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Analog Modulation Techniques

Analog Modulation Techniques

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Analog Modulation Techniques

http://www.final-yearprojects.co.cc/
Communication Systems
• Basic structure
• Information sources
•Message signal m(t) is the information source to be
sent
•Possible information sources include voice, music,
images, video, and data, which are baseband signals
•Baseband signals have power concentrated near DC
Transmitter

• Signal processing conditions the message
signal
– Lowpass filtering to make sure that the message
signal occupies a specific bandwidth, e.g. in AM and
FM radio, each station is assigned a slot in the
frequency domain.
– In a digital communications system, we might add
redundancy to the input bit stream
• Carrier circuits
– Convert baseband signal into a frequency band
appropriate for the channel
– Uses analog and/or digital modulation
Channel

• Transmission media:
– Wireline (twisted pair, coaxial, fiber optics)
– Wireless (indoor/air, outdoor/air, underwater,
space)
• Propagating signals experience a gradual
degradation over distance
• Boosting improves signal and reduces
noise, e.g. repeaters
Wireline Channel Impairments
• Attenuation: linear distortion that is dependent on the
frequency response of the channel.
• Spreading: the finite extent of each transmitted pulse
increases, i.e. pulse widens due to
– Transmit pulse length T s
– Channel impulse response length T h
– Resulting waveform due to convolution has duration T s
+ T h
• Phase jitter: the same sinusoid experiences different
phase shifts in the channel
• Additive noise: arises from many sources in the
transmitter, channel, and receiver
Wireless Channel Impairments
• Same as wireline channel impairments
plus
others
• Fading: multiplicative noise
– Example: talking on a cellular phone while
driving a car when the reception fades in and
out
• Multiple propagation paths
– Multiple ways for transmitted signal to arrive
atreceiver
Receiver and Information Sinks
• Receiver
– Carrier circuits undo effects of carrier circuits
in transmitter, e.g. demodulate from a
bandpass signal to a baseband signal
– Signal processing subsystem extracts and
enhances the baseband signal
• Information sinks
– Output devices such as computer screens,
speakers,and TV screens
Hybrid Communication Systems
• Mixed analog and digital signal processing in the
transmitter and receiver
– Ex: message signal is digital but broadcast over an
analog channel (compressed speech in digital cell
phones)
• Signal processing in the transmitter



• Signal processing in the receiver
Baseband and Bandpass signals
The Bandpass communication signal is obtained by modulating a
baseband analog or digital signal onto a carrier

