e.g. Surgeon General Koop’s pamphlet)) overshadowed increasingly numerous cases esp. amongst minorities/youth ● 90s/00s leveling-off of the AIDS death rate came as the result of new drug combinations that were expensive and didn’t work on everyone

The War on Drugs

The proliferation of drug use in the 80s by the upper middle (cocaine) and even lo wer classes (crack) increased crime, was seen as a danger to society, and compelled admin. action (Nancy Reagan’s “Just say no” edu. campaign, moderately successful interdiction (DEA (Reagan), domestic curtailment inhibited by a reduced budget (Clinton) and diplomatic/active intervention in S. Am. trade (incl. Bush’s “Andean Strategy”, Clinton’s targeting of drug cartels in Colombia), though use/trade continued considerably unabated

Passing the Torch to Bush

‘84 Reagan reelection solidified upwards Rep. trend, leading to Bush’s election in ‘88

The Changing Palace Guard

Reagan’s detached yet committed (esp. to the economy) leadership style relied heavily on a White House team (Baker, Meese, Deaver) for initial success; dissolution/replacement of the team by Treasury Sec. Regan saw success in some areas (Reagan/Regan developed ’86 Tax Reform Act which exempted some of the poor but made sure the rich pitched in; had partial success in appointing relaxed Supreme Court judges that would minimize court activism (Bork))
153

All Things American / Monzón

Bush also made controversial Supreme Court appointments (stealthy Souter, and Afr. Am. Thomas whose matching ideology to conservative justice Scalia meant the Court’s support of free market principles v. increased gov’t. regulation)

The Election of 1988
The Iran-Contra affair and growing nat’l. debt made Dems. (who nominated Dukakis) optimistic about ’88 election; Rep. candidate Bush (running on a platform of no new taxes) still won overwhelmingly in the South, West and key states while Dem. margins in Congress increased (demonstrated the power of the incumbent in a newly solid economy) ● Ethnic voters still voted mostly Dem.; Dems. had lost support of white middleclass

Bush’s Domestic Agenda
Lack of domestic initiatives (save for the Americans with Disabilites Act (ADA)) matched Am. public’s expectations of a bland/cautious president ● Bush resolved a failing savings/loan industry and a growing deficit through the closing/merging of more than a hundred ailing savings over a ten-year period; assigned Resolution Trust Corporation worked but cost too much by its end (’92) ● Bush’s attempts to fix the deficit (through higher taxes on gas and for the rich) coincided with an econ. recession caused by a growing deficit; this marked end of Rep. prosperity

The End of the Cold War
The movmvents toward free gov’t. in Eur./Asia (Tiananmen Square in China (’89), Walesa’s Solidarity movement in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, the fall of the Berlin Wall); Gorbachev was credited w/E. Eur. liberation through a new “Sinatra doctrine” ● The fall of the Soviet union following Gorbachev’s arrest/resigning (’91) was followed by the formation of a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) led by Yeltsin; Bush supported new regime and begun START I/II disarmament talks

Waging Peace

The peacefulness of a Cold War that’d come to an end was overshadowed by an army overthrow of oppressive gov’t in Panama (drug chieftain Noriega capture, ’89) and operation Desert Storm in defense of vital Am.-supporting oil reserves in Kuwait (Husseiin invaded the area in ’90; a debilitating bombing of Iraq, followed by ground op. led by Gen. Schwarzkopf, liberated Kuwait quickly; Bush ends fighting short of victory against Saddam to avoid disrupting allied coalition and getting Ams. involved in guerilla warfare; Desert Storm was popular among Ams. but Hussein continued to tighten his grip over Iraq)

Conclusion: Republican Economic Woes
154

All Things American / Monzón

GOP-induced recession and plausible post-Cold War involvement benefitted Dems.

155

All Things American / Monzón

Chapter 33 / America in Flux
OUTLINE

156