Illustrated Building Pocket Book

For my parents with gratitude and love

Illustrated Building Pocket Book
Second Edition

Roxanna McDonald

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • OXFORD • NEW YORK • PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO

Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier

Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Ltd Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 30 Corporate Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First edition 1999 Reprinted 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 Second edition 2007 Copyright © 1999, 2007, Roxanna McDonald. Published by Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved The right of Roxanna McDonald to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permission may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material

Notice
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 13: 978-0-75-068015-8 ISBN 10: 0-75-068015-6

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Contents Foreword Preface xii xv xvii xix Acknowledgements About the author I. grid lines 7 Drawing practice – scale and representation 8 Drawing equipment 9 Drawing instruments 10 Computer drawing 11 Building types Classical temple 16 The Classical orders 17 Classical ornament and enrichment 18 Mediaeval ornament 19 Mediaeval castle 20 Styles compared 21 Timber framed buildings 22 Typical parish church 23 Gothic cathedral 24 Traditional house 25 . GENERAL ARCHITECTURE Design Module proportions 3 Dimensional coordination 4 Drawing representation 5 Volumes and shapes 6 Drawing techniques Drawing practice – dimensions.

CONTROLS Legal aspects English land law 41 Sunlight and daylight 42 Administration Planning control 43 Planning approvals 44 Construction control 45 Building control in London 46 III.Mass-produced house 26 Residential buildings 27 Rural buildings 31 Traditional farm buildings 32 Elements Entrances 33 Outside/inside 36 Traditional windows 37 II. CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Financial aspects Development 49 Development funding methods 50 Estimating and cost control 51 Project execution Project design 52 Project construction 53 Building contracts 54 .

IV. THE BUILDING SITE General Setting out 57 Accurate survey 58 Survey equipment 59 Non-destructive survey: method 1 60 Non-destructive survey: method 2 61 Plant and equipment – cranes 62 Plant and equipment – excavation 63 Scaffolding – patent 64 Scaffolding – independent 65 Concrete plant 66 Power tools 67 Soldering 68 Tools 69 V. THE BUILDING FABRIC Foundations Strip foundations 73 Stepped foundations 74 Continuous column foundations 75 Piled foundations 76 Retaining walls 77 Steel column foundations 78 Shoring and underpinning 79 Superstructure – external walls Brick wall construction 80 Brickwork 81 Bonding of brickwork 82 Brick arcade 83 Brick types 84 Effects of damp 85 Stone 86 Stone façade 87 Stone walling 88 .

Ashlar 89 Cladding 90 Curtain wall cladding 91 GRC cladding 92 Superstructure – internal walls Partitions 93 Interior 96 Superstructure – roofs Construction: Pitched roof construction 97 Types of pitched roofs 98 Traditional timber roof types 99 Trusses 100 Bolt and connector trusses 102 Lean-to half truss 103 Truss rafter assembly 104 Carpentry joints 106 Cross timber joints 107 Traditional scarf joints 108 Timber mouldings 110 Flat roofs 111 Roof coverings: Roof covering types 112 Slate 113 Plain tiling 114 Pantiling 115 Thatch 116 Traditional timber shingles 117 Roof openings and weatherproofing: Roof openings 118 Dormer windows 119 Skylights 120 Chimneys 121 Weatherproofing – lead sheet 122 Weatherproofing – flashings and aprons 123 Lightning conductor 124 Rainwater pipes 125 .

Superstructure – stairs Types of staircases 126 Traditional timber staircases 127 Special stairs and escalators 128 Lifts 129 Superstructure – chimneys Fireplaces 130 Fireplace accessories 131 Superstructure – floors Timber floor construction 132 Timber floors – trimmed opening 133 Trimming to timber floors 134 Panel and angle joints 135 Concrete floors 136 Reinforced concrete floors 137 Ceilings – timber joists 138 Suspended ceilings 139 Space for services 140 Raised floors 141 Superstructure – openings in walls Doors 142 Traditional windows – sash 146 Traditional windows – casement 147 Ironmongery – knobs and latches 148 Ironmongery – bolts and handles 149 Ironmongery – locks 150 Ironmongery – hinges 151 Superstructure – fixings Metal fixings – ties 152 Metal fixings – joist hangers 153 Metal components – expanded steel mesh 154 Metal components – lintels 155 .

water supply and waste systems 171 Sanitary pipework 172 Lavatory pans and cisterns 173 Plumbing connections 174 Water heating 175 Services – electrical Electricity – supply and wiring 176 Electricity – accessories 177 Electricity – track wiring 178 Outdoor lighting 179 Electrical fitting 180 Electricity – lightbulbs 181 .Nails and screws 156 Bolts and plugs 157 Finishes Plasterwork tools 158 Wattle and daub 159 Stucco 160 Decorative plasterwork 161 Interior walls – dry lining 162 Timber finishes 163 Panelling 164 Carpets 165 Glazing Stained glass 166 Flat glass 167 Glazing systems 168 Services – drainage and plumbing Drainage 169 Underground drainage 170 Plumbing.

lightning 204 Mass movement: subsistence.Services – heating Heating systems 182 Central heating – hot water 183 Radiators 184 Air conditioning 185 External works/landscaping Earthworks – kerbs 186 Irrigation and screening 187 Fencing 188 Trees 189 Grading. outbuildings 191 VI. turf laying 190 Plant care. landslides 207 Floods 212 Volcanoes 213 REFERENCES 215 INDEX 217 . THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Global warming and the Greenhouse effect Global warming and the Greenhouse effect 195 Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings 196 Bioclimatic design 197 Materials efficiency – waste management 198 Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy 199 Building at risk: natural disasters Earthquake 201 Extreme weather: hurricanes.

concern for the protection of the environment has been on the agenda of the specialist for twenty years but the public have finally accepted the seriousness of the situation we have made for ourselves from the profligate use of our natural inheritance. in Ove Arup and partners’ design of the Sydney Opera house shells. Lastly. we are able to optimise solutions within a new four-dimensional freedom. when I joined Arup Associates at No. but sadly . 8. The computer is now a central tool in procurement as design is increasingly moved directly from the computer model to smart manufacture. As the impact of a building’s life cycle permeates the professions. It is now recognised that only around a quarter to a third of the energy and resource expended in buildings with a fifty year life span is used in their construction. of anticipating a building’s performance and monitoring the results. if I were clever enough. But what further updates will be needed to the Illustrated Building Pocket Book in ten years time? Here optimism clashes with pessimism as we are in the hands of politicians who may well push in the contrary direction to the needs of ‘Everyman’. one is reminded of scenes in the epic silent film ‘Metropolis’. The computer has presented a way not only of drawing our ideas but also of coordinating the process of design. not only will elements within buildings be chosen to minimise maintenance but also. Fitzroy Street. To achieve an environmentally sustainable building environment. Consequently. hour after hour. as the price tumbles. Certainly. Maybe I can be permitted to speculate about changes to any future edition. I now sit in front of a laptop with vastly more potential and.Foreword Since this book was published six years ago under its original title ‘An Illustrated Building Glossary’ changes in the priorities of approach to design and management have accelerated. increasingly the house-buying public will start to judge a potential purchase in terms of the likely life-cycle running costs as well as the capital investment. and an understanding of the need for broadly-educated professionals with an understanding of their interdisciplinary responsibilities is increasingly accepted. The areas in which the book has been extended witness this change. An accelerating move away from a carbon-based economy towards sustainable sources will sharpen our need for renewables: This change will materialise in a number of ways but most dramatically. London W1. In 1966. the whole life cycle of a building becomes a critical consideration from the inception of a project. the use of photovoltaics will become universal and will require ingenious transformations to our designs. I could swallow the problem in one bite! This revolution now allows ideas to be shared and tested from their myriad facets and. every professional must have an understanding of the development process if they are to be able to contribute to it in a balanced way. a basement wall some twenty-five feet long was required to crunch the numbers. from it.