Definitions:
• Baseband
– A baseband waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero
for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (i.e., f = 0) and negligible
elsewhere.
• Bandpass
– A bandpass waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero
for frequencies in some band concentrated about a frequency f =
± f
c
, where f
c
>>0. f
c
is called the “carrier frequency “.
• Modulation
– Modulation is the process of imparting the source information
onto a bandpass signal with a carrier frequency f
c
by the
introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or both.
The bandpass signal is called the modulated signal s(t), and
The baseband source signal is called the modulating signal m(t).
REPRESENTATION OF MODULATED SIGNALS
Modulated signal is just a special application of the bandpass representation.
Modulated signal is given by:
( ) { }
t j
c
e t g t s
e
) ( Re =
c c
f t e 2 =
| | ) ( ) ( t m g t g =
The complex envelope g(t) is a function of the modulating signal & is given by:
where
| | · g ( ) t m - performs a mapping operation on
Modulation is the process of encoding the source information m(t)
(modulating signal) into a bandpass signal s(t) (modulated Signal)
It is possible to use any type of g[m] functions
Most commonly used g[m] functions are…
1. g[m] functions that are easy to implement and that will give desirable
spectral properties
2. g[m] functions should suppress as much noise as possible
Complex envelope functions
Where:
• AM- Amplitude Modulation
• DBS-SC - Double-sideband Suppressed
Carrier
• PM- Phase Modulation
• FM - Frequency Modulation
• SSB-AM-SC- Single-sideband AM Suppressed
Carrier
• SSB-PM - Single-sideband PM
• SSB-SQ - Single-sideband Square-law
Detectable
• QM - Quadrature Modulation .
Amplitude Modulation
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
t
m
(
t
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
v(t) (solid) |g(t)| (dotted)
t t m A t s
c c
e cos )] ( 1 [ ) ( + =
Generation of AM
Amount of Modulation
If m(t) has a peak positive values of +1 and a peak negative value of -1
AM signal  100% modulated
| | 100 ) ( max 100
max
× = ×
÷
t m
A
A A
c
c
| | 100 ) ( min 100
min
× ÷ = ×
÷
t m
A
A A
c
c
| | | |
100
2
) ( min ) ( max
100
2
min max
×
÷
= ×
÷ t m t m
A
A A
c
] 0 [i.e., modulation of absence in the envelope AM of Level -
)] ( 1 [ of value Minimum -
)] ( 1 [ of value Maximum -
min
max
=
+
+
m(t) A
t m A A
t m A A
c
c
c
Definition:
The percentage of positive
modulation on an AM signal is
The percentage of negative
modulation on an AM signal is
The percentage of overall
modulation is
Amount of Modulation
Under modulated (<100%) 100% modulated Over modulated ( > 100%)
Envelope detector distorted
A
max
= 1.5A
c
A
min
= 0.5 A
c
% of positive modulation= 50%
% of negative modulation =50%
Overall Modulation = 50%
Effect of Over Modulation
Effect of Over Modulation
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-2
0
2
4
t
m(t) (solid) |g(t)| (dotted)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-2
0
2
4
t
v(t)
Normalized Average Power of AM signals
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) t m A t m A A
t m t m A
t m A t g t s
c c c
c
c
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
+ + =
+ + =
+ = =
( ) ( )
2
1

2
1

2 2 2 2
t m A A t s
c c
+ =
The normalized average power of the AM signal is
If the modulation contains no dc level, then
The normalized power of the AM signal is
Discrete
carrier power
Sideband power
( )
0
=
t m
Peak Envelope Power (PEP)
• Another type of power rating, called the peak envelope power (PEP), is
useful for transmitter specification.
• Definition:
The peak envelope power (PEP) is the average power that
would be obtained if |g(t)| were to be held constant at its peak
value.
• THEOREM.
The normalized PEP is given by





• PEP is useful for specifying the power capability of AM, SSB, and
television transmitters.
( ) | | { }
2
2
max 1
2
t m
A
P
c
PEP
+ =
AM – Modulation Efficiency
Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of
the modulated signal that conveys information.
Only “Sideband Components” – Convey information
Modulation Efficiency:
( )
( )
100
1
2
2
×
+
=
t m
t m
E
Highest efficiency for a 100% AM signal : 50% - square wave modulation
Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:
Translated version of
message signal
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
c c c c
c
f f M f f f f M f f
A
f S + + + + ÷ + ÷ = o o
2
) (
Carrier line spectral
component
Example : Power of an AM signal
The FCC rates AM broadcast band transmitters by their average carrier power; this rating
system is common in other AM audio applications as well. Suppose that a 5000-W AM
transmitter is connected to a 50 ohm load;
V 707 000 , 5
50 2
1
2
= ¬ =
c
c
A
A
then the constant A
c
is given by No modulation
If the transmitter is then 100% modulated by a 1000-Hz test tone , the total
(carrier + sideband) average power will be
( ) ( ) W
A
c
500 , 7 5000 5 . 1
50 2
1
5 . 1
2
= × =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
The peak voltage (100% modulation) is (2)(707) = 1414 V across the 50 ohm load.
The peak envelope power (PEP) is
( ) ( ) W
A
c
000 , 20 5000 4
50 2
1
4
2
= × =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
The modulation efficiency would be 33% since <m
2
(t)>=1/2
( ) ( )
2
1

