ophthalmic.elixirs -solutions of aromatic materials. otic. topical Composition -aqueous solution containing sugar-syrups -sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions.spirits .Can be classified according to: Use -oral.

may also be solutions of chemical substances . Tinctures .Solutions prepared by extracting active constituents from crude drugs are termed tinctures or fluid extracts. Injections .0dissolved in alcohol or in a hydroalcoholic solvent.are solutions prepared to be sterile and pyrogen free. intended for oral administration .

when a solvent at a given temperature has dissolved all of the solute possible. . medicinal agents are intended to provide systemic effects.the solubility of an agent in a particular solvent indicates the maximum concentration to which a solution may be prepared with that solvent. it is termed saturared . Solubility .In solutions.

chemicals absorb heat when they are dissolved and are said to have a positive heat of solution. pressure. pH of the solution.chemical and physical properties of the solute and the solvent. resulting in an increased solubility with an increase in temperature. state of subdivision of the solute and the physical agitation applied to the solution as it dissolves.Factors affecting solubility: Temperature . . Other factors are: .

the faster is the formation of the solution. the speed at which it dissolves depends on the particle size of the substance and the extent of the agitation. . the more rapid the dissolving process is. .the greater the agitation. .-The solubility of a pure chemical substance at a given temperature and pressure is constant but its rate of solution.the finer the powder. the greater the surface area.

000 >10.The solubility of a substance in a given solvent may be determined by preparing a saturated solution of it at a specific temperature.000 1.000 .000-10. Descriptve term Very Soluble Freely Soluble Soluble Parts of solvent used for 1 part of solute <1 1-10 10-30 Sparingly Soluble Slightly Soluble Very Slightly Soluble Practically Insoluble/Insoluble 30-100 100-1.

• Weak bases – Alkaloids Ex. codeine. Dipenhydramine and promethazine **not very water soluble but soluble in dilute solutions of acids . Atropine. morphine – Antihistamines Ex.Many important medicinal agents are either weak acids/weak bases and their solubility dissolves to a large measure on the pH of the solvent.

039 W 0.7020.3/ 574209.30 349.90784:-0-:984:-03/:90 84:943841.-.0894.-.3/90784:-9/884..230 .0.808 .808. ./8 .4/8 974530 .2308 503/7.07.8:7043905419084.4/030 247530 3989.

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