there will be a massive change which will touch every part of our build environment and our means of achieving it. digested and synthesised to present a core of information clearly without becoming simplistic. presented in a new and illuminating way. that endless economic growth will eventually lead to our demise rather than our redemption. It contains much for the student to . and through the clarity and completeness of the ‘visual paragraph’. Each illustration is from the same hand and must have taken hours to draw. and from those. it introduces one piece. Each word related to an item in an illustration is simply a flag marking the tip of an iceberg. The author’s bibliography is short but all the reference books are in common use. but the act of learning is a continuing process. assimilation and evaluation involved. meaning is given and a context described. never mind the weeks of research. Back to the present content of the Pocket book: having been both a practitioner and a university teacher. the only piece of written text by the author is her five hundred word preface: an admirable achievement. when the penny finally drops. the process of building is but the beginning of defining the place for a society to function. the value of such a book for the experienced professional or crafts person is that it has much good straightforward information about the processes themselves. communicated in an attractive way. Here. In summary. further channels can be explored. The new volume may have changed its title but it is still a glossary and a very unusual one. Indeed. this is all too obvious. Of course. I am acutely aware of the tendency to treat the young student and the practitioner as different beings.decades away. in a form normally thought to require words. Anyone who has tussled with a small design problem and who has attempted to present a solution in a simple line drawing is all too aware of the time taken in graphical study before undertaking the drawing itself. the explanation is visual. Each carefully chosen word is filled with potential. of one element of the process of building. is to be in a position not only to re-evaluate those facts but also to explore the ideas that stem from them. the student’s knowledge will be less rounded. The range of knowledge and skill required to operate in architecture and construction is immense. So the volume you are holding is a book with many resonances. A book of this kind is only useful if it presents the possibility of relating a term to a subject area and referring from there to an in-depth bibliography. A large quantity of material has been explored. one aspect. What of the presentation of this book? The structure and presentation themselves are worth study as a piece of design. In turn. and to revisit words describing hard fact. and in studying one page of the new pocket book. a place where the buildings gain a symbolic presence. refreshingly.

it contains much that we once knew and are ashamed to admit we have forgotten! Richard Frewer Director of Arup Associates 1977-2001 Chair Professor of Architecture. and for the experienced.learn. University of Bath 1991-2000 Chair Professor of Architecture. University of Hong Kong 2000-2005 .

Images on the other hand leave little room for ambiguity. with varying technical knowledge and motivation. who at the centre of it all. often find themselves as ‘interpreters’ between the participants. attempting to present the terms in the context in which they are likely to apply. The same can apply to building terms. sometimes. . The creation of a building is the result of a complex process of interaction between people of different professions. At the same time.Preface It is not the intention of this book to provide an exhaustive list of building terms or to attempt a comprehensive teaching of building technology. Architects. the same word can mean different things to different people depending on the circumstances in which they have learnt it. Similarly. There are many specialist encyclopedias. The same can apply to images – they can be attached to words arranged in alphabetical order or they can be placed in the context to which they are relevant. by placing something visually in context it should be much easier to learn terms rather than to memorize their abstract definition. views. even nationalities. and many a time a site query or dispute has been sorted out with the aid of a sketch scribbled on a wall! Words express ideas we have of tangible objects and can be classified into a system such as an alphabetical dictionary or be placed in context as in a thesaurus. The book sets out to be primarily a communication tool using the visual reference as vocabulary. It is the later system this book has adopted. dictionaries and construction manuals which supply ample information in this respect. use image as the safest interface. The main building terms that form the language of construction are set out to follow the logical sequence of the building process. the index permits the reverse to take place making it possible to find the context of a given word. If one can’t remember the right word or wants to know what a specific part is called. The language we each use grows from our own personal experience and. it should be simple enough to locate it on the sketch in the relevant section.

The drawings are simple line sketches concerned mostly with descriptive clarity rather than comprehensive accuracy. The diagrams are intended to identify the sequence and relationships as well as particular terminology. Compiled primarily as a visual checklist for students and early stages of practice building professionals, the book is also meant to help communication with the other participants to the building industry. Its spirit, I hope, echoes the intentions of a much older introduction from which I quote below as it is as valid today as it was when it was first written.

From the introduction to:

Acknowledgements
I am grateful to the following people and organisations for their supportive help during the preparation of the first edition of this book: Rob Dark, Architect, UK B. Goilav, Structural Engineer, France Dan S. Hanganu, Architect, Montreal, Canada Claude and Anca Lemaire, Architects, France Biblioteque Centre Pompidou, Paris, France The RIBA Library, London, UK Veronique Thierry, Isabelle Mathieu, Monique Beranger, Architects, Paris, France Beatrice Jubien, France Special thanks to Jane Fawcett whose generous advice and personal example were an inspiration. My further thanks for help in preparing this edition to: Dominic Hailey (CAD director) of WORK OR PLAY for his advice on the computer drawing chapter. A London based multi-disciplinary organisation, WORK OR PLAY (www.workorplay.org) specialise in CAD data management systems for the construction industry advising and training architects in the UK and Europe. Jason Dunn DSc (Hons) MB Eng Tech RICS MAIBS – for his help in updating the Construction Control and Building Control in London chapters. Finally, my most grateful thanks to my editor Alex Hollingsworth for his help, advice and staunch support in completing this new edition.

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About the Author
Roxanna McDonald is a practising architect. She works in the UK, France and Eastern Europe advising on a wide range of professional issues ranging from the conservation of historic buildings to the re-building of infrastructure damaged by natural and man-made disasters and building-related environmental issues. Other books written by Roxanna McDonald:

The Fireplace Book - Architectural Press 1984 Illustrated Building Glossary - Butterworth Heineman 1999 Introduction to Natural and Man Made Disasters and their effects on Buildings - Architectural Press 2003

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General Architecture Design Drawing techniques Building types Elements 3 7 16 33 .I .

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Module proportions 3 .

Dimensional coordination 4 .

Drawing representation 5 .

Volumes and shapes 6 .

grid lines 7 .Drawing practice .dimensions.

Drawing practice – scale and representation 8 .

Drawing equipment 9 .

Drawing instruments 10 .

C. Vector objects defined by point co-ordinates in virtual space. Concept–nontangeable) Enables Computer Hard disk Monitor Mouse Plotter Light pen View design from any angle Keep track of design dependencies Graphic format Architects Manipulating vector objects to create models that can be displayed at different scales. A. Graphic designers Image processing software manipulating pixel based objects using a combination of red. green & black dots on screen Computer drawing Autocad Archicad microstation Rhino Vector works Photoshop Flash Illustrator Paintshop Cartesian co-ordinates – numbers Colour 11 . Computer aided design (Computer based tools for design) CAD system Hardware (Tangeable objects) Software (Ideas. D.

Computer drawing Monitor Computer Speaker Key board Mouse Plotter Printer Electronic beam Light pen Amplifier Control button Photo electric cell Lens 12 .

AUTOCAD VECTOR WORKS Active layer (active class) Tool palettes Graphic attributes Paper space tabs Model (design layer) Layout (sheet layer) Layout 2 Model space Paper space Layer X ref UCS Block Point Properties palette Design centre 13 Design layer Computer drawing Sheet layer Class Working group reference Origin Symbol Locus Object info palette Resource browser .

Computer drawing 14 Cad Design Plan Elevation Section Detail Project View Level (Floor I number) Content (Element classification) .

Drawing production from cad data Consultant CAD data I:I Scale model files Live CAD data Sheet files Referenced CAD data displayed at scale Drawing issue Plotter Computer drawing Coordinated CAD data 15 .

Classical temple 16 .

The Classical orders 17 .

Classical ornament and enrichment 18 .

Mediaeval ornament 19 .

Mediaeval castle 20 .

Styles compared 21 .

Timber framed buildings Cruck framed bam Timber framed hall house Jetty Jetty detail 22 .

Typical parish church 23 .

Gothic cathedral 24 .

Traditional house 25 .

Mass-produced house 26 .

Residential buildings 27 .

Residential buildings 28 .

Residential buildings 29 .

Residential buildings 30 .

Rural buildings 31 .

Traditional farm buildings 32 .

Entrances 33 .

Entrances 34 .

Entrances 35 .

Outside/inside 36 .

Traditional windows 37 .

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Controls Legal aspects Administration 43 41 .II.

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English land law English land and law Conveyancing 41 .

Sunlight and daylight 42 .

Planning control Planning control 43 .