2
1

2 2 2 2
t m A A t s
c c
+ = =
( ) modulation 100% for
2
1
2
= t m 
Generation of AM Waves
• AM waves generated using nonlinear
device

m(t)
+
A
c
cos(2tf
c
t+|)
Squarer
or Switch
BPF

s(t)
Double sideband with carrier Signal
Disadvantage of DSB/WC
– Transmitting extra power
– Disaster for power-hungry cell phones

Advantages of DSB/WC:
– Very simple demodulation circuit
– Important in early to mid 1900’s


Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
Power in a AM signal is given by
( ) ( )
2
1

2
1

2 2 2 2
t m A A t s
c c
+ =
Discrete carrier power
Sideband power
Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is
assumed to have a zero DC level
Then
t t m A t s
c c
e cos ) ( ) ( =
Spectrum 
( ) ( ) | |
c c
c
f f M f f M
A
f S + + ÷ =
2
) (
Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is
Power 
( ) ( )
2
1

2 2 2
t m A t s
c
=
( )
( )
% 100 100
2
2
= × =
t m
t m
E

Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier
(DSBSC)
• Remove inefficient constant term
• Modulated signal is s(t)=A
c
m(t)

cos(2tf
c
t)
• Generated by a Product modulator/ Balanced
Modulator










AM
Modulator
+
AM
Modulator
-m(t)
m(t)
A
c
cos(2tf
c
t)
s(t)
+
-
DSBSC Disadvantage:
• Disadvantage:
– Less information about the carrier will be
delivered to the receiver.
– Needs a coherent carrier detector at receiver
Single Sideband Signal
Single sideband:
• The DSBSC signal also contains the same information twice in the two sidebands
• All the useful information can be conveyed by one sideband only
•BW is half of DSBSC and same as that of the modulating signal
•SSB used in systems where
•Power saving is essential eg. Mobile systems where power and weight required
is low
•Bandwidth is at premium
Note: Normally SSB refers to SSB-AM type of signal
USSB
LSSB
Single Sideband Signal
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
t
x(t) (solid) y(t) (dotted) |g(t)| (dashed)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
t
c
o
s
(
w
c
*
t
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
t
v
(
t
)
UPPER SSB
SSB - Power
The normalized average power of the SSB signal
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
2 2
2
2
ˆ
2
1
) (
2
1
t m t m A t g t s
c
+ = =
SSB signal power is
( ) ( ) t m A t s
c
2 2 2
=
( ) ( ) | |
2
2 2
2
ˆ
2
1
) ( max
2
1
t m t m A t g
c
+ =
The normalized peak envelope (PEP) power is
Power gain factor
Power of the modulating signal
Generation of SSB
• SSB Can be generated using two techniques
1. Phasing method
2. Filter Method
• Phasing method
Generation of SSB
Filter Method
 The filtering method is a special case in which RF processing
(with a sideband filter) is used instead of using baseband
processing
 The filter method is the most popular method because excellent
sideband suppression can be obtained when a crystal oscillator
is used for the sideband filter.
 Crystal filters are relatively inexpensive when produced in
quantity at standard IF frequencies
 Only limitation is the sharp change in attenuation reqd. in a small
freq. band specially if carrier is very high. Then carrier is up-
converted after modulation
Advantages of SSB
 Superior detected signal-to-noise ratio compared to
that of AM
 SSB has one-half the bandwidth of AM or DSB-SC
signals
Power saving
TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS
Generalized Transmitters
– Transmitters generate the modulated signal at the carrier
frequency f
c
, from the modulating signal m(t).
– Any type of modulated signal could be represented by
Transmitter
Modulating
signal
Modulated
signal
g(t) is a function of the modulating signal m(t) .
The particular relationship that is chosen for g(t) in terms of m(t) defines the
type of modulation that is used, such as AM, SSB, or FM.
) (
: PM
)] ( 1 [ : AM
g(m) Modulation of Type
t m jD
c
c
p
e A
t m A +
Generalized Receiver
• The receiver has the job of extracting the
source information from the received
modulated signal that may be corrupted by
noise.
• Often, it is desired that the receiver output be a
replica of the modulating signal that was
present at the transmitter input.
• There are two main classes of receivers:
1. The Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) receiver
and
2. The Superheterodyne receiver.
• Most receivers employ the Superheterodyne
receiving technique.