Planning approvals Use classes A B Excluded from A use class Shop and A1 internet cafes B1 Business General industrial Storage distribution Theatre A2 Office Food and drink A3 consumption on premises B2 to B7 Amusement arcade or fun fair B8 Launderette Drinking A4 establishments A5 Hot food takeaways Sale of fuel and vehicles Sale or display of motor vehicles Taxi or hire of motor vehicles Night club and retail warehouse 44 .

collision and imapct L1a – in new dwellings Part D – Toxic substances Part L – Conservation of fuel and power L1b – in existing dwellings Part E – Resistance to passing of sound Part M – Access to and use of buildings L2a – in new Buildings other than dwellings L2b – in existing Buildings other than dwellings Part F – Ventilation Part N – Glazing safety in relation to impact.Construction control Construction regulation Building Act 1984 Building Regulations 2000 (as amended) Control by local authority building control Approved inspectors 14 approved documents Schedule 1 – requirements Part A – Structure Part H – Drainage and waste disposal Part B – Fire safety Part J – Combustion appliances and fuel storage systems Part C – Site preparation resistance to contaminates and moisture Part K – Protection from falling. opening and cleaning Part G – Hygiene Part P – Electrical safety 45 .

Building control in London Building control in Inner London 14 District Surveyors (Chief Building Regs. 1986 The Building (Inner London) Regualations 1985 and 1987 Large buildings over 7100 m3 Other special controls High buildings >30 m high or >25 m if >930 m2 The planning (listed buildings and conservation areas) Act 1990 The town & country planning Act 1990. Officers) City + 12 boroughs Notice of Irregularity Since 6 Jan. the planning and compensation Act 1997 The fire precautions Act 1971 Party structures (Part VI – 1993 Act) The party wall Act 1996 The fire precautions (workplace regulations) 1997 The regulatory reform (fire safety) order from Oct 2006 Other controllinng legislation The clean air Act 1993 The highway Act 1980 Building line (Beyond which a building may not project) The housing Act 1985 The work place (Health safety and welfare) regulations 1992 The licensing Act 2003 Disability discrimination Act 1995 (DDA) The building (Approved inspectors) Regulations 2000 Traffic management Act 2004 46 .

III. Construction Process Financial aspects Project execution 49 52 .

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Development 49 .

Development funding methods 50 .

Estimating and cost control 51 .

Project design 52 .

Project construction 53 .

Building contracts 54 .

The Building Site General 57 .IV.

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Setting out 57 .

Accurate survey 58 .

Survey equipment 59 .

Non-destructive survey: method 1 60 .

Non-destructive survey: method 2 61 .

Plant and equipment – cranes 62 .

Plant and equipment – excavation 63 .

Scaffolding – patent 64 .

Scaffolding – independent 65 .

Concrete plant 66 .

Power tools Rammer Pick 67 .

Soldering 68 .

Tools Adjustable square 69 .

Tools 70 .

V . The Building Fabric Foundations Superstructure – external walls 80 73 internal walls 891 93 6 roofs 97 stairs 126 chimneys 130 floors 132 opening in walls 142 fixings 152 Finishes 158 .

Glazing 166 Services – drainage and plumbing 169 electrical 176 heating 182 External works/ landscaping 186 .

Strip foundations 73 .

Stepped foundations 74 .

Continuous column foundations (for columns closely spaced) Concrete strip Raft foundations 75 .

Piled foundations 76 .

Retaining walls 77 .

Steel column foundations 78 .

cut back Dry pinning Concrete backfill Underpinning wall Brickwork of each section 'loothed' for bonding New foundation dowel bars between sections Underpinning sections or 'legs' 79 . unsupported foundation.Shoring and underpinning Shoring and underpinning Multiple raking shore Wall plate Cleat Needle Asymmetrical flying shore Wall plate Cleat Needle Rider Binding Top raking shore Top raking shore Middle raking shore Binding Middle raking shore Folding wedge Bottom raking shore Folding end wedges Horizontal shore Wall plate Sole plate Underpinning Existing wall Existing.

Brick wall construction Brick footings Solid brick wall Inner leaf of concrete blocks Cavity wall 80 .

Brickwork Quoin Racking back Perpends Quoin headers Queen closers Channelled Rusticated joints 81 .

Bonding of brickwork 82 .

Brick arcade 83 .

Brick types 84 .

Effects of damp 85 .

Stone 86 .

Stone façade 87 .

Stone walling 88 .

Ashlar 89 .

Cladding 90 .

Curtain wall cladding 91 .

GRC cladding 92 .

Partitions 93 .

Partitions 94 .

Partitions 95 .

Interior 96 .

Pitched roof construction Ridge beam Rafters Collar Purlin Strut Valley rafter Tie beam Principal rafter Lathing Wall plate Stay Diagonal tie Battens Hip rafter Jack rafter 97 .

Types of pitched roofs 98 .

Traditional timber roof types Aisle 99 .

Trusses 100 .

Trusses 101 .

Bolt and connector trusses 102 .

Lean-to half truss 103 .

Truss rafter assembly Details 104 .

Truss rafter assembly 105 .

Carpentry joints Bolt and connector sandwich joint Oblique tenon Counter – sallied cross Birdsmouth joint Finger joint 106 .

Cross timber joints Mortice and tenon Double-shouldered tenon Bare-faced tenon Half-face housing joint Square housed joint Bevelled housed joint Dovetailed lap Dovetailed housing Splay-shouldered lap Open (or slot) mortice and tenon Twin-slot mortice and tenon Mitred mortice and tenon 107 .

Traditional scarf joints 108 .

Traditional scarf joints 109 .

Timber mouldings 110 .

Flat roofs 111 .

Roof covering types 112 .

Slate 113 .

Plain tiling 114 .

Pantiling 115 .

Thatch 116 .

Traditional timber shingles Felt shingle m Cera les ranu ic g Bitumen Impreonated fibre Bitumen binder 117 .

Roof openings 118 .

Dormer windows 119 .

Skylights 120 .

Chimneys 121 .

Weatherproofing – lead sheet 122 .

Weatherproofing – flashings and aprons 123 .

Lightning conductor 124 .

Rainwater pipes 125 .

Types of staircases 126 .

Traditional timber staircases 127 .

Special stairs and escalators 128 .

Lifts Hydraulic pipe Motor pump room Point loadings Hydraulic lift well 129 .

Fireplaces 130 .

Fireplace accessories 131 .

Timber floor construction 132 .

Timber floors – trimmed openings Trimmed joist Bridging joists Trimming joist Stratting Trimmer Single joisted floor plan 133 .

Trimming to timber floors 134 .

Panel and angle joints Dowelled butt joint Butt joint on bearers Rebated joint Tonove and grooved (T and G) Double T and G T and G with loose tongue Square housing Dowelled Dowlled mitred Common dovetail Stopped or lapped dovetail Lapped and tongue joint 135 .

Concrete floors Concrete finish Grout Channel beams Precast floor 136 .

Reinforced concrete floors 137 .

Ceilings – timber joists 138 .

Suspended ceilings 139 .

Space for services 140 .

Raised floors Deep void platform floor supports 141 .

Doors 142 .

Doors 143 .

Doors 144 .

Doors 145 .

Traditional windows – sash 146 .

Traditional windows – casement 147 .

Ironmongery – knobs and latches 148 .

Ironmongery – bolts and handles 149 .

Ironmongery – locks 150 .

Ironmongery – hinges 151 .

Metal fixings – ties 152 .

Metal fixings – joist hangers 153 .

Metal components – expanded steel mesh 154 .

Metal components – lintels 155 .

Nails and screws 156 .

Bolts and plugs 157 .

Plasterwork tools 158 .

Wattle and daub 159 .

Stucco 160 .

Decorative plasterwork 161 .

Interior walls – dry lining 162 .

Timber finishes 163 .

Panelling 164 .

Carpets 165 .

Stained glass

166

Flat glass

167

Glazing systems

168

Drainage

169

Underground drainage

170

water supply and waste systems 171 .Plumbing.

Sanitary pipework 172 .

Lavatory pans and cisterns 173 .

Plumbing connections 174 .

Water heating

175

Electricity – supply and wiring

176

Electricity – accessories

177

Electricity – track wiring

178

Outdoor lighting

179

Electrical fitting 180 .

Electricity – lightbulbs 181 .

Heating systems 182 .

Central heating – hot water 183 .

Radiators 184 .

Air conditioning 185 .

Earthworks – kerbs 186 .

Irrigation and screening 187 .

Fencing 188 .

Trees 189 .

turf laying 190 .Grading.

outbuildings 191 .Plant care.

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The Environmental Conditions Global warming and the greenhouse effect Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings 196 16 195 Building at risk: natural disasters 201 .VI.

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Global warming and greenhouse effect GLOBAL WARMING Green house gases (50% – Carbon dioxide–Co2 19% – Methane 5% – CFC) Solar radiation Green house effect: Heat radiation trapped Global warming reduction Less Co2 Fewer inefficient buildings (50% of UK energy consuption is DN buildings) More sustainable 'Green' buildings Less transport 195 .

built & operated in an ecological and resource efficient manner Bioclimatic design maximises natural heating.Sustainable 'Green' Buildings Designed. light and ventilation Materials efficiency Energy efficient design Water efficiency Appropriate siting Suitable form + layout Prevent heat loss / gain Good insulation Efficient light system Recycle Minimise waste Meter Fora long life building Low embodie energy/ preference to timber over brick or concrete Dual plumbing Waste management alternative service Sustainable materials Recycled environnmentally friendly Encourage energy efficient technology alternative / renewable sources Photovoltaics Fuel cells Occupant health + safety Reduce toxic emission good ventilation use of microbial growth resistant materials Good maintenance Solar Wind Wave .

London 197 .Bioclimatic design TRADITIONAL BUILDING (a) Daytime absorbtion (b) Night time cooling MODERN BUILDING Minimum surface area faces the sun Maximum sunlight Chamber due north to maximize transparency Self shading south elevation Natural perimeter ventilation Fresh air Heat exchanger Greywater tank Bore hole cooling Thermal store City hall.

Materials efficiency – waste management

Materials efficiency-waste management

Rain water Sewage Humus tank Septic tank Treatment Pump

New sample point

Willows and trenches

Horizontal flow reed bed

Sewage treatment systems
Vodose zone monitoring well Monitoring well Compacted clay cap Compacted clay liner Solid waste Sand Layer

Water table

Ground water flow

Land fill

198

Natural upgrading of treatment system

Sewage system

Sludge

Energy efficient design

Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy Solar power
Photovoltaic panels Mounting structure

Inverter charger Circuit panel Generator

Change controller DC disconnect

Batteries

Hybrid power system
Sun Photovoltaic modules Generator

AC or DC Wind Load

Wind turbine Battery bank

199

Energy efficient design

Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy

100 ft

Magnetic shaft

100 ft

Electric coil secured to heaving buoy Permanent linear generator buoy Detail

Wave energy
Air out

Turbine Generator

Wave direction Operating principle

200

Earthquake
Epicentre

Characteristics

Surface fault

90°

Fault Focus (hypocenter)

Vibration modes

First mode

Second mode

Third mode

Structural tilting due to liquefaction

Water table

Water pressure

201

Earthquake

Pancaking

Buildings E

Overturning

P Filing cabinet Ground motion Drift Drift

Normal

Over-stress

Soft storey

Torsion effect
Centre of resistance Center of mass Wall

(b) Unbalanced resistance (a) Balanced resistance

Mass and resistance centres coincide

Torsion Eccentricity

202

Earthquake Shear failure Seismic shear a ≤ 10–15am 1 1 2 2 φ12–14mm (a) (b) Seismic shear (c) Section 1–1 (d) Section 2–2 203 .

hurricanes Hot water circulation principle Cool liquid Tap valve High pressure Hot liquid Low pressure Heat source Sea breeze principle High pressure Cooler air Low pressure Rising air from warm land Land Sea Hurricane development Storm clouds Direction of rotation Hurricane winds Vertical flow 204 . lightning Extreme Weather: principles.Extreme weather: hurricanes.

Extreme weather: hurricanes. lightning Extreme Weather: hurricanes. wind effect Wind effect on buildings Suction Pressure Wind Wind effect to roof shape Flat roof 20 pitch 30 pitch 45 pitch 205 .

Extreme weather: hurricanes. lightning Extreme Weather: lightning Positive ions of air molecules Stepleader Positive streamers 206 .

landslides Mass movement Rate of movement Material moving Heave Flow Imperceptible Slow to rapid Earth or rock Rock creep Talus creep Soil creep Water Soil fluction Slip Slow to rapid Slump Debris slide Debris avalanche Land slide Very rapid Debris fall 207 .Mass movement: subsistence.

Mass movement: subsistence. landslides Slide Original position Moving back Creep Tilted structures Partially covered road Layered bed rock bending down slope 208 .

Mass movement: subsistence. landslides Original position Falling rock Waves Fall Flow Original position Moving mass 209 .

Mass movement: subsistence. landslides Original position Slumped mass Slump Topple 210 .

Mass movement: subsistence. landslides Heave effect Heave of surface Slip plane Instability of uneven ground effect on buildings Typical structural damage due to ground effects 211 .

Floods 212 Flood Flood plain Flood fringe Flood way Flood fringe Flood level Fill Normal water level .

Volcanoes Volcano eruption Prevailing wind Tephra plume Tephra fall Ballistic debris Eruption column Tephra deposite Magma 213 .

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Sewage solutions – Nick Grant. Peter Fowler. History of the English House. Architectural Press (1975). 215 .T. Warland. 2nd edn (1953). Hewett. Ernst Neufert. Dictionaire – Librarie Larousse (1981). Royal Commission on Historic Monuments. Cecil A.. Edited by P. Anthony Speaight and Gregory Stone. Longmans (1995). Architects and Builders (1953). Repair Manual Reader’s Digest (1976). Chriss Weedon – Centre for Alternative Technology Publications (2000). Penguin (1982). English Historic Carpentry. Architectural Press (1980). Tutt and D. Architectural Press (1975). The Building Design Easy Brief. Jack Stroud Foster (1973). Phillimore (1980). The Penguin Dictionary of Building. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. The Parish Churches of England.III and IV. Farms in England. Faber & Faber (1951). Mitchell’s Building Series.B.II. Architect’s Legal Handbook. Crosby Lockwood Staples (1970). R.References Architect’s Data. New Metric Handbook. Structure and Fabric 2. Architectural Press (1979). Chudley. Building Construction Handbook. McKay. Building Construction Vols I. E. B. Cliff Tandy. Handbook of Urban Landscape. Drawing Office Practice for British Standard 1192. Scott. Modern Practical Masonry. Dicobat – Editions Arcature (1990). W. Structure and Fabric 1. Jack Stroud Foster and Raymond Harrington (1976). Mark Moodie. Morgan Grampain (1987). Architectural Press (1998). Batsford (1954). Charles Cox. John S. Laxton’s (1988). Nathaniel Lloyd.G. The Care and Conservation of Georgian Houses. HMSO (1983). Harold King (1983) Batsford Academic and Education. Modulor Le Corbusier. Paul Harris Publishing (1978). Architectural Press (2002). Henry Haverstock. Architectural Press with Edinburgh New Town Conservation Committee. Ecohouse a design guide – Sue Roaf. Components. Adler.

Arts Council Exhibition Catalogue (1982).References Specification 1 – 6 Architectural Press (1987). Traditional Farm Buildings Richard Harris. Architectural Press (1999). Sustainable Architecture – Brian Edwards. 216 .

137 Bar (pressure). 83 Arch (Gothic). 127 Balustrade. 181 Bay open front. 84 Battens. 32 Beam (interior). 83 Arch (semicircular).Index Abutment. 84 Bevelled housed joint. 92 Baluster. 11. 7 Bat. 26 Altar. 199 Ambulatory. 86 Base line. 11 Acts. 13 Automatic pencil. 93 Architect. 145 Barbican. 46 Approved documents (building regulations). 134 Aisle (church). 31. 62 Balleting. 43 Appraisal (financial). 32 Barn (cruck framed). 175 Air brush. 30 Angle. 40 Adaptor. 25 Ballast. 27 Barrel bolt. 45 Accuracy. 46. 134 Billet. 104 Arris. 47 Architrave. 32 Bay window. 5 Baffle. 10 Axonometric projection. 52 Acroterion. 98 Assembly rafter. 117 Blade (scalpel). 78 Ashlar. 96 Beam (vault). 131 Bench mark. 36 Angle poise lamp. 10 Air conditioning plant. 88 Ball valve. 20 Base. 77 Basic module. 83 “A” sizes. 107. 22 Barn (threshing). 18. 52 Accurate survey. 79 Bioclimatic design. 19 Arcade (brick). 57 Basement (dry area). 104 Angle cleat. 197 Birds mouth joint. 129 Angle of obstruction. 9 Appraisal (development). 149 Angle joint. 97 Batter. 81. 101 Binding. 99 Astragal. 36 Angle of acceptance. 149 Bartizan. 88 Bay (cart). 19 Aisle (cattle). 24 Bellows. 106 Bitumen. 51 Binder. 117 Apse. 19 Alternative sources of energy. 173 Bar (reinforcement). 119 Angle bead. 83 Base bed. 179 Air handling unit. 7 Assembly truss. 19 Bills of quantity. 19 Arch braced roof. 44 Apron flashing. 20 Bark. 32 Bayonet cap. 77 Account (final). 37 Beam compass. 4 Bevelled (bat closer). 39 Approximate (quantities estimating). 77 Arch (flat). 157 Barn shapes. 10 217 . 10 Beam (threshing).