Super Heterodyne Receiver
• The technique consists of either down-converting or up-
converting the input signal to some convenient frequency
band, called the intermediate frequency (IF) band, and
then extracting the information (or modulation) by using
the appropriate detector.
• This receiver is used for the reception of all types of
bandpass signals, such as television, FM,AM, satellite,
cellular, and radar signals
Receiver Parameters
• Sensitivity
– The voltage that must be applied to the Rx I/P to give
a standard O/P
• Selectivity
– Ability of the receiver to reject adjacent unwanted
signals
• Image Frequency Rejection
– Rejection of the frequency which would generate the
same IF when mixed with the LO frequency fsi=fs+2fi
= fo+fi
Detection of AM Waves
• Entails tradeoff between performance and
complexity (cost)

• Square law detector squares signal and then
passes it through a LPF
– Residual distortion proportional to m
2
(t)
– Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in receiver)

• Envelope detector detects envelope of s(t)
– Simple circuit (resistors, capacitor, diode)
– No distortion.
– Non-coherent
Angle Modulation
• Phase Modulation
• Frequency Modulation
Angle Modulation
 We have seen that an AM signal can be represented as



t t m A t s
c c
cos )] ( 1 [ ) ( e + =
 Now we will see that information can also be carried in the
angle of the signal as
where the amplitude of signal carries information.
( ) ( ) | | t t A t s
c c
u e + = cos
where the amplitude remains constant.
Angle Modulation
 The alternative to the amplitude modulation involves using the
message to vary either the Phase or the Frequency of the carrier
signal.
 Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation are special cases
of Angle Modulation
• Representation of PM and FM signals:
• The complex envelope is given by ( )
( ) t j
c
e A t g
u
=
• θ(t) - linear function of the modulating signal m(t)
• The angle-modulated signal in time domain is given by
( ) ( ) | | t t A t s
c c
u e + = cos
Angle Modulation: Basic Definitions
Angle Modulation Analysis
Example: Sinusoidal Modulating
Signal
Spectrum of Angle-Modulated Signal
• Output consists of a carrier and apparently an infinite
number of pairs of sidebands with J coefficients
FM with sinusoidal modulating signal
Bessel functions of the first kind
|
J
0
(β)=0 at β=2.4, 5.52 & so on
Bessel functions of the first kind
Spectrum: Examples
 Although the sidebands of an FM signal extend to infinity, it has
been found experimentally that signal distortion is negligible for a
bandlimited FM signal if 98% of the signal power is transmitted.

 Based on the Bessel Functions, 98% of the power will be transmitted
when the number of sidebands transmitted is 1+| on each side.
Carson’s rule
(1+|)f
m
Carson’s rule
Therefore the bandwidth required is given by
( )B B
T
1 2 + = |
β – phase modulation index/ frequency
modulation index
B – bandwidth of the modulating signal
For sinusoidal modulation
( )
m T
f B 1 2 + = |
m
f B =
Carson’s rule : Bandwidth of an FM signal is given by
Bandwidth of Angle-Modulated
Signal
Narrowband Angle Modulation
Wideband Angle Modulation
• Modulation index is high
• The signal bandwidth is:




• Different for PM and FM!
• Wideband FM: the bandwidth is twice the frequency
deviation. Does not depend on the modulating
frequency.
• Wideband PM: the bandwidth depends on modulating
frequency.
• Modulation index is bandwidth expansion factor.
PM Modulator
FM Modulator
Narrowband Angle Modulator
Indirect Wideband Angle Modulator
FM Demodulators
FM Slope Detector
Balanced Discriminator:
Block Diagram
Balanced Discriminator:
Circuit Diagram
Modulating Techniques
Analog data to digital signal
• Pulse code modulation (PCM)
• Delta modulation (DM)