147 Cast iron fittings (knuckle joint. 80 Brickwork bonding. 125 Bradawl. 20 Braye. 100 Bracing: chevron. 75 Blockboard. 129 Carpentry joints. 116 Bungalow. 100 diagonal. 157 Bolt and connector truss. 9 Cart bay. 117 Butterfly roof. half bond. 87 Block of fIats. broken bond) Boom. 31 Cap. quarter bond. 183 Burr. 32 Casement window. 70 Bolt (panic). 54 Building fabric. 102. 20 Break line. 30 Boards (blockboard laminboard). third bond. 27 traditional farm. 163 Blocking course. 142 Braced roof. 163 Bolster. 30 high rise. 31. 84 wall. 35. reverse. 37 Box spanner. 145 Bolts. 163 Burlap (wrapping). 122 Boundary line. 83 bonding. 141 Bush and follower. 86 Building contracts. high 46 residential. 63. 189 Burner. 31 semi-detached. 30 rural. 100 Bracket (gutter). 125 Brattice. 176 Cable looped. 58 Candle bulb. 69. 8 Brick: arcade. 70 Branch piece. 180. 32 Cabin hook. Flemish. 55 Building types: detached. rat trap. fibre. 163 Busbar system. 29. 82 Brief. 82 footing. 86 Boiler. 106 Bond (brick). 52 Broached finish. tee). 197 Bossed lead roll. 30 large. 98 Butt joint. 41 Bow window. 82 (English. 27. 171. 32 Bulbs (light). 149 Cable. 71 218 Building line. 63 Bull nose (double). 84 Bundles (thatch). 16 Car. 27. 26 Boaste finish. 135 Byre. swept bent. 170 . 178 Camera (metric). 40 Building regulations. yarns). 30 Burl. 106 Carpet (pile. 181 Bulldozer. 83 Capital. 181 Canopy (hipped. 163 Boarding. 183 Bole. with cheeks). 19 Cable (mains electric). 45 Building site. 81 types. 27 terraced. 28. 74. 100 longitudinal. 80 joints. 150 Butt end. 165 Carriage. 69 Brace.Index Blinding. 101 Bore hole cooling.

solid). 101 Clerestory. traps). 4 Controls: admin. 84 Coal scuttle. 67 Concrete floors (suspended. 16 Claw hammer. 45 cost.136. 18 Cavity wall. 90. 96 Collar beam (root). 17 Classical ornament. 53 Contractor. 17 Compression gasket. 25. 3. 131 Chimney piece.162 Ceiling (level). 177 Conservatory. 152 Clamp. 96 Ceiling (lath and plaster). 3.Index Castle (mediaeval). 92 Compressor. 130 Chimney crane. 51. 51 219 . 117 Chevet. 162 Chantry. 4 Composite order. 70 Choir. 139 Ceiling (liner). 122 Clip (truss). render. 96. 24 Church (parish). 20. 69 Classical orders. 8 Certificate (making good defects.114. 52 Cesspool. slim). 23 Clerk of Works. 93 Central heating (hot water). 23 Chancel. 180 Cellar. 84 Cone (truncated). 47 Construction regulations (building acts). 20. 136 Concrete slab. 4 Ceiling (interior). 80. 129 Chimneys. 130 Chimney pot. 138 Connector (electrical). 43 Cistern (low/high level. 45 Consultants. 111 Chisel. 52 Controlling dimension. 159 Ceiling (timber). 53 Clip (lead). 43 construction. 121 Chimney stack. 91 Cladding fixing. 19 Chimney breast. 26. 23 Chapel. 138 Component (working size). 168 Chamber. 93 Collateral warranty. 185 Closed string. 52. 6 Connections (plumbing — valves. 138 Ceiling (suspended).23 Chateau. 29 Cavetto. 43 Channelled joint. practical completion. setting). 174 Connector (fixing). 185 Construction process. 121 Chippings (solar reflective). 87. final). 63 Claytiles. 23 CiII (stone). 16 Column base. 21 Classical temple. 23 Change of use (material). 159 Coffer. 89 City of London Corporation. 129 Column. 127 Closer (brick). 52 Continuous foundation. 121. 153 Cloche. 29 Cheek. 16 Compartment floor. 158. 18 Classical style. 81. 54 Collective car control (lift). 138 Ceiling (rose). 75 Contract. 80 Channels. 173 Cladding types. 53 Client. 131 Coat (backing. preonst. 66 Condensation. 183 Centre line. 112 Cleat. 25 Cellular core. 137 Concrete mixer. 24 Chevron.

8 Conveyancing. 6 Cubicle (proprietary). 145 hood. 3 Dichroic reflector. 88 Covenant (restrictive). information). 62 Cranked hinge. 145 spring. 96. 53 Defects liability period. 189 Dimension (controlling). 145 stop. flexible). 33 closers. 107 Crown (brick arch). 4 Coordinatograph. 99 Cruck: frame. 20 Curtain wall (cladding). 50 permitted. 20 Corn hole. 53 Demountable partitions. 32 Cornice. 27 Council (district.83. 91 Curve (French. 10 Cylinder (truncated). fan). 177 Dipper arm. 95 Crenel. 49 funding. 181 Dig and fill.104 Cornice ornamentation. 142 . 86. planning. 84 Dog-leg (stair). 95 Cupboard (built-in). 189 Debt financing. 144 lining. 197 Deadmen (timber). 4 Dimension (ratio of antiquity). 89. 51 Cottage. 161 Detached (building). 63 District surveyor. 41 planning. 149 case. 22 roof. 52 Dog-leg (brick).Index Controls (Continued) legal. 111 Deep void floor. 20 Core (honeycomb). monitoring. 161 Cornice (running in situ). 148 220 Cyma. 141 Defects. 143.143. 11. latch). 43. 110 Damp (effects of). 96 Curtain (castle). 60 Cover strip. 43 Convector (natural. 12 Corner tower. 143 Crane. Diameter (column base). 4.144.145 ledged and braced. 99 Cube. 85 Daylight. 150. 50 Deck (timber for roof. 106 Courses (lacing). 92 Cramp (fixing). 16. 41 Coordination (dimensional). 115 Corbel. concrete). 42 Daytime absorbtion. county. 182 Convention (line). 20 Cross timber joints. 144 buffer. 41 Cover meter. 95 Dentils. 33 knob. 83. 149 Door types. 142. 126 Door: bell. 96 selector. metal. 3 Dimensional coordination. 18 Dado. 83 Crown post roof. 18 Cyma reversa. 27 Developer. 7 Dimmer switch. 18 Corner locking joint. 50 Development: appraisal. 95 Corinthian order. borough). 6 Cylinder locks (rim. 161 Corona. 106 Cost (study. 43 Countersallied cross joint. 58 Coping. check.

polygonal. 181 supply and wiring. 5 Drill (rawtool power). 10 pen. 142 panelled.M. 132 D. 35 Equipment (site). 61 Equity (shared). 32 Farm house. 51 Estimating. 34. 8. 63 Excavator. 79. 20 Drawing board (sizes. 70 Drive cable. 19 Double hammer beam. spigot and socket. 7 representation. 177 track wiring. 112. 144 selfclosing. 135 Downpipe. 190 Drainage. 82 English land law. 84 Double cone.C. (damp proof membrane). 134 joint. lead roofed).125. 199-200 Enrichment (classical). 50 Escutcheon. 9 Drawbridge. 128 Espagnolette bolt. 80. partial. 101 Dovetail: housing. 99 Double lap sandwich truss. 8 Extreme weather. polypropylene) Drainpipe.Index Door types (Continued) interior flush. 107 Dowelled mitred joint. gabled. 201-203 Earth works (graphic presentation). 136 Drainage (land).P. 87 Facings. 178 Dumper (highway). 125 Efflorescence. 81 Face (brick). 107 Dowel.171 Downstand. 21 Drum (mixing). comparative). vitrified clay. 63. 171 Draughting machine. 145 Doorway. 75 D. cast iron. 25. 31 Fascia (board). 16 Entrance. 87. 17 Dormer. 84 Farm building (traditional). 40 Eaves. 9 instruments. (damp proof course). 183 Express grant. 85 Egg and dart. 204-206 Façade (stone). 9 equipment. 149 Escalator (types). 106 lap. 33 Doric order. 6 Embattled. 41 External works. 41 Energy efficient design. 180 light bulbs. 9 practice. 170 (fittings — UPVC. 51 Excavation plant.P. 169 Extrados. 66 Earthquake. 186 Easement. 19 Engaged (columns). 33. 18 Entablature. 97 Eaves gutter. 169 Drainage underground. 149 Estimate (approximate. 178 Elevation. internal. rectangular. 161 Electricity accessories. bowed. 9 Druidical style. types). 162 Duct wiring. 31 Farm yard. 21 English bond (brick). 63 Expansion tank. 25 Dormer windows (external. 83 Facing stone. 142. 5 Elliptic. piended. 177 fittings. 119 Double bull nose. 97 221 . 25. 66 Dry lining.

158 timber. 179 Floor boards. 162 Fire back. 121 Flemish bond. knapped). 49 sale.Index Feasibility. 136. 111 Flaunching. 95 Franklin point. chainlink. 51. 98 Flat roofs. 105 Finishes: plasterwork. 25 Flooring (mitred herringbone parquet wood strip). 111. 152. 96. 49 Felt (upstand). 81 Flying buttress. 181 Flush joint. 79 Footing (concrete). space). 111. cleftchestnut. 49 professional. 50 Furring channels.177 Flex (lampholder). 80 Foundation. 111 metal deck 111 on timber deck. 89 Flat roof. 75 stepped. wood). 20 Flashing (metal cover). 86 . 212 Floodlight projector. 165 Field house. 25 Frieze.133 Fireproofing. woven wire/wood) Fender. palisade. 158 Floating mark.134 upper. closeboarded. 179 222 Flexible curve. 50 Funding methods. 111 refurbished. compact bulb). 58 Floods. 32 Final account. 67 Foundation: continuous. 130 Fireplace recess. 23 Flying shore. 25 RC/concrete. 73 Frame and panel (partition system). 52 Financial aspects. 111 concrete. 183 Fire dogs. 76 Flex (two/three core). 96 Flue. 169 Floor board sawing. 16. 73 wall pier. 111 green. 74 strip. 130 Flue terminal. 130 Fireplace accessories. 87. 183 Fluorescent (tube. 130 Fire bed. 130 FFL (finished floor level). 163 Floors: ground. 75 isolated pad. 131 Fibre. 96 Front door. 74 raft. 10 Flint. 53 Financial appraisal. 112 Fencing types. 127 Fireplaces. 153 Flanking tower. 73 (brick). 117 Fees: letting. 154 Fire surround. 162 Furrowed finish. 4 Funder (development).123 Flat arch. 25 Frog. 124 French curve. 132. 137 raised. 4 Fixings (metal). 84 Functional (tolerance. 96. 26. 23 Finger joint.133. 132. 133 Floor drain. 10 French windows. 52 Feathered end. 73 trench fill. 49 Finial. (split. 53 Final certificate.121. 188 (bar (vertical/horizontal). 140 timber. 88 Float (metal.

67 Georgian wire glass. 190 Graduation markings (metric. planned). 91. 184 Glass (bullet proof. butt. 130 Gauge (marking). 132 Herringbone mitred timber flooring. 96 Hearth (front. parliament. trapped. 26.V.E. 23 Gaskets. 41 Grating. 195 Heating systems. 24 Grading. 101 Gutter.A.Index Gable. 97 223 . 87 Hacksaw. wired). 171 Gusset (plywood). 79 Heart (timber). helical spring. 185 G. 84 Heading course. 142 steel. 41 Hinges (T-hinge. 82 Hayloft. 131 timber. back). 24 Gothic cathedral. 197 Heat exchange pipe. 49 Generator set. float. 49 Gland (adjusting screw). 96 High rise building. 127 Hanger: joist. patterned. 89 Ground. cranked. 3 Gooseneck. 32 Granules (ceramic). 3 Golden section. plate. 92 Gate house. gasket. 185 Greenhouse staging.D. 28 Gate (postern). 168 Gasket fir cone. 25 Guiloche. 195 Green roof. 107 Half grid ceiling. 146 Haunch. 25 Ground beam. patent). 69 Gauge (tiling). 49 G.A. 167 G. 130 Heat exchanger. sound control. 70 Half bat. implied).I. 31 Gantry mast. 137. 7 Granary. 128 Halt lap joint. 82 Half hipped barn. 163 Hearth. 125 Gravel (path). 161 Gulley (trapped). 57 Grid lines. 127 Golden number. 111 Grid (structural. porch). 186 Greenhouse. 33 Gather. 92 compression. 25. 171 Gothic arch. 151 Hinged partition. 22 Handrail. 106 Hall house (timber framed). offset). 101 Hanging (of windows). 185 Green house gases. imperial). 25 Gabled (barn. 168 Glazing panel. 94 Hip. hook and band. 113 Gazebo. 78 Grid (setting out). (gross external area). 182 Herringbone strutting. toughened. 4 Grid (dimensionally coordinate). laminated. 195 Going. 91 Glazing systems (bead. 31 Highway (central line). rough cast. lift-off. 32 Header. 62 Gargoyle. (gross internal area). (gross development value). 167 Glazing. loose pin. 117 Grant (express. 7 Groove. 15 Gateway. 183 Heat radiation. 76 Ground floor. 168 Global warming and greenhouse effect. 31 Half face housing joint. 84 Half bonding. flat. 113 Hip rafter. solar control.

169 Interim certificates. 88 Lags. 108. 31 Hipped roof. 175 Immersion heater circuit. 62 Jamb. tuck rusticated. 149 Knuckle joint fitting. 113 Hopper. 170 Instructions (architect’s). recessed. 99. angle. 125 House: detached. 118 Ironmongery. 95 Hook (slate fixing). 107 joggle. 103 King post roof. 5 Imbrex. vee. 3 Hurricane development. 204 Hybrid power system. 98. 22 Joggled flat arch. 170 Lacing courses. 20 Kerb (built-up timber). 84 King post.Index Hipped (barn. canopy). 95 Interstitial condensation. 17 lonizing point. 171 Hot water circulation principle. 81 carpentry. 30 (field). 91 Inlet.132. 150 224 Jack (stabilising). 129 stepped. 85 Ionic order. struck. 183 Hopper head. cylinder). rope). 48 Joist. 148 locks. 109 J. 113 Hob grate. 113 Hoist (block. vertical. keyed. porch. 32 mass produced. 187 Isometric projection. 29 traditional. (joint contracts tribunal) forms of contract. 53 Interior. 140 Interceptor. 148 Irregularity (notice of). 8 Impost. open drained baffle sealant filled. 92 traditional scarf. 96. projecting. 104. 84 Honeycomb core. 6 Ironmongery (Continued) knobs and latches. 105 Knapped flint. 89 Joints: bed. 130 Hog back ridge tile. 40 Irrigation system. 128 Hyperbolic. 87 panel. 83 Indented. 89 King closer. 163 . flush. angle.T.C. timber). 19 Indicator bolt. 111 Kerb (earthworks — precast. 170 Integrated ceilings. 106 cross timber. 53 Integral boss connector. 148. 176 Imperial (scale). 24. 96. 148–151 hinges. lapped and tongued. 115 Immersion heater. channelled. 144 (ironmongery). 183 Inspection chamber (drainage). 88 Knob (door). 25 Hot water (supply.133 Joist hanger. 110 Jetty. 187 Keyed joint. 26 stately. 153 Keep. 204 Human dimensions (Le Corbusier). 81 Keystone (crown). 149 Infil panel. 62 Hollow brick. 199 Hydraulic (lift).