Once analog data have been converted to digital
signals,
the digital data:
• can be transmitted using NRZ-L
• can be encoded as a digital signal using a code
other than NRZ-L
• can be converted to an analog signal, using
previously discussed techniques
Reasons for Growth of Digital
Techniques
Growth in popularity of digital techniques for
sending analog data
– Repeaters are used instead of amplifiers
• No additive noise
– TDM is used instead of FDM
• No inter-modulation noise
– Conversion to digital signaling allows use of
more efficient digital switching techniques
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Communication Systems
• Basic structure

• Information sources •Message signal m(t) is the information source to be sent •Possible information sources include voice, music, images, video, and data, which are baseband signals •Baseband signals have power concentrated near DC

Transmitter
• Signal processing conditions the message signal
– Lowpass filtering to make sure that the message signal occupies a specific bandwidth, e.g. in AM and FM radio, each station is assigned a slot in the frequency domain. – In a digital communications system, we might add redundancy to the input bit stream

• Carrier circuits
– Convert baseband signal into a frequency band appropriate for the channel

fiber optics) – Wireless (indoor/air. e. coaxial.g. underwater. outdoor/air.Channel • Transmission media: – Wireline (twisted pair. repeaters . space) • Propagating signals experience a gradual degradation over distance • Boosting improves signal and reduces noise.

and receiver . pulse widens due to – Transmit pulse length T s – Channel impulse response length T h – Resulting waveform due to convolution has duration T s +Th • Phase jitter: the same sinusoid experiences different phase shifts in the channel • Additive noise: arises from many sources in the transmitter. channel.e.• Wireline Channel Impairments Attenuation: linear distortion that is dependent on the frequency response of the channel. i. • Spreading: the finite extent of each transmitted pulse increases.

Wireless Channel Impairments • Same as wireline channel impairments plus others • Fading: multiplicative noise – Example: talking on a cellular phone while driving a car when the reception fades in and out • Multiple propagation paths – Multiple ways for transmitted signal to arrive .

Receiver and Information Sinks • Receiver – Carrier circuits undo effects of carrier circuits in transmitter. demodulate from a bandpass signal to a baseband signal – Signal processing subsystem extracts and enhances the baseband signal • Information sinks – Output devices such as computer screens.and TV screens . e. speakers.g.

• Mixed analog and digital signal processing in the transmitter and receiver – Ex: message signal is digital but broadcast over an analog channel (compressed speech in digital cell phones) Hybrid Communication Systems • Signal processing in the transmitter • Signal processing in the receiver .

The bandpass signal is called the modulated signal s(t). where fc>>0. f = 0) and negligible elsewhere. • Bandpass – A bandpass waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for frequencies in some band concentrated about a frequency f = ± fc . fc is called the “carrier frequency “.Baseband and Bandpass signals The Bandpass communication signal is obtained by modulating a baseband analog or digital signal onto a carrier Definitions: • Baseband – A baseband waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (i..e. • Modulation – Modulation is the process of imparting the source information onto a bandpass signal with a carrier frequency fc by the introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or both. . and The baseband source signal is called the modulating signal m(t).

Modulated signal is given by: where st   Re g (t )e jct   c  2f c The complex envelope g(t) is a function of the modulating signal & is given by: g (t )  gm(t ) g  . g[m] functions that are easy to implement and that will give desirable spectral properties g[m] functions should suppress as much noise as possible .performs a mapping operation on mt   It is possible to use any type of g[m] functions Most commonly used g[m] functions are… 1.REPRESENTATION OF MODULATED SIGNALS Modulation is the process of encoding the source information m(t) (modulating signal) into a bandpass signal s(t) (modulated Signal) Modulated signal is just a special application of the bandpass representation. 2.

Complex envelope functions .

Single-sideband AM Suppressed Carrier • SSB-PM Single-sideband PM • SSB-SQ Single-sideband Square-law Detectable .Where: • AMAmplitude Modulation • DBS-SC Double-sideband Suppressed Carrier • PMPhase Modulation • FM Frequency Modulation • SSB-AM-SC.