62 Lead (flat. 171 Maintenance manual. 19 Luffing (arms. Meetings (progress). (linear variable differential transducers). 98 Lean-to half truss. 154 ties. 61 Lines (axial). 69 Mediaeval castle. 155 fixings. 20 Mesh reinforcement. 10 Mass movement Creep. section). 190 Land law. 65 Levelling staff. 20 Magnetic field. 209 Flow. 208 Effect on buildings. 179 Light track. 41 Lap. 154 Metal: components. 166 Leadburned saddle. 97 Latches: cylinder. 150 (horizontal mortice). 60 Meter (transducer). 122 Leaf and dart. 50 Local authority. 36 Long term interest. 64. round). blocking pins). 149 Lattice frame. 158 Lathing. 117 Lath. 24 Land chain. 36 Machicolations.D. 82. 69 Masking tape. 20 Loose box. 61 Metope. 166 Lead sheet. flex). 122 Lead cutting knife. 165 Loop hole. rope). 8 225 . 198 Measuring tape. 148 Loft. 180 Lancet. 52 Merlon. rim. 20 Mediaeval ornament. 4 Lime (in lime and cement stucco) 160 Lintels (steel). 211 Topple. 3 Ledger (scaffold). 180 Lighting (outdoor). service). 162 Loggia. 209 Heave effect.Index Lamp holder (pendant. 50 Le Corbusier. 171 Mansarded roof. 60 Mains (supply water). sculptured). 150 Lierne. 42 (officers). 151 Meter (cover). 60 Magnetometry. 69 Manhole (brickcover). 149 Lever springs. 81. 155 Loan (repay. 16 Metric scale. 177 Lightening conductor. 50 Loop (carpet — plain. 25 Log. 208 Structural damage. 154. cut. 210 Materials efficiency – waste management. break. 62 Lynch gate. 8 L. 62 Lozenge. cover. 136 Mesh (expanded steel). 211 Fall. 154. 103 Lease back guarantee. 59 Lever latch. 53 Mallet. 59. 211 Slide.T. 130 Marking gauge. 124 Line (centre. 98 Mantle. 39 Lock (spring loaded. 113. 32 Lorry.V. 24 Light fitting. 7 Land drainage. 161 Lean-to roof. 153 lath. 148 lever. 19.

16 Pediment. 23. 43 Perpends. 96 Panelled door. 24 Openings: roof. 136 Oriel window. open. 144 Peg. 57 Outdoor lighting (fittings). 81 Perspective (view). 42 Nosing. 125 Oblique projection. 144 Panelling 164 Pantile. 49 Newel. 68 Nails. 83 Pedestal.A. 95 internal non-load bearing. 40 Nozzle piece. (net internal area). 5 OS (ordinance survey). 118 walls. 108 Nondestructive survey methods. 125 Ogee. 96 Partitions: demountable. 46 Party waIl. 115 Parabolic.l. 37 Ornament (classical). 41 Patch of sky. 91 Multiple ownership. 129 Mouldings (timber). 57. 155 Module. 23 Parquet floor. 98 (twin slot. frame and panel. 60 Mitred closer.Index Microwave analysis. 68 Padlock. 60. 94 laminated. 180 Permitted development. 113 Modilion and patera. 110 (overdoor). 3 Monopitched roof. 36 Overage. 98 Mortice and tenon joint. 150 Muntin. 24 N. 135 (moulding). 3 Module (basic). 7 Modulor. 9 Parish church. 19 Orthographic projection. 173 Owner occupier. mitred). 5 Offset bend. 112. 173 Panel: (glazing infil). 5 Photogrammetry. 61 Non-metropolitan (county council). lightweight. 96 Overflow outlet. 110 Ogive (arch). 121 Nib (tile). 125 226 Pad foundation. 6 Parallel motion. 58 . 84 Mitred slates. 186 pattern. 16. 93 Party fence. 50 Oxyacetilene set. 18 Ornament (mediaeval). 142 Outside/Inside. 42 Patent scaffolding. 170. sliding/folding hinged. timber/metal stud. 179 Outlet (rainwater). 127 Notice of irregularity. 6 Parallelepiped. 190 Pendant (lamp holder). 64 Paving: concrete. 106 Motor pump room. 91 (joint). 41 Party structure. 148 Pan (lavatory). 189 Mullion. 49 Overdoor panel. 50 Multi point lock. 156 Nave. 110 Mulch (peat).

177 Power tools. 31 Pivot. 96. 24 Pincers. 76 Piles (shortbored. 5 Projector (floodlight). 5 Planning: approvals. 185 Plaster (levelling. 83. 86 Purlin. 83 Pile (carpet) types of construction. 59 Porch. 9 P-trap. (disc.Index Photographic measurement. 165 Piled foundations. 50 Prism. 81 Projection (axonometric. isometric. 62. 67 Picked panel finish. 24. 70 Punched finish. 157 Plunger. 98 Pitching hole (barn). 110 Plot ratio. 34 Porch and chamber. 51 227 . 173 Pipes: expansion. 6 Quadrant moulding. 23 Quality indicator. 79. 58 Pick. 6 Profit erosion. 89. 172 Pitch. 102 Pyramid (truncated). 146 Plan. 103 Postern gate. 23 Portal. stay). sole. 21 Pointing (tuck). 131 Poles (ranging). 52 management. 181 Pinning (dry). 69 Plinth. 65. 180 Pointed arch. 93. 102. nylonframe anchor. flush bored). 125 soil. 178 Practical completion. top. 35 Portico. 79 Pipe (flush). 33 Porte-cochere. 144 Plate (switch). scoring). 44 control. 51 Quantities (approximate). 53 Precast cladding (panel fixing). 177 Pliers. 110 Quaripartite (vault). 162 Plaster stop. oblique. 92 Plugs (fixings). 95 Protactor. 173 Plungers. fibre. safety. percussion. 138. 173 Pipework (sanitary). 154 Plasterwork (tools). 155 Prescription. nailable. 41 Pressed brick. 43. head. 81 Poker. 43 permission. 86 Picture rail. 173 Pulley wheel. 178 partition. 49 Plug: electric. 69 Plant. 69 Pinfitting (electrical). 24 Pointed style. 66 Plant care. 171. 50 Project: design. 98 Pitched roof (construction). 177. 20 Pot hook. cover). 16. 158 Plate. 44 Plane. 158 Plasterboard. 131 Power socket. 110 Pier. 139. 84 Priority yield. hook). 97. 97 Pitched roof (types). 171 rainwater. 50 Projecting joint. 3 Proprietary cubicles. 101. 35 Post. 67 Power track. orthographic). 25. 179 Proportions (module). (wall. bearing. 105 Plate (pin. 76 Pillar. 94. 9 Punch.

67 Random coursed. 166 Safety plug. square. lock. 81 Reflector bulb. 145 Saw. 83 Raft foundation. 8 Reservation. mesh). 86 random. 50 Rental income. 92 228 Saddle bar. 168 Recessed joint. 83 Riser. 88 Rusticated joints. 88 work. 81 picked pane). 63 Rammer. 65 patent. coursed. 102. 169 Roll (lead). 101 Rodding eye. 103 Rights of: way.Index Quarry: bottom. 70 Sawing (rift. 62. 41 Rings (arch). rise. limestone. 115 Roof: cover. 97. 97 run. 182. 25 covering types. 166 Quarterbonding. structure. 19 Queen closer. 143 Rail (picture). 87 bottom. 88 Rat-trap bond. 82 Rib: lightweight precast. span. 125 Rebate (glazing). 82 Quarter circle. 41 Retaining walls. 88 headers. 112 pitched construction. 163 Sash: movable. 83 Rise. 67 Rainwater pipes. 184 Radiography. 79 Ram. medium. 141 Raking shore. 157 Roach. column. (decorative). 64 . basement). 49 Representation (drawing). balled. 127 Rivet. bare. 181 Reinforcement (bar. 160 Radiators (panel. 24 Rubble: backing. 98 Root. 65 independent. 82. 81. 104 Sanitary pipework. 178 Sanctuary. 53 Reticulated finish. 103. 75 Rafter. 24 Sandwich joint. 112. 137 Relief. 86 glass. oil filled. 81 Ready-mix concrete (truck). 120 window. 84 Quoin: brick. 80 Rabbet. system. 50 Rental growth. 105 Rail (door. 102. 86 Reverse bond. 23 tierceron. 60 Radius. support. 104. 142. heater). 86 Rod. (small. tangential). 163 Scaffolding: board. storage. 189 Rose window. 24 Ridge (beam). 97. light. 98. 80 Rib: (Continued) longitudinal/transverse. 136 ridge. 96 Raised floors. frieze). 77 Retention. 64 tower. 172 Sap (log). 20 Rent. 121 Roman tiles.

116 Sphere (segment). 99 Scoring nails. Pitt’s candle. 199 Solar radiation. 32 Shelter shed. 115 Spanner. self drilling. 141 Shapes. 109 Scissor (beam roof). 98 Splayed shouldered lap joint. 83 Spandril. 169 Set-square (adjustable). 86 Shingles (roof covering): felt. 178 Springing line. 18 Scratcher. Duce’s. head types). 95 Sliding sash. 53 Skirt. imperial). 125 Slewing rig. 43 Siphonage. 158 Scotia. slotted. 42 Skylights (proprietary) 120 Slat. 190 Socket: circuit. 70 Splay: door. 139 Soil fittings (UPVC). 204 Seasoning (timber). 82 229 . angle. 117 traditional timber. 108. 163 Semidetached (building). 157 Scull cap. 68 Sole plate anchor. 158 Screening (landscape). 27 Septic tank. double. 146 Smoke detector. 70 Screws (thread cutting. 55 Site visits. 24 Spirit level. 69 Spar. 145 Shoring. 50 Shed (open fronted). 170 Spike. (box). 152 Split hazle. 176 cover. 195 Soldering (iron). 9 Scalpel. 110 Splayed roof. 186 Screw cap. stretcher. 23. 79 Shoulder. 148 Spire. 112. edge grained. 149 Soakaway. 170 Soil and vent stack. 146 Simplified planning zone. 125. 142. 140 Snib. 97 Soffit cleat. 145 Sill. 83 Spanish tiling. 172 Solar power. 180 Skirting. patented. 84 Splayed and rounded skirting. 153 Space for services. 96. 115. 6 Shared equity. 9 Setting out grid. 97 Spindle: locks. 107 Split end tie. 6 Spigot and socket soil fitting. 32 Shelter (wind). 86 Sea breeze principle.113 Sleeper wall. 178 Soffit. 132 Sleeve. 92.Index Scale (metric. 8 Scale rule. 140 Span. factor. 173 Wilk’s. 106 Side hung window. 86 Slate. 10 Scarf joints (traditional timber). 178 Spotlight. 132 Skirting types. 57 Shaft (column). 62 Sliding/folding partition. flat sawn. 181 Screwdriver. 181 outlet. 96 header. 117 Shoe. 16 Shallow void floor. 172 Site (building). 83. 144 plumbing. 116 Spot (low wattage). floating. 110 Sky. 187 Shingle.

84 String course. 98 Square (adjustable). 87. 4 Strut. 81 Structural grid. 112 Stone walling. retractable. 160 Stud partition. 74 Steps. 78 grillage foundation. 6 . 58. 105 Strutting (herringbone). 144 Stone. 93 Stump (tree). 134 bare faced. dog-leg. quarter turn). 78 wedge. 42 Sun shades. 107 double shouldered. 171 Storage tank. 181 Statutory (undertakers). 183 Storm clouds. 27 Tetrahedron. 73 Struck joint. 86 Stone facing. (lofted). cat. 53 Tenon. flight. 102. 9 Stanley knife. 31. 107 oblique. 64 Swivel handle. 58 Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings. open well. 51. ladder. 89 Strip foundation. 78 column foundation. 140 Survey (accurate). 42 Sun light indicator. one-way). 31 Stack (chimney). 132 Stucco. 59 Stained glass. 125 Stop valve. 52 Tender stage. 9 Tegula. 16 Temporary bench mark. 10 Stepped foundations. 125 Switch (electric — dimmer. 159 Stave socket. 107 Staircases: special (samba. 88 Stool. 25 Stereo plotter. 7 Tally. 86 Stone tiles. 163 Styles compared. 182 Tape measure. 32 Stable. 174 expansion. 78 Stand (drawing board). spiral. 25 Sun light. 159 Steel: beams. 21 Stylobate. 127 types (straight. 165 Stake. 69 Star. 42 Sun light spacing criteria. 140 Sprocketted roof. 10 Temple (classical). 106 Tenement (Scottish). 174. 78 Stencil. 196 Swan neck. 69 Tee square. 87 Stone surface finish. 165 Storage heater. 158 230 Strainer flow control. 97. 16 Sub-structure. Ioft).Index Sprinkler. bifurcated. 7 Tamping board (vibrator). 58 Stile (door). 19 Starter. 115 Template. 89 Stop cock. 177 Swivel coupler. 126 Stable. 58 Tender documents. 189 Stanchion. 170 Stop end.128 timber. 46 Stave. 25 Staff. 68 Square housed joint. 28 Terraced building. 187 Stretcher. 66 Tank: cold water. 171. 204 Straightening rule. 101.

178 Traditional: scarf joints. 152 Tierceron rib. 20 Tuscan order. 105 Truss clip. 20 Tower (church). 97. 100. 185 Trench-fill foundation. 174 Portsmouth. 189 guying. 101 Trusses. 44 Valley. 142 floor construction. 153 Truss-out scaffold. 97 Valley (rounded). 181 Turf (laying of). 59 Third bonding. 73 Triforium. Croydon. 132 framed buildings. 163 deadmen. 43 Use classes.110 Tower (flanking. 127 Trellis.P. 183 diaphragm. 102. bottle. 187 Tread. 93 Tolerance (functional). 102 Truss (lean-to half). 32 Throating. watch). 50 Urban development area. drain.Index Thatch. 189 door frame. 109 timber roofs. 43. 82 Three cell (plan type). 97 seasoning. 19 Toothing. 70 Tools (plasterwork). 104. 97 metal — stainless steel. 163 stud. 121 Truncated (pyramid. 158 Tooth. 79 Unitisation. 116 Theodolite. 190 Turnbuckle 189 Turret. 100 Trussed purlin roof. 86.123 Valve: control. 23 Triglyph. 65 Trussed rafter. 112. 57. 174 Tree: forms. 108. 23 Track (wiring. 187 thermostatic (radiator). 86 rubble 86 soil. 24 Transom.D. 101. 61 Trap outlets (U. 103. 101. P. cone). 24 Tiling (roof plain). 118. 147 Transducer monitoring. 16 U. 105 diagonal. 18. 70 Tungsten halogen bulb. cylinder. power). 114 Timber: batten. 4 T&G (tongue and groove) joint. 17 Tusk. 190 Torus. 81 Top cap. 110 231 . corner. 133 Trimmer. 89 Tie: beam. 113. 99 Transept. 101 Trysquare. prism. (unitary development plan). S). stop. 182 Vapour barrier. 43 Underpinning (legs. wall). 189 nursery. bow. 173. 16 Trimmed openings. 103. 22 roof construction. 103 Truss (nailed timber). 133 Trimming of floors. 93 conversion. 134 Typanum. 90. 104. sequencing. 6 Truss (bolt and connector). 102. 121. 120. 172. 23 Threshing barn. 134 Trivet. 69. 135 Tools.

97 Vermiculated finish. 102 pier foundation retaining. 86 Vibrator tamping. 83. 162 plate. 54 Watch tower. 65. 126 Window board. 205 Wind effect on roof shape. 37. 171 tank. 187 Wheelbarrow. 205 Winders. gas instant. 174 Warranty (collateral). 23 Vee joint. 147 Wire-cut brick. 8 Working size (component). plumbing). 171 Water heating (electric storage/instant. 122 Welted strip. 80 interior. indirect. 147 traditional. 86 Vertical plane. 86 Wind effect on buildings. 66 Whitbed. 96 Wood strip flooring. 96 Work (removed or hidden). 5 Vitrified clay (drainage fittings). 147 cill. 122 sheet liner soaker. bow. 139 Woodblock. 4 232 . immersion). 4 Wall: cavity.119 frame. 146. 25 leaded. 79.Index Vault: quadripartite. 97. 146. 37 casement. 26. 170 Vitruvius. 80 Weights (sash). 3 Volcano eruption. 122 Zone. 122 Weep holes. 84 Wire hanger. 118. 165 Zinc: flashing. 89 Weather proofing. 175 Water: leaf. 158 Wave energy. 24 sash. 37 rose. 66 View direction. 89 Welt. 5 V groove. 171 supply (hot and cold. 166 oriel. 147 bay. 161 main. 213 Volumes. 89 dormer. 60 Yarn types (carpet). 6 Voussoir. 142 Weathering. 146 X-ray source. 81 Verge board. 20 Wattle and daub. 77 Waste systems. 200 Weather bar. 23 ribbed. 147 French.

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