5 1 2 2.5 m(t) 0 -0.5 1 1.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 4 s (t )  Ac [1  m(t )] cos c t .5 t v(t) (solid) |g(t)| (dotted) 1.5 -1 0 0.5 2 t 2.5 4 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 0.Amplitude Modulation 1 0.

Generation of AM .

.Definition: Amount of Modulation Am ax  Ac  100  max m(t ) 100 Ac Ac  Am in  100   min m(t ) 100 Ac Am ax  Am in max m(t )  min m(t )  100   100 2 Ac 2 The percentage of positive modulation on an AM signal is The percentage of negative modulation on an AM signal is The percentage of overall modulation is Amax .Minimum value of Ac [1  m(t )] Ac .Level of AM envelope in the absenceof modulation [i. m(t)  0] If m(t) has a peak positive values of +1 and a peak negative value of -1 AM signal  100% modulated .Maximum value of Ac [1  m(t )] Amin .e.

5Ac Amin = 0.5 Ac % of positive modulation= 50% % of negative modulation =50% Overall Modulation = 50% Under modulated (<100%) 100% modulated Over modulated ( > 100%) Envelope detector distorted .Amount of Modulation Amax = 1.

Effect of Over Modulation .

5 4 4 2 0 -2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 t v(t) 2.5 3 3.5 2 t 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.Effect of Over Modulation m(t) (solid) |g(t)| (dotted) 4 2 0 -2 0 0.5 4 .

Normalized Average Power of AM signals The normalized average power of the AM signal is 1 1 2 2 2 s t   g t   Ac 1  mt  2 2 1 2  Ac 1  2mt   m 2 t  2 1 2 1 2 2 2  Ac  Ac mt   Ac m t  2 2 m t   0 If the modulation contains no dc level. then 2   The normalized power of the AM signal is s t  2 1 2 1 2 2  Ac  Ac m t  2 2 Discrete carrier power Sideband power .

and television transmitters. called the peak envelope power (PEP). • THEOREM.Peak Envelope Power (PEP) • Another type of power rating. The normalized PEP is given by PPEP Ac2 1  max mt 2  2 • PEP is useful for specifying the power capability of AM. • Definition: The peak envelope power (PEP) is the average power that would be obtained if |g(t)| were to be held constant at its peak value. is useful for transmitter specification. SSB. .

Only “Sideband Components” – Convey information Modulation Efficiency: E m 2 t  1  m t  2  100 Highest efficiency for a 100% AM signal : 50% .AM – Modulation Efficiency Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of the modulated signal that conveys information.square wave modulation Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal: Ac   f  f c   M  f  f c     f  f c   M  f  f c  S( f )  2 Carrier line spectral component Translated version of message signal .

000  Ac  707 V 2 50 No modulation If the transmitter is then 100% modulated by a 1000-Hz test tone . the total (carrier + sideband) average power will be s t  2 1 1 2 2  Ac2  Ac m t  2 2 =  1  Ac2    1. then the constant Ac is given by 1 Ac2  5.5  5000  7. The peak envelope power (PEP) is  1  Ac2    4  5000  20.500W 1.5  2  50       m 2 t   1 2 for 100% modulation The peak voltage (100% modulation) is (2)(707) = 1414 V across the 50 ohm load. this rating system is common in other AM audio applications as well.Example : Power of an AM signal The FCC rates AM broadcast band transmitters by their average carrier power.000W 4  2  50      The modulation efficiency would be 33% since <m2(t)>=1/2 . Suppose that a 5000-W AM transmitter is connected to a 50 ohm load.

Generation of AM Waves • AM waves generated using nonlinear device Accos(2fct+f m(t) + Squarer or Switch s(t) BPF .

Double sideband with carrier Signal
Disadvantage of DSB/WC – Transmitting extra power – Disaster for power-hungry cell phones Advantages of DSB/WC: – Very simple demodulation circuit – Important in early to mid 1900’s

Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
1 2 1 2 2 Ac  Ac m t  Power in a AM signal is given by 2 2
Discrete carrier power Sideband power

s 2 t  

Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is assumed to have a zero DC level
Then

s (t )  Ac m(t ) cos c t
Power 

Spectrum  A S ( f )  c M  f  f c   M  f  f c  2

s 2 t  
m 2 t  m t 
2

1 2 2 Ac m t  2
 100  100 %

Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is

E

Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) • Remove inefficient constant term • Modulated signal is s(t)=Ac m(t) cos(2fct) • Generated by a Product modulator/ Balanced Modulator m(t) AM Modulator + Accos(2fct) AM Modulator + -m(t) s(t) .

DSBSC Disadvantage: • Disadvantage: – Less information about the carrier will be delivered to the receiver. – Needs a coherent carrier detector at receiver .

Mobile systems where power and weight required is low •Bandwidth is at premium Note: Normally SSB refers to SSB-AM type of signal USSB LSSB .Single sideband: • The DSBSC signal also contains the same information twice in the two sidebands Single Sideband Signal • All the useful information can be conveyed by one sideband only •BW is half of DSBSC and same as that of the modulating signal •SSB used in systems where •Power saving is essential eg.

5 cos(wc*t) 0 -0.8 0.8 -1 0 -0.8 1 t 1.2 0.4 1.4 0.6 1.8 2 .4 0.4 0.2 0.4 1.2 0 -0.5 -1 0 0.2 1.6 -0.8 1 1.6 0.5 0 0.5 v(t) -0.6 1.6 1.6 0.2 1 1 0.2 1.8 2 -1 0 0.Single Sideband Signal x(t) (solid) y(t) (dotted) |g(t)| (dashed) 1 0.8 1 t 1.4 1.8 2 -0.6 0.4 0.2 t UPPER SSB 1.6 0.2 0.4 0.

Power 1 1 2 2 2 ˆ g (t )  Ac m 2 t   mt  2 2 s 2 t   SSB signal power is s 2 t   Ac2 m 2 t  Power gain factor Power of the modulating signal The normalized peak envelope (PEP) power is 1 1 2 ˆ 2 max g (t )  Ac2 m 2 t   mt  2 2 .The normalized average power of the SSB signal SSB .

Filter Method Phasing method .• • Generationusing two techniques of SSB SSB Can be generated 1. Phasing method 2.

in a small freq. Then carrier is upconverted after modulation Generation of SSB . band specially if carrier is very high.  Crystal filters are relatively inexpensive when produced in quantity at standard IF frequencies  Only limitation is the sharp change in attenuation reqd.Filter Method  The filtering method is a special case in which RF processing (with a sideband filter) is used instead of using baseband processing  The filter method is the most popular method because excellent sideband suppression can be obtained when a crystal oscillator is used for the sideband filter.

Advantages of SSB  Superior detected signal-to-noise ratio compared to that of AM  SSB has one-half the bandwidth of AM or DSB-SC signals Power saving .

– Any type of modulated signal could be represented by g(t) is a function of the modulating signal m(t) .TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS Modulating signal Transmitter Modulated signal Generalized Transmitters – Transmitters generate the modulated signal at the carrier frequency fc . from the modulating signal m(t). SSB. The particular relationship that is chosen for g(t) in terms of m(t) defines the type of modulation that is used. such as AM. or FM. Type of Modulation AM : PM : g(m) Ac [1  m(t )] Ac e jDp m ( t ) .

The Superheterodyne receiver. The Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) receiver and 2. it is desired that the receiver output be a replica of the modulating signal that was present at the transmitter input. . There are two main classes of receivers: 1. • • • Most receivers employ the Superheterodyne receiving technique. Often.Generalized Receiver • The receiver has the job of extracting the source information from the received modulated signal that may be corrupted by noise.

Super Heterodyne Receiver • The technique consists of either down-converting or upconverting the input signal to some convenient frequency band. called the intermediate frequency (IF) band. satellite. and radar signals . and then extracting the information (or modulation) by using the appropriate detector. cellular. FM. • This receiver is used for the reception of all types of bandpass signals. such as television.AM.

Receiver Parameters • Sensitivity – The voltage that must be applied to the Rx I/P to give a standard O/P • Selectivity – Ability of the receiver to reject adjacent unwanted signals • Image Frequency Rejection – Rejection of the frequency which would generate the same IF when mixed with the LO frequency fsi=fs+2fi = fo+fi .

– Non-coherent • Envelope detector detects envelope of s(t) . capacitor.Detection of AM Waves • Entails tradeoff between performance and complexity (cost) • Square law detector squares signal and then passes it through a LPF – Residual distortion proportional to m2(t) – Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in receiver) – Simple circuit (resistors. diode) – No distortion.

Angle Modulation • Phase Modulation • Frequency Modulation .

Angle Modulation  We have seen that an AM signal can be represented as where the samplitude of m(t )] cos  c t information. (t )  Ac [1  signal carries  Now we will see that information can also be carried in the angle of the signal as s t   Ac cos c t   t  where the amplitude remains constant. .

Angle Modulation The alternative to the amplitude modulation involves using the message to vary either the Phase or the Frequency of the carrier signal.   Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation are special cases of Angle Modulation • Representation of PM and FM signals: • The complex envelope is given by g t   Ac e j  t  • θ(t) .linear function of the modulating signal m(t) • The angle-modulated signal in time domain is given by st   Ac cos c t   t  .

Angle Modulation: Basic Definitions .

Angle Modulation Analysis .

Example: Sinusoidal Modulating Signal .

Spectrum of Angle-Modulated Signal • Output consists of a carrier and apparently an infinite number of pairs of sidebands with J coefficients .

FM with sinusoidal modulating signal .

4. 5.52 & so on  .Bessel functions of the first kind J0(β)=0 at β=2.

Bessel functions of the first kind .

Spectrum: Examples .

Carson’s rule  Although the sidebands of an FM signal extend to infinity. 98% of the power will be transmitted when the number of sidebands transmitted is 1+ on each side.  Based on the Bessel Functions. it has been found experimentally that signal distortion is negligible for a bandlimited FM signal if 98% of the signal power is transmitted. (1+fm .

Carson’s rule Therefore the bandwidth required is given by BT  2  1B β – phase modulation index/ frequency modulation index B – bandwidth of the modulating signal For sinusoidal modulation B  fm Carson’s rule : Bandwidth of an FM signal is given by BT  2  1 f m .

Bandwidth of Angle-Modulated Signal .

Narrowband Angle Modulation .

.Wideband Angle Modulation • Modulation index is high • The signal bandwidth is: • Different for PM and FM! • Wideband FM: the bandwidth is twice the frequency deviation. • Modulation index is bandwidth expansion factor. Does not depend on the modulating frequency. • Wideband PM: the bandwidth depends on modulating frequency.

PM Modulator .

FM Modulator .

Narrowband Angle Modulator .

Indirect Wideband Angle Modulator .

FM Demodulators .

FM Slope Detector .

Balanced Discriminator: Block Diagram .

Balanced Discriminator: Circuit Diagram .

the digital data: • can be transmitted using NRZ-L • can be encoded as a digital signal using a code other than NRZ-L • can be converted to an analog signal.Modulating Techniques Analog data to digital signal • • Pulse code modulation (PCM) Delta modulation (DM) Once analog data have been converted to digital signals. using previously discussed techniques .

Reasons for Growth of Digital Techniques Growth in popularity of digital techniques for sending analog data – Repeaters are used instead of amplifiers • No additive noise – TDM is used instead of FDM • No inter-modulation noise – Conversion to digital signaling allows use of more efficient digital switching techniques .

co.final-yearprojects.Thank You PLEASE VISIT OUR SITE FOR MORE PRESENTATIONS http://www.cc/ .